CORROSION AND ITS PROTECTION IN OIL & GAS PRODUCTION
CORROSION IN OIL FILED : INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL THREATS
WELL TREATMENT INFLUENCED WATER CARRY OVER
INJECTION PUMP with LOW CAPACITY UNDERDOSING CORROSION INHIBITOR WATER SETTLE OUT
Typical E&P process conditions
• Temperature – Typical E&P process temperatures range from -100ºC to >200ºC – Corrosion rates increase with temperature Pressure – Pressure: up to 10.000psi – Increase partial pressure of dissolved gases Flowrate & flow regime – High-flow: erosion and corrosion-erosion. – Low-flow or stagnant conditions promote bacteria
– ‘no water. Aqueous phase • Responsible for corrosion • Corrosion exacerbated by acid gases & organic acids • CO2.Internal corrosion
Hydrocarbon phase • Not normally corrosive at temperatures experienced in production systems • Corrosivity depends on extent and distribution of the aqueous and hydrocarbon phases. H2S and O2 are the most aggressive species • Chlorides increase corrosion • Generally. no corrosion’
stress corrosion cracking Oxygen (crevice / under deposit / differential aeration) Galvanic corrosion Preferential weld corrosion (PWC) Microbially induced corrosion (MIC) Liquid metal embrittlement (LME) Chemicals
.Internal (process-side) damage mechanisms
• • • • • • • • • • H2S CO2 Solids & velocity effects Chlorides – pitting.
There is no species more corrosive on a concentration basis than oxygen!
.Dissolved gas .effect on corrosion
Corroded seawater injection
Corrosion Rate of Carbon Steel
20 15 10 O2 CO2 H2S
O2 H2 S CO2 0 0 0 0 1 2 3 4 1 200 2 300 3400 100 50 100 150 200 5 6 7 8 4 5 7006 800 7 500 600 250 300 350 400
Dissolved Gas Concentration in Water Phase.
H2S corrosion – metal loss
– Formation of a thin protective FeS surface film often means general corrosion rates are low on steels – Main risk is localised pitting corrosion where film is damaged – Pitting will be galvanically driven
H2S helps form protective FeS film – Main risk is localised pitting corrosion which can be rapid • H2S also poisons combination of atomic hydrogen into molecular hydrogen H+ + e.Wet H2S corrosion
• H2S is soluble in water – Produces a weak acid and lowers the pH H2S H+ + SH– At low concentrations. H H + H H2 Atomic hydrogen -
dangerous to steels!!
Cracking in sour service
S 2FeS Film Metal Matrix
Higher Strength Steels YS > 500 MPa
No Applied Stress
Low Strength Steels YS < 550 MPa
H H HH H
residual welding HAZ WELD HAZ
.Sulphide stress cracking (SSC)
Key parameters: • pH and pH2S – Domain diagrams for carbon steel • Material hardness – High strength steels and areas of high hardness susceptible. • Temperature – Maximum susceptibility at low temperatures for carbon steels (1525°C). • Stress – Cracking promoted by high stress levels e.g. higher for CRAs (5-70°C).
chlorides. pH2S • Nickel-base alloys such as 625 and 825 have high resistance • Testing: NACE TM0177
. pH.Protection against SSC
• Avoid wetness • Minimise hardness – Guidance on limits in ISO 15156 • Optimise microstructure and minimise residual stresses Upgrade to CRAs • Martensitic and duplex stainless steels have limited resistance • H2S limits for duplex and superduplex steels are complex – Function of temperature.
ISO 15156 SSC zones for carbon steel
0. weld metal) No requirements 300HV 280HV 250HV root 275HV cap
0 1 2 3
Max hardness (parent metal. HAZ.0034bara 0.
