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Historical Foundations of Curriculum Philippine education came from various foreign influences.

This can be traced back to our glorious history. Of all foreign educational systems, American educational system has the greatest influence on our educational system.

Curriculum Theorists (views on curriculum from historical perspective)
1. Franklin Bobbit (1876 – 1956) – Bobbit presented curriculum as a science that emphasizes on students’ need. Curriculum prepares students for adult life. To Bobbit, objectives with corresponding activities should be grouped and sequenced. This can only be done if instructional activities and tasks are clarified. 2. Werret Charters (1875 – 1952) – Like Bobbit, to Charters curriculum is a science. It gives emphasis on students’ needs. The listing of objectives and matching these with corresponding activities ensures that the content of subject matter is related to objectives. The subject matter and the activities are planned by the teacher. 3. William Kilpatrick (1871 – 1965) – Curricula are purposeful activities which are child-centered. The purpose of the curriculum is child development and growth.
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The curriculum aims to educate generalists and NOT specialists. et al. curriculum should produce outcomes. curriculum should develop the whole child. It is child centered. Tyler believes that curriculum is a science and an extension of school’s philosophy. Ralph Tyler (1902 – 1994) – As one of the hallmarks of curriculum. 2008 Page | 2 . The process emphasizes problem solving. Curriculum Development. 6. Subject matter is organized in terms of knowledge. With the statement of objectives and related learning activities.The project method was introduced by Kilpatrick where teacher and student plan the activities. 4. Harold Rugg (1886 – 1960) – To Rugg. REFERENCE: Bilbao P. Hollis Caswell (1901 – 1989) – Sees curriculum as organized around social functions of themes. To Tyler. The curriculum develops social relationships and small group instruction. Harold Rugg emphasized social studies and teacher plans curriculum in advance. skills and values. curriculum is always related to instruction. Caswell believes that curriculum is a set of experiences. Subject Matter is developed around social functions and learners’ interest. organized knowledge and learner’s interest. 5. It is based on students’ needs and interest.

The major areas of subjects of the curriculum must be selected as well as the specific content to be covered in each. experiences and resources that are purposely selected. Nature and Criteria DEFINITIONS OF CURRICULUM Curriculum is:  from the Latin root currere. curriculum involves the general aims. Garcia (1973).  the sum of all learning content.” Page | 3 . the term curriculum is “the collection of learning experiences proposed as a result of deliberation for student attainment. the course of the race. De la Cruz (1982). which means to run. which the schools are to pursue and about which the more specific objectives of instruction are attained.The Curriculum: Meaning. organized and implemented by the school in pursuit of its peculiar mandate as a distinct institution of learning and human development.

” Alice Miel (1946). It consists of the means of instruction used by the school to provide opportunities for student learning experiences leading to desired learning outcomes. beliefs. the term “curriculum” is taken to mean the organized set of content and activities that a school uses as basis for educating students. The planning of a curriculum should begin with an analysis of technical manpower needs and identification of education-occupation linkages. Page | 4 . attitude and skills of the persons served by and serving the school. He said without curriculum. the school is exactly in the same situation as a contractor who embarks on a construction project without a master blueprint and bill of specifications and proceeds to do the job with no better guidance. defines curriculum as the basic infrastructure of a school’s educational program.Grayson (1977). the curriculum is the result of interaction of complex factors. defines curriculum as “the instrumentality by which schools seek to translate man’s hopes for education into concrete reality. knowledge. Palma (1982). including the physical environment and the desires. Krug (1957).

3.CRITERIA OF A GOOD CURRICULUM 1. REFERENCE: Bauzon Priciliano. 4. 5. The curriculum is the result of long-term effort. The curriculum is continuously evolving. The curriculum is a complex of details. 2. The curriculum is democratically conceived. The curriculum is based on the needs of the people. Foundations of Curriculum Development and Management Page | 5 .

food. tribal traditions. security. skills. training for religious leadership.HISTORICAL COMPARISON OF EDUCATIONAL GOALS AND CONTENTS Period Ancient Goals of Education Human satisfaction through work. study of the virtues of the citizen Religiousness and holy righteousness. civic understanding. bravery. arithmetic. and physical skills Page | 6 . physical education. development of the intellect or the aim of “wisdom”. philosophy. development of nationalist ideas. training for war. handwriting. vocational and professional training Development of aesthetic appreciation and ability. creative personality. Religious training. protection and preservation of caste and class system. and mathematics Reading. grammar. development of militaristic spirit. importance of training in courage. art. music. history and law Asiatic Jewish Greek Preservation of traditional duties. military sports. reading history. music. compliance with tradition religious Content of Education Training in responsibilities necessary to satisfy basic family needs. Vocational duties and responsibilities. and tactics Study of Jewish or Mosaic law. shelter. writing. intellectual training for the ruling classes. religion. understanding of basic philosophy. and ceremonials.

military science. entrance to heaven and life after death Moral discipline. rhetoric.Roman Christian Medieval Later Middle Ages Contemporary Period Training skilled warriors. and social relationship Training of a livelihood. reading of written composition. renunciation of worldly things. and philosophy The trivium. and service to God. grammar. geometry. grammar. in addition. conversion to faith. reading. writing. music and law Morals and religion. bravery. and music. astronomy. literature. grammar. political. obedience. importance of nationalism. Foundations of Curriculum Development and Management Page | 7 . preparation of individuals to develop and carry on trade. development of courage. history. arithmetic. humanities. vocational and technical education REFERENCE: Bauzon Priciliano. vocational education. arithmetic. church law and canons Arithmetic. bookkeeping. manufacturing and commerce Education and training for social and personal responsibility Reading. brotherhood of men. spiritual growth. the quadrivium. handwriting. chastity. purity of soul. and dialectic. civic and vocational training Morality and religious development. and the intellect. surrender of family. poverty. law Sciences. temperance.

The National Education Association appointed a Committee of Ten to establish a standard curriculum. it may have been more difficult to align the curriculum. The curriculum (1918). The Committee of Ten (1892) In 1892. because one teacher was responsible for the entire curriculum. Page | 8 . Tyler was one of Bobbitt’s students at the University of Chicago. The Committee of Ten recommended eight years of elementary education and four years of secondary education. However. The committee defined four different curricula as appropriate for high school. the president of Harvard University. This committee was composed mostly of educators and was chaired by Charles Eliot.The History of Curriculum Development One Room Schoolhouses It was easier to come to consensus on ‘what’ should be taught. John Franklin Bobbitt (1912-1940’s) He wrote the following books: The elimination of waste in education (1912). and How to make a curriculum (1924). Ralph W.

one's statements and probably one's thoughts.” “Alignment is a very old concept in education. by Fenwick W. Command of Fundamental Processes. or the perfection of all one's powers. or happiness. Civic Education. and by suggesting new features that should be made parts of them. American schools engaged in an unprecedented amount of curriculum experimentation. and Ethical Character. Page | 9 . or utility. or knowledge. showing us what can be done and what cannot. At this point in history. Worthy Use of Leisure. English The Cardinal Principles of Secondary Education (1918) The Commission on the Reorganization of Secondary Education was instrumental in starting a standard of forming goals before reforming schools. Much of the theory behind it was developed by Thorndike (1913) in his creation of the “identical theory of the transfer of training. The seven Cardinal Principles of Secondary Education are: Health. or efficiency. or skill.Edward Thorndike (1910) Thorndike wrote that “psychology makes ideas of educational aims clearer. making them clearer. Vocation. When one says that the aim of education is culture. or development. Psychology contributes to a better understanding of the aims of education by defining them. Worthy Home Membership. need definition.” – Quote from Deciding What to Teach and Test. or discipline. changes were needed because of increased enrollment in secondary schools. by limiting them.

Tyler (1949) In 1949. How can we determine whether these purposes are being attained? Page | 10 . What educational purposes should the school seek to attain? 2. Tyler wrote Basic Principles of Curriculum and Instruction.John Dewey (1897-1940’s) The following references include some of Dewey’s most popular works on education:  My Pedagogic Creed (1897)  The School and Society (1900)  Child and the Curriculum (1902)  Democracy and Education: An Introduction to the Philosophy of Education (1916)  How We Think: A Restatement of the Relation of Reflective Thinking to the Educative Process (1933)  Experience and Education (1938) Ralph W. How can these educational experiences be effectively organized? 4. The four questions are: 1. What educational experiences can be provided that are likely to attain these purposes? 3. He submitted that four fundamental questions must be answered in developing any curriculum and plan of instruction.

to the highest order which is classified as evaluation. and  Productivity and efficiency. The following standards comprise the Curriculum Audit:  Governance and control (policy). English developed the Curriculum Audit. Page | 11 .Benjamin Bloom (1956) In 1956. In the mid-1970’s. While educators frequently refer to his work as “Bloom’s Taxonomy.  Assessment and feedback (use of data to drive decisions). he never used this term. as the lowest level. English (1970’s-1980’s) Fenwick English was the first educator to introduce the concept of curriculum mapping. Handbook I: The Cognitive Domain.  Connectivity and consistency (alignment of programs). from the simple recall or recognition of facts.  Direction and learner expectation. Bloom and a group of educational psychologists identified six levels within the cognitive domain. This process is currently used in schools around the world by English at Phi Delta Kappa (PDK). Fenwick W. through increasingly more complex and abstract mental levels. Benjamin Bloom wrote Taxonomy of Educational Objectives.

Hunter also wrote a chapter in the 1984 ASCD Yearbook.” although this is a term Hunter never used. We have even squandered the gains in student achievement made in the wake of the Sputnik challenge. in effect. In Using what we know about teaching. Moreover. titled Planning for Effective Instruction Lesson Design. Publication of A Nation at Risk (1983) “If an unfriendly foreign power had attempted to impose on America the mediocre educational performance that exists today. we have allowed this to happen to ourselves. unilateral educational disarmament. been committing an act of unthinking. We have. we have dismantled essential support systems which helped make those gains possible. L.” Howard Gardner (1983) Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences Page | 12 .Madeline Hunter (1976-1990’s) Hunter is known as the Creator of “The Seven Step Lesson Plan. Knowing. As it stands. The Seven Step Lesson Plan theory originated from an article written in 1976 by Madeline Hunter and Doug Russell. teaching and supervising. edited by P. we might well have viewed it as an act of war. Hosford.

Heidi Hayes Jacobs (1997) Curriculum Mapping Richard DuFour (1998) Professional Learning Communities Page | 13 . and state assessments. Other content areas followed this example/model. The National Council on Education Standards and Testing (NCEST) was established at the urging of Secretary of Education Lamar Alexander (1993) Goals 2000: Educate America Act (1994) President Bill Clinton signed the Goals 2000: Educate America Act. creating a special council to certify national and state content and performance standards. opportunity-to-learn standards.The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) publishes Curriculum and Evaluation Standards for School Mathematics (1989) This was the first set of national standards. Page | 14 . Lynn Erickson (2002) Concept-Based Curriculum and Instruction REFERENCE: www. H. Bush.Grant Wiggins and Jay McTighe (1998) Understanding by Design Carol Ann Tomlinson (1999) The Differentiated Classroom: Responding to the Needs of All Learners No Child Left Behind Act (2000) The federal Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) is revised and signed into law by President George W. Re-christened the No Child Left Behind (NCLB). The legislation calls for extensive implementation of state educational standards addressing national criteria tied to federal funding.

2013 General Education Curriculum 1987 .2011 2002 Basic Education Curriculum Roll-out implementation of Grade 1 and Grade 7 of the K to 12 C R. 10157 Kindergarten Education Act Page | 15 .1988 Revised Secondary Education Program ◦ Effectiveness offered 1983 .1956 1957 .A.JOURNEY IN BASIC EDUCATION CURRICULAR REFORMS: 1946 – 2011 Grade Level Year IV Grade 10 Year III Grade 9 Year II Grade 8 Year I Grade 7 Grade 6 Grade 5 Grade 4 Grade 3 Grade 2 Grade 1 Kindergarten 2011 Kindergarten 2 – 2 Plan ◦ College Prep Curriculum ◦ Vocational Curriculum 1946 .1972 1973 .2011 2002 Basic Education Curriculum 2010 Secondary Education Curriculum 2012 2012 .2001 New Secondary Education Curriculum (NSEC) 2002 .1982 Revised Elementary Education Curriculum 2002 .2001 New Elementary School Curriculum (NESC) 1989 .

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