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Check/Design for AISC-LRFD93
This chapter describes the details of the structural steel design and stress check algorithms that are used by SAP2000 when the user selects the AISC-LRFD93 design code (AISC 1994). Various notations used in this chapter are described in Table IV-1. For referring to pertinent sections and equations of the original LRFD code, a unique prefix “LRFD” is assigned. However, all references to the “Specifications for Load and Resistance Factored Design of Single-Angle Members” carry the prefix of “LRFD SAM”. The design is based on user-specified loading combinations. But the program provides a set of default load combinations that should satisfy requirements for the design of most building type structures. In the evaluation of the axial force/biaxial moment capacity ratios at a station along the length of the member, first the actual member force/moment components and the corresponding capacities are calculated for each load combination. Then the capacity ratios are evaluated at each station under the influence of all load combinations using the corresponding equations that are defined in this chapter. The controlling capacity ratio is then obtained. A capacity ratio greater than 1.0 indicates exceeding a limit state. Similarly, a shear capacity ratio is also calculated separately.
SAP2000 Steel Design Manual
A Ae Ag Av 2 , Av 3 Aw B1 B2 Cb Cm Cw D E Fcr Fr Fy G I 22 I 33 J K K 33 , K 22 Lb Lp Lr M cr M lt M nt M n33 , M n22 M ob M r 33 , M r 22 Mu M u 33 , M u 22 Pe Pn Pu Py Q = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = Cross-sectional area, in2 Effective cross-sectional area for slender sections, in2 Gross cross-sectional area, in2 2 Major and minor shear areas, in 2 Shear area, equal dt w per web, in Moment magnification factor for moments not causing sidesway Moment magnification factor for moments causing sidesway Bending coefficient Moment coefficient Warping constant, in6 Outside diameter of pipes, in Modulus of elasticity, ksi Critical compressive stress, ksi Compressive residual stress in flange assumed 10.0 for rolled sections and 16.5 for welded sections, ksi Yield stress of material, ksi Shear modulus, ksi 4 Minor moment of inertia, in Major moment of inertia, in4 4 Torsional constant for the section, in Effective length factor Effective length K-factors in the major and minor directions Laterally unbraced length of member, in Limiting laterally unbraced length for full plastic capacity, in Limiting laterally unbraced length for inelastic lateral-torsional buckling, in Elastic buckling moment, kip-in Factored moments causing sidesway, kip-in Factored moments not causing sidesway, kip-in Nominal bending strength in major and minor directions, kip-in Elastic lateral-torsional buckling moment for angle sections, kip-in Major and minor limiting buckling moments, kip-in Factored moment in member, kip-in Factored major and minor moments in member, kip-in Euler buckling load, kips Nominal axial load strength, kip Factored axial force in member, kips A g F y , kips Reduction factor for slender section, = Qa Qs
Table IV-1 AISC-LRFD Notations
Chapter IV Check/Design for AISC-LRFD93
Qa Qs S S 33 , S 22 S eff ,33 , S eff ,22 Sc Vn2 ,Vn3 Vu 2 ,Vu 3 Z Z 33 , Z 22 b be bf d de hc k kc l33 , l22 r r33 , r22 t tf tw
= = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = =
Reduction factor for stiffened slender elements Reduction factor for unstiffened slender elements Section modulus, in3 3 Major and minor section moduli, in 3 Effective major and minor section moduli for slender sections, in 3 Section modulus for compression in an angle section, in Nominal major and minor shear strengths, kips Factored major and minor shear loads, kips 3 Plastic modulus, in 3 Major and minor plastic moduli, in Nominal dimension of plate in a section, in longer leg of angle sections, b f 2t w for welded and b f 3t w for rolled box sections, etc. Effective width of flange, in Flange width, in Overall depth of member, in Effective depth of web, in Clear distance between flanges less fillets, in assumed d 2k for rolled sections, and d 2t f for welded sections Distance from outer face of flange to web toe of fillet, in Parameter used for section classification, 4 h tw , kc Major and minor direction unbraced member lengths, in Radius of gyration, in Radii of gyration in the major and minor directions, in Thickness, in Flange thickness, in Thickness of web, in Special section property for angles, in Slenderness parameter Column slenderness parameters Limiting slenderness parameter for compact element Limiting slenderness parameter for non-compact element Limiting slenderness parameter for seismic element Limiting slenderness parameter for slender element Resistance factor for bending, 0.9 Resistance factor for compression, 0.85 Resistance factor for tension, 0.9 Resistance factor for shear, 0.9
c p r s
slender b c t v
Table IV-1 AISC-LRFD Notations (cont.)
