This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
, FABPS, FACFEI, AHTA, CERT
Horticultural therapy is the engagement of a client in horticultural activities facilitated by a trained therapist to achieve specific and documented treatment goals. This is an active process which occurs in the context of a well established treatment plan where the process itself is considered the therapeutic activity rather than any type of end product. Horticultural therapy programs can be found in a wide variety of healthcare, rehabilitative, and residential settings. Horticultural Therapists Horticultural therapists are specially educated and trained professionals who involve the client in any phase of gardening - from propagation to selling products - as a means of bringing about many types of improvements in their lives. Certification Currently, licensing and certification are not required for horticultural therapists. However, credibility in this area is enhanced through certification and licensure. The American Horticulture Therapy Association (AHTA) offers voluntary professional registration for horticultural therapists that meet specific education and experience criteria. There are many types of horticulture therapists and settings in which they work There are Healing Gardens, Therapeutic Gardens, Horticultural Therapy Gardens, and Restorative Gardens.
Benefits of Horticultural Therapy and Therapeutic Gardens: The benefits of involvement in horticultural activities and exposure to nature can be seen in cognitive, psychological, social, and physical realms and research continues to reveal these connections across many groups of people. The following list includes some of the benefits that have been cited in the literature. Please note that many of these studies report on specific populations and the benefits may or may not be applicable to all groups. During my sabbatical I explored new areas of information and research in the Human Services field that will impact our curriculum and approaches to students at Lane Community College in
PeaceHealth/RiverBend and McKenzie Willamette Hospital are already planning accommodations in which to implement this approach at their new facilities. In addition. Most of the Human Services providers in Oregon are moving toward this environmental. Like many other fields. In fact. holistic approach to therapy. Horticulture Therapy is a quickly evolving field in Human Services. Human Services field is undergoing a paradigm shift towards environmental therapies. 2 . In order to be competitive and informative in the Human Services field. There is a plethora of new research being conducted in this field at several Universities and medical facilities throughout the United States and Canada. This field has been growing by leaps and bounds both in America and abroad. 3) the use of horticulture therapy in the human services field with emotionally and socially challenged adults. This important evolving field must be incorporated into our curriculum as soon as possible. The areas are: 1) the use of environmental factors in treating and assisting geriatric clients. this information will assist Lane Community College as a whole in expanding existing programs (both academic and professional technical). During my sabbatical I attended three essential workshops offered by the American Horticultural Therapy Association. and 5) the use of environmental psychology and horticulture therapy in conjunction with sustainable work environments in improving the lives of students and faculty. we must stay abreast of all the current advances in this field. 4) the use of environmental psychology and horticulture therapy in the treatment of addictions. In addition. which address the research needs mentioned above. 2) the use of environmental methods in working with developmentally challenged and special needs youth. Juvenile Justice and Psychology. Lane Community College (Human Services and other programs here) has already been approached in order to provide workers in this field. the new Psychiatric facility that will be built in Lane County will be employing Horticulture Therapists. I have identified five areas of research which we have not yet incorporated into our curriculum which must be integrated into our studies if we are to remain current in our practices. I did this by studying Horticulture Therapy. This sabbatical gave me the needed time to evaluate current information in this field.the future.
HTR at Legacy Health System. I actually started this process before my sabbatical and will continue it after. This clinic is using Horticulture therapy not only for the holistic environmental effects. In fact. The time spent here allowed me to achieve new research available on gardens outside of Oregon. OR. implement Kurisus’ work in the treatment of their patients. Colorado. Legacy Health System is the closest area certified to train individuals wishing to become certified in training and new program management. Legacy Health Systems. building traditional Japanese Gardens for hospitals and treatment centers internationally. Oregon I also consulted with Hoichi Kurisu and Koichi John Kurisu. it will also assist me in understanding the history of this field. Not only did this research assist me in getting the answers I need to develop Lane Community College’s short. In order to incorporate this new research into Lane Community College. These individuals have been working in this field for years. Portland. 3 . I was able to work with disadvantaged youth at this site. One of the most impressive parts of my sabbatical was the tour and training at Betty Ford Alpine Gardens Clinic in Vale. I worked with Legacy to obtain the most up-to-date research possible from certified trainers. but also for the treatment and restorative effects that gardening has on the youth and adults in treatment at that facility. along with implementing possible Cooperative education sites in the future.and long-term goals. While in Portland.I worked with Teresia Hazen.
