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46448751 Water Retaining Structure

46448751 Water Retaining Structure

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  • Design and constructional aspects
  • Design of rectangular tanks
  • Design of circular tanks
  • Design of a flat slab roof and columns for a reservoir

DESIGN TABLES FOR

WATER- RETAINING
STRUCTURES
Copublished in the United States with
John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 605 Third Avenue,
Nell' York , NY 10158
@ Longman Group UK Ltd 1991
Design tables for wateryretaining structures
Longman Scientific & Technical.
Longman Group UK Limited.
Longman House, Burnt Mill, Harlow.
Essex CM20 2JE, England
and Associated Companies throughout the world.
Copublished in the United States with
John Wiley & Sons. Inc .. 605 Third Avenue.
New York. NY 10158
© Longman Group UK Ltd 1991
All rights reserved: no part of this publication may be
reproduced, stored in a retrieval system. or
transmitted in any form or by any means. electronic.
mechanical. photocopying. recording. or otherwise
without either the prior written permission of the
Publishers or a licence permitting restricted copying
in the United Kingdom issued by the Copyright
Licensing Agency Ltd, 90 Tottenham Court Road,
London WIP 9HE.
First published 1991
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Batty, Ian. 1939-
The design of water-retaining structures / Ian Batty. Roger Westbrook.
p. cm.
ISBN 0-470-21846-0
I. Hydraulic structures--Design and construction I. Westbrook.
Roger. II. Title.
TC180.B36 1991
627 --dc20 91-43516
Set in Compugraphic Times 10111
Printed and Bound in Great Britain
at the Bath Press. A von
CIP
Contents
Preface
Acknowledgements
List of design tables for water-retaining structures (Chapter 9)
1 Standards for the design of water-retaining structures
iv
iv
v
2 Design and constructional aspects 10
3 Design of cantilever walls to retain liquids 29
4 Design of rectangular tanks 54
5 Design of circular tanks 78
6 Design of prestressed concrete circular tanks lOS
7 Design of a flat slab roof and columns for a reservoir 119
8 Design of conical tanks 134
9 Design tables for water-retaining structures 152
Appendix I ,!he analysis of ground-supported open circular concrete tanks 188
Appendix II Metric/Imperial conversion factors 202
Preface
This book provides a comprehensive understanding of the design and construction of water-
retaining structures. allowing graduate civil and structural engineering students. as well
as the practising engineer. to design with speed and economy. Assuming some familiarity
with BS 8110 Structural Use of Concrete the book draws on examples. many of which
are based on actual completed structures. and upon extensive tables. related to the analysis
of rectangular. circular and conical structures, to develop good working practice. The
tables and examples will enable the engineer to check, by hand, the often complex results
of computer analysis and output. usually based on the finite element method. for most
structures. This is particularly so in those cases where the forces within a structure are
affected by the ground upon which they sit. Thus, methods of designing for the soil/structure
interaction, which normally require the aid of complex computer programs. are included.
The tables and examples will prove to be a good reference for carrying out new work
to modern methods and regulations. and will give direction to the student engineer in the
use of currrent British Standards for the design of many types of concrete structures.
An essential part of the book are the listed computer programs and output which further
assist the designer in obtaining a range of options from which the most effective and
economical solution may be determined for a particular structure; whilst a useful appendix
covers the analysis of ground-supported open circular concrete tanks.
Acknowledgements
The authors wish to express their appreciation to the BSI and the HSE for permission
to use extracts from their publications. In particular they wish to thank the Portland Cement
Association of America for permission to use extracts from their tables which assist in
the analysis of circular and rectangular tanks. They are also grateful to the editor of
Construction Weekly for allowing them to include, as an appendix. the article prepared
by Lightfoot and Michael on the design of circular tanks supported by ground having elastic
or plastic properties.
The permission by Yorkshire Water to use photographs of construction and the help
and encouragement of colleagues in the Central Division of that Authority has been
invaluable and is greatly appreciated.
We are grateful to the following for permission to reproduce copyright material:
British Standards Institute for extracts from BS 8007 and BS 8110, also for Fig. 2.2 from
BS 8007. Fig. 7.1 from BS 8110, Tables 1.1. 1.2 from CP 2007, Tables 1.3, A.I from
BS 8007, Tables 7.1. 7.2. 9.2 from BS 8110, Table 9.3 from BS 4466 (Extracts from
British Standards are reproduced with the permission of BSl. Complete copies can be
obtained by post from BSI, Linford Wood. Milton Keynes. MKI4 6LE.); the editor,
Construction Weekly for Appendix 1 Lightfoot E, Michael D 1965 'The design of ground-
supported open circular tanks'; Health & Safety Construction for Fig. 1.2; Portland Cement
Association for adapted Tables 9.20,9.21.9.22.9.23.9.24,9.25.9.29,9.30,9.31.9.32.
9.33.9.34,9.35.9.36.
Whilst every effort has been made to trace the owners of copyright material. in a few
cases this may have proved impossible and we take this opportunity to offer our apologies
to any copyright holders whose rights we have unwittingly infringed.
iv
Table 9.1 Details of (a) bar reinforcement, and (b) fabric reinforcement
Table 9.2 Ultimate anchorage bond and lap lengths as multiples of bar size
(BS 8110)
Table 9.3 Reinforcement scheduling details for (a) preferred shapes, and (b) other
shapes
Table 9.4 'As' for design crack width 0.2 mm, bar diameter TIO
Table 9.5 'As' for design crack width 0.2 mm, bar diameter TI2
Table 9.6 'As' for design crack width 0.2 mm, bar diameter TI6
Table 9,7 'As' for design crack width 0.2 mm, bar diameter T20
Table 9.8 'As' for design crack width 0.2 mm, bar diameter T25
Table 9.9 'As' for design crack width 0.2 mm, bar diameter T32
Table 9.10 'x' and 'z' factors for sections reinforced in tension only -
serviceability limit state
Table 9.11 'zJd' lever arm factors for ultimate bending moment
Table 9.12 Concrete grade C25: permitted values of shear stress 'vc' for a range of
As x lOO/(bv x d) and effective depth, d (BS 8110, Table 3.9)
Table 9.13 Concrete grade C30: permitted values of shear stress 'vc' for a range of
As x lOO/(bv x d) and effective depth, d (BS 8110, Table 3.9)
Table 9.14 Concrete grade C35: permitted values of shear stress 'vc' for a range of
As x 100/(bv x d) and effective depth, d (BS 8110, Table 3.9)
Table 9.15 Shear reinforcement spacing (mm) for beams, where 'v' is greater than
(vc + 0.4)
Table 9.16 Minimum percentage of reinforcement to resist early thermal cracking
(BS 8007 Appendix A)
Table 9.17 Deflection - modification factors for tension reinforcement for varying
values of Mu/(bdd) and serviceability stresses
Table 9.18 Deflection - modification factors for tapered cantilever walls subjected
to different types of loads
Table 9.19 Values of 'k' factor used for estimating deflections of cantilever walls
under hydrostatic pressure
Table 9.20 Moment and shear force coefficients for walls subjected to hydrostatic
pressure in a three-dimensional rectangular tank, assuming a hinged base, free top
and continuous sides
Table 9.21 Moment and shear force coefficients for walls subjected to hydrostatic
pressure in a three-dimensional rectangular tank, assuming a hinged base, hinged top
and continuous sides
Table 9.22 Moment and shear force coefficients for wall panels subjected to
hydrostatic pressure, assuming hinged base, free top and continuous sides
Table 9.23 Moment and shear force coefficients for wall panels subjected to
hydrostatic pressure, assuming fixed base, free top and continuous sides
Table 9.24 Moment and shear force coefficients for wall panels subjected to
hydrostatic pressure, assuming pinned base, pinned top and continuous sides
Table 9.25 Moment and shear force coefficients for wall panels subjected to
hydrostatic pressure, assuming fixed base, pinned top and continuous sides
Table 9.26 Deflection of two way spanning slabs with various edge conditions
subjected to (a) triangular pressure, (b) rectangular pressure
Table 9.27 Ground pressure created beneath a base slab carrying an edge force 'Q'
v
vi
and an edge moment 'M' and supported upon ~ elasdc soil
Table 9.28 Bending moments created within a base slab carrying an edge force 'Q'
and an edge moment 'M' and supported upon an elastic soil
Table 9.29 (a) tension, and (b) moment coefficients in cylindrical tanks supporting
a triangular load, assuming a fixed base and a free top
Table 9.30 (a) tension, and (b) moment coefficients in cylindrical tanks supporting
a triangular load, assuming a pinned base and a free top
Table 9.31 (a) tension, and (b) moment coefficients in cylindrical tanks subjected
to a moment per m, 'M' applied at base
Table 9.32 (a) tension, and (b) moment coefficients in cylindrical tanks subjected
to a shear per m, 'V' applied at top
Table 9.33 (a) tension, and (b) moment coefficients in cylindrical tanks supporting
a rectangular load, assuming a fixed base and a free top
Table 9.34 (a) tension, and (b) moment coefficients in cylindrical tanks supporting
a rectangular load, assuming a pinned base and a free top
Table 9.35 (a) shear at base of cylindrical tanks subjected to: triangular load,
rectangular load, moment at edge; (b) stiffness coefficients for cylindrical walls;
(c) sti ffness coefficients of circular plates with and without centre support
Table 9.36 Supplementary coefficients for values of Lv
2
/(2 x r x h) greater than
16
Table 9.37 (a,b) coefficients for calculating forces in a conical tank supported at
base level, resulting from fixity at the base of the cone
Table 9.38 (a,b) coefficients for calculating forces in a conical tank supported at
base level, resulting from fixity at the apex of the cone
The necessity to store and supply purified water, and to
treat the residual effluents, has been a major source of
civil engineering activity for many civilisations. There are
many remnants of great structures used for this purpose
which demonstrate the skills of those earlier engineers.
These indicate that then, as now, if you wish to retain
water and prevent it being polluted you had to build well.
In more recent times an evolutionary system of Codes of
Practice and British Standards were developed, based
upon continuing experience and research, in order to help
engineers design water-retaining structures more
effectively.
The earliest codes, CP 7 (1938) and CP 2007 (1960),
considered that if the stresses in the steel and concrete
were of a relatively low order then there should be few
problems. To minimise cracking those areas of concrete
in tension were designed to ensure that the tensile resist-
ance of the concrete was greater than the actual tensile
force. The permitted design service stresses given in
Tables 1. I and 1.2 are extracts from CP 2007 (1960).
Table 1.1 Permissible concrete stresses in
calculations relating to the resistance to cracking
(CP 2007, Table 2)
Concrete mix
Nominal mixes
1 : 1.6: 3.2 Grade 26
1 : 2: 4 Grade 21
Permissible concrete stresses
Direct
(Nlmm2)
1.2
1.3
Tension
Due to bending
(Nlmm2)
1.85
1.68
Shear
Q
bl
a
(Nlmm2)
1.92
1.71
With the advent of limit state design theory a radical
change was introduced into BS 5337 (1976), the water-
retaining structures code of practice. The code drafters
took into account the experiences of many engineers and
essentially permitted three different ways of design:
(a) the limit state method based upon the current level
of research;
(b) the alternative method which was similar to the
previous code of practice CP 2007;
(c) the limited stress method which incorporates both
limit state and elastic theory.
Table 1.2 Permissible steel stresses in strength
calculations (CP 2007, Table 4)
Members in direct tension
On liquid-retaining face
Members On face Members less than
in remote 225 thick
bending from
Members 225 or
liquid
more thick
In shear reinforcement
Permissible
tensile stress
in steel
(mild) (Nlmm2)
82
82
82
125
82
The effect of this standard was to help engineers consider
more closely how concrete behaved and how to prevent
cracking of the concrete during the construction and work-
ing life of the structure. A great deal of attention was
focused upon positions an.d types of joints, methods of
construction and areas of reinforcement required to
prevent early thermal cracking.
Durability of the concrete both in the short and long
term was now of as equal importance as the design. The
previous design codes tended to result in thick concrete
sections with relatively large amounts of mild steel rein-
forcement. This, however, did not prevent cracking. The
new standard, BS 5337, required engineers to become
more involved in the construction process particularly with
regard to joint positions and methods of construction. The
limit state design method did lead to thinner sections and
deflection under load was more noticeable, particularly
with respect to cantilever retaining walls. One other result
was that high tensile steel virtually replaced mild steel as
the main reinforcement used in construction.
as 8007 (1987) Design of concrete structures
for retaining aqueous liquids
As a result of II years of experience with BS 5337, the
most recent standard, BS 8007, is now based mainly on
the limit state approach to design. Structures are generally
designed to restrict crack widths by suitable amounts of
reinforcement and appropriate joint spacing. The alterna-
tive method given in BS 5337 was removed from the code;
a few elements of the limited stress approach, however,
did remain. For the first time in a BS design code the
designer is required to consider operational safety.
The basic elements of the BS 8007 are now sum-
marised, changes and additions to the previous code are
highlighted. Where applicable, extracts from the standard
are included with kind permission of the BSI.
General: (Section 1 of BS 8007)
Scope: This British Standard provides recommendations for
the design and construction of normal reinforced and
prestressed concrete structures used for the containment or
exclusion of aqueous liquids. The term 'liquid' in this code
includes any contained or excluded aqueous liquids but
excludes aggressive liquids. The code does not cover dams,
pipes, pipelines, lined structures, or the damp-proofing of
basements. The term 'structure' is used herein for the vessel
that contains or ex.cludes the liquid, and includes tanks,
reservoirs, and other vessels.
NOTE I The design of structures of special form or in unusual
circumstances is a matter for the judgement of the designer
NOTE 2 The titles of the publications referred to in this
standard are listed on the inside back cover
A design temperature range of 0 °C to 35°C is now
specified for containment under normal conditions.
Recommendations are also included with regard to
structures subject to adverse ground conditions.
Design objectives and general recommendations:
(Section 2 of BS 8007)
Design objectives: The purpose of design is the achievement
of acceptable probabilities that the structure being designed
will not become unfit in any way for the use for which it
is intended. This code provides for a method of design based
on limit state philosophy that is generally in accordance with
the methods employed in BS 8110. Structural elements that
are not part of the liquid-retaining structure should be
designed in accordance with BS 8110.
Structural design:
(a) It is recommended that the design of sections be
based upon crack width limitations initially and then
other serviceability and ultimate limit states be
checked.
2