9 DL 1. live load (LL).0 EL 1. Classification of Sections The nominal strengths for axial compression and flexure are dependent on the classification of the section as Compact. wind load (WL). and considering that wind and earthquake forces are reversible.2 DL + 1. Design Loading Combinations The design load combinations are the various combinations of the load cases for which the structure needs to be checked.0 EL These are also the default design load combinations in SAP2000 whenever the AISC-LRFD93 code is used.2 DL + 0.2 DL + 0. all equations and descriptions presented in this chapter correspond to Kip-Inch-Second units unless otherwise noted. and earthquake induced load (EL). then the following load combinations may have to be defined (LRFD A4. For simplicity. But the code is based on Kip-Inch-Second units. When using the AISC-LRFD93 code. The user should use other appropriate loading combinations if roof live load is separately treated.5 LL 0.1): 1.4 DL 1.3 WL 1.5 LL (White and Hajjar 1991). It is recommended that the P. Live load reduction factors can be applied to the member forces of the live load case on an element-by-element basis to reduce the contribution of the live load to the factored loading.6 LL 0.3 WL 1. or if pattern live loads are to be considered.2 DL 1.analysis be done at the factored load level of 1.9 DL 1. Slender or Too Slender. Noncompact.0 EL 1. SAP2000 design assumes that a P. 48 Design Loading Combinations . if a structure is subjected to dead load (DL).2 DL 1. For the AISC-LRFD93 code.2 DL plus 0.3 WL 1.5 LL (LRFD A4-1) (LRFD A4-2) (LRFD A4-6) (LRFD A4-4) (LRFD A4-4) (LRFD A4-6) (LRFD A4-4) (LRFD A4-4) 1. if other types of loads are present.SAP2000 Steel Design Manual English as well as SI and MKS metric units can be used for input.analysis has been performed so that moment magnification factors for moments causing sidesway can be taken as unity.
Chapter IV Check/Design for AISC-LRFD93 Figure IV-1 AISC-LRFD Definition of Geometric Properties Classification of Sections 49 .
10.0 Fy kc 65 P 162 No limit b y 1P I-SHAPE b y - Pu bP y 970 Fy Pu b P y Fy Fy As for I-shapes As for I-shapes As for I-shapes As for I-Shapes Not applicable Not applicable Not applicable As for I-shapes As for I-shapes As for I-shapes As for I-Shapes 127 Fy 76 76 Fy Fy CHANNEL T-SHAPE ANGLE DOUBLEANGLE (Separated) PIPE ROUND BAR RECTANGULAR GENERAL D ⎯ ⎯ ⎯ t Fy Fy Assumed Compact Assumed Noncompact Assumed Noncompact Table IV-2 Limiting Width-Thickness Ratios for Classification of Sections in Flexure based on AISC-LRFD 50 Classification of Sections . Pu Py b NONCOMPACT r SLENDER ( slender ) No limit 141 Fy .SAP2000 Steel Design Manual Description of Section Check bf 2t f (rolled) bf 2t f (welded) For Pu 640 Fy hc tw For Pu 191 Fy 253 Fy BOX b hc bf hc bf d b b tf tw tf tw 2t f tw t t 190 Fy 238 Fy No limit Fy No limit As for I-shapes No limit No limit No limit No limit Fy (Compression only) No limit for flexure COMPACT ( p) 65 Fy Fy .
Pu bP y NONCOMPACT (Uniform Compression) (M 22 M 33 0) ( r) 95 95 Fy Fy P I-SHAPE hc tw 1b y P 253 Pu bP y 253 Fy Fy - BOX b hc bf hc bf d b b D tf tw tf tw 2t f tw t t t Not applicable Not applicable As for I-shapes As for I-shapes Not applicable Not applicable Not applicable Not applicable Not applicable Assumed Compact Assumed Noncompact Assumed Noncompact 238 253 Fy Fy CHANNEL T-SHAPE ANGLE DOUBLE-ANGLE (Separated) PIPE ROUND BAR RECTANGULAR GENERAL As for I-shapes As for I-shapes As for I-shapes 127 Fy 76 76 3300 Fy Fy Fy ⎯ ⎯ ⎯ Table IV-3 Limiting Width-Thickness Ratios for Classification of Sections (Special Cases) based on AISC-LRFD Classification of Sections 51 .Chapter IV Check/Design for AISC-LRFD93 Description of Section WidthThickness Ratio bf 2t f (rolled) bf 2t f (welded) For Pu 520 Fy For Pu 191 Fy COMPACT (SEISMIC ZONE) ( 52 52 b y s ) Fy Fy .
SAM 6) Moment magnification factor for non-sidesway moments. the factored moment M u (M u 33 and M u 22 in the corresponding directions) is magnified to consider second order effects.1). respectively. M u 33 . and Factored moments causing sidesway.1. and Channel sections. Moment magnification factor for sidesway moments. Calculation of Factored Forces The factored member loads that are calculated for each load combination are Pu . The definition of the section properties required in these tables is given in Figure IV-1 and Table IV-1. Box. For loading combinations that cause compression in the member. M u 22 . The magnified moment in a particular direction is given by: M u = B1 M nt + B 2 M lt . Table A-F1. the major direction shear force and the minor direction shear force. the section is classified as Too Slender. it is assumed that there are no intermediate stiffeners. The moment magnification factor B1 for moments not causing sidesway is given by B1 = 1 Cm Pu Pe . These factored loads are calculated at each of the previously defined stations. the major moment. Stress check of Too Slender sections is beyond the scope of SAP2000. The moment magnification factors are associated with corresponding directions.SAP2000 Steel Design Manual SAP2000 classifies individual members according to the limiting width/thickness ratios given in Table IV-2 and Table IV-3 (LRFD B5. Factored moments not causing sidesway. where B1 = B2 = M nt = M lt = (LRFD C1-1. SAM 6-2) Fy E Pe is the Euler buckling load (Pe . where Ag F y 2 (LRFD C1-2. the minor moment. Kl r ). special considerations are required regarding the limits of width-thickness ratios for Compact sections in Seismic zones and Noncompact sections with compressive force as given in Table IV-3. V u 2 and V u 3 corresponding to factored values of the axial load. A-G1. and 52 Calculation of Factored Forces . In classifying web slenderness of I-shapes. If the limits for Slender sections are not met. Double angles are conservatively assumed to be separated. Moreover.
