POWER GENERATION PROCESS BASICS

BOILER / STEAM TURBO-GENERATOR UTILITY PLANT
Steam Condenser 40%

20%

Stack Lake Steam 6% Aux. Power + Losses 34% Electricity 100% Fuel Air

Boiler

Steam Turbine

Generator

Transmission

THERMAL EFFICIENCY - 34%

BOILER / STEAM TURBINE-GENERATOR INDUSTRIAL CO-GENERATION
Process Steam 65% 15%

Process Plant Stack

Steam

5% Aux. Power + Losses 15% Electricity

Fuel 100% Air

Boiler

Steam Turbine

Generator

Transmission

THERMAL EFFICIENCY - 80%

SIMPLE CYCLE COMBUSTION (GAS) TURBINE

57-62%

100% Fuel

Stack

Combuster

3% Aux Power + Losses

35-40% Electricity Air

Compressor

Turbine

Generator

Transmission

THERMAL EFFICIENCY - 35-40%

GAS TURBINE INDUSTRIAL CO-GENERATION PLANT 20% Stack Stack Supplementary/ Auxiliary Fuel (Optional) 100% Fuel Process Steam Process Plant Combuster Exhaust Gas Air Compressor Turbine Generator Transmission .

45-55% . Power + Losses 35-40% Electricity Compressor Turbine Generator Transmission Thermal Efficiency .GAS TURBINE COMBINED CYCLE POWER PLANT Steam Condenser 20% Stack Supplementary Fuel (Optional) 100% Fuel Steam Turbine Combuster Exhaust Gas Generator Stack Steam Lake 28% Transmission 12-15% Electricity Air 6% Aux.

UTILITY PLANT .FUNCTIONAL BLOCK DIAGRAM Switch Yard System Ash Handling System Station Electrical System Boiler Steam & Water System Air & Flue Gas System BOILER Fuel Preparation System Fuel Firing System Boiler Miscellaneous Systems Boiler Feed Pumps & Deaerator System Turbine Steam System UNIT#2 TURBINEGENERATOR HP & LP Heaters System Turbine Supervisory & Control System Generator & Electrical System Turbine Miscellaneous Systems Turbine Bypass System DM Plant Fuel Handling System Station Miscellaneous Systems .

CAPTIVE POWER PLANT .FUNCTIONAL BLOCK DIAGRAM Switch Yard System Ash Handling System Station Electrical System Steam & Water Air & Flue Gas BOILER Fuel Preparation Fuel Firing Steam UNIT#2 UNIT#3 TG HP & LP Heaters Supervisory & Control Generator & Electrical Miscellaneous Systems BFP’s & Deaerator System Fuel Handling System DM Plant Station Miscellaneous Systems .

BOILER FUNDAMENTALS .

BASIC DIAGRAM OF A BOILER Water Steam Steam / Water System Blowdown Fuel Flue Gas Mixing of Fuel & Air Heat Transfer Surface Furnace Air Ash .

SALIENT FEATURES OF MODERN INDUSTRIAL & UTILITY BOILER • STEAM BOILER • WATER TUBE • SUPERHEATED STEAM • HIGH PRESSURE • WATER COOLED FURNACE • WATER CIRCULATION .

COMBUSTION REQUIREMENTS Sufficient Combustion Air Fuel is Gasified Mixing within Flammable Range Temperature above Ignition Point Combustion Time Temperature Turbulence 3 T’s of Combustion .

BASIC COMBUSTION CHEMISTRY Complete (Air) Oxygen Fuel Heat Flue Gas Products H2O CO2 O2 + H2 C Incomplete Oxygen Fuel H2 C Heat Flue Gas Products H2O CO2 CO H2 C O2 + • Other Combustibles .Nitrogen to Nitrogen+Nitrous Oxides • Ash .Sulphur to Sulphur Oxides • Non-combustible .

BOILER WATER & STEAM SYSTEM Spray Water Drum Attemperator Hot Reheat Steam Main Steam Attemperator Platen Super Heater Down Comers Final Re Heater Primary Re Heater Final Super Heater Primary Super Heater Cold Reheat Steam Spray Water Flue Gas Economiser Feed Water Furnace Flue Gas Out to Air Heater Water Wall Risers Bottom Ring Header Simplified Process Diagram .

Natural or Controlled • Heat Transfer depends on Heat Transfer Area & Time • Heat Transfer is affected by Fouling. Boiler Water Quality and % MCR Load . Boiler Pressure.BOILER WATER & STEAM SYSTEM Process Performance Highlights • Heat Transfer by Radiation and Convection • Boiler Water Circulation .