4 . Oregon.and long-term effects of horticultural therapy through research being conducted at the Providence Farm with Mark Timmermans. If our students are to be competitive. The research has not yet been printed. I studied the short. There are so many in fact that I am also continuing in this endeavor. I spend some time at GrassRoots Garden in Eugene. but I am working with Kansas State on the data collected. I obtained some more great hands-on experience with at-risk and adjudicated youth that I hope to write about at a future time. I integrated this research with that of Dr. Ribe and Jenny Young from the University of Oregon. we must train them to be well-rounding in their plant culture. Oregon. is also certified to teach program instructors and managers. in British Colombia. another part of the Legacy Health System. Haller. here horticultural therapy is being used with at-risk youth. Oregon to learn more about her youth program in Springfield. I was particularly interested in this research because the plant culture here is quite divergent from that on the west coast. who are currently working on this garden research with the Legacy Emmanuel Hospital in Lebanon. I conducted a vast amount of journal and article research on Horticultural Therapy and Environmental and Health Psychology at the University of Oregon Library as well as elsewhere. Dr.While in Colorado. Colorado State University at Fort Collins. Again. who works here. I was also able to work with the Department of Horticulture & Landscape Architecture. Together we were able to do some amazing work with adolescent offenders. There are many journals and new books and manuals available on this topic.
I worked with adjudicated youth in two separate agencies. but also rewarding.I attended seminars at Oregon State University Lane County Extension Office in horticultural training. I also spent time on two separate Native American Reservations working with adjudicated youth. However the only funds I used of Lane Community College’s were those of the time off that I took in Spring Term. with the exception of the Master Gardener Certificate. In addition. However. because it allowed me to do a plethora of work in the field of horticulture therapy that I could not have accomplished without six months off at a time. I conducted the following behaviors in the weeks mentioned. and became more adept at teaching horticultural therapy to students. however accepted into the program. SABBATICAL OUTLINE: I accomplished everything that I set out to do on my sabbatical. I was unable to complete The Master Gardener Program through the Lane Extension Service Center office of OSU because they changed their courses to Winter Term. I started this sabbatical before Spring term of 2008 and finished it right before classes started in the Fall. I was. I had already obtained a Community Gardener Certificate by 5 . As you may have guessed by now. I hope to complete this program at a later date. However. The experience was not only educational. since I was teaching Winter Term and unable to attend courses all day on Wednesdays. I am grateful for that time off.
I met with Oncologist’s using Horticultural Therapy and Environmental Therapy in Oregon at Legacy Emmanuel. Washington. Week 4: Toured Betty Ford Alpine Gardens Clinic in Vale. These courses are identical to the Master Gardener courses. Toured their facilities and began working with at-risk youth. Week 6: Continued readings and met with Dr. Week 3: I Continued with readings and attended my first workshop at the American Horticultural Therapy Association. Legacy Health System. toured Vancouver. I met at OSU Extension Service and worked on classes to take at Legacy. Colorado and continued reading. I toured more Kurisu sites in Oregon. Week 9: Met with Jen Anonia at GrassRoots Garden. Colorado State University. OR. How will this activity contribute to your growth as a professional person? 6 . and Vancouver. Weeks 11 and 12: Compiled information for DVD presentation to colleagues at Lane Community College. Week 8: Continued with readings and comparisons. I continued my readings and research.C. I continued to work throughout the summer and at the end of summer created the DVD presentation. Week 2: Began reading the three books mentioned in #2 above. B. Oregon and toured Lebanon Facility. I began reading and analyzing these articles. Ribe and Jenny Young. 2. Study environmental awareness information in Canada. I compare these texts with journal articles and compiled information. I obtained articles from Colorado State University. Week 10: Visited Providence Farm in British Columbia. Portland. Met with the Kurisu’s in Portland. Week 7: Attended two more workshops at the American Horticultural Therapy Association. Week 1: I conducted journal and article research and compilation regarding current evolvements in Horticulture Therapy and Treatment. Week 5: Visited the Department of Horticulture & Landscape Architecture. University of Oregon.attending classes at my own expense on my own time through the OSU extension office.