If the program assumptions are not satisfactory for a particular structural model or member. if the unbraced length is not equal to the length of the member.5 LL (LRFD C2. For tension members C m is assumed as 1. i. Mb (LRFD C1-3) M a M b is the ratio of the smaller to the larger moment at the ends of the member. For compression members with transverse load on the member. the user has a choice of explicitly specifying the values of B1 and B 2 for any member. a failure condition is declared. where the principal axes of bending are not coincident with the geometric axes (2-2 and 3-3). associated with the major and minor directions.0 for members with any unrestrained end and as 0. When M b is zero. If Pu is found to be greater than or equal to Pe . therefore B 2 is taken as unity for bending in both directions.0. M a M b being positive for double curvature bending and negative for single curvature bending. must be a positive number. SAP2000 design assumes the analysis includes P. The program defaults C m to 1.e. C m is taken as 1. It is suggested that the P.effects.0 if the unbraced length factor. The user can overwrite the value of C m for any member. Therefore Pu must be less than Pe . See also White and Hajjar (1991). C m is assumed as 1. For single angles.2).. The magnification factor B1 .Chapter IV Check/Design for AISC-LRFD93 C m 33 and C m 22 are coefficients representing distribution of moment along the member length.analysis be done at the factored load level of 1. the program conservatively uses the maximum of K 22 l 22 and K 33 l 33 for determining the major and minor direction Euler buckling capacity. Cm Ma .2 DL plus 0. C m 22 and C m 33 .85 for members with two unrestrained ends. of the member is redefined by either the user or the program. l. Calculation of Factored Forces 53 .0. C m assumes two values.
a message to that effect is printed (LRFD B7. and Double-angle sections. The nominal flexural strengths for all shapes of sections are calculated based on their principal axes of bending.9 (LRFD D1.3): t c c b v = Resistance factor for tension. 0.90 (LRFD SAM 4. T. For all other sections the shear stresses are calculated along their geometric and principle axes. 0. The strengths are determined according to the following subsections. SAM 4). torsional buckling and flexural-torsional buckling. bending. A-G3. if Kl r is greater than 200. The strength reduction factor. A-F1.SAP2000 Steel Design Manual Calculation of Nominal Strengths The nominal strengths in compression. Channel. the principal axes coincide with their geometric axes. Pipe. and Slender sections according to the following subsections. these values will override the above mentioned calculated values for those elements as defined in the following subsections. Compression Capacity The nominal compression strength is the minimum value obtained from flexural buckling. A-G2. Flexural Buckling The nominal axial compressive strength. the principal axes are determined and all computations except shear are based on that. SAM 2. 0.85 (LRFD E2. 6) = Resistance factor for bending. where 54 Calculation of Nominal Strengths . c . I. For the Rectangular.9 (LRFD F1. the shear stresses are calculated for directions along the geometric axes. For Single-angle sections. 6) = Resistance factor for compression. Kl r. SAM 5) = Resistance factor for shear. is taken as follows (LRFD A5. H1.9 (LRFD F2. For the Angle sections. Box. 0. E3. A-F2. is used instead of r22 and r33 in computing Kl r . Noncompact. The specified nominal strengths should be based on the principal axes of bending. depends on the slenderness ratio. and shear are computed for Compact. Circular. H1) = Resistance factor for compression in angles. 0. r z . the minimum radius of gyration. and its critical value. H1. . For members in compression. For single angles. Pn . SAM 3) If the user specifies nominal strengths for one or more elements in the “Redefine Element Design Data” form. tension.
r33 r22 Fy E . the minimum radius of gyration. and (LRFD A-B5. and (LRFD A-B5-15. Fy . The reduction factor. (LRFD E2-2) (LRFD E2-3) Fy . for for Fy . SAM 4) Q s = reduction factor for unstiffened slender elements. is used instead of r22 and r33 in computing Kl r . Pn for Slender sections is evaluated for flexural buckling as follows: Pn = Ag Fcr . SAM 4) Q Q . SAM 4-2) F y . r z . max . Qa Ae Ag (LRFD A-B5-14) Calculation of Nominal Strengths 55 . The Q a factors for slender sections are calculated as the ratio of effective cross-sectional area and the gross cross-sectional area (LRFD A-B5.3c) The Q s factors for slender sections are calculated as described in Table IV-4 (LRFD A-B5. Pn for Compact or Noncompact sections is evaluated for flexural buckling as follows: Pn = Ag Fcr . for all compact and noncompact sections is taken as 1.Chapter IV Check/Design for AISC-LRFD93 Kl r K 33 l 33 K 22 l 22 . where (LRFD A-B5-17. and Kl r (LRFD E2-4. (LRFD A-B5-16. where Fcr = Fcr = 2 c (LRFD E2-1) for for . where Fcr = Q Fcr = 2 c (LRFD A-B3d.3a) Q a = reduction factor for stiffened slender elements. (LRFD A-B5.3c). and . Q is computed as follows: Q Q s Q a . Q.3a). For slender sections. SAM 4) For single angles. SAM 4-1) .
