IS

r

H

U. S.

DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE.
iV'l
FARMERS' BULLETIN

No.

188.

WEEDS USED
BV

IN

MEDICINE

ALICE HENKEI/,
Assistant in

Drug and Medicinal Plant

Investigations, Botanical Investigations

and Experiments, Bureau of Plant Industry,

WASHINGTON:

GOVERN ME

PRINTING OFFICE

CONTEXTS.
Page.

Introduction Collection and curing of drugs

Roots Barks Leaves and herbs. Flowers Seeds Disposal of the drugs
Descriptions of plants,

5 5 6
7

7

8 8
-

8

8
9

Burdock
Dandelion

11
..

Docks Yellow dock
Broad-leaved dock Yellow-root I water dock

13 13 14
16 16 17 18

Dock roots Couch grass Pokeweed
Foxglove Mullein
Lobelia
.

20 22 21
25

Tansy
plant Scaly grindelia

Gum

26
27
-

Boneset Catnip

28 29 30
32

Hoarhound
Blessed thistle
.

Yarrow Canada fleabane Jim son weed
Purple thorn-apple Poison hemlock

33

34 35 37
37 39

American wormseed Black mustard White mustard
3
18*

40 42

*

ILLUSTRATIONS.
Page.

Fig.

1.

2. 3.

4. 5.

6.
7. 8. 9.

Burdock, flowering plant Burdock, first year's growth Dandelion Dandelion root Yellow dock, first year's growth Broad-leaved dock, first year's growth Leaf, fruiting spike, and root of broad -lea ved dock Yellow dock root

9
10

11
12
-

13
14

15

16
17

10.

Couch grass Pokeweed
Pokeweed, flowering and fruiting branch Pokeroot Foxglove
Mullein
--

19

11.

20
20

12.
13.
14.

21
23

15. Lobelia'

24
-

16.
17.

Tansy

26

Gum

plant

26
27

18. Scaly grindelia

19.
20.

21.
22.

Boneset Catnip Iloarhound

28 30 31
32
,

Hoarhound, flowering top
Blessed thistle

23. 24. 25.

26. 27. 28.
29. 30.
31.

Yarrow Canada fleabane Jimson weed Leaves, flower, and capsules Poison hemlock American wormseed
Black mustard White mustard
4

33 34 35 36 37

of

jimson weed

38
39
.'

41

42

I6S

B. P. I.—89.

B.

I.

EL—55

WEEDS USED

IN MEDICINE.

INTRODUCTION.
a matter of interest, primarily to the farmer, that certain of the well-known weeds now either generally or locally infesting the country are the sources of crude drugs at the present time obtained wholly or in part by importation from abroach Roots, leaves, and
It
is

most detrimental in the United States are gathered, prepared, and cured in Europe, and not only form useful commodities there but supply to a considerable extent the demands of foreign lands. Hence it appears probable that while weeds can hardly be made desirable, still in his fight to exterminate them the farmer may be able to turn some of them to account. Some of the plants coming within this class are in many States at present subject to antiweed laws and farmers are required to take measures toward
flowers of several of the species
their extermination.
It seems, therefore,

desirable to

In many cases, have been dug, the work of handling and curing them is not excessive and can readily be done by women and children. The prices paid for crude drugs from these sources are not great and would rarely tempt anyone to pursue this line of work as a busiYet, if in ridding the farm of weeds and thus raising the value ness. of the land the farmer can at the same time make these pests the source of a small income instead of a dead loss, something is gained. In order to help the farmer to obtain the best possible prices for such products, instructions for collecting and preparing crude drugs derived from weeds are here briefly given. The collector should observe
pests sources of profit

where

possible.

make these when weeds

them

carefully.

COLLECTION AND CURING OF DRUGS.
Too much emphasis can not be placed upon
the importance of carefully and thoroughly drying all crude drugs, whether roots, herbs, leaves, barks, flowers, or seeds. _ If insufficiently dried, they will heat

and become moldy in shipping, and the collector will find his goods reiected bv the druer dealer and have all his trouble for nothing.
168

5

It The presence of soil increases the weight of the root-. it might of course do untold injury. It would therefore be best. and if represented to be something else. This can be readily brought about by giving careful attention to proper drying in the shade (not in direct sunlight). but there will also be. as drugs collected out of season not only are not acceptable to the dealer on account of inferior medicinal qualities. nrW. useless. If the roots can not be dried. including leaves. Roots should never be collected during the growing season. There are many plants that closely resemble one another. is A bright natural color extremely desirable in leaves.Another important matter to be considered in collecting drugs for market is freedom from foreign substances. stones. and by protection from dew or rain by placing the drugs under cover at nightfall or whenever necessary. herbs. roots and parts of other plants. they should be thoroughly does not pay to be careless in this matter. It is important also to collect drugs in proper season only. bright-looking root that will briner a p*ood i>8 by shaking. as at that time they are deficient in medicinal properties. and grades the uneleaned drug accordingly. flowers. roots of annual plants should be dug just before the flowering period. dirt. a plant may contain very poisonous principles. a greater amount of shrinkage in a root dug during the growing season than w ill take place when it is collected after growth has ceased. and all foreign particles. but the intending purchaser is not willing to pay for the weight of the dirt. . to a drug dealer or to the nearest State experiment station for identification. herbs. All drugs should be clean and wholesome looking and contain no admixture of fragments of other plants. Roots may be cleaned by washing. should be removed. or other impurities. ROOTS. to send a specimen of the entire plant. but leaves. and flowers. It is the clean. the 1 sufficiently cleared of soil washed in clean water. The collector should be sure that the plant he is collecting is the right one. After the roots have been dug the adherent soil should be well shaken from them. and fruits. yet one may possess medicinal properties and the other be absolutely T Again. in the case of roots. Neglect in this respect will bring nothing but disappointment to the gatherer. and adds much to the salability of the product. such as stones. and flowers should never be washed. and those of biennial or perennial plants after the tops have The former in the autumn of the first year and the latter in the fall of the second or third year. dirt. where any doubt exists. and they also shrink more in drying and weigh less than when gathered at full maturity.