This hand-on training provided not only new classroom strategies for me to bring to my students. They did not qualify for pet therapy programs. I really enjoyed working with colleagues and the adjudicated youth at the four different settings. I also had the wonderful opportunity to travel and see a vast amount of beauty. but allowed me to learn ways to better prepare my students for future careers in this field. many years now I have not had a leave. Results of the study consistently showed that violence was reduced and prosocial behaviors increased. This leave was much needed and I am grateful for it. I have had an opportunity to work with individuals and clients in a very unique and rewarding way. I have not had the opportunity to travel and see the beautiful country in which we live for quite some time now. this leave has helped me to be a better person.This leave allowed me the much needed opportunity to grow professionally in the Human Services field. multiple offending youth. I believe that in addition to enhancing our curriculum. Horticulture therapy is and has been utilized in some of the toughest prisons in the United States. For many. Further Notes from my presentation: I chose to do a research project with violent. 7 . This really should come as no surprise.
and residential settings. Horticulture therapy programs are found in a wide variety of healthcare. It is an active process. over 70% of Inmates involved showed remarkable improvements Horticulture Therapy (HT) is the engagement of a client in horticultural activities to achieve specific treatment goals. rehabilitative. On the average.There have been extremely positive results. Cognitive Benefits: Enhance cognitive functioning Improve concentration Stimulate memory Improve goal achievement Improve attentional capacity Psychological Benefits: Improve quality of life Increase self-esteem Improve sense of well-being Reduce stress Improve mood Decrease anxiety Alleviate depression Increase sense of control Improves sense of personal worth Increase feelings of calm and relaxation Increase sense of stability Improve personal satisfaction Increase sense of pride and accomplishment Social Benefits: Improve social integration Increase social interaction Provide for healthier social functioning Improved group cohesiveness 8 . The process itself is the therapeutic activity rather than the end product.
A dietary. & Barnes. 2006 from http://www. G. & Campbell. Healing with plants: The wonders of horticultural therapy. Healing gardens: Therapeutic benefits and design recommendations.friendshospitalonline. C. C. The effects of a horticultural activity program on the psychological well-being of older people in a long-term care facility. (2000). skills. Journal of Nutrition Education 23:161–167. 113-120.. Davis CA: University of CA.People and Facilities shown to be benefiting from Horticulture Therapy and Therapeutic Gardens: People of all ages and special needs Correctional Facilities Vocational.htm 9 . 8185. occupational and Rehabilitation programs Psychiatric hospitals and mental health programs Substance abuse programs Hospitals. D. clinics and nursing facilities Hospice and palliative care programs Cancer centers Shelters for the homeless and victims of abuse Public and private schools Assisted living and senior centers Adult day care Community and botanical gardens References: Armstrong.Davis. Blair. D. Cancer Nursing 12(4). D. Cooper Marcus. Publication 21587. Entrepreneurial community gardens: Growing food. jobs and communities. T. UK: J. S. Journal of Therapeutic Horticulture 1:37–43.org/History. (1993). Diabetes Educator 26(1). M. (1991). A community diabetes education and gardening project to improve diabetes care in a northwest American Indian tribe. HortTechnology 13(1). Cimprich. Group cohesiveness is enhanced as children engage in plant stimulated discovery activities. Chichester.. (1999). (1986). Retrieved October 22. Wiley. K. D. prevocational. & Sherman. (2003). Development of an intervention to restore attention to cancer patients. 22-27. Giesecke. & Stoelzle Midden. McGrew. Bunn. (1999). social. B. Feenstra. Friends Hospital (2005). and economic evaluation of the Philadelphia urban gardening project. S.E. Barnicle.