(b) The partial safety factor for retained water shall be
1.4 for most situations for ultimate limit state (ULS)
and 1.0 for serviceability limit state (SLS).
(c) There shall be a factor of safety of at least 1. I against
flotation.
(d) The maximum crack widths shall be:
(i) RC - all faces of liquid containing or
excluding structures - 0.2 mm max.
RC - where aesthetic appearance is critical
- 0.1 mm max.
(ii) PS - limited to requirements of BS 8110;
however, refer to Section 4.3 of BS 8007 for
particular rules for cylindrical tanks.
(iii) PS - except for the special recommendations
for the design of cylindrical prestressed
structures (see Section 4.3 of BS 8(07), the
tensile stress in the concrete should be limited
for prestressed concrete structures in accord-
ance with the recommendations of Section
2.2.3.4.2 of BS 8110 : Part 1 : 1985.
(e) Deflection - Walls designed by limit state theory
are thinner than those designed by elastic theory and
the designer is cautioned to ensure that deflection,
due to loading or rotation of the supporting earth,
is not excessive. The method of backfilling should
be clearly defined. (Where deflection is the sig-
nificant factor in the design of a wall the authors of
this book recommend that the thickness of the wall
be increased rather than the area of steel be increased
to satisfy the BS 8110 requirements.)
Loads:
(a) All structures required to retain liquids should be
designed for both the full and empty conditions, and
the assumptions regarding the arrangement of loading
should be such as to cause the most critical effects.
Particular attention should be paid to possible sliding
and overturning.
(b) ULS condition liquid levels should be taken to the
top of the walls for design purposes assuming all
outlets blocked. SLS condition liquid levels should
be taken to the overflow, or working top level, for
design purposes assuming all outlets open.
(c) No relief should be allowed for beneficial soil pres-
sures in designing walls subjected to internal water
loading.
(d) Thermal movement in roofs should be minimised by
appropriate means. It is noted that where a roof is
rigidly fixed to a wall, forces will be generated in
the wall should the roof expand or contract.
(e) Earth covering roofs should be treated as a dead load,
excessive construction loads should, however, be
considered in the design.
Analysis of wall and junctions: The code states that
bending and direct tension should be taken into account
in the design process (refer to examples in Chapters 3 and
4). It is worth noting that significant horizontal bending
moments occur at corners of rectangular containers par-
ticularly where the walls have a length/height ratio in
excess of 2.
SUe condiJiOM:
(a) Ground movements - for subsidence effects. guid-
ance is given on methods to limit the damage that
may result (see Chapter 2).
(b) Reference is made to the recommendations of
BS 8110 regarding the effect of aggressive soils upon
concrete.
Causes and control of cracking: Cracking in walls occurs
as a result of
(a) external loading and changes in temperature during
the working life of the structure;
(b) chemical and physical changes generated particularly
by changes in temperature and moisture content as
the concrete matures and strengthens;
(c) restraints to movement by adjoining stronger
concrete sections;
(d) inadequate detailing of reinforcement and of
associated poor construction techniques.
Concrete is particularly weak for the first few days
following its construction. Careful thought and super-
vision prior to casting, and immediately afterwards, will
assist in ensuring a sound structure. The code recommends
that the prudent use of reinforcement, movement joints
and construction techniques will heip in keeping crack
widths within acceptable limits.
The extract below from clause 2.6.2.2 of BS 8007 gives
useful advice on particular methods of minimising and
controlling cracking resulting from moisture and
temperature changes within the structure:
In order to minimise and control cracking thaI may result
from temperature and moisture changes in the structure it
is desirable to limit the following factors:
(a) the maximum temperature and moisture changes liwing
construction by:
(I) using aggregates having low or medium coefficients
of thermal expansion and avoiding the use of
shrinkable aggregates,
(2) using the minimum cement content consistent
with the fe1:juirements for durability and, when
necessary. for sulphate resistance,
(3) using cements with lower rates of heat evolution,
(4) keeping concrete from drying out until the struc-
ture is filled or enclosed,
(5) avoiding thermal shock or over-rapid cooling of
a cone rete surface;
(b) restraints to expansion and construction by the provision
of movement joints (see Section 5.3 of BS 8007);
(c) restraints from adjacent sections of the work by using
a planned sequence of construction or temporary open
sections (see Section 5.5 of BS 8007);
(d) localised cracking within a particular member between
movement joints by using reinforcement or prestress;
(el rate of first filling with liquid (see Section 9.2 of
BS 8007);
(I) thermal shock caused by filling a cold structure with
a warm liquid or vice versa.
Design and detailing recommendations are also given
at the end of Section 2.6 of BS 8007 and it is noted that:
(a) where reinforcement is required to control
and thermal cracking, it should placed as
concrete surface as the cover requirements allow;
(b) unless joints are placed at close centres (see clause
5.3.3 of BS 8007) the amount of reinforcement in
each surface zone in both directions shall not be less
than the amount shown in Fig. 1.1.
h
---jr-O--;;/?'I' '" .R""
'°.·.0." . . I 1'':(;
h 4500mm
(ilm1 Walls)
Figure 1.1
.. 0 "00°. I I' P
I
1
I
1
h > 500mm
For minimum areas
of reinforcement
see page 4
3
The reinforcement should be calculated in accordance with
Section 5.3.3 and Appendix A of BS 8007. Except as
provided for in option 3 in Table 5.1 and Section 5.3.3, the
amount of reinforcement in each of two directions at right
angles within each surface zone should be not less than
0.35 % of the surface zone cross section. as defined in
Figures A.I and A.2 for deformed grade 460 requirement
and not less than 0.64 % for plain grade 250 reinforcement.
In wall slabs less than 200 mm in thickness the calculated
amount of reinforcement may all be placed in one face. For
ground slabs less than 300 mm thick (see A.2 of BS 8007).
the calculated reinforcement should be placed as near to the
upper surface as possible consistent with the nominal cover.
Design life and serviceability: The design life of the
structure should be in the range of 40 to 60 years. It is
noted that elements of the structure may have a shorter
working life than the main structure Uoints. sealants etc}.
It is obviously prudent to ensure that replaceable items
are accessible without major destruction of other elements.
The designer should explain how often the structure is
to be inspected and maintained. In particular the struc-
ture should be examined regularly for cracks. rust stains
and other signs of deterioration. A schedule of precautions
necessary to prevent potential damage to the structure
should be written into the commissioning document. For
example. if the media in a sunken filter bed is used to
prevent flotation then it must not be replaced without first
lowering the external water table! Pressure relief valves
must be checked before any work is carried out which
depends upon their effective operation.
Both faces of a liquid containing or excluding structure.
together with internal supports of a containment structure.
shall be considered to have a minimum surface exposure
rating of 'severe' as defined in clause 3.3.4 of BS 8110.
Where exposed concrete is subjected to severe freezing
conditions whilst wet. then a 'very severe' rating is to
be used.
The concrete design and specification in the code is con-
sidered adequate for a structure exposed to 'severe'
conditions as defined in BS 8110. However the designer's
attention is drawn to the possibility of biological decay
resulting from adverse materials contained within the
stored liquid or present in the external ground water.
Where such conditions arise or where an 'extended design -
life' for the structure is required then additional cement
content. cover or special reinforcement may be necessary.
Note: All examples in the chapters that follow are designed
with 45 mm minimum cover since it is the authors' exper-
ience that clients generally expect their structures to have
a design life well in excess of 40 to 60 years!
The code stresses the requirement that the concrete
should have a low permeability. This is one of the most
significant factors in reducing the incidence of chemical
attack, erosion, abrasion, frost damage and corrosion of
reinforcement.
The nominal cover for reinforcement is given as 40 mm
minimum. However, if the cover is increased then surface
crack widths resulting from bending and direct tension
will also increase (see Appendix B and the design
examples in the chapters that follow).
Specification: The designer is asked to ensure that as far
4
as is reasonably practicable the assumptions made at the
design stage occur on site and that the quality of both
materials and workmanship are satisfactory,
Operational safety considerations: The designer should
take into account the requirements given in those sections
of the Health and Safety at Works Act (1974). One of the
most common 'dangerous occurrences' statistic which
happens in the water industry is death or injury resulting
from people entering unventilated enclosed structures
without first checking that the atmosphere is satisfactory.
The code takes this into account by stressing that:
(i) At least two access hatches should be provided at
opposite ends of a structure and at least one in each
compartment. The hatches should be large enough
to enable personnel wearing breathing apparatus to
enter.
(ii) Provision should be made to ensure that there is
adequate ventilation to limit dangerous accumula-
tions of gas or toxic atmospheres to acceptable levels.
Increasing concern over accidents within the construction
industry. often resulting from lack of training, has led to
the inclusion of the following generalised statement in the
contract documents:
'Personnel will only be allowed on site if they have evidence
to prove that they have had recent training in the safety
requirements necessary for this contract or that they are
escorted during their visit by suitably qualified and approved
staff. .
The proposed draft HSC Construction Management
Regulations includes the following definition of duties for
designers under Regulation 7, in Fig. 1.2.
Constnu:tion management
Proposals for Regulations and an
Approved Code of Practice
Figure 1.2
Any person who designs a structure shall ensure as far as
is reasonably practicable that the structure is so designed that
it can be built, maintained (including re-pointed, re-decorated
and cleaned), repaired and demolished safely and without
risk to health.
Any person who designs a structure shall ensure, so far
as is reasonably practicable, that his design shall include
adequate information about any aspect of the design or
materials which might affect the health and safety of any con-
tractor or any other person at work on that structure.
( I ) Designers should consider whether there are any special
factors which would affect the health and safety of those
doing the work and. if so, should inform prospective
contractors in terms at the tender stage and in more detail
when specifying design details, construction methods
or materials.
(3)
can
account of the user's
them in the course of the life
eventual need to demolish them.
which
subsequent work on
appropriate information
by the designer for future reference.
reinforced concrete:
Design: The basis of design should comply with the
requirements of BS 8110, however, those areas of
BS 8007 which are not in accordance with BS 8110 are
stated.
Methods of limiting crack widths taking into account
constructional and design requirements in the immature
and mature concrete are listed.
Design and detailing of prestressed concrete:
(Section 4 of BS 80(7)
The basis of design is stated. in the same manner as for
reinforced concrete above. However, particular rules for
cylindrical prestressed concrete structures are included
(see Chapter 6). The nominal cover should be such as to
satisfy the 'very severe' exposure condition ofBS 8110.
Design, detailing and workmanship of joints:
(Section 5 of BS 8007)
General:
Joints in liquid-retaining structures are temporary or
permanent discontinuities at sections. and may be formed
or induced.
This section describes the types of joint that may be
required and gives recommendations for their design and
construction. The types of joint are illustrated in Figure 5. I
(BS 8007) and are intended to be diagrammatic. Jointing
materials are considered in Appendix C of BS 8007.
Joints may be used, in conjunction with a corresponding
proportion of reinforcement. to control the concrete crack
widths arising from shrinkage and thermal changes to within
acceptable limits.
Since the main source of leakage in water-retaining
structures occurs at joint positions. considerable attention
is given to this subject. The code lists six types of joint:
(a) expansion;
(b) complete contraction;
(c) partial contraction;
(d) hinged;
(e) sliding;
(0 construction.
Descriptions and details
and method construction.
has to the position and type of joint
best for a particular situation.
The spacing of joints is left to
Some favour close joints whereas
at all and use higher quantities of steel to control crack-
ing. Table 1.3. extracted from the code, indicates that both
systems are acceptable.
Section 5.4 of the code specifies in some detail how
a construction joint may be formed to continuity
of strength and resistance to the need of
a water bar. Where it is necessary no movement joints
to exist such as in tanks where direct tension occurs
Section 5.5 of the code refers to the possibility of
temporary open sections being left between panels as
shown in Fig. 1.3.
Figure 1.3
The benefits are that the amount of reinforcement
necessary to control early thermal cracking is minimised.
The only thermal effects to be considered are those result-
ing from seasonal variations (T2 - see Appendix A-
A3. BS 8007).
The section closes with advice on joints in ground slabs,
roofs and walls; however, it is noted that for all vertical
joints in the walls of circular tanks, including construc-
tion joints, it is necessary to provide water bars to prevent
leakage.
Concrete: specification and materials:
(Section 6 of BS 80(7)
It is recommended that when blended cements are used
the maximum proportion of ggbfs should not exceed 50 %.
where pfa is used the maximum proportion should not
exceed 35 %.
The code specifies a particular concrete mix for general
use with water-retaining structures classed as grade C35A
with a minimum cement content of 325 kg/m3.
Further comments are made regarding workability.
blinding layers and pneumatically applied mortar. It is
recommended that since cracking in concrete cannot be
5
Table 1.3 Design options for control of thermal contraction and restrained shrinkage
(BS 8007, Table 5.1)
Option Type of construction and
method of control
3
Continuous:
for full restraint
Semicontinuous:
for partial restraint
Close movement joint
spacing: for freedom of
movement
Movement joint spacing
No joints, but expansion jOints at
wide spacings may be desirable in
walls and roofs that are not protected
from solar heat gain or where the
contained liquid is subjected to a
substantial temperature range
(a) Complete joints, ~ 15 m
(b) Alternate partial and complete
joints (by interpolation), ~ 11.25 m
(c) Partial joints, ~ 7.5 m
(a) Complete joints, in metres
w
~ 4.8 + -
,
(b) Alternate partial and complete
jOints, in metres
w
~ O.5s
max
+ 2.4-
f
(c) Partial joints
5/eel ratio Comments
(see 00/92)
Minimum of Use small size bars at close
Peril spacing to avoid high steel
ratios wen in excess of Peril