22% Cr duplex
25% Cr super-duplex Alloy 825 Alloy 625
0.SSC limits for selected CRAs
Alloy 13% Cr martensitic pH2S limit (bara) 0.25 No limit No limit
• Transverse cracking between laminar cracks on different planes (SWC).HIC / SWC / blistering
• Laminar cracking in plane of inclusions or blistering (HIC).
Blistering of CS plate
Avoiding HIC / SWC
• Avoid plate steels (rolled) – otherwise qualify by HIC test • Control impurities e.g. S. P • Uniform microstructure • Use internal coatings – isolate steel from process fluid • Testing: NACE TM0284
ISO 15156 (NACE MR0175)
• ISO 15156 combination of – NACE MR0175 and NACE testing requirements TM0177 & TM0284 – European Federation of Corrosion Guidelines No.05 psia pH2S threshold for sour service • It is the equipment user’s responsibility to select suitable materials • HIC/SWC of flat rolled carbon steel products for environments containing even trace amounts of H2S to be evaluated • BP ETP: GP 06-20 Materials for Sour Service
.16 & 17 • Part 1: General principles for selecting crack-resistant materials • Part 2: Cracking resistant carbon & low-alloy steels & cast iron • Part 3: Cracking resistant corrosion resistant alloys (CRAs) • Covers all cracking mechanisms • Goes beyond application of the 0.
Designing for H2S service
• Materials requirements – Reference ISO 15156 and GP 06-20 – pH2S and pH – Temperature – Chlorides – Hardness limits • Welding QA/QC (HIC) – Maintain hardness limits • HIC testing for plate products
CO2 . Mechanism CO2 + H2O H2CO3 H2CO3 + e.HCO3.containing environments
• CO2 always present in produced fluids – Corrosive to carbon steel when water present – Most CRAs have good resistance to CO2 corrosion.+ H 2H H2 Fe Fe2+ + 2eFe + H2O + CO2 FeCO3 + H2
Types of CO2 damage
General & pitting corrosion
Localised weld corrosion
30°C. 90bar. 2%CO2
• Heavily pitted pipe wall and welds (not necessarily uniform corrosion)
• Didn’t fail – removed due to crevice corrosion of hub sealing faces
. 1983) • 25mm thick.CO2 corrosion in a production flowline
• 6” CS production flowline (Magnus.
velocity.CO2 prediction model
For an ideal gas mixture. temperature.6 30
Carbon steel corrosion rate (mm/yr) 7 6 >50
. the partial pressure is the pressure exerted by one component if it alone occupied the volume. pH .Factors in CO2 corrosion
• Main factors – pCO2. (ºC) 130 75 149
pCO2 (bar) 0. Total pressure is the sum of the partial pressures of each gas component in the mixture
Effect of sand on CO2 corrosion
• Produced sand can affect inhibitor efficiency – Inhibitor adsorption loss • Sand (and other solid) deposits give increased risk of localised corrosion; – Prevent access of corrosion inhibitor to the metal – Provide locations for bacteria proliferation – Galvanic effects (area under deposit at more negative potential than area immediately adjacent to deposit) – Formation of concentration cells/gradients
Mitigation of CO2 corrosion
• Internal CO2 corrosion of carbon steel needs to be managed – Usually mitigate by chemical inhibitors – Simple geometries only (mainly pipelines) • Assume inhibitor availability (90-95%) – Inhibited corrosion rate of 0.1mm/year – Remaining time at full predicted corrosion rate – Apply a corrosion allowance for the design life – If calculated corrosion allowance >8mm use CRAs
CO2 corrosion inhibition
• • • • Filming type Retention time Continuous injection Adsorption onto clean surfaces
05 CO2 dominates mixed CO2/H2S H2S dominates
H2S corrosion (CO2/H2S < 20) – Initial corrosion rate high – Protective FeS film quickly slows down corrosion to low level – The corrosion rate is much less than the Cassandra prediction
.CO2 + H2S corrosion – metal loss
CO2/H2S > 500 500 > CO2/H2S > 20 20 > CO2/H2S > 0.