191-198. 10 . Kwack. & Evans. E.). Environment and Behavior 23(1). J. D. (1991). G. (1998). R.13-27. R. Horticultural therapy methods: Making connections in health care. Psychology in Spain 4: pp. Journal of Environmental Psychology 17(2) 165170. & Kramer.. Kaplan. T. An observational assessment of a dementiaspecific horticultural therapy program. Gerlach-Spriggs. Jellicoe. Environment and Behavior 33 (4). Jarrott. The effects of choice and enhanced personal response for the aged: A field experiment in an institutional setting. 507-542. & Relf. M. (1998). (2003). 1995.. H. (2006). The nature of the view from home: Psychological benefits. Fountaine.R. K. W. T. & Rodin. Environment and Behavior 30(6). M. (1989). Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 34(2). (2001). 402. & Rodrieguez. C.C. (1976). 475-479. 28-59.E. Hartig. R. HortTechnology 12(3). Bacaicoa. Kweon. Binghamton. Restorative gardens: The healing landscape. & Relf. Kuo..S. (2000). Hill. 3-26.C. N. London: Thames and Hudson. Haller. Langer. A. human service. & Sullivan. P..(1995). New York: Cambridge University Press. S. S. New Haven and London: Yale University Press. Environment and Behavior 30(1).410. F.D. The experience of nature. Sullivan. Transforming inner-city landscapes. Environmental aesthetics and psychological well-being: Relationships between preference judgements for urban landscapes and other relevant affective responses. & Warner. Restorative effects of natural environment experiences.E. Mang. Herzog. A.. (Eds.. & Wiley. S.B. Trees.. Gardening as an outdoor activity in geriatric institutions. Kaufman. C. Green common spaces and the social integration of inner-city older adults. & Kaplan. Hartig. sense of safety and preference. (1997). B. and community programs. Kaplan. M. Black.E. 832-858. (1982). G. (1998).W. Reflection and attentional recovery as distinct benefits of restorative environments.R. J. S. Restorative environments: Guest editor’s introduction. Adaptations and Aging 3(1):47–54.). (2002). Activities. NY: The Haworth Press. D. R.. & Jellicoe. Landscape of man (2nd ed. Environment and Behavior 33 (4). T. Knotts. W.Galindo.
Matsuo. The immediate effects of group-based horticulture on the quality of life of persons with chronic mental illness. Effect of therapeutic horticulture on the self-concept of the mildly intellectually disabled student. S.dickinson. & Milstein.. Relf. & Straus. and challenges. P. Detroit. & Bickes. P. J. The Netherlands: Springer. Retrieved October 22. Sensory stimuli reminiscence for patients with Alzheimer’s disease: Relevance and implications. Perrins-Margalis.. Horticulture helps us to live as human beings: Providing balance and harmony in our behavior and thought and life worth living.R. Influence of an outdoor garden on mood and stress in older persons.215-221). Moore. Stepanski. 2006 from http://deila. MI: Wayne State University. S. McDaniel. NY: The Haworth Press. Youth nutrition gardens in Detroit: A report on benefits. Philadelphia: Kimber & Richardson. Stone (Eds. S.. (2002).. (1992). Farming for health (pp. N. H. Smith.J. P. M.V. 68–71. potential. Medical inquiries and observations upon diseases of the mind. Pothukuchi. J.D. & Haynes. Rush. & Aldous. P. Growing with gardening: A twelve-month guide for therapy. N. (1994). Journal of Therapeutic Horticulture 13: pp13-21. Assessing the benefits of a therapeutic horticulture program for seniors in intermediate care. Rodiek.D. Stone (Eds. B. (1994). D. Rugletic. Namazi.L. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.H.309-343). P. Horticulture as a recreational activity.edu/theirownwords/title/0034. 11 . Schepis.). American Health Care Association Journal 4(5). Relf. The healing dimension of people-plant relations: Proceedings of a research symposium (pp.htm Simson. van Dijk (Eds. S. Binghamton. B. (1994). In M. Lindsay & R. & Butterfield. The healing dimension of people-plant relations: Proceedings of a research symposium (pp. D. 15-30.. Occupational Therapy in Mental Health 16(1). Horticulture as therapy: Principles and practice. recreation. Relf. Attitudes toward plants and gardening. (1998).173-187). 29–45. (1989). In M.). Francis. University of CA. University of CA. (1812). HortTechnology 2:201–204. Mooney. B.). Acta Horticulturae 391:19–30. (2001). (2000). M. E. Clinical Gerontology 14(4). (1995).E. K. A. 3-10).Hassink & M. (2006) Agriculture and health care: The care of plants and animals for therapy and rehabilitation in the United States. In J . & Walsh. Lindsay & R. (1978). Francis.F.J. D. K. and education (pp.