Minimum of Use small size bars but less
Peril steel than in option 1
213 Penl
Restrict the joint spaCing for
options 3(b) and 3(c)
Note 1 References should be made to Appendix A, BS 8110, for the description of the symbols used in this table and for
calculating Peril' smax and,
Note 2 In options 1 and 2 the steel ratio will generally exceed Peril to restrict the crack widths to acceptable values. In option
3 the steel ratio of 213 Penl will be adequate
totally avoided, any member that is permanently exposed
to view is provided with a profile or type of finish which
will minimise the effects of surface marking.
The remaining sections of the code relate to the specifi-
6
cation of reinforcement, prestressing tendons and
inspection and testing of the structure for water tightness
and liquid retention.
minimum
and crack
ten'1pe!rat
i
ure and
This section provides more information than the previous
code on the concrete is affected by temperature and
moisture. research work has been carried out by
such organisations as CIRlA, BCA and many universities,
which helps engineers to understand how durable concrete
may be produced.
Typical values of the fall in temperature between the
hydration peak and the ambient, referred to as T 1 in the
code, are given in Table A.I, which is an extract from
BS 8007.
Table 14..1 Typical values of T1 for ope
concretes, where more particular information is
not available (BS 8007, Table A,2)
Section Walls Ground slabs:
thickness OPC content,
(mm)
Steel 18mm
(kglm
3
)
form work: OPC plywood
content, form work:
(kglm
3
) OPC content,
325 350 400 325 350 400 325 350 400
300
500
700
1000
11 13 15 23
20 22 27 32
28 32 39 38
38 42 49 42
25 31
35 43
42 49
47 56
15
25
17 21
28 34
Note 1 For suspended slabs cast on flat steel formwork, use
the data in column 2
Note 2 For suspended slabs cast on plywood formwork, use
the data in column 4.
The table assumes the following:
(a) that the formwork is left in position until the peak
temperature has passed;
(b) that the concrete placing temperature is 20°C;
(c) that the mean daily temperature is 15°C;
(d) that an allowance has not been made for solar heat gain
in slabs.
It is noted that the mean daily temperature used in the
preparation of this table is 15°C. Once again close co-
operation between designer and contractor is necessary
to ensure that the estimated TI figure, assumed at the
design stage, is valid at the construction stage.
The long term seasonal temperature falls are denoted
in Appendix A3 (BS 8(07) by the figure T2. This effect
occurs in the mature concrete and is catered for by:
0) where continuous construction is used T2 is added
to T I and a greater area of reinforcement is
required;
(ii) the use of movement joints to absorb these variations
in length.
Further topics in Appendix A give guidance and ~
on:
(i) minimum reinforcement;
(ii) the spacing of cracks;
(iii) crack control in thick sections;
and
(iv) external restraint factors.
Table 9.16 at the rear of this book gives the percentage
of steel necessary to comply with Appendix A for varying
values ofT! & 1'2, steel diameters and crack widths. For
example, for a temperature fall of 40 °C, 16 mm diameter
type 2 bar and a crack width of 0.2 mm, 0.64 % steel is
required within the zone thickness.
Appendix B Calculations of crack widths In
mature concrete
One of the features of BS 5337, the previous 'water-
retaining structures' code, was that the cracks resulting
from bending stresses should be calculated. Revised
equations are given in BS 8007 to comply with BS 8110
requirements. In addition, equations to estimate the crack
widths due to direct tension are now included.
Clause 2.2.1 of BS 8007 suggests that the design
process commences with the calculation of crack widths
based on the Appendix B equations and recommendations.
Tables 9.4 to 9.9 inclusive, are prepared to help the
designer to obtain very quickly a range of concrete
sections using differing thicknesses, cover and diameters
of steel. These will, for a particular service bending
moment. generate a crack width equal to or slightly less
than 0.2 mm.
In addition Program I.P, given on page 8 allows the
designer to input the bending moment, thickness of slab
and cover. The output gives a range of diameters of bars,
spacing and resulting crack widths.
Example: (Using Tables 9.5 to 9.7, and also using
Program I.P,)
Table B.1 Bending moment - 100 kNM; cover
to main steel - 45 mm
Table 'Type 2' Thickness Spacing of Crack width
bar diameter (mm) (mm) bars (mm) from
Program
IP
1
(mm)
9-05 T12 500 175 0.20
9-05 T12 400 100 0.19
9-06 T16 500 225 0.18
9-06 T16 400 150 0.20
9-07 T20 500 300 0.18
9-07 T20 400 200 0.20
7
Program 1 P 1 Design of a concrete slab to ensure that the crack width generated does not exc8ed
0.2 mm for a particular bending moment, depth of slab and any cover to steel
4 REM CALCULArES CRACK WIDrHS FOR RC SLABS - BOOKI IS rHE REFERENCE
5 LPRINl''':::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: f: II
6 LPRINr" fHE DESIGN OF R.C.SLABS FOR A CRACK WIDTH OF 0.2mm"
7 LPRINT"::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::"
9 LPRINl'" "
10 DIM r(12,28) ,S!?(12,28) ,0(12,28) ,M(12,28) ,11.5(12,28) ,HQR(12,28) ,CW(12,28) ,N(12
28) ,OIA(12,2i}
11 LPRINr
12 INPur "1'HE BEN'OINJ MOMENr IS" iB"l
13 INPUT "THE 'rHICKNESS OF THE SIAB IS "iHI
14 INPur "rHE COVER ro THE MAIN REINFORCEMENr I3"iCOV
15 LPRINr II THE DESIGN SERVICE BENDING MOM'll' IS "i 8Mi" kNm"
16 LPRINr" "
11 LPRINr "
18 "
19 LPRHlr "
20 LPRINl''' "
21 LPRIiH "
22 LPtUtH "
23 LPRIlH" ..
rHE rHICKNESS OF i'RE IS ";Ml;" mm"
rHE COVER ro rHE sreEL IS "SCOVi" mm"
STEEL
sq.mm mm
30 FOR 3=4 TO 12 STEP 1
40 FOR H=12 "1'') 28 Si'EP .t
42
45' IF OIA(S,H) = 24 rHE'J !JIA,(S,H) .. 25
46 IF DIA(S,H)= 28 i'HBN OIA(3,H)=32
50 3*25
60 'r ( s , H) = H 1
70 D(5,H)=
75 AS(S,H)=!.142* OIA(3,H)-2*.25*lOOO/SP(S,H)
76
80 GOSua 510
110 NEXT H
120 NE){r S
152 LPRINi'" "
153 LPiUNr" "
mm
:
BtYld",,'3 t
of s\ab
C.vty to \MaiM stte.\ •
156 LPRINr"::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::"
180 END
510 .A.J
520 AE '" 15 . .,.:0 D'""
530 I?=AS(S,H)/(lJOO*')(S,H) 0,,0 .;9 .",-t
510 X=SOR(AE*P* (AE*P+2» -AE*P . •
550 Z=1-X!3
560 FS=:'I(S,H)/(A:3(3,H)*Z*0(S,H)
570 55=F5/(200*1000)
Figure 81
5 !3 0 S E = 5 5 * (r ( 3 , H) - 0 ( '3 , H) * X) I ( D ( :3 , Ii) - 0 ( S , J.j) * x )
590 SI=1000*(r(S,H)-D(S,H)*X)-1!(600*1000*AS(S,H)*D(S,H)*(I-X»
600 Si1=SE-Sl
510
620
G50 IF 2i'l(S,H) <.15 fHEtJ 690
665 IF CW(S,H) ).20l rHEN 690
668
670 LPRIN£ U5IN':;" ££2£.££" iAS(3,H) iSP(S,H) ;CI'l(3,H)
674 LPRINf" "
690 RErURN
8
Output
:::::::::: :::::::::::::::;::::: : :::::: ::::: :::::::::
THE DESIGN OF R.C .SLABS FOR A RACK \HDrH OF o. 2mm
:::::: :::::::: : :::::::::::::::: :::::::::: ::::::::::::
THE DESIGN SERVICE BENDING MOt4ENT I3 100 kNm
THE THICKNESS OF rHE SLAB IS 400 mm
THE COVER TO rHE DESIGN STEEL IS 45 mm
AREA srEEL DIA
sq.mm mm
1131. 12 12.00
1608.70 16.00
1340.59 16.00
1795.43 20.00
1571.00 20.00
2181. 94 25.00
1963.75 25.00
Appendix C Jointing materials
This section of the code starts by defining the various joint-
ing materials. Since the most common source of
leakage/entry of water is at joint positions, it then reminds
the designer of the need to consider, whilst detailing,. the
problems of future maintenance:
The joints described in Section 5 of BS 8007 require the use
of combinations of jointing materials, which may be classified
as:
(a) joint fillers;
(b) waterstops;
(c) joint sealing compounds (including primers where
required).
These materials are inaccessible once the liquid-retaining
structure has been commissioned until the structure is taken
out of use. The design uses for these materials in joints should
take into account their performance characteristics, both
individually and in combination, and the restrictions and
difficulties of access to them should the joints not perform
as designed.
It is important that acceptable methods of compacting
the concrete around the joint are defined prior to the
concrete being placed.
As was mentioned at the beginning of this chapter,
water-retaining structures must be well built. BS 8007
provides many useful guidelines on how durable concrete
may be produced.
SPACING :;1
mm mm
100.00 0.19
125.00 0.16
150.00 0.20
175.00 0.17
'200.00 0.20
225.00 0.16
250.00 0.18
Appendix D Future standards
The advent of the European code for concrete EC 2 is
now well under way and the general opinion is that the
procedures in the proposed code and those in BS 8110
are similar and the results of using either code will produce
little change of any significance. The approach to carrying
out the design is different, however, and some of these
differences are given below, particularly where they affect
the design of water-retaining structures.
The code deals with principles which are mandatory and
with rules which contain a method of satisfying these
principles but permit alternative methods, ,which must,
however, still comply with the necessary requirements.
The cover to steel is generally less than that stated in
BS 8110 but tolerances for workmanship deficiencies must
be added to these values (5-10 mm is the current extra
cover recommended for in-situ concrete). The span/
effective depth ratios are of interest in that lightly stressed
cantilevers (containing <0.5 % reinforcement) have a
permitted slenderness ratio of 10 whereas highly stressed
members (containing > 1.5 % reinforcement) have a
permitted value of 7. The result is that the designer is
encouraged to increase the thickness of the concrete rather
than increase the steel areas when deflection is a problem.
The control of cracking resulting from early thermal
effects or serviceability tensile stresses is considered in
depth by EC 2 and minimum areas of steel will be greater
than that specified in BS 8007 in certain situations.
In general terms the individuals and organisations
involved with the development ofEC 2 are confident that
the effects of the changes will be minimal upon those
engineers who are familiar with BS 8110.
9
2
Design and constructional aspects
As with all structures. careful attention to detailing.
specification of materials. methods of construction. the
supporting element and methods of protectioo from attack
by adverse chemicals should result in a structure that will
have a satisfactory life. Proposed new safety legislation
referred to in Chapter I spells out clearly. however. that
the designer should not only ensure that the structure
should be built well and safely but also that it can be safely
maintained. repaired and demolished! The designer must
5
f
k.
-
not only be skilled in design and construction but also have
some understanding of the operational warie that the
structure was •• It for and also how it should be main-
tained an. repaiFeCil during its working life.
The designer is beililg encouraged to work more closely
with those who build the structure and also those who use
it. For example. if one is designing a reservoir. a typical
design brief prepared by the operations groop would result
in requirements similar to those shown in Fig. 2.1.
k J
J
..
-
Figure 2.1 (a) full height division wall; (b) minimum slope of floor and roof 1 in 200; (c) all
wall/floor, wall/wall, columnlfloor junctions to be haunched; (d) no protrusion of column bases above
floor level; (e) smooth internal concrete surfaces; (f) a gap of at least 100 mm between top water
level and underside of roof soffit or roof beams; (g) at least two access hatches to each
compartment - the sides to extend at least 300 mm above soil level - main access hatch should
have a landing 2.5 m below hatch and ideally further descent should be via a flight of steps; (h)
corrosion protected ladders but not smooth stainless steel; (j) special 1 m x 1 m sealed access
opening for mechanical plant and large equipment placed into compartment by crane sat on
hardstand; (k) suitable ventilation inclused to (i) accommodate changes in water level, (ii) prevent
local accumulation of stagnant air, (iii) prevent entry of polutants to reservoir; (/) underfloor drainage;
(m) roof to be covered with topsoil and grass which is to be cut with the aid of a small tractor and
mower; (n) embankment to have a maximum slope of 1 in 2.5.
10
The contractor's preference would probably include:
(a) c1oseconsultation before design details are finalised,
based on the understanding that the contractor has
specialist knowledge on COfllli:rUC-tion that the designer
may not have;
(b) discussions during the construction without the
restraint of preconceived solutions;
(c) a combined approach to problem solving;
(d) an performance specification based on design
parameters;
(e) simple detailing and sufficient width of section that
enables the concrete to be easily placed and
compacted between shutters;
(f) a flat formation level with no downstands for bases
or ribs;
(g) a team, rather than adversarial, approach to the
contract.
One example where close liaison with the contractor
is of value can be shown with the aid of Fig. 2.2. BS 8007,
Appendix AS, gives the restraint factors for three differing
methods of wall construction. Elevations a, c and d shown
in Fig. 2.2 give indications of the valiation ofthe amounts
of steel required for each type of construction.
If the designer places sufficient reinforcement for the
'sequential bay wall construction' (type c) but the con-
tractor, at estimating stage and often without full detailed
drawings, bases his quotation on carrying out the work
using a combination of types a and d, the result is that
some parts of the wall will be under-reinforced and
changes will have to be made either by the designer or
by the contractor, or, if not noticed, the wall may crack.
External restraint factors (BS 8007)
Effective external restraint may be taken as 50 % of the total
external restraint because of internal creep. Reference was
made in A3 (BS 8007) to movement joints that greatlweduce
the rigid external restraint assumed for continuous walls.
However, there are other situations where the assumed
external restraint factor R can be less than 0.5. Some typical
situations for thin sections subjected to external restraint are
illustrated in Fig. A3 (BS 8007) and allow for any beneficial
internal restraints.
Note that no thermal Craclctlig ill
2.4 m of a free edge since experience lw tl1is
is the length of wall or floor slab over
capacity of the concrete exceeds the increasing
contraction, the restraim factor varying betweoo mro 4t the
free edge to a maximum of 0.5 a12.4 m from
Note that cracking can occur near the eoosif lriIluc.ers
such as pipes O"vCur within this 2.4 m length of slab.
However, if not less than 2/3 Pcr!:, based on the
zones, is provided and there are no obvious stress raiseis,
it may be assumed that the free ends of the members will
move inwards without cracking up to where R "" 0.5. Where
this is only a temporary free edge and a subsequent bay is
cast against the edge, the larger restraint factor for the sub-
sequent bay is shown in parentheses in Fig. A3 (BS 80(7)
and should be assumed [4].
The restraint within a wall or floor panel depends not only
on the location within the slab but also on the proportions
of the slab. The table below shows how the restraint factors
vary between opposite edges, one free and one fixed (e.g.
for a wall slab the base section is the fixed edge and the top
section is the free edge).
Influence of slab properties on the control line restraint factor
LlH Design control line horizontal
ratio* restraint factors
>8
Base of panel
0.5t
0.5t
0.5t
0.5t
0.5t
Top of panel
o
o
0.05t
0.3t
O.5t
* H is the height or width to a free edge
L is the distance between full contraction
joints
t These values can be less if L<4.8 m
The effective external restraint in ground slabs cast on smooth
blinding concrete for the seasonal temperature variation T3
may be taken as being the design restraint factor R = 0.5
at the mid-length. for 30 m lengths and over, and it may be
assumed to vary uniformly from 0.5 to zero at the ends.
Where R = 0.25 AS = TI2 at 300 C/C
Where R = 0.50 AS = Tl2 at 150 C/C
11
Horizontal r"traint II<lor.
Obh;n Ir •• l.bI. A.3
I., lhis unlral ,one