Fy . LRFD A-B5-8. Fy . LRFD A-B5-9. LRFD A-B5-6 I-SHAPE Qs kc b f 2t f b f 2t f 2 (rolled) if Fy k c Fy if if (welded) Fy k c b f 2t f bf 2t f b f 2t f Fy k c . LRFD A-B5-5.SAP2000 Steel Design Manual Section Type Reduction Factor for Unstiffened Slender Elements (Q s ) if Qs b f 2t f b f 2t f 2 Equation Reference b f 2t f Fy b f 2t f b f 2t f Fy . LRFD A-B5-7. Fy E . as for flanges in I-shapes. Fy . Fy k c . Fy E . Fy E . LRFD A-B5-8 LRFD A-B5-5. ANGLE Qs bt b t 2 Fy E . if . For web see below. Fy . if if if b t Fy . LRFD A-B5-6. Fy . Fy .3d LRFD A-B5. LRFD A-B5-6.3d LRFD A-B5-5. LRFD A-B5-7. DOUBLEANGLE (Separated) Qs b t 2 Fy . Fy . LRFD A-B5-7. Q s 56 Calculation of Nominal Strengths . LRFDA-B5-10 LRFD A-B5-3.3d Table IV-4 Reduction Factor for Unstiffened Slender Elements. if if if d t w Fy . Fy k c . if LRFD SAM4-3 Fy E PIPE ROUND BAR RECTANGULAR GENERAL Qs Qs Qs Qs 1 1 1 1 LRFD A-B5. Fy . LRFD A-B5-8 BOX Qs 1 LRFD A-B5. For flanges. if if Fy . T-SHAPE if Qs d tw 2 d tw Fy d tw d tw b t Fy b t b t b t Fy E b t b t Fy .3d LRFD A-B5. LRFD A-B5-4 CHANNEL As for I-shapes with bf 2t f replaced by bf t f . Fy .3d LRFD A-B5.
P ) Ag LRFD A-B5-12 (h tw ) f T-SHAPE DOUBLEANGLE (Separated) ANGLE 1.Chapter IV Check/Design for AISC-LRFD93 Section Type h. Fy ) LRFD A-B5-11 (b t f ) f if tw 1 . or flexure. P ) Ag LRFD A-B5-12 (h tw ) f if tw 1 .3b LRFD A-B5. f .3b ⎯ Not applicable Table IV-5 Effective Width for Stiffened Sections Calculation of Nominal Strengths 57 . (compression only. f . tf 1 . f .3b LRFD A-B5. if I-SHAPE he f h. f . if . if D t D t Fy Fy be be be . Effective Width for Stiffened Sections Equation Reference if tw 1 . he f h tw h tw h tw h tw b tf b tf h tw h tw f f . if f f . if if f f . (compression only. (compression only. b b b LRFD A-B5. P ) Ag LRFD A-B5-12 (h tw ) f BOX b. if CHANNEL he f f f . be f h. LRFD A-B5-13 ROUND BAR RECTANGULAR GENERAL Not applicable be b ⎯ LRFD A-B5.3b PIPE Qa D t Fy (compression only) . (compr.
Ar02 2 x0 2 y0 (LRFD E3-1) 1 1 4 Fcr 2 Fcrz H Fcr 2 Fcrz 2 . r0 = Polar radius of gyration about the shear center. determined by the limit states of torsional and flexural-torsional buckling is determined as follows: Pn = Ag Fcr . y 0 are the coordinates of the shear center with respect to the centroid. Pn .SAP2000 Steel Design Manual The effective cross-sectional area is computed based on effective width as follows: Ae Ag b be t b e for unstiffened elements is taken equal to b. where (LRFD A-E3-1) 58 Calculation of Nominal Strengths . Flexural-Torsional Buckling Pn for flexural-torsional buckling of Double-angle and T-shaped compression members whose elements have width-thickness ratios less than r is given by Pn = Ag Fcrft . buckling about the minor axis of symmetry for c r22 E Torsional and Flexural-Torsional Buckling The strength of a compression member. For webs in I. Fcr 2 is determined according to the equation LRFD E2-1 for flexural Kl F y .3b). and b e for stiffened elements is taken equal to or less than b as given in Table IV-5 (LRFD A-B5. and Channel sections. x 0 . where Fcrft = Fcrz Fcr 2 Fcrz 2H GJ . h e is used as b e and h is used as b in the above equation. box. where (LRFD E3-1) H 1 r02 . x 0 0 for double-angle and T-shaped members (y-axis of symmetry).