Taylor.P. Journal of Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation 25(5). Relf (Ed. & Parsons. M.P. Locus of control and achievement in child psychiatric inpatients.W.M. J. Influences of passive experiences with plants on individual well-being and health. C. Environmental personality in school-age children: Development and application of the “Children’s Environmental Response Inventory”. M. McIntosh. OR: Timber Press. R.J. Barnes (Eds. R.. In C... L. 3-10. Effects of horticultural therapy on mood and heart rate in patients participating in an inpatient cardiopulmonary rehabilitation program. Willets.R. Pallmeyer.C. Wichrowski.. Kuo.27-86). R. Losito. 12 . (1992).).M. Effects of gardens on health outcomes: Theory and research. B. Miles. Saylor.93-105). Journal of Environmental Psychology 21: 301-314. Schinke. 471-487.Jr. New York: Wiley. Varni.. J. Fiorito.. Maxwell.S. E. & Sullivan. J. (2001). Other references I am using in my current research: Barth. New York: Macmillan. Griffin. Healing gardens: Therapeutic benefits and design recommendations (pp.. (1983). M.V. (1960). Finch. J.. (1983). J.& Zelson. W. (1999). The role of horticulture in human well-being and social development (pp. (1991). A. Seid. A.. (2005). C. A. (2001). M. New York: Futura. Watson.M.L. Environment and Behavior 32:775–795..E... J. Evaluating a children’s hospital garden environment: Utilization and consumer satisfaction.M. (1987).. R. N. J. R.. Ulrich. (1996). Haas. D. The role of the therapeutic recreationist in assisting the oncology patient to cope.F. Environment and Behavior 33:54–77. Simons.). Cooper Marcus & M. Stress recovery during exposure to natural and urban environments.J.D. & Sperling. & Burlingame. Bunting.F. Blount. 270-274. Cooper-Marcus. 15(1). Therapy through horticulture. & Rey.H..J. Waliczek. Journal of Youth and Adolescence. 175-179. Wolfe. M. & Mehlenbeck... Journal of Environmental Horticulture 14:204–209. & Zajicek. Psychological correlates of teenage motherhood. (1983)..R..P. S. S.P. R. Whitehouse.S. A.. In D. M. Ulrich. Ensberg. (2000).A...S. & Cousins.F. Journal of Environmental Education.S. Mola.. T. Wells. H. Whiteson. V. Portland.E. T. D.W. 12(6). Benefits of community gardening to quality of life issues. T. A. Coping with ADD: The surprising connection to green play settings. At home with nature: Effects of “greenness” on children’s cognitive functioning. Jacobs..S. & Carek. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology. Ulrich. R. Journal of Environmental Psychology 11: 201-230.. 15(2). R. F. F.C. R. Mattson.