. ...: ------------- ---_.
o.s: .OJ.
----WI
°1 °1
,. UKkl H •
• Wher. L. this factor .0.511- f I
6.0
]
(8)
(b)
Figure 2.2 External restraint factors (BS 8007, Appendix 5, Fig. A3). (a) wall on base; (b) horizontal
slab between rigid restraints; (c) sequential bay wall construction - with construction joints; (d)
alternate bay wall construction - with construction joints
12
llWhtrt LIS 2H, Ih ... rnlrainl faclors
.O.SI1./;' I
NOTE. V.lu" of RUled in 1M dHign Ihould be rtl.ttd to the
prKtical distribution of ,einfOfcement.
Figure 2.2 (continued)
(c)
(d)
:,-.-:-
-::..
--
._.
~ :
-
13
Initial considerations
Prior to the commencement of the design it is first
necessary to have information concerning the site con-
ditions and then to sketch out essential construction details,
i.e., if there is a high water table and flotation is a problem
then a decision has to be made whether the design includes
for thick slabs and walls, pressure relief valves, ground
anchors etc; aggressive soil conditions will affect the
specification of the concrete.
Soil investigation
There should be a comprehensive soil report on any major
contract, and with the increasing usc of structure-soil
interaction, CBR tests should be carried out in order that
the modulus of subgrade reaction may be assessed for
design purposes.
An example of the influence of the ground upon the
structure is shown in Fig. 2.3(a,b) for a circular settlement
tank.
<a)
(b)
Figure 2.3 Tank supported by (a) base sat upon
rock, (i) a complex conical shell design,
(ii) heavily reinforced sections; (b) floor sat upon
gravel, (i) simple design, (ii) lightly reinforced
sections
14
If flotation is a problem it is beUter, where possible,
to have any extra concrete above the external water table
since its full weight is used, whereas only approximately
60 % of the weight of the concrete below the water table
level is of practical use because of the displacement of
the water.
If the base slab extends beyond the wall then not only
is a firm support provided for the wall shutters but also
the fill above the extension assists in preventing uplift.
Thick base slabs, which are often constructed to prevent
flotation, require large quantities of reinforcement to resist
thermal cracking and to ccomply with the other recom-
mendations of BS 8007. One solution is to have a
nominally reinforced layer of 'thick blinding' cast beneath
the designed thinner base slab and to tie the two elements
together using a detail which permits the upper slab to
have an ability to move horizontally but not vertically;
it is beneficial that there should be a water seal between
the two slabs at the perimeter.
Concrete specification
There are many factors which influence the quality of the
concrete used in the construction process, however, the
main requirement has always been that the concrete should
be durable in the environment it is placed and when sub-
jected to the forces it must resist.
Many articles and papers have been published indicat-
ing how concrete can be improved or why failures have
occurred, but it has been shown that there are certain
fundamental factors which must be satisfied in order that
a dense impermeable concrete can be produced. The omis-
sion of one of these factors may reduce the useful life of
the concrete.
The main requirements in obtaining concrete which is
easily placed, has a low permeability and adequate
durability are:
(a) An adequate cement content.
(b) The provision of a consistent, cohesive, well-graded
mix which is easily placeable, does not segregate and
does not require a considerable amount of 'working'
to achieve a dense outer layer.
(c) The lowest water/cement ratio possible to suit the
level of compaction provided.
(d) Sufficient compaction to provide a dense mass of
thoroughly compacted concrete particularly around
the reinforcement.
(e) The use of a proven satisfactory method of curing
the concrete. (Flooding a slab with water for at least
seven days is of benefit, however, other considera-
tions such as the temperature gradient from the centre
of the slab to the upper surface may be the dominant
factor.)
(0 The design details, particularly with regard to joint
positions, to be well considered in advance of the
contract commencing.
(g) The cover to the steel to be at least the minimum
recommended to suit the condition of exposure.
(b) Trained and experienced supervision to be provided
by the contractor. Experienced engineers inspecting
the work on behalf of the client. A proven testing
system and an available on-site covermeter.
a particular mix complies with these 'TeQDirements.
Information from the materials supplier should include:
(i) The concrete to be designed to resist all forces and
known environmental effects and to be inspected and
maintained at appropriate intervals of time especially
during the early years of its life.
(a) The declared alkali content (DAC) of the cement.
(b) The percentage of sodium chloride present in the
coarse and fine aggregate. It is noted that only 76 %
of this quantity is active and need be used in
calculations .
In BS 8110 clause 6.2.5 precautions are recommended
where chemical attack of the concrete is expected. Limits
on chloride and alkali content of the concrete are stated
and the Graphs 2.1 and 2.2 assist in checking whether
An example of the use of these graphs is given on page 16.
CHLORIDES IN CONCRETE
Design Information required from Concrete Supplier:
i)
ii)
iii)
Cement - Declared Alkali Content (DAC)
Sodium Chloride Ion % Coarse Aggregate
Sodium Chloride Ion % Fine Aggregate
(0.75%)
(0.029%)
(0.045%)
Note The DAC value for ggbfs and pfa is taken as 0.1% however this
figure can increase with finely ground ggbfs - check with
supplier.
la) First Design - CONCRETE MIX / CUBIC METRE
Cement
Coarse Aggregate
Fine Aggregate
ALKALI CONTENT (BS8110 cl.6.2.5.2)
325 kg
1241 kg
687 kg
Coarse Agg. (graph 2.1) (0.029%) 180 * 1241/1000000
Fine Agg.(graph 2.1) (0.045%) 280 * 687/1000000
Cement (graph 2.2) DAC = 0.75%
.22 * .76 • 0.17 kg
.19 * .76 a 0.14 kg
.. 2.90 kg
CHLORIDE ION CONTENT (BS 8110 cl.6.2.5.2)
Coarse Agg.(graph 2.1)
Fine Agg.(graph 2.1)
Cement (Hormal 0.02%)
TOTAL 3.21 kg
> 3.00 kg/cubic metre
180 * 1241/1000000 • .22 kg
280 * 687/1000000 a .19 kg
0.2 * 325/100 • .07 kg
TOTAL 0.48 kg
% chlorides ion / cement content = 0.48 * 100/325 .. 0.15% < .4% OK
Ib) REDESIGNED MIX TO REDUCE ALKALI CONTENT
Try
ALKALI CONTENT
Cement
ggbfs - 1. 5 * (325 -260)
coarse aggregate
fine aggregate
Coarse Agg.(graph 2.1) ... refer above
Fine Agg. (graph 2.1) ••• refer above
260 kg
100 kg
1241 kg
687 kg
Cement (graph2.2) (DAC 0.75%) 260 kg
GGBFS (DAC 0.10%) 100 * 0.1/100
TOTAL
<3.0 kg/cubic metre
0.17 kg
0.14 kg
2.30 kg
0.10 kg
2.71 kg
OK
15
0..,.
.Mf
....
0.040
... N.CI
0.030
O.OlO
0.010
0
0 100 lOG JOG 400 500
lie of Cbloride loos pcr million k& or Aureea.e
_:
AI.-Ie w';'''' ,._ ·IJ. (N.)
ATOMIC WEIGHT CHWItINE • J5.5 (CL.
AJHIk "'Ie'" .0.11 ..... /donM $1.5 (NaCl i
.. CII","", 0/ NaCl 6/).7"
Graph 2.1 Chloride levels in aggregate
16
Cement
Cootent pcr
rrJor
Concrete
380
J60
340
310
.\00
280
260
240
210
0.4 0.5 U 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.1
Declared Alkali CooteDt 'll> of Cement
'"'": GrapJt Ilttorpol'aU'
AtUilUlMI 10k,I"/ CtllUltl COllk1l1
ii. AddilWlI4I 0.1'1\- 011 DA.C .....
Graph 2.2 Weight of alkali in cement
One of the prime aims of the design of water-retaining
structures is that cracks, resulting from any cause, are
kept within well defined tolerances.
Cracks can develop as a result of: an unsatisfactory
weather and heat environment as the concrete is cast;
internal stresses occurring during its early life due to
thermal or constructional effects; higher than anticipated
forces being generated during its working life and thermal
or physical movement occurring after the work is
completed.
These causes, and others, have been well investigated
and there are many papers which indicate why the
problems have occurred and how they may be prevented.
The British Cement Association (BCA), in particular,
have a special index on worldwide research into these
problems which enables the design engineer to have easy
access to relevant information.
It is important that the concrete is not affected seriously
by extremes of temperature as it is poured and that
measures are taken to maintain the concrete temperature
within reasonable bounds during its early life.
The designer and contractor must be ready to adjust the
specification of the concrete should adverse conditions
arise, i.e. certain cement replacement materials slow down
the setting time of the concrete in very cold weather and
in very hot weather the concrete can set too quickly
creating difficulties in compaction.
In general terms concrete should not be placed if the
temperature is less than 6 °C unless steps are taken to
insulate the concrete during its early life.
At the other extreme measures must be undertaken to
keep the concrete cool during hot weather, particularly
where the concrete surfaces are exposed to • solar gain'
effects from direct sunlight and from drying winds.
To limit the effects of other causes of cracking the
engineer has to develop positions and types of joints at
the design stage, as well as constructional details and
methods.
The final section of this chapter is connected with joint
and other details.
Section 5 of BS 8007 considers in some depth the
design, detailing and workmanship of joints. The need
for movement joints is explained and particular examples
are shown in Fig. 5.1 in the code.
Figure 2.4(a-k) is based in principle on the rode
requirements and most have been used in pmctice. Various
types of water bars are shown, Fig. 2.4(0) shows the
centre bulb water bar, Fig. 2.4(b) shows a rearguard type
waterstop which must be supported. Fig. 2.4(c) shows
a typical PVC waterstop.
If the waterbar's anticipated life is less than the life of
the concrete then it would seem prudent to use Ii surface
mounted type waterbar as shown in Fig. 2.4(e). The fill
material above the joint must be firm but contain a flexible
element otherwise a hairline crack could develop which
could contain material which might contaminate the stored
water. Figure 2.4(j) indicates a type of simple seal which
expands when in contact with water and seals the gap in
which it is placed and prevents further movement of water.
Some indication of the type and degree of movement
each joint can accommodate is also indicated on the
diagrams.
The previous water-retaining structures code, BS 5337,
introduced the concept of the 'partial contraction joint'
(Fig. 2.4(g.h). This idea did not meet with universal
approval, however, it was kept in BS 8007 with the
recommendation that only half the steel be continuous
across the joint. The benefits are that a sealed joint is
placed which, though weakened, can still transmit moment
and force.
Figure 2.4(k) is a partial contraction joint positioned
in a reservoir at the interface between the external
retaining wall and the base slab. Plastic coated prestressing
cable was used, as shown, with sufficient de-bonded
length either side of the joint to permit a limited amount
of contraction to occur. The cables were able to tie the
slabs together and were strong enough to prevent sliding
occurring. The downstand rib, which was usually placed
beneath the wall, was no longer required and, as a result,
the contractor had a flat site to work on and economies
were achieved.
The compressible material wrapped round the cable at
the joint also permits some vertical displacement potential.
If a greater degree of rotation or articulation is required
then joint Fig. 2.4(j) is capable of this type of movement.
Provided the waterbar is capable of accommodating con-
siderable extensions, then if joint 2.4(a), the expansion
joint, is positioned with a wide gap, this also will accept
rotational movement. See also Figs 2.5 and 2.6.
17
Oumb-bc.1I .-
water itop
(8)
(c)
(e)