H2S + CO2 materials selection guide
Partial pressure CO2 (bar) Duplex SS 13% Cr SS
Carbon/low alloy steels
Partial pressure H2S (bar)
EROSION & EROSION-CORROSION
Bubble (bubbly) flow
Wave (wavy) flow
Mist (spray) flow
− erosion characteristics − distribution of phases − carrier phase for solids • Flow regimes with particles in the gas show higher erosion rates than those with particles in the liquid phase.Flow regimes
• Various multi-phase flow regimes possible.
Erosion & erosion-corrosion
• Erosion – Caused by high velocity impact & cutting action of liquid and/or solid particles – Erosion failures can be rapid • Erosion-corrosion – Occurs in environments that are both erosive and corrosive. – Erosion and corrosion can be independent or synergistic.
Erosion of tungsten carbide choke trim
bends.Typical vulnerable areas for erosion
• Areas wherever flow is restricted or disturbed
– T-pieces. chokes. weld beads
• Areas exposed to excessive flow rates • Sand washing
– Washing infrequently allowing sand to accumulate – High pressure drop during washing of separators
• Sea water systems
– High flow areas in water injection / cooling systems
Erosion in piping
• Sand accumulation
– Build up of sand in a test separator
• Pressure drop
– Large pressure drop across sand drain pipework during washing
• Rapid failure
– Occurred within 2 minutes of opening the drain
Erosion at bend
Erosion in a vessel
• Sand allowed to accumulate in separator – Wash nozzles embedded in sand • PCV not working properly – High pressure / flowrate – Nozzle not erosion-resistant – Erosion of wash nozzle – Spray changed to a jet causing erosion of shell • Local changes to operating procedures not communicated – Frequency of sand washing – Risk not captured or assessed in RBI
Erosion of sandwash nozzle
Progressive nozzle damage
elbows areas of turbulence
. • Erosion and corrosion can either be: – independent of each other. • wastage equals sum of individual wastage rates – synergistic.Erosion-corrosion
• Occurs in environments that can be erosive and corrosive. • wastage rate > sum of individual rates • localised protective film breakdown at bends.
• Water speed or local turbulence damages or removes protective film • 90-10 Cu-Ni susceptible to internal erosion-corrosion (impingement) at velocities >3.5ms-1 • Water-swept pits (horse-shoe shaped)
• No solids required • Typical locations
– Pump impellers (rapid change in pressure which damages films) – Stirrers.Cavitation
• Occurs at high fluid velocities • Formation & collapse of vapour bubbles in liquid flow on metal surface. hydraulic propellers
• Use erosion resistant materials
– Stellite. tungsten carbide
CORROSION IN SEAWATER
6Mo. dissolved oxygen. pH. duplex grades and 6Mo
. salinity. • Seawater can cause SCC of 300-series. other materials susceptible to pitting and crevice corrosion • Select seawater resistant materials – Super-duplex grades. marine life • Very corrosive to unprotected carbon steel. CuNi.Raw seawater
• Composition of raw seawater varies around the world – Temperature. titanium • Consider galvanic corrosion – Most seawater resistant grades of stainless steel and Ni-Cr-Mo alloys are compatible with each other in seawater.
use titanium or GRE
Alloy 13Cr 316ss Alloy 825 22Cr duplex 25Cr super-duplex Alloy 625
PREw 13 23 28 33 40 46
PREw = %Cr + 3.3x (%Mo + 0.Pitting resistance of stainless steels
• Pitting Resistance Equivalent Number (PREw) • Formula for comparing relative pitting resistance • Applicable to stainless steels & NiCr-Fe alloys • Typically PREw ≥40 required for exposure to raw sea water <30ºC • Alternatively.5%W) + 16%N
Internal & external pitting
• Section of 3” 316L pipe fitting • Failed due to internal corrosion (pinhole leak) • Poor hydrotest practice .seawater left within spool
hypochlorite added Shellside: lube oil up to 50°C Tubeside: seawater inlet ~6°C. raw seawater service. return ~18°C Failed due to localised internal pitting – 316 SS has low PREw • Material upgrade required
.Failure of a seawater pump cooling coil……
Indication on coil
External surface of coil
Internal surface of coil
• • • •
316 SS coil.
g.Oxygen .concentration cells
• Crevice corrosion – O2 is consumed in the crevice and becomes the anode – pH decreases in the crevice increasing attack • Differential aeration cells – Air/water interfaces with attack below the water line e. sand or sludge – Produces differential concentration – SRBs thrive . splash zone – Pipelines in soils containing different amounts of oxygen • Under deposit corrosion – Deposits of scale.H2S pitting
Crevice corrosion under baffle
• Relative area of anode and cathode can significantly affect corrosion rate. – Two different metals in contact with the electrolyte.Galvanic corrosion
• Three conditions are required for galvanic corrosion. – A conducting electrolyte (typically seawater). • Higher conductivity increases corrosion e.g. • Relative positions within the electrochemical series (for given electrolyte) provides driving potential and affects rate. presence of salts
. • Corrosion of base metal (anode) stimulated by contact with noble metal (cathode). – An electrical connection between the two metals.
5x OD) • Leaks experienced on CuNi spools at welds • Same problems with CuNi / 6Mo
.Galvanic corrosion – firewater piping
• Firewater – CuNi / super duplex stainless steel connections. • 4”CuNi pipe with a 550mm isolation spool (i.e.
Galvanic corrosion .seal rings
• ETAP platform • Techlok joints in a firewater piping system – Piping: super-duplex – Seal rings: 17-4PH
Dealloying of brass
• Brass tubesheet in seawater service – Brass is Cu-Zn alloy – Cu is more noble than Zn – Zn dissolves preferentially leaving Cu behind • Result – Loss of strength – Difficult to seal • Remedy – Add arsenic to the brass
rubber • Apply a non-conducting internal coating on the more noble material. separation of at least 20x pipe diameters – Solid non-conducting spool e.g. Extend coating for 20 pipe diameters.g. GRP – Line the noble metal internally with an electrically nonconducting material e.Mitigation of galvanic corrosion
• Avoid dissimilar materials in seawater system designs – MoC for later changes • Avoid small anode/large cathode • Avoid graphite gaskets & seals • Avoid connecting carbon steel to titanium alloys – Galvanic corrosion or hydrogen charging of titanium may occur • Electrical isolation between different alloy classes • Install distance spools.
.g.Example : CuNi-Super duplex
Distance spool: solid. GRP
Distance spool: noble metal internally lined with an electrically non-conducting material such as rubber
Apply a non-conducting internal coating on the more noble material. non-conducting material e.
the current is the result of the potential difference between the two metals – External anode may be an impressed current anode. • CP is mostly applied to coated. acting as a barrier between the metal and the environment – CP protects steel at coating defects • Coating + CP is most practical and economic protection system. current is supplied from an external dc power source. – Primary principle in GP 06-31
. it becomes cathodic and does not corrode.Cathodic protection (CP) – what is it?
• By connecting an external anode to the component to be protected and passing a dc current. – External anode may be a galvanic (sacrificial) anode. immersed and buried structures – The coating is the primary protection.
Cathodic protection – how does it work?
• CP works by making the component to be protected the cathode in an electrolytic cell • When two metals are connected in an electrolyte. electrons flow from the anode to the cathode due difference in the electrical potential
Magnesium Zinc Aluminium Iron (steel) Copper Stainless steels Titanium Graphite
Corrosion of steel by copper plating
Cathodic protection of steel by zinc plating
Sacrificial anodes. Alloyed with Al or Cd to improve efficiency.g. • Zinc anodes: ambient applications only. Zn + In. alloyed with e. new and wasted (therefore working!)
.g. – Typically used in seawater applications. high efficiency (>90%). limited efficiency (50-60%) – Used in soils and other high-resistance environments (risk of over-protection/rapid consumption in seawater). Al or Zn to reduce rapid activation.Galvanic (sacrificial) CP
• Aluminium anodes: require alloy additions to become active e. – Typically used on coated pipelines in seawater • Magnesium anodes: large driving potential.
−To avoid high anode consumption rates.
−Used on Greater Plutonio
.Applications of internal CP
• Anodes in shell & tube seawater cooler water boxes
Oil storage tanks (in water bottom) Water tanks
•Stainless steel piping systems in warm/hot chlorinated seawater.g. resistor controlled CP (RCP) systems should be considered. RCP + 25Cr super duplex piping instead of titanium or other higher-alloy CRA. −E.
.g. strength. e. oxygen and temperature • 300-series austenitic stainless steels susceptible to at temps >50°C • Highly-alloyed austenitic and duplex SS have improved resistance • Nickel-base alloys with Ni ≥ 42% are highly resistant. – Material grade.Chloride stress corrosion cracking (SCC)
• Susceptibility varies considerably (no absolutes). chlorides. residual stress.
. HAZ and weld metal) • Contributory factors: − Susceptible material − Local stress concentration (weld toe and lack of support) − Environment (elevated temperature. chlorides).Chloride SCC (22Cr duplex vessel drain)
• 22Cr duplex drain ex-production separator
− heat-traced to 60°C (vessel temp up to 105°C) • Internal chloride SCC (cracking in parent metal.
<10ppb if 13Cr completions Microbial-induced Corrosion. As a guide: – <20ppb O2 maintains general corrosion rates <0.
.25mm/yr – Stricter limits often applied e. MIC • SRB require anaerobic conditions – deaerated water – conditions within and under biofilms • SRB use sulphate in water in their metabolisms to generate H2S Fluid Velocity: • Areas of high fluid velocity or turbulence and O2 – O2 from poor deaeration or air ingress – susceptible areas include pump discharge piping.Water injection systems (deaerated)
Oxygen: • Trace amounts corrosive to carbon steel.g. bends tees and reducers.
dosage. biocide applied into or d/s of deaerator • Effective biociding based on. duration • Bacterial monitoring (sidestreams. frequency. – Type.Mitigation & monitoring
• Deaeration and supplementary O2 scavenging – Monitor O2 concentrations on-line (orbisphere) or colorimetric analysis – Maintain oxygen scavenger residual to mop-up oxygen spikes. scrapings or bioprobes) • Corrosion monitoring
Seawater injection tubing
. • Chlorination u/s of deaerator.
(film formation.Preferential weld corrosion (PWC)
• The selective corrosion of weld zones (WM/HAZ) • Relevant factors include. – Electrochemical properties of the materials and any corrosion cell forming around the weld joint – Water phase liquid film thickness and conductivity – Temperature and tendency to form protective scale – Corrosion inhibitor effectiveness. up to 12mm/yr observed
. composition) – Weld joint metallurgy – Flow pattern and flow induced shear stress • PWC rate of attack can be high.
no benefit of selecting ‘cathodic’ weld metal • Reliant on intrinsic corrosion resistance of the weld metal • Require corrosion inhibitor for protection (test against WM and PM) • Attack of weld metal promoted by under-dosing of inhibitor (WM needs more inhibitor than PM)
Welds exposed to hydrocarbon service
. Wet hydrocarbon service: • Lower conductivity. protected by large area of parent metal. • Weld cathodic to parent metal.Preferential weld corrosion (1%Ni)
Water Injection: • 1% Ni-containing welds beneficial for avoiding PWC in WI systems.
Lomond drains .PWC
• TEG contactor scrubber drain pipework (hydrocarbon) • Carbon steel parent metal • ~2%Ni deposited in weld metal • Groove along 6 o’clock position • Accelerated corrosion at the weld • Large number of isolations. extensive inspection and repair
MIC & DEADLEG CORROSION
• MIC of carbon steel usually localized pitting under biofilm. • Corrosion rates of 5-10 mm/yr seen • CRAs also susceptible
.Microbially induced corrosion (MIC)
• Anaerobic environments often support development of biofilms. increasing corrosion rate. • Sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB) thrive in anaerobic conditions • SRB biofilms generate H2S • FeS corrosion product cathodic to bare steel.
Bacterial growth factors
• pH MIC growth in pH 5-9. Optimum temp <45ºC.
. – Biofilms unstable at high flows.5 range • Temperature SRB can grow in temps of 5100°C. – Growth restricted if <10 ppm • Carbon source SRB growth restricted if organic carbon (volatile fatty acids) not available (<20ppm) • Nitrogen Important but at levels which are difficult to detect • Flow – Highest corrosion rates in stagnant conditions. • Sulphates – Necessary for SRB activity.
• Permanent or physical deadlegs (long term stagnation by design) • Operational deadlegs (stagnant for operational reasons) • Unprotected mothballed items (plus those temporarily out of service)
.Deadlegs – types & locations
• A deadleg is a section of pipework or vessel which contains hydrocarbon fluids and/or water under – stagnant conditions (permanent or intermittent) – or where there is no measurable flow.
Examples of deadlegs
sulphates. biocide? Material of construction Wall thickness Fluid type (aqueous phase. oxygen ingress) Temperature Stagnant – permanent/intermittent Prior history of corrosion
. nutrients.Deadlegs – assessment factors
• • • • • • • • • • • • Consequence of failure Location of pipework Nutrients replenished by regularly opening /closing valves? Is draining of pipework possible? Is removal of deadleg possible? Presence of SRBs. deposits.
Two week shutdown
.Example of deadleg corrosion
Pin Hole leaks Releasing water
• • • • •
Crude oil recycle cooler bypass Scale-inhibited seawater left in line after leak test (of u/s valve) Severe corrosion rate at and around pinhole. Fortunately. a leak of water not crude.
Area of internal corrosion 4.2 mm tapering out to average wall thickness of 10.Root causes
• Failure to identify the bypass line as an operational deadleg • No deadleg register • Failure to recognise introduction of new corrosion hazard • No mitigation measures.0 mm
Area of internal corrosion reading from 3.5 mm tapering out to average of 10.7mm
VIEW LOOKING WEST
Corroded area approx 80mm x 110mm.
.Mitigation & inspection
• Flush system of deposits and treat with biocide. nitrate • Out of service items – Biocide treat or mothball procedure • Use treated water – Hydrotest & washing • Profile radiography or UT scanning – low points. bottom of vertical sections etc. • Lowest parts of vessel bridle together with any associated level gauges.
OTHER CORROSION MECHANISMS
Corrosion due to chemicals
• Chemicals can be corrosive • Carbon steel OK for non-corrosive chemical piping.g. titanium or GRP piping required – Avoid titanium alloys in dry methanol service due SCC
SCC of a titanium seal exposed to pure methanol instead of 5% water content
. e. methanol • Corrosive chemicals (e.g. concentrated solutions of inhibitors and biocides) require CRAs – vendor will specify
– 316 SS is typical
• Notable exceptions:
– Hypochlorite: very corrosive.
.Corrosion due to chemicals
• Carbon steel open drain pipework. • Chemical entered drains. • Seepage of scale inhibitor (passing valve) • Scale inhibitor pH <2.
Injection point issues
• Inadequate mixing – corrosion • Intermittent use – switch off when not flowing • Areas affected – Impingement / turbulent areas – Bends and low points • Use quill/other mixer – Upgrade material – Thicker schedule • Valve arrangement – Make self-draining – Enable quill removal
alloy 800H Other high temperature mechanisms – sulphidation (H2S and SO2) – carburizing. boilers Oxidation – Oxidation significant >530°C – Oxidation rate varies with temp. fired heaters. hot salt – thermal fatigue and creep
.High temperature corrosion
• • Environments less common in E&P – Flare tips. metal dusting. but Cr-Mo alloys needed for high temps • Flare tips: 310 SS. gas composition and alloy Cr content • Firetubes: usually CS.
– Use solid/clad stainless steel • 304 SS or 316 SS
Amine piping welds require PWHT to avoid SCC
.Amine stress corrosion cracking
• Material: carbon/low-alloy steels • Environment: aqueous amine systems • Cracking due to residual stresses at/next to non-PWHT’d weldments – Cracking develops parallel to the weld • Mitigation: – PWHT all CS welds including repair and internal/external attachment welds.
off-skid piping mix of regular CS and LTCS
.Corrosion in glycol system
• Glycol usually regarded as benign • Corrosion in glycol regeneration systems usually due to. – Acid gases absorbed by rich glycol or – Organic acids from oxidation of glycol and thermal decomposition products • Condensation of low pH water giving carbonic acid attack. • Risk recognised in design – On-skid: CRA piping & clad vessels – However.
which acts as stress concentrators
• Combined action of cyclic tensile stress and a corrosive environment • Fatigue is caused by cyclic stressing below the yield stress – Cracks start at stress raisers – Can occur due to vibration e.g. smallbore nozzles & with heavy valve attachments • Presence of corrosive environment exacerbates the problem – Can lead to pitting.
1.Example of corrosion fatigue
• 2” A106 GrB carbon steel piping • Wet gas service.2%CO2 and 160ppm H2S • Operating @ 120°C and 70bar • Elbow exposed to vibration (used in a gas compression train) • Crack located at 12 o'clock position • Crack initiated internally
EXTERNAL CORROSION – SURFACE FACILITIES
• • • • • • External corrosion of unprotected steel surfaces External corrosion of coated surfaces Corrosion under insulation (CUI) Corrosion under fireproofing (CUF) Pitting & crevice Corrosion Environmental cracking
.Where does it occur?
• • • • • • Bare steel surfaces At locations of coating breakdown Under deposits such as dirt. adhesive tape or nameplates Mating faces between pipe/pipe support saddles & clamps Isolated equipment not maintained or adequately mothballed Water sources include: – sea spray and green water (FPSO or semi-sub) – rain – deluge water – leaking process water – condensation – downwind of cooling towers.
pitting or cracking. • Seen as flaking. and blistering of coating with corrosion of the substrate. • Corrosion can be general attack.What does it look like?
• Damage can be extensive or localised.
• Carbon/low alloy steels usually covered in compact scale/thick scab • Stainless steels have light stains on the surface possibly with stained water droplets and / or salts. • Corroding copper alloys covered in blue/green corrosion products.
supports & clamps
Not just carbon steel
• 25Cr super-duplex (PREN ≥40) • Seawater service • 12 months exposure in tropical climate • External corrosion along welds • Poor quality fabrication
Corrosion of bolts and fasteners
• Bolted joints – Onshore and offshore: exposed to frequent wetting • Low alloy bolts – General or localised corrosion – Galvanic corrosion in stainless steel flanges • CRA bolts susceptible to pitting and/or SCC • Crevice corrosion under bolt heads and nuts • Hydrogen embrittlement possible • Fatigue
Corrosion of bolts and fasteners
Stress corrosion cracking
316 SS / carbon steel • Use of graphite gaskets • Potential problems – Failure of flanged connection due to corroded fasteners – Joint leak • Corrective actions – Change gasket/fastener materials – Replace graphite gaskets with nonasbestos or rubber material
• Corrosion – General surface corrosion – Galvanic corrosion • e.
Corroded fasteners (seawater service)
Location of graphite gaskets
xmas trees.Structures / valves
• Valves – Valve handles – Chain-wheels – Valve body • Structures – Stairways and walkways – Gratings. ladders. handrails – Cable trays and unistruts • Threaded plugs – Valve bodies. piping – Dissimilar metals
Coating damage and breakdown
• Deterioration of coating with time – All paints let water through .continuously wet areas will fail • Poor original surface preparation / paint application • Mechanical damage – Small area of damage can lead to major corrosion
External cathodic protection
• Types of structures with external CP
– Buried pipelines / structures / piping / tanks – Floors of above-ground storage tanks – Submerged jetty structures
• Factors affecting corrosion
– – – – Extent of wetness Oxygen – depends on depth Resistivity of soil & presence of salts Equipment temperature
Impressed current CP
• Adjustable dc source – Negative terminal connected to the steel structure – Positive terminal connected to the anodes • Typically used on larger structures where galvanic anodes cannot economically deliver enough current.
results in wetting and corrosion of the metal – Carbon steel corrodes in the presence of water due to the availability of oxygen. • CUF – Same mechanism except water gets behind the fireproofing.Corrosion under insulation (CUI) and Corrosion under fireproofing (CUF)
• CUI – Water seeps into insulation and becomes trapped.
– Process – Personnel protection (PP) – Winterisation – Acoustic • Challenge the need – Remove unnecessary insulation – Replace PP with cages
• Typical insulation types.
burst rather than leaked
• 4” gas compression recycle line • Operating pressure. 35bar – 3 bar pressure surge • Temperature: 50ºC • 6.02mm nominal WT • Rockwool insulation • Extensive corrosion – rupture • Unusual.
45°C. 5. • Failed line in survey but not failed area.4mm NWT • Failed during plant start-up • External corrosion scale.exposed • CS. Rockwool • Operating @ 5bar. heat-traced.CUI gas leak
• 2” fuel gas piping outside edge of platform . – Features selected from onshore not site survey
. CUI • Focus on internal corrosion • Previous survey found defect in an adjacent line.
radiographed – ok to refurbish. • Found during needle-gunning (paint removal)
• Max pit depth 10mm
• Insulation permanently removed
• 4” CS hydrocarbon line • 55°C. inlet to PSV (153 bar) • Thermally-sprayed aluminium (TSA) • CUI found.
CUI on pressure vessel
• CS offshore vessel • Operating at 85°C and 11 bar • PFP coating (passive fire protection) • Extensive corrosion scabbing on both sides of vessel. • Scaling runs in two horizontal distinct lines along each side. • Scaling directly above lower seam of insulation – location of water retention.
External pitting & crevice corrosion
• Stainless steels in marine environments (chlorides, O2) – 316L stainless steel commonly used for instrument tubing – Particularly susceptible at supports and fittings. • Primary mitigation is materials selection (higher PREw) – Tungum, 6Mo, super-duplex • Alternative mitigation methods (coating, cleaning), not easy or practical.
Instrument tubing (316 SS and super-duplex)
316 SS tubing super-duplex tubing
316 SS (pitting/crevice corrosion)
super-duplex (no pitting)
Crevice corrosion under clamps/supports
• Pitting and crevice corrosion of 316ss piping – Clamps – Plastic retaining blocks
stress.External chloride stress corrosion cracking
• Mechanism same as internal chloride SCC however: • Numerous variables influence susceptibility therefore guidance differs – Material. seek expert advice
Chloride SCC is characterised by transgranular crack paths
. chlorides. oxygen and temperature – No absolute guidance available.
can raise external temperature above threshold limits! – SCC failure of 316L
.External stress corrosion cracking
• UK HSE: – Coat 22Cr duplex >80°C • NORSOK M-001 SCC temp limits: – 22Cr duplex >100°C – 25Cr super-duplex >110°C • Recent testing has shown failures at 80°C – now recommend 70°C as limit • Reliant on external coatings to act as barrier (isolate from environment) • Beware solar heating .