I. e where Fe is calculated as follows: • For Rectangular. In the above equations.Chapter IV Check/Design for AISC-LRFD93 Fcr = Q Fcr = 2 e F y . and Pipe sections: 2 Fe EC w 2 GJ 1 I 22 I 33 (LRFD A-E3-5) K z lz • For T-sections and Double-angles: Fe = Fe 22 Fez 2H 1 1 4 Fe 22 Fez H Fe 22 Fez 2 (LRFD A-E3-6) • For Channels: Fe = Fe 33 Fez 2H 1 1 4 Fe 33 Fez H Fe 33 Fez 2 (LRFD A-E3-6) • For Single-angles sections with equal legs: Fe = Fe 33 Fez 2H 1 1 4 Fe 33 Fez H Fe 33 Fez 2 (LRFD A-E3-6) • For Single-angle sections with unequal legs. for for Q Q . Calculation of Nominal Strengths 59 . and . 2 x0 r02 Fe2 ( Fe Fe 33 ) 2 y0 r02 0. the slenderness parameter Fy Fe . Box. (LRFD A-E3-2) (LRFD A-E3-3) is calculated as (LRFD A-E3-4) Fy . Fe is calculated as the minimum real root of the following cubic equation (LRFD A-E3-7): ( Fe Fe 33 )( Fe Fe 22 )( Fe Fez ) Fe2 ( Fe Fe 22 ) where.
K 33 are effective length factors in minor and major directions. For angle sections. and it is taken equal to l 22 . max( K 22 l 22 . l 33 are effective lengths in the minor and major directions. and it is taken equal to K 22 in SAP2000. H 1 2 x0 r02 2 . l 22 . Pn Ag F y (LRFD D1-1) It should be noted that no net section checks are made. Ar02 (LRFD A-E3-12) K 22 . i. the maximum value of Kl. if l r is greater than 300. For members in tension.SAP2000 Steel Design Manual x 0 . the principal moment of inertia and radii of gyration are used for computing Fe . Tension Capacity The nominal axial tensile strength value Pn is based on the gross cross-sectional area and the yield stress. r0 2 x0 2 y0 I 22 Ag 2 y0 I 33 = polar radius of gyration about the shear center. (LRFD A-E3-9) Fe 33 E 2 . y 0 are the coordinates of the shear center with respect to the centroid. SAM 2). (LRFD A-E3-10) K 33 l 33 r33 2 Fe 22 E 2 . is used in place of K 22 l 22 or K 33 l 33 in calculating Fe 22 and Fe 33 in this case. x 0 0 for double-angle and T-shaped members (y-axis of symmetry). For 60 Calculation of Nominal Strengths . a message to that effect is printed (LRFD B7.e. K 33 l 33 ). Also. l z is the effective length for torsional buckling. K z is the effective length factor for torsional buckling. (LRFD A-E3-11) K 22 l 22 r22 2 Fez EC w 2 GJ K z lz 1 .
M cr 33 M p 33 . T.1) Calculation of Nominal Strengths 61 . the principal axes are determined and all computations related to flexural strengths are based on that. The nominal strengths for all shapes of sections are calculated based on their principal axes of bending.M r 33 M p 33 . the compactness of the section. as follows: Yielding The flexural design strength of beams. Channel.Chapter IV Check/Design for AISC-LRFD93 single angles. and web local buckling. r z . (LRFD F1-1. and a slenderness parameter for lateral-torsional buckling.M p 33 . the principal axes coincide with their geometric axes. (LRFD F1. M n 33 M p 33 = = Nominal major bending strength. the axis of bending. Z 33 F y S 33 F y . M n 33 = C b M p 33 . lateral-torsional buckling. Box. Circular. is used instead of r22 and r33 in computing Kl r . determined by the limit state of yielding is: Mp Z Fy S Fy (LRFD F1-1) Lateral-Torsional Buckling Doubly Symmetric Shapes and Channels For I. For the Single Angle sections. and Rectangular shaped members bent about the major axis. if Lp Lb Lr . flange local buckling. I. Nominal Strength in Bending The nominal bending strength depends on the following criteria: the geometric shape of the cross-section. the moment capacity is given by the following equation (LRFD F1): M p 33 . Channel. if Lb Lr . Major plastic moment. Pipe. and Double-angle sections. the minimum radius of gyration. The nominal bending strength is the minimum value obtained according to the limit states of yielding. For the Rectangular. Lb . Box.L p Lr .L p if Lb Lp . F1-2. F1-12) where.