McL.. British Journal of Educational Psychology. and life satisfaction. Carlson. 530-533..D. Washington. & Prosser. N. 32-48. & Shapiro. (2004). 66. An investigation into the psychosocial functioning of creative children: The impact of ADHD symptomatology. T.. & Ross.L. J. Hattie. (1999). L. 6(2)..R. Adolescence. 32.. 40(4).. 21(2).C. S. Goal-setting and reputation enhancement: Behavioral choices among delinquent.B..C. and gifted children.M. Journal of Early Adolescence. Freiheit.H. Overholser. Carroll. (1992). normal achieving. 39. Danford (Eds. & Rucklidge. & Heyerdahl. A. Girls with anorexia nervosa as young adults: Personality. 44-67. E... Fertman. self-esteem. (1989). M. self-esteem. Halvorsen. 165-184. & Semple. and locus of control. (1997). 49(2).. 243-264. C.I. gender.. J.. Locus of control and generosity in learning disabled. Poyrazli. Child Development. The relationship between children’s experiences with vegetation on school grounds and their environmental attitudes.J. (2006). Legal and Criminological Psychology. Seidel and S. 113-129. ethnicity.). & Houghton. Journal of Environmental Education. (1998)... Journal of Creative Behavior. Research Theory and Application (pp 273-283).H. (1979). & Barling. C. In A. P. E. and risk behaviors to self-esteem among students in nonmainstream schools.I. D. & Grahame. (1978). Durkin. J. 457-473. The development of an environmental response inventory for children.. Ethnic differences in processes contributing to the self-esteem of early adolescent girls. 9-15. F. K. S.M. 517-526. 23(3).. Harvey. International Journal of Eating Disorders. Fincham. Fertman. Gender differences in the achievement goal orientations of ADHD children. K. 39. & Lehnert. J. Connor. The relation of age. J. Adolescence. Dunn. S. (2001). S. 327-344. Elliot. J. Journal of Adolescent Research. J. & Chubb. The effects of a psychoeducational program on adolescents’ activity involvement.Bunting... 13 . S. Healey. Adolescent self-esteem and locus of control: A longitudinal study of gender and age differences. 27. Chubb. 47-57. at-risk and not at-risk adolescents. (1996).L. I.R. S. T. (2006). Ferrer-Wreder. Cognitive Therapy and Research. 20(1). The association between humor and depression in adolescent psychiatric inpatients and high school students. Locus of control in behaviorally disordered children. (2000). 285-293. C.K. N. Environmental Design. 13(1). DC: Environmental Design Research Association. Uppal. K. Adolescence.
. 11(2).. Reflective inquiry into mental illness by hospitalized adolescents. Mannarino. Abuse-related attributions and perceptions. Lynch. Parental enabling attitudes and locus of control of at-risk and honors students. A. J. (1973). & Kendall. 40(1).D. 1087-1089..C. P.. Jr. (1978).D. Amaya-Jackson. body image. & Brinkman. McIntosh.. Gender differences in depressive symptoms during adolescence: Role of gender-typed characteristics. J. Note on locus of control and academic achievement in institutionalized juvenile delinquents. D. 919-928. and locus of control in sexually abused girls.B. L. 3(1).. D. March. Journal of American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology.A. (1996). 477-483. Rawson. (1988).. 12. 15(4).C. 45-51. 6(2). D.. A locus of control scale for children. and pubertal status. Murray. 37(6). 37(147). 148-154. (1995). M.K. G. (2002). 10(1).M.P. Concurrent validity between children’s locus of control and attitudes toward. Lehnert. Miller. 527-549. Overholser. K.S. Marcotte.T. (1991). (1994). Locus of control and the ability to tolerate gratification delay: When it is better t o be an external. (2002). M.. 47. V. stressful life events. S.R.L..Lindsey. Adolescence.. & Metha. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. A. Fortin. Journal of Research in Personality. Adams. A. Journal-of-Genetic-Psychology. and peers. Morrow.. S. D. 585593. Nielsen. Self-esteem deficits and suicidal tendencies among adolescents. 29-42. Parental behavior and adolescent self-esteem in clinical and nonclinical samples. 49-56. P. 525-542.M. Nunn. 14 .. (1987). home. Educational and Psychological Measurement. 149(1). Attributions of female adolescent incest victims regarding their molestation.. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology.L. L. (1998). & Strickland. & Cohen. 34(7). 43-61. general attributions. & Schulte. Hurford. J. & Cole.. (1975). K. Adolescence. 29(115). Potvin. Child Abuse and neglect. D.C. self-esteem. Journal of emotional and Behavioral Disorders. Journal of Interpersonal Violence.E. 162-180. B. Cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy for children and adolescents with posttraumatic stress disorder after a singleincident stressor. D. & Papillon.. D. H.C. Effects of a structured behavior modification treatment program on locus of control in behaviorally disturbed children. Theory and Research in Social Education. A. Nowicki. 281-283.P. Little. school. (1978).
