Mechanics of Fluids
Solutions Manual

Mechanics of Fluids Eighth edition Solutions manual Bernard Massey Reader Emeritus in Mechanical Engineering University College. London Revised by John Ward-Smith Formerly Senior Lecturer in Mechanical Engineering Brunel University .

Abingdon. without permission in writing from the publishers.” © 2006 Bernard Massey and John Ward-Smith The right of B.eBookstore. now known or hereafter invented. 2005.uk. Oxon OX14 4RN Simultaneously published in the USA and Canada by Taylor & Francis 270 Madison Ave. with regard to the accuracy of the information contained in this book and cannot accept any legal responsibility or liability for any efforts or omissions that may be made.Seventh edition published by Stanley Thornes (Publishers) Ltd in 1998 Eighth edition published 2006 by Taylor & Francis 2 Park Square.co. express or implied. Ward-Smith to be identified as authors of this work has been asserted by them in accordance with the Copyright Designs and Patents Act 1988. S. mechanical. or other means. Milton Park. The publisher makes no representation. All rights reserved. New York. or in any information storage or retrieval system.tandf. British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data A catalog record for this book has been requested ISBN 0-203-01231-3 Master e-book ISBN ISBN 0–415–36204–0 (Print Edition) . including photocopying and recording. NY 10016 Taylor & Francis is an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group This edition published in the Taylor & Francis e-Library. No part of this book may be reprinted or reproduced or utilised in any form or by any electronic. “To purchase your own copy of this or any of Taylor & Francis or Routledge’s collection of thousands of eBooks please go to www. Massey and J.

333 kg · m−3 = ν 15 × 10−6 m2 · s−1 R= 1.12 m · s−1 = 1200 s−1 0.1 π (20 m)3 = 56.51 kg · m−3 RT 287 J · kg−1 · K−1 × 323.34 × 109 K= = 1061 kg · m−3 1.2 1.2 m3 6 233. = 288.34 Pa · s × 1200 s−1 = 307.15 K ∴M= 1.2 × 1.3 V1 T1 p2 = V1 T2 p 1 Since pV = mRT.06 259.4 = 2 × 10−5 N · s · m−2 µ = 1.Chapter 1 1.15 1.3 1.15 K ∂p p − p0 Assume K constant.7 × 10 = 1025 kg · m−3 exp ∴  = 0 exp K 2.754 m2 × 0.1 ∴ V1 = 1.34 Pa · s Velocity gradient = 0.333 kg · m−3 × 293.15 101.6 N .1 × 10−3 m Area = π0. Then ln(/0 ) = ∂ K     6 p − p0 81.5 8310 = 32.2 J · kg−1 · K−1 = T 1.2 m2 = 0.4 × 105 N · m−2 p = = 1.2 µ = ν = 400 × 10−6 m2 · s−1 × 850 kg · m−3 = 0.754 m2 Force = 0.013 × 105 N · m−2 p = 259.

11 Re = u= 1.5 Pa = 0.12 Re = 4Q 4 × 0.14 Pa · s × 2π × 7 rad · s−1 = 7. width δr Velocity ωr = 2π rδrµ Clearance c 3 µω ∴ Torque = Force × r = 2π r δr c R µω π R4 µω 2π r3 dr = Total torque = c 2c 0 Force = Area × µ × = 1.00595 m = 5.15 m · s−1 0. radius r.81 N · kg−1 × 0.038 N · s · m−2 2000 × 0.00013 m p= 2 × 0.073 N · m−1 × 1 4γ cos θ = gd 1000 kg · m−3 × 9.1 m)4 0.44 N · m 2 × 0.563 mm 1.006 m  2 = 1.56 − 1)1000 kg · m−3 × 9.81 N · kg−1 × 0.038 N · s · m−2 2000µ = 1.25 m) × 0.05 m × 0.10 h= 4 × 0.95 mm 1.7 For annulus.439 N 1.9 π(0.01 m3 · s−1 4Q = 430 ∴ Laminar = π dµ π 0.05 m × 900 kg · m−3 4 × 0.019 m 0.0025 m3 · s−1 × 900 kg · m−3 ud = = = 1508 µ π dµ π 0.004 m d h= 4 × 0.7 Pa · s + 0.689 m · s−1 = d 0.08 m × 370 × 10−6 m2 · s−1 .073 N · m−1 2γ = 36.006 m = −1.8 1.15 m · s−1 = (0.6  Total force on plate = Area × µ  ∂u ∂y   + side A ∂u ∂y   side B 0.377 N · m−1 × cos 140◦ (13.2 Solutions manual 1.005 m = 0.

56 − 0. (a) p = gh = (820 kg · m−3 × 9.57 kPa (d) Load = Pressure × Area = 820 × 9.81 N · kg−1 × 0.013 × 105 N · m−2 = 61.5 p = 820 kg · m−3 × 9.2 kPa .2 sin 30◦ + 0.5) m2 = 211.81 N · kg−1 2.15) m = 22 930 N · m−2 = 22.81 N · kg−1 × 2 m + (13.2 Pressure depends only on depth below free surface.81 N · kg−1 )(3 − 0.15 K 0.2 kN 2.81 × 3.4 pV = constant  3 d 101.93 kPa (b) p = 820 × 9.82 m g 1590 kg · m−3 × 9.Chapter 2 200 × 103 N · m−2 p = = 12.1 h= 2.075 m 1.3 × 103 Pa whence d = 4.8 N · m−2 = 30.81 N · m−3 × (3 + 2) m = 40.3 × 103 Pa + 1000 kg · m−3 × 9.81 N · m−3 × {3 + 2 − (1.82) × 1000 kg · m−3 × 9.225 m = 44.6)} m = 820 × 9.81 × 3 N · m−2 × (3.5 × 2.2 m = 2.3 hair = p water ghwater water hwater = = air g air g air 1000 kg · m−3 × 287 J · kg−1 · K−1 × 288.2 kPa (c) p = 820 × 9.81 N · kg−1 × 9 m ∴ = 4 mm 101.93 mm 2.

83 m 2.25 mm Measuring above XX: Initially 0.81/287×0.81(Old hB − 60 + 5.56 − 0.7  λz g/Rλ p = p0 1 − T0   0.7 2.15 749 287×0.4 Solutions manual p∗ 0.82)1000 kg · m−3 × 9.0065/9.81(Old hA − 60 + 8.82 − 0.81 = −1 m 566 0.8 From eqn 2.81 N · kg−1 = h = g 820 kg · m−3 × 9.6 + 900 × 65.9hB Later: 800 × 9.6 New levels A y x B Movement of fluid in C = 60 mm × 70 mm2 = (500 mm2 )x X X Initial surface of separation = (800 mm2 )y ∴ x = 8.0065 × 7500 9. C y = 5.74)1000 × 9.3 kPa   g/Rλ Ttop T0 − λz g/Rλ = T0 Ttop + λz    Ttop p0 Rλ/g ∴z= −1 p λ    268.1 Pa  2.4)10−3 Pa = p + 900 × 9.0065 p = p0  = 2257 m .225 m(13.4 mm.81 N · kg−1 = 3.15 = 38.81 × 2 N · m−2 + x(0.5 Pa 1 − 288.8hA = 0.25)Pa = 171.496 m 44 200 N · m−2 = 820 × 9.81 N · m−3 whence x = 35.0065 = 101.25)10−3 Pa ∴ p = 9.81 × 10−3 (−800 × 51.

9 m from upper edge that is 12(2x + 0.042 m.13 kN (c) 2160 × 9. centre of pressure is on vertical centre-line X 2nd moment about XX 1st moment about XX r 2 2 x 2(r − x2 )1/2 dx = 0r 2 2 1/2 dx 0 x2(r − x ) Depth = 0 2 π/2 (r cos θ ) 2r sin θ (−r sin θ dθ) = 0 π/2 r cos θ 2r sin θ (−r sin θ dθ) r π/2 = 0π/2 0 = r cos2 θ sin2 θ dθ sin2 θ cos θ dθ π sin2 2θ d(2θ ) .95 m = 20.9) (1.8 m)2 + 2x + 0.904 m from upper edge 2.9)2 bd(2x + 0.2 m.9 m 12(2x + 0.45 m = 645 kN Centre of pressure is at slant depth = = (bd 3 /12) + bd(2x + 0. (c) 0.9(metres) 12(2x + 0.8) m2 × 1000 kg · m−3 × 9.54 kN (b) 2160 × 9.9)   1.81 N · m−1 × 0.Chapter 2 2.2 × 1.9 sin 30◦ ) m (a) 2160 × 9.81 N · m−1 × 0.81 N · m−1 × 30.9 F = (1.81 N · kg−1 × (x + 0.9) d2 + 2x + 0.82 + 0.9) = (a) 1.45 m = 9.10 By symmetry. (b) 1.

π/2 3 1 3 sin θ 1 0 8 0 = r/8 [2θ /2 − (1/4) sin 4θ]2θ=π 0 1/3 = 3 π 3π d r = 8 2 32 x θ r X 5 .

= sin 60◦ m = 2 2 ∴ Thrust is equally divided between XX and bottom.81 × 2 3 ∴ Load at bottom = 9580 N.5 m − x cosec 60◦ )x2 dx = First moment = Area × 2. R2 /4h 4h below shaft ∴ Turning moment on shaft = πR2 gh × = π R4 g R2 = 4h 4 [independent of h] π(0. = R2 + h below free surface.6 m)4 1000 kg · m−3 × 9.11 X 60 60 x X Full depth = (2.5 × 2.P.5 Depth ∴ Depth of C. at each upper corner 4790 N 2.P. = Thrust = Area × Pressure at centroid 2.5 m) sin 60◦ − x = 2.5 m) sin 60◦ Breadth of strip   (2.6 Solutions manual 2.5 sin 60◦ 3 2. that is.5 sin 60◦ × m = sin2 60◦ m3 2 3 6 2.81 N · kg−1 = 999 N · m 4 .5 m − x cosec 60◦ ∴ Second moment of area about XX = (2. 1st moment of area about free surface = π R2 h ∴ Depth of C.12 Let shaft be at depth h below free surface.54 sin3 60◦ m4 12 Depth 3 2.5 m) sin 60◦ = 2. 2nd moment of area about free surface = π R4 /4 + π R2 h2 . By parallel axes theorem.52 sin 60◦ × 1000 × 9.5 sin 60◦ 1 N = 19 160 N = 2. Then force on disc = πR2 gh.53 1 2.5 m) sin 60◦ 0 (2.5 m (2.

that is.5 m × 9.5 = 1.59 kN · m 2.376 − 0.84 kN l (Ak2 )c.252 MN = 1.7 × 3. below free surface   √ (Al 2 /12) + Ay2 l2 ( 2)2 = =y+ = 1.7/3 ∴ y= m = 3.5 m Force on plate = 1150 kg · m−3 1.124) MN = 1.5 m( 2 m)2 C 2m = 33.13 0. h2 below free surfaces 3 3 3 3 1.376 × 9/3 − 0.5 + m Ay 12y 12 × 1.124 MN Net thrust = (1. since F1 . 1.14 Width of gates = (3 m) sec 30◦ = 3.5)(9 × 3. F1 7 . F2 act at h1 .81 N · kg−1 √ × 1.84 kN × 1.252 Total hinge reaction R also acts at this height.252 MN 2 sin 30◦ Resultant force F acts at height y given by ∴ Force between gates = h1 h2 2 2 − F2 = Fy. diagonal = Al 2 12 since diagonals are perpendicular ∴ Depth of C.124 × 2.Chapter 2 2.464)N = 0.376 MN Trust on ‘shallow’ side of gate = (1000 × 9.111 m from top of aperture √ ∴ Total moment about hinge = 33.111/ 2 m = 26.208 m 1. ⊥ plate = Al 2 6 ∴ (Ak2 )c.252 MN 1.35)(2.81 × 1.611 m.P.464)N = 1.464 m Thrust on ‘deep’ side of gate = (1000 × 9.81 × 4.

608 m = 7.893 MN · m−1 It acts through centroid of ABC.8 Solutions manual If top hinge is distance x above bottom hinge.27 m from C .6) m ∴ x= R 2.29 MN · m−1 θ = arctan It intersects free surface at (18 tan θ − 8. 8.27 m 3.42 m above base 2.81 × 396.27) m from C = 8.8x = 27 xdy 0 x = 2 0 27 9ydy = 9 × 272 3 m 2 whence x = 8.8 N · m−1 = 3. Moments of area about AC: 396.576 = 42.8932 ) MN · m−1 = 5.15 B C Horizontal component H = Thrust on vertical H projection AC divided by width θ = A R 1 1000 × 9.208 − 0.8 m2 ∴ Vertical component = 1000 × 9. Rtop that is.893 Resultant = (3.81 × 272 N · m−1 2 = 3.82 m. Rtop x = R(3.608 m = 3 × 2.57◦ 3.5762 + 3.576 MN · m−1 acting at V 2 × 27 m 3 = 18 m below BC Vertical component V = Weight of water ABC Area ABC = 27 0 √ xdy = 18 0 27 y1/2 dy = 2√ 18(27)3/2 m2 3 = 396.

8 m 1 2 = oil gxbdx =  gbx 2 oil 0 0 B y 1.5 m(0.2 m Water C 1 850 kg · m−3 × 9.16 Relevant forces are only those on vertical plane 0.81[0.81(0.2m 0 = 0.816 m2 )y + y2 − 2 3 0 = 1957 N · m + 500 × 9.5 × 1000 × 9.2 m (oil g0.816 + 0.2 m (0.68 m + y)(1.2 m − y)dy m+ 3 0 = 1334 × 1.3744 − 0. A 0.576] N · m = 5771 N · m ∴ z= 5771 m = 0.81 N · kg−1 2 = × 0.68 m)y + 2 1.8 m)2 = 1334 N Total force on BC = 0 1.52 m y × (0.31 m from B 2.8 m + water gy)b dy = bwater g 0 1.Chapter 2 that is {8.2 + bwater g(0.2m 3 0.8 m + y)dy  y2 = bwater g (0.8m  0.81 N · m−2  1.9792 + 0.85 × 0.5 × 1000 × 9.72) N = 7535 N Total force F = (7535 + 1334)N = 8869 N Let total force act at height z above base of tank.5 m wide.8 Fz = F1 1.2m 0.467 N · m + 0.8 m x Oil Total force on AB = F1 0. Then moments about axis through C:   1.651 m 8869 9 .27 +  (18 × 27)} m = 30.

  1 a2 a2 (1 + σ ) ∴ Axis of couple is + 2 12b 24b = 2.18 a2 (3 + σ ) below centre-line 48b Pressure at centroid = (15 000 + 900 × 9.17 −−−→ Force = gba2 Oil  a  a2 ←−−− Force = σ g c − 4 2  a  a2 + σ gc + g 4 2 c b x a y Water = σ gca2 + ga3 8 × (1 − σ ) Water For zero net force b = σc + a (1 − σ ) 8 Total moment  about centre-line for forces on left a/2 a/2 =− g(b − x)ax dx + g(b + y)ay dy 0  0 ba2 a3 ba2 a3 = ga − + + + 8 24 8 24  = 1 ga4 12 1 −−−→ ∴ Net Force acts at ga4 ÷ gba2 = a2 /12b below centre-line.81 × 1) Pa = 23 829 Pa ∴ Total force = 23 829 Pa × 0.Solutions manual 2. 12  10 about centre-line for forces on right Total moment a/2 a/2 =− σ g(c − x)ax dx + (σ gc + gy)ay dy 0  0 a3 = ga −σ c + σ + σc + 8 24 8 24 a2 a3 a2  = 1 ga4 (1 + σ ) 24 ←−− 1 ∴ Net force acts at ga4 (1 + σ ) ÷ gba2 24 = a2 (1 + σ )/24b below centre-line.24 m2 = 5719 N .

7l{9 − 1} ∴ x − x = 0. below centre-line = (Ak2 )c /Ay  (0.7 kg of iron occupy 2.19 2.7l (3d)2 − d 2 4 4 ∴ 9x + 0.20 l/ 20 (l-s-l/ 20) 0.125 + 0.P.81 ∴ Force on lock = ∴ Equivalent free (atmospheric) surface is at 2.00494 m = 12 Moments about horizontal axis through upper hinge: 5719(0.34 kgf Parcel balance reads (5 + 0.00494) N · m = 2859 × 0.9l{9 − 1} = 9x + 0.125 N · m + FL (0.36) kgf = 2.7 kg = 0.7l Volume of water is constant π ∴ (3d)2 x + 0.4 m)2 2.699 m above centre-line ∴ Depth of C.36) kgf = 5.699 m = 0.00036 m3 × 1000 kg · m−3 × 9.81 N ∴ Spring balance reads (2.25 m) ∴ Force on lower hinge = FL = 1543 N and force on upper hinge = (2859 − 1543) N = 1317 N 2.699 m of oil 900 × 9.36 × 9.00036 m3 7500 kg · m−3 ∴ Buoyancy force = 0.1778l 11 .8 l−s 20 whence s = 0.9l = 1 × s + 0.9l x 3d s x9 Archimedes for case II:   19 0.7 − 0.36 kgf 2.9l 4 π π  × (3d)2 − d 2 4 4 π = (3d)2 x 4 π π  + 0.81 N · kg−1 = 0.Chapter 2 This acts on vertical centre-line 1 × 5719 N = 2859 N 2 15 000 Air pressure is equivalent to m = 1.

81 N · kg−1 = 0.23 BM = Ak2 /V π 4 d = 64  B is at 0.3 m)2 1000 kg · m−3 × 9.81/287×0.81 N (π/4)(0.17625 kg 6 ∴ Mass of helium = (176.83 kg = 0.81 N At base of cylinder.6l 4 .22 From eqn 2.6574 × π 0.3l above base. p at 6000 m is p0 λz 1− T0 g/Rλ   0.0065 = 101 kPa 1 − = 47.05 mm p 105 047 27 × 9.12 Solutions manual 2.382 m ∴ x = 398 mm  2.6574 kg · m−3 which must be same as effective density of balloon.15 − 0.15 ∴  at 6000 m is 47 010 kg · m−3 287(288.3 m)2 = 3747 Pa For isothermal compression pV = constant ∴ p(H − h) = p0 H ∴ h= x−h= p − p0 3747 H= × 450 mm = 16.6l = d 2 /9.0065 × 6000) = 0.25 g 2.81 N (π/4)(0.7.01 kPa 288.0065 × 6000 9. pressure x h = p0 + gx = p + gh ∴ p − p0 = g(x − h) = 27 × 9. ∴ Total mass of balloon = 0.21 d Pressure p H Archimedes p0 π 2 d (x − h)g 4 = 27 × 9.25 − 160)g = 16.  π 2 d × 0.

BM = 0. depth of immersion h = 150σ mm ∴ Height of B = 75σ mm π 4 BM = Ak /V = d 64  2 = 75 mm 32σ For stability that is π 2 d2 752 d h= = mm 4 16h 16 × 150σ BM > BG ∴ 75 150 > − 75σ 32σ 2 1 >1−σ 32σ 2 ∴ 32σ − 32σ + 1 > 0 ∴σ > 16 + 16 − √ √ 256 − 32 = 0.81 N · kg−1 = 158.813 m 13 .641 kg and 0.9 kN BM = Ak2 /V = [(6 × 33 /12)/(6 × 3 × 0.386 2.7 m = 0.Chapter 2 ∴ When M and G coincide.6l 2 ∴ d/l = 1.26 Torque = 3.2 × 9.833 + − 0.3) m = 1.34 × 106 Power = N · m = W(GM) sin θ ω 1.9677 32 256 − 32 = 0.6 − 0.0 Mass of equal volume of water π = (0.583 ∴ θ = 4.2l √ ∴ d 2 = 0.663 kg 2.9)] m = 0.15 m3 × 1000 kg · m−3 = 0.0323 32 this is unrealistic since cylinder is solid or σ < ∴ 0.92 = 1.53◦ whence G1 M1 = 0.513 m ∴ B1 M1 = (0.833 m   0.513 + 1.9) m3 × 1000 kg · m−3 × 9.24 Weight of pontoon = (6 × 3 × 0.9677 < σ < 1.583 m 2 7600 N · m = W(GM) sin θ ∴ sin θ = 2.4 × 2π = 80 × 106 (G1 M1 ) sin 0.663 kg 4 ∴ Mass of cylinder is between 0.25 7600 158.9 × 103 × 0.075)2 × 0.70◦ If relative density = σ .9 GM = 0.

that is (0.4 × 2π whence G2 M2 = 0.6 3 − 0.75◦ 1.381) m = 1.2912 − 0.375) m = 0.907 m 80 × 106 − 400 × 103 × 9.822 s .3813 m ∴ B2 G2 = (1.0319 = 3.68 m = 0.0919 + 0.813 m × 80 × 106 = 1.4) m = 0.150 m 2.0419.52 /4 t = 2π = 2π = 2π s g(GM) g(GM) 9. whence x = 1.27 1 355 3 m = 0.34 m above base BM = Ak2 /V = π (1 m)4 64  π (1 m)2 × 0.0919 m 4 ∴ GM = (0.6 − 0.748 m above vertex.907 − 0. Let beacon be x metres above top.81 3.308 m 2.075) m = 1.076 × 106 (G2 M2 ) sin 0.525 − 1.6 3 − 0.525 m B2 G1 = (1.3463 m3 = π r2 h 1025 3 1 3√ = πr 3 3 Volume of water displaced = ∴ r3 = 0.0419 m below top − this is limiting position of G.748) m 4 = 0.34 × 106 = 76.375 m ∴ G1 G2 = (1.2493 m BM = Ak2 /V = r4 4 3 4h 4 √ 3 B is at h = 0.82 /12 + 0.576 m  1 2 r√ π 3 r2 πr h = = 3 = 0. Then moments about axis in top: √ 300(0.3 + 0.75) − 55x = 355 × 0.2912 m below top ∴ M is (0.81 × 0.0319 m    k2 l 2 /12 + r2 /4 0.14 Solutions manual B1 M1 × V1 = Ak2 = B2 M2 × V2 ∴ B2 M2 = 1.85 × 0.8 m = 0.1910 m3 ∴ r = 0.34 − 0.68 m ∴ B is 0.28 Depth of immersion = 0.2493) m = 0.