This can best be accomplished by exposing theni to light and air (not direct sunlight) on racks or shelves. bits of other plants. plants considered in this bulletin do not furnish medicinal barks. but inasmuch as there are certain sections of the country where trees 1 The furnishing such barks are rather abundant. It is very desirable that they retain their bright green color after curing. In the collection of leaves the whole plant may be cut and the leaves may much as possible. Barks may also be cured by exposure to sunlight must LEAVES AND HERBS. When this point is reached. or on clean.7 After washing. should be placed under. and wild cherry) the outer layer is shaved off before the bark is removed from the tree. such as slicing and the removal of fibrous rootlets. Leaves and herbs should be collected when the plants are in full flower. All grasses. and this can be done by careful drying in the shade.or lofts. well-ventilated barn floor. During the curing process the roots. shelter at night and upon the approach of rainy weather. Barks of trees should be gathered in spring. In the case of the coarser barks (as elm. in the shade but where there is free circulaMoisture tion of air. diseased. when the sap begins to flow. In general. if dried out of doors. the roots should be carefully dried. directions for their collection may not be out of place here. In the be stripped from it. in perhaps three to six weeks. ing roots apply here also. rejecting the stems case of herbs the coarse and large stems should be rejected and only the flowering tops and more tender stems and leaves included. The same precautions that are necessarj in curwill darken them. so far as placing them under cover to avoid T dew or 183 rain is concerned* . poplar. shriveled. pine. oak. it may be said that large roots should always be split or sliced when green in order to facilitate drying. and turned frequently until thoroughly dry. but may also be peeled in winter. They should be spread out thinly and turned occasionally from day to day until completely cured. and discolored M specimens." Only the inner bark of these trees is used medicinally. racks or shelves. which process is known as "rossing. Both leaves and herbs should be spread out in thin layers on clean floors. With some roots additional preparation is required. Wherever this is necessary mention will be made of it under the descriptions of the different plants. the roots will snap readily when bent. as well as dead. hemlock. and other foreign substances should be carefully removed.

or for information as to yrhere to send the article. The plants included in this bulletin are burdock. Samples representative of the lot of drugs to be sold should be sent to the nearest commission merchant. flowers. couch grass. say. at least a good handful should be submitted. yarrow. in other words. ready for shipment. When DESCRIPTIONS OF PLANTS. To preserve the bright natural color as nearly as possible they should be carefully dried in the shade. crude drugs may be tightly packed in burlap or gunny sacks. and poison hemlock (of which either the leaves. and also wormseed. The package containing the sample should be plainly marked as regards In writing contents. herb. the extent to which they are imported and the prices usually paid by dealers. together with the common names by which they are known in different localities. and it is best. the habitat (or. jimson weed. fleabane. boneset.8 FLOWERS. and black and white mustards. SEEDS. and poke weed (principally root drugs). of which the seeds only are used. tansy. to address such dealers as are nearest to the place of production. and should be winnowed in order to remove fragments of mi DISPOSAL OF THE DRUGS. and postage should always be inclosed for In no case should the entire lot of collected drugs be sent to reply. before the seed pods open. general store. clean barrels. for inspection and for quotation on the amount of drug that can be fur- The size of the sample depends. it should be stated how large a quantity of a particular drug can be furnished and how soon this can be supplied. catnip. mullein. or drug store. dandelion. information as to the parts to be collected. blessed thistle. their uses. foxglove. upon the kind of drug. The collector should dealers without preliminary correspondence. the docks. or In dry. — to the different dealers for information and prices. gum plant. bear in mind that freight is an important item. the kinds of places or soils in which they are likely to be found). Descriptions of these plants follow. from 3 to 4 ounces — or. or seeds are used in medicine). Flowers are collected when they first open or immediately after not when they are beginning to fade. therefore. hoarhound. and the name and address of the sender given. their geographical range. Seeds should be gathered just as "they are ripening. scaly grindelia. in the same manner as directed for leaves and herbs. lobelia. 183 . of course. nished.

—Burdock (Arctium lappa L. with very large leaves. tapering root having a diameter of from one-half to 1 inch. 2) and a long. It was intro. cuckold dock.) plant duced from the Old World. When full grown it measures from 3 to T feet high. is —This a coarse. 1. hardock. which the Department of without the advice of a physician.9 The principal uses for which these plants are are briefly employed in medicine indicated. deeply furrowed leafstalks. but usually heart- shaped. the lower leaves often measuring 18 inches in length. with even. wavy. — Bur- one of the most common weeds. names. which to cover only is intended such medicinal plants as may be classed as weeds. thin. will vary from year to year. even in the Description. fleshy stem is branched. and 9 82195°— Bull. on long. The leaves are alternate. and (Fig. Habitat and range. or toothed margins. which produces during the first year of its growth only a rosette of large. thin leaves (fig. 1. pastures. roundish or oval. and waste places. The round.) bardane. stick button. There are of course a large used in medicine that are not included in this bulletin. smooth above. 188—17 . With the exception of the figures for dandelion were obtained from the Bureau of Statistics of Commerce and Labor. grooved. of plants number BURDOCK Arctium lappa L. and is common and often ver}~ abundant in the Eastern and Central States and in some scattered localities in the West. hurr-bur. unsightly biennial weed of the aster family (Asteracese). and the prices per pound. while serving estimates furnished to give an idea u to what may be expected for the drugs.Fig. beggars' buttons. solid. and hairy. Other common Cockle button. bat none of the drugs mentioned should be taken and mustard. in fields. depending principally upon supply and de- mand. growing along dock is roadsides. early stages of the growth of the plant. the imports are based on by dealers.

and the leaves externally as a cooling poultice for being employed only in the fresh state. flattened. and the frost. The seeds are oblong. The root alone is recognized in the United States Pharmacopoeia. attaching* themselves to clothing' and to the wool and hair of animals. about 12 inches long. in the These flower heads are armed with hooked tips. the spongy in the center. silky tuft. the inside light in color and and ulcers. Sometimes the bases of the leafstalks remain at the top of the root in the form of a small. These should be collected when ripe or nearly so. and to become scaly. The odor of the root is weak and unpleasant. Drying causes the root to lose about four-fifths of its weight. 33 . and the burs thus formed are a great pest. — "--- v Fig. fleshy. roots split lengthwise. The seed of burdock is produced in great abundance. 2. and carefully dried.10 pale and wooll3 oa the under surface* r The flowers are purple. Burdock roots and seeds are used latter in blood and skin ellings diseases. First year/s gruwth.000 seeds.— Burdock. and have no odor. Parts used. Burdock has a large taproot. leaves also are employed. curved. dark brown and sometimes spotted with black. the outside blackish-brown or grayish-brown. but there is a limited demand for burdock seed. and angular. : The must be washed. and wrinkled lengthwise. white. It is to be collected in the fall of the first year. one plant bearing as many as 400.

