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Ms. Rubina Mayanglambam Sh. A.J. Ekka Sh. Himanshu Behl Sh. S.T.Gangte
No. 1 2 3 4 Topic Introduction of Job stress Definition of Stress Symptoms of stress Causes/sources of stress Page No.INDEX Sl. 1 2 3 4-6 Environmental factors Organisational factors Personal factors 5 6 Measurement of stress Stress Management 4 5 6 7 8-10 Individual level Organisational level 7 Conclusion 8&9 9 & 10 11 2 .
PICTURES OF JOB STRESS 3 .
stress is not necessarily bad in and of itself. Derived from the Latin word ‘stringere’ which means ‘to draw tight’. Many professionals see the pressure of heavy workload and deadlines as a positive challenge that enhances the quality of their work and the satisfaction they get from their job. it also has a positive value. It is an opportunity when it offers potential gain. is “a physical. in general. stress is used to mean hardships. chemical. or strong efforts with reference to an object or person. The concept of stress is borrowed from the natural sciences. constructive outcome of stressful events which activates and motivates people to achieve their goals. 4 . It was first introduced in life sciences by Hans Selye. With job stress. or emotional factor that causes bodily or mental tension and may be a factor in disease causation. pressure. etc that keeps one from achieving their goals.” One type of stress is job stress. stress is typically in a negative context. Job stress is something we all face as workers -. Stress is an individual's physical and mental reaction to environmental demands or pressures. This positive side of stress is called eustress or challenge stress. adversity or affliction and in recent times it denotes force.JOB STRESS INTRODUCTION: The origin of the concept of stress predates antiquity. a Canadian endocrinologist in 1936. Eustress refers to the healthy. The negative side of stress is called distress or hindrance stress. confusion of job responsibilities. strain. So.and we all handle it differently. which may include office politics. There is no getting around it. the stressors involved are work-related. Stress. Although. positive.
It is important to point out that what stress is not: 1.DEFINITON OF STRESS: In general sense. Thus stress may be accompanied by anxiety. nervous tension may result from stress. 3. whereas stress operates there and also in the psychological sphere. of course. The key. Beehr and Newman define Job Stress as. bad. and some people may keep it “bottled up” and not reveal it through nervous tension. Stress in not simply nervous tension: Like anxiety. Stress is inevitable. Stress is not necessarily something damaging. Different scholars define Stress or Job Stress as illustrated under: Hans Selye defines stress as. but the two are not the same. distress may be prevented or can be effectively controlled. but the two should not be equated. psychological. stress is the pressures people feel in life due to their reaction to situation. Unconscious people have exhibited stress. and/or behavioural deviations for organizational participants”. Ivancevich and Matteson define stress simply as. “a condition arising from the interaction of people and their jobs and characterized by changes within people that force them to deviate from their normal functioning”. is how the person handles the stress. Stress in not simply anxiety: Anxiety operates solely in the emotional and psychological sphere. or to be avoided: Eustress is not damaging or bad and is something people should seek out rather than avoid. “the interaction of the individual with the environment”. 5 . 2. “an adoptive response to the external situation that results in physical.
When stress persists and becomes excessive. negative internal politics. obesity and gluttony. 6 . psychological and behavioural outcomes. its symptoms can surfaced as psychosomatic. Research studies report that a number of physical complaints like ulcer. (1) Psychosomatic: The psychosomatic symptoms of stress are bodily or physical for which the causes are mental. Job stress can also lead to less visible behavioural symptoms in the form of bad decision-making. chest pains. it culminates to strain and in turn. bronchial asthma. (3) Behavioural: Job stress also bears behavioural symptoms which are easily observable. headaches. hopelessness and anger. adversely affects a person’s physique. The stressful people with the slightest provocation are easily induced to anger and anxiety and become unable to relax. smoking. constipation. apathy and so on. absenteeism. When stress is experienced by an individual. Researchers have found that stress gets its reflection in the form of anxiety. depression. There is general agreement that a high degree of job stress drives people adopt certain easily visible behavioural symptoms such as sleeplessness. According to a recent survey.SYMPTOMS OF STRESS: Stress is a pressure people feel in life. psychology and behaviour. reduced creativity. helplessness. about 25 per cent of Indian executives and 44 per cent of middle level executives report that job stress drives them to high level of alcohol consumption. In his study. (2) Psychological: Stress also manifests in various forms of emotional disorders. heart disease etc are emotionally induced. Dua reports that the employees suffering from occupational stress generally tend to have low psychological commitment to the organisation. excessive drinking.