(2003).. (2000).J. (2006). 225-244. J. The interrelationship of measures of manifest anxiety. & Gelman. M. J. F. Johnsen. J. & Kilmartin.P. Racial identity attitudes and self-esteem of black adolescents in residential care: An exploratory study. 30(1). M. 89(4). NJ.. Enhancing treatment adherence with a specialized emergency room program for adolescent suicide attempters. M. 8(4). 319-329. Rawson. Assessing the implementation and effects of a trauma-focused intervention for youths in residential treatment. Simultaneous Administration of the Rosenberg SelfEsteem Scale in 53 Nations: Exploring the Universal and Culture-Specific Features of Global Self-Esteem.L. 181-188. (2005).J.. R. Psychosocial functioning of adolescents with and without paediatric bipolar disorder.R. Vn Rossem.. locus of control.. Miller. W. 40(5). & Feldman. and emotional expression. David P. & Allik. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. 530-540. (1992)..A. L. B. & Barke. Group cinematherapy: Using metaphor to enhance adolescent self-esteem. Rucklidge. S. Behavioral Disorders.. & Nowicki. 10(4). K. Bloom. Attribution patterns of learning disabled adolescents. Tollefson. and cognitive functioning of female adolescents with ADHD. C. E. Journal of Affective Disorders. Duncan. A.J. Jr. body image. McCorkle. & Tannock.E. Receptive nonverbal processing ability and locus of control orientation in children and adolescents with conduct disorders.. J. Society and the Adolescent Self-Image. Tracy. Psychiatric. 91. (1999). 15 . S. (2001).M.. Princeton. Journal of Youth and Adolescence. 14-20. J. 654-663. 30(2). J. Cantwell. Adolescent self-esteem and gender: Exploring relations to sexual harassment. and depression in children with behavior problems. Psychiatric Quarterly. D. Rivard. D. Rosenberg. Powell.. Picentini. Farmen. Myers. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment. HortTechnology.. S. (2006). Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.. 102-108. Rucklidge.. Schmitt. (1998). 24(2). Buenning. (1982).J. (1996). Kliewer. & Lee.. 33. Journal of the American Academy of child and Adolescent Psychiatry. C..Polce-Lynch. 3-24. M. psychosocial.. media influence. Newgent. 579-583. S. 247-253. 5(1).. Rotheram-Borus. A.. R. S.M. Graae. R.... R. Robinson.. self-esteem.. 623-642.. C. Castro-Blanco.C. The Arts in Psychotherapy. M. (2001).. M. 35(5).. (1965). British Journal of Social Work. Abramovitz. 74(2).: Princeton University Press. Learning Disability Quarterly.M. Pasquale.B.L. 137-154.. L. Strand. D. The effect of an interdisciplinary garden program on the environmental attitudes of elementary school students. J. N.. Skelly. & Zajicek.
44(6). achievement. S.M. W. & Goodrich. The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. Journal of Youth and Adolescence. West. (1996).(2003).....A. A.F. M. Yates. Personal self-esteem and prejudice among ethnic majority and minority youth.C. R.. B. 557-568. 27(5). (1999). 578-582. Hecht-Lewis.. Cognitive Therapy and Research. and problems.Verkuyten.S. W.. Rose. 289-314. R. Relationship Between Attachment-Felt Security and History of Suicidal Behaviours in Clinical Adolescents.L. & Adam.T. S.M. M. C. 16 . Weems.. Journal of Research in Personality. relationships. 30. 248-263. Fritsch.K. parents. Silverman. Spreng. The role of control in childhood anxiety disorders.. K. (1994). R. Locus of control in severely disturbed adolescents: Loci for peers. Rapee. 23(3). & Pina.W.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.