3. distributed as a me weed o'clock. (An unusually fibrous mot. About 50.— Dandelion ( Taraxacum taraxacum (L.000 pounds of lappa or burdock root arc imported annually.) Karst). fortune-teller. — Blow-ball. and the best root is said to come from Belgium. ) Karst.11 Imports and prices. and that of the seed from 5 to 10 cents. horse go wan. 3. Range and 188 habitat. The price of the root ranges from 3 to 8 cents per pound. (Taraxacum officinale Weber.) common names.) !&M Fig. is cai kerwort head-clock. Taraxacum taraxacum (L.) Other (Fig. Irish daisy. — Dandelion in all civd- . DANDELION. — where great care is exercised in its collection.

practically bitter. sometimes 20 inches long. It is a perennial plant of the chicory family (Cichoriaceae). In spring the young leaves are collected and used for greens or salad. the root of dandelion is used medicinally. which opens in the morning and only in fair weather. It should be carefully washed and thoroughly dried. white inside. almost its everyone being familiar with rosette of coarsely toothed leaves. and it is especially troublesome in lawns and meadows. and it may be said to be in flower throughout almost the entire year. Fig. shining green. The best time for digging dandelion from July to September. especially in lawns. and round fluffy seed heads. It is erect. smooth. in this lized parts of the world. (Fig. and hollow. and Description. The flowering: stem of the dandelion is usually longer than the smooth. Dandelion roots decrease considerably in size by drying. as drvinfir diminishes its medicinal virtues. 4. bearing at the summit a solitary yellow flower head. golden-yel- low flowers. — It is a large taproot. coarsely toothed leaves. but the part employed in medicine is the root.With the exception of the South. during which time the milky juice becomes thicker and the bitterness increases. milky juice. . and Dandelion is often used as a tonic in diseases of the liver and root in dyspepsia. As already stated. Part used. naked.12 country is naturalized from Europe.) without odor. 4.— Dandelion root. 10 inches long. weighing less than half as much as the fresh roots and becoming Is wrinkled lengthwise. reaching a height of from 5 to 10 inches. thick and fleshy. The entire plant contains a white. dull-yellow or brownish on the outside. 138 The dried root should not be kept too long. —The dandelion is so well known it a weed. it is very abundant throughout the United States in fields and waste places. that scarcely requires a description.

Several species of docks possess medicinal properties. hrltannioa abundant throughout the United States. but those above mentioned are the kinds generally Yellow Dock. Other r species are also recognized as possessing value in medicine. branching near the top. leafy. During* the fiscal year ended June 30.).). 1903. Rumex species. habitat. a perennial introduced from Europe and Fig. — angular. narrow dock. Rumex Other common names. Among these are the yellow dock {Rumex crkjnis L. First year's growth. the United States as a troublesome and very in cultivated as well as waste ground. 5. the broad-leaved dock {JR. and along roadsides. among rubbish erect. — DOCKS. and furrowed stem about 2 to 4 feet high. collected. Range and medicine is — Curled dock.) in the yellow dock. sour dock. less L. — The species most commonly employed 5. now found throughout persistent weed heaps.). spindle-shaped root sends up an Description. all more or and the 3 ellow-rooted water dock (7?. The price per pound ranges from i to 6 cents. (Mimfolius L. the imports of taraxacum or dandelion root into the United States amounted to 115. crixpus L.— Yellow dock (Rumex crtoput h.).522 pounds. (Fig.13 Imports and prices. and bearing numerous elongated clusters of inconspicuous 1S8 . The deep.

The 6 to 8 inches in length. common dock.) L. —Broad -leavert rinpir i T?u**+r nhtu atf**** llrat year's and ran sre States to from the New England waste Oregon and south to Florida and Description. / Mk ** -*. . Rumex obtnx'ifoUwi Other common names. interspersed with leaves. and are in rather groups In all of . and are from 6 to 14 inches in length. l^. . drooping groups of inconspicuous flowers placed in circles around the stem. From June to August the yellow dock puts forth. with the margins strongly crisped. dock Growth It grows to about the same height. Broad-leaved Dock. The lower leaves are obtuse or heart shaped at inches long. The green 188 flowers appear from June to Alienist.. on short stems or stemless. L »tt ** > - />*j ±* *-* ' ^ *_ *^* r . its many long dense clusters of green. (Fig. acute. t _*k. 6. butter dock. and are borne on long stalks. i- ----- ^s* S^ 1 a . which are wavy along the margin as in the yellow dock. 6. from leaves are lance shaped. while those nearer the top are narrower and shorter. while the upper ones are from 2 to 6 inches long and are on short stalks.1 •• . a. •-'*»>. with heart-shaped or roundish bases. The lower loaves have long stalks. . * ks t »o »- v . but its stem is stouter. being only 3 to 6 waved and the base.fw growth I _ t4 --S8T . _-. /-. 1fc 14 flowers.?*** ** \. and the leaves. s3l Fig. are much broader and longer. — Bitter dock. . blunt-leaved dock.

these gram 188 . 7. like the Ftg. and root of broad-leaved dock. fruiting: spike.5 1 the docks here mentioned. —Leaf. the three inner divisions of the calyx (outer covering of flower) in fruiting form a kind of triangular nut.

internally yellowish. —The yel- low-rooted water dock is a taller plant than either of the docks previously mentioned. The densely flowered clusters are not as leafy as in the preceding species mentioned. fleshy. The erv root. The roots should be collected in late summer or autumn after the fruiting tops have ripened. Illinois. astringent taste. 7. two the leaves toward the top of the plant are shorter. and Iowa. The plant flowers Fig. As the common name indicates. split lengthwise into halves or quarters. It is found from — Canada to New Jersey and Pennsylvania. - Rumex britannica L. and are from 1 to 2 feet in length. then washed. its stout stem some- times reaching" a height of 6 feet.* 16 * The difference between flower and fruit little is barely distinguishable is when seen from a distance so long as the fruit (Fig. Description. as with the other species. the spikes take on a Yellow-rooted Water Dock. stalks supporting 8. and westward to Minnesota.—Yellow dock root.) green. as are also the them. Habitat and range. the out- side dark reddish-brown with a rather thick bark. Dock Roots. x - - x from ~o // — *7 8 to 12 inches long. this plant frequents swampy and wet places and banks of streams. 188 . as the fruit ripens. often somewhat branched. It possesses but a very faint odor and a bitter. from July to August. but. but later in ru immature. The leaves at the base of the plant are borne ob long stalks. and carefully dried. both being the season. which is the part to be collected for medicinal purposes.

It is gaining ground on farms on the —This rather coarse grass produces several stems. bearing from five to seven leaves. jointed rootstock. grass. —Dog-grass. cleft are terminal. The stems are round. ( Triticum repens L. witch-grass. Chand- creeping wheat-grass. deviPs-grass. creeping. p. ) Beau v. solitary. 9. r — Couch man} other pernicious weeds. on . Imports and prices. These have a long The heads or spikes sheath. durfa-grass. causing the farmer a loss of thousands of dollars annually by taking possession of fields and crowding out valuable crops. (Fig. —Couch grass (Agropyron repens smooth. quack-grass. Agropyron rep ens (L. Couch grass is one of 82195°— Bull. and are rough on the upper surface. quake-grass.) Range and habitat.000 pounds annually. ai-d bears densely flowered spike-like heads resembling those of rye or beardless wheat. It is most abundant from Maine to Maryland. thickened at the joints. grass scutch-grass. was introduced into this country from Europe.) Other common names. The price to 8 cents per pound. like so cultivated ground. ler\s grass. quitchDurFin's twitch-grass. but is rather sparingly distributed in the South. compressed. with two rows of spikelets on a wavy and flattened axis. and hollow. quick-grass. Description. wheat-grass.17 The docks are largely employed remedy in skin diseases. Pacific slope. from a long. and is now a most troublesome pest in grass. Dutch-grass. 188—17 3 diffi to eradicate. fee-grass. — Rurnex COUCH GBASS. for purifying the blood and as a county ranges from 2 or dock roots are imported into this to the extent of about 125. and westward to Minnesota and Missouri. 1 to 3 feet high.