+--+

fill .....

bpott6l0tt JoIn
(Sh,\ dltcol1t,"uous)
Cott+racho.., Jo""t
(Stu' dlSCOHh,uous)
-(
Complet( COI1+rachol1 JOII1 t
( Shtl OI$COI1"KUOU$)
Figure 2.4 Examples of movement joints
18
(b)
ReargUClrd 'crack. J\lldoc:.eI' '
Wate.r
(d)
(f)
eo"'piete Com-octlOO l'O\t1t
(9)

C'. L
I l. (.'6·0 "D
Partial CO)1tYochot'l jOl)1t
(I)
induced
50fo, CO\\tIMUOIJS s\«.l
Partial CcmtrQchot\ Jontt
(h)
reSl11 Do..d&d
cork flU&y
£XPOI1SIOI1 Jm.,+
0)
s\(.tvtd 1\ \1\11\ .; ,ud
Portlo\ Con\YQcilOt\ 3'o",t
(k)
0.,. 61ecvcci ItU. ba ...
-
19
(a) around pipe insert,
(b) at base of wall
Figure 2.5 Water stop details for a waterproofed basement structure
Figure 2.6 Water stop in roof and wall jOint reservoir
20
hPO"SIOI1 JOII1+
(EltYQtcd .lab - t.uppc»'hI19 WQII Sltua+lOt1)
(c)
pia she ,lttv.!
pack'!l9
5hdlH9 Roor JoInt
(b)
$hd.H9 JO.llt
pol\jst!/Ymt
I ~ - t t - + - - - Cot"l"O"Olo1
pyoof&d
dow & \
Figure 2.7 Joint details for (a) pinned base joint-tied, (b) sliding roof jOint, (c) expansion joint -
slab/supporting wall, (d) sliding roof joint
Typical wall details are given in Fig. 2.7(a-d). Many
reservoirs have been damaged by the use of rigid roof
slab connections which, when a slab expands or contracts
as a result of thermal movement, tends to generate cracks
in the walls, particularly at the corners; the roof also
cracks.
If the roof is only sat upon a sliding joint at the top of
a wall then it has been known for the roof to 'walk off
damaging any external rearguard type waterbar in the
process. Sliding roof type joint details shown in Fig.
2.7(b,d) have been used which do not restrict reasonable
movement of either walls or roof.
There are many benefits which result from making the
details as simple as possible for the designer, detailer and
contractor. Examples are shown in Figs 2.8 and 2.9
where. although the excavation is greater, the end product
is simpler and in many cases results in a quicker and more
economical construction.
Typical details of a swimming pool construction are
given in Fig. 2.IO(a-b).
21
Simplified Construction Details
(a)
Figure 2.8 External channel above base slab
Dlfflcolt to
ot1d detoil
[x+erna\ Cka""e.\
above SQ$f. Slab
(b)
(a)
(b)
Figure 2.9 (a) floor slabs containing ducts, (b) preferred detail
22
(8)
Figure 2.10 Swimming pool details (a) typical section. (b) step details
Differential settlement
It is often necessary to construct buildings in close
proximity to d ~ p tanks and. because the new building
is founded upon disturbed ground. there is a possibility
of cracks occurring as a result of settlement of the material
beneath the foundation of the building. Figure 2.I1(a)
indicates methods of limiting the effects of this
occurrence.
Figures 2.12 and 2.13 give details of a screw pumping
station where it is essential that both the top and bottom
supports of the screw are supported by the same
foundation, since any differential movements between
these supports will cause the screw to bind upon the
23
~ h a n n e l surface in which it sits.
Also, in this diagram. the problem of a deep open tank
in waterlogged ground can be observed. This was finally
solved by having the walls I m thick and the base slab
having a maximum thickness of 2.5 m. The two halves
of the base slab are founded upon di fferent strata and care
must be taken to ensure that there is minimal rotation of
the whole structure particularly as a result of movement
of the water table.
Subsidence
Problems of subsidence resulting from mining or other
causes are restricted to certain areas and it is preferable
not to build sensitive structures in such areas.
Figure 2.14 shows details of the two separate founda-
tions built beneath a water tower which would be affected
by coal mining activities. To cushion the effect of the
mining wave, the lower foundation was sat upon 2 m of
stone reinforced with galvanised bars. The adjoining
reservoir consisted of a series of 9 m
2
raft slabs tied
24
together with 'Tensar' geogrid material which would
retain a certain force, but yield if excessive forces
occurred. The backfill consisted of rubber tyres to limit
any pressure developing against the walls.
The first mining wave has passed beneath the structures
and a settlement of approximately I m has occurred. The
tower leans an insignificant 50 mm and may be jacked
up after the next and final wave occurs. The centrally
placed waterbars in the reservoir floor failed in two places
and the repairs were carried out using a surface mounted
alternative. See Figs 2.15 and 2.16.
For additional information on this type of problem Ref.
2-2 is of benefit.
References
2-1 ijow to make today's concrete more durable.
Seminar Institution of Civil Engineers, 1985
2-2 Lackington D W, Robinson B 1973 Articulated
service reservoirs in mining subsidence areas.
Institute of Water Engineers Journal, Vol. 27,
No.4, June
Dlstoybt.d /
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
/
Figure 2.11 Methods of reducing the possibility of differential settlement
Figure 2.12 Screw pump station
... "d
b4am
r.c. pl ....
"'00" l"ra
... u.d
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s\, .. Hul"'S
..
Se, .. +.d ufo",
Utile{
9
vou
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25
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26
q
d
Re.moveabl& leek
(.0001<."
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filler • 25 mm
2. \Q';It.r& 14K1I"Y
top \"::f4!' 14,,,qy •
I rfflf.Y ICl<jt.' T&"ICII' -
(a)
/'