Pre-heats Boiler Feed water • Boiler Drum .Reduce superheat from steam .Heat up steam coming from High Pressure turbine • Attemperators .BOILER WATER & STEAM SYSTEM Major Equipment • Economiser .Separates water from steam and reduce solids in steam • Water Walls .Heat up steam coming from boiler drum • Reheaters .Absorb heat from flue gas to evaporate boiler water • Superheaters .

Attemperation / Burner Tilt • Hot Reheat Steam Temperature .Burner Tilt / Attemperation • Main Steam Pressure .Blow down / Chemical Dozing • Fouling of Heat Transfer Surfaces .BOILER WATER & STEAM SYSTEM Process Regulation • Drum Level .Blowdown / Soot Blowing • Main Steam Temperature .Regulation of Feed Water flow • Drum Water Quality .Regulation of Combustion .

AIR & FLUE GAS SYSTEM To Air Cooled Guns Scanner Air Fans From FD Fans To Hot PA Header To Cold PA Header PA FAN A PA FAN B WINDOX A AH A P T N S H R H F I N S H L T S H E C O ESP A ID Fan A Chimney ID Fan B ESP B AH B WINDBOX B FD FAN A FURNACE FD FAN B Simplified Process Diagram .

Density & System Resistance • Fan performance is affected by temperature. barometric pressure and speed • Flue Gas Cleaning • Gas flow is restricted by ash deposits on boiler surfaces .Natural / Induced / Forced / Balanced • Supply of Air for Transport of Pulverised Coal • Pre-heating of Air • Distribution of Air in Combustion Chamber • Recirculation of Gas • Fan capacity depends on Flow.AIR & FLUE GAS SYSTEM Process Performance Highlights • Generation of Draft . density.

Mechanical Precipitator. Electrostatic Precipitator and Gas Scrubber • Dampers .AIR & FLUE GAS SYSTEM Major Equipment • Air Path . Steam Coil Air Pre-heater.Gas Recirculating Fans • Flue Gas Cleaning . Regenerative Air Pre-heater & Wind-box • Gas Path .Forced Draft Fans.Induced Draft Fans and Stack • Gas Recirculation .

PA Fan Inlet Vane Control • RAPH Cold End Temperature .FD Fan Variable Pitch Control • PA Header Pressure .Damper Control .AIR & FLUE GAS SYSTEM Process Regulation • Furnace Draft .ID Fan Inlet Vane Control and/or Variable Speed • Secondary Air Flow .SCAPH Control • Gas Recirculation .

FUEL PREPARATION SYSTEM .COAL Raw Coal Bunker To Mill Discharge Valves To Other Mills Hot PA Coal Feeder Coal+Air to Burners Mill A To Other Mills Cold PA To Other Mills Seal Air Fans Simplified Process Diagram .

FUEL PREPARATION SYSTEM .GAS/OIL Fuel Gas Supply FCV PRV’s FGTV To Burners FUEL GAS Atomising Steam/Air PCV Fuel Oil Return PCV Short Recirc Long Recirc Fuel Oil Supply Oil Heater FCV Steam FOTV To Burners Fuel Oil Pumps FUEL OIL Simplified Process Diagram .

FUEL PREPARATION SYSTEM Process Performance Highlights • Coal Pulverizing .Direct / Indirect Firing • Coal Transport and Drying • Fuel Gas Pressure Regulation • Fuel Oil Pumping & Filtering • Fuel Oil Pressure & Viscosity Regulation • Gas Pressure & Oil Pressure/Temperature affect Boiler Load .

Chain / Belt / Rotary / Gravimetric • Coal / Air Dampers.FUEL PREPARATION SYSTEM Major Equipment • Coal Mills .Tube Ball / Bowl / Impact • Raw Coal Feeders . Gates & Discharge Valves • Fuel Oil Pumps & Heaters • Seal Air Fans • Coal Bunkers • Vapour Fans .

Raw Coal Feeder Speed • Coal/Air Temperature & Flow .FUEL PREPARATION SYSTEM Process Regulation • Coal Flow .Cold & Hot PA Flows .

Air E Fire Ball Scanner LFO?HFO Burner Typical Corner Arrangement for a Tangentially Fired System .FUEL FIRING SYSTEM OFA OFA FF F EF EA FA AA (2) (3) OFA EA DE D Front Wall CD C BC B AB A AA HEA Igniter HFO Burner Oil Flame Scanner (1) Plan (Corner Designation) (4) Coal Burner FA AA Air Damper Over Fire Air End Air Fuel Air Aux.

Mechanical / Air / Steam • Flame Ignition • Air Distribution • Fuel Combustion .FUEL FIRING SYSTEM Process Performance Highlights • Fuel Firing .Front / Tangential • Fuel Oil Atomisation .

FUEL FIRING SYSTEM Major Equipment • Burners • Ignitors • Flame Scanners • Burner Tilt Mechanism • Wind Box • Dampers .

FUEL FIRING SYSTEM Process Regulation • Furnace to Wind Box Differential Pressure • Fuel Air Flows • Fuel Firing • Emergency Shutdown • Flame Monitoring • Oil Support for Coal Flame Stability .

BOILER MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS Boiler Auxiliary Cooling Water System • Ensures continuous supply of cooling water to Boiler & it’s auxiliaries • Consists of Overhead Tank. Pumps & Heat Exchangers Chemical Dosing System • Prepares & supplies chemicals for treatment of Boiler Water • Consists of Preparation Tanks. Mixers & Metering Pumps .

Steam Deaerator Aux. Steam for Pegging CRH Steam IPT Extraction Steam Feed Storage Tank To HP Bypass Spray T o APRDS Spray Recirculation Valve To HP Heaters Hydrazine Dosing Ammonia Dosing M Discharge Valve Boiler Feed Pumps Simplified Process Diagram .DEAERATION & FEED PUMPING SYSTEM Condensate from LP Heater HP Heater Drains Aux.

DEAERATION & FEED PUMPING SYSTEM Process Performance Highlights • Boiler Water pre-heating & air removal • Maintain positive Suction Pressure for Feed Pumps • Feed Water Pumping to Boiler .

DEAERATION & FEED PUMPING SYSTEM Major Equipment • Boiler Feed Pumps • Hydraulic Coupling • Deaerator .

DEAERATION & FEED PUMPING SYSTEM Process Regulation • Deaerator Pressure • Deaerator Level • BFP Minimum Recirculation • Feed Pump Speed .

STEAM TURBINE FUNDAMENTALS .

because of irreversbility in the process (ENTROPY OF THE UNIVERSE IS INCREASING) .LAWS OF THERMODYNAMICS • Conservation of Energy .Heat may be converted in to work and work may be converted in to heat. in accordance with a certain natural proportionality constant (ENERGY CAN NOT BE DESTROYED) • Not all of a given quantity of Heat can be converted in to useful Work.

BASIC RANKINE CYCLE T Heat Available for Work Unavailable Heat S .

IMPROVING RANKINE CYCLE • Superheating • Increased Pressure • Decreased Exhaust Pressure • Regenerative Feed Heating • Reheating .

Constant / Variable • Single / Double Flow . of Cylinders • Speed .STEAM TURBINE TYPES • Condensing Turbine • Back Pressure Turbine • Regenerative Turbine •Controlled Extraction • No.

TURBINE STEAM SYSTEM Main Steam ESV CV HP Turbine IP Turbine LP Turbine Cold Reheat Steam Condenser Hot Reheat Steam IV CV Extraction Steam Simplified Process Diagram .

Rotor & Blades • Emergency Stop Valves • Control Valves • Condenser .Casing.TURBINE STEAM SYSTEM Major Equipment • Turbine .

TURBINE STEAM SYSTEM Process Regulation • Steam Admission • Emergency Shutdown .

REGENERATIVE FEED HEATING SYSTEM CRH Steam To Deaerator To From BFP Boiler Discharge To Deaerator LPT Extraction Steam HP HTR LP HTR IPT Extrn. Steam HP HTR LPT Extraction Steam LP HTR Condenser Gland Leakoff Steam Minimum Recirculation Makeup Hotwell To Condenser HP Flash Tank To Condenser GSC LP Flash Tank LPT Extraction LP HTR Drain CLR Condensate Extraction Pump Simplified Process Diagram .

REGENERATIVE FEED HEATING SYSTEM Process Performance Highlights • Pumping of Condensate from Hotwell to Deaerator •Gradual Heating of Feed Water Temperature • Minimise Heat Loss from the Cycle .

REGENERATIVE FEED HEATING SYSTEM Major Equipment • HP Heaters • LP Heaters • Drain Cooler • Condensate Extraction Pumps .

REGENERATIVE FEED HEATING SYSTEM Process Regulation • Hotwell Level • Heater Level • Minimum Flow through CEP & GSC .

TURBINE GOVERNING & CONTROL SYSTEM Governing Oil System Turning Gear Jacking Oil System Condenser Vacuum System Lubricating Oil System Gland Steam System VACUUM SYSTEM Turbine Drain System OIL SYSTEMS WARM UP SYSTEM Functional Block Diagram .

TURBINE GOVERNING & CONTROL SYSTEM Process Performance Highlights • Shaft & Bearing Protection • Electro-hydraulic Governing • Maintain Vacuum in Condenser • Supply Steam to Turbine Glands • Warming up of Turbines and their Valves • Emergency Shutdown in case of Unsafe Conditions .

TURBINE GOVERNING & CONTROL SYSTEM Major Equipment • Oil Pumps. Turning Gear & Jacking Oil Pump • Hydraulic Actuators for Turbine Valves • Vacuum Pumps • Gland Steam Pressure Regulator • Oil Coolers & Temperature Regulator .

TURBINE GOVERNING & CONTROL SYSTEM Process Regulation • Speed / Load / Frequency Control • Gland Steam Pressure Control .

TURBINE MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS

Condenser Cooling Water System • Supplies Cooling Water Condensation of Turbine Exhaust Steam Turbine Auxiliary Cooling Water System • Ensures continuous supply of cooling water to Turbine & it’s auxiliaries • Consists of Overhead Tank, Pumps & Heat Exchangers Chemical Dosing System • Prepares & supplies chemicals for treatment of Condensate • Consists of Preparation Tanks, Mixers & Metering Pumps

TURBINE MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS Condenser Cooling Water System
CW Return Header

Cooling Tower CW Sump

To Unit#2

Condenser Waterbox A B

CW Makeup Water

CW Supply Header

Circulating Water Pumps

Simplified Process Diagram

TURBINE MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS Condenser Cooling Water System
Major Equipment • Cooling Towers • CW Pumps

Process Performance Highlights • Steam Condensation • Cooling of Condenser CW - Cooling Tower / Lake Process Regulation

• Condenser Tube Cleaning - Online / Back flushing

TURBINE BYPASS SYSTEM
Main Steam To HPT Feed Water Block Valve CRH From HPT Spray Control Valve

PRV

HRH

To IPT

Condensate Condenser

Simplified Process Diagram

TURBINE BYPASS SYSTEM Process Performance Highlights • Enable Boiler Operation for Quick Re-start after Boiler Trip and during Turbine Start-up • Control MS Pressure after Turbine Trip or Sudden Load Throw-off .

TURBINE BYPASS SYSTEM Process Regulation • MS Pressure Reduction & Desuperheating • HRH Steam Pressure Reduction & Desuperheating .

GENERATOR FUNDAMENTALS .

WORKING PRINCIPLE • Converts Mechanical Energy in to Electrical Energy • Based on Electro-magnetic Induction E = 4. of Poles n .44 O FN volts E . O .Strength of Magnetic Field F . of Turns in a Stator Winding Coil F = Pn/120 P .No.No. m.e.Frequency N .Revolution per second of Rotor . f.

GENERATOR EFFICIENCY & LOSSES • Efficiency = Output Electrical Energy Input Mechanical Energy • Losses . Copper Loss & Iron Loss • Typically Efficiency is 90-97% .Bearing Loss.

GENERATOR & UNIT ELECTRICAL SYSTEM Metering & Protective Relays Generator Transformer Seal Oil System Hydrogen Cooling System Generator Synchronising Sceme Unit Auxiliary Transformer Field Excitation System Stator Cooling Water System ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS MECHANICAL SYSTEMS Generator Functional Block Diagram .

6 kV Unit Bus B 11 kV Generator 6.GENERATOR & UNIT ELECTRICAL SYSTEM Isolator 132 KV Bus I 132 KV Bus II Circuit Breaker GT Unit Auxiliary Transformer From Station Bus From Station Bus 6.6 kV Unit Bus A Key One Line Diagram .

GENERATOR & UNIT ELECTRICAL SYSTEM Process Performance Highlights • Conversion of Mechanical Energy in to Electrical Energy • Field Excitation • Stator Winding Cooling by Distillate / Air • Rotor Winding Cooling by Hydrogen / Air • Hydrogen Sealing by Oil • Synchronisation & Voltage Transformation • Emergency Shutdown in case of Unsafe Conditions .

Exciter (DC/AC). Coolers & Overhead Tank • Seal Oil . Field Windings • Field Excitation . Rotor. Coolers & Differential Pressure Regulator . Static Rectifying Unit & AVR • Bus Ducts & Transformers • Circuit Breakers & Protective Relays • H2 Cooling .Stator.Fans.Pumps. Dryers & Coolers • Stator Water Cooling . Armature Windings.GENERATOR & UNIT ELECTRICAL SYSTEM Major Equipment • Generator .Pumps.

GENERATOR & UNIT ELECTRICAL SYSTEM Process Regulation • Field Excitation • Generator Synchrinisation • Voltage Regulation .

POWER PLANT OPERATION & MAINTENANCE .

Heat Supplied/ KWHR .Direct / Heat Loss Method • Turbine Heat Rate .Total Heat Supplied/ KWHR • Plant Heat Rate .OPERATION & MAINTENANCE Efficiency Calculations • Boiler Efficiency .

OPERATION & MAINTENANCE Factors Affecting Plant Performance • Flue Gas Exit Temperature • Excess Air • Unburnt Fuel • Steam Temperature • Condenser Back Pressure • FW Temperature at Eco Inlet • Auxiliary Power Consumption • Make up Water Flow • Optimum Loading .

Boiler / Turbine / Generator • Equipment Run-Hour Monitoring • History Trending • Alarm Management • Division of Operational Responsibilities • Economic Load Allocation & Load Shedding (CPP) .OPERATION & MAINTENANCE • Start-up & Shutdown Monitoring • Trip Analysis .

POWER PLANT AUTOMATION & CONTROL .

On/Off Control and Supervision • Light/Heavy Oil On/Off Control and Supervision • Pulveriser and Feeder On/Off Control and Supervision • Flame Scanning • Overall Boiler Flame Failure Protection • Boiler Trip Protection .POWER PLANT AUTOMATION & CONTROL Burner Management System • Furnace Purge Supervision • Secondary Air Damper Modulation.

POWER PLANT AUTOMATION & CONTROL Soot Blower Sequential Control • Wall Blowers • Long Retractable Blowers • Air Heater Blowers .

Jacking Oil Pump and Lube Oil Temperature • Condensate & Evacuation Control .Turning Gear. Vacuum Pumps and Vacuum Breaker Valve • Turbine Control . Steam Rolling & Acceleration and Auto Synchroniser . Gland Steam Pressure. Auxiliary Oil Pumps.POWER PLANT AUTOMATION & CONTROL Automatic Turbine Run-up System • Oil Supply Control . Warming up of HP ESV & CV. Emergency Oil Pump.Steam & Metal Temperature Matching.Condensate Extraction Pumps.

POWER PLANT AUTOMATION & CONTROL Turbine Stress Evaluator • Calculation of Actual and Permissible Thermal Stress Values • Comparison of Actual with Permissible Stress Values and Computation of Available Margin • Optimize Start up. Operation and Shut down .

Low Vacuum and Thrust Bearing • HP/IP Valves .Remote Trip. and IP Stop and Control Valves .HP Stop and Control Valves. Over-speed.POWER PLANT AUTOMATION & CONTROL Automatic Turbine Tester • Safety Devices .

POWER PLANT AUTOMATION & CONTROL Electro-hydraulic Governing System • Speed Control • Load Control • Load Shedding • Initial Pressure Control .

Fuel / Air Flow • Steam Temperature • Drum Level • Furnace Draft .Boiler Follow / Turbine follow / Coordinated (Utility) • Header Pressure Control (CPP) • Combustion .AUTOMATION & CONTROL CRITICAL CLOSED LOOPS • CMC .

Safe Startup / Shutdown • Protection .Efficient Startup / Shutdown CRITICAL OPEN LOOPS • ID/FD /PA Fans • BFP .AUTOMATION & CONTROL OPEN LOOP CONTROL • Interlocking .Emergency Shutdown (Trip) • Sequencial Control .

POWER PLANT INSTRUMENTATION .

DP / Displacement / Hydra Step Drum Level Indicator • Flow .Conductivity/ pH/ DO2/ Silica • Gas Analysers .DP / Annubar / Mag-flow • Turbine Supervisory .T/C & RTD • Pressure • Level .Vibration/ Expansion/ Axial Shift/ Eccentricity • Steam & Water Analysers .O2/ CO2/ CO (in Flue Gas) Pollution Monitor H2 Purity (in Generator) .POWER PLANT INSTRUMENTATION • Temperature .

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