the program is unable to detect whether the member is a cantilever. and F y S eff . The program also defaults C b to 1.0 if the minor unbraced length. center of span and 3/4 point major moments respectively. M r 33 (LRFD F1-6) (LRFD F1-10) (LRFD F1-8) (LRFD F1-9) (LRFD F1-3) X1 X2 Cb = = = S 33 4 Cw I 22 M EGJA .Fr F y Fr for I-shapes and channels. Cb Lb EI 22 GJ + E Lb 2 (LRFD F1-7) (LRFD F1-11) M cr 33 = I 22 C w (LRFD F1-13) (LRFD F1-14) for I-shapes and channels. and (LRFD F1-4) Fy 3 750 r22 M p 33 JA for boxes and rectangular bars. 1/4 point. and + 3 M A + 4 M B + 3 MC M . 33 for rectangular bars and boxes.and M C are absolute values of maximum moment. Critical elastic moment. 2 S 33 GJ 2 . Limiting laterally unbraced length for full plastic capacity.SAP2000 Steel Design Manual M r 33 = Major limiting buckling moment. The user should overwrite C b for cantilevers. (LRFD F1-5) Lr = Limiting laterally unbraced length for inelastic lateral-torsional buckling. 300 r22 for I-shapes and channels. M . in the member. l 22 . C b should be taken as 1. l 22 . ( F y Fr )S 33 for I-shapes and channels. and 57 000 C b JA for boxes and rectangular bars.0 for cantilevers. M B . r22 X 1 1 + X 2 F y . M A . and 57 000 r22 JA for boxes and rectangular bars. Lb r22 Lb Lp = = Laterally unbraced length. However. of the member is re- 62 Calculation of Nominal Strengths .
1. M n = M p = Z Fy S Fy . M n 22 = S 22 F y . The nominal major bending strength for Single-angles for the limit state of lateral-torsional buckling is given as follows (LRFD SAM 5. Box.2c) I 22 .e. J (LRFD F1-16) The positive sign for B applies for tension in the stem of T-sections or the outstanding legs of double angles (positive moments) and the negative sign applies for compression in stem or legs (negative moments). Channel.Chapter IV Check/Design for AISC-LRFD93 defined by the user (i.2c) F y S 33 . it is not equal to the length of the member). The user can overwrite the value of C b for any member. stem in compression (LRFD F1. For I. the moment capacity is given by the following equation: M n 22 = M p 22 = Z 22 F y S 22 F y (LRFD F1) For pipes and circular bars bent about any axis. and Rectangular shaped members bent about the minor axis. stem in tension F y S 33 . for positive moment. where (LRFD F1-15) (LRFD F1. M n 33 = M n 33 M n 33 B EI 22 GJ Lb B + 1 + B 2 .3): Calculation of Nominal Strengths 63 . Single Angles The nominal strengths for Single-angles are calculated based on their principal axes of bending. (LRFD F1) T-sections and Double Angles For T-shapes and Double-angles the nominal major bending strength is given as. For T-shapes and double angles the nominal minor bending strength is assumed as. d Lb for negative moment.
M y . l (LRFD SAM 5-5) and for unequal-leg angles the M ob is calculated as M ob where. (LRFD SAM 5-6) min t w . major M y . major . t f . major . M y . = radius of gyration for minor principal axis.2) z = coordinate along the major principal axis. max l 22 . major . if M ob M y . for equal-leg angles is taken as M ob Cb E b2t2 .SAP2000 Steel Design Manual M ob M y . considering the possibility of yielding at the heel and both of the leg tips. t l I I r w EC b I l 2 2 w ( lt r )2 w .3. 1 I A z( w 2 z 2 )dA 2z 0 . l 33 . = major principal axis moment of inertia. (LRFD SAM 5. major = M n . elastic lateral-torsional buckling moment as calculated below. 64 Calculation of Nominal Strengths . w = coordinate along the minor principal axis. and z 0 = coordinate of the shear center along the major principal axis with respect to the centroid. = minor principal axis moment of inertia. major M y . major = where. if M ob M y . M ob = The elastic lateral-torsional buckling moment. M ob . major . major = M ob M y . major M ob M n . yield moment about the major principal axis of bending.
if p r . M n . and zero for equal-leg angles (LRFD SAM 5. Nominal major bending strength. M n 33 M n 22 M p 33 M p 22 = = = = M p 22 . Minor plastic moment. M p 22 . negative for long leg in compression. (A-F1-3) M cr 33 M p 33 . if r . Z 22 F y S 22 F y . M n = S Fy . p r p if p . M n 22 = M p 22 M p 22 M r 22 . M p 33 . Calculation of Nominal Strengths 65 . for conservative design in SAP2000.Chapter IV Check/Design for AISC-LRFD93 w is a special section property for angles.3. of Noncompact and Slender beams for the limit state of Flange Local Buckling is calculated as follows (LRFD A-F1): For major direction bending. It is positive for short leg in compression. it is always taken as negative for unequal-leg angles. if r . General Sections For General sections the nominal major and minor direction bending strengths are assumed as. M n 33 = M p 33 M p 33 M r 33 . Flange Local Buckling The flexural design strength. p r p if p .2). However. Nominal minor bending strength. Major plastic moment. (A-F1-3) M cr 22 where. Z 33 F y S 33 F y . if p r . and for minor direction bending.