4388) Pa = −467 Pa 15 .30 z ax = 2 cos 20◦ m · s−2 . B is at {(60 cos 20◦ + 73 sin 20◦ ) mm. (73 cos 20◦ − 60 sin 20◦ ) mm} that is (81.405 × 850) kg = 684.29 0.81 − 2 sin 20◦ )0.08135 + (9.9 2 az 8 9 3 8/9 − tan φ = ∴ tan θ = 8 7 1 + 9 tan φ whence tan(φ + θ) = a θ ax 3 ax = az + g 7 a cos φ = a sin φ + g √ whence a = g 10/6 tan θ = φφ=arctan1/3 Total mass = (340 + 0.81 10/6 N = 3538 N 2.04808} m2 · s−2 = −790(0.Chapter 2  2.25 × 9.93  0. B A 60 m m az = −2 sin 20◦ m · s−2 73 mm If A is origin. 48.9 tan(φ + θ) m3 − 0.9 0.405 m3 = 0.35 mm.1529 + 0. constant = 0 ∴ pB = −790 kg · m−3 × {2 cos 20◦ × 0.08 mm) x Pressure at B = −ax x − (g + az )z + constant If p at A is taken as zero.25 kg √ ∴ F = 684.

5 × 1.81 × 6 Pa gauge = 53.45 m2 2 + 1.15 1 1 pB = pA + u2A + gzA − gzB − u2B 2 2  1000 (1.82 − 3.3 kPa gauge uB = 1.45 m acceleration ⊥ streamlines.5 m 3.45 m .9 m3 · s−1 1 2g  Q 6. ∴ 1 2g  Q 8 × 1.17 × 105 + 2  − 1000 × 9.6 m · s−1 0.6 m Elevation 1.8 m · s−1 = 3. streamlines must be sensibly straight and parallel where measurements are made – then (p/g) + z = depth of stream at this point.62 ) = 1.2 8m For any given streamline 6.Chapter 3 3.1 0. that is.6 m2 whence 2 + 1.6 m = Q = 23.3 × 1.5 m Plan   p1 + z1 g   u22 p2 + + z2 = 2g g u21 + 2g If pressure variation with depth is same as hydrostatic – true only if there is no appreciable 1.

81 m2 · s−2 π 1.81 W = 16.E.Chapter 3 3. flow = width = 0 h u2 = 2 u dy 1 3 u h 8 0  1+ h 0 y 3  3 dy u0 1 + 2 h  y 4 h h = 0 15 3 u0 h 8 3 5 u20 15 3 u0 h ÷  u0 h = 2 2 2 8 3 since mean velocity = u0 2  2 u2 5 u20 10 5 3 ÷ ∴α= = = ÷ 2 2 2 2 2 9 ∴ K.5 z x = (u cos θ)t.8 K) = 7159. ∴ z = x tan θ − u θ z = (u sin θ)t − 1 2 gt 2 gx2 2u2 cos2 θ gx2 2 cos2 θ(x tan θ − z) Minimum u2 requires max cos2 θ(x tan θ − z) = f . per unit mass = 3.20 MW  y u = u0 1 + where y = height above base.187 × 103 J · kg−1 · K−1 (1. x whence u2 = df = −2 cos θ sin θ (x tan θ − z) + cos2 θ(x sec2 θ) dθ = (1 − 2 sin2 θ )x + z sin 2θ = x cos 2θ + z sin 2θ = 0 when tan 2θ = −x/z d2 f = −2x sin 2θ + 2z cos 2θ = 2 cos 2θ(z − x tan 2θ) dθ 2 17 .225 × 9. h u0 = velocity at base Q = 1000 kg · m−3 × 3.81 m · s−2 (0 − 600) m + 4.3 q= =  p2 − p1 1 2 + u2 − u21 + g (z2 − z1 ) + c (T2 − T1 )  2 (5.22 m2 × 2 m · s−1 = 2262 kg · s−1 4 ∴ Heat flow = 2262 × 7159. say.81 × 600) Pa 1 2 + (2 − 0) m2 · s−2 2 103 kg · m−3 + 9. h = full depth.4 K.E.5 × 106 + 1.

238 kg · m−3 = 0.43◦ to horizontal u2 = gx2 2 cos2 θ(x tan θ − z) = 9.772 m(13 560 × 9.4 = = kg · m−1 · s−2 2gCv2 2Cv2 2 × 0.81 N · kg−1 × 15 m      5  = 1.013 × 10 Pa ∴ Stagnation pressure = 1.510 × 10 Pa     2 3 1 2 16 × 10 1   u = 1026 kg · m−3 m · s−1   2 2 3600      4  = 1.81 × 202 2 × 51 (20 × 2 − 15) m2 · s−2 = 392.238 kg · m−3 RT 287 J · kg−1 · K−1 × 288.05 m)2 4  4 1.95 K   π 2 2 × 212. tan 2θ = − 20 4 =− 15 3 ∴ cos2 θ = 1 + cos 2θ 1 − 3/5 1 = = 2 2 5 ∴ tan θ = 2 ∴ θ = 63.958 3.81) N · m−2 = = 1.611 × 105 Pa = 161.6 p across orifice = 0.18 Solutions manual   d2 f x2 When tan 2θ = −x/z.1 kPa gauge .271 m × 0.4 × 103 Pa 3.602 (0.018 m3 · s−1 = 0.05 m)2 4 850 kg · m−3 ∴ Cv = Cd /Cc = 0.02191 m3 · s−1 3.8  Static pressure = 1026 kg · m−3 × 9. = 2 cos 2θ z + z dθ 2 which is negative since cos 2θ is negative ∴ f is then a maximum.598  5 Pa π 2 × 10 (0.7 Pa p π ∴ Q = Cd d 2 = 0.5 50 2 = 0.7 Pa = p 0.1 × (800 × 9.7  Cc = 39.6241 Cd = 0.4 m2 · s−2 p = gh = g u2  u2 1000 × 392.81) N · m−3 = 212.952 = 217.

00754 m2 4 ∴ Pressure difference required = 180 N/0.9 Theoretical u1 = (0.35 m)2 ∴ u2 = 1.Chapter 3 3.00754 m2 Net effective area of piston = = 23 870 Pa u1 = 0.2 mm 3.15 m3 · s−1 = 1.66 and throat diameter = √ 4.040/0.11 300 = 1.15 m)2 u2 = 4u1  1  p1 − p2 =  u22 − u21 +  g(z2 − z1 ) 2 and = 400 kg · m−3 (15 × 2.559n m · s−1 where n = area ratio  1  2  u2 − u21 2 1 ∴ 23 870 Pa = 950 kg · m−3 × 1.022 ) m2 = 0.358 m · s−1 (π/4)(0.12 − 0.2665 m (13 560 − 800)9.10 33 360 Pa = 0.5 200 Ideal discharge through strip tan θ = h H θ B = {B + 2(H − h) cot θ } × dh 2gh 19 .559 m · s−1 (π/4)(0.3582 ) m2 · s−2 + 800 kg · m−3 × 9.96) m3 · s−1 = 2.81 N · kg−1 × 0.66 = 162.5592 (n2 − 1) m2 · s−2 2 p1 − p 2 = 350 mm whence n = 4.15 m = 34 530 Pa Manometer measures difference of piezometric pressure  1  =  u22 − u21 = 33 360 Pa 2 = (Hg − liq )gh ∴ h= 3.81 N · m−3 π (0.

6 m3 · s−1 3 = 0.8 m) 19.62 m · s−2 (0.228)3/2 (0.8 m) 19.20 Solutions manual ∴ Qideal =  2g H 0  B + 2(H − h)  2 1/2 h dh 3      4 4 2 5/2 2 3/2 = 2g B+ H H − × H 3 3 3 5   2 8 = H 2gH 3/2 B + 15 3 ∴ Q = this × Cd = 2√ 19.1 + 0.24062 = m = 0.08 m)3/2 = 0.62 m · s−2 (0.62 ∴ Better approximation to total head = (0.08295 m ∴ Better approximation to  2 Q = 0.3 m2 = 0.12 Q1 = 0.0427 m3 · s−1 3.08 + 0.2406 m · s−1 ∴ u2 0.1216)0.08295 m)3/2 3 = 0.00295) m = 0.6 ×  2 (1.0762 m3 · s−1 .00295 m 2g 19.62(0.6 × (1.0722 m3 · s−1 3 ∴ Approach velocity = 0.0722 m3 · s−1 ÷ 0.

4A1 u2 √ ∴ F 2 = Fx2 + Fy2 = 2 A21 u4 (1.81 3.2 m3 · s−1 = 0.4 m 19.2 m · s−1 π (0.4 × 105 m 1000 × 9.64 + 0.8u cos 150◦ − u) √ = A1 u2 (−0.23 m · s−1 = 3.8u sin 30◦ − 0) = 0.8 u y Fy = A1 u(0.1 Fx = Q(0.62 p2 = 1000 × 9.05)2 × 24.026 ∴ u = 24.8 3) u x ∴ u2 = 2000 N (1000 Q= 4.2542 m 19.Chapter 4 4.2542 m + 1.3)2 u2 = 4u1 (1) Energy eqn: y 1.62 whence p2 = 74 300 Pa Fx + p1 A1 + p2 A2 cos 60◦ = Q(u2 cos 120◦ − u1 ) .0475 m3 · s−1 4 x u1 = 0.4 3 − 1) 0.81 N · m−3 + (2) + 16 × 3.2 kg · m−3 )(π/4)(0.254 m · s−1 (π/4)(0.05 √ m)2 3.

254) m · s−1 π − 1.22 Solutions manual ∴ Fx = 1000 kg · m−3 × 0. Then p2 = atmospheric. that is.5 4 = −12 800 N Fy − p2 A2 sin 60◦ + W = Q(u2 sin 120◦ − 0) √ 3 m · s−1 × 4 × 3.22 kg · m−3 (602 − 152 ) m2 · s−2 2 = 2059 Pa gauge (if velocities uniform) ∴ p1 = atmos.254 × 0.3 (2) (1) Assume flow at (2) entirely parallel to sides of cone.23 m3 · s−1 × (−4 × 3.3 m)2 4 π − 74 300 N · m−2 × (0. Assuming steady flow and constant  p1 + 1 2 1 u = p2 + u22 2 1 2 1 1.5 − 3.254 × 2 √ π −2 2 3 + 74 300 N · m × (0.6 m) 15 m · s √ − 15 m · s−1 4 2 2059 × whence F = 440 N .22 kg · m × (0.15 m) 4 2 ∴ Fy = 1000 kg · m −3 3 −1 × 0.15 m)2 0. + π (0.76◦ tan θ = −12 800 F= Force on bend is equal and opposite to this.4 × 105 N · m−2 × (0.6)2 N − F = Q(u2 cos 45◦ − u1 ) 4   60 π −3 2 −1 = 1. 4.085 m3 × 1000 kg · m−3 × 9.81 N · kg−1 = 2896 N  12 8002 + 28962 N = 13 120 N 2896 ∴ θ = 180◦ − 12.23 m · s − 0.

coordinate axes must move with boat.2˙ m2 · s−2 = 1333.3˙ − 1022.6 − 0.4 0.8 − 0.4 m3·s–1 Assuming uniform conditions over each cross-section considered.6 m2 )  1.2˙ W ˙ W = 311.8 m3·s–1 = 1000 kg · m −3  × (0.5 m2 · s−2   22 m2 · s−2 Energy/mass of stream B = 30 + 2 = 32.2 m2 31 kPa 0.5 For steady flow.6 0.27˙ m2 · s−2 ∴ Stream A loses 2.6] N = −133. ∴ Useful output power = Fc = Qc(u − c) Power of spent jet (wasted) = 1 Q(u − c)2 2 23 .8 0.2) 4.1˙ W Difference = (1333.0 m2 · s−2   2  1 1. For uniform conditions at inlet and outlet F = Q(u − c) If static pressures fore and aft are equal.3˙ N ∴p= 1 ˙ Pa = 30.2   0.6 = 33.4 1.5˙ kPa [6200 + 12 000 + 133.2˙ m2 · s−2 Stream B loses −1.27) = −1022.4 m2 ) − p(0.6 m2 P 0.4 m2 30 kPa 1.6 m3·s–1 0.3˙ W ˙ m2 · s−2 Total loss by stream B = 800 kg · s−1 × (−1.6   u2A 32 pA = 31 + m2 · s−2 + Energy/mass of stream A = 2 2  = 35.6   0. this is total propulsive force. (31 × 103 Pa)(0.4 0.4  m4 · s−2 = 1000[3.4 m2 · s−2 Energy/mass of stream C = 30.27˙ m2 · s−2 Total loss by stream A = 600 kg · s−1 × 2.5˙ + 2 0.3] 0.8 − 1.26˙ − 1.2 m2 ) + (30 × 103 Pa) 0.Chapter 4 4.

2 A= 1.52 − 9.62 1.24 Solutions manual  1 ∴ Total power = Q c(u − c) + (u − c)2 2  1 = Q(u − c) (u + c) 2 2c Qc(u − c) = ∴η= 1 u+c Q(u − c)(u + c) 2 With assumptions as before 1500 N = 1000 kg · m−3 × Q(17.01045 m2 8.6 4.5 m2 = 0. 8.82 g · s−1 mu ˙ r=M   dv − mu ˙ r F = − 1450 N · s · m−1 v = M dt   dv   − 90 kg · s−1 × 2600 m · s−1 = 2500 kg + x − 90 kg · s−1 t dt dt dv = 234 000 − 1450v 2500 + x − 90t     1 1 2500 + x − 90t 234 000 − 1450v = ln ln 234 000 90 2500 + x 1450 ∴ since v = 0 where t = 0 ν is max when all fuel burnt.086 × 9.2 = 20.5 3 −1 m ·s .81 N) dt m ˙ = 2.00882 kg · s−1 = 8.81 N · kg−1 × 11.5 Head to be supplied by pump = 17.1 kW = 30.086 kg × 15 m · s−2 − (−0.5 − 9.29 kg · m−3 (0.92 kW 0. that is.3) m · s−1 ∴Q= 1.32 m = 11.2 m 8.134 N × 1.25 m · s−1 − 12 m · s−1 = 18.1 kW ∴ Power = ∴ Engine power = 4.2 m 19.134 N = m ˙ × A π ∴m ˙ 2 = 2.6)2 .7 20.65 dv − F = 0.8 u4 = 2u2 − u1 = 2 × 4.006 m)2 4 whence m ˙ = 0.45 × 150 2500 ∴ ln = ln 1450 234 2500 + x whence x = 447 kg 4.06 m · s−1 (π/4)(0.2 × 17. when t = x/90 s     90 234 − 1.5 3 −1 m · s × 1000 kg · m−3 × 9.

332 ) Pa 2 (gauge)  1    1 Q u21 − u24 = Au2 u21 − u24 2 2 1 π 2 = × 1.9 10 300 × 80 = W = 916 kW 0.33 m · s−1 2 2 =  1  2  u1 − u22 = 2 = 41.9 Pideal = 4.65 m · s−1 ∴ u4 = 7 (Negative root and u4 = 0 are rejected.9 F = Q(u4 − u1 ) = Q(2u2 − u1 − u1 ) = 2Q(u2 − u1 )  u1  u1 0.10 η = 0.06 − 12) N = 25.652 − 11.8 kW 2 4 P= 25 .235 122 (142 − 8.9 0.25 = 4 × 15.5 = (14 m · s−1 + u4 )(142 m2 · s−2 − u24 ) 2 × 143 m3 · s−3 √  5 − 1 m · s−1 = 8.65 u1 + u4 u2 = = m · s−1 = 11.77 kN 2u1 u1 12 = = = 79.652 ) W = 95.9 u1 = 288 km · h−1 = 80 m · s−1 u2 = u1 /0.33(142 − 8.9 0.652 ) N = 8460 N 2 4 14 + 8.Chapter 4 F = Q(u4 − u1 ) = 1000 × 4.25(18.8% u1 + u 4 u2 15.03 − 12) W = 387 kW 2 η= 4.332 ) Pa 2 1 1.43 m2 0.81 ∴A= 10 300 × 0.63 m     1 Fu1 Q u24 − u21 = 2Q u22 − u1 u2 = Fu2 = 2 0.81 m2 = 5.03  u2 − u21 Q  2 P = Q 4 = 4u2 − 4u1 u2 2 2 1000 × 4.99 Pa = p3 p2 − p 1 = 1 1.03(15.2 × 802 ∴ d = 2.235(142 − 11.235(8.235 12 × 11.) F = Q(u1 − u4 ) = A   u1 + u 4 1 (u1 − u4 ) = A u21 − u24 2 2 1 π × 1.8 Pa (gauge)  1  p3 − p4 =  u24 − u23 = 2 = −32.2 × 1.2 = 2A − u1 = Au21 = 10 300 N 0.

θ µ γ  For dynamic similarity.04 m)2 1. ∴ = =4 hwater νwater Q1 Qw Also 5/2 = 5/2 h1 hw  5/2 hw Q1 = 0.1 Re same in both cases.06 L · s−1 ( p∗ /l)air a u2a 1. ∴ uw = ua µw a µ a w = 21.74 w u2w 1000 × 1.000625 m3 · s−1 ∴ Qw = Q1 = h1 32 ∴ 0.210 = ( p∗ /l)water 4. .0563 m .8 × 10−5 1000 = 1.000625 = 0.   hliquid νliquid 2/3 Assume effect of γ negligible.639 m · s−1 = 2.52 1 = = = 0.6392 5.225 1.060 × 10−3 m3 · s−1 4 = 2.762h2.2 mm whence hw = 0. g 1/2 h3/2 /µ must be the same.Chapter 5 5.47 w ∴ h1 = 4hw = 225.225 × 21.5 m · s−1 1.12 × 10−3 1.2  Q=g 1/2 5/2 h φ g 1/2 h3/2  gh2  .639 m · s−1 ∴ Qw = π (0.

1 N · m 1000 144.675 5 = 1. ∴ ω2 = = µ2 1 ω1 D21 µ1 2 D22 1.6752 = 246.86 × 10 1.5 Equate Re : 1000(l/2)uw 1.3 Equate ωD2 /µ.797 m3 · s−1 5.933 N · m 5.20 × 0.822 F l 2 u2 : l2 Fair × 1.5 m · s−1 )l(1.225 T2 = = 0.Chapter 5 5.4 rad · s−1 Equate P/ω3 D5 .4 Q =φ ωD3  ωd 2 d .9 20.20 246.5 0.4 2 0.5 × 0.01 × 10−3 × 1.5 × 10−3 m3 · s−1 = 2.82 m · s−1 Since = 5.07µm 27 .2252 rad · s−1 1.86 × 10−5 × 1000 × 144. ∴ Qair = ωair D3air Qwater ωwater D3water = 10.20 × l × 60 m · s−1 = −5 1.6 F = φ(Re).025m ) um (l/4)m = µm 1.7  750 150 3 42.20 × 602 whence Fair = 322 N T = φ(Re) or equivalent is readily proved. l 2 u2 equate 1140 N (l/2)2 1000 × 7. so is ωd 2 /ν ∴ Systems are dynamically similar. ν D  d/D is same in each case. u2 l 3 Equate Re : (3. ∴ P2 = 2 ω23 D52 P1 and 1 ω13 D51 2 ω23 D52 T1 ω1 P2 = ω2 1 ω13 D51 ω2     2 ω2 2 D2 5 T1 = D1 1 ω 1     1.01 × 10−3 whence uw = 7.

5 2 3 Equate : Tp = = 1.6 N · m 3 13.10 Equate Mach no : um = up γ RTp   288.2 × × 30 m · s−1 1000 1. Equate Re : uwater = dair air µwater uair dwater water µair =2× 1.9   1 2 (Area)air u 2  air Fwater = 1 2 u (Area)water 2 water  2 30 1.8 CD = φ(Re).7 ∴ Velocity ∝ (gl)1/2 Fr the same.41 u2 l 3 m u2m lm = 92.0 N · m 5.01 × 10−3 1.41 m · s−1   p u2p lp3 Tm T 3.8 N = 1236 N Qm 0. equate F l 2 u2        Qp 2 lm 2 Qp 2 Qm 4/5 ∴ F p = 2 2 Fm = Fm = Fm Qm lp Qm Qp lm u m     Qp 6/5 120 6/5 = Fm = 2.75   γ RTm 1/2 5.15 1/2 = 400 m · s−1 228.75 Equate Fr : Since F l 2 u2 = φ(Fr).91 m · s−1 ∴ CD equal ∴ Dragair 5.15 lp2 u2p  = 450 m · s−1 .61 Qm lm 0. ∴ Flow ∝ l 2 (gl)1/2 ∝ l 5/2 5.2 152 N = 42.96 N × =4× 1000 3.86 × 10−5 = 3.28 Solutions manual ∴ um = 13.91   4  lm u2 Qm 2 lp = m = lp Qp lm u2p 2/5   2/5 lp Qp 120 ∴ = = = 7.025 4 × 20.

For model.81 × 7 Pa 12 ∴ (p0 )m = (4957 + 5722) Pa = 10.5 m · s−1 )(100/4)1/2 = 7.798 N · s1.11 Equate Fr : ∴ lm up lm tm = = tp lp um lp ∴ tm = 5.798 × = 7.24 h 1001/2 p − pv p − pv .9 · m−3.9 whence km = 1.12 Equate p − pv 1 2 2 u . Then up = um (lp /lm )1/2 = (1.15 Equate Re : um = up Tm Tp = whence pm = 821 kPa 5.4 h = 1. that is.13  lm lp 2  = lm lp 5/2 7 m3 · s−1 = 14.5 m · s−1 (Skin friction)m = 1.03 × 10−3 m3 · s−1 125/2 Equate Fr.15 pm = 20 = ∴ pp Tp lm Tm + 117 228.5 N · m−2 = km (3 m · s−1 )1. 14. that is.68 kPa Qm um = Qp up ∴ Qm = 5.15 2 345.Chapter 5  1/2 l p p µm l m m µ p     l p pp T m Tm 3/2 Tp + 177 = × Tp lm pm Tp Tm + 117 2      lp Tp + 177 Tm 288.5 m · s−1 Skin friction = kAun . equate h u2 1 (p − pv )p 12  1  = 1. equate  lp lm 1/2  = lm lp 1/2 12.15 405.9 N 252 29 .9 ∴ At 1.81 × 7 − 1230 Pa 12 = 2617 Pa ∴ (p − pv )m = ∴ pm = (2617 + 2340) Pa = 4957 Pa = (p0 )m − 1000 × 9.46 N 1200 × 1.013 × 105 − 1000 × 9.51.