(b)
(e)
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._,... of _,,, S"-t
0" 6\U(
... dl.JC,(.
::;:,:J1=::r::;::r! "tw..,
_.....l----'i:,... •••
I ,
'voctc:rl
I ! !
Figure 2.14 Water tower jacking point foundation detail (a) section, (b) plan view, (c) reservoir floor
slab joint detail
27
Figure 2.15 Water tower subjected to 1 m subsiC1ence
Figure 2.1 i Upper foundation to water tower showing posi1ions of jacking points
28
Prior to the design of the actual concrete sections of a
retaining wall it is necessary to consider the shape of the
wall and carry out stability calculations. Using Program
3PJ, page 52, this operation can be carried out simply
(see page 30 for computer output using this program for
Example 3.1). Obviously the safe bearing pressure of the
soil must not be exceeded and there should be adequate
resistance against sliding and overturning. Where the wall
is built above an embankment it is also necessary to ensure
that a 'slip circle' failure does not occur.
Walls built to the limit state theories tend to be more
slender in thickness than those built to the elastic theories
of earlier codes of practice, and hence the deflection of
the walls resulting from earth or water pressure, together
with base rotations, should be estimated. Whilst a degree
of fixity of the wall at the top by the roof construction
will cause a reduction in section sizes and reinforcement
quantities, there is a possibility of cracks occurring as a
result of restriction to movement particularly where two
walls meet. It is also essential to inform the contractor
at the time of tendering that the walls will be unstable until
the roof is placed.
It is also worth noting that where two long walls meet
at a comer a major bending moment (BM) occurs
(approximately 2/3 of the maximum BM at the base of
the wall) and there will also be direct tension in the walls
(see Chapter 4).
Two examples in Fig. 3.1 illustrate the basic procedure
for designing cantilever walls and the use of the tables
in Chapter 9.
Details of wall used In Example 3.1
Input
filE -fIlICUESS OF filE RE:CTMIGULI>.R WI>.LL IS .3"
THE: IlEI;)Hf OF THE: ill>.LL IS 3.6 II
rHE LE:N;)T!! OF I3I>.SE I N FRONT OF filE WIILL IS 2 III
rHE LENGHr OF 8ME 'fO THE REIIR OF TilE WIILL IS .6 III
THE DE:P ~ I l ·OF rHE WIII'ER IS 3 m
THE DEPTH OF THE EIIRTIl IS 3. 2 III
THE: SUPERIMPOSED LOIID ON TilE EIIRTH IS S kN/sq. 'lI
THE Ml:;LE -Of REPOSE OF 'filE EIIRfH IS 35 degrees
rHE OVEl\IILL LENGfH OF rHE 3ASE IS 2. ~ III
29
Output program 3P2
...... ft ..... """""" kif"" t .. "" k,. •• "" II" *"""" •• ,," k ••• *." " ••••••••
PRESSURES DUE 1'::> SELF WEIGtiT WALL ONLt
rHg ,orAL WEIGH'f IS 46.80001 kN
fHE ';:CCENfRICI'U OF {'HE LOAD A80U'1' rHE CENrRE IS .3816922 ID
JL
'rliE HORI ZONTAL FORCE IS 0 kN
... " .......... ".
rtiE 1'.1' FRQNf IS 3.193345 kN/3l.'1I
fHE S'fRESS 1'.'1' RElI.R [S 29.08252 kN/sq.m
••••• IIl •• kit". If ••• • " •••••• "" ••••••••• " ••••••••••••••••• ".11'.
PRESSURES DUE 1'0 SELF >'IEIGHT WALL AND ElI.RTH
.. " ...................... .
l' HE '1'0'1'1'.1.. Vt:RTICAL WEIGH'C IS 84.36 kN
'1'HE ECCENTRICI'r1lroF rHE LOAD 1I.8::>Uf THE CEN'1'RE IS .2169322 m
THe FORCE IS 29.49277 kN
." .............. .
riiE SfRESS 1'.1' FR;),n IS 16.03349
'1' HE SfRess 1'.'1' REAR IS 42.14582 kN/sq.m
PRESSURES DUE '1'0 SELF >'IEIGHT WALL AND .HIL'ER
l' HE '1'01'1'.1.. v'ER'fICAL WEIGH'r IS LOS. 56
Jt
THE eCCENrRICI'f'i OF1'HE 0,80U'f1'HE Ce:WfRE IS .464 L822 m
rHE HORI ZONTAL FORCt: IS 44.145 ktl
••••• " ••••• t ••••
raE SfRESS 1'.'1' FROtH IS 1.443551 kN/s1.,n
l' He: S'fRES5 1'.1' RElI.R IS 71.425H kN/sq.m
PRESSURES DUe: TO WALL FULL'i 1'.'1' FRONf AND REAR
fH!:: TOTAL v'E:RTICAL .. €I::;.l'l' IS 143.22 k,'/
Jt
l' HE "CCE:NfRICI'f'l ::>F rHE LJlI.O A6::>UT l' HE CEN'rRE IS .3435407 m
1'HE: HJRIZO"l1'AL FORCE: IS 14.65223 kN
..................
fHE SCRESS 1'.1' FRJtH IS 14. 28319
ftiE SfRESS Af RF.: .. R IS 84.48862 k;</sq.m
:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::
30
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Tic::- 12o ..... "e. = (s:'b.4' .... S'"(,;,·1lc:N.
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plo'tu: top .9 wall
&0($ """ 'b' plQced +0
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Ci'.U:U'\.
l T .. bOi \IIf""P"" +\\ick, *""p& ....
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I ""tAu,.; &1 ;"eU"",
Figure 3.1 RC details for an open reservoir
41
Deflection of cantilever walls
If it is required to estimate the deflection of a wall due to:
(i) water pressure;
and
(ii) rotation of the earth beneath the base,
then the following method may be used, (see Fig. 3.2).
Deflection of the wall due to external pressure can be
estimated by following the recommendations given in
BS 8110: Part 2: Sections 3.6 and 3.7.
Two methods are given, 'a' and 'b', to calculate the
estimated curvature at the base of the wall. Method 'a'
assumes that the concrete section is cracked whereas
method 'b' applies to an uncracked section.
Equation 7 in the BS is derived using method 'a';
however, it assumes that there is some assistance from
the concrete in the cracked tensile zone which reduces
the curvature. The diagrams below indicate that a
maximum concrete tensile stress of I N/mm at the centre
line of steel level is peonitted in the short teon. This value
reduces, however, to 0.55 N/mm in the long term.
The modulus of elasticity (E) of the concrete is given
in Table 7.2 of the BS, this is the short term value which
again reduces in the long teon. In this example the E value
long teon is taken to be 50 % of the instantaneous E value.
By elastic theory, using the diagrams in Fig. 3.3, the
moment (M) about the centre of gravity of the
compression zone is:
M = As*fs*(d - x/3) + (fctl2)*(h - x)*(2/3)*h*b
where
(a)
8S above as above
h ..
depth
p. [lllllllllD pt
W y dlCS"C""
Dtfkchot\ due to
p"us"Ye
Figure 3.2
Stress
tt
!
,
I
Od'echol1 doe.
rota h.,""
Stress In concrete
1 N/mm
1
in shor t term
0.55 Nfinm
2
In long term
de.pth +0 V1tutval
mQ)(. COl'tlfY. col1C.
st. fs
I--e-+---+--S tress In (onere te
-"':"-+---1
not more than 1 N/mm
1
(b)
Figure 3.3 (a) section cracked, (b) section not cracked
42
,fct JIIO H N/mm or 0.55 N/mm)*(h-x)/(d-x)
hence
fs = [M - fct*(h - x)*b*hl3]/[As*(d - xl3)]
and since the tensile and compressive forces are equal
then:
b*x*fcl2 = fs*As + (h-x)*b*fct/2
hence
fc = 2*[fs*As + (h-x)*b*fct/2]/(b*x)
and, from the strain diagram:
fc/(Ec*x) = fs/[Es*(d - x)]
hence
fc = [fs*Ec*x)/(Es*(d - x)]
To solve the equations a 'trial and error' approach may
be used and a value of 'x' is firstly assumed and then
refined until the values of 'fc' calculated using the
equations above are, within reasonable bounds,
approximately equal.
Program 3P
2
is given on page 52 which solves the
three equations for both short and long term loading. The
curvature (l/rb) is also calculated.
Equation 8 in the BS is derived using method 'b' and
the value of the estimated curvature, assuming an
uncracked section, is:
l/rb = M/(Ec*I)
Whichever method gives the greatest value of curvature
then the result of that method is to be used.
The deflection caused by water pressure is finally
estimated using equation II and Table 3.1 of the BS. The
equation is:
al = k ... e ... e... l/rb
where 'k' is a constant dependent upon the shape of the
BM diagram. Examples are given in Table 3.1 of
BS 8110: Part 2 (refer also to Table 9.19).
'r is the effective span
, I Irb' is the curvature at the base of the cantilever
calculated previously.
When the wall thickness varies as shown in Fig. 3.4
then the estimated deflection is obtained again using the
factor 'k' obtained from Table 9.19.
Essentially 'k' is calculated by dividing the numerical
coefficient for the deflection at the point being considered
by the maximum bending moment value.
-t+ lit
.-Hhb
+-t---" ..
L
P ' ~ P &
Figure 3.4
The deflection caused by base rotation may be estimated
as follows:
TAN cp = (PI-P2)/(ks ... B)
a2 = (PI-P2)/(ks ... B) ... HI
where PI and P2 are the bearing pressures at the toe and
heel of the wall respectively assuming trapezoidal
distribution of pressure. 'ks' is the modulus of subgrade
reaction (typical values from various sources are listed
in the following table).
Type of soil
Stiff clay
Medium sand (submerged)
Very stiff clay
Well graded clayey sand
Well graded gravel
23
25
45
54
82
The total deflection is therefore a = al + a2
43
Program 3P
1
Check on stability of L-shaped retaining walls subjected to earth and water pressures
44
9 X=O
10 INPUT "THICKNESS OF WALL";A
20 INPUT"HEIGHT OF WALL";B
30 INPUT "TOE LENGTH";F
40 INPUT"HEEL LENGrH"; R
41 INPUT "SUPER LOAD";SL
50 INPUT "DEPrH OF WATER";D
51 INPUT"ANGLE OF REPOSE";TH
57 LPRINT"***************************"
59 LPRINr" "
60 INPur "DEPTH OF EARTH" ;BF
61 LPRINT" rHE THICKNESS OF rHE RECTANGULAR WALL IS "rAJ"H"
62 LPRINI'" "
63 LPRINT" THE HEIGHT OF rHE WALL IS ";B;"M"
64 LPRINi''' II
65 LPRINT"
66 LPRINr" "
rHE LENGrH OF BASE IN FRONr OF rHE WALL IS
67 LPRINr" rHE LENGHT OF 3ASE TO THE REAR OF rHE WALL IS";R;"m"
66 LPRINf" "
69 LPRINT" rHE DEPrH OF i'HE WATER IS ";D;"m"
70 LPRINr" "
71 LPRINT" THE OF rHE IS ";BF;"m"
72 LPRINl''' "
73 LPRINT" rHE SUPERIMPOSED LOAD ON THE EARrH IS ";SL;"kN/sq.m"
74 LPIUNf" "
75 LPRINT" rHE ANGLE OF REPOSE OF rHE IS ";TH;" degrees"
76 LPRINr" "
77 L=A+F+R
79 LPRINT" rHE OVERALL LENGrH OF rHE IS ";L;"m"
SO Cl=A*B*24
Sl LPRINT" n
S3
90 C2=A*L*24
100 WC=Cl+C2
110
III LPRINr " fI
112 LPRINr
113 LPRILH
114 LPRINT
120 MC2-=C2*L/2
130 MC=MCl+MC2
140 EC=MC/WC:
141 E=EC-L/2
142 W=WC
143 LPRINr
fl
*********************************************************"
144 LPRINr " "
145 LPRINT" PRESSURES DUE ro SELF WEIGHT ONLY
14 6 LP RI N r " "
147 LPRINr"**************************"
150 GOSU13 600
ISS IF X=2 GOrO 250
159 IF X=3 Goro 330
160 DE = SF +SL/lS
170 = DE*lS*R
172
175 CF=l-SIN(REP)
176 CB=l+SIN(REP)
ISO PE=18*CF/CS*DE*DE/2
lSI P=PE:
190 ME=-PE*(DE/3+A) +WEA*(L-R/21
200 W=WC+l1EA
210 M=MC+>lE
220 E=tVW-L/2
225 LPRINf " "
226 LP RI N l' " "
227 LPRINr " "
SL

figure 3.7

e
F
..
SL
o
!!If
kM/:t

I"«.pflL ....
228 LPRINT"*********************************************************"
229 LPRINT " a
230 LPRINr" PRESSURE:S DUE TO SE:LF WALL EARrH"
231, LPRtN'l""" •
232 LPRINT"*********************** •• *·
240 ,"OSUS 600
250 WW-9.810001*D*F
260 PW-9.S10001*D*D/2
261 papW
270 MW-PW*{D/3+A)+WW*F/2
280 w-wc+ww
290 M-;.tC+11W
300 E=M/W-L/2
306 LPRINT" II
307 LPRINT" "
308 LPRINT"*********************************************************.
309 LPRINr" "
310 LPRINr" PRgSSURES DUE fa SELF WEISHT WALL AND WArER"
311 LPRINl'" ..
312 LPRINT"***************************"
320 GOSUB 600
325 LPRIN'1'" "
326 LPRINl'" "
327 LPRIW1'" "
328 LPRINT"*********************************************************"'
329 LPRINr" "
330 LPRINT" PRESSURES OUE TO WALL FULLY L0ADEO Ar FRONT AND REAR"
331 LPRINr" "
332 LPRIN£"***************************"
340
345
350 M=MC+ME+Mw
360 E=i1/W-L/2
370 sosua 600
380 LPRHH " "
390 LPRINr " "
39 1 LP RI N'£" : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : :
392 LPRINr " "
400 LPRINT " "
401 LPRINl' " "
402 LPRINT'" "
403 " ..
LPRIN'1' " "
405 " "
406 LPRINT
407 LPRINr " "
408 LPRItH
409 LPRINr .. "
410 END
600 Pl=W/L*(1+6*S/L)
610 P2=W/L*(1-6*E/L)
611 IF E >=0 THEN PF=P2 ELSE PF=Pl
612 IF E < 0 tHEN PR=P2 ELSE PR=Pl
651 LPRINf" rHE rOTAL WEIGHT IS ",w," kN"
652 LPRINr" "
653 X=X+l
654 LPRINr" rHE ECCENtRICITY OF THE ABOUT rHE CENTRE IS "IE/"m"
655 LPRINr" "
656 LPRIN'T" rHE HORIZONTAL FORCE IS "/p /" kN"
658 LPRINT"****************"
LPRIN'T
660 LPRINT "rHE SrRgSS A'1' FRONr IS",PF;"kN/s::}.·n"
661 LPRINr
662 LPRINT
670 LPRIN'1' "1'HE s'rRESS 1\'1' REAR IS" ;PR;"kN/sq.rn"
571 LPRINl'
672 LPRIN1'''****************''
6S0 RETURN
45
BS f:>t\o
I'k: t.

1..1..
46
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""'I .j. f i "'-1. I "'- \ _ rtAe f \e.-c.- dve
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e
-
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(..-e..+t:A/ \ AA.r Ie.
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I

SQil: <:'1-,(1-
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I e;, I:
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.... \. ............
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(II) ( 1 )
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/ • / \ \. b .... '5 : l
.f-o.v v"",
UL.t·'Z,. K. to"K Y2.
,:;3 X
::: <: c.o.o.o-oOt-t'll
,0 II .... pvov; 1iA.-eA' V"'l
OV\e.,..ro...J >
Figure 3.5 Reinforcement for cantilevers retaining wall base
Figure 3.6 Cantilever wall
47
48
of a ""'.
++-\.keo
r.;: -=-

