Business Research

IBC464 International College

1 Introduction to Research
 1.1What is research?

Research is the process of finding

solutions to a problem after a thorough study and analysis of the situational factors. e

What is business research?  Research provides the needed information that guides managers to make informed decisions to successfully deal with problems.  The information provided could be the result of a careful analysis of data gathered firsthand or of data that are already available (in the company). .1.2.

Basic research (fundamental.  2.1. .demanding a timely solution.Applied research  Is to solve a current problem faced by the manager in the work setting.3.  The findings of such research contribute to the building of knowledge in the various functional areas of business.Types of Business research.  1. pure)  Is to generate a body of knowledge by trying to comprehend how certain problems that occur in organizations can be solved.

1. Why is it important for managers to know about research?  Solve problems  Decision making tool  Competition  Risk  Investment  Hire researchers and consultants more effectively .4.

2 Scientific Investigation          1 Observation 2 Identification of problem area 3 Theoretical framework 4 Hypotheses 5 Research design 6 Data collection 7 Data analysis 8 Data interpretation 9 Implementation .

The seven-step process in the Hypothetico-Deductive method  1 Observation  2 Problem identification preliminary information gathering  3 Theoretical framework  theory formulation  4 Hypothesizing  5 Research design  further scientific data collection  6 logical analysis  7 Deduction  .

and elaborated network of associations among the variables relevant to the problem situation.  Measurement is the process observing and recording the observations that are collected as part of a research effort.  Theoretical framework is the foundation on which the entire research project is based.It is logically developed.described.  Deduction is the process of arriving at conclusions by interpreting the . A useful hypothesis is a testable statement which may include a prediction. and succinct statement of the question or issue that is to be investigated with the goal of finding an answer or solution.The seven-step process  problem statement is a clear. precise. A hypotheses should not be confused with a theory.  A hypothesis is a tentative statement that proposes a possible explanation to some phenomenon or event. meaning of the data analysis results.  Data analysis: the data gathered are statistically analyzed to see if the hypotheses that were generated have been supported.

Problem Formulation  "Well begun is half done" --Aristotle. quoting an old proverb  Where do research topics come from?  The idea for a research project?  one of the most common sources of research ideas is the experience of practical problems in the field?  The Literature Review . .Levels of Measurement http://www.

html .org/  Research Project?  http://www.html        QUESTIONING PLANNING GATHERING SORTING & SIFTING SYNTHESIZING EVALUATING REPORTING*  http://questioning.The Research Cycle  The Research Cycle  http://questioning.ri.

and synthesize information from the external and internal environments are becoming increasingly sophisticated to the immense scope of computer technology.  The methods used to gather.analyze.Information needs in business  Almost every organization has to engage in research at some level to stay competitive.  Companies gather data both from within and outside the organization. . .Computer Technology and Business  ICT  Information  Communication  Technology  http://www.

interpretation     8 Deduction 9 Report writing 10 Report presentation 11 Managerial decision making .The research process  1 Observation  2 Data gathering  3 Problem definition  4 Theoretical framework (variables identified)  5 Hypotheses  6 Research design  7 Data collection.analysis.

 Descriptive study   Hypotheses testing   Case studies  Research design can be thought of as the structure of research -.Research design  Purpose of the study:  Exploratory study  Is undertaken when no information is available on how similar problems or research issues have been solved in the past Is to able to describe the characteristics of the variables of interest in a is the "glue" that holds all of the elements in a research project together . Is undertaken to explain the variance in the dependent variable or to predict organizational outcomes.

Measurement  The rating scale   Have several response catagories Likert scale is designed o exermine how strongly subject agree or disagree with statements on a 5-point scale Are used to tap preferences between two or more objects or items  Ranking scale   Goodness of measure : reliability.validity .

 Questionaires  Observation  Motivational techniques .data sources can be primary or secondary.telephone.Data collection methods  Data can be collected in a variety ways .  Data collection methods such as:  interview(face-to-face.computerassisted interviews).

mostly because fatigue is reduced.  Studying a sample rather the entire population is sometimes to lead to more reliable results.human resources)  Surveys are useful and powerful in finding answers to research question but if data are not collected from the people or objects that can provide the correct answers to solve the problem. (time.resulting in fewer errors on collection data. cost. the survey will be in vain. .Sampling  A sample is a subset of the population.  Sample is the process of selecting a sufficient number of elements from the population.

done in roughly this order:  Cleaning and organizing the data for analysis (Data Preparation)  Describing the data (Descriptive Statistics) Analysis and Interpretation  The data analysis involves three major steps.php  Testing Hypotheses and Models (Inferential Statistics) .socialresearchmethods.

Central Tendency. regression analysis.=average. Median is the middle value . we use inferential statistics to make inferences from our data to more general conditions. we use descriptive statistics simply to describe what's going on in our data. Standard Diviation)refers to the spread of the values around the central tendency  Inferential statistics  t-test. Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA). There are three major types of estimates of central tendency:     Mean is the most common-used measure of data tendency. The central tendency of a distribution is an estimate of the "center" of a distribution of values. Dispersion (Range. when the data is arranged in numerical order.   we use inferential statistics to make judgments of the probability that an observed difference between groups.Descriptive Statistics  Descriptive statistics   provide simple summaries about the sample and the measures. . Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). Correlation is a measure of the relation between two or more variables. Mode is the value ( number) that appears the most. Thus.

html http://www.quia.php methods  Central tendency  Exercise     http://www.htm http://www.fortunecity.htm

The Research Report  Researh proposal  Research report  Research presentation .

html .How the study was carried out (e. :  Abstract .State the conclusions and implications of the results.g.A explanation of the purpose of the study. instruments or equipment. methods to gather and analyze data) Results . and discuss how it relates to the work reviewed in the literature review.What do the results mean Conclusion . point to directions for further work in the area http://www.A critical assessment of the work done so far on this procedures.Brief summary of the contents of the article  Introduction .Research report articles vary in how they are organized.wesleyan. a statement of the       research question(s) the study intends to address Literature review .What was found in the course of the study Discussion . to show how the current study relates to what has already been done Methods . also.

php Formatting http://www.Research Proposal    Title Page Abstract (on a separate single page) The Body (no page breaks between sections in the body)     Introduction (2-3 pages) Methods (7-10 pages)  Sample (1 page)  Measures (2-3 pages)  Design (2-3 pages)  Procedures (2-3 pages) Results (2-3 pages) Conclusions (1-2 pages)        References Tables (one to a page) Figures (one to a page) Appendices Sample Paper .net/kb/formatting.socialresearchmethods.php http://www.socialresearchmethods.  http://dekkid.spu.Student Presentation   http://blog.

Question?  How can you solve business problem?  Why do you need to know how to write the research       proposal? Do you understand the research process? Do you know why do you have to identify problem statement clearly before doing research? Do you know why sampling and statistics are important to the research result? Why do you have to identify the limitation of your study? Why the research report and presentation are important? Do you know how to apply the steps of the research process ? .

The research methodology.The hypotheses  5.  6.If you want to set up a coffee shop near the university and school.  3. what is your research topic?  2.Identify the problem statement. The examples of the questionaireใ .Questions  1.Identify the objectives  4.

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