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1889_Faxon_Notes on North American Crayfishes

1889_Faxon_Notes on North American Crayfishes

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NOTES ON NORTH AMERICAN CRAYFISHES— Family ASTACID/E.

BY

Walter Faxon.
The following notes are the result of an examination of the North American Astacida; received at the U. S. National Museum and the Museum of Comparative Zoology and also those collected by the field parties of the U. S. Fish Commission since the publication of the first
part of the author's revision of that group.* Herein are included full descriptions of all the new species discovered since the publication of
that work, together with such additions as have been made to our knowledge of the distribution of these animals. The rotes thus form a supplement to the Revision of the Astacidse.

Cambarus blandingii
Additional localities:

(Harl.).

Swamp, outlet of Lake Drummond, Rocky Mount, North Carolina; Neuse
Collected by D. S.

North River, Lexington, Virginia; Dismal Suffolk, Virginia Tar River, River, Raleigh, North Carolina. Jordan (U. S. F. C).
;

Cambarus blandingii acutus
York, Clark County,
Illinois.

(Gir.).

H. G. Hodge (U.

S.

N. M.).

Cambarus versutus Hag.
Additional locality Escambia River at Flomaton, above Pensacola, D. S. Jordan, B. W. Evermaun, and C. H. Bollman (M. C. Z.). young male. The rostrum tapers a little more than in the type speci:

Florida.

A

is lightly carinate above in the median In these respects it agrees with the specimens from Cape Barrancas, Florida, mentioned on page 34 of my Revision of the Astacidse.

mens from Mobile, Alabama, and

line.

Cambarus

alleni Fax.

Caloosahatchee River, Florida. W. H. Dall (II. S. N. M.). Two males, form I, two females. In the female (now known for the first time) the chelae are short and broad compared with those of the male.
*

A

Revision of the Astacicke.

By Walter Faxon.
Museum,
Vol.

Parti.

The Genera Cambarus
785.

and Astacus.

Mem. Mus. Comp.

Zool., Vol. x, No. 4, 1885.

^Proceedings National

XII— No.

619

punctate above. Id an individual 78 mm long the chela measures 25 by 9. and not exceeding the outer part of the appendage. . nov. squamoso-tuberculate. H. Bollman (M. This species belongs to group I. alleni Fax. broadest in the middle. . . Anterior process of the epistoma subtruncate. subcylindrical. alleni. Carapace compressed laterally. 37 mm cheliped. . with longitudinal ribs carpus tuberculate on the inner side. 65 mm chela. Abdomen longer than the cephalothorax two spines on each side of the hind border of the basal segment of the telson terminal segment of the telson shorter than the basal. D. . moderately concave above. It is nearly related to G. Astacidse. inner part terminating in an articulated spine obliquely placed. B. with two rows of spines below. W. sp. . . (type. p.E FAXON. 70 mm from tip of the rostrum to the cervical groove. margins raised into sharp crests which extend well back on the carapace between the post-orbital ridges no lateral spines. that on the fourth pair the larger. S. C. Z. outer part terminating in a horny truncate head with a slightly developed recurved tooth. . inner border provided with a row of about seven dentiform tubercles fingers as long as the hand. Florida. Evermanu. 10 mm abdomen. . C. antennal scale broad. no lateral spine. armed with one prominent spine on the inner border. Cambarus evermanni. Jordan. Antenna? shorter than the body. the description of those parts in G. 33 by 7 mm width of areola in its narrowest part. Length. 35). Rev. . beared anteriorly on the outer side.5 mm while in a male 71 mm long the chela is 35 by 9 mtn The annulus ventralis forms a prominent tubercle. 22 mm from the cervical groove to the posterior margin of the carapace. — .620 NORTH AMERICAN ASTACID. 2 mm Escambia River at Flomaton. somewhat recurved at the end. in the simple structure of the hooks of the fourth . Anterior abdominal appendages of moderate length. . and C. . branchiostegian spine small distance from the cervical groove to the hind border of the carapace scarcely one-third the length of the whole carapace areola of moderate width. form I. fore border hardly angulated below the eye.). Third pair of maxillipeds setose within and below. laminate tubercle on the basal segment. Chelipeds slender chela long. straight. spines on the second and third segments obsolescent. Basal segment of the antennule furnished with a spine on the inner margin of the ventral surface half way between the proximal and distal extremities. meros tuberculate on the upper margin. but differs in the form of the first pair of abdominal appendages (c/. surpassing the rostrum and equaling the peduucle of the antenna. . The rostrum is subdenticulate near the apex. triangular. . Third and fourth pairs of legs hooked on the third segment hooks of both pairs simple. . Postorbital ridges without spines. Male. Fourth and fifth pairs of legs with a flattened. Rostrum broad. blandingii). . granulate on the sides. . smooth. above Pensacola.

Bollman). Cambarus barbatus Fax. 37) belong to some other species. pellucidus see below under . besides the Wyandotte and Bradford Caves caves at Clifty. Acad. John Sloan) Mayfield's Cave.. Mus. D. five females. for another animal (Palinurus penicillatus of recent authors). p. Acad. 1791). Mus.. ix. setosus. Additional locality: Tributary of Medicine River. 1384. vi. p. 54 cf. x. long spiny telson. * The Code of Nomenclature and Check. in the shorter inetacarapace. Messrs. of the hand is serrate. C. iu the presence of a flattened tubercle on the basal segment of the fourth pair of legs. . No. Cambarus simulans Fax. tralis of the female is divided by a deep. Zool.. The inner margin Length."'] PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. S. After examining these undoubted specimens of Le Conte's 60 mm Astacus penicillatus I am confident that the second-form males and the . p. Evermann. wiegmanni are much needed in order to elucidate the structure of the female and the two forms of the male. Sci. vn. Cambarus pellucidus (Tellk. Nat. Z. Zool. Williams and Cragin (M.. Following the code of nomenclature adopted by the American Ornithologists' Union* (canon xxxm. Mem. No. Nat. 4. species G. longitudinal furrow into two prominent tubercles.). 53. Cat. G. five young. p.List of North American Birds adopted by the American Ornithologists' Union. Comp. females from Charleston. xx. 401. One male. i. Nat. M6th. and G. Proc. . Zool. alleni. Jordan. x. Phila. Hist. in combination^ with the same generic name. since it had been used previously by Olivier (Encyc. being the report of the committee of the union on classification t and nomenclature. Acad. Monroe County (C. (nee Olivier. 343). Cambarus penicillatus Hagen. South Carolina. and C. For further remarks on G.fallax Hag. above Pensacola. as are also the tubercles on the basal segment of the More specimens of the three related fifth pairs of legs. H. referred to this species by Hagen (op. Barber County. Comp. Packard.. Vol. des Insectes. Astacus penicillatus Le Conte. 1885. p. Le Conte's specific name penicillatus must be rejected. Bartholomew County (Dr. p. cit. Mus. No. 1791. evermanni. W. The anuulus venZ. Additional locality: Escambia Eiver at Flomaton. etc. p. 36. Amer. p. form I. p. 138. New York..). G. near Bloomiugton. Proc. Faxon. Comp. broader areola. III. but not bearded as in the male.. Mem. The male appendages are similar to those of fourth and C. 47).T °889. This species has been reported from the following caves in Indiana. C..t These caves are in the White Kiver drainage. 16. in. each of which is denticulate. Id. 1855. B. 621 pair of legs.). 1886.. Mem. Arts and Sci.. Sci. No. H. 4. Kansas. Florida. 1870. . Bollman (M. Faxon.

Soc. S. and Matapediac Rivers. doubtless. Z. Canadian Naturalist and Geolo- gist. . * Prelim. Gauong has called my attention to the fact that it was recorded by Dr. bartonii) in the Upsalquitch.). N. in the Province of Quebec.] The Educational Review. H. F. as abundant in the Restigouche. Bell also found one specimen just below the high falls of the Ouiatchouan. a stream which empties into the south side of Lake St. . Jordan (U. Dr. No. McDonald (U. while the eastern limit is the Miramichi. Lawrence. Bull.). Black Mountain. Col. 130.. p. Jordan (U. Gauong* himself has lately published a paper on the distribution of C. Nat. S. Ganong. Geol. Pulaski. pp. B. Massachusetts. like all that I have seen from that State. Clark County. Gauong (M. Berkshire County.) bead of Kennebec River. 1887. John River aud its affluents. M. Indiana. Ganong was informed that it was very abundant in the southwest Miramichi also. C. F. C. 95. Hodge Additional localities (U. S. Mr. W. P. By Robert Bell. Blooinington. C. 1859. Robert Bell. S. Hind* mentions a Cambarus (doubtC. W. just above Grand Falls. S. F. With reference to the distribution of C. C. F. aud the Distribution of the Mollusca of Eastern Canada. vi. Indiana. Y. Matapediac. so far as known. bartonii from Blooinington. bartonii (Fab. . Wayuesborough. Z. S. D. from Grand Falls to Fredericton. John. Z. then. By W. D. Metis. Wythe County. North Carolina. W. in which attention is drawn to its occurrence at many points in the St. John River. Maine. Kansas. Z. M. 74. . Blatchley (M. * The Crayfish in New Brunswick. 210. 8. are a smooth form.* as long ago as 1859. Specimens of G. . Jordan (U. New Brunswick. In 1865 Prof. H.). ). bartonii. Newlon (M. gracilis Buudy. New Brunswick. 1. is the Ouiatchouan.) Sbenandoab Peak River. but he searched for it without success in the St. Jr. See also The Crayfish in the Atlantic Provinces. Mr. Virginia. in. outlet of Moosehead Lake. bartonii in New Brunswick. D.S. Croix. John in Quebec. Hist. S.) in a tributary of the Housatonic River. It had been known previously in that county only from Williamstown. and Metis Rivers. F. and additional testimony is given as to its presence in the Restigouche and Upsalquitch. Ganong. p. Edwin Faxon (M. a tributary of the Restigouche.C. 75. Cambarus bartonii robustus Additional locality: Wytheville. [By W. iv..) . Prof.) Swanuanoa Creek. Nov. St. Illinois. G. F. S. with very narrow areola less and obsolete internal basal carpal spine. C. Virginia. F.) Labette County. W. bartonii in the Province of Quebec and in New Brunswick Mr. New Brunswick. D. C..) River.). 1889. C. New Brunswick. Jordan informs me that he has found Cambarus {C. (Gir. The northern limit of its distribution. Kep. 622 NORTH AMERICAN ASTACID^ Cambarus : FAXON. S. * On the Natural History of the Gulf of St. York. Virginia. N. Cambarus Additional localities: St.

Rev. longulus. p. as in C. Tennessee. M.PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. Cambarus bartonii (part. and he inclined to regard it as a deformed individual of C. . 623 Cambarus longulus Girard. Acad. 66. bartonii longirostris Fax. Watauga River. Tennessee. Mon. Spring Creek. the sides thickened. bartonii robustus. p. deeply excavated above.. including females and both forms of the male). the longitudinal rid ge along the upper face of the outer finger. bartonii from eastern Pennsylvania. Virginia.) ? Hagen. 78. from Marion. the antennse scale is produced into a longer spine. the outer one bearded within at the base and along the margin the basal spine of the inner margin of the carpus is absent. longulus. Astacidae. Arts and Sci. without . with longer acumen. 90. iu fact the rostrum of spinirostris has about the same shape as that of G. being more or less removed by attrition in old individuals. "widely separated at the base. pp. that I am prepared to restore When the Monograph of the this form to the full rank of a species. Virginia. pt. Sci. Astacidte.). the hepatic and branchial areas smoother. Proc. North River. Elizabethton. North Carolina. Col. bartonii.. F. Astacida?. Virginia. the sides of the antennal scale are straight and nearly parallel to one another. N. i. the suborbital angle commonly but little or not at all developed the chelse are smoother and broader. North American Astacidre was written. Phila. Virginia. In specimens . and Elizabethton. Acad. 1870. Dr. the fingers are not separated more than and not so densely bearded as in C. James Kiver. p. the carapace is more finely punctated. Id. The beard on the hand is densest in small specimens. West Virginia. Compared with the typical G. But I have hardly enough material before me to give spinirostris a firm place as a in the typical G. S. Virginia. the suborbital angle is prominent. 1852. Nat. In G. Specimens in the Museum of Comparative Zoology from Bath County. from near White Sulphur Springs. Faxon. somewhat concave and convergent. the fingers more cylindrical. 64). D. North Carolina. 79. but they are too young to determine with certainty. Virginia. connects with the typical bartonii through robustus. its margins not so much thickened as in G. Wytheville. Spring Creek. the rostrum of G. xx. vi. Jordan (U. the rostrum is not so much contracted. bartonii It subspecies. Waynesborough. McDon- ald and Prof. Proc. Tennessee. collected by Colonel McDonald and Professor Jordan. and from Knoxville. Hot Springs. It is only after examining the large number of specimens (over one hundred. 0. Amer. A. bartonii. longulus is much longer and narrower. (Rev. 1885. probably belong to this species. Lick Ran. Lexington. S. 1884.. South Fork of Holston River. Hagen had seen but one specimen (Girard's type). near Marion. Cambarus longulus Gir. His description of the type specimen shows that it is the same as the form now under consideration. Virginia . 143. p.

drained by the Shenenandoah.). Clark County. and eastern Tennessee. from Morgantown agrees with the type of C. S. Additional locality: Lowlands bordering on Wabash River. Black Mountain. North Carolina. D. Virginia. coming into contact in a given locality. Additional localities: Swannanoa River. aud the absence of intermediate forms not in one locality alone but over the whole area of distribution. Cambarus argillicola Fax. Yarrow. Moore (U. Kokomo. M. South Carolina. with no indication of the two forms interbreeding. form I. According to the manuscript label accompanying these specimens. Illinois. Hoilge (U. Additional locality: "Among the Cherokees. western North Carolina. contain- . N. Indiana. It seems to me that the only criteria of a species must be the amount and character of the variation. The specimen (a female) Astacidse. Dr.). are perpetuated by breeding true. acuminatus from the Saluda River. In the others this spine is present as in the North Carolinian specimens mentioned on page QS of the Revision of the North Carolina. M. Additional localities: Prince William County. C). As far known it is fouud in the elevated parts of Virginia. Cape Fear River. every intermediate condition connecting the two forms will be found still surviving. S. Raleigh. James Mooney (U. According to the accompanying the specimen the Cherokee Indians. North Carolina. Riverside. G. Jordan (U. Kanawha. C.624 NORTH AMERICAN ASTACID. York. Nowhere do we seem to come so near to seeing the process of evolution of species going on under our very eyes as in this genus Cambarus. H. by extending our geographical range. But it is not on this accouut that I consider them two species. I have reason to believe that oftentimes in this genus mere varieties. F. label it is called Tsisgdgili (red crayfish) by Cambarus diogenes Gir. James River. This species was previously known only from the remote Appalachian Mountain region of Virginia and West Virginia. Greensborough. S. in the lack of a suborbital spine. One male. A. S.systems. H. Reedy Fork." Indian Territory. longulus are both found in Eeed Creek at Wytheville. M. as Cambarus acuminatus Fax. they were fouud in burrows from 18 inches to 2 feet in depth. James. W. C. It is thus found on both sides of the Appalachian water-shed. Iudiana. Girard did not know whence his type of C. Morgantown. when. Cambarus dubius Fax. West Virginia.E —FAXON. Kankakee River. H. S.). and Holston river. Gilbert. N. North Carolina. longulus came. Cambarus bartonii aud C. N. Virginia. Neuse River.

p. the broadest part near the distal end outer margin setose. ending in two recurved hooks. pi. is G. 1. nished with a sharp spine below. fig. dubius. 10 Proc. and not so widely separated as in form I. short. but not first to third pairs of legs. not yet seen C. destitute of spines. Upper margin of the meros spinulose. No. very broad. . Basal segment of the autennule furwholly covered by the rostrum. bluntly toothed near the base. The first abdominal appendages are similar to those of G. the outer of which is corneous and acute in In form II in form I. Bull. inadvertently I Revision. fingers. 1. p. viz G. diogenes from the State of Ohio. tips curved. argiUicola. 71. . In the male the third pair of legs is hooked ou the third segment. and G. the body. pi. . proximal segment bispinose (occasionally trispiuose) on each side. Anterior process of the epistoma broadly transverse. finely pectinate throughout their length. diogenes in my have Cambarus setosus Fax. referred to G. Rostrum rather short. sides convex. inner and outer margins of the hand provided with blunt tubercles irregularly disposed in a double row. upturned horny tip. 6. Third maxillipeds hirsute. inflated. Cambarus setosus Faxon. triangular. prominent internal median and inferior median spine in addition to these there are in older specimens a variable number of small spines on the inner. slender. the region behind the cervical smooth and punctate above. At tbe mouth of these burrows were mud chimneys 5 inches high.V °1889. Lake Erie. anteuual scale surpassing the rostrum. 237. . sides subparallel for some distance. and outer faces. and membranaceous. raised into sharp crests no lateral teeth except in small specimens which show a rudimentary spiny tooth on each side of the base of the acumen margins Post-orbital ridges obsolescent. opposed edges straight. pleura rounded . The soil was blue clay mixed with sand and gravel. 1889. sparsely setose . telson of moderate length. The specimen from Kelley's Island. bartonii. setose. Ohio. lower. Abdomen longer very narrow. ending in a sharp but not very long spine. a little way above the anterior end of the cervical groove. convex. slightly concave above. figs. Auteuuse as long as.. M. lower face with the usual biserial arrangement of spines. long."'] PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. pace subcylindrical. diog: enes. 89 . or longer than. 625 ing from 6 inches to 1 foot of water. Couip. argiUicola. Carpus armed with a .2. flattened above. near the distal end. At least three species build chimneys. Sternum tuberculate between the anterior border notched or dentate. ii. than the cephalothorax. xvn. Zool. the inner long. terminating in a short. . corneous and acute. Mus. N. 7. G. . incurved. blunt. granulate ou the groove very long hepatic and branchial areas a small spine on the antero-lateral borAreola der. Chelipeds of moderate length chela long. i.3. Eyes and eye-stalks rudimentary. both hooks are membranaceous. Carasetiferous.

Three males. oven-shaped. 34 mm tubercles found in . similar to that in of the thirty seg- in the other blind species of CamThe peculiar pectination of the cutting edge of the fingers I have not observed in any other species. The people at the cave say the fish never bite. 18S9. As the net cautiously follows. reached by crawling on the slippery rocks. as well as the white fishes [Typhlichtkys subterraneua Gir. making no blunders as to the direction of the approaching enemy. a dozen in all. . Missouri. fifteen females. especially the posterior border. 0. Perhaps because they find there a supply of food. We found they remain near the entrance a few snails floating about.). I saw half a dozen fishes. the sixteenth tory setse. . creatures. are only to be secured by patient waiting and skillful management. The crayfish were all found near the entrance. At the least touch upon the water they dart away.. No. but secured only one. as to the twenty-seventh bear olfac- barus. like those I took from the wells. Following the stream back to a dark recess. they have one or more of the other senses very keenly developed. Comp. I am very sure they. Z. have the tactile sense developed in an unusual degree. the light of the lantern revealed a school of little white All were very small. they escape adroitly.626 NOETH AMERICAN ASTACID.5 . nearly as wide. though blind. form ments of tbe flagellum. and hgh enough The farmer had enlarged the entrance to use the place as a creamery. The arrangement of the antenuules is olfactory setoe on the outer flagellum of the G. . with a temperature of +54° F. with remarks on the habits of the animal. But. These the stream. . xvn. goes to the westward and then southward by the Neosho The following account of Wilson's or Grand River into the Arkansas Cave and the wells from which this crayfish was taken. .5 mm from tip of rostrum to cervical groove.* to stand erect except around the sides. 8 mm movable finger. and these setae are long. but saw none iu the dark pool where the fish were. having a width of 2 feet and a depth of 3. 225-240. II . such as I secured from the wells.]. The first things that caught the eye were a lot of white crayfish. From Wilson's <Jave and wells in Jasper County.um chela. vol. pp. i. . . which lies in the southwestern part of Missouri. and can not be taken with hook and line. and hide in crevices of the jutting rocks or in the muddy bottom of The mud was easily stirred so that nothing could be seen. G5 mm cepbalotborax 31. . Length of a female. pellucidus. About 10 feet from the entrance the light struck the stream in such a mauner that we could see everything in the water without a lantern. 6. 14. The drainage of Jasper County. I concluded the crayfish liked the light. A small very clear stream flowed along the left side. By Samuel Carman. In the female tbe annulus ventralis is very protuberant. where there is considerable light.E FAXON. Bull. and subcircular. with a deep central cavity. Zool. 28mm breadth of chela. It seemedasif I might take every oueof them. 18 mm abdomen. fish aud crayfish. Miss Eutb Hoppiu (M. 17 mm from cervical groove to posterior margin of carapace. In young individuals tbe cbela and carpus are nearly destitute of tbe full grown specimens. Samuel Garmau's paper on the cave animals of southwestern Missouri. form I sixteen males.. . or more. is extracted from Miss Hoppin's letters printed in Mr. about 50 feet long. Wilson's Cave is * Cave Animals from Southwestern Missouri. e. Mus.

Most of the crayfish were found in the lower part of the stream. the fish in the darkest part. bat never dry out entirely. They become low in times of drouth. The temperatures taken in the wells at low water rauged from -)-52 u to 54° Fahr. No fishes have been taken from this well. I discovered nothing. of which the deep ones on the hills report fishes only. but now I am sure the color is in the shell. as is the case with a cave spring near by. when the light was more favorable. and the water rushes out furiously. They were taken in the narrower. The mud where they were was not so deep as farther down. • . only tbe weaker being left behind. On my first visit. or some may have been swept away by the torrent. from 11 to 30 feet in depth. i. setosus not so white as the older ones. more shaded wells. 627 Miss Wilson. and says the latter keep away from the former. from 5 to 80 rods apart. thinks the crayfish devour the others. Both creatures are very sensitive to the slightest ripple. a few were I watched for some time. indicating closer connection with surface drainage. tbe young of G. There was nothiug to prevent the crayfish ascending the stream to where the others were. That from which most were taken was more exposed to the sun. After rains some of the wells have softer water than others. The wells were nine or ten in number. deeper in the higher ground. The sensitive creatures would soon die in the light aud heat * * * outside. who was with me. have done. we could see them swimming about.V0 188^ n '] PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. . The disturbance of the flood may have caused them to retreat into their hiding places. in caves and in wells. They died soon after catching. however. . They are not so dark. At noon. though very sensitive to the suulight. I found hoth species in it. The wells from which specimens have been taken are about half a mile from Cen ter Creek. Both fish and crayfish were less numerous after the freshet. All of the wells soon regain the common level. One large one is very soft and very white. the temperature was only found there. After the storm which had flooded the caves. the water level in wells and creeks being nearly the same. not that the internal organs can be seen because of the transparent shell. Repeated tests assured me the animals were blind. 54° in Wilson's Cave. so much so that the action of their internal organs can be observed. Though easily as they might ." is formed a little way from the stream in another dark part of this cave. and the water stands higher in these wells. in the twilight the fishes could not be found without the lantern. The largest crayfish are of a dirty rusty color. even in water frequently changed. and apparently less active. and very bristly. no crayfish were seen in the dark nook. The specimens became opaque when they are put into alcohol they are almost transparent when alive. According to Miss Hoppin. guided by the stir in the water. In low water the pool is cut off from the creek. I never saw them pursue the fishes. as the brook species [C. e. where the water is full of frogs and eyed-cray fishes. When the mercury stood at 90° to 95° in the shade outside. and having a depth of water varying from 2 to 4 feet. During a storm in the well having the highest water. when alive are At first I attributed it to greater transparency. * * * Another proof that the crayfish are more fond of the light is seen in the shallower wells. As to the food of the fishes. the fish. At the time of the floods the cave is full. During high water a pool. about 1*2 feet above the level of the creek. the temperature rose to +57°. "the lake. She has never seen them together. The water is what is commonly called hard. virilia~\ of the same size. impregnated with lime. though she had not noticed the crayfish catching or eating them. An examination of it the length of the cave brought the shells of the living ones are whiter and more nearly to light many snails transparent than the floatiug dead ones. no doubt it is newly moulted. In some wells the rock at the bottom had been excavated. and saw no signs of enmity. place favored by the the water heing low.

hamulatus. pellucidus. setosus belonging to the same section. although belonging to two sections of the genus. Waynesborough. but surely appearing in widely diverse species. are of little value from a taxonomic point of view. 1874. Indiana. see my Revision of the Astacida1 page . provided they be subjected to the same subterranean habits of this species closer superficial likeness between G. Broadhead (Report of the Geological Survey of the State of Missouri. subject will shortly be published in the Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative From the external morphology alone. than between G. these points of resemblance between the three cave species.* In other respects. G. four females).628 NORTH AMERICAN ASTACID^E —FAXON. setosus than in C. Virginia. The eye-stalk and external part of the eye are largest in C. not indicating close genetic affinity. hamubelonging to different sections of the genus. C. . G. hamulatus and G. Virginia j Blackwater River. affinis as follows The areola is broader in the middle. Indiana differ *On shows more degeneration Zoology. p. hamulatus stands between the other two in this regard. like the rudimentary state of the eye and the transparency of the shell. also. : (six males. setosus. C. F. one would surely be justified in deeming C. the hepatic area is smoother (merely granulate. the contrary. Patoka. where competition is largely removed and physical power ceases to be an important factor in their existence. 2)ellucidus. G. S. In short. Cambarus affinis (Say). It is probable. Zuui. C). setosus the least modified of the three blind species. eyed species than This doubtless results either from is either of the other cave species. H. that they are the same species as those from Jasper County. G. In connection with Miss Hoppin's observations on the crepuscular it is interesting to note that the atrophy of the visual organs Las not progressed so far as in the other blind crayfishes of the United Stater. the twilight couditious under which it lives. in southern Missouri. Jordan (U. The width of the antennal scale is probably a variation correlated to the atrophy of the adjacent eye and ocular peduncle. 18. from the locality. D. Patoka River. Mr. The latus. form I. Additional localities: Shenandoah River. may be explained by the longer period of time during which the subterranean influences have probably been exerted upon the first two species. S. pellucidus and G.pellucidus and G. from the typical G. The three blind species. or more probably from its having been subjected for a shorter period of time to cavern influences. near Ozark. life. resemble each other in the slenderness of the body and claws and in the width of theantenual scale. there is but one lateral thoracic spine. For the aberrant position of C. the branchiostegian The specimens from Patoka. instead of spinous). smallest in C. 36) states that blind crayfishes are found in the cave region of Christian County. setosus is more closely related to outside. Parker concludes that the histology of the retina His researches on the in C. The slenderness of the body and claws in these species may be attributed to their life in caves. pellucidus in other respects.

. Chelipeds short. subtruncate. which are very small and of a brown color. terminating in two long. slightly excavated. with certainty. affinis. twice the length of the posterior segment areola of moderate width. no spines on the lower side. Anterior process of the epistoma long. Topeka. the anteunse longer the male appendages are very similar to those of the typical form. puncgranulate on the sides. Third maxillipeds hairy within. 629 spine is much smaller. Bull. Hist. Mary's Lake. Post-orbital ridges with very small an. Z. terior spines tate. with a median sides nearly parallel from the longitudinal carina toward the apex base to the lateral spines. Additional localities Marshall. the anterior style (outer part of the appendage) is a little longer than the posterior and slightly recurved anterior border of the appendage cariuate but not shouldered. Washburn Coll. Osborn (M. First pair of abdominal appendages nearly straight. inner margin furnished with a double row of depressed tubercles. but the male organs and the annulus ventralis are very nearly I prefer to call it a western variety like those of the typical G. Fax. O. Abdomen longer than the cephalothorax basal segment of the telson bi-spinous on each side of the posterior margin. Male. but the free tips are a In the smoothness of the carapace and. with a strong median spine on the internal side and a small one near the base. flattened above. F. Michigan St. little longer and slenderer. Lab. of G. pointed. affinis in my Revision are too small to determine . and the hand more inflated and triangular the cephalathorax is slenderer. sloanii Bundy. . Autennre shorter than the body lamina as long as the rostrum. outer margin of the movable finger also furnished with low tubercles carpus broad. horny styles . naked below. lateral spine minute or obsolete antero-lateral border angulated below the eye.) Lafayette. Third par of legs hooked. H. to some extent. L. slender. more or less gaping at the base. Faxon. reaching forward to the first pair of legs. S. acumen of moderate length. broadest toward the distal end. V0 1889"'] PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. Carapace oval. lower face of meros with two rows of spines. .. mouth Kalamazoo River. lightly . C. Indiana. chela broad. . Michigan. Nat. Bollof Battle Creek. Michigan man (U. . Superior border of meros armed with two obliquely-placed anteapical spines. Cambarus propinquus : Gir. p. at the most. Kan- sas. The specimens from Lake Erie referred to C. The largest is 60 mnl in length. C. Vol. punctate above.). H. 1885. . Cambarus neglectus Cambarus neglectus i. 142. — (sometimes none). anterior segment equals.. affinis. punctate above and below. fingers of moderate length. Rostrum broad. . form I. . with a row of round tubercles on their opposed edges. in the shape of the hand this form approaches G. apical spine of moderate length.

VV. propinquus. near Baxter Springs. Michigan. GS . In general appearance this species nearly resembles G. rusticus placidus. tributaries of Kansas River ami Ward's Creek. Indian Territory (1 mile south of Kansas line. preceded by a dark annular baud. propinquus. without locality. C. C. the species mentioned.5 mm Mill Creek. all sides by a prominent wall which is bituber- Dimensions of a male.E FAXON. 21 mm . and U. M. C. and the sexual appendages of the male are quire different. (U. Kansas. Missouri. S. Osage River. Kansas. Cheyenne County. Oberlin. resembling those of G. Kansas . The tips of the fingers in recent alcoholic specimens are orauge colored. 630 NORTH AMERICAN ASTACID. Sappa Creek. They are too young to identify with certainty. posterior margin of carapace. form II: Length. Wabaunsee County. S. Republican River.um cephalothorax. and not horny. all of them second-form is (M. West Fork of Black Rirer. . south Bear Creek and Hinkson Creek. Missouri. Guy. The specimens from the West Fork of Black River. Z. Missouri. Kansas. from Irondale. and the tips of the rami are rather blunt. . 2 mm abdomen. Kansas. Missouri. M. differ somewhat from the typical G. chela. Columbia.) Together with specimens of G. Kansas. ll mm 36mm. drills Hag. Shawnee County. . under G. tributary of Spring River. Cambarus virilis Hag. agreeiug with those described on page 98 of my Revision of the Astacidoe. cleft In tbe second form of the male the first abdominal appendages are but a short distance. Oberlin. Kansas. page 94. near Sappa Creek. Additional localities: Spencer Creek. 25 by 10. my Revision of the that work was writteu I had seen but three specimens of this crayfish. Kansas). from cervical groove to width of areola.. but are probably G. collected by Miss Kuth Hoppin. but the fore border of the carapace is angulated under the eye. Cragin supply the first form of the male and the female.). Topeka.. Garden City. The annulus ventralis of the female is different also. Michigan . Kansas Five-mile Creek. Missouri.. in Astacida). virilis. Kansas. setosus from wells iu Jasper County. F. Reynolds County. The terminal part of the appendage is stouter than in the first form. males. Baruum Lake. Wabaunsee County. of Battle Creek. This Z. . La Cygne. occur two very small specimens of a Cambarus with well developed eyes. F. but not named. The annulus ventralis of the female is triangular. When Collections sent from Kansas by Prof. 32 ram from end of rostrum to cervical groove. . with a deep transverse fossa bounded on culate in front. K .

width of chela. the tubercles on the third pair of legs less developed. Chela broad.V °l889 n '] PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. Anterior process of the epistoma with very convex sides. with a strong and acute internal median spine and a small one at the base. Autennte louger than the distal segment shorter than the proximal. strongly recurved. tbe margins parallel from the anterior to the posterior triangular fields. concave above. Kansas. internal margin toothed. punctate. — . First pair of abdominal appendages of moderate length. Hist. Coll. 9 mm abdomen. areola very narrow. . ending anteriorly in a small branchiostegian spine. the outer one corneous. 141. the annulus veutralis triangular with a median longitudinal fissure. deeply bifid. cervical groove sinuate. . and bearded at the base. punctate. Corpus armed with a row of small tubercles on the upper side. Rostrum long. suborbital angle not prominent. the first abdominal appendages less deeply cleft. the sternum between the fourth pair of legs is smooth. 10 mm The second form of the male differs from the first form in having smaller chela}. Bull. the rami stouter. . lateral spine small. twisted. form I. Third maxillipeds densely setose within and below. . very broad in the middle rami slender. with a double row of dentiform tubercles fingers long. . from ^p of rostrum to cervical groove. Third pair of legs armed with a hooked tubercle on the inner margin of the third segment. 18 mm from cervical groove to posterior border of carapace. laminae a little longer than the rostrum. I. toothed on the internal border external finger fiat above. . 27mm. . the inner one a little shorter and more curved than the outer one. blunter. styliform. with an external apical spine. 631 Cambarus Vol. . subtruucate at the end. Washburn Lab. 57 mm cephalothorax. Length. Proximal segment of the telson bispinose on each side. Topeka. . and not corneous. broad. 140. body. 24mm . acute. movable one tuberculate on the external border. pp. 1885. 30 mm chela. Abdomen as long as the cephalothorax. Male. broadest at the middle. nais Faxon. on the lower side the carpus is provided with a prominent median spine and an external one at the point of articulation with the chela in some specimens there is a small spine on the lower face of the carpus. Carapace smooth and lightly punctate above.. external border marginate. which are small but distinct acumen of moderate length. In the female the chela is similar to that of the second form of the male. acute. . granulate on the sides. Post-orbital ridges provided with a minute anterior spine. the leuc th of the areola is equal to one half the distance from the tip of the rostrum to the cervical groove. Cambarus nais Fax. between the median spine aud the large one on the internal margin. inner margin of the hand short. lateral margins converging from the base to the lateral spines. flattened above. Nat.

anterolateral . the first abdominal appendages are shaped exactly as in the first form male of the typical G.). Cambarus immunis Additional locality : Ward's Creek. Franklin. D. virilis. New Harmony. form II. form form II. Additional localities: Maramee River. Fields (M. All these are similar to the form placidus Hag. sp. Lafayette.). punctate. Additional localities: Wabash Eiver. na'is the rami of these appendages are shorter and more strongly curved than in G. W. R. B. Jordan (IT. Call (M. F. M. Osborn (M. virilis. which is included among I had not seen the first form the specimens collected by Messrs. Kansas.). Kansas (M. When I described this variety in 1881. W. margins thickened. S. palmeri. . acumen of Post-orbital ridges ending anteriorly in an acute carapace punctate. The first abdominal appendages are very like those of G. seven females. spinirostris Fax. Gilbert and Swan (U. areola of moderate width. 632 NORTH AMERICAN ASTACID^ — FAXON. someto the acute lateral spines . Additional locality : Tar River Rocky Mount..) . with a small lateral and a branchiostegian margin notched but not furnished with a suborbital spine posterior segment equal in length to half the distance from the end of the rostrum to the cervical groove. La Cygue. Newlon (M. C. Male. Cambarus rusticus Gir. Cambarus hylas. five males. Cragin and Fields. In G. Cragin and J. Cambarus immunis Hag. C. C. Dent County. H. Missouri. nov. F. It differs in the shape of the first abdominal appendages of the male. S. . Indiana. excavated. immunis. C. Z. L. D. Z. Z. as in the second-form male and in the female the seta3 on the second pair of legs are well developed. S. F.) Osage River. spine . — Rostrum broad. E. Z. Abdomen longer than the cephalothorax basal segment of the telson bispiuous on each side of the posterior border. C. as far as can be seen by a comparison of the second-form males alone but the areola is not obliterated in any part of its course in G. na'is and the rostrum is more tapering than in G. The areola is narrower than in C. what convergent from the base moderate length. Cambarus spinosus Buudy. Indiana.. North Carolina. of the male. I. Harpeth River. Z. S. . spi'ie. virilis. S. K . Five males. Shawnee County. Hagen.). palmeri Fax. immunis. This species much resembles G. especially the form called variety A by Dr. The lateral spines of the rostrum are distinct. C. Labette County. Tennessee. C).). Jordan (U. S. but not so much curved as in G. Kansas.