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t: I
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,., 46
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i) tJre....-v p. 4-if-
I/
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51
Program 3P
2
Calculation of the curvature of rc cantilever walls to assist in estimation of deflection
52
10 INPur "BREADTH 9 =";B
20 INPUT "THICKNESS H =";H
30 INPUT "EFFECTIVE DEPrH =";0
40 INPUT "AREA OF srEEL =";AS
50 EC=26666
60 ES=200000!
70 1'=1
80 FP=1
90 INPur "BENDING MOMENT = remember *1 000 OOO";M
100 INPUT"INITIAL X VALUE =";X1
110 INPur "FINAL X VALUE =";X2
120 IF T>l rHEN EC=EC/2
130 INPur "SrEP X =";5
140 FOR X = Xl ro X2 STEP S
150 IF 1'>1 FP=.55
160 IF r>2 THEN 500
170 FC=FP*(H-X)/(D-X)
180 FS=(M-B*H*FC*(H-X)/3)/(AS*(D-X/3))
190 F1=X/(O-X)*(EC*FS/E5)
200 F2=(FS*AS+3*(H-X)*FC/2)/(B*X/2)
210 R=F1/F2
220 IF R>1 THEN 30SUB 580
240 PRINr "X=";X," Fe1/FC2=";R
491 IF R>l rHEN X = X2
492 NEX"r X
493 'r=T+l
495 LPRINr" "
497 LPRINr" "
498 IF T<3 GOfO 90
500 {mo
b",c,Q,"k
tluekM .. ,.,
..
I'IOMolC.1\ t ti M"
C\t. ,,,,h.\ x AlII4
tlot. ". "' ...
.. te.p vClI", bc.hvu ..
lIHh,,1 L h",,,1 X I)
580 LPRINT"**********kk**k****************k*************** ******k***"
590 IF 1'=1 rHEN LPRINr"rHE RESULTS BELO;J ARE FOR SHORr rERM LOADING"
591 IF 1'=2 LPRItH" rHE RESULTS BELOW ARE F,JR LON:; TERM LOADIN:;"
600 LPRINT"********k**********************k*************************"
610 LPRHlr" "
611 BM=M/1000000!
612 LPRINr" rHE 3READrH OF rHE BEAM OR SLAB IS
613 LPRIN1'" fHE OVERALL DEPTH OF BEAM OR SL'B IS
614 LPRINT" rHE EFFECTIVE DEPrH JF rHE BEAM OR SLAD
615 LPRINT" [HE ARSA OF Sf EEL IS
616 LPRINr" rHE BENDIN3 MOMENr VALUE IS
617 rHE DEP'rHfO NEu'rRAL AXIS IS
618 LPRINr" "
613 LPRINf"
620 LPRINT"
621 LPRINr" "
622 LPRINr" "
623 LPRINr"
624 SL=Fl/ (X*EC)
625 LPRINr"
627 LPRIN'f "
628 LPIUN'[" "
629 LPRINr" "
rHE SfRESS IN rHE CONCREfE IS
rHE IN rHE STEEL IS
rHE RAfIO Fel/Fe2 IS
rHE E {ALUE OF rHE :ONCRETE IS
rHE l/rb IS
It ;3; "mm"
lI;Hi"mm"
IS"iD;"mmn
"; AS; "mm"
";BM;"kNm"
niX;" mm
t1
" ;P1;"N/sq.'llm"
"; FS; "N/sq.mm"
" ;R
" ;EC;"N/S1· mm"
";SL
630 LPRINf"****k****kk*k**********k*********************************"
640 RETURN
THE BREADTH OF THE BEAM OR SLAB IS
THE OVERALL DEPTH OF BEAM OR SLAB IS
THE EFFECTIVE DEPTH OF THE BEAM OR SLAB
THE AREA OF STEEL IS
THE BENDING MOMENT VALUE IS
THE DEPTH TO NEUTRAL AXIS IS
THE STRESS IN THE CONCRETE IS
THE STRESS IN THE STEEL IS
THE RATIO FC1/FC2 IS
THE E VALUE OF THE CONCRETE IS
THE CURVATURE l/rh IS
1000 mm
300 mm
IS 232 mm
1150 mID
44.2 kNm
91 mm
4.905331 N/sq.mm
57.00568 N/sq.mm
1.012424
26666 N/sq.mm
2.0214 78E-06
**** ••••• ** •••• * •• * ••• * •• * •• *.* ••• *.********* ••• *********
***************.*****.***************.******.**** ••• **.*
THE RESULTS BELOW ARE FOR LONG TERM LOADING
******************.******************.**.**.**********.*
THE BREADTH OF THE BEAM OR SLAB IS
THE OVERALL DEPTH OF BEAM OR SLAB IS
THE EFFECTIVE DEPTH OF THE BEAM OR SLAB
THE AREA OF STEEL IS
THE BENDING MOMENT VALUE IS
THE DEPTH TO NEUTRAL AXIS IS
THE Sl'RESS IN rHE CONCRE'rE IS
THE S'fRESS IN THE STEEL IS
THE RATIO FC1/FC2 IS
'rHE E VALUE OF THE CONCRETE IS
THE CURVATURE l/rb IS
1000 mm
300 mm
IS 232 mm
1150 mm
44.2 kNm
90 mm
4.93261 N/sq.mm
116.7413 N/sq.mm
1.010516
13333 N/sq.mm
4.110611E-06
****** •• ***.******.*.**.*.*.********************.** •••••
53
4
Design of rectangular tanks
The analysis of the elements of the tanks is made
considerably easier with the aid of the PCA tables for the
walls given in Chapter 9 and the BS 8110 tables for the
floor slabs. The effects of tying the floors and walls
together and the method of supporting the tank can, how-
ever, have a significant effect upon the resulting moments
and forces within the structure.
The intensity and distribution of the applied loads, due
to the water and self weight, can be easily calculated. The
distribution of the reaction forces provided by the support-
ing elements is, however, not so readily ascertainable.
In BS 8007 clause 2.4 is written:
The liquid pressure on plane walls may be resisted by a
combination of horizontal and vertical bending moments. An
assessment should be made of the proportions of the pressure
to be resisted by bending moments in the vertical and
horizontal planes. Allowance should also be made for the
effects of direct tension in walls induced by flexural action
in adjacent walls. Reinforcement should be provided to resist
horizontal bending moments in all corners where walls are
rigidly joined.
Various authors and researchers have considered this
problem and to summarise the comments of one author
(4-1):
. Application of a rigorous method to the design of continuous
slabs often leads to illusory accuracy when one takes into
account the more or less indeterminable factors affecting the
magnitude of the forces within the slabs.'
54
Such factors include for examples:
(a) the flexibiltty of the floor slab;
(b) the nature of the supporting subsoil;
(c) the restraining effect of the walls upon the slab.
Following extensive research work one writer
recommended that because of the difference between the
theoretical and actual results of his experiments a safe
design should be adopted by analysing the structure for
a range of conditions.
On the basis of the research work of those engaged in
this field it would seem prudent to consider a range of
possible conditions the results of which, whilst marginally
increasing the amount of reinforcement, will ensure that
the tank will be structurally satisfactory.
The structural analysis of the wall panels is complex;
however, certain authors (4-1 to 4-3) and associations
(4-4) have, as mentioned earlier, prepared tables to assist
the designer to determine the various forces generated by
the water pressure within the container with little dif-
ficulty. Extracts are used and are printed in Chapter 9
by kind permission of the PCA.
The design of a base slab supported by the earth has
been carried out by modern 'structural/soil interaction'
techniques developed as shown in Refs 4-5 and 4-6. Also
more simple methods have been used and the results
compared.
A flow chart of the design process follows in Fig. 4.1.

1
I,
• 1

P.u/c ku.bdJ
Mu/(.s7.f:t
l
.

",
1-
CAr
I) Volume
xl)
j)
,) FIobtiM
tID vi> Yajcr repan
Xi)
det* vi) Safety
MCroood
Ix) Awol( ...
xiv) eo.
ComitioM
x> Joint
xv) eoneretl
xl) Cement content

<tl Strllebi-. Analysis . IMtqs etc.
effective Lengths, PeA tables for MsPte,v,
v .. 'Iu/(b.d)
Coblalt 1
j
'----.--.... 1
&58007
App,,,dlJA
f>hztt
ACt', W
Vc
e.HnQr'lCc.mer1
Ql1d IJn&Of at otkt.r
B.S. euo. a..
&or'\d
laps
figure 4.1 Flow chart for the design of rectangular concrete tanks (a) initial consideration, (b)
;tructural analysis
5S
56
I. A 1. 'l <:: vY\ + I<:. i.$ 1-.0:0> be. c.o"", s: f""'-.Jc:. -t" e,..ml tA.,.,r
- ...... ....
A) ...... to.,..,. PiV\....,-e..ol c..o""""'-e.c,-t-;oV\.
9\;0 \:"0 I. .. ,",,"0 f f l We>
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u&U'"
....-J
F CN'..u
.-iC:)
C"')
If: 10.010.4
c:)
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-:: u· e,w +0.11$":: .....
1:>{ .. '2
c../ ()... <= ';) /<> • I
V1.(-e)
f>1 X. 10 /10 l .:
1.--;-
Y3(:e)
0. l>1
x. <;. .... )<.
1. /101."
VIP (") •
1< S-\.-'" ?2:>/\ol-
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b-1 x. <;"" X. 1.1.0/10 ....
: loy,
Y'1 (-e)

;<.. S--\.- X. bile\.-

'110 ('i.)
::
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roYc.e. '._ VM,ve )
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! fo v c:.oovoL1.-'1.Ake.
I 0"''''''°'''..[.
57
58
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H\
rt. ::: (A., x tP s. )
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Ww-.J. I +ov
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lip 1,4.) ......
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V '; law I;GN. J<...I.'--f '"
(s,.,.,) (u·".0
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(fo---" "" f..l-" rOle,,)
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"'-4, J i v' u;J.. ....-t. + Fe -= &> I x.k> -t lol
<Os. 'Zo<>,c'l,lD{,. '!e-o
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(As 11) (A .. Fie)
IV\.j T'lo / lls '--Ie-: n
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% (.\..1"" A <; -" r; "'1
tvoV'-'" I AA?le /to
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w\Q \:'" I< II 4-e>\...f ....
(1 'l/\'"
M ;::. n.ll I<... 10-0 ;:: O.I..('I....(Y'
I OQ.O J<... '2
+0-../ A.
s
O(c :: o.'-Ly.....(,
?<.. -= o· J'<- 'Z = 0 ........ .
-c 0 . K 1., f.., "'""-....... .
59
60
ee...f.
£" ... \,'2

/;J9-o7
-b
t
,. "'-" __ ). Ac-..;: II lI-<."""-' .?-.I .: ..... _
)
C ................... ................ J A" ..... -
At;.. T! l'3.ll K
.:
£$ (l.--\-x.);:.

SI:i ff "4 eAtC-<.k::
o· Q.-oo
o· Q-9-O I )( 'Z/Q..o ... 0'90 I '22
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12 i . As. (d.
.... C't? <C
2
:: x (!v<,;"o - _ ... O.&-9.-O!.
?> K '2.,.....00.--0 ><. 11 .. ('2.
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El:: O·o-Ql"Z..-z.
t = J<. Dt K. l.--\ ;: 1- x K. := o.Q-OOI.>I;;
; 3 I<
E. ........ := o· a...c:>1'l.-'Z. - (Q':::'" ::: o· <;:"1
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Ml'" '" wl x. \. '-+ .::.
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s,..t: K. tox,K 1. ....
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Y
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::. <OOI.::-J ...,;-:
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iv} De.--ftc....c..- ho v\.
Gade. h-ot
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d.-!...-a.At ""-Ji1L..... t::.'j
0 s -0-1 .s>p s: 1-0 .e.....hc....c·r', ... e
I:h e S j I::>; \A V\ e c::L Ak" 1t..,e b.c:c.re..
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IV1 11l..P·s e. ll-:;-c..(c... CA.r..
61
62
T6,.Ao\e..o;;
;'.\0



KI +- fr
A<;.c
to '{'. 4 "" 1 .0 l&> + <{" 0Jer-'0 .. ..
1\ Y b )< o· 9 l( '2 l hoof b ""-
% A.s. v f:-6 " h .t-1 :;. 11'-'- 2:> x.. IQ-O K. 'tl--t
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o. 3:.,e, 0;;" (11'2\ "'"'---J
I-V\ T tv0 Ie- <J /!'
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lao 0 K.
f'l,.-v....-\ 1::-1.-e-c::l oS. v". -::: '2...le K.. \. l.;?':,- .a ) s.or:
::: looQ--O /'2 S 4- ,./ O.t.<:...
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c..; F M-e.A.. Ac -ne.....c...+-i 9'V'\ Io..c..

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63
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65
66
t,.,-:. .... o",,", ........
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I MS::' $;1 .........
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A<;....<. ....... """G Q::.$ Co "2.&-0 ..t c. 0·" J<.. "Z..1
A s. '.$ l K lo l.co +
1.00 I<. 2..6'l
=.
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+ '20:><::: -=
\..
( T .......
1
11't
Ill'>" : As lol-flP

;.

A-s
c.c,lt L.} "'-"......,
1,.-
/' C4', !;;; t-'I "'-j
=
x. ?L-tl&>
=
<?JI'L.
0/0
Vv,', Sf";
HI - ( .... P .. l
x 10.-0
=
o· \ '::"<.,., <Q/
o
'2.1 0) ><. lo.-o--o
'B,'--1 c.-ov\C/...:>LtA..--bo ..... r bo \;'
\ • I J
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'-
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AnIJIy8I3-01 DUe INaf) aaumlftg conununy
wttb waif
Baa seated on an eIastk son
This particular analysis is carried out with the aid of
Tables 9.27 and 9.28.
As is required for the design of the base slabs of circular
tanks, the modulus of subgrade reaction (Ie), alternatively
known as the foundation modulus, must have been deter-
mined or estimated, usually from the results of CBR tests.
The value of k is not a well-defined constant; however,
since the fourth root only is to be used in the calculations.
the significance of any reasonable error is considerably
reduced.
Figure 4.2
where:
L length of base slab
Q concentrated loads at ends of slab due to weight of
walls
M concentrated end moments at the base of the wall
k modulus of subgrade reaction
X proportional distance aIL of load Q from the left-hand
end of the base
Y dimensionless distance btL of a position on the base
slab
second moment of area of uncracked base slab cross
section
E modulus of elasticity of the concrete
A foundation - slab stiffness characteristic parameter

The tables give coefficient values for the effect of a unit
load at a position X(alL), upon other positions Y(b/L).
These effects are determined for positions up to Y =
L for loads placed from X = 0 to X = 0.5 L.
Once the coefficients are determinetl for a series of
moveable loads, about a particular position Y, they are
adGied together to give the complete value at Y, as
illustrated in Figs 4.2 and 4.3.
x •
L
Y a b
L
1
cocf. cN'eet 0' Q, ortd Qt "po",
poStt,on Y a ., lZ, • zal
b
Figure 4.3
67
Since the loads are only placed upon half the span the
effect of a load at the right-hand end of the span, i.e. X =
I upon the position Y = 0.25, is the same as a load at
the left-hand end of the span, i.e. X = 0 upon the position
Y = 0.75. This concept is used in Fig. 4.4 and also in
Ref. 4-6.
't. 0 o.n 0·$ 0'75 1'0
l( ..