The potential sources of stress can be divided into three broad categories (1)Environmental factors (2)Organisational factors (3)Personal factors (1) ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS: Environmental uncertainties influences the design of an organisation’s structure. poorly designed office space. poor lighting. Political uncertainties: A country which is politically unstable may cause to the people of the country. Terrorism: Terrorism is becoming an increasing source of environmental-induced stress in the 21st century. lack of privacy and poor air quality also cause stress. Technological change: New innovations can make an employee’s skill and experience obsolete in a very short time and thereby cause stress to the workers. Environmental factors that cause stress are listed below: Economic and Financial uncertainties: When an economy is contracting people become increasingly anxious about their job security. including any environmental conditions that place a physical or emotional demand on the individual. 7 . safety hazards.CAUSES OR SOURCES OF JOB STRESS Conditions or things that cause stress are called ‘stressors’ or ‘loads’. Stressors can be defined as the causes or stress. it also influences stress level among employees in that organisation. The physical environmental conditions such as excessive noise.
as companies try to live up to the competition to survive. Excessive travel and too much time away from family for work also contribute to an employee’s stress. Lack of Social Support: Lack of social support from colleagues and poor interpersonal relationship can cause stress. extremely long working hours and intense pressure to perform at the peak level all the time for the same pay. sales staff in the Indian banking industry 8 .(2) ORGANISATIONAL FACTORS: Organised workplaces are going through metamorphic changes under intense economic transformation and consequence pressures. their ability to resist the adverse effects of stress seems to increase. This conflict and dissonance serves as a source of stress. For example. puts unhealthy and unreasonable pressure on the employee. merger. causing suffering. They face conflicting demands in discharging their roles. especially among employees with a high social need. inequality in remuneration and incentives. Role conflict: People play various roles in organisations. can actually leave an employee physically and emotionally drained. unfair performance evaluation etc also serves as stressors. takeovers. Increased workload. it is called ‘role conflict’. Workload: Unrealistic expectations. Organisational policies such as rotation of work. downsizing and other changes have become major stressors for employees. Reorganisations. When individuals believe that they have co-workers and friends to support them at times of sorrow or difficulty. The difference between actual leadership style and expected leadership style leads to a conflict and dissonance between the superior and subordinates.
9 . Role Ambiguity: Role ambiguity occurs when employees are uncertain about several aspects of their job. education expenses of the children. death in the family etc. This is due the individual’s trait. joining the organisation or taking a foreign assignment.e. performance expectations. This ambiguity tends to occur when people enter new situations. Personality Traits: Personality affects behaviour. Primarily. Self efficacy refers to an individual’s belief in that he or she is capable of performing a task. medical expenses etc. because they are uncertain about their task and expectations and may lead to stress. i. (3) PERSONAL FACTORS: The experiences and problems that employees encounter in the non-working hours. ill health of a family member. these personal factors are family issues. Studies have shown that confidence in one’s ability decreases stress. Personal economic problems. Role conflict also occurs when an employee receives contradictory messages from different people about how to perform a job. It is reported that type A employees experience considerable stress than type B employees. problems with children. level of authority etc.experience inter conflict role in trying to balance the needs of their bank and needs of customers. Self-efficacy has also been found to influence stress outcome. It is called ‘intrarole conflict’. an employee’s personal issues can spill over to the job. such as. Some people thrive better on stressful situation in comparison to others. duties. Some people may have an inherent tendency to accentuate negative aspects of the world and are more stress prone. Different people possess different kinds of personality. Some people have a higher threshold for stressors and cope better in the same situation. marital difficulties. repayment of loan. such as. such as. such as. breaking off of a relationship.
researchers have felt the need for measuring stress and have developed some instruments for its measurement. Pareek explains stress with the help of two closely related concepts of ‘role space’ and ‘role set’. it is important to mention that the type of organisational structure within which employee work influences the role he/she plays at times producing strain and stress for the role performer/employee. so does the need is there to measure the level of stress in order to cope or manage with it. powerlessness etc. Pareek assumes that the role assigned to an employee is linked with different parts and persons of an organisation and it is through this role the employee interacts and integrates himself with the entire organisational structure. role conflict.MEASUREMENT OF STRESS Just as a doctor needs first to measure the intensity of the health problem of his/her patient to prescribe the right treatment for its cure. two instruments of stress measurement namely Organisational Role Stress (ORS) and Occupational Stress Index are wide used to measure stress. Occupational Stress Index: Occupational Stress Index as an instrument to measure stress was constructed by Srivastava and Singh. In other words. under participation. The index consists of 46 items relating to all relevant components of a job life causing stress in one way or other. in his instrument. the 46 items of the index measure twelve different types of occupational stresses like role overload. low status. Here. Like Pareek’s ORS. In India. Organisational Role Stress: Popularly known as ORS is developed by Udai Pareek to measure stress in the Indian context. 10 . Pareek’s ORS instrument is based on integration of an employee’s job role with overall organisational structure within he/she works. Hence. role ambiguity.
but it is usually harmful as it impinges on employee’s health and his performances. stress needs to be managed or coped with to minimize its debilitating effects. At individual level 2. Therefore. A few of the more well known time management principles are : (a)making daily list of activities to be accomplished. An employee can take personal responsibility for reducing stress levels. 11 . It has been used to denote the way of dealing with stress. and expanding the social support network. The various strategies to manage or reduce stress can be classified into two broad categories: 1. Time management: Many people manage their time poorly. The well organised employee can often accomplish twice the person who is poorly organised. Individual strategies that have proven effective include implementing time management techniques. (c)knowing your daily cycle and handling the most demanding part of your job during the high part of your cycle when you are most alert and productive. So an understanding and utilisation of basic time management principles can help individuals better cope with tensions created by job demand. physical exercise.STRESS MANAGEMENT Stress has a negative correlation with task performance. (b)prioritising activities by importance and urgency. Though. The word ‘managing’ or ‘coping’ bears two connotations in stress literature. At organisational level 1. relaxation training. stress is helpful. AT INDIVIDUAL LEVEL: Individual strategies are based on self-help approaches.
Some of these interventions are listed below: Setting clear objectives: Organisations should set clear objectives for its members. It involves an attempt that organisations make to study. family or work colleagues to talk to provide an outlet when stress level becomes excessive. walking jogging swimming etc have long been recommended by physicians to deal with excessive stress levels. This helps minimize role ambiguity which usually filters down the organisation in the form of neuoris. 12 . This form of exercise increases heart capacity. Deep relaxation for 15 to 20 minutes a day releases tension and provides a person with a pronounced sense of peacefulness. Expanding your social network. Relaxation training: Individuals can teach themselves to reduce tension through relaxation techniques such as meditation and yoga. can be a means for stress reduction. provide a mental diversion from work pressures and offer a means to let off steam and helps in reducing stress. the exercise is called a stress audit. when an organisation decides to have a scientific peep into mental and physical health status of its backbone group. therefore. Social support network: Having friends. Stress Audit: Pestonjee has suggested stress audit as one of the effective proactive intervention to combat stress. an organisation can also help manage stress through various proactive interventions. Physical exercise: Non-competitive physical exercise such as aerobics. According to him. (2) AT ORGANISATIONAL LEVEL: Like an individual. It provides you with someone to hear your problems and to offer a more objective perspective on the situation.
proper. This congruence can be attained by linking the worker to the job characteristics. This is so as a result of an individual’s movement from a reactive i. Role efficacy is found negatively related with role stress and it helps in overcoming the experience of role stress. exercises.e. Dissemination of information to employees on how to face stressors within the organisation and outside proves useful for employees in dealing with stress. high work satisfaction and low absenteeism and turnover. high quality performance. explore and control various types of stresses which the individual executives experience by virtue of their organisational membership. and mental peace among the organisational members helps them better cope with stress. Fit between person and work: Research evidence shows that striking a fit between worker and his/her work environment serves as one of the best strategy to manage stress. helping them in identifying their strengths and weaknesses help them better cope with stress. role-making behaviour. 13 . Spread the message: Spreading the message about the importance of regular habits of work. Clarity in roles: There is enough evidence to show that defining individual roles through role efficacy helps them reduce their role-shared stresses. for high internal motivation. Counselling to employees in the matters like career planning to provide them clarity in their job roles. proper diet. leisure.e. Counselling: Counselling is yet another proactive strategy to be used by organisations to deal with stress. role taking behaviour to a proactive i.
psychological and behavioural deviations for people. spread of message of evil effects of stress and so on. No one is immune to stress. counselling. or emotional factor that causes bodily or mental tension and may be a factor in disease causation. procedures. in general. Stress can be managed at both the individual level and the organisational level.CONCLUSION Stress. Strategies to manage stress include clarity of employee roles. is “a physical. chemical. “Managing/coping with stress for job satisfaction” 14 . The potential sources of stress can be divided into three broad categories as environmental. its symptoms can surfaced as psychosomatic. policies and rules. change in organisational structure. organisational and personal factors. psychological and behavioural outcomes.” Stress is non-specific response to demands from environment that results in physical. Stress is experienced by an individual.
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