Channels bf 2t f bf tf .1) r (LRFD Table A-F1. (for I sections) (LRFD B5. 66 Calculation of Nominal Strengths .1) (LRFD Table A-F1. Table A-F1.1) M r 33 M r 22 (Fy Fr )S 33 .1) S 33 . (for Channel sections) (LRFD B5. M cr 33 .1) . Table A-F1. Table A-F1.1) p . Controlling slenderness parameter. Major buckling moment. and Largest value of for which buckling is inelastic. r . M r 22 .1) S 22 . Fy .1. kc 2 M cr 33 (LRFD Table A-F1.1. p . (LRFD Table A-F1. The parameters . Minor limiting buckling moment.1) F y S 22 . Minor buckling moment. 2 S 33 . Fy Fr . Largest value of for which M n M p . M cr 22 2 S 22 . kc 2 (LRFD Table A-F1.1. and M cr 22 for flange local buckling for different types of shapes are given below: I Shapes.SAP2000 Steel Design Manual M r 33 M r 22 M cr 33 M cr 22 p r = = = = = = = Major limiting buckling moment. M r 33 . Fy Fr kc (LRFD B5.
Fr )S eff .1) (LRFD Table A-F1. F y S eff .1) (LRFD A-F1) M r 33 M r 22 M cr 33 M cr 22 Fr F y S eff . Fy (Fy (Fy Fr )S eff . (LRFD B5. r (LRFD B5.Chapter IV Check/Design for AISC-LRFD93 Fr (LRFD A-F1) Boxes bf tf bf tf p 3 tw 2 tw .1. 33 S eff . 33 S 33 . and S eff .1. 33 = effective major section modulus considering slenderness. Table A-F1.1) . S eff .1) (LRFD Table A-F1. If special consideration is required.1): Calculation of Nominal Strengths 67 .1) (LRFD Table A-F1. 22 . Single Angles The nominal strengths for Single-angles are calculated based on their principal axes of bending. 22 . (LRFD B5. Table A-F1.1) .1. Table A-F1. 22 = effective minor section modulus considering slenderness.1) (LRFD Table A-F1. The nominal major and minor bending strengths for Single-angles for the limit state of flange local buckling are given as follows (LRFD SAM 5. Fy . the user is expected to analyze this separately. T-sections and Double Angles No local buckling is considered for T sections and Double angles in SAP2000.1. 33 .
b = length of the leg under consideration. t = thickness of the leg under consideration. Pipe Sections t p .1) (LRFD Table A-F1. and Q = strength reduction factor due to local buckling. where. the capacities are calculated for both the principal axes considering the fact that either of the two tips can be under compression. (LRFD Table A-F1. S c = section modulus for compression at the tip of one leg. if Fy . if Fy b t b t Fy .1) 68 Calculation of Nominal Strengths . (LRFD Table A-F1. The minimum capacities are considered.SAP2000 Steel Design Manual b t Fy S c . In calculating the bending strengths for Single-angles for the limit state of flange local buckling.1) (LRFD Table A-F1. M n= F y S c Fy Fy S c . (LRFD Table A-F1.1) M r 33 = M r 22 = M cr 33 = M cr 22 = D t S. 1 . if Fy . Fy .1) r Fy D t + Fy S .
Largest value of for which M n M p . tw Calculation of Nominal Strengths 69 . Major plastic moment. p r p if p . ksi.(A-F1. Largest value of for which buckling is inelastic. M n 33 = M p 33 M p 33 M r 33 . and Boxes The flexural design strength for the major axis bending. M n 33 M p 33 M r 33 p r if r . where. Z 33 F y (LRFD F1. and general shapes. and General Sections No consideration of local buckling is required for solid circular shapes.Chapter IV Check/Design for AISC-LRFD93 Circular. A-G2-2): M p 33 .R e S 33 F y . No local buckling is considered in SAP2000 for circular.(LRFD TableA-F1.1). Plate girder bending strength reduction factor. rectangular. and Critical compression flange stress. the user is expected to analyze this separately. If special consideration is required. where the value of Pu is taken as positive for compression and zero for tension: hc .A-G1) S 33 R PG R e Fcr .1) S 33 F y . The web slenderness parameters are computed as follows. R PG Re Fcr = = = = = = = = = Nominal major bending strength. I Shapes. Hybrid girder factor.1) Web slenderness parameter. Channels. M n .1). of Noncompact and Slender beams for the limit state of Web Local Buckling is calculated as follows (LRFD A-F1-1. Rectangular. rectangular plates (LRFD Table A-F1. A-F1-3. Web Local Buckling The flexural design strengths are considered in SAP2000 for only the major axis bending (LRFD Table A-F1. Major limiting buckling moment. if p r .
where (LRFD A-G2) . P b y 253 Fy .SAP2000 Steel Design Manual Pu .0. (LRFD A-G2) In the above expressions. P b y Fy 1Fy Pu P b y Pu . R e . Fcr . Fcr (LRFD A-G2-3) Re Re ar (for non-hybrid section). and Fy (LRFD A-G2) m min( Fcr . Pu P b y Pu P b y 1Fy p r The parameters R PG . (LRFD A-G2) hc tw . F y ) . and Fcr for slender web sections are calculated in SAP2000 as follows: R PG ar ar ar m m3 ar . because currently SAP2000 deals with only non-hybrid girders. The critical compression flange stress. taken as 1. R e is taken as 1. for slender web sections is calculated for limit states of lateral-torsional buckling and flange local buckling for the corresponding slenderness parameter in SAP2000 as follows: 70 Calculation of Nominal Strengths . (for hybrid sections).
Fcr = C b Fy 1 C PG 2 F y . r . p . and C PG for lateral-torsional buckling for slender web I. and (LRFD A-G2-10) (LRFD A-G2-9) r C PG rT = radius of gyration of the compression flange plus one-third of the compression portion of the web. p . Fy . rT p (LRFD A-G2-7) . Fy C b . C b = a factor which depends on span moment. The parameters . if r . and (LRFD A-G2-14) (LRFD A-G2-15) (LRFD A-G2-13) (LRFD A-G2-12) r C PG Cb 1. 6) . 1 2 p r p if p . Calculation of Nominal Strengths 71 . (LRFD A-G2-8) Fy . (LRFD A-G2-4. It is calculated using the equation given in page 62. and C PG for flange local buckling for slender web I. Channel and Box sections are given below: Lb . The parameters . Channel and Box sections are given below: b . Fy kc k c . 5. if p r .Chapter IV Check/Design for AISC-LRFD93 Fy . r . and it is taken as b f 12 in SAP2000. t p (LRFD A-G2-11) .
T. the principal axes coincide with their geometric axes. the user is expected to analyze them separately. Box. Shear Capacities The nominal shear strengths are calculated for shears along the geometric axes for all sections. Pipe Sections The nominal major and minor bending strengths for Pipe sections for the limit state of web local buckling are the same as those given for flange local buckling (LRFD Table A-F1. If special consideration is required. Channel. Pipe. for major direction shears in I-shapes.1). the user is expected to analyze this separately. Circular.1). V n 2 . h tw .1. If special consideration is required. No additional check is considered in SAP2000. For I.1). Fy (LRFD F2-1) 72 Calculation of Nominal Strengths . No additional check is considered in SAP2000. and General Sections No web local buckling is required for solid circular shapes and rectangular plates (LRFD Table A-F1. No web local buckling is considered in SAP2000 for circular. principal axes do not coincide with their geometric axes. boxes and channels is evaluated as follows: For h tw V n2 = for Fy < . For Single-angle sections.SAP2000 Steel Design Manual T-sections and Double Angles No local buckling is considered for T-sections and Double-angles in SAP2000. Single Angles The nominal major and minor bending strengths for Single-angles for the limit state of web local buckling are the same as those given for flange local buckling (LRFD SAM 5. Fy F y Aw . and general shapes. rectangular. Circular and Rectangular sections. Major Axis of Bending The nominal shear strength. Double angle. Rectangular.
the resistance factor for bendtions c ing. the capacity ratios are calculated at each station for each member under the influence of each of the design load combinations.Chapter IV Check/Design for AISC-LRFD93 V n2 = F y Aw h tw h .0 indicates exceeding a limit state. along with the associated station and load combination. b . (LRFD F2-3 and A-F2-3) The nominal shear strength for all other sections is taken as: V n2 = F y Av 2 . and if Pu is compressive. In addition. Pn is the Pn nominal axial tensile strength and . Also. Axial and Bending Stresses Pu . for each station along the length of the member. first. If Pu is tensile. Pn is t . Then the corresponding capacities are calculated. Minor Axis of Bending The nominal shear strength for minor direction shears is assumed as: V n3 = F y Av 3 Calculation of Capacity Ratios In the calculation of the axial force/biaxial moment capacity ratios. the effect of the presence of bolts or welds is not considered. Aw for Fy V n2 = < h tw 2 . The interaction ratio is determined based on the ratio Calculation of Capacity Ratios 73 . the actual member force/moment components are calculated for each load combination. Then. and tw (LRFD F2-2) Fy . the joints are not designed. The controlling compression and/or tension capacity ratio is then obtained. A capacity ratio greater than 1. except for angle secthe nominal axial compressive strength and c (LRFD SAM 6). During the design.
For all other sections the shear stress is calculated along the principle axes which coincide with the geometric axes. For I. Pipe. from the factored shear force values and the nominal shear strength values at each station for each of the load combinations. For Single-angle sections. the capacity ratio is given as M u 33 + M n 33 b M u 22 . 6). SAM 6-1a) For circular sections an SRSS (Square Root of Sum of Squares) combination is first made of the two bending components before adding the axial load component instead of the simple algebraic addition implied by the above formulas. the combined stress ratio is calculated based on the properties about the principal axis (LRFD SAM 5.3. and vV n 2 V u3 . the shear stress ratio is calculated for directions along the geometric axis. For general sections it is assumed that the section properties are given in terms of the principal directions. shear capacity ratios for major and minor directions are calculated as follows: V u2 . For Single-angle sections. the principal axes coincide with their geometric axes. vV n 3 where v . M n 22 b (LRFD H1-1a. principal axes are determined in SAP2000. 74 Calculation of Capacity Ratios .SAP2000 Steel Design Manual Pu Pn Pu 8 + 9 Pn For Pu < Pn Pu + 2 Pn For . Channel. T. Double angle. the capacity ratio is given as M u 33 + M n 33 b M u 22 . Shear Stresses Similarly to the normal stresses. Box. Circular and Rectangular sections. For Single-angle sections. M n 22 b (LRFD H1-1b. SAM 6-1a) .
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