:
d
I
I
I
I
y.
0 0.2$ O·SO 0·75 1-0
l( • 0
d
y.
po"ho\1
'\1
slab /L
de I d' O.ts +0,", load
po.,tlo\1&d
)( • I.
IS Hte. so,"1. H1C. clc"edlo\1 'd'

yo O.7S foW' load po.,tlo\1c.d
at X & 0
X • load
I L
Figure 4.4
68
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71
Approximate design of tanks with the base
slab continuous with the walls
Many researchers and writers of technical literature
concerned with the design of beams or slabs on elastic
foundations agree that, because of the nature of the
problem, the results are at best a practical approximation
and recommend that a 'safe' design be carried out in order
to cover a range of possibilities.
This section on the design of rectangular tanks is
connected with approximate methods of design which
concur with this principle.
One method is to design the wall and part of the floor
slab as a complete retaining wall subjected to the bend-
ing moment calculated at the base of the wall being
resisted by the dead loading of the water and concrete base
slab in the traditional manner. as shown in the following
example. The supporting earth is assumed to be a rigid
mass with no elasticity.
The main object is to ensure that:
(i) the permitted maximum ground bearing pressure is
not exceeded;
and
(ii) the base is in contact with the ground throughout and
hence there is no uplift.
With the aid of Program 4.P, given at the end of this
chapter values of x are assumed and refined until the
results conform with (i) and (ii) above. (See Fig. 4.5.)
:. ----
"J
:.
'l.".4kK ...
0
u •. 41t1i .... ..;

II ¥ 0- poYhol jo,"t
J
II o.
10.0
Figure 4.5
The maximum moment at the base of the wall panel
for an effective (length/height) ratio of 2 is, from Table
9.20,
86 * 3.\5 * 3.15 * 9.8\/\000 = 26.4 kNm/m
The joint must have sufficient steel across it to resist a
horizontal force of:
(9.8\ * 3 * 312) * factor of safety (2) = 88 kN
72
Figure 4.6 Slab details
less any frictional resistance generated by the self weight
of the water and concrete. (See Fig. 4.6.)
For shorter span slabs, such as the one used in the main
example of this chapter, the following approach may be
used. Essentially the slab spans between the walls, carry-
ing a downward load resulting from the weight of the walls
only (Ref. 4-6 and Fig. 4.7).
S\ob

-=
q

Figure 4.7
Design forces on base slab
Forces from wall
4.825 '" 0.35 '" 24 '" 2
5.35
= 15.2 kN/m2
Assume pressure resulting from self weight wall is
uniform.
BM Max. (centre of base)
- M at edge + Moment from upward pressure
-105 + 15.2 • 5
2
/8
= - 58 kNm

-105 kN",
Al'"r--
- 10SkK",
mnfftt n t t f t ttl n f t t tf t t t
- I05k.N ...
,Ukti/ ...
1
.
pnHurc fro,"
$.W. walls
(8)
.r+-r---rrH -lOS kti ...
(b)
Figure 4.8 (a) loading diagram, (b) bending
moment diagram
The bending moment diagram, Fig. 4Jt, i& smutar lOttie
one calculated earlier in this chapter by the more mathe-
matical method, the maximum shear force cannot exceed
4O.S kN/m (self weight walls) and, as the span of the slab
lengthens. the midspan moment tends to zero (Ref. 4·7)
under these loading conditions.
4
.'-


Figure 4.9
fl
t.4lt5
1
HI

orl
,o."o,J

. I
Figure 4.10
73
Output program 4P 1
********************************************************
THE HEEL LENGTH IS 0 METRES
THE WIDrH OF THE BASE FROM THE WALL FACE IS 2.4125 METRES
THE THICKNESS OF THE WALL IS .35 METRES
THE OF rHE WALL IS 4.825 METRES
********************************************************
++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
THE PRESSURE AT THE BASE OF THE WALL IS 169.6878 kN/SQ.M
THE PRESSURE AT 'rHE END OF 'rHE BASE IS-40. 87228 kN/SQ.l-t

********************************************************
rHE HEEL LENGEH 13 .5 MErRE3
THE WIorH rHE BASE rHE WALL FACE IS 2.4125 MErRES
THE OF rHE WALL IS .35 METRES
rHE HEIGHT OF rHE WALL IS 4.825 METRES
**k*************************************************** **
++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
THE PRESSURE Ar THE BASE OF THE WALL IS 109.503 kN/SQ.M
THE PRESSURE AT rHE END OF rHE BASE IS 2.145378 kN/SQ.M

If the method of approach given initially (p. 72) is used
in the main example for the tank design then, using
Program 4.P
1
, it can be seen that there is uplift at the
centre of the base, see Fig. 4.9.
occurring in the base slab are similar (ii) the shear forces
are not in close agreement (iii) the sub-soil reactions are
also not in agreement.
The forces generated within a concrete container by the
contents can be calculated with precision and confidence;
however, the reaction of the supporting system. particu-
larly when this is provided by the ground, is less
predictable and hence many research workers in this field
agree that extensive and precise mathematical calculations
can be misleading, and recommend a 'safe' design
approach which covers a range of possible occurrences.
To overcome this problem and, using the same
program. a heel is provided as shown. This is of two-
fold benefit since it provides both a firm support for the
external wall shutter and, should flotation be a problem.
the backfill upon the heel provides additional resistance.
see Fig. 4. 10.
Conclusions
In the main example where the walls are continuous with
the base, it may be noted that (i) the bending moments
Table 4.1
It is apparent that with only relatively minor increases
in steel quantities this concept can be undertaken and Table
4. I gives the approximate percentage of steel reinforce-
ment for the various alternatives in the design of the
225 m
3
tank used in this chapter. see Fig. 4.11.
Condition at General reinforcement details Reinforcement
base of wall %
b
Diameter T20 T12 T16 T12 T12 T20 T12 T12 T16 T12
Hinged Spacing 175 175 175 175 175 225175 175 175175 104
Face both both both both both top btm btm top btm
Diameter T16 T20 T16 T12 T20 T12 T16 T12
Fixed Spacing 175 175 175 175 175 175 175 175 100
Face both both both both both both both both
Fixed but Diameter T20 T12 T16 T12 T20 T12 T16 T12
with wall Spacing 175 175 175 175 175 175 175 175 107
corners Face both both both both both both both both
strengthened
74
+
1',
_9_ _ .... 8_
a,
·1
(8)
(b)
Figure 4.11 Reinforcement details (a) long wall elevation, (b) plan of base slab
A further point is that service failures have occurred
in practice as a result of excessive deflections of walls.
BS 8007 advises caution with regard to deflection particu-
larly where unexpected rotation of the earth occurs
beneath a wall.
It is recommended that in the design process, when
deflection governs the design, that this is resolved by
thickening the wall rather than increasing the steel areas.
Flotation
When the empty tank is almost 'floating' in waterlogged
ground then a uniform reaction will occur; however, the
external water pressure assists in reducing the slab
moments, see Fig. 4.12.
Should this situation arise it is necessary to ensure that
(8)
all elements, including independent floor panels, have a
factor of safety of at least 1.1 against flotation.
'L' shaped retaining walls when the tank is empty can
become unstable under these conditions and the provision
of a thick base slab with an external heel is a simple
solution, see Fig. 4.13.
Should the slab span from wall to wall, even though
the overall structure may be stable, considerable moments
and forces are generated and these can onJy be resisted by:
(i) a heavily reinforced thick concrete slab;
(ii) by anchoring the slab down with reliable earth or
rock anchors;
or
(iii) in non-potable water situations by the provision of
pressure relief valves.
(b)
Figure 4.12 An empty tank (a) loading diagram. (b) bending moment diagram
75
Program 4P
1
Stability calculations for retaining wall panels restrained at edges or top and
subjected to a specific bending moment at base of wall
76
10 RE!4 rHIS CAL::ULArES rHE BASE LENGTH SUCH THAT MBASE • !\WALL
15 PRIN'r" IS 'fHIS A TWO WAY SLAB? IF SO THEN HtPU'r TWA"
16 PRINr"IF 'fHIS IS NOT A 'rwo WAY SLAB THEN TWA-O'
17 INPUT • VALUE OF BASE MOMENT IF TRUE OR 0 IF PALSE"ITWA
20 INPUT"HEI3HT OF WALL • ; H
40 INPUT"THICKNESS OF WALL "; r
42 INpUT":>\AX PERMISSIBLE 3R'JUNO BEARING PRESSURE • ;GBp
50 INPUT"THE ESTIMA'TE 'JF BASE LENGTH TO BALANCE BASE MOMENT IS'IX
51 IF X >98 GOTO 290
52 IF TNA > 0 'fHEN l1W =rWA
55 IF 'rWA-O THEN MW-9.010001*(HHl"3/6
60 INPUr"the heel len,th "; HL
61 pRINT"MW=" ;:>\W
62 MC=9.810001*H"3/6
70 WA-r*H*l4
71 pRIN,."WA="; WA
80 WB=9. 810001*X*H
81
90 WCsT* (XI-nUL) *24
91 PRINT"WC=" ;WC
100 Wl=WA+)IBHK
110 Ml=WA*(r/2+HL) +1'13* (X!2.rI-HL) +HC*(X+'frHL)/2
ui PRINT"Ml=" ;111
130 RMxMI-MH
131 Ex (X+r+HL) /2-RM/wl
132 MO'r-Wl"E
135 PRINT"')VERrURNING MOMEN'r x" ;!I'J'r
140 PA-Wl/ (r+X+HL) +10101'*6/ (X+T+HL) "2
141 ;P'"
150 ptl=IIl/(,F+X+IIL) -M'Jr"6/(XHHIL)"2
151 PRINT "PB-" ;PB
160 PT=PB+(PA-Ptl) *X/(X+r+HL)
170 MB-wB*X/2-PB*X" 2/2- (pT-P3) oX· 2/6+r* 24 *)(*X/2
179 IF TNA>O rHEN MC = M\i
160 01 FF=t1C-M9
190 PRINr
200 PRINT "Wls";IU;"RM.";RM;"PA=";PA;"PB=";PB
210 PRINT" rHE SLAB BENDlt'l3 MOMENT IS" ;il3
220 PRINr "THE DI FFERENCE :>\C-M3 IS"; 01 FF
221 FX.X
230 Gno 50
,", .. ,t;
/II bon 'Noll
( M.TWA)
Hf.'9
hi
Tk,c,k"c.\&
Ma •. 'll, .... "d
bf.01'11\9 P"Hur'&
Elt. b .. u. 1""5"'
I\ul lc."stk
Figure 4.13
290 LPRINr ,,******* ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• **** •••••••••••••••• "
299 LPRINT "THE HEEL LENGrH 13 "; HL; • ME'fRES·
300 LPRINT "rHE WIDTH OF fHE BASE FROM rHE WALL FA(;E IS"; FX; " MErRES"
301 LPRlt'lT " THE 'fHICKNE:SS OF rHE WALL IS ";T; " ME·rRE:S·
:: * * * •• *. * •• * * * * * * * *:! *:.
304 LPRI NT" "
305 LPRINr 1\ ++++ t++++++ ... t++++++++ r+++++++++++ +++++++++++++++++++++++"
306 LPRINT "rHE 'fOrAL WEI3H'f OF WALL, SLAB AND WATeR IS";;'Il;" kN"
307 LPRINT " rHE CENrRE OF GRAVUY OF PHe: LOA!) 15";E ;" FROM 2ENPRE LINE
306 LPRHIr" rHE PRESSURE A'r THE BASE OF PHE WALL IS"; PA;" kN/SJ./I"
309 LPRINP" PHE PR8SSURE A'r THE END OF PHE BASE IS"; PB;" kN/SQ.M"
310 LPRINr n +++++++++++ +t+++-+++++++ .. ++ t+ ttt+ t "" rt++ t +++++++ t++ .. ++ ... +++"
317 LPRINr" "
316 LPRINf" "
319 LPRI N"r "++ + t+++++++ t+++++++++++++++ t t++++++++++++++++++++++ "++tt"
320 LPRINT "THE SLAB BENDING :>\'JMENf IS" :M3
330 LPRINT " rHE DIFFERENCE IS";DIFF;" kN'I"
3 31 LP RI NT 11 + t- t+ t t++ t++++++ tt t +++ t++ ... t ... ++ t-+++++" rt+ t t + t-+++ t+ t t+ ...... +++"
332 GOTO 400
335 J=FX/IO
340 FOR I=FX 1'0 0 STEP -J
345 '';0 = H"9.8l0001 +r*24-PB
350 L= F:< - I
355 1'1= (P,'-P31/FX*L
360 L/2-P l*L* L/6
361 VL=\/f)'L-Pl*LI2
36 2 LP R I N f" . - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - