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Tunnels

Tunnels

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Published by Mohamed H. Jiffry
Tunnels
Tunnels

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Published by: Mohamed H. Jiffry on Feb 22, 2013
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TUNNELS

TERMINOLOGY for UNDERGROUND STRUCTURES

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Adit.....................................galeri Tunnel................................tünel Subway..............................metro Shaft...................................baca Chamber............................oda Portal.................................ana giriş veya çıkış Pilot adit.............................yan galeri, pilot galerisi Centre................................merkez, eksen Face...................................ayna Wall ~ site..........................yan, kenar, duvar Floor...................................taban Roof...................................tavan

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Overbreak.............................aşırı sökülme Excavated profile..................kazı profili Natural archling....................doğal kemerlenme Load......................................yük Support.................................destek, iksa Failure...................................yenilme, çökme Gentle failure........................yavaş yenilme Rock burst............................kaya patlaması Squeezing ground................sıkışan zemin Swelling ground....................şişen zemin Clay-filled joint.......................kil dolgulu eklem Long term stability.................uzun süreli duraylılık Ground treatment..................zemin iyileştirmesi Support before excavation....kazı öncesi destekleme



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Jet grouted roof cover..............jet grouting ile iyileştirilmiş tavan örtüsü Shotcrete initial lining..............püskürtme beton başlangıç çizgisi Jet grouted floor cover............jet grouting ile iyileştirilmiş döşeme Top heading............................kalot (Crown) Invert.......................................stros (Bottom excavation) Bench......................................üzengi çizgisi Final concrete lining................sonuncu beton kaplama (nihai beton kaplama çizgisi) SHIELD tunnelling method..............KALKAN Yöntemi CUT & COVER tunnelling method....AÇ-KAPA Yöntemi TBM (Full face ~ Total Boring Machine).....TÜM KESİT KAZI MAKİNASI

.................................Aşındırıcılık Structure.Sertlik Toughness...Burgulama MACHINE BORING.....TERMINOLOGY for EXCAVATIONS of ROCKS & SOILS  DRILLING..........Jeolojik yapı Drilkling fluids...........Mekanize tünel açma   Total Boring Machine (TBM) Full face excavation  BLASTING.......Dayanım – direnç Abrasiveness...Sondalama      Hardness........................................................................................Patlatma ...Sondaj sıvısı   AUGERING..........

........    SCRAPING.........................Kırarak kazıma DIGGING.....yeraltısuyu Control of groundwater  Groundwater flow  Rate of flow  Volume of flow  Boundaries  ........................Kazma GROUND WATER.......Kazıma (makinayla) RIPPING....

6.TUNNEL DESCRIPTION 1. 4. 3. 5. 2. Made into natural material (rocks) Empty inside Carry the loads itself Both ends are open to atmosphere Generally horizontal Thick walled structure looks like cylinder .

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...Arch 3.Kemer.......Invert 9............Key stone 2..........Ano.Bench line or plane 7.....................Ano (unit) .................................Kilit (anahtar) taşı..........................Kalot...................................Bench 6.............Taban...................................................Üzengi çizgisi (düzeyi)..Stros........Top heading 8.......................Floor 5.Wall 4...................Ayak (duvar)....................Üzengi..............1...........................................

Tunnel Section for Swelling Ground 1.Flow direction of water .Support 3.Pressurized area 5.Digging section 2.Swelling section 4.

SURFACE EXCAVATIONS  Deformation & failure .

.................UNDERGROUND EXCAVATIONS In Rock  In Sediment  Stability & Arching  Water  Dry tunnel....below water table   Gases Carbon dioxide (CO2)  Carbon monoxide (CO)  Methane (CH4)  Hydrogen sulphide (H2S)  Other gases  ........above water table  Wet tunnel.

..............gaz patlaması  Rock falls....kaya düşmesi  Rock bursts........Gas bursts.................şişen – kabaran zemin  Temperature  Subsidence  ...........................kaya fırlaması  Squeezing ground.......

EXPLORATION & INVESTIGATIONS RELATED of SLOPE STABILITY        Geomorphologic maping and preparation of longitudinal & cross sections Geological maping & surveyings (aerial photographs) Geophysical surveyings Underground explorations. boreholes Ground water surveyings Laboratory tests Model studies .

SURFACE EXCAVATIONS Permanent  Short term excavations  .

Structure 3. GEOLOGY Soil profile or hard rock geology 2. Ground water (hydrogeology) 4. . Stability 1.SUBSURFACE EXCAVATIONS 1.

Mapping (Topographic. etc. geologic. 3. 2.) Geophysical surveying (especially seismic velocity of rocks) Trial pits & boreholes General and local stability analysis Decide to excavation method . 4. 5... INVESTIGATIONS 1.2.