After the rootstocks have been collected and washed the rootlets should be removed and the rhizome or rootstock (not the rootlets) cut into short pieces about two-fifths of an inch long. It is pale yellow. however. — Poke.— Couch grass is almost wholly an imported art£» cle. It is erect.) pocan shade. These pieces are odorless but have a somewhat sweetish taste. American (Fig. berry. Part used. They need not be burned. 10. It is native in this country and naturalized in Europe. but may be saved and prepared for the drug market. POKE WEED. The price is about 3 to 7 cents per pound. -mm fence rows.) Other common names. with joints at intervals of about an inch from which slender branching rootlets are produced. Phytolacca americana L. An ordinary feed-cutting machine may be used for this purpose.—The reddish purple stems. not only agriculturally but also pharmaceutical!.000 pounds coming into this country annually from Europe. margins of fields. Pokeweed attains a height of from 3 to 9 from a very large perennial root. the stout 188 feet stems piece . some 250. rich green foliage. Imports and prices. cancer jalap. creeping along underneath the ground and pushing in every direction.18 account of the long jointed rootstock. branched. about one-eighth of an inch in diameter. Range and habitat. red weed. {Phytolacca decandra L. where it is regarded as an ornamental garden plant. tough rhizome or rootstock. bladder troubles. The most important part of this grass. Description. each joint of which is capable of producing a new plant. and in uncultivated land from the New England States to Minnesota and south to Florida and Texas. extract about shining-. smooth. pigeon-berrv.^ is its long. These should then be dried as suggested In — instructions as triticum. and clusters of white flowers and dark-purple berries give to this plant a rather handsome appearance. Every bit of the rootstock must therefore be removed from the soil or killed in order to eradicate it. form and hollow. One of the best methods of destroying this weed is to plow up the roots and burn them.

The margins are without indentation. which usually occurs about two months after flowering.) numerous and borne on reddish stems. flattened both at top and bottom.) Parts used. smooth. the flowers (Fig. acute at the apex.19 the stem. on short stems. About July to September the long clusters of whitish flowers are produced. which upon ripening become a rich darkpurple color. on long stalks. and contain ten black seeds imbedded in a rich crimson juice. followed by the green berries. the pith will be seen to be divided into disk-shaped pieces. 11. 188 . with hollow spaces between them. The leaves are ovate or ovateoblong. The flower clusters are from 3 to 4 inches in length and Fig. — Pokeweed (Phytolacca americana L. smooth and shining. —For medicinal purposes the berries and roots are employed. 10. Botli of these should be collected when the berries are fully mature. about 5 inches long and 2 to 3 inches wide. The berries are globular.

flopdook. Both the berries and roots arc alterative. breaks with a fibrous fracture. When dry slight odor and the taste is sweetish and acrid. They Fig. lady's lady's thimble. 11. flowering and fruiting branch Poke weed has a very large.) It should be gathered in the latter part of the fall. and in certain cases in relieving pain and allaying inflammation. fairy fingers. — Purple foxglove. and preparations made from them are used in treating various diseases of the skin and blood. dog's finger. wrinkled appearance. 12. are poisonous. 12. and the dry berries about 5 cents per pound.20 The clusters of berries should be carefully dried in the shade. conical in shape and branched. ladyfingers. have no odor. it . . Digitalis purpurea L. thimbles. fairy bells. Other glove. fleshy.— Poteroot — Phytolacca FOXGLOVE. popdock. Fig. fairy thimbles. (Fig. then acrid. finger flower. 168 common names. and the There is a slices show many concentric ri dried. flapdock. cut into transverse slices. fairy cap. thoroughly cleaned. or pokeroot brings from 2 to 5 cents per pound. and poisonous root. act upon the bowels and cause vomiting. and carefully has a grayish. a sweetish taste at first. Frice.— Pokeweed.

' F Fig. (Fig. 13. char acter of a weed. Foxglove "was originally introduced into this country from Europe as an ornamental garden plant. Scotch mercury.21 lion's mouth. rabbit's flower.). where the plant 188 found in great abundance iu . . Wa is and West Virginia. throatwort. cottagers.— Foxglove (Digitalis purpurea L. but has now — **»:: .) Range and habitat. 13.

velvet or mullein dock.winded stalks. on the borders of timber is land. bullock's . velvet plant (Fig and habitat. The flowers are large. hare's beard. The plant is in flower about June. and about inches in length. and the first year forms only a rosette of den^ leaves. but as the leaves approach the top of the plant they become smaller and the leafstalks shorter.000 pounds of digitalis or foxglove are annually imported into this country from Europe. attaining a height of from 3 to i feet.22 dry. torchwort. blanket leaf. nam a. along roads and fence rows. cow's or clown's lungwort. candlewick. soft hairs and a thick network of prominent veins. This is round. and in small cleared places. where the plant is cultivated. white hairs and crimson spots on a white ground. leafy and downy. The root leaves are rather large and are borne on long stalks. biennial. Jacob's staff. sandy soil. shepherd's club. while the Description. indistinctly angled toward the top. The leaves are oblong-ovate. lady's foxglove. ice leaf. hedge taper. Preparations made from foxglove are of great value in heart troubles. Adam's tiannel. Jupiter's staff. The American-grown product has so far never been good P MULLEIN. is The greatest care Imports and prices. old-man's flannel. the color ranging from white through lavender to purple. The clusters are terminal. but in the second year of its growth the simple erect flowering stalk is produced. Aaron's lungwort. a very handsome plant of the figwort family (Scrophulariaeeae). about 2 inches long. flannel leaf.— From 40. Peter's staff. and these should be collected when about two-thirds of the flowers have U expanded. and the long clusters of numerous tubular bell-shaped flowers are very showy. the upper surface of the leaves is dull-green and wrinkled. necessary in curing. narrowed at the base into long. Verbascum thapsvs L. 2 Europe iffi rod. as the leaves soon lose their medicinal properties if not properly dried. soft.— This under side is grayish. They should be very carefully dried in the shade and then kept in close boxes or barrels so as to keep out all moisture. feltwort. with short.— Leaves of the second year's growth only are employed. Part used. torches.— Great mullein. the inside of the lower lobe bearing long.000 to 60. but they are poisonous and should never be used except on the advice of a physician.

and densely hairy above and below. Parts used. —Mullein can be recognized by its tall. The golden-yellow flowers are produced from June to August. but during the second year the flower stalk with its densely flowered spike appears. Description. and it is It produces great quantities also spreading in the far Western States. acute. sessile (stemless). 14. and have a somewhat bitter. if allowed to persist. practically inodorous. the whitewoolly or f elty appearance of the entire plant. which sometimes grows as The stem and also tall as 7 feet. The rather thick.23 country as a troublesome weed in fields and pastures. — As the leaves and flowers are to be collected at the time when the plant is in bloom. and then kept free from stoppered bottles 188 eadilj . waste places. nial r It is a bien- belonging to the fig wort family (Scrophulariacea*). the leaves are densely hairy. mucilaginous taste. The leaves are cured Verba Fig. They are in the usual manner. and along roadsides from Maine to Minnesota and southward. straight stem. the latter mate. the ground with of seed. In the first year of its growth only a rosette of downy leaves is produced. will sooi seeds which may retain their vitality and germinate at intervals for a number of years. they must therefore be thoroughly dried. It is very desirable to have the flowers retain their bright yellow color. and its spike of goldeasily en-yellow flowers. oblong. rough leaves are from ± to 12 inches in length. erect habit of growth. their margins extending in wings along down the stem. the propagation of the plant by the dissemination of its seed is prevented. and. This plant has a stout.

in which country this plant is cultivated. smooth above. used in coughs and catarrh. eyebright. 15. The leaves are also imported to a small extent. short branches. clayey. The corolla (petals). low belia. Mullein if flowers have a sweetish. Lobelia inflata L.000 flow- Imports and ers prices. and in old fields and pastures. annually The price paid for the leaves ranges 5 cents per pound. Other common names. from 2£ to LOBELIA. from 188 2£ inches long.I 24 allowed to become damp will turn black.) wort. to quiet nervous irritation. wild tobacco. vomit(Fig. According to some authors the dried leaves are often smoked like tobacco Mullein is to relieve nasal catarrh affections. con- milky 1 to It belongs to the bellflower family (Campanulacece).— Lobelia {Lobelia inflata L. being most plentiful east of the Mississippi River. Description. and throat 5. The entire plant juice. and bears a few 1 to 3 feet high. and that for the flowers may range from 25 to 75 cents per pound. S from a fibrous root.). It is simple and rough-hairy below. pleasant odor. with the adhering stamens only. —About pounds of verbascum or mullein are imported. Indian tobacco. bladder pod.— This poisonous weed occurs nearly everywhere throughout the United States. Range and habitat. Fig. or siliceous soil in sunny situations along roadsides. chiefly from Germany. from fc^ .< . grad- . and to relieve pain and inflammation. is dried. 15. puke weed. the calyx being rejected. asth- — ma weed. —The erect leafy stem is of I this annual herbaceous plant _ >»v '*-- >-~ r. The green leaves are alternate. gagroot. and thriving in dry.

and each capsule is said to contain from 450 to 500 seeds. It has now escaped from cultivation and is found as a weed along waysides and fences in many places from New England to Minnesota and southward to North Carolina and Missouri. and it is divided nearly to the midrib into about seven pairs of segments. They are thin. the lower leaves being. nearly globular. The price paid for the dried leaves and tops ranges from 3 Price. branching near the top. and usually smooth. 16. upper one two segments. while the tipper ones are stemless. striated (grooved or marked with parallel lines). From July until frost the rather inconspicuous. erect stem is from I£ to 3 feet high.25 Baity diminishing in size as they reach the summit of the plant. and there is also a good demand for the seed. — Bitter buttons. and from the center of the latter the tube of The seed pods are in the form of inthe flower is cleft to the base. to 8 cents per pound. The general outline of the leaf is oval. ginger plant. should be dried in the shade. parsley fern. The leaves and flowering tops are used in medicine. — — TANSY. — —This strong-scented perennial herb belongs to the aster family (Asteraceje). The seeds are extremely minute. and almost wavy. somewhat reddish. Other common names. and when dry kept in covered vessels. blunt. The dried leaves and tops have a rather disagreeable. Tansy was originally introduced into this country as a garden plant from Europe. The stout. and that for the seed from 15 to 20 cents per pound. flated capsules. with short hairs on both surfaces. like the terminal one. The leaves and tops should be gathered after some of the pods have become inflated. and the taste. which. soon becomes strongly acrid and nauseous. Lobelia is an expectorant. scented fern. all together forming a The lower lip of the flower has three lobes. Parts used.) Range and habitat. and is poisonous. acts upon the nervous system and bowels. . (Fig. Description. the long. causes vomiting. each one borne in the axils of the upper leaves on very short stems. very small paleblue flowers appear. though mild at first. irregularly toothed. oblong or oval. where it is native. vein is about 6 inches in length.borne on stalks. These are very numerous. spike-like head. Tansy 183 is in flower from July to September. and the roundish but flat-topped yellow flower heads are produced in dense terminal clusters. somewhat sickening odor. are again divided for about two-thirds of the distance to the midThe entire leaf into smaller lobes having saw-toothed margins. and contain very numerous minute dark-brown seeds. Tanacetum vulgare L.

—Tansy Tanacetum vulgare ( L.— At the time of flowering the leaves and tops are collected Parts medicinal purposes and are dried in the usual manner. is derived. Imports and prices.* 26 used. pound ranges from 3 to 6 cents. It is also used for expelling worms. Range. The odor for tansy is strongly aromatic and the taste bitter. 16. Fio. GUM PLANT. —About 30. derangements of women. This drug is poisonous and has been known to produce fatal results. varnished appearance. which gives it a gummy. . and has stimulant Tansy is and tonic properties. 188 gum plant. tansy of loses about four-fifths of its weight. Grindelia robusta Nutt. gum Mountains Description.000 pounds of tanacetum or tansy are The price paid per imported annually.). whence its common name. employed in Fig. In drying.—The entire plant is covered with a resinous substance.).—Gum plant (Grindelta robust a Nutt. 17.

They are used in asthma and 5 to similar affections. are borne singly at the ends of the branches and The yellow flowers measure about three-cmarters of an inch across. and westward to California. ummy appearance the base. Grindelia squamosa (Pursh) Dunal. rather rigid. small leaves immediate^ beneath the flower) is very resinous and consists of numerous thick.IA. erect branche top previously the leaves are not borne on stalks. Parts used and The involucre (set of prices. and sends up a round. what clasping at 1S8 . the lower ones somewhat saw-toothed. The leaves are oblong-spatulate (having a gradually narrowed base rounded summit) and are more or less clasping at below the broader the base. of a leathery texture. Description. each the The branches terminating flower heads have a slightly reddish appearance. over lapping scales. and bring from 12 cents per pound. ivy and externally in cases of poisoning by poison SCALY GRINBEX. The pale-green leaves are about an inch long. narrowly grooved and freely branching near the top.27 This perennial of the aster family of plants has an erect habit of growth. also. The of the former stems are from 1 to 2 feet high and somewhat sparingly slender. the tips of which are rolled forward.—The flowering tops and leaves of this and of the scaly grindelia are collected indiscriminately. but are someIn this species. and show numerous translucent dots. very similar to the gum with the exception that plant. Scaly grindelia (fig. 18) has a wider distribution than the gum plant. south to Texas and Mexico. coated with resin. it is —Scaly grindelia ( Grindelia squamosa (Pursh) Dunal). Range. smooth stem about a foot and a half high. and they are longer (about 2 inches long). —This species is . being quite com- — mon on the plains and prairies from the Saskatchewan to Minnesota.