63 × 1200 × 7.51.1) kN = 410 kN .46) N = 8.85 p ∴ kp = 43 N · m−2 (3 m · s−1 )−1.5 − 7.85 · m−3. resistance)m = (15.026 × 253 N = 128.85 N = 281.30 Solutions manual ∴ (Resid.1 kN ∴ (Total resistance)p = (128.85 ∴ At 7.85 = 5.04 × 1.04 N (Fresid )p = (Fresid )m p u2p lp2 p = (Fresid )m 2 2  m u m lm m  lp lm 3 = 8.9 kN (Skin friction)p = kp (Area)p u1.63 N · s1.9 + 281.5 m · s−1 (Skin friction)p = 5.

3 × 105 Pa πd 4 π0.1 m × 0.3 × 105 d p∗ = Pa = 183.1 3. 36u2m × = 1.81 × 45 sin 15◦ ) Pa = 116 kPa τ0 = 6.020 × 45 = N · m−2 = 3.14 ∴ p at upper end = (5.691 3 3 πR |τy | 3 π(0.3 × 105 − 1260 × 9.Chapter 6 6.E.9 × 0.05 m)3 × 120 Pa .2 0. flux divided by width Total rate of mass flow divided by width c 1 c 3 2 u dy 0 2 (u)u dy c = 0 c = 2 0 u dy 0 u dy c −k3 0 (y6 − 3cy5 + 3c2 y4 − c3 y3 ) dy k2 3c4 c = = 2 70 −2k 0 (y2 − cy) dy 1 um = c ∴ 6. Total rate of K.01 m3 · s−1 × 1.1 Re = p∗ = 4Q 4 × 0.3 0 c u dy = kc2 6 ∴ kc2 = 6um 3 K.3 Pa 4 45 4 l From eqn 6.543u2m /2 = 2 70 Mass B= 4Qµp 4 4 × 0.9 × 105 − 3.E.19.6 Pa · s 4 + = + = 2.020 m2 · s−1 × 1260 kg · m−3 ud = = = 357 µ πdµ π0. u = −k(y2 − cy) where k = constant.9 N · s · m−2 128µQl 128 × 0.

32

Solutions manual
m(finally) = 2.674 = τ0 /τy

From eqn 6.15,

∴ |τ0 | = 320.9 Pa

4τ0
4 × 320.9 Pa
dp∗
=
=−
= −12 835 Pa · m−1
dx
d
0.1 m

∴ p = 12 835 Pa · m−1 × 15 m = 192.5 kPa
6.4

Case (a):

Torque = 2π rlµ

du
ωr
r = 2π r2 lµ
t
dr

∴ Power = Tω = 2π r3 lµω2 /t
Case (b):

p = 12µlu/t 2

(from eqn 6.21)

Power = Qp = 2π rtup = 2π rt 3 p2 /12µl
2π rt 3 p2
2π r3 lµω2
=
t
12µl

2µlrω 3
whence p =
c2
Equate powers:

6.5

12µQ
dp
=−
dr
2π rc3

From eqn 6.20

0
p

dp =

r

R2

6µQ
6µQ
r
dr =
ln
= −p
3
3
R
π rc
πc
2

(1)

∴ Total lifting force between radii R1 and R2 is  

R2
6µQ
r
6µQ R22 − R21
R
2

− R21 ln
ln
2π r dr = 3
3
2
R2
R1
c
R1 π c
But from eqn (1) above
6µQ
π p1
=
ln(R2 /R1 )
c3
and there is additional lifting force p1 π R21 between radii 0 and R1  

R22 − R21
R
π p1
2
− R21 ln
+ p1 π R21
∴ Total lifting force =
2
R1
ln(R2 /R1 )  

π p1 R 22 − R 21
=
2ln(R 2 /R 1 )
c3 =

6µQ ln(R2 /R1 )
6 × 0.08 Pa · s × 0.85 × 10−3 m3 · s−1 ln 4
=
π p1
π 5.5 × 105 Pa

= 3.273 × 10−10 m3
∴ c = 0.689 mm

Chapter 6
6.6

dh
2π rδr = (u + δu)2π(r + δr)h − u2π rh = 2π h(rδu + uδr)
dt
dh
d
∴r
= h (ur)
dt
dr

r2 dh
= hur + const.
2 dt
r=0
∴u=

Const. = 0 to satisfy conditions at

r dh
2h dt

12µu
6µr dh
dp
=− 2 =− 3
dr
h
h dt
a
0
6µ dh
3µ dh 2
dp = −p = − 3
r dr = − 3
(a − r2 )
dt
dt
h
h
p
r
a
a
3µ dh
p 2π r dr = 3
(a2 r − r3 )dr

F=
h dt
0
0  

a4
6πµ dh a4

= 3
4
h dt 2

From eqn 6.20,

=
6.7

3π µa4 dh
2h3 dt

Weight – buoyancy of piston  

π
= 9 × 9.81 − 0.1132 × 0.15 × 900 × 9.81 N
4
= 75.0 N
Using mean diameter 114 mm, eqn 6.27 gives

6.8

Vp =

4 × 75.0 N
= 1.194 × 10−3 m · s−1
3π0.12 N · s · m−2 × 0.15 m(114/1)3

∴t=

0.075 m
= 62.8 s
1.194 × 10−3 m · s−1

Re =

d d2g
ud
− air )
=
(
ν
ν 18µ dust

Max. d 3 is when Re = 0.1.
=

Then d 3 =

18ν 2 0.1
g(dust − air )

18 × 1.225 kg · m−3 × 14.92 × 10−12 m4 · s−2 × 0.1
9.81 m · s−2 × (2500 − 1.225) kg · m−3
whence d = 2.713 × 10−5 m = 27.13 µm

u = Re

ν
0.1 × 14.9 × 10−6 m2 · s−1
= 0.0549 m · s−1
=
d
2.713 × 10−5 m

33

34

Solutions manual
6.9 

s =

13.7 × 10−6 kg
= 7750 kg · m−3
π/6 × 1.53 × 10−9 m3

µ=

d 2 g(s − )
18u

=

1.52 × 10−6 m2 × 9.81 N · kg−1 × (7750 − 950) kg · m−3
18 × 0.5 m/56 s

= 0.934 Pa · s
Re =

6.10

ud
950
0.5
× 0.0015 ×
= 0.01362
=
56
0.934
µ

which is <0.1

Difference of depths = 50 mm.
Difference of torques = 0.36 N · m
µ=
=

T(a2 − b2 )
4π ha2 b2 

[eqn 6.32]

0.36 N · m(0.05052 − 0.052 ) m2
4π × 0.05 m × 0.05052 m2 × 0.052 m2 × 30 s−1

= 0.1505 Pa · s
6.11

0.075 − 0.025
0.075 mm
=
∴ a = 225 mm
150
a 
  

−1
Tδ 2
2l
a
µ=
ln

6V
a−l
2a − l  

225 300 −1
5 × 105 N · m−1 × (1/3000)2
ln
=

75
300
6 × 1.5 m · s−1
δ=

= 0.0626 Pa · s

µV h1
+
ln
2
δ
h2  

0.0626 × 1.5
5 × 105
+
ln 3 N
=
2 × 3000
1/3000

Drag/width =

= 392.8 N
∴ Power = 392.8 N × 1.5 m · s−1 = 589 W
From eqn 6.36

p=

dp
6µV

= 2
dx
δ (2a − l) 

6µVx(l − x)
δ 2 (a − x)2 (2a − l)
(a − x)2 (l − 2x) + x(l − x)2(a − x)
(a − x)4 

=0

40 xp = a(3a − 2l) ln[a/(a − l)] − l(3a − l/2)   = 91.13 (a) µ= = Fc2 (1 − ε 2 )1/2 (2 + ε 2 ) 12πR3 ε (20 × 103 N/0.8 × 2. ql Vl 2 ql Vl − 3 + C and 0 = e − 3 e3 + C ∴0= 2 2 4h1 4h1 3h1 3h1 Eliminating C gives Vl 4h21 (e2 − 1) = ql 3h31 (e3 − 1) If max p occurs when x = xm and h = hm then V/2 = q/hm (from eqn 6.001)2 0.025 m)2 1.35 ∴ 1 dp q V − 3 = 2 12µ dx 2h h V 2x 3x q = exp − 3 exp 2 l l 2h1 h1 3x ql 2x Vl p − 3 exp +C exp = 2 l l 12µ 4h1 3h1 where C = constant.8 × 2.6 = 0.1 mm a − 2l (2a − l) ln a−l 6.06 m)(0.36 12π × 20π rad · s−1 × 0.02 W 35 . p = 0 at x = 0 and x = l.36 = 30.06 m 0.001 × 0.025 m × 0.35)   e3 − 1 V 4 2 xm 2 = = = exp ∴ l q 3h1 e2 − 1 hm h1    xm 2 e3 − 1 ∴ = 0.01771 Pa · s(20π rad · s−1 )2 (0.689 = ln 3 e2 − 1 l 6.01771 Pa · s Power = Torque ×  = = 4πµ2 R3 (1 + 2ε 2 ) × Length c(1 − ε 2 )1/2 (2 + ε 2 ) 4π 0.12 From eqn 6.63 × 106 Pa From eqn 6.72 × 0.Chapter 6 when x= ∴ pmax = al 2a − l 3µVl 2 2δ 2 a(a − l)(2a − l) = 5.

3◦ from load line   −1/2 4c2 (1 − ε 2 ) 16 2 (b) µ = Force × −1 ε +1 π RL3 ε π2 = 20 × 103 N × 4 × (0.025 m(0.64)2 π(20π rad · s−1 )(0.3◦ from OC.6 3 ∴ 130. that is.6 × {0.621 × 0.62 + 1}−1/2 = 0.001)2 0.02895 Pa · s π(1 − ε 2 )1/2 π 0. 130.8 π = = ∴ ψ = 46. where h = h0 that is.3◦ from load line is about 84◦ from OC.36 2 + ε2 ∴ θ = 180◦ ± 40. c(1+ε cos θ) = c(1−ε 2 )/(1+ε 2 /2) ∴ cos θ = − 3ε 1.8 =− 2.06 m)3 0. tan ψ = .32◦ 4ε 4 × 0.3◦ ∴ Min pressure is at 220.36 Solutions manual Supply hole ideally at position of min pressure. that is.

574) m = 6120 W 7. ∴ f = 0.025 × 3.Chapter 7 7.65 m2 = 0.15 = 1.62 0.5 m d 19.03 × 3.5 m · s−1 )2 0.1 u= Re = 0.5 = + 1.01 2 2 = 28.00679 hf = u2 2g     2.5 m·s−1 )2 0.546 m · s−1 × 0.15 m × 1830 kg · m−3 = 17 480 0.81 N · kg−1 (6 + 1.00679 × 18 4f l + 1.045 m3 · s−1 (π/4) (0.65 m2 = 0.546 m · s−1 2.574 m ∴ Power = 0.2 1 2 1 u f = 900 kg ·m−3 (2.01 = 31.045 m3 · s−1 × 1830 kg · m−3 × 9.75 × 3.5462 4 × 0.1095π m2 Wetted area of cylinder = π 0.09125π m2 Wetted area outside one tube = π0.125 Pa τ0 for liquid = τ0 for water = 1 1000 kg · m−3 (2.7375π m2 .04 Pa · s ∴ Turbulent flow.65 m2 = 2.0014(1 + 100 Re−1/3 ) = 0.25 Pa 2 Wetted area inside one tube = π 0.15 m)2 = 2.

7 m head 1000 × 9.01 × 450 u2 0.7375π ) m2 = 24.92 kW ∴ Saving = 2.25 × 24.20 m · s−1 1.25π m2 Case I Are wetted by water = (200 × 0.4 hf = 480 × 103 m = 54.37 m 900 × 9.926 × 0.81 × 60 sin 10◦ kPa = 692 kPa 1000 2 djet = 7.20 π Q = (0.25 × 18.5 m · s−1 × (−28.125 × 24.25 × 6.075 2g whence u in pipe = 2.7 π τ¯0 = 200 Pa = p∗ d 2 /(π dl) = p∗ d/(4l) 4 200 × 4 × 60 ∴ p∗ = Pa = 480 kPa 0.1095π + 2.7 − 35 − 3) m = 104.3 Jet velocity = 1.38 Solutions manual Area wetted by liquid = 18.81 If flow is laminar hf = 32luν 4l u2 16ν = d 2g ud gd 2 .01293 m3 · s−1 4 1 = 25.926 m · s−1 2.25π ) N = 9.125 × 6.64π ) N = 10.4 MPa =  2g × 35 m = 26.02506)2 × 26.64π m2 ∴ Power = 2.0752 m2 ∴ djet = 25.81 ∴ hf = (142.01293 m3 · s−1 × 14 × 106 N · m−2 × 0.5 m · s−1 × (28.39π + 31.20 m3 · s−1 = 0.06 mm 26.25π + 31.7 m = 4 × 0.4 × 106 m = 142.64π + 31.1   900 ∴ pinlet = 120 + 480 + × 9.125 × 18.08 kW Case II Power = 2.39π ) N = 157 W 7.85 kW Power = 0.5 m · s−1 (25.

049)2 900 m7 · s−2 New p = K(0.963 m · s−1 ∴ Re = 5803: OK π (0.04f d5 < 120 15 × 40m = m 85 17 ∴ d5 > [m6 ] 0.16lν 1/4 ∴ u = 6. where K = constant.0547 m3 · s−1 4    2  4f l ujet 4f 40 Area of jet 2 0. If flow is turbulent ∴ u7/4 = hf =  ν 1/4 4l u2 0.1/120 × 10−6 = 19 290 ∴ Flow is not laminar.81 × 10 Pa.067 2 13.08 ud d 2g ghf d 5/4 = 29.81 − 9.049 ∴ Inlet pressure = (19.5 = 0.85 (m · s−1 )7/4 0.15 × 0.81 × 104 = + 1 Pa = 19.6 10 m water ≡ 1000 × 9.81)104 Pa = 100 kPa 39 . = 17 × 10−5 3 Then [m5 ] d5 > 17 × 0.1)2 6.05 4 hf = = × 40 d 2g Area of hose d d Q= 7.01 3000 [m5 ] ∴ d > 1.81)104 Pa = K(0. ∴ (4 + 9.415 × 10−1 m = 141.049)2 450 m7 · s−2    0.067)2 450 m7 · s−2 + K(0.Chapter 7 ∴u= ghf d 2 = 23.5 mm.963 m3 · s−1 = 0.04 × 17 17 f = f 120 3000 Use higher value of f .81 × 104 Pa 2 0. say 150 mm 7. Now hf = KQ2 l.15 m · s−1 32lν ∴ Re = 23.

15 × 10−3 k = = 0.5 u21 = 0.7 For steady flow.62 (π/4)d 2 Inlet head = ∴ d 5 = 0.5u21 /2g 2 × 4 × 0.3 16 2g Friction in pipe(2): 0.075)2 1.81   0. Static lift = 20 m 820 × 9.5u21 /2g Exit loss = u23 /2g = 1.891 m3 · s−1 = 0.006 [m] = 2.040 (π/4)d 2 2.00542 × 60  u1 2 1 ∴ Loss = = 0.5u23 /2g = 0.1177m.214 × 104 d Then d = 0.40 Solutions manual 7.00667 × 7.00667 75 0.35 L · s−1 4 7.23u21 /2g whence u1 = 1. 0.88u21 /2g 4f l2 u22 d2 2g   25 where f = 0.00835 m3 · s−1 = 8.005 1 + = 0.00542 300 4 × 0.5 m = 8.075 2g Enlargement.017u21 /2g Loss at entry to (3) is 0.8 370 × 103 m = 46.891 m · s−1 π ∴ Q = (0. .040 2 6 4f 185 ∴ hf = 26 m = m d19.005 1 + = 0.1177 ∴ f = 0.001274 d 0.886 × 105 .23u21 /2g ∴ 1. head difference =  losses Entry to pipe (1): 4f l1 u21 Friction in pipes (1) and (3): 2 × d1 2g   25 where f = 0.33u21 /2g ∴ Loss = 0.0 m.003763f m5 Re = d 0.3 × 10−6 Try f = 0.0u21 /2g Total = 8. (1) → (2):   u21 1 2 (u1 − u2 )2 Loss = = = 1− 16 2g 2g   2  A1 d1 since u2 = u1 = u1 A2 d2 5.0057 [m] Re = 1.

81 = 0.Chapter 7 Then d = 0.517 X 50 mm   p∗2 u22 p∗ Manometer measures + − 1 g 2g g  1  2 that is.71 × 0.9 ∴ d = 116.1165 m.075 2 185  2. Re = 1.7 L · s−1 B 7.5 mm.62 × 26/185)1/2 = 0.1)2 = = 8.93 × 10−5 m6 · s−2 ∴ Q = 9.1)2  m6 · s−2 2/(π/4)(0.81 ∴ h = 0.71d 2 d 3/2 2ghf /l   1/2 π 0.62 × 26 = − (0.51 × 2.15 × 10−3 5/2 19.51ν k Q− d + log  1/2 l 3. u1 − (u1 − u2 )2 2g    Q2  1 2 1 2 = 2u1 u2 − u2 = − 2 =hm 2g 2g A1 A2 A2 ∴ Q2 = 2ghA2 (2/A1 ) − (1/A2 ) 19. say 120 mm     π 5/2 2ghf 1/2 2.05 × 13 600 × 9.34 kg · s−1 41 .075) log 3.05)2 − 1/(π/4)(0.0127 m3 · s−1 = 12. Then (h + 0.45 × 10−3 m3 · s−1 ∴ Mass flow rate = 9.075)3/2 (19.517 × (π/4)(0. k = 0.10 A (2) (1) X Let head difference above level XX be h metres of liquid.62 × 0.001288 d ∴ f = 0.0057 7.45 × 10−3 m3 · s−1 × 1200 kg · m−3 = 11.05)1200 × 9.901 × 105 .3 × 10−6 + m3 · s−1 (0.

5 + h2 + h 0.81 2g = Energy/weight at A − Head losses between A and X   4fx u2 101.1 = 7.0425 m3 · s−1 = 8.2893 1 + 0.12 ∴ Increase = 26.8 1000 × 9.0425 m · s−1 = 1.3 × 103 m − 0.5 + 0.01  2 ∴ 0.6 m 4m 1.81 whence h = 6.52 + h2 [m]   4 × 0.1 2g Energy/weight at X = ∴ u2 = 0.2 m  Length to X = x = 7.81 d 2g   4 × 0.3 × 103 + 1.2)2 .353 m · s−1 (π/4)(0.5 + = 1000 × 9.2893 m 2g  u2  40 × 103 m+ + h − 1.73 m · s−1 (π/4)(0.5 + 7.1 m)2 0.42 Solutions manual 7.265 u 5 7.8 m 1000 × 9.62 Velocity at B = 0.47 [m] Velocity at C = 0.11 A: (hf )A = 2 1 B: 4f l u2 d 2g 4f l/2 u22 4f l/2 u21 + d 2g d 2g   2 1 2f l u1 1+ = d 2g 4 (hf )B = 3 since u2 = u3 =     hf B = hf A u1 2 ! 8 u1 ∴ = = 1.13 61.5% X A h(m) 1.8 m 4.6 m = 1.01 × 36 u2 4.

2 = = (m) ν πdν π0.Chapter 7 Head lost C → B is (8. d = 569 mm For n pipes in parallel Re = Total power = ng 4(Q/n) π d2 ν ∴ d2 = d1 /n Q 32f l(Q/n)2 hf = gQ n π 2 gd25 32Q3 l  k = × const 5 2 2 d π d2 n 2  −16/3 d1 ∝ n−2 n ∴ 7.15 Power for n pipes = n10/3 .6 × 10−6 d which is >106 for all reasonable value of d.62 = −2.81 N · kg−1 × 2.73 − 1.139.772 m g 2g 19.62 = Loss between A and B u2 − u2B pB − pA {(200/150)4 − 1}1. Power for 1 pipe Pipe 1: This is >1  1/3 ∴ No advantage. d multiplied by 23/16 = 1.14 Re = ud 4Q 3.772 m = 1156 W 7.  4f l1 +1 d1   16Q21 4f l1 +1 = d1 π 2 d14 2g u2 u2 hf + 1 [which is lost] = 1 2g 2g 43 .772 m 19. that is. f For given Q and .571 m Power = 0.353)2 m = 2. ∴ f ∝ d ∴ Power ∝ d −16/3 ∴ If power halved. power ∝ hf ∝ 5 d  1/3 k f depends on relative roughness.3532 = A − h1 = m − 2.0425 m3 · s−1 × 1000 kg · m−3 × 9.

01 × 8000 2 u = 108.2)2 uB + (0.086 m · s−1   4 × 0.906 m3 · s−1 = 0.2 m · s−1 = 0.008 × 60 + 1 s2 · m−5 0.16 hAD = 4 × 0.48 m · s−1 (π/4)(0. hDC = ! ∴ uB = 59.15)2 uC 4 4 4 Hence h = 89.3 × 19.62 4 × 0.006 × 104 1. 96.037 − Q2 )2 = 2 + 2252Q22 Q2 = 0.2 m.8u2B [s2 · m−1 ] = h − 30 m 0.3)2 uA = (0.8 ! uC = 89.7u2C [s2 · m−1 ] = h 0.64 m whence 7.44 Solutions manual =  16Q21 π 2 (0.62 .0862 hf A = m = 19.0160 m3 · s−1 4 ∴ QB = 7.62  4 × 0.02153)2 m = 9.15)4 19.01 × 16 × 103 2 uA = 108.15 × 19.7 = 0.2)2 0.2 m · s−1 108.008 × 45 +1 0.1 s2 · m−5 = 1.75 19.6 m + 12 720Q21 s2 · m−5 = 8.02456 m3 · s−1 4 π QC = (0.01 × 9500 2 uB = 96.15 = 2252Q22 s2 · m−5 ∴ Total head at pump outlet (inlet as datum) = 6.7u2A [s2 · m−1 ] = 125 m − h 0.17 Q from A is 0.6 + 2252(0.02153 m3 · s−1   ∴ Head at outlet = 8.1)4 19.75)2 = 1.906 m · s−1 π (0.15)2 0.2 × 19.6m + 2252Q22 s2 · m−5 ∴ 12 720(0. where hDB = 4 × 0.781 m · s−1 .781 m3 · s−1 = 0.62  4 × 0.62 C π π π Continuty: (0.272 × 104 Q21 s2 · m−5 hf + Pipe 2:  u22 16Q22 = 2 2g π (0.62 h = head at D above C.48 m3 · s−1 ∴ uA = 0.25 m 0.

939 m3 · s−1 4 30 m = 1 1 2 u f = 1000 × 3.62 × 0.Chapter 7 Head at junction above level of pipe   = 3 + (2.35 m 4 × 0.359u2in = 1.18 4 × 0.1 Pa 2 2 uin x In first half of pipe ux = uin − 1500 τ0 = at x metres from inlet since (−) dQ Q/3 = 500 m dx 500m  uin x 2 dx 1500 0 0   500 0.62 u2x dx 4f = 2gd  2 uin 3 uin − 2 = 1.385 m · s−1 19 4 + 27 9  4 9 45 .008 × 500 = 0.2 × 10−3 3000 − 3 m = 12.359u2in whence uin = 4.6 3 1500 0    3 2 19 = 1.75 m       hf B = 5.24 2 m6 (π/4)dB2 whence dB = 0.2 × 10−3 )104 − 19.008 × 1000 u2 s2 · m−1 ∴ u = 3.032 1 x 3 = u2in 1− (−1500) 19.62 π ∴ Q = (0.6 × 19.75 + 3.359u2in  ∴ 30 m = hf1 + hf2 = 1.75 + 2.6 19.25 m = 5.512 m       hf C = 5.62  0.322 m · s−1 0.75 × 10−3 5500 − 3 m = 17.62  0.006 × 5500 = dB 19.008 Pa = 44.488 m 7.24 2 m6 2 (π/4)dC whence dC = 0.875 m 4 × 0.6)2 3.359u2in 13 − 3 27 500m hf1 4f = 2gd hf2 4 × 0.322 m3 · s−1 = 0.3222 × 0.006 × 3000 = dC 19.

10 0 1m √ × 2 19.5 = + 1. triangular.6)2 m3 · s−1 = 0.0252 19.52 34 1+ = δzA 9 1.152 = 7.46 Solutions manual 2 × 4.9 (0.62 For lower.01 × 75 u u2 4f l + 1.05 2g 2g ∴ Qδt = − .923 m · s−1 3 π = 2.6(π/4) × 0.21 Let surface areas of tanks be A.5 = 61.15 m)2 4  × 2 2gh dt 1m h ∴ t1 = −18 × 9 √ 0.rectangular. portion t2 = 0. B.62 1.5 h= d 2g 0.20   6 5 δzA ∴ δzA = δh 5 6  π 5 − (1.923 (0.52   = δzA 9 Aδh = −(1.19 1m For upper.5 m2 ) δh = 0.5 δh = δ (zA − zB ) = δzA − − δzA 7.30 m2 )δh 34  2   2  u 4 × 0.2 s √ 0.9 (π/4) × 0.62 m · s−2 h1/2 δt 6 4 0 √ −1.2m 1.025 m)2 19.62 2m h−1/2 dh = 952 s h 18 × 9 m2 = 162h m2 1 A= 1 1m 0 1m −Ah−1/2 dh −162h1/2 dh = 767 s Total time = t1 + t2 = 1719 s 7.826 m3 · s−1 4 ∴ uout = ∴ Qout 7.385 m · s−1 = 2.6 (0.  portion − 18 × 9 m2 dh π = 0.5 × (5/6) ∴t= h−1/2 dh = 958 × 2 1.  δh = δ (zA − zB ) = δzA A 1+ B Then A(−δzA ) = BδzB = Qδt  2.9(π/4) × 0.152 × 2 19.5 = = 2100 s 7.

00111 m5/2 · s−1 h1/2 and  1.5  2 = π 0.2017 m 34 0.238 m ∴ h = 0.45 + (h − 1.09h−1/2 + 0.7 h2 2   0.762 m = 0.30 2.45 m t=− h2 h1 4 d2 4 = 2 d 4f l 2gd  1.3 + 0.06h1/2 + 0.22 A = π r2 " = π 0.15 #2 2 m 1.5 m A dh = au  = 0.Chapter 7   ∴ u = 0.5 m 2.762 m ∴ zA = 9 × 0.1h h1 d 2 /4 4f l −1/2 dh h 2gd (0.6 m 7.00111h1/2 whence x = 0.01h3/2 ) dh .60  1/2 = 1200 s 1 − x dh = 0.00111 0.565 m1/2 · s−1 h1/2 t=− x 1m   Q = 0.5) h(m) 0.8 1.3 + 0.1h m2 × 1.

017 m3 · s−1 = 3.01 × 3 u2 1.004h5/2 1.23 0.62 × 6002 4 = 2 d = 0.0404 m.2027 = 600 s 2gd  1/5 42 × 4 × 0.04h3/2 + 0.2.20272 ∴d= m 19.0 + = 2.5 m + h1 = 1.7 2gd  4f l × 0. say 40 mm 7.075 2g Initially u = 47 .075 m)2   u2 4 × 0.8 4f l 0.6 2g 0.18h1/2 + 0.848 m · s−1 (π/4)(0.008 × 36 × 0.

25 + h 1.01214 2 2 − 1.012142 2 π Then t = − 4 0.017 0.48 Solutions manual h1 = 0.5 + h)1/2 = π 4 An analytical solution is possible.034 − x) = 1.5 π (4. second units 6 1.034 −1 x = 1.067 × 107 x3 − 6.667 × 106 x4 − 1.01298  − 7.462 m (depth in tank) whence  π A= 4 2 1.067 × 104 ×  dx x × (0.  0.870 × 104 x x 0.034 − x) dx 0.034 − 0.75 4.55 × 105 x3 + 2.01214 and dh = −2(0.01214(1.435 × 104 x2 − 2.017  0.01298 dx 0. dt 0.034 − x 0.034 m3 · s−1 dt = Adh + au dt    1/2  π 2 19.255 × 107 x5 = 1626 s .067 × 104 4.034 − (0.   0.6   7 2  4.075) 4 2.62(1.66 − 539x + 7921x2 2  0.27 × 107 x4 dx = 1.62 ln x − 563x + 1.25 + (7/6)h)2 dh ∴t= seconds 4 0.017  4.62 − 563 + 2.25 + 6  0.5 + h) that is.5  11.01298 7 4.5 + h 0.5 m2 When Q = 0.65 × 105 x2 + 1.462 0.034 m3 · s−1 .034 − x then = 1. Put denominator = x.067 × 104 0.25 + h dh metre.012142 0.

0.) .01298 (This depends on relatively small differences.017 0.

Chapter 7 7.81 P   π 2 gd 5 ∴ Q2 = 50. head required = h + hf = h + h 3m = 32f lQ2 π 2 gd 5 500 × 103 m = 50.24 At any time.97 m 1000 × 9.97 m − h 2.955 × 10−6 m5 · s−2 Also Q = Adh/dt ∴ t= 5.97 m − h 32f l   = 50.2m 1/2 .5m 3.

97 − h 2.25 1 (500 kPa) η 1 Q(500 kPa)δt η Qdt = 1 (500 kPa)(Volume transferred) η = 5.5 5dh103 5000  s =− √ 2 50.955 Power required = 1 1 Qg(h + hf ) = Q(500 kPa) η η ∴ Electricity used in time δt is ∴ Total used = 7.58 m − h 32f l 32f lQ2 π 2 gd 5 300 × 103 m = 30.5.47 s = 980 s √ 104 =√ 2.52 0. head required = h + hf = h + =   π 2 gd 5 ∴ Q2 = 30.072 kW · h 0.52 × 103 = 5.3 N · m = kW · s 0.58 m 1000 × 9.2 2.77 − 45.955 50.81 49 .75 × 106 1 500 × 103 × 5 × 2.97 − h √ 3.75 × 103 kW · h = 3.955  √ √ 47.52 × 3600 At any instant.

50 Solutions manual Also Q = Adh/dt ∴t= 5.6m 3.0m Adh π(30.58 − h)1/2  32f l gd 5  .

2537 ≮ g 15 × 60π .581/2 − 24.0 π gd  2A 32f l = (27.5.6 A 32f l =− 2(30.58 − h)1/2 5 3.981/2 ) π gd 5  ∴d 2A = πt 12 32f l 0.

81 d > 62.27 p∗ = (7 × 105 − 4.624 × 10−4 m5/2 5/2 d ≮ 0.02)2 ln 4 = 1.98 Pa .81 × 10−12 × 478 Pa · s = 64lA ln 4 64 × 0.46 Pa τ=   r dp∗ 29 900 Pa = 0.0125 m − 2 dx 30 m = (−)12.1 mm Final difference of levels = (40 − 2 × 15) mm = 10 mm   dz1 dz2 A − =Q=A dt dt ∴ dz1 d Q 2gπ d 4 h dh = = −2 = − (z1 − z2 ) = 2 dt dt dt A A128νl 0.2537 9. = 9.01m 64νlA dh 64νlA ∴t=− ln4 = 4 gπ d 0. 7.0621 m that is.007 × 35 0.04m h gπ d 4 ∴µ= gπ d 4 t 840 × 9.62 × 105 ) Pa − 1000 kg · m−3   × 9.81 N · kg−1 30 sin 45◦ m = 29 900 Pa   29 900 Pa R dp∗ τ0 = = 0.26 ! 32 × 0.110 mPa · s 7.4 × 14 (0.005 m − 2 dx 30 m = (−)4.

Chapter 7 7.28 (p1 − p2 ) πR2 − F = Rate of increase of momentum R = 2πr dru2 − π R2 V 2 0 = 2π4V = R 2 0  r2 r 1− 2 R 2 dr − π R2 V 2 1 4 πR2 V 2 − π R2 V 2 = π R2 V 2 3 3 ∴ F = π R 2 (p1 − p2 − V 2 /3) 51 .

21 kg · m −3 [Table 8.332 × 1.1366 2 2 2π 2 π π 0 8.4 m = 0.074(Rel )−1/5 = 0.21 kg · m−3 × (6 m · s−1 )2 × 2.66)1/5 × 10 . 6 m · s−1 × 2.66 × 105 )1/2 ∴ Power = 2 × 0.1 δ∗ = δ 0 1 u 1− um  dη =   πη  2 πη 1 1 − sin dη = η + cos 2 π 2 0 1 0 2 = 1 − = 0.074 = 0.332 u2m (Rex/2 )−1/2 = 0.664 × 1.4 m = 9.01199 m τ0 = 0.0470 (9.66 × 105 2 −1/2 = 0.0636 N (9.763 W For turbulent layer CF = 0.4 m ∴δ (9.91x/(Rex )1/2 From Blasius’s solution.0208 Pa Total drag on one side = 0.Chapter 8 8.3634 π   1 1 θ u πη  u πη 1− dη = sin = − sin2 dη δ um 2 2 0 um 0  1 2 1 2 1 πη η = − cos − + sin π η = − + = 0.9 m × 0.66 × 105 14.9 × 10−6 m2 · s−1 4.91 × 2.0636 N × 6 m · s−1 = 0.66 × 105 )1/2 Rex = = 0.1]  −1 × 6 m·s 2  9.2 δ  4.

eqn 8.4 m × 0.731 [eqn 8.1 W 8.8 m(1000 kg · m−3 )(3 m · s−1 )2 = 36  1/5 −6 m2 · s−1 4/5 10 × 0.654 W 8.023 x 72 5 U but const.5 m · s−1 × 3 m = 2.69 N Power = 55.3773x4/5 (ν/U)1/5 x 7 Total drag = 2b τ0 dx = 2b × U 2 δ 72 0 7 = bU 2 0.023U 2 Uδ  ν 1/4 7 1/4 ∴ dx δ dδ = 0.269 xt (5 × 105 )3/8 ∴ x0 /xt = 0.69 N × 3 m · s−1 = 167.Chapter 8 ∴ Power = 2 × 1 2 u (Area)CF um 2 m = 1.9 = = 0.9 gives 1 δ ∂ ∂ τ0 =  (U − u)u dy = U 2 δ η1/7 (1 − η1/7 )dη ∂x 0 ∂x 0 [where η = y/δ]   dδ 7 7 8/7 7 9/7 1 2 ∂ = U − η = δ η U 2 ∂x 8 9 72 dx 0  ν 1/4 = 0.29] 53 .9 m)0.023 72 U  ν 1/4 7 4 ∴ × δ 5/4 + const = 0.4 (a) Rel = 10.1 × 106 15 × 10−6 m2 · s−1 Ret = 5 × 105 ∴ xt /l = 5/21 xt − x0 36. = 0 since δ = 0 when x = 0 ∴ δ = 0.3 Since U = constant.00470 = 2.3773(2.3773x4/5 (ν/U)1/5 36 7 0.21 kg · m−3 (6 m · s−1 )3 (2.5 m) 3 m · s−1 = 55.

From eqn 8.332 mm . length of laminar layer = 5 × 105 × 110 m = 0.5 × 0.455 = 0. CF = 0.6 Increase in θ Turb.22 ∴ Rel = = 3.44 m · s−1 3600 44.22 kg · m−3 2 × (44.003454 2 ∴ Rel = (b) CF = 10.79 × 10−5 um = If transition occurs at Re = 5 × 105 .25 m × 1 × 1.664 × 0.3 = 2.003454 (2.1 × 105 15 × 10−6 2θ = 1.165 m 3.44 × 110 × 1.9 kW 8.192 0.003454 = 1.5 m (106 )1/2 = 0.5 × 10−6 m2 · s−1 = 106 3m (θt )lam = 0.26. = xo xt =0.001808 (8.332 × 108 ∴ Assume layer turbulent throughout.5 ∴ Wholly laminar [Table 8.1] 0.44 m · s−1 = 87.1 × 106 )1/5 1 ∴ Drag = u2m (Area)0.5227)2.44 m · s−1 )2 0.074 CF = [1 − 0.5 m At transition Rext 29 m · s−1 × 0.332 × 108 1.00290 160 × 103 m · s−1 = 44.5 m 14.174]4/5 = 0.58 Power = 110 m × 8.731 × = 0.1740 l xt l 21 0.001808 × 44.328(Rel )−1/2 x = 0. lam.54 Solutions manual x0 x0 xt 5 = = 0.00290 ∴ Ratio = 8.

5 m)1/5 5/4 = 0.7 θ= 0.82 ) m2 · s−2 2 = 317.721 × 0.092)2 = 1.546 mm b2 252 −1 = 1.004397 m = 0. length 2 × 0.037(xt − x0 ) {U(xt − x0 )/ν}1/5 1/5 =  whence xt − x0 = 0.003 = 4400 15 × 10−6 Eqn 8.2 Pa 8.198 1 − 4400 22 m · s−1 ∴ ω = 1445 Hz 55 .8 × 0.150 m (2.15 × 0.332 × 10−3 m 0.231 × 105 )1/2 Outlet velocity = u1 [Table8.Chapter 8 So for turbulent layer with virtual origin at x = x0 1.003 m = 0.15 × 0.3763)/14.7 ω × 0.e.8 Re = 22 × 0.8 m · s (b − 2δ ∗ )2 (25 − 1.037(xt − x0 )4/5 xt (Uxt /ν)1/5 106/5 × 1.1] = 0.231 × 105 1.037(0.004397 m {29(3 − 0.3763 m At x = 3 m CD = = 8.21 × 10−6 ∴ Laminar boundary layer δ∗ = 1.5 × 10−6 }1/5 Drag/width 1 2 2 U × length = U 2 θtrailing edge 1 2 2 U × length = 2θt.037(3 − 0. Rel = 1.9682 − 1.00293 3m If main-stream velocity remained unchanged.332 × 10−3 m = 0.1237 m ∴ x0 = 0.150 = 2.968 m · s−1 Pressure drop = 1 1000 kg · m−3 (1.3763) m = 0.33 :   19.

∴ φ = 129.56 Solutions manual 8. total component of pressure drag where boundary layer is attached φ (const − 2U 2 sin2 θ)rdθ cos θ per unit length =2 0  = 2r C sin θ − 2U  21 3 3 sin θ 2 U 2 sin3 φ 3 = 2r C sin φ − φ  0 p at separation = C − 2U 2 sin2 φ ∴ Drag divided by length.45νr 2U sin6 (x1 /r)   x1 x1 8 x1 2 1 × − cos + cos3 − cos5 15 r 3 r 5 r .10 um = 2U sin ∴ x r dum 2 x = U cos dx r r At x = x1 . 8.45νr x1 0.24 3 ∴ sin φ = 0. θ2 = 0.7747 ∴ φ = 50. skin friction neglected.78 or 129. due to pressure in wake = −2r(C − 2U 2 sin2 φ) sin φ ∴ Net pressure drag/length = 4rU 2 sin3 φ − CD = 3 8 2 3 rU sin φ 1 2 2 U × 2r ◦ 4 8 rU 2 sin3 φ = rU 2 sin3 φ 3 3 = 8 sin3 φ = 1. If separation occurs at θ = φ.45νr x 2 3 x 5 x + cos = cos − cos r 3 r 5 r 0 2U sin6 (x1 /r) = = 0.22◦ But separation occurs only where pressure gradient adverse.9 p = const − 12 (2U sin θ)2 if boundary layer thin.2◦ .45ν 6 2U sin (x1 /r) x1 0 sin5 x dx r  2  x 2 x − 1 − cos d cos r r 2U sin6 (x1 /r) 0 x1  1 −0.

14.79 kg · m = 14.Chapter 8 θ 2 dum ν dx 0.11 Re = (a)  and x1 ≡ 103.150 = 6 × 105 15 × 10−6 From Fig.23 m Check: Re = 8.09 8.15.21 kg · m−3 (60 m · s−1 )2 (0.08 1 π × 1.21 kg · m−3 −3  1/3 57 .1◦ r 60 × 0.21 kg · m 9.21 × 602 0.08 2 4 = 3. 8.81 N = 1 π × 1.708 mm 10 m · s−1 × 1. CD  1. Then 90 × 9.152 × 1.0 × 10 −6 N·s·m −2 × 2798.10 N = 42.14. ∴ d= Re = 1148 1148 × 18 × 10−6 N · s · m−2 = 1.12 1 π × 1.32 × d 2 2 4 ∴ d = 6.0 N 4 2 Drag = 90 × 9. 8.23 exceeds 103 15 × 10−6 1/3  (4Re/3CD )1/3 = uT 2 /gµ( )  2   −1 −3 1.81 N when u = 6 m · s−1 Assume CD = 1.10 ∴ Drag  8.15 m)2 0. 8.81 N · kg−1 = 10 m · s ×18.36 ∴ From Fig.08 N ∴ Drag  (b) From Fig. CD  0.32.45r ∴ λ=  x1 x1 1 x1 2 8 = − cos5 − cos + cos3 6 3 r 5 r 15 r 2U sin (x1 /r) × 2 x1 U cos r r which is satisfied by λ = −0.22 kg · m−3 (6 m · s−1 )2 × 1.13 6 × 6.

00668)1/2  k/d = 0.54 Pa τ0 = 8.48 ∴ From Fig.1 m)2 f = 19.001708 m (10−3 N · s · m−2 )2 For water = 44.75(f /2)1/2 = 2.58 Solutions manual  1/3  1/3 3 = d ( )g/µ2 CD (Re)2 4 1/3  1000 kg · m−3 × 1800 kg · m−3 × 9.355 m · s−1 )2 Re = 2.0185 m3 · s−1 = 2.26 k + = −4 log 3.56: (0.89 m × 0.62 m · s−2 × 1.81 N · kg−1 = 0.963 × 105 (0.355 m · s−1 (π/4)(0.15.50]  1/2  2 3R f = 2π × 2. 8.14 Re = 443 443 × 10−3 N · s · m−2 = 0.4 = d 5/2 4 4l .355 m · s−1 × 0.002955 R (um − u)π R2 = (um − u)2π r dr whence  = −2π A 0 τ0  1/2 0 ln R  R (R − y)dy y  [from eqn 8. ∴ uT = 8.001708 m × 1000 kg · m−3 u= 0.259 m · s−1 0.75u(f /2)1/2   ∴ um = u 1 + 3.15 1000 kg · m−3 50 × 10−3 m hf = = 0.355 m · s−1 )2 0.00668 4 × 25 m × (2.00668) −1/2  1.866 m · s−1 1 2 1 u f = × 1000 kg · m−3 (2.00668 2 2 = 18.7 kg · m−3   π 2 2ghf d 1/2 π 2 Q= d u= d 4 4 4f l  1/2   2ghf π 4 log10 (Re f 1/2 ) − 0.2 × 10−6 m2 · s−1 Eqn 8.71d 1.963 × 105 1.1 m = 0.07143 × l 1000 m 0.5u 2 4 ∴ um − u = 3.1 m = 1.

Chapter 8
π
= d 5/2
4
π
= d 5/2
4  

ghf
2l
ghf
2l 

1/2  

2 log10 (Re2 f ) − 0.4 

1/2  

2 log10

2gd 3 hf
4ν 2 l  

− 0.4  

1/2
−2
π
5/2 9.81 m · s 0.07143
= (0.25 m)
2
2    

9.81 × 0.253 × 0.07143
− 0.2
× log10
2 × 182 × 10−12
= 0.204 m3 · s−1 
ghf d
p∗ d
=
= 0.7 kg · m−3 × 9.81 N · kg−1
l 4
l 4
1
× 0.07143 ×
m
16
= 0.03066 Pa

τ0 =

59

Chapter 9

9.1

∂u ∂v
+
= 0 ∴ Continuity is satisfied
∂x ∂y
∂v ∂u
But
− 
= 0 ∴ Flow is not irrotational
∂x ∂y

9.2

Only (a) and (e) satisfy eqn 9.9

9.3

∂ψ
∂φ
= 4y = −
∴ φ = −4xy + f (y)
∂y
∂x
∂ψ
∂φ
∴ φ = −y − 4xy + f (x)
v=
= 1 + 4x = −
∂y
∂x
u=−

∴ φ= −y − 4xy + const.
ζ =

∂v ∂u

=4−4=0
∂x ∂y

∴ Flow irrotational

At (1, −2) q2 = u2 + v2 = (64 + 25) m2 · s−2 = 89 m2 · s−2  

1
∴ p∗0 = 4800 + × 1.12 × 89 Pa
2
q2 = u2 + v2 = (576 + 1369) m2 · s−2 = 1945 m2 · s−2  

1 2
1


∴ p = p0 − q = 4800 + × 1.12(89 − 1945) Pa
2
2

At (9, 6)

= 3761 Pa
9.4

∂φ
A
1 ∂ψ
∂ψ
=− =−

= A and ψ = Aθ + f (r)
∂r
r
r ∂θ
∂θ
∂ψ
∂φ
qt = −
=0=
∴ ψ = f (θ )
r∂θ
∂r
∴ ψ = Aθ + const.

qr = −

Chapter 9
9.5

r = (1.52 + 22 )1/2 m = 2.5 m ∴ qr =

3π/2
m · s−1 = 0.3 m · s−1
2π 2.5

1 2 
q = constant
2 r  

∂p∗
m
∂qr

= −qr
= −qr −
∂r
∂r
2π r2

Along radial streamlines p∗ +

= 800 kg · m−3 × 0.3 m · s−1

3π/2
m2 · s−2
2π(2.5 m)2

= 28.8 Pa · m−1
Acceleration = qr

9.6

u2
dh
=
dr
gr

and ur = constant = C

C2
∴ h =
g

Q=

r2

r1 

=s

∂qr
3π/2
m · s−2 = −0.036 m · s−2
= −0.3
∂r
2π 2.52

r2
r1

dr
C2
=
3
2g
r

s udr = sC

2g( h)r21 r22

r2

r1 

1/2 

1
r21

1

∴ 

dh
C2
= 3
dr
gr

r22 


dr
r2
= sC ln
r
r1 

r2
ln
r1  

= sr1 r2

2g( h)

r22 − r21
r22 − r21 

s
s
=s r+
r−
2
2

1/2

  



2g( h)
r + s/2
× 
ln   


r − s/2
 r + s 2 − r − s 2

2
2    

s2
2r + s
2
= r −
(sg

7 ∂p∗ /∂r = ω2 r. Here ω = const. 2 At free surface p = 0 ∴ gz = 12 ω2 r2 + C (which is eqn of paraboloid) 1/2  ln r2 r1  61 .. ∴ p∗ = 1 2 2 ω r + const.h/r)1/2 ln 4 2r − s 9.

05 1 Pressure at circumference = ω2 R2 2  2 1 = 900 kg · m−3 2π × 15 rad · s−1 2 ∴ ω= 9.125)4 4 N = 1533 N 9.5 kPa Force on elemental annulus = ∴ Total force = ω2 π  R 0 1 2 2 ω r × 2π r dr 2 ' r3 dr = ω2 π R4 4 (  = 900(2π × 15)2 π(0.9  1 q2   1 2 2 ω r2 − r21 =  21 r22 − r21 2 2 r1   2  1 q 1  2 In free vortex p2 − p1 =  q1 − q22 = q21 1 − 22 2 2 q1   r2 1 = q21 1 − 12 2 r2 In forced vortex p2 − p1 = If p2 − p1 for forced vortex = 2(p2 − p1 for free vortex) and q1 is same for both.05 m) R2 (0.2 × 9.   r22 − r21 r21 then = 2 1 − 2 whence r42 − 3r21 r22 + 2r41 = 0 r21 r2 3r21 ± 9r41 − 8r41 ∴ r22 = = 2r21 or r21 2 √ Reject r22 = r21 because then p2 − p1 = 0.125 m)2 = 62. ∴ r 2 = r 1 2 .8 × (0.81)1/2 rad · s−1 = 28.62 Solutions manual Take z = 0 at vertex.01 rad · s−1 0. Then C = 0 ∴ z = π r dz = Volume of air =  = π R2 ∴ ω2 = R 2 0 150 mm 3 π r2  ω 2 r2 2g π ω 2 R4 ω2 2r dr = 2g 4g 4g(0.

1 m)2 2 p∗ = D − =D− (0.3π m2 · s−1 )2 1 1000 kg · m−3 2 (0.1 m)2 whence D = 9000π 2 Pa In free vortex q = 6 m · s−1 when C 0. q = 0 ∴ p∗∞ = K 9.Chapter 9 9. 63 . 2 Let p = 0 when r = 0.11 In forced vortex p∗ = 1 2 q 2 ∴ C = ωR2 p∗ = K − ∴ Difference in surface levels = 1 2 2 ω r 2 ∴ K = p∗0 + ω2 R2 p∗∞ − p∗0 = ω2 R 2 /g g 1 1 1 2 2 ω r = q2 = 1000 × 62 Pa 2 2 2 = 18 kPa where q = 6 m · s−1   For free vortex qr = C = ωR2 = 30π rad · s−1 (0.3π )2 1 ∗ 2 Then p = 9000π − 1000 Pa 2 (π/20)2 r= = (9000π 2 − 18 000)Pa = 70. ω = 8 × 2π rad · s−1 = 50.12 For forced vortex and p= ∴ A = 0.27 rad · s−1 1 2 2 ω r + A. 1000 kg · m−3 30π rad · s−1 (0.83 kPa ∴ p∗ = (70.83 kPa 9.83 − 18) kPa = 52.3π π = m= m q 6 20   (0.1 m p∗forced = p∗free  2 1 that is.1 m)2 = 0.3π m2 · s−1 1 C2  2 r2 At R = 0.10 For forced vortex q = ωr and For free vortex qr = C and ' At interface q = C R = ωR p∗1 − p∗0 = p∗ = K − 1 1 2 2 ω R = ω2 R2 + p∗0 2 2 At r = ∞.

15)0.3m 0.152 Pa = 51.15 m)2 = D − ω2 (0.2 kPa C = qr = (50.131 ln 2 N = 2π 2 2  = 8343 N ∴ Grand total = 904 N + 8343 N ≈ 9250 N 3θ1 2 −1 θ m ∴ ψ1 = m ·s .15 m)4 = 904 N 4 = 0.15 m2 · s−1 = 1.15 m)2 = 900 × 50.13 For a sink ψ = − ψ2 = 3 1 ∂ψ =− m · s−1 for (1) when r = 2 m r ∂θ 4π √ 1 and − √ m · s−1 for (2) when r = 2 2 m π 2 qr = − 2θ2 2 −1 m ·s π .15 ) − 900 × 1.15m For free vortex qr = C and p = D − 12 q2 At r = 0.3m 0.272 × 0.131 m2 · s−1 ∴ Total force for free vortex = 0.15m  = 2π  1 C2 D−  2 2 r  2π r dr Dr2 r 1 − C 2 ln 2 2 r0 0.64 Solutions manual Total force on top of drum caused by forced vortex 1 2 2 π ω r 2π rdr = ω2 (0.15 m)2 2 2 whence D = ω2 (0.15m (where ln r0 = integration constant)  1 51 200 2 2 2 (0.27 × 0.27 rad · s−1 (0.15 m)2 and q = ω(0.15 m)4 4 2 0 2  π = 900 kg · m−3 50.15 m) as for 1 1 2 ω (0.3 − 0. 2π 2π   1 3 θ1 + 2θ2 m2 · s−1 ∴ ψ= π 2 9.15 m. p = forced vortex ∴ 1 2 2 ω (0.

at (0. 0) is stagnation point.Chapter 9  1   ∴ u = − √ cos 135◦ m · s−1  ∴ q = (u2 + v2 )1/2   π 2    1  1 √  = m · s−1  = 29 m · s−1 2π 4π    3 1 = 0. stagnation point is on x-axis and at (s. θ2 − θ1 = = π − 2θ1 by symmetry ∴ πUY π b = − θ1 = arctan m 2 Y that is. stagnation point is at m.14 y U θ1 θ2 Rankine oval Source at (−b. sink at (b. 0).8◦ 4π By symmetry. m m + ∴ 0=U− 2π(X − b) 2π(X + b) X 2 − b2 m = πU b Max velocity. 0 7 − 9. x m (θ2 − θ1 ) 2π m 2by = −UY + arctan 2 2π x − b2 + y 2 Then ψ = −UY + ∴ Eqn of surface is: the above = 0 For the point (0.5  5  −1  =− m·s = 291. 2π UY m   b π UY = tan Y m Also (−X. Y) on line ψ = 0.429 m · s−1  v= − − √ cos 45◦ m · s−1    4π  π 2   at 360◦ − arctan 2. is whence m m cos θ1 + cos(π − θ2 ) 2π(b2 + Y 2 )1/2 2π(b2 + Y 2 )1/2   b b m + =U+ 2π(b2 + Y 2 )1/2 (b2 + Y 2 )1/2 (b2 + Y 2 )1/2 U+ 65 . Y). each of strength |m|. 0). 0) where 3 4 6 =− ∴ s= m 7 2πs 2π(2 m − s)   6 that is.

052 −1 = 3m·s = 4.05 = m (metre.2 mm  |m| = π U X 2 − b2 b   0. θ = π 1 − 2π 2 m   y 2π UY 2π UY ∴ = tan θ = tan π − = − tan x m m Stagnation where r = 2π UY = −ycot(20π y) (metre units) m π When y = 0.5 = m = 15.05 m.025 π .471 m2 · s−1   X2 + Y 2 [as in Problem 9.5 m 30 =0+ m · s−1 = m · s−1 2π r 2π × 0. x = 0 that is.5 m2 · s−1 m 1.36 m · s−1 0.66 Solutions manual =U+ mb + Y 2) π(b2  X2 + Y 2 Y 2 + b2   2 2 2 1 X + Y ∴ Max pressure difference = U 2 2 Y 2 + b2 (X 2 − b2 )U =U =U+ b2 + Y 2 9.1 m and Y = 0.16 ymax = 0.14] Max velocity = U Y 2 + b2     0.07812  = π 3 m · s−1 m 0.15  Eliminating m from the two simultaneous eqns in Problem 9.0781 m (by trial) ∴ Distance between source and sink = 2b = 156. θ = 2 ∴ x = −y cot ∴ qt = −U sin θ = −15 m · s−1 qr = U cos θ + 1.14 gives bY b = tan 2 Y X − b2 Then with X = 0.052 + 0.12 − 0.12 + 0. b = 0.92 mm 2π U 2π × 15   θm m 2UY Eqn of surface is − UY − = − that is.025 m. second units) 2 × 15 ∴ m = 1.0781 = 0.07812 9.

Chapter 9   2 1 2 30 1 p = q = × 1.23 kg · m−3 152 + 2 m2 · s−2 = 194. tan θ2 = 2π x x  '  ' (y − a) x + (y + a) x 2xy '  ∴ tan(θ1 + θ2 ) = = 2 x − y 2 + a2 1 − y 2 − a2 x 2   m 2xy ∴ ψ= −Uy− arctan 2π x2 −y2 +a2 9. tan θ1 = .5 Pa 2 2 π m y−a y+a (θ1 + θ2 ).17 ψ = −Uy − −1  m 4x2 y2 ∂ψ =− 1+  v= 2 ∂x 2π x2 − y 2 + a 2   2 x − y2 + a2 2y − 4x2 y × 2  x2 − y 2 + a 2   2y a2 − x2 − y2 m =−   2π x2 − y2 + a2 2 + 4x2 y2 = 0 when (i) y = 0 or (ii) a2 = x2 + y2 −1  ∂ψ m 4x2 y2 u=− =U + 1+  2 ∂y 2π x2 − y 2 + a 2   2 x − y2 + a2 2x + 4xy2 ×  2 x2 − y 2 + a 2   2x x2 + y2 + a2 m = U+   2π x2 − y2 + a2 2 + 4x2 y2 mx   π x2 + a2 For case (i): u = U + π Ux2 + mx + π Ua2 = 0  m (+) m2 that is. when x = − − a2 2π U − 4π 2 U 2 m m = 0 when x = − and For case (ii): u = U + 2πx 2π U =0 when y2 = a2 − m2 4π 2 U 2 ∴ Impossible which is < 0 67 .

580 .003 = 2.9 m × 3 m 3 = 1296 N p − p∞ = 9.003 + 90π " # = 7800 π × 0.2882 × 0.2882 × 0.2 m · s−1 0.588 × 0.19 Mass of cylinder π  π (0.18 1/2 4m4 π 2 (m2 − 4U 2 a2 )2   Fx divided by depth = 3π/2 π/2 −pa cos θ dθ and 1 1 (U 2 − q2 ) = U 2 (1 − 4 sin2 θ) 2 2 3π/2 1 ∴ Fx = U 2 a (4 sin2 θ − 1) cos θ dθ 2 π/2  3π/2 1 4 1 3 2 = U a = − U 2 a sin θ − sin θ 2 3 3 π/2  2 1 ∴ Total |Fx | = × 1000 kg · m−3 1.32 − 0.006 m3 4 4  π −3 2 Added mass = 1000 kg · m 0.012 + π × 0.2882 )4 + 2 0.012 + π × 0. 0 − 2π U 4π 2 U 2 θ1 + θ2 = 2π ∴ ψ = −m m ∴ Eqn of contour is Uy − m = − (θ1 + θ2 ) 2π m m When x = 0. Uy = m − (π or 3π ) that is.2882 × 0.588 × 0.3 × 4 m3 = 90π kg 4 = 7800 kg · m−3 ∴ Ratio " # 7800 π × 0.68 Solutions manual ∴ Reject case(ii)    2 m m Stagnation point is at − −a2 . y = ± 2π 2U At stagnation point Then u = U and y=0 and −1  m  m 2 m2 v=− ± a − 2π U 4U 2 2Um2  =∓  2 2 π 4U a − m2  ∴ q = U 1+ 9.

2 ∴ ω= rad · s−1 = 36.29◦ W of N.8◦ W of N. x+a tan θ2 = y x−a 69 .20◦ = 21.52 259.21 U φ 14 m·s–1 6 m·s–1 Propulsive force (SE)/ Length of cylinder   = U cos φ =  14 m · s−1 80 × 103 N = 1.Chapter 9 9.5 × 2πr × ωr = πr2 ω 259.49◦ φ = arctan 6/14 = 23. Min pressure at max velocity.20◦ Propulsion line comes from 45◦ − 23.5 142 + 62 whence θ = 90◦ ± 25. Max pressure at stagnation point.225 kg · m−3 57.2 2 2 + = 2 m · s−1 = −2U sin 14 + 6 + (qt )r=a 2 2πa 3π = 57.     3π 259.69◦ E of N and 47. ∴ Stagnation points are 3.2 m2 · s−1 But  = 0. 0) and (a. 0) ∴ ψ =− m (θ1 + θ2 ) .225 kg · m3 2×9m φ ×  × 14 m · s−1 U Γ ∴  = 259.2  = sin θ =  4πaU 4π1.96 m · s−1 2 2 = 2058 Pa Pressure difference = 9.67 rad · s−1 (clockwise) π1.96 m · s−1  2 1 2 1 q = × 1. θ = 3π/2).22 Flow pattern is same as right-hand half of that formed by sources at (−a. 2π tan θ1 = y .20 √ √  3 3 sin θ = = ∴ |Lift| = U 4π aU 2 4πaU 2 √  √  3/2 4πaU 2 ∴ CL = = 2π 3 1 2 2 U 2a 9. which occurs at (r = a.

25 CL = CD = 102 sin 7 1 2 ◦ × 1.52 × 1.1 = 0.8 × 0.6 kPa 9.2 m)(20 sin 70◦ m · s−1 ) = 48π sin 70◦ m2 · s−1 ∴ Inner qt = qr = − m 2π r 48π sin 70◦ 80 m · s−1 = sin 70◦ m · s−1 2π 0.8 × 0.23 × 13.75 × 0.02650 π 7.68 = 0.9 32.9 = 0.52 × 1.2 × 20 cos 70◦ m2 · s−1 = −48π cos 70◦ m2 · s−1 48π cos 70◦ 80 m · s−1 = cos 70◦ m · s−1 2π 0.9 3 ∴ m = −2π rqr = −2π 1.558 CD = 9.0265 = 0.0140 CDi = .790 1.70 Solutions manual ∴ tan (θ1 + θ2 ) = ∴ ψ= − 9.5 = 0.23 × 302 × 0.23 × 13.0405 − 0.23 2xy [y/ (x + a)] + [y/ (x − a)]   = 2 2 2 2 x − y 2 − a2 1−y / x −a m 2xy arctan 2 2 2 2π x −y −a Irrotational vortex + sink: qt =  2π r ψ= r  mθ ln + 2π r0 2π ∴  = 2π rqt = 2π(1.7902 = 0.5 ∴ CD∞ 0.8 1 2 × 1.0685 = 0.24 C 1 U 2 S = T cos 7◦ L 2 ∴ CL = 102 cos 7◦ 1 2 × 1.9 3 80 m · s−1 ∴ q = (qt + qr )1/2 = 3    80 2 1 3 2 ∴ Pressure drop = × 1000 kg · m − 20 m2 · s−2 2 3 ∴ Inner qr = = 155.0405 same AR = 7.

reduction of α is arctan CL = 0. cos 1.88◦ π5 ∴ Corresponding nominal α = 5.7902 = 0.0140 + 0.92◦ CD = 0.790 cos 2.08◦ + 2.88◦ = 0.0537 π5 71 .790. π 7.08◦ 0.790 = 2.Chapter 9 Effective α is less nominal by arctan ∴ Effective α = 5.92◦ .96◦ For AR = 5.88◦ = 7.790 = 1.5 0.

Chapter 10 10.3  5/3  2/3 2/3 A2 m2 i1/2 P1 A2 Q2 = = 2/3 Q1 A1 P2 A1 m1 i1/2  5/3 2 tan 30◦ 2.5 3 .1 1.6 m2 = 0.4) + 0.35 cosec 60◦ × = 2.6 + 2 × 0.6 m + 2y = 2.2 10.6 m2 = 0.5 × 0.6 x = 0.9 x 0.018.2938 m 1 = 0.6 m2 P = 0.24 m3 · s−1 2.42 + 0.042 m m = A P = 0.62 m √ = 0.6 m 0.5 × 0.5    1 2 2√ 2 m=b+ 13 m P=b+2 1 + 1.352 tan 30◦ 2/3  2.638 m · s−1 2600 Q = 0.4 m  y = 0.6}0. 1.5 cosec 60◦   (1 m) n = 0.5 + 2 × 0.52 m A = 12 {(0.35 + 0.5 ∴ Q2 = 1.216 m3 · s−1 2.5 + 2 × 0.638 m · s−1 × 0.9 m 0.2938 m ! u = 60 m1/2 · s−1 0.3827 m3 · s−1 10. A = (1 m) b + .6 m ∴ x = 0.6 m y 0.8 m 0.5 + 0.

520 m and b = 0.84◦ r Area = 360 − 132.2962 m) 1500 Perimeter = π(1 m) u= 0.456 m 10.2962 m 360  1/2 1 2/3 = K(0.5 ∴ θ = 66.4 n = 0.9 :  2.6 × 103 m = d/4 = 0.25 m)2/3 4 = 0.015.5 cos θ = a θ 0.587 ∴ K = 48. For trapezium mmax √ ∴ b = 2h 3 √ bh + h2 / 3 h = = √ 2 b + 2 × 2h/ 3    1/2 1 h2 h 2/3 0.2 × 0.587 m2 227.532 m2 · s−1  and 1 800 1/2 73 .5 1 = 800 3.2 m1/3 · s−1 When conduit is full i = 4.84 π (1 m)2 360 4 + 0.018.5 √ 13 1 7000 1/2 0.5 b+ b+ 2 3 2/3  1 1.325 m · s−1 0.2 a = r 0.Chapter 10 Eqn 10.25 m Q= π (1 m)2 × 48.16 = 1.015 2 1800 3 3  3 −1 0.42◦ ∴ 2θ = 132. whence (by trial) b = 4.601 m 10.2 m1/3 · s−1 (0.3 [m · s ∴ h = 0.5 sin θ m2 = 0.015 ] = bh + √ 2 1800 3     1/2 2h2 1 h 2/3 h2 = √ +√ 0.982 m ∴ m = 0.8 b+ = 1 1.

1466d √ = (58 m1/2 · s−1 ) 0.1466di Divide eqn (1) by eqn (2): Whence d = 0.460 m (2) π d2 0.6 8 0. Q requires max Am2/3 = A5/3 /P2/3 θ   1 2 θ θ A = r θ + r sin r cos π − 2 2 2   θ θ θ = r2 − sin cos 2 2 2 = P = rθ ' Max (θ − sin θ)5/3 θ 2/3 requires r2 (θ − sin θ) 2 θ 2/3 35 (θ − sin θ)2/3 (1 − cos θ) − (θ − sin θ)5/3 32 θ −1/3 = 0 i. i = 0.047d 360 ∴ 0.6 60 d/4 Full : 3 −1 0.13 2 m = √ 0. from eqn (2).7 Max.13 m · s At depth d/4 : ! d π 2 1/2 −1 i = d (58 m · s ) 4 4 A= (1) d 120 π 2 d d − sin 60◦ 4 360 4 2 = 0.1535d 2 P= 120 π d = 1. whence (by trial) θ = 5.e.1466 Then.001588 10. either θ = sin θ [which corresponds to minimum at θ = 0] or 3θ − 5θ cos θ + 2 sin θ = 0.4◦ .6 m · s−1 ∴ m = 0.278 [in radian measure] ≡ 302.74 Solutions manual 10.

250 m2 )c Momentum eqn: gA1 x1 − gA2 x2 = (u1 + c)A1 (u2 − u1 ) where x = depth of centroid g that is.52 A = bh + h / 3 ∴ A1 = 1 × 0.652 0. 2 3 3   1 × 0.5 + √ 3   0.8  √ 0.653 A2 x2 = + √ m3 = 0.554 m3 · s−1 Surface width = 1 m + 2h cot 60◦ ∴ B1 = 1. 102 whence r = 1.81 (0. A1 u1 = A2 u2 + (A2 − A1 )c ∴ 0.644 m2 .061r2 (80 m1/3 · s−1 )  3.278 2/3 1 .1491 m3 . 0.2641 m3 2 3 3 Ax = bh × ∴ (u1 + c)2 = 0.644 0.894 m2 )u2 + (0.319 m · s−1 0.Chapter 10 Then A = (r2 /2){5.577 m.844)} = 3.319) m · s−1 = 1.185 m · s−1 Q2 = (0.061 r 5.751 m 75 .1491) m2 · s−2 0.894 m2 3 2 u1 =  m2 = 0.278 − (−0.53 1 × 0. B2 = 1.894 9.061r2 and P = 5.652 A2 = 1 × 0.8 m3 · s−1 = 3.85 − 0.185) m3 · s−1 = 0.52 + √ ∴ A1 x1 = m3 = 0.205 m ∴ d = 2.644 = 6.85 m · s−1 = 1.2641 − 0.85 m3 · s−1 = (0. (A1 x1 − A2 x2 ) = (u1 + c)(u2 − u1 ) A1 A1 − A 2 = (u1 + c)2 A2 h2 bh2 h3 h h +√ × = + √ 2 2 3 3 3 3   0.644 By continuity.250 × 1.27 m2 · s−2 √ ∴ c = ( 6.41 m 10.894 − 0.27 − 1.65 + √ m2 = 0.278r 2.

15 m 4502 (m3 ) 302 × 19.277 Fr2 =  0.9 gA1 /B1 u2 = 1.0142 (9.751 u2 0. Area = 2x dy = 4a1/2 y1/2 dy n2 ghc ∴ i = 4/3 = n2 ghc m  0 = 0 8 1/2 3/2 y 3a B = 2x = 4a1/2 y1/2 ∴ A/B = 23 y  ∴ uc = gA/B = 23 ghc 4 u2 u2 2 ghc = hc = hc + c = hc + 2g 3 2g 3 2g ! ! 2 3 gE ∴ uc = g E= 3 4 2 E=h+ 10.027 m or 1.808 gh gh3 ghc = m2/3 i1/2 /n hc = (q2 /g)1/3 For critical flow  4/3  b + 2hc 4/3 n2 (gq)2/3 bg 1/3 = +2 bhc b4/3 q2/3  4/3 0.62h21 = h1 + 11.8h2 + 0.81 m ∴E= 2 g 2 252 × 9.644/1.554 = = 0.319 = 0.10 For parabola x2 = 4ay. second units whence h + 2g h h+ ∴ h3 − 1.81 × 0. 1/3  1/3  4502 3 3 q2 = m = 4.226 or 0.00394 34/3 42/3 y y 10.659 9.76 Solutions manual ∴ Fr1 =  u1 = 1.811/3 = +2 = 0.81 = h1 + Q2 b21 h21 2g = h1 + whence h1 = 4.894 gA2 /B2 10.47(m3 ) h21 .81 × 4)2/3 3 × 9.8 in metre.81 × 0.11 ∴ hc = 3 E 4 For min upstream depth. flow between piers is critical.8 m and 12 m3 · s−1 = u(3 m)h 2g   1 4 2 = 1.577  1.357 m u 4 Fr =  =  = 1.815 = 0 ∴ h = 1.894 9.

1211 m P gA = u2c = (Km2/3 i1/2 )2 B 9.15 + 0.192 + 2 × 0. that is.14 For the jump ∴ 1.152 / 3) m2 = 0.173(0.06 m · s−1 3.38 ∴ From eqn 10.062 9.1211)4/3 0.5/2.956 m (h2 − h1 )3 0.13 u1 = 5.4 m · s−1 = 4.5)2 9.73 m  77 .75h1 = h1 + h2 q2 = 2 gh1 h2 (8.615) m = 5.38 × 0.81 × 0.81 N · kg−1 × 0.1630 gA = m2/3 · s−2 ∴ K2 = Bm4/3 i 1.4 m1/3 · s−1 For uniform flow τ0 = mgi = 0.5h21 [m3 ] whence h1 = 0.81  m = 0.38 × 4.4 m3 · s−1 × 1000 kg · m−3 × 9.173 m   2 P = b + 2h cosec 60◦ = 1 + 0.3 × √ m = 1.12 Wave stops when flow is critical.615 m Downstream of jump A = 2.81 × 0.1315 m = 6970 W 10.04 m2 P = (2.646 m and h2 = 1.004 Pa = 4.1315 m 4h1 h2 4 × 0.615 m2 = 4.5 × 1.25   h2 = −0.346 m 3 ∴m= A = 0.5763 = m = 0.1211 × 1000 × 9. when Q2 B = gA3 √ A = bh + h2 cot 60◦ = (1 × 0.81 × 2.3/ 3) m = 1.Chapter 10 10.5 + 2 × 1.5 × 0.004 ∴ K = 75.75 Pa 10.1630 m2 √ B = b + 2h cot 60◦ = (1 + 0.956 ∴ Power dissipated = 5.19 + Head lost =  0.

62 3/2 m3/2 .12 ) m2 − F   1 1 −3 2 −1 2 − m−1 = 1000 kg · m (11. 1.62 1.222 m 1.58 m3 · s−1 1/2  0.81)1/3 m = 2.81 N · kg−1 (1.62 = 6 × 1.75 m 8.2 7.0 + q2 q2 = 0.5 + 2 × 0.85 m.250 m · s−1 q = 1.04  2  2 q 1 1 q 10.85 + 0.17  u1 = 2.15 h1 + = h2 + 2g h2 2g h1 u=  whence q = h1 h2 2g h1 + h 2 1/2  19.705)2/3 (0.78 Solutions manual ∴ m = 0.002)1/2 whence n = 0. u1 = q .89 m · s ) 3.5 (0.85 × 19.0 m.9 2/3  and 1 1200 Q = 5.9 m2 · s−1  = 1. second units] whence q = 2.22 × 19.62 [metre.2 1 2 1000 whence F = force on blocks divided by width = 32 080 N · m−1 ∴ Total force = 6 × 32 080 N = 192.3 m3 · s−1 Critical depth = (q2 /g)1/3 = (11.2502 0.1 1.16 h1 = (1.2 − 0.9 − y + 19.5 kN 10.2 m q 0. u2 = h2 = 0.250 × 0. Steady-flow momentum eqn: kg · m−3 × 9.2 1/2 m2 · s−1 = 11.5 × 0.433 m Downstream depth > critical ∴ Jump must have occurred.89 m2 · s−1 ∴ Q = 6 m × 11.22 − 3.066 m2 · s−1 10.0168 [m · s−1 ] = n 4.2) m = 1.892 /9.9 2.89 m2 · s−1 = 71.85 m ∴ 1.015 m · s−1 = 1.705 m whence 1/2 −1 ·s y = 0.

e.00474) m = 0.441 m = h3 + Q b3 h3 2 1 0.3372 0.6 + (a) With metre.81 = 1/3 m = 0.140 0.441m = 0.62 × 9.0674 m = 67.294 m  E = 0.18 2 Q 1.7 × 0.0746 m 1 2 gh1 b1 h1 − 12 gh3 b3 h3 − F = Q(u3 − u1 )   1 1 2 − = Q b3 h3 b1 h1   2 gb1 Q ∴ F = (h1 − h3 ) = 305.Chapter 10 10.002039 = 0 [metre units] But h = 0.6 × 0.2804 m ∴ Flow in throat of flume is critical and depth there = 0.441 m 19.6  2 1 Q = 0.294 m  Since for rectangular section.00552 + 0.4 mm 10.2 + 1 19.43 m must fit this eqn also.00474) = 0  whence h3 = (0.441h23 + 0. h33 − 0.43 m + 0. hc =  b= Q2 gh3c 1/2 Q2 b2 g 1/3 .2h1  1/3 2 3 h2 2 = 0.43 ∴ Critical depth = 2 3 2 1 m = 0.0055 + 0.62 2 where h2 = (q /g)  Q 1.2 × 0.6674 m ∴ Increase = 0.318 m whence h1 = 0.43 is a factor of LHS. ∴ h − 0.002039 m3 = h3 + 2g h23 i.5 N (h1 + h3 ) − 2 b1 h1 h3 79 .43)(h2 − 0. second units 1 19.19  E = 0.62 0.011h − 0.337 m3 · s−1 (b) h1 − 0.56 0.56 + 19.62  whence Q = 0. (h − 0.62 × 0. = 0.

40 dl/dh h l 103.081 0.0 200.366 2.6 m Pressure is max under crest.78 14. assume deep water ∴ tanh mh  1 ∴ m = 0.41 29.2 307.750 0.20  2 Near outlet h = (q /g) 1/3 = 1.05 m i 10.112 138.681–0. say 202 m 10. when sin mx = 1.45) m For uniform flow downstream 1/2 5.112 11.20 311.81 × 2.694 A P m u u2 /gh 1 − u2 /gh i × 104 0. 50 Total = (200.526 0.5 147.1 365.03 20.842 Average h (=m) u = q/h u2 /gh − 1 i × 104 (i − s)104 dl/dh h l 0.201 0.51 5.414 m Metre.63 m.366  m = 0.015 h    2 2 2 × 5.6 m2 · s−1 .3605 1.17 6.03 88.18 + 1.888 0.366 m = 0.081 0.6409 0.638 0.773 0.5 205.6 h2/3 0.76 6.664 0.42 12.080 29.22 u2 n2 q2 n2 = 10/3 4/3 h h c2 = g 4π 2 λ2 tanh mh = 2 = 2 2 m T m T ∴ m= 4π 2 gT 2 tanh mh As first approximation.2 363.17 7.80 Solutions manual 10.98 11.6818 0.74 7.0657 m−1 ∴ λ = 95.366 Metre.414–0. second units: h Average h 0.432 0.6–0.440 0.52 × 9.681 0.526–0.65 (i − s)104 30.705 2.5 143. that is.21 q = 280 m2 · s−1 = 5.7215 0.2889 1.58 452 0.6 362.802 8.3182 0.9 0.6405 0.3277 1.112 50.470 0.762–0.18 i = u2 n2 /m4/3 Add about 3. second units: h 0.041 2.0004 ∴ h2 = 2.5(q2 /g)1/3 = 1.45 m.4 0.638–0.0497 m−1 Iteration then gives m = 0.873 2.7882 37.252 1.6 1232 0.81 1/3 m = 0.5 209. = 201.762 0.6 2. cos mx = 0 Then (steady velocity)2 = [c + Am cosh{m(h + z)}]2 .2118 0.3591 1.61 29.842 m h1 = − + + 2 4 9.582 0.

0085 whence γ = 0. Then am g tanh mh cosh{m(h + z)} pmax + gz = sinh mh m cosh{m(h + z)} = ag cosh mh   pmax cosh mh ∴a= +z g cosh{m(h + z)}   145 × 103 cosh(0.2125 m · s ) = λ 2π λ  2πγ = −3 875 kg · m × 0.0657 × 1) ∴ Height = 2a = 1.Chapter 10 ∴ pmax = 12 [A2 m2 sinh2 mh + c2 ] − 12 [c + Am cosh{m(h + z)}]2 − gz = 12 A2 m2 sinh2 mh − cAm cosh{m(h + z)} − 12 A2 m2 cosh2 {m(h + z)} − gz = 12 c2 a2 m2 + − 12 c2 a2 m2 c2 am cosh{m(h + z)} sinh mh cosh2 {m(h + z)} sinh2 mh − gz Neglect terms in a2 .2125 m · s−1   gλ 2πh 2π γ −1 2 + tanh ∴ (0.038 N · m−1 c Rate of energy transmission = (1 + 2mh cosech 2mh) 2   4π 0.0085 m 2π0.0085 m = 0.004 2π 0.23 c = f λ = 25 s−1 × 0.004 cosech 1+2 = 0.0085 0.1096 m · s−1 c Group velocity = 2 =  2mh 3γ m2 + g + sinh 2mh γ m2 + g  γ m2 c + Rate of energy transmission γ m2 + g 81 .281 m 10.6404 m 1025 × 9.81 m · s−2 × 0.004 + tanh 2π 0.0657 × 15) = − 14 m = 0.0085 m    9.81 cosh(0.2125 m · s−1 0.0085 2 = 0.

589 m · s−1 × 0.25 1 = = : OK. At half still-water depth z = −2 m A = −ca cosech mh = −5.038(2π/0.81 × 5 2π 4 Second approx. assume tanh(2π h/cT)  1 (deep water waves) and effect of γ negligible.7984 cg = = 3. a/λ < 0. : c = m · s−1 tanh m · s−1 2π c5     1.0085)2 + 875 × 9.82 Solutions manual = 0.589 2 × 0.2248 × 4) = −1.5 m = 0.1096 m · s−1 = 0.2125 m · s−1 0.95 m)1000 kg · m−3 × 9.25 m × cosech(0.2600 m · s−1 10.   2mh c 1+ 2 sinh 2mh   5. m = 2π/λ = 0.807 m · s−1 × 5s = 39.81 N · kg−1 = 8570 J · m−1 ∴ Total power = 8570 J · m−1 × 4.589 m · s−1 ∴ λ = 5.407 m · s−1 Energy/width for one wavelength = 12 a2 λg = 12 (0.81 + 0.807 m · s tanh m·s c By iteration c = 5.017 m ∴ γ indeed negligible     9.81 × 5/2π ) m · s−1 = 7.2248 × 4 = 1+ m · s−1 2 sinh 1.6π −1 −1 = 7.5 m = 7.038(2π/0.0085)2 0.363 m2 · s−1 .09 m  0.71 kW 5s Midway between crest and trough x = 0 or λ/2.807 m · s−1 ∴ λ = 7.95 m. h 4 16   gcT 2π h 2π γ λ = cT ∴ c2 = + tanh cT 2π cT ∴ As first approximation.01 : OK.589 m · s−1 × 5 s = 27.25 m)2 (27.25 m 2 a 0.2248 m−1 For negligible γ . Then c = gT/2π = (9.24 Assume Airy waves ∴a= 0.

81 × 2 (Pa) = 19.2248 × 2)] + 1000 × 9. = c2 = m 2π T2 ∴λ= gT 2 2π and c= gT 2π 83 .25 Mean rate of energy transfer/width = 14 ca2 g(1 + 2mh cosech 2mh) = 14 ca2 g for deep water.22482 [sinh2 (0. λ2 gλ g = for deep water. p = 0 + 12 (A2 m2 sinh2 mh + c2 ) − 12 [A2 m2 sinh2 {m(h + z)} + c2 ] − gz = 12 A2 m2 [sinh2 mh − sinh2 {m(h + z)}] + g(−z) = 12 1000 × 1. It remains constant as waves approach shore.363 × 0.2248 × 2) m · s−1 = 0.142 m · s−1 (Steady velocity)2 = A2 m2 sinh2 {m(h + z)} cos2 mx + [−c − Am cosh{m(h + z)} sin mx]2 ∴ (Steady velocity at η = 0)2 = A2 m2 sinh2 mh + c2 By Bernoulli for x = 0.3632 × 0.2248 × 2) m = 0.2248 × 4) − sinh2 (0.Chapter 10 (Absolute velocity)2 = A2 m2 cosh2 {m(h + z)} sin2 {m(x − ct)} + A2 m2 sinh2 {m(h + z)} × cos2 {m(x − ct)} = A2 m2 sinh2 {m(h + z)} in this case ∴ |Absolute velocity| = Am sinh{m(h + z)} = 1.363 cosh(0.589 2 2 2A 2 Vertical semi-axis = 22 sinh{m(h + z¯ )}22 = 0.2688 m 5.2248 sinh(0.1136 m c = 10.66 kPa 2 2 2A 2 2 Horizontal semi-axis = 2 cosh{m(h + z¯ )}22 c 1.

81 × 82 [metre units] whence m = 0.812 × 8 W · m−1 8π = 11 300 W · m−1 ∴ Total power produced = 11 300 W · m−1 × 80 m × 0.1184 m−1 11 300 W · m−1 = 14 ca2 g(1 + 2 mh cosech 2mh)   1 2π a2 g(1 + 2mh cosech 2mh) = 4 mT Hence a = 0.5 = 452 kW λ2 = 4π 2 g = c2 T 2 = T 2 tanh mh 2 m m ∴ When h=5m m= ∴m= 4π 2 coth mh gT 2 4π 2 coth(m5) 9.84 Solutions manual ∴ Power/width = = a2 g 2 T 8π 0.62 × 1025 × 9.614 m .

2 × 02 T2 ∴ T2 = 190.7 m · s−1 = 443 m · s−1 or u22 = 2cp (T0 − T2 ) = 2010 J · kg−1 · K−1 (288.777 kg · m−3 287 × 288.4 × 287 × 190.Chapter 11 11.62  ∴ a2 = 1.7 m · s−1 ∴ u2 = 1.1 T2 1 1 = = ∴ T2 = 240. ∴ umax = 761 m · s−1 11.15 K 1 + (γ − 1)/2 1.2 1 + 0.4 × 287 J · kg−1 · K−1 × 240.4 × 287 × 288.2 × 1.6 × 276.4 Max u when p = 0.6 m · s−1 = 276.6 K = 288.15 − 190.2 ∴ u2 = a = (1.22.3 × 103 kg · m−3 = 0.15 = m · s−1 = γ −1 0.6) K .5 γ p0 u2 = +0 γ − 1 0 2  ! 2γ RT0 2 × 1.125 K 288.15 × 1.125 K)  2 = 1 = = 310.5 p1 = T1 RT1 1.2 101.6 m · s−1    T2 1/(γ −1) 1 2.15 K 1 + 0.

4 = T2 1 = T0 1.6 . whence u2 = 443 m · s−1  p2 101.437 kg · m−3 RT2 287 × 190.88 kPa p2 23.88 × 103 = kg · m−3 = 0.5 kPa 2 = 0.512 ∴ p2 = 23.4/1.

2 3= × 1 + 1.288 m2 11.4M2 (p0 )2 (p0 )2 p2 1 = = 1 + 0.4M12    1 + 1.2 From eqn 11.32.665 1 2.2M22 1 + 0.24 and 11.4p2 /p1 M1 + 5 1 + 0.4M12 1.4M12 − 0.6 kg · s−1 Min area is where M = 1.30: Eqn 11.7 K 1.2 7M12 − 1 p2 = = = p1 1.26: M22 = 6M2 0.7 m · s−1 = 376. From eqn 11.4(2/2.3 M = cosec40◦ .6 m)2 × 443 m · s−1 = 69. 11.2M22 p1 p2 p1 1 + 1.32 cosec2 40◦ K = = 2cp 2cp 2010 = 137 K ∴ Temperature = 147 ◦ C 11.68M12 + 1.4 + 0.437 kg · m−3 (0.5 1 + 1. a= Temperature rise =  1.29  3.4 + 2.2  ∴ a2 = 1.15)]1.2 1 + 1.5   1 + 0.4 Using eqns 11.2M12 = 1 + 0.2  whence M1 = 1.2 1.4 × 287 × 352.4p2 /p1 2 = = 2 1 = 1.4 × 287 × 283.4M12 − 0.15 K 1 + 0.7 m · s−1 .4M12 − 0.5 × 103 )2 /(287 × 288.86 Solutions manual ∴m ˙ = 0.3 m · s−1 u2 a2 M2 337.4 1 + 0.2M12 ∴ M2 = 0.2M12 / 1.746 ∴ T2 = 352.4)6 }1/2 = 0.4 m · s−1 ∴ u2 = a2 M2 = 280.6 m2 {[(101.386    1.2M12 T2 = 283.15 m · s−1 = 337.2 6 1.4M12 − 0.59 m ˙ At = " p0 0 γ [2/(γ + 1)](γ +1)/(γ −1) = #1/2 69.4M22 3.4M12 − 0.

4 M1 sin 40◦ − 0.6102 (1.69◦ that is.518 ∴ T2 = 199.2642 − 1) = 24.264 p2 7 (M1 sin β1 )2 − 1 = [as in Problem 11.6102 sin2 β − 1) 1.4 + 1.4 above] p1 6    p2 7  − 1 = p1 (M1 sin β1 )2 − 1 ∴ p2 − p1 = p1 p1 6 7 × 35 kPa(1.2 = ∴ M2 = 1.610 303.250 1 + 0.29] 87 .967 Normal component M1 sin β1 = 1.4 + cos 80◦ + 2 whence M1 = 1.69◦ = ∴ M3 = 1.7 m · s−1 = 456 m · s−1 11.   2 cot 40◦ M12 sin2 40◦ − 1 From eqn 11.Chapter 11 For subsequent expansion T3 = T2 (p1 /p2 )0.4 1/3.6102 sin2 50.610 1.69◦ to wall M32 sin2 40.648  2 1.4 + cos 2β) + 2 ∴ β = 50.6 40 β 40 M3 From eqn 11.15 K = 1 + 0.5 β1 = 40◦ .2 M1 sin 40◦ M2 sin 30◦ = = 0.4/1.69◦ 1.3 K = 13.7 K = 286.2 ◦ C 7M12 − 1 11.37 tan 10◦ = 2 cot β(1.43 kPa 6 2  2  1 + 0.2M22 = 1.2 × 1.7 K T2   ∴ u2 = M2 γ RT2 = 1.69◦ − 0. β2 = 30◦ .2 [eqn 11.6102 sin2 50.5  6 = 352.4 × 287 × 199.37 tan 10◦ =   M12 1. 40.

2M22 ∴ M22 = 3.25◦ 6   √ 1.0 m · s−1 ∴ u = 0.1.4 × 287 × 288.22 = K = 43.3 kPa = 28.2 × 1.15 m · s−1 = 340.15 K(1.0 m · s−1 = 294.4 × 287 × 281.280 ∴ p2 − p1 = 0.858)1/2 = 25.893 p [or from Table A3.4 1 + 0.07 ◦ C .2(0.288)−1 = 281.9 K  ∴ a = 1.8 p0 > 1.4 × 287 × 236. From eqn 11.83 = (1 + 0. M1 = 1.15 m · s−1 = 308.34◦ 11.5 1 + [(γ − 1)/2] M2 = 1 + 0.838 From eqn 11.91◦ θ1 = 6 arctan 6 ∴ θ2 − θ1 = 13. = 740 × 3600  340.6 × 1.25 1/2 − arcsec1.07 K 2cp 2 × 1005 ∴ T0 = 6.955 × 308.604 This corresponds to p2 /p1 at sea level of  γ /(γ −1)  3.604)2 = 1.5 = p1  1 + 0.5 a at 8000 m altitude is  1.6 m · s−1 u = 336.2] ∴ Flow supersonic.955 35.47 or Table A3.280 × 101.7 p2 = 0.2 m · s−1 = 1059 km · h−1 T0 − T = u2 294.42.83 kPa 63.2M12 )3.3 = 0.52 1.9 m · s−1 = 336.9 a at sea level =   γ RT = 1.4/0.   √ 2.88 Solutions manual 11.20 m · s−1 = 404 m · s−1 11.838 1/2 θ2 = 6 arctan − arcsec(3.20 T = T0 (1 + [(γ − 1)/2]M2 )−1 = 363.5 = 11.5 whence M1 = 0.3 m · s−1 1000 ∴ Assumed Mach no.33 kPa ∴ Actual p2 = 63.

15 K = 260.23 m2 √ 380 × 103 1.6 kPa ∴ In (a) flow does not become sonic ∴ Exit pressure = 400 kPa  T = T0 p p0 (γ −1)/γ = 313.82 2 = 380 kPa Pressure in throat = 0.2   u = γ RT = 1.039 kg · s−1 11.4 4 K = 266.2 287 × 293.9 ∴ m ˙ = Au = 5.15  0.11   p0 = p 1 + γ /(γ −1)  3.15 = × 1.6 kPa   γ − 1 2 −1 2 T = T0 1 + = 1 T0 2 γ +1 313.035 kg · s−1 (b) Exit pressure = critical = 369.338 × 10−3 m2 89 .9 K  −6 ◦ C 7 u2 = 2cp (T0 − T) = 2010 × 46.2 ◦ C 1.22 kg · m−3 RT 287 × 266.8 kg · s−1 = 1.8 m · s−1 = = 369.2 × 2.96 ∴ m ˙ = 4.96 K  −12.25 m2 · s−2 ∴ u = 305 m · s−1 = 400 × 103 p = kg · m−3 = 5.4 = 1.4/1.6 × 103 kg · m−3 = 4.528 × 380 kPa = 200.Chapter 11 11.6 kPa  (γ +1)/(γ −1) 2 Eqn 11.94 kg · m−3 287 × 260.94 × 650 × 10−6 × 323.96 m · s−1 = 323.4 × 287 × 260.22 × 650 × 10−6 × 305 kg · s−1 = 1.528 = 369.10 Critical ambient pressure = 700 kPa × 0.5  γ −1 2 M = 14 kPa 1 + 0.59: m = γ +1  (γ +1)/(γ −1) A2t p20 2 = γ RT0 γ +1  1/2   γ + 1 (γ +1)/(γ −1) m RT0 ∴ At = √ p0 γ 2 2 A2t p0 0 γ √ 1.

4 × 287 × 114.23 × 1.6486 M12 1 + 13 M12 4 1.26  1 + 0.12 At design conditions   2  M2 γ + 1 (γ +1)/(γ −1) At =  (γ +1)/(γ −1) A 2 1 + [(γ − 1)/2] M2 1.5683.5 p p0 (γ +1)/γ  2/1.8   γ − 1 2 −1 M T = T0 1 + = 293.15 K(2.27 .146 2.26 × 1.8 whence M1 = 1.2 × 5  = 1.90 Solutions manual Eqn 11.902 1.23 p01 = 1.29] γ +1 2γ p1 = 5M12 − 1 = 4.15 K  −159 ◦ C  u = M × a = 2.68 × 10−3 m2 2.24 and 11.5683.8 1.4/1.5 p01 = 1 + [(γ − 1) /2] M12 = 1 + 13 M12 = 7.82 = 1.692 = = p2 p1 p2 4.2 × 1.4  2.82  With argon  2 4 ∴  3 At A 2 M1 1 + 13 M12 = 6 =  4 4  3 2 = 1.5  = 2.23 p1   p2 2γ γ −1 = M12 − [from eqns 11.4  − 1 1 − 2.82 1.5686 1 2.6483  γ /(γ −1)  2.5685 2.26 × 5 p p0 2/γ  − 1 2.568)−1 2 ∴ Ae = At × = 114.82 2.27 4 ∴ p01 p1 7.59:  At Ae 2  = γ +1 2 (γ +1)/(γ −1) 2 × γ −1   6 = 1.15 m · s−1 = 600 m · s−1 11.143 = 4.

3 1. use eqn 11.7 kPa.3 1.     p 2/1.280 kJ·kg−1 ·K−1 (from tables) –assumed to remain constant.58: γ /(γ −1)  p2 2 = = 0.14 From eqn 11. Limiting p2 for saturation (with s = 7.60 downstream of shock and substitute for m2 :     p 2/γ p (γ +1)/γ − p02 p02 (γ +1)/(γ −1)   2 p01 01 γ − 1 At 2 = γ A p02 02 γ +1 γ By Boyle’s law p01 φ(h02 ) p01 01 p01 φ(T02 ) = = = 02 p02 φ(T01 ) p02 φ(h01 ) p02 assuming that h depends on T only (implied by constant cp ).596 kg · s−1  11.46 × 105 Pa Since nozzle is choked.3 p 2.9602 − 126 700 × 1. Steam is not superheated under these conditions.Chapter 11 11.59.3 ∴ − p02 p02   (γ +1)/(γ −1)  2  2 At p01 2 γ −1 = 2 γ +1 A p02 91 . Also h0 unchanged across shock.3 =2 kg2 · m−6 (0.3 = 5.359) N · m · kg−1 ∴m ˙ = 0. Then v2 = 1 = 1. Apply eqn 11.600 kg · s−1 Alternatively: 12 u22 = hs = (2770 − 2685) kJ · kg−1 = 85 × 103 m2 · s−2 ∴m ˙ = u2 A2 /v2 = 0.05 m)2 2 4 0. ∴ Limitation is that steam does not become wet at throat.3/1.359 2 2A22 22 γ γ −1 × (200 000 × 0.13 Provided that steam remains superheated and that Boyle’s law is valid then by eqn 11.280 kJ · kg−1 · K−1 ) is 126.58: pc = 106 Pa × 2 2.14 kPa γ +1 p0 Initial specify entropy = 7.3/0.359 m3 · kg−1 2   p0 p2 ∴m ˙ = − 0 2 π 2 1 1.5457 ∴ p2 = 109.

92 Solutions manual For exit conditions  x 2/1.0262x6/13 + √ 1 + 0.92 1/2  A 1 ∴ = = 1.3 p0 p0 ∴ pexit /p0  0.8964  (γ −1)/γ p0 γ −1 2 =1+ M p 2   0.3/1.3  = 1 + 0.3/0.535 At 0.1063 ∴ pexit = 940 kPa or 106.3 −x 2.3/0.3 kPa (without shocks) .92 Eqn 11.424 and for exit conditions.92 5.3/1.3 1 2 2 ∴ Mexit = − 1 = 0.8964 p01 - Upstream of shock 106 = 0.3 (0.1704 γ −1 0.0524 700 ∴ x = 0.940 or 0.0262x2 where x = pexit /p02 and pexit = 700 kPa i.33 M1 = 1.424 × − 5.15 2.3 2 pexit 2.5 = 2 0.3 2 − 0.61     2  2 γ + 1 (γ +1)/(γ −1) At = A 2 γ −1   2/γ   1 1 (γ +1)/γ = 0.5) 2 106 x 700 × 103 2 = 0.15 × 1.          2.8402 = 5.840 γ /γ −1    γ −1 p0 = 1+ M2 p 2 1.3 2 = 0.3 2.3/1. 1 − x3/13 = 0.413 p02 700 × 103 = 0.3/0.1048 −1 (−) ∴ x3/13 = = 0.781 ∴ By eqn 11.3 pexit 2/1.e.8964 ∴ Mexit = 0.8964 ∴ p02 = kPa 0.975 0.3  2.

140 ×  9.124 = 317.15 2.15 a1 =  1.] f lP 0.4 kPa  0.0444 p2 = 730 kPa × 0.Chapter 11 11.15 m)2 ∴ M1 = √ 15.51 m · s−1 8.006   1 + [(γ − 1)/2] M12 T1 T2 = Tc = T1 = 282.16 (a) 1 = u1 = 730 × 103 kg · m−3 = 8.0444 1.3 K × 1.51 = 0.1 m)2 ∴ M1 = 177.1342 from Table A3.78: f lmax P/A = 4f lmax /d = 1.39 kg · m−3 × π/4 × (0.1 m = 4.04442 + 2 0.3 not accurate for small M.7 kg · s−1 = 177.3 K  44.7 kPa ÷ 0.7 [Interpolation in Table A3.548 = 150.941 kg · m−3 287 × 323.3 K = T1 /Tc (γ + 1)/2 ∴ lmax = 1.1342 = 241.3 or eqn 11.78 f lmax PA 1 = 355.006 × 2000 m = × 4 = 320.581 T = Tc (T/Tc ) = 282.4 × 0.140 0.0 A 0.4 × 287 × 303.76: 0.7 ∴ M2 = 0.941 kg · m−3 × π/4 × (0.39 kg · m−3 287 × 303.1 = 0.75 m 4 × 0.15 m ∴ (f lmax P/A)2 = 35.4 × 0.15 u1 = 2.570 ∴ M = 0.15 m · s−1 = 360.492 360.2 ◦ C p = pc ÷ (pc /p) = 82.7 kPa For mid-point f lmax P/A = 1.3 kg · s−1 = 15.3 m · s−1 1 = 180 × 103 kg · m−3 = 1.15   From eqn 11.3 or iteration of eqn 11.13422 + 2 1/2 93 .4 × 287 × 323.1 m · s−1 1.2 ◦ C  p2 = pc = p1 (pc /p1 ) = p1 M1 1 + [(γ − 1)/2] M12 (γ + 1)/2 1/2 = 82.3 From Table A3.140/2 = 0.78 Eqn 11.9 kPa 11.

84 :   (π/4)2 0.5 m · s−1 7.08 × 45 − ln = 2 240 0.02 × 107 d 4 − 0.94 Solutions manual (b) Eqn 11.68 m5 1.17 Eqn 11.842 kg · s−1 × 8670 m2 · s−2 = 15 970 W 11. neglect log term.52 = (6.2877 × 0.02 × 107 ∴ d = 0.84: (π/4)2 d 4 (82 − 62 )1010 8 2 × 0.18   600 (π/4)2 (0.8 ∴ From Table A3.15  730 − ln p2  whence p2 = 240.15 1.26 kg · m−3 287 × 288.0441 m 11.02 × 107 d 5 = 1.030 .044 = 1.006 × 85/0.075 2m × 287 × 288.693.32 × 287 × 303.05 = 40. M2  0.044 m Then 1.15 [d in metres] i.006 × 140 − ln = 2 6 d 2 × 0.006 × 2000  = p2 in kPa 0.68/d As first approx. whence d = 0.2877 = 1.15 whence m = 1.25 − 1) m2 · s−2 −1 = 2 p2 2 ∴ u1 = = 8670 m2 · s−2 Q = m q = 1.68 + 0.8 kPa 11. Then d 5 = 1.e.19 p1 /p2 = 300/120 = 2.842 kg · s−1 1 = 600 × 103 kg · m−3 = 7.12. 1.154 7302 − p22 106 2 × 2.075 m)2     2 2   u 2  u 2 u  1 2 2 1 u − u21 = 1 q = −1 = 1 −1 2 2 2 u1 2 2    u21 p1 2 57.842 kg · s−1 = 57.15 2 × 0.075)4 (6002 − 2402 )106 2 × 0.5 f lP/A = 4f l/d = 4 × 0.26 kg · m−3 × π/4 × (0.32 × 287 × 288.3: M1  0.

2913 kg · s−1 or put in outlet conditions: m 120 × 10 Pa = (π/4)(0.8 + 1.15 0.653   ∴ 4f lmax /d 1 = 40.05 m)2 0.8 0.30 3  287 × 288.32 1/2 whence m = 0.4 1 + 0.05)2 0.15 m2 · s−2 # " 1.Chapter 11 Put inlet conditions in eqn 11.80:     2 × 287 × 288.12  3 287 × 288.2 × 0.4 = 0.2 × 0.453 ∴ M1 = 0.12452 1/2 Pa 95 .15 # " 1.05 m)2 0.2 × 0.1245 = 435 kPa  287 × 288.122 1/2 whence m = 0.4 1202 × 106 × (π/4)2 (0.1245 0.4 1 + 0.292 kg · s−1 Increase by 50% gives m = 0.438 1  −1 + 1+ M22 = 1.438 kg · s−1 From eqn 11.15 m2 · s−2 # " 1.2934 kg · s−1 ∴ say m = 0.4332 ∴ 4f lmax /d 2 = 1.79: m 300 × 10 Pa = (π/4)(0.05 m)4 0.1964   ∴ M2 = 0.4 1 + 0.653 = 42.438 ∴ p1 = (π/4)(0.

3 k= 4 × 0.34 + u t = 12 s = ln 4.34 − u 24 × 4.0665t 5/4 = 101.183 m · s−1 (π/4)0.1832 − 1.5172 ) m = 12.517 m · s−1 hi = − 1600 l du = 0.37 m · s−1 l1 du1 l2 du2 4f1 l1 u21 4f2 l2 u22 + + + = −12 m g dt g dt d1 2g d2 2g t=6s .34 m · s−1   600 m 4.62 ∴ H = (300 + 101.34 m · s−1 23 m = 24u2max /2g whence 12.81 when Also hf is reduced by 4 × 0.005 × 600 + 10 + 2 = 24 1 ∴ umax = 4.0665 × 69/4 m · s−1 = 1.7 m 12.9 + 12.005 × 1600 (3.Chapter 12 12.9 m g dt 9. g dt 2.5 m · s−1 = 3.12 4 du = −Kt 5/4 ∴ u = − Kt 9/4 + u0 dt 9 u0 = 0.77 m 1 × 19.8) m = 414.2 u0 = l du are trivial.0665 [m · s−13/4 ] ∴ K= (4/9) 89/4 ∴ When t = 6 s   u = 3.183 − 49 0.1 Values of 12.4 u = 3.

225)2 2 + 4 × 0.81 dt (π/4)(0.003331 arctan √ Q 0.33Q) 3.625 × 107 D2 ) N = 13 490 N 4 97 . acceleration of water in pipe   D 2 = 1.02929 m3 · s−1 12.81 + 1130 + 1405 × 1.04 = 937.106 − arctan(17.15 × 19.625 × 107D2 Pa Force required at plunger = {(1000 + 225 − 180)9. 0.62 (π/4)(0.5D2 m · s−2 = 5.33Q)] ∴ When t = 2 s 2 = 1. = D m.144[arctan 1.1815 0.Chapter 12 ∴ 30 dQ 1 1 100 dQ + 2 9.62 (π/4)(0.5D2 m · s−2 Pressure drop due to this acceleration = 1000 kg · m−3 × 60 m × 937.15)2 9.1815dQ Q2 + 0.003331 that is.81 dt (π/4)(0.115 0.007 × 30 # " 0.5} N = 13 490 N ∴ π 2 D (2.225) + Q2 4 × 0.75 × 106 − 5. second units] dQ + 3602Q2 = −12 dt dQ = −Q2 − 0.003331  0.992 − arctan(17.115 =√ −0.008 × 100 Q2 " # 0.1815 dt ∴ 654 ∴t= Q 0.225 × 19.5 m · s−2 0.5 Load to be accelerated = (1000 + 225 + 180) kg = 1405 kg If plunger diam.15)2 2 = −12 [meter.003331 Q = 3.144 whence Q = 0.

432 m · s−1 1 0.81 0.971 × 106 Pa (π/4)(0.81 + 1130} N = 11 380 N Pressure in cylinder = 11 380 N = 1.035 × 109 0.02444 ± 0.0489D2 + 0.7 mm At steady speed.7 900 2l = s = 0.0857 is the smaller value of D ∴ Plunger diameter = 85.778 MPa ∴ hf = 0.58 12.62 m · s−2 ∴ u = 6.01709 √ and D = 0.006 × 60 u2 m= 1000 × 9.924 s c 974 40 × 106 2 σh = Pa d/t d/t   E 2 2 2 2 2 2  2 Also ( p) =  c u0 =  u0 K / = u0 E/K + d/t  2 40 × 106 Pa ∴ d/t   200 × 109 Pa −3 −1 2 = 1000 kg · m (2 m · s ) (200 × 109 )/(2 × 109 ) + d/t Hoop stress = ( p)d/2t ∴ p = ∴ (d/t)2 − 2d/t − 200 = 0 + whence d/t = 1 (−) √ 201 = 15.00735 = 0.98 Solutions manual ∴ D4 − 0.778 × 106 4 × 0.8:  = K  40 85.6 1 Eqn 12.04 19.35 × 108 N · m−2 ∴c= = 974 m · s−1 880 kg · m−3 ∴ 12.971 × 106 ) Pa = 0.7 2 m · s−1 = 1.35 × 108 Pa  8. force at plunger = {(1000 + 225 − 180)9.6 + 1.0857 m)2 Pressure loss in pipe = (2.0125 × 207 × 109  m2 · N−1 ∴ K = 8.75 × 106 − 1.0003053 = 0 whence D2 = 0.58 m · s−1  ∴ Lift speed = 6.18 .

9 144 − 18.3 s) u c 1200 9.720 — 18.3 m1/2 · s−1 B (m1/2 · s−1 ) 0.18   (1000 × 2) m · s−1 = 1318 m · s−1 ∴ 2l/c = (2 × 500/1318) s = 0.87 42.81 √ Initially 3.446 3.0 + 46.0 46.9   2l 2 × 750 1200 = s = 1.205 × 10−3 m2 · N−1/2 · s−1   B ∴ Increase in area = − 1 100% = 45.6 m · s−1 = B0 144 m ∴ B0 = 0.6 3.21 12.103 2.8 = 167.87 = 162.8  Put: 3 m · s−1 = B0 700 × 103 N · m−2 ∴ B0 = 3.10 h (m) u (m · s−1 ) h (m) 144 144 + 18.87 − 42.7 3.2% B0 !  2l = 2l For rapid movement.24 × 109 = 4.759 s 12.2922 m · s−1 = B 400 × 103 N · m−2 ∴ New B = 5.87 + 42.3 0.2922 m · s−1  Then 3.24 0.1 144 + 18.97 s 12. time < c K  = 2 × 3000 850 s 1.586 × 10−3 m2 · N−1/2 · s−1 300 × 103 Pa = u 1.0 = 167.Chapter 12  c = ( p)/u0 = 40 × 106 15.25 s h = − s u = −(122.27 0.24 × 109 N · m−2 × 850 kg · m−3 whence u = 0.8   CA2 dH 2 dt a2   CA2 dH 2 l du Decelerating head = H + 2 =− dt g dt a u= A dH a dt Let hf = Cu2 = =− l A d2 H g a dt 2 99 .

36:     ad gdy0 4fAy0 2gd y0 + + C exp = 4f l 4fA ad 2f l Initially y0 = Similarly for max height:     2gd 4fAym ad 0= + C exp ym + 4fA ad 4f l   4f A 4f A Eliminate C.3418 m−1 )ym + 1 = exp{(0.11 then C= 4f l u20 gdy0 that is.893 m .672 m · s−1 (π/4)(4. u20 = d 2g 2f l Substitute in eqn 12.85 = 10.5 2 −2 ga = β= s = 3.024 × 10−4 s−2 Al 730 30 If hf = Cu2 12.12 π 2 9.007 × 1200 × 1.672 m · s−1 )2   1 30 2 9.3418 m−1 )(ym − 10.5 m)2 1m (2.893 m ∴ Total height required = 17. Then ym + 1 = exp (ym − y0 ) d a d a y0 = Q20 4f l  d2g (π/4)d 2 2 = 32f lQ20 π 2 gd 5 = 32 × 0.25 m ∴ (0.0836 m−1 α= al 730 2.5 m3 · s−1 = 2.25 m)} whence ym = −2.81 4.6722 4.81 −1 CAg = m = 0.100 Solutions manual   d2 H CAg dH 2 ga ∴ H= 0 + + al dt Al dt 2 Initial velocity = 42.81 × 0.5   9.

075)2 4 × 0.4636 m Suction : hf at mid-stroke = Accel.1 ∴ Max. piston acceleration = (2π0.81 15 × 0.3 m · s−1 = 0.615 × 10−4 π m3 · s−1 ∴ Mean velocity in pipes = 6. accel.096π 2 × (150/75)2 = 0. head at ends of stroke = 7.4 m3 · s−1 4 = 6.4 2  13.384π 2 m = 2.Chapter 13  0.615 × 10−4 π m · s−1 = 0.3 m · s−2 = 0.096π 2 m · s−2 2 ∴ Max.5 (0.15)2 × 0.795 m 9.48π )2 m 0.075 19.075 19.48π m · s−1 Max. speed in pipe = 0.4704 m · s−1 (π/4)(0.62 = 0.62 = 1.01 × 7.384π 2 m · s−2 π Rate of flow = 0.98 (0.384π 2 m = 5.12π × (150/75)2 m · s−1 = 0.5 0.9272 m Discharge : hf in 15 m of pipe at mid-stroke = 4 × 0.47042 m 0.4)2 0.4636 m 7. piston speed = 2π0.5 = 0.714 m Steady hf in 285 m of pipe = Accel. in pipe = 0.01 × 285 0.81 . head in 15 m of pipe = 15 0.3 × 0.12π m · s−1 Max.897 m 9.

2 Velocity in pipe = ωr sin θ = A A + ωr sin(90◦ + θ) a a A ωr(sin θ + cos θ) a [positive components only] Velocity is max. at 45◦ .102 Solutions manual ∴ Head at beginning of suction stroke = (10.006π m3 · s−1 ∴ Mean velocity in pipe = 0.714 + 5.33 + 13.34 m Head at middle of delivery stroke = (10.927) m = 26.75 m 13.43 m Head at middle of suction stroke = (10.33 − 3 − 2.5 + 1.33 + 13.23 m Head at beginning of delivery stroke = (10.40 m · s−1 (π/4)(0.714 − 5.897) m = 4.4636) m = 6.33 + 13.795) m = 31. velocity in pipe = ωr √ + √ a 2 2 2    20 2 200 2π 0.006π m · s−1 = 2.225 × √ m · s−1 = 100 60 2 = 2.5 + 1.47 m Head at end of delivery stroke = (10.45 × m ·s 4 60 = 0.666 m · s−1 Q=4× π 20 3 −1 (0.795) m = 19.5 + 1.1)2 .   A 1 1 ∴ Max. 135◦ etc.87 m Head at end of suction stroke = (10.2)2 × 0.33 − 3 − 0.897) m = 10.33 − 3 + 2.714 + 0.

85 × 0.821 × 0. velocity.35 103 .225 m = 24.6 m · s−1 π 2 d × 65.54 × 2Cv2 = 0.46 = 30.85 × 0.Chapter 13 Inertia head is max. divided by weight = v22 /2g ∴ Percentage = v22 × 100 2gH = 100 × 0.97 19.462 + (0.851 v22 = u2 + R22 − 2uR2 cos(180◦ − θ) = Cv2 (2gH){0. say 10 that is.095 × 106 30 × 106 W = Q1000 kg · m−3 × 9. at instant of min.3 39.17 m · s−1 30.81 N · kg−1 × 233 m 0.54 cos 15◦ } Remaining K.81 × 24.6 m · s−1 = 1.81 3 ∴ Inertia pressure = ±1000 × 9. or min.10 m3 · s−1 ∴ Q/jet = 1.62 × 233 m · s−1 = 65.2116 + 0.46)Cv 2gH = gH ∴D= ηhyd = 0.815 ∴ Total Q = 16.177 m 4 jet Blade speed for max. efficiency = 65.6 m · s−1 × 0.610 m3 · s−1  Jet velocity = 0.E.     Al 2 200 2 60 2π 2 Max|hi | = 0.85 cos 165◦ (1 − 0. 5 wheels 3.17 m = 1.25π vw × Q × u u vw = = QgH gH     0.15 Pa = ±236.15 m ω r= ag 100 9.972 {0.46Cv 2gH 1 − 0.54)2 − 2 × 0.9 kPa 13.095 × 106 W per jet ∴ No.46 × 1.27P1/2 ≯ 0.536 m 6.408} = 1.138 [SI units] 10001/2 (9.2107 − 0.46 × 0.69.610 m3 · s−1 whence djet = 0. of jets ≮ 30 × 106 = 9.81 × 233)5/4 ∴ P ≯ 3.

81 m · s−1 = 35.79 whence y = 1.85 m + ∴ = 108.46Cv η1/2 dπ 1/2 23/4 = 1.6 Total losses are (4.79 + 0.21 rad D D Useful work divided by weight u = (v1 − u)(1 + k1 cos 15◦ ) − k2 u2 g u = (v1 − u)y − k2 u2 where y = 1 + k1 cos 15◦ g ∴η= (u/g)(v1 − u)y − k2 u2 v12 /2g v12 ∂η y = (v1 − 2u) − 2k2 u = 0 2g ∂u g   yv1 y when = 2u k2 + g g u y that is.462 v12 g  H v12 (0.8 + 8. whence gk2 = 2y/23 = 0.46v1 (0.2116gk2 ) gH = 2Cv2 (0.15 × 9. efficiency = = u (v1 − u)y − k2 u2 g  H 0.825 ∴ k1 cos 15◦ = 0.46Cv 2gH.46 = v1 2(gk2 + y) ∴  Overall efficiency =  ∴ Max.92Cv 2(gH)1/2 η1/2 π 1/2 dCv 21/4 1/2 (gH)3/4 = D21/2 (gH)5/4 p = 3/2 = 13.104 Solutions manual 13.2116 × 2y/23) = 0.85 m u1 vw1 u1 vw1 ∴ (120 + 3) m = 14.54v1 )y − k2 0. 4 ωP1/2 1/2 (gH)5/4 √ 1/2 0.5 d 0.8 + 0.37 m · s−1 30 .15 m g g ∴ vw1 = 108.854 13.46) m = 14.4  u = 0.2484y − 0.825 ∴ k1 = 0. Q= ω = 2u/D √ π P = ηQgH = η d 2 Cv 2(gH)3/2 4 π 2  d Cv 2gH.2484y − 0.

486 rad 10001/2 (9.86(33.2◦ 9m/s β = arctan 5.5 m3 · s−1 × 1000 kg · m−3 × 9.28D1 = 9.85 × 0.88 m g 19.62 ∴ Power = 15.28◦ 35.81 × 246.76 × 106 )1/2 rad = 0.37 υ w1 α α = arctan 30m/s β υ1 v12 35.68D31 = 0.67(s−1 ) = 52.46 + 0.52 Head at inlet = 240 + + 3 m = 246.4D1 u1 30 vw1 = v1 cos 30◦ = u1 cos2 30◦ 120 υ r1 υ1 R1 υ w1 = 39.68D1 D1 π ∴ Q = πD1 × × vr1 = 22.7 m 19.372 + 92 = m = 67.79 − 3 − m = −5.76 MW p = 44.46 + 0.8  8.28D1 0.Chapter 13 9 = 14.9 m 2g 19.2813 m3 · s−1 4 4 ∴ P = 0.79) m 2g g   p2 92 ∴ = 0.81 × 15 gH whence D1 = 0.9 = 33.251 m vr1 = v1 sin 30◦ = u1 cos 30◦ sin 30◦ = 22.88 = uvw1 52.37 9 = 59.62 13.81 N · kg−1 × 246.7)5/4 105 .9) m = 47.7 m × 0.4D1 39.62 (120 + 3) m = 4.2 − 67.3 m g v2 p2 + 2 + 3m = (0.8 m + ∴ v2 p1 + 1 +3m g 2g p1 = (115.2813 m3 · s−1 × 1000 kg · m−3 × 9.81 N · kg−1 × 15 m = 35 200 W  13.7 u1 = π D1 16.

732vr1 = −0.93 = ηhyd = 50.375 m · s−1 R1 u1 = υ w1 15.9 u1 24 95 υ1 71 R1 Inlet and outlet areas equal ∴ vr1 = vr2 v1 = vr1 cosec 24◦ v1 sin 71◦ vr1 sin 71◦ ◦ = sin 85 sin 24◦ sin 85◦ = 2.5 m3 · s−1 π 2.0 7.106 Solutions manual u1 α β υ1 vr1 = υ r1 = 7.0 m · s−1 7.9 m 2g 19.62 ∴ % of net head which is kinetic at entry to runner 105.7 = 42.3752 + 45.31◦ .9 = 13.9 × 100 246.0 ∴ α = arctan v12 7.031vr1 .176vr1 2 2 v22 = vr1 (1 + 0.81 × 246.556vr1 − 1.334vr1 u1 = 30 R2 30 υ2 u2 vw1 = vr1 cot 24◦ 300 u1 = 1.556vr1 u2 = 450 vw2 = u2 − vr2 cot 30◦ = 1.0vw1 s · m−1 9.1762 ) = 1.23 × 0.3 m2 2.02 = m = 105.375 vr1 = arctan β = arctan = 124.86 m · s−1 2 = 50.375 = 9.0 m · s−1 0.23 × 44.29◦ vw1 − u −5.7 ∴ vw1 = 45. 45.

050 m2 = 0.556 × 0.577 m3 · s−1 × 1000 kg · m−3 (2.22 rad 10001/2 (9.577 m3 · s−1   u1 vw1 − u2 vw2 0.81 m · s−2  1.66 × 106 )1/2 rad = 3.94 = 235.86(7.870 ∴ ηp = 0.900 × 28.94 P = Qg g = 0.8 m = 0.81 × 30)5/4 107 .81 N · kg−1 × 10.334 cot 24◦ vr1 + 1.86 rad · s × 4 Dm Hp 30 = 107.334 cot 24◦ + 1.085 m3 · s−1 107.Chapter 13 v2 u1 vw1 − u2 vw2 + 2 g 2g  1 2 2 = 2.031 2 vr1 + 2 0.4 Q = vr1 0.5 kW 13.176)8.87 m · s−1 ω= 2 × 2.93 m3 · s−1 ∴ Pp = 0.87 2u1 = rad · s−1 = 92 rad · s−1 D 0.872 m2 · s−2 × 0.8 1/2 −1 ωm = ωp = 44.88 × 55 m = whence vr1 = 8.556 × 0.085 m3 · s−1 × 1000 kg · m−3 × 9.176vr1 9.81 N · kg−1 × 30 m = 7.6 = 28.93 m3 · s−1 × 1000 kg · m−3 × 9.66 MW p = 44.450 × 0.86 × 43 × 1.92π0.334 × 8.900 Equate Q ωD3 ωp ∴ Qp = ωm  Dp Dm 3 Qm = 44.6 rad · s−1 ηm = 100 × 1000 W 1.10 For dynamic similarity equate gH/ω2 D2     Dp Hm 1/2 10.

second units] (0.33 m + 4 + 0 2g 2g  1  2 v4 − v32 2g   Q2 16 1 1 = 6.11 75 15 υ 1 60 υ r1 R1 = 14.56 rad = 0.037 × 180) m = 1.037 say (Fig.36 m 13. 13.73 m + − 4 2g π 2 d44 d3 l(1 − 0.81 × 180)5/4 rad = 0.08 m · s−1 ∴ ηhyd = u1 vw1 14.56/2π rev = 0.31 m · s−1 ∴ Q = 4.33 − 3.19) zmax = pa − pv − σc H = (8.12 p = 1/2  52.089 rev ∴ σc = 0.08 = = 81.450 + 2l tan 8◦ )4 whence l = 5.978l = 6.64 sin 15◦ m · s−1 = 4.31 × 0.3 15 × 106 10001/2 (9.94 m g .5% gH 9.234 + 1  0.03Q2 ) = (10.0613 [metre.64 m · s−1 vr1 = 16.6) m +  1 − 0.76 m · s−1 u1 13.92 m · s−1 u1 v1 = sin 105◦ sin 60◦ = 16.92 × 16.2 m3 · s−1 = 0.862 m3 · s−1 vw1 = v1 cos 15◦ = 16.73 + 0.03Q2 l = 10.4504 d44 = 5.6 − 0.81 × 30 u3 Steady-flow energy eqn: l H3 + u4 v32 v2 + l − 0.108 Solutions manual u1 = 6.0613 0.25π × 0.

035 m · s−1 0.00857 m2 vw2 = (19.125 m2 vw2 = u2 − vr2 cot 70◦ = 24.63 × 14.5 m u2 = 25π0.5) m = 3.35 m · s−1 2π0.269 − 5.0125 m2 = 0.035 cot 30◦ ) m · s−1 = 14.63 × 14.05 m 13.81 m · s−1 vr2 = 5.75 m · s−1 = 31.78 − 20.5 2 = 3 g 2g g Then Hence Runner loss = v0 = v02 p∗ − p∗0 v2 u2 vw2 − 3 − 0.5 2 + 2g g g 2g 0.5) m = 20.25 m · s−1 = 19.38/9.38 Ideal head = (19.00857 m2 ∴ vr2 = 0.76 m · s−1 R2 = vr2 cosec 70◦ = 20.122 m2 ∴ v02 /2g = 0.026 m3 · s−1 = 3.78 m 2 2 + vr2 = (14.712 19.5π0.352 m2 · s−2 = 988 m2 · s−2 109 .026 m3 · s−1 = 2.299 m · s−1 (π/4)0.13 Hman = (4 + 16.005 cosec 30◦ )0.7 m3 · s−1 = 19.81) m = 28.50 + 28.5 ∴ ηm = = 0.Chapter 13 13.0352 ) m2 · s−2 = 216.762 + 19.63 − 3.81 × 20.60 m · s−1   2 2 v22 = vw2 + vr2 = 24.269 m ∴ Runner loss = (0.375 × 0.14 u2 = 13.25π − 10 υ2 30 R2 υ r2 u2 × 0.382 + 3.0 m2 · s−2 v22 = vw2 Steady-flow energy eqn between pump inlet and runner outlet: v2 p∗0 v2 p∗ u2 vw2 + 0 + − Runner loss = 2 + 2 g 2g g 2g g p∗ v2 p∗2 + 0.36 m · s−1 υ w2 Flow area = (0.38 m · s−1 9.

5◦ vr2 = [Reject second result as too extreme.15 υ2 R2 β u2 H= v2 u2 vw2 − 2.18 m2 1 1000 = (47.60 − × 988 m 2 Head of air = = 46.25 × 31.5 m Equivalent head of water = 46.4 × 20.5v22 2g  1 = 2 × 31.1 m · s−1 .7 × 1. g 2g vw2 = u2 − vr2 cot β 2 + (u2 − vr2 cot β)2 v22 = vr2 1  2 2u2 (u2 − vr2 cot β) − vr2 ∴H= 2g 2 − u22 + 2u2 vr2 cot β − vr2 cot2 β =  1  2 2 cosec2 β u2 − vr2 2g u2 = 30π 0.4 + 19 + 68Q2 + 650Q2 ) m = (21.76 19.] 13.4 + 718Q2 ) m u2 = 16.5 × 0. 4.25 1000 = 58. losses = (5.81 × 24.6π 0.23 19.25 m · s−1  .62 whence β = 39.92 m · s−1 π 0.1 m × 1.5 m3 · s−1 = 15.12 − 15.62  1 2 − 0.4R22 − v22 + 0.5 m · s−1 = 47.1 mm  Power = Qg u2 vw2 g  + Mech.81 × 24.110 Solutions manual  1  2u2 vw2 − 0.76 + 220) W = 5830 W 13.5◦ or 140.5 m × 1.16 Head to be supplied = (2.35 m · s−1 = 18.922 cosec2 β) m ∴ 0.

25 − 53.Chapter 13 vr2 = Q Q = m · s−1 = 53.25 − 76.03823)2 ηm = = 78.81 m · s−2 × 32.045 m3 · s−1 = 2.66Q − 4.4 + 718(0.95π0.81 × 32.045 m3 · s−1 0.2 rad · s−1 (9. Flow rate = 38.2Q m · s−1 0.0Q) m · s−1 v2 v2 u2 vw2 − 2 + 0.7 m)3/4 Area of flow = π D × D × 0.7 m 0.1508 m3 · s−1 = 0.15 m)2   2.25 − 76.0Q) 19.75 v2 vw2 υ2 125 u2 ∴ vw2 = 9.546 m · s−1 (π/4)(0.25(18.75 × 83.62 Velocity in pipes = ∴ Manometric head = (30 + 2.15/D) − 83.2985D2 10 0.15 19.1D D vr2 vw2 − u2 0.697 m ∴ Total losses = 0.1056 111 .03823) 13.23 L · s−1 # " 9.81 21.7 5.5462 4 × 0.4 + 718Q2 ) m = ∴ 937Q2 + 70.25 − 76.35 × 0.2Q cot 35◦ ) m · s−1 = (18.0Q) m ∴ (21.045 m3 · s−1 )1/2 ∴ ω = 166.5 2 2g g 2g  1 = 2 × 18.17 0.25 − 76.15 2 −1 m2 · s−1 = m ·s 0.2985D2 D2 ∴ vr2 = ∴ u2 = 166.5 53.1508 = D2 [(5. whence Q = 0.1D s−1 gH = 0.95πD2 B2 0.465 rad = ω(0.2D/2 s−1 = 83.1D] tan 55◦ = R2 υ r2 [metre. second units] ∴ 5.03823 that is.0 × 0.6% 18.697) m = 32.25(18.4 m = 2.018 vw2 = (18.15D − 83.95 = 0.006 × 36 + 2.1D3 = 0.62   2 2 2 −0.2 Q + (18.07 = 0.

7 × 16.01416 giving 83.112 Solutions manual As first approx.33 m · s−1 0.1252   1 Overall head = 4.445 m · s−1 (π/4)0.25 1.5 + 13.1 D = 0.92 m head 800 × 9.96 m 0.91 4.242 and so on.12 rad Hence s = 4 rad and pump speed = 8.81 × 1.316 rev/s 7.15 × 0.03 m · s−1 = 1.18 u2 = 24.2 rad · s−1 m . Next D3 = Exact D = 0. Then D = (5.81(4.81 × 8.2π 0.765 m · s−1 17 000 × 10−6 m2 Apparent vw2 = u2 − vr2 cot 32◦ = 16.003716ω [s] (9.19 (a) s = n ∴N ω s ω(14)1/2 [s] = 0.249 1 (5.4452 − 1.81 × 17.01 m · s−1 vr2 = 0.1056) = 0.05 8.1252 Velocity in suction pipe = 0.249 − 0.1)1/2 = 0.1% 19.33 ηoverall = ηman 13.238 m.81 ω(0.96 = 68.15/83.62 = 17.1% 7760 9.3) = = 81.18 m · s−1 = 11.18 m · s−1 ∴ Actual vw2 = 0.03 m3 · s−1 = 1.85 8.498ω [s] (9.3 × 1000 × 9.698 m · s−1 (π/4)0.282 1.6982 ) 19.3 + (2.00 4.05 rad · s−1 (b) 70 kPa ≡ s = 70 × 103 m = 8.92)3/4 Highest possible speed = 50 rev/s = 314. neglect RHS. say 250 mm 13.27 rad · s−1 3.5)3/4 40 39 38 pairs of poles 1.01 × 11.0113)1/2 [s] = 0.25 m · s−1 = 19.03 Velocity in discharge pipe = m · s−1 = 2.5 + 13.

6 rad · s−1  ωm  183.00525)1/2 rad · m3/2 · s−3/2 (gH)3/4 ∴ gH = 548 m2 · s−2 ∴ 10 stages required 13.81 gH ωD2 .21 By dimensional analysis =φ ωD3  1800 − 830 m = 1.60 rad at 157 rad · s−1 but pump would then be more bulky.81 × 15)3/4 whence ω = 34.56 m = Q 13.26 − 1800/(1000 × 9.20 rad Alternatively use s = 0.637 m 1000 × 9.20 rad = 2π 50(0.20 rad at 314.5 z1 − z2 = (0.5 × 106 2 −2 m · s = 5500 m2 · s−2 1000 At 50 rev/s. say 1.8 = rad · s−1 where n ∴ 91.00525)1/2 rad = 0.2 rad · s−1 0. each stage with s = 0.Chapter 13 Then s = 0.2 rad = 1.622)13.15 rad = s (9.17 rad.0356 rad (5500)3/4 —far too low for range of pumps ∴ Use multi-stage pump.003716 × 314. s = 2π × 50(0.0843 36.20 σc = 3. ωmodel = ωp Dp Dm 2 νm νp  1  = 34.2 rad · s−1 3n6 113 .37 rad · s−1  For equal ωD2 /ν.750 − 0.37 rad · s−1 42 n 549.81) = 0. (c) gH = p/ = 5. ω 2 D2 ν  √ ω 2 For prototype pump 1.

03 = 1282 W 13.003349 m3 Whence ri = 0.0014 × 850 kg · m−3 (16. (ω1 r20 − ω2 r2i )(ω1 − ω2 ) = 2v2 Power transmitted = Q (Work divided by mass in secondary)   = Av ω1 ω2 r20 − ω22 r2i   1/2  1 2 2 = A ω1 r0 − ω2 ri (ω1 − ω2 ) (ω1 ω2 r20 − ω22 r2i ) 2  3/2  ω − ω 1/2 1 2 = Aω2 ω1 r20 − ω2 ri 2 ∴ 150 × 103 W = 0.5 m)5 0.965 80π 0.192 m2 − 0.1192 m ∴ di = 238.67 3 × 2π rad · s−1 (0.    v2 1  2 2 ω1 r0 − ω1 ω2 r2i − ω1 ω2 r20 − ω22 ri = 4 g 2g that is.67 m 13. Hm = Hp ωm ωp 2  ∴ 6.114 Solutions manual   Dm 2 Dp  4  2   Dp νm Dm 2 = Hp νp Dp Dm 2  Dp 1 240 = 2 m = (15 m) 2 Dm n n For equal gH/ω2 D2 .30.192 m2 · s−1 − 80π 0.67 m  H m  26.29 and 13.4 mm .22 Input power = Tω1 = CT ω13 D5 ∴ Lost power = CT ω13 D5 s = 0.965r21 )3/2 = 0.965 rad · s−1 r21  × 80π(1 − 0.23 From eqns 13.965) 2 3/2 1/2 (rad · s−1 )1/2 ∴ (0.026m2 × 850 kg · m−3 × 40  × 2π rad · s−1 × 0.

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