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etc  . store.. mining .UNDERGROUND EXCAVATIONS Adit. shaft. large chamber  Tunnel  Subway ~ metro  Underpass  Shelter  Power house  Ware house.. incline.

55 of air  (Highly explosive with air) marsh gas Hydrogene sulphide (H2S) 1.53 of air  Methane (CH4) 0.19 of air (Highly toxic and explosive)  Sulphur dioxide (SO2)  .97 of air  Carbon dioxide (CO2) 1.GASES (can be lethal or burst) Carbon monoxide (CO) 0.

10-40%) . silt. ROCK FALL SQUEEZING GROUND (sand. clay) ROCK BURST    BULKING (Increase in volume. shale.

FACTORS EFFECTING EXCAVATION of ROCKS         Mineralogical composition of rocks Texture & fabric Petrographic features Structure Rock mass Strike & dip of beds in relation to face of excavation Intensity of tectonic disturbances Degreee of weathering .

RESISTANCE of ROCKS to EXCAVATION        Loose soils Soil easy to spade (bel ile kazmak) Soil easy to dig Crumbling weak rocks (ufalamak) Rocks easy to blast Rocks difficult to blast Rocks very difficult to blast .

TUNNELLING METHODS .

. After completion of a work shaft. This construction method causes minimal disruption to traffic and the environment because all the work takes place below ground and the ground level environment is unaffected.SHIELD TUNNELLING METHOD    This method involves the use of shield machine to drive the tunnels below the ground.2 meter width. the shield machine is lowered into the shaft and assembled there before excavation and construction of the tunnels using precast concrete lining segments of about 1.

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uses diaphragm walls as temporary retaining walls within the site area. Step two :Excavation within the diaphragm walls. the structure built and then covered over.CUT and COVER TUNNELLING METHOD      This construction method. . Step four : Fitting out the internal structures. pin piles. installing struts as work progresses. and reinstating the surface structures. and decking. whereby the site is fully excavated. backfilling. Step three :Construction of permanent floor slabs and walls. Step one :Construction of diaphragm walls.

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Mechanical-support TBM Compressed-air TBM Slurry shield TBM Earth pressure balance machine Mixed-face shield TBM . 5.TBM (Tunnel Boring Machine) 1. 4. 3. 2.

.Mechanical Support TBM  A mechanical-support TBM has a full-face cutterhead which provides face support by constantly pushing the excavated material ahead of the cutterhead against the surrounding ground.1.

Confinement is achieved by pressurizing the air in the cutter chamber.2. .Compressed-Air TBM  A compressed-air TBM can have either a full-face cutterhead or excavating arms.

.3. Confinement is achieved by pressurizing boring fluid inside the cutterhead chamber.Slurry Shield TBM  A slurry shield TBM has a full-face cutterhead.

.4.Earth Pressure Balance Machine  An earth pressure balance machine has a full-face cutterhead. Confinement is achieved by pressurizing the excavated material in the cutterhead chamber.

5. .Mix-Face Shield TBM  Mix-face shield TBMs have full-face cutterheads and can work inclosed or open mode and with different confinement techniques.

. vertical and inclined layers have different kinds of loading conditions for tunnels.EFFECT of GEOLOGICAL STRUCTURES to TUNNEL EXCAVATION  Effect of soil layers: horizontal.

type and thickness of the fill material and the hydrostatic pressures in both sides of the fault are some problems in the tunnelling. Relation between the fault zone and the tunnel . width of the fault zone. Effect of faults: the relation between the fault slope direction and the tunnel direction.

 Tunnel excavations in the slopes: the discontinuities (layers. . fissures) inclined inside or outside of the slope are very important regarding the stress and strength of the tunnel.

 Effect of the folds: While tunnel is excavated in an area that contains folded rocks. different stresses and conditions may occur depending on the fold type. Fold axis and the tunnel direction is parallel Fold axis and the tunnel direction is vertical .

CLASSIFICATION of ROCKS for TUNNELING PURPOSES .

that the tunnel will be constructed in. is first done by Terzaghi.  . The classification of the rocks. Classification of rocks for engineering purposes is needed in analyzing the project costs and to obtain an economic and reliable solution. it is too general and gives qualitative results. But.

TUNNEL ROCK CLASSIFICATION by TERZAGHI .

Laufer classified tunnel rocks to 7 groups according to stand-up time .

Rock classification and determination of unsupported span .

URFA IRRIGATION TUNNEL .

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ONE of the LONGEST IRRIGATION TUNNELS in the WORLD .

4 km in length discharging water from the reservoir of Atatürk Dam.Consist of two concrete lined tunnels each of which is 7.62 m in diameter and 26. .

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