\Vest Pork of Black Rirer. Z. two females. from entl of rostr~rmto cervical groore. the iu~rer branch blunt a t the tip. iuternal margin firruished with a double row of tubercles. I?. corneous. cara. Cambarus montezumie Saus.).5mm. In the specimens from Guauajuato . abdomeu. chela broad. thick. auterior border carinate. dilitional locality : Guanajoato.. the antenna1 scale is widest near the tip (in C. 9. but the sides of .5mm. fossa transverse. C. from cervical groove to posterior margin of carapace. 18.iT7ith longitudinal rows of ciliated dots. external finger slightly bearded a t the base withiu. tips of fiugers iucurred. Female: Chela smaller. of the l~iserialinferior spines the outer row is represented by the two distal oues only. lornm. i t differs in its longer metacarapace. four females. reaching the base of tbo chelipeds.. put~~aati is widest iu the middle). exterual margin of movable fiuger with a liue of ciliated tubercles. S. From 0. Anu~ilos rentrelis large. ' bet\reeu 1:lteral spiues. costate. the apes troncated or eren notched. fiugers not gaping. for111 I I . Auteuua shorter than the body. anterior spine. pace. etc. projectiug backaa.nrovable fiuger. Pour males. with a sigmoid solcus. shape of the rostrum. aud a very minnte esternal spine a t the poiut of articnlation with the chela. posterior margin very prominent. le species.5mm. This species is closely related to 0 putttanti Fax. D. Keyuoltls U o o ~ ~ t y . Dug68 (U. and beutalittleontwardaud ba:kmard. the outer branch much longer than the inner. meutioued on page 131 of the fievision. the carpus has a well developed median anterior spine. tubercnlate on inner border near the base. the carpus has a well developed it. scale broad. S. R. the tip sliglltly recorreil. the rostrnm are more thickened and more convergerit from the base to the lateral spines. beneath. S. furuished with a well developed internal media11 and small proximal and distal interual spines.). Jorda. Sternum betveeu the fourth pair of legs not tubercolate. 2mm. 31"". rami straight.I Y$8p] PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ?JIUSEUM. Dlissouri. Call (M.n (U. 35" . form I. the anterior margin obsolescent. The specimeu from linoxrille. breadth of rost r u m a t base. ant1 the auuulus ventralis is verx different. Chelipeds stout.5mn'. Additional locality: Middle Fork of Holston River. broadest near the tip. Glade Spring. i Anterior process of the epistoma triangular. triangular. Cambarus forceps Fax. surely belongs to this species. A. 30tnm. Carpus smooth. chela. Tenuessee. E. Di~lrensio~~s: leugth G O m m . bifid. ponctate. fingers slightly gaping. Third pair of legs hooked. deep.. annnl~is reutralis.rd . 13. 2. C. . hIexico. breadth of areola. spi~aosas Bandy. N ) . ". Yeros furnished with two obliquely placed ante-apical spines. Four males. First pair of abdominal appendages very long. Virginia. external margiu conrex. 33m10.breadth of chela. N.

Astacus nigrescens Stimps. Nat. Hist. Oregon." An adult collected by the same gentleman is accompanied by the following note " Color when fresh. with description of a New Species." Klamath. N. bright red. Lockington. . lighter beneath large claws darker. 1878. Mag. Alanuda . Teste W. Oregon. California. Ann. U. 303. C. Santa Clara County. Eel Eiver. b. bluish green." I. 5th series. p. LockiLigton. M. J. is labeled " Color in life.. N. and furnished with minute ante-apical teeth. Humboldt County. : . 37 miu long.* A small specimen. and San Joaquin Slough. Museum of Comparative Zoology. the central counties of California. Astacus klamathensis : Stir. 1890. Sprague and Williamson's Rivers. Merrill. II.E FAXON the rostrum is eveii flatter than in the typical form. " This species appears to be found in most of the larger brooks of Alameda Creek. Remarks upon the Thalassinidea and Astacidea of the Pacific coast of North America. near Fort Additional localities Dr. Vol. S.634 NORTH AMERICAN ASTACID. By W. Massachusetts. collected by Dr. N.ps.). Lockington. Common. Army (U. Merrill in Klamath Lake. taperiug. Cambridge. such as the County Coyote Creek. January 1. * c.

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