The flowers are also very similar to those of the gum plant. thorough-stem or thorough-wax. Parts used. the scales narrower. —Boneset (Eupatorium perfoliatum L. Eupatorhnn perfoliatum L. ague-weed. —Thoroughwort. and more prominently toothed. The leaves and flowering tops are collected with those of the gum plant. but are smaller. 19. and the recurved tips longer and more slender.28 not rigid. 1S8 names. Grlndelia rdbusta* — BOXESET. thinner. feverwort. vege- . crosswort.)- Other common teasel. \ Fig. wood boneset.

) common names. and the heads are borne in rather crowded flat-topped clusters. Parts used. Boneset delights in moist situations. cat's wort. this is a popular remedy in fever and ague. field mint. and —This — hairs. " ague-weed" and . One of the features which will aid in recognizing this plant is the peculiar arrangement of the leaves. wrinkled. wild (Fig. are branched. These are opposite each other and joined together at the base around the stem. Isaac. The odor is faintly aromatic. rough with prominent veins. and these should be collected when the plants are in flower. —Catmint. stripped from the stalk. dark green on the upper surface. the — taste bitter and astringent. feverwort. Description. Eupatorium or boneset leaves and tops bring from 2 to 8 Prices. mint family (Menthacese) grow to a height of 2 to 3 feet. very common weed is naturalized from is found in rather dry soil in waste places and cultivated land. and along streams. They lose about threefourths of their weight in drying. wild sage. tapering to a point. 19. dyspepsia. in low. downy and paler green on the lower surface. sweating plant. CATNIP. and somewhat whitish in appearance from the covering of fine white Range and Europe. united at the base. and carefully dried. on the edges of swamps and in thickets from the New England States west to Nebraska and south to Texas and Florida. rough. from Canada to Minnesota and southward to Virginia and Arkansas. — cents per pound. Other 20. Boneset is a perennial herb of the aster family of plants (Asteracece). (Fig. bluntly toothed. wet ground. Nepeta cataria L. from a horizontal. about old buildings and along fences. shaped. Indian sage. jaundice. and therefore have the appearance of a single leaf with the stem passing through — — the center of it. The leaves and flowering tops are the parts used in medicine. and is common as a weed in clayey or sandy soil. ten to twenty or more united in dense heads. appearing from July to September. hairy stems 1 to 5 feet high. The flowers are white. tearal.20 table antimony. lance crooked root." As indicated by the common names It is used also in colds. 183 . catrup. square stems of this perennial herb of the Description. In large doses it is an emetic and cathartic. tubular. The leaves are opposite. Both leaves together measure from 8 to 14 inches from point to point and 1 to lj inches wide. with stout. The erect. habitat. and for toning up the system.) Range and habitat..

) Houndsbene. Cataria or catnip is imported in but small quantities. from Maine to South Carolina. should be rejected. and has a quieting effect on the nervous system. (Fig. evenly and finely scalloped. It is very abundant in pasin tures in California 3 iSS dia . Parts used. and has escaped from gardens in this country. The manyflowered clusters appear from June to September. Catnip is used in derangements of women. the middle lobe broadest and round-toothed. The price paid for the — flowering tops and leaves is from . with an acute apex. and near dwellings. beneath grayish-green with fine white hairs. being found now rather abundantly dry sandy or stony soil in waste places. The green above. marvel. fields. and are borne in thick spikes 1 to 5 inches long at the top of the stems and branches.30 leaves are opposite and borne on stems. 1 to 2£ inches long. They have a strong The coarser stems mint-like odor and a bitter taste. and westward to California and Oregon. mt . Marrubium vulgare L. and branches . along •oadsides. the upper lip the lower one three-lobed and sometimes two-cleft. Hoarhound has been naturalized from Europe. as a mild stimulant and tonic. Other rube.—Catnip (Fepeta Range and habitat. two-lipped. common names. EOARHOUND. 21. Imports and prices. pastures. spotted with red. The flowers are white or somewhat purple. l to 8 cents per pound. —The flower- ing tops and leaves are to be collected when the plant is in flower and carefully dried. heart shaped or oblong. Texas.

(Fig. rounded below and It has — Fig. taking complete possession of the land and destroying pastures. rejecting the coarse stalks. Description.). In southern California this plant has proved a most troublesome weed. balsamic odor. four-angled above. and are borne in dense. souri. It is a perennial plant. Hoarhound is a bushy. the lower three-lobed.— Hoarhound (Marrubium vxdgare L. The leaves and tops are used in medicine. The entire plant has a whitish. the upper lip two-lobed. woolly clusters in the axils of the leaves. is a member of the mint family (Menthaceae). and prominently veined and very hoary on the lower surface. with rounded teeth. should be gathered just before the herb is in flower. resulting in the scattering of the seeds. and the characteristic to sheep like a bur. and should be dried in the shade in the usual manner. The whole plant has a rather pleasant. branching herb.) The Dlant flowers from June to September. The flowers are whitish. woolly appearance. spread rapidly over thousands of acres. The wrinkled narrowed or somewhat heart shaped at the base.i 31 and Michigan. and as will be seen from the characteristic lip-shaped flowers. occurring almost everywhere and growing in such dense masses as to crowd out all other vegetation. — 188 . caused by the dense covering of hairs. Ohio. somewhat hairy and wrinkled on the upper surface. These Parts used. two-lipped. 22. with fibrous roots sending up numerous woolly stems about 1 to 3 feet high. 21.

Blessed thistle is employed in fevers. flowering: top. and rather woolly.000 pounds coming into this country annually. Parts used. This weed has been introduced from Europe and occurs in ~^<r — if > stonv. Lady's thistle. thoroughly restore the appetite. and air should be excluded. oo about 1 to 2 feet high. are The leaves hairy. The round stems Fig. branched. about 125. thistle. BL. 23. more or less the lower ones borne on petioles (stemless) (leaf stems). Benedict's cursed thistle. thistle. dyspepsia.ESSED THISTLE.*- r and waste places in the Southern States and in California and Utah. They have a somewhat disagreeable odor and the taste is very bitter. uncultivated localities - - 4 V*-. •Hoarhound. which are prolonged into long.32 dry sis tent taste. the upper ones and clasping the stem. tops should be collected branching spines.) Range and habitat. about June. —The leaves and when the and quickly dried. (Fig. and kept in a vessel from which moisture. Imports and prices.— Blessed thistle an annual plant belonging to are erect. is »W Description. They are oblong-lanceolate and wavy-lobed. 188 . hard. perin dyspepsia and for expelling "worms. iCUS Other common names. the aster family (Asteraceae). and as a tonic to plant is in flower. light. —Holy Our spotted bitter thistle. thistle St. The terminal yellow flower heads are surrounded by scales of a leathery texture. considerable quantity of —A marrubium or hoarhound is imported. Three to 8 cents is the price paid per pound.

) habitat. Parts used. The odor of yarrow — The entire plant is collected when in flower.— Blessed thistle (Cnicm bcnedictUB L. in and are crowded flat-topped heads. and checks carefully dried. green arrow. The plant loses nearly four-fifths of its weight in drying. about 10 to 20 inches its in height. Other Milfoil. This plant is cultivated in Germany. The excessive discharges.m 33 Imports and prices. gordoloba. dense is Fig. white (sometimes rose-colored).). Yarrow is a stimulant tonic. from which country it is imported to a limited extent. sol- diers' woundwort. in old fields. 23. — YARROW. thousand leaf. acts upon the bladder. and the taste is sharp and bitter. The flowers are produced in abundance from June to September. very similar to that of chamomile. Range and — This parts herb is a common weed from the New England States to Missouri and in scattered localities in other of the country. pepper. and meadows. common names. Description. numerous dark -green feathery leaves divided into very fine crowded parts. 24. Those are small. When this plant is eaten by cows its bitter taste and strong odor are imparted to dairy products. bloodwort. old man's (Fig. nosebleed. —Yarrow is a perennial belonging to the aster It is family (Asteracese). occurring along roadsides. 188 . The price per pound ranges from 8 to 10 cents. and is coarser stems should be rejected. Achillea millefolium L. strong and aromatic. thousand-leaved clover. sanguinary. pastures. carpenter's grass.

— Yarrow (Achillea millefolium L. though not brought The price of achillea or into the United States in large quantities. cow's tail. This is an imported article. 188 .* 34 Imports and prices. prideweed. especially throughout the northern Mississippi Valley. (Fig. scabious. Leptilon can n dense (L.)« ^ CANADA FLEABANE. • Fig. blood-stanch. colt's tail. sandy soils in — fields and waste places and along roadsides in many parts of the United States. —Horseweed. fireweed.) 1 Other common names. 25. 24. (Erigeron canadensis L. This weed is common in damp. butter weed.) Range and habitat. — yarrow ranges from 2 to 5 cents per pound. ) Britton. bitter weed.

25. Jimson weed is exceedingly common in fields and waste places — throughout the entire country with the exception of the North and West. Its yellowish. followed by an abundance of seed. with unbroken margins. devil's apple. irregularly waved and toothed. or sometimes smooth. being sometimes only 3 inches high. It is native in the Tropics and widely scattered in nearly all Fig. Jamesapple. The price paid for erigeron or fleabane ranges from 6 to 8 cents per pound. stinkweed. is —This well-known rank and ill-scented poisonous weed an annual about 2 to 5 feet in height. — JTMSON WEED. thornOther stinkwort. The entire herb is medicinal. Price. thin. dewtry. pointed at the apex and usually narrowed at the base.) Britton). and much forked. leafy. deviPs trumpet. 20). those scattered along the stem being rather narrow. (Fig*. 3 to 8 inches long.35 an annual weed belonging to the aster family (Asteracese). apple of Peru. showy flowers are produced from May to September. — town lily. and should be gathered during the flowering period and carefully dried. veiny. common names. and the lower ones slightly toothed. —Canada i — taste. dark green on the upper surface and paler green beneath. The common name cates the use of this plant for arresting hem- orrhages from various sources and the bleeding of wounds. i8a . funnel shaped. The leaves are large. It has a faint. and belongs to the potato family (Solanaceae). warm countries. mad-apple. which is bristly-hairy. The larger plants are branched The leaves are usually somewhat hairy. From June to November numerous heads of small inconspicuous white flowers are produced. Range and habitat. Description. agreeable odor and a somewhat astringent and bitter fleabane is Description. fireweed. Datura stramonium L. The stem.green stems are stout. Jamestown weed (from which "jinison'' weed is derived). It is useful also in diarrhea and dropsy. Parts used. according to the soil. The rather large. smooth. and in favorable soil often reaching a height of 10 feet. tilcni —Canada fleabane {Lep- canadense (L. varies greatly in height. They are white. ields oil a volatile which is sold as oil of fleabane.

The leaves are collected at the time of flowering. when they will burst open and the seeds can be readily shaken out. and are used principally in asthma.w 3(3 about 3 inches long. and have a heavy odor. The unpleasant narcotic odor diminishes upon drying. Imports and prices. They are Fig.) The seeds are ill-smelling when dull fresh. ova].— Jiiuson weed {Datura stramonium L. and about 10.000 pounds of seeds in the . when quite ripe. flattened. black.— From 100. cause dilation of the pupil of the eye. The capsules should then be dried for a few days. containing numerous black.000 to 150. the entire plant being cut or pulled up and the leaves stripped and dried in the shade. These should now be carefully dried. For the the plants collection of the seeds the capsules should be taken from when they are quite ripe. The seed pod is a dry. Occasional cases of poisoning of children occur from eating the seeds of jimson weed and taking the flowers in their mouths. wrinkled. prickly capsule. (Fig.). 26. Parts used. The seeds like the leaves are poisonous and possess the same properties. but still of a green color.— Both the leaves and seeds are medicinal.000 pounds of stramonium leaves (the name by which they are designated imported into this are imported. 27. and marked with small depressions. The leaves are poisonous. kidney-shaped seeds. bursts open and discloses four valves. which. 188 drug trade) are country annually. about one-sixth of an inch long. as is the entire plant.

and stramonium from 3 to 7 cents per pound. 27. bad-man's oatmeal. possesses the same properties. Purple thorn-apple.) . St. merely by its reddish stems and purplish flowers. The purple thorn-apple. technically known as Datura tatula. Rennet's herb. Other common names. flow er. is very similar to the jimson weed. heck-how. The leaves and seeds may be gathered with those of the jimson weed. wode whistle* cashes. poison parsley. Conium macukUum L. bunk. and is dis- Fig. 28. tinguished from it POISON HEMLOCK.— Leaves.37 The seeds leaves will bring from 2£ to 8 cents per pound. and capsules of jimson weed.— Spotted parsley. spotted cowbane. 188 (Fig.

but not so pronounced as in the fresh plant. neuralgia. ovate. The stems should be rejected. which in most localities is some time in August. All parts of the plant are exceedingly poisonous. Contrary to the usual method of drying leaves and herbs. fruit should The Fig.* 38 Range and habitat. hollow stem dotted with purple. This very poisonous drug is used in rheumatism. namely. asthma. 28. about one-eighth of an inch long. laterally flattened.) be collected while still green but full grown. and in cases where the nervous system is in an excited condition. the Apiaceje. principally in the Eastern and Middle States. — —From the close resemblance of the leaves of sometimes mistaken for the latter and this plant to parsley. It should be dried in dark but well ventilated places. which is The especially noticeable when and brufeed. Imports and prices. Parts used. The fruit is grayish-green. the poison hemlock leaves may be quickly dried in the sun and then kept in tightly closed vessels. entire plant possesses a disagreeable mousy odor. with a smooth. The odor is still very disagreeable. and then stored in tight cans or boxes where it will not be ex- posed to the action of light and air. The fruit ripens in August and September. and smooth. It is a biennial. The poison hemlock leaves should be collected when the plant is in flower.have occurred. — Poison hemlock ( Goniwn maculatum L. which will be in the second year of its growth. ribbed. The imports of conium or poison hemlock seed — 183 . Description. with stems from one point) and appear in June and July. Poison hemlock is rather common in waste places and along roadsides. about 2 to 6 feet in height. it is fatal cases of poisoning. —The fruit leaves are the parts used. The leaves will retain their green color if properly cured. and large leaves very much like those of parsley. The nuBmerous small white flowers are borne in rather showy umbels (flat-topped clusters. Poison hemlock belongs to the same family as the parsley. It has been naturalized in this country from Europe.

000 to 20. (Fig. attaining a height of from 2 to 3 188 The . and from 10. AMERICAN WOEMSEED.) Fie. — Mexican tea.000 is pounds of the leaves are imported. ambrosia.000 pounds annually. The price paid for the seed about 3 cents per pound.—American wormseed ( Chenopodium ambrosioides L. Range and habitat. Chenopod inn ambrosi'aides L.). and westward to California. Jerusalem tea. aturalized America. Spanish tea. wormseed feet. i Other commmon names. to Florida. Jesuit tea. and for the leaves about 4 cents. family (Chenopodiacese). grai New England Description. 29.m 39 amount to about 20. 29.

which does not diminish when the fruit is dried. where the distillation of the plant for the oil is carried on. about the size of a pin head. the flowers are borne in spikes. The fruits of Chenopodium <nithel mirvticum. is a troublesome weed in many parts of the United States. Price. the lower ones 1 to 3 inches long and wavy-toothed. — In ordinary seasons the price paid for chenopodium or wormfrom 6 to 8 cents per pound. somewhat acute at the apex. American wormseed is an anthelmintic. from is 2-J- to ?>\ feet high. Both black and white mustards are cultivated in Other common names. The whole plant has a powerful.lance-shaped. impenetrable thickets over 6 feet in . This plant is very similar to the American wormseed. The fruit is distilled for the oil. is sometimes employed is for the distillation of the although the fruit alone listed in the Pharmacopoeia of the United States. red mustard.) Range and habitat. due to the essential oil which it to From July contains. are collected with those of the species just described. introduced from Europe. Braspica nigra (L. the numerous upper leaves much smaller and usually entire. in cultivated ground. BLACK MUSTARD. usually much branched and leafy. seed ranges The oil distilled from wormseed is at present selling at $1. both of which are green and borne in crowded leafy spikes. "Wormseed is cultivated to a considerable extent in parts of Maryland. another species of wormseed. being especially troublesome in grain fields and pastures. followed throughout the autumn by the fruits. Blaek mustard. and the taste is bitter and pungent. that is. 30. and inclosing the small shining black seeds. the odor more elongated. it has the property of expelling worms. (Fig. ) Koch. usually leafless more pronounced and disagreeable. — — Brown California. {Stnapis nigra L. disagreeable odor. globular but slightly flattened. This plant 188 is a great pest in southern California. They have the same powerful odor as the plant. the leaves are more coarsely toothed. the leaves oblong or oblong. Part used. and in waste places. and the range and distribution of the plant are more limited. which it contains in large quantities. The fruits are in the form of small grains. greenish. the fruits being alike.50 per pound.* 40 stem is grooved. and the only differences being that in Chenopod'um anthelmtnt-icum the stem is slightly taller. September the flowers are produced. covering thousands of acres and forming dense. ) mustard. —The entire leafy part of the plant oil. It is common in almost every State in the Union along roadsides.

The plant is an annual. but the upper part is — usually smooth. the terminal lobe being the largest and the two or more lateral ones smaller. and arc all borne on stalks. blackish brown. somewhat rough. and tipped at the apex by the short. scarcely a quarter of an inch in diameter. The seeds possess great vitality. quadrangular. Description. and finely pitted. persistent style. The rather stiff. and may remain in the ground for years before — Black mustard (Bro •a nigra (L. allowing the pods Collection of seeds. contained in the pods are very numerous. They are rather small. The pods are about 1 inch in length. fol- lowed from July to November by the numerous erect pods crowded against the stem in dense narrow clusters. The flowers of black mustard appear from June to September. about one twenty-fifth of an inch in diameter. The lower leaves are lobed. with bristly hairs. in which birds have their nesting places. by eating and excreting the seeds.41 height. and are of a bright yellow color. branching stem of black mustard is from 4 to 6 feet in height. be pulled when most of the pods They are nearly mature. The lower part of the stems and branches is more or less bristly hairy. The petals alternate with the pale-green sepals or calyx lobes. but before they are ready to spring open. germinating. small. should then be placed on a clean. and. The leaves are dark green. The flowers appear in clusters at the ends of the elongating stems. smooth. help to spread this pernicious weed. and if care is taken to prevent the distribution of the seeds it is not difficult to exterminate.) Koch). / The leaves toward the top of the plant become lance shaped and arc slightly toothed. 30. The seeds Pig. the four petals spreading and each consisting of a rounded blade with a narrow claw. dark-green. globular. dry floor or shelf. —The tops may 188 .

Yellow mustard. is not so abundant nor so It is naturalized in this country from Europe. the powerful. bright green. land along waysides and fence rows. not even when it is powdered in its dry state. sickle-shaped beaks are spreading instead of being pressed against the stem.42 and dry out. but widely distributed as the black mustard. 31. penetrating mustard odor is developed. (Fig. to ripen WHITE MUSTARD. 31. when they will burst open and the seeds can be readily shaken out. This plant is verv similar to black mustard.—White mustard (Sinapis alba L. Sin apis alba L. but the flowers and seeds are much larger. The taste is sharp and pungent. Mustard seed has no odor whatever when collected. but is Description. but as soon as water is added in grinding it. White mustard is a weed found in cultivated — — Fig. Another common name. and the rough-hairy pods with their long.) Range and habitat. smaller (growing only about 1 to 2 feet tall). The flowers are paler yellow than those of the fore- — 188 .).

amounted to 5. Imports and prices. In medicine mustard seeds are used principally in the preparation of plasters and poultices. the leaves are rough-hairy. neither is the taste so pungent. «* ±U^ 1U1U11 Collection and uses of seeds.* 43 going species. The seeds are pale yel- The low and smooth. The price ranges from 3 to 6 cents both the black and white mustard seeds ^ — 188 o .302. 1903. —The 6 odor does not become so pronounced as in the case of black mustard. and in large doses act as an emetic. They are used also in dyspepsia. divisions of the leaves reach to the midrib. and the pods bristly. seeds are to be collected in the same manner as those of black mustard..876 pounds. and whpn wnfpv ia €\AAar\ in r^i ^ A 1 ™ «. White mustard seed has no odor ill its entire statp. The imports into the United States of black and white mustard together during the fiscal year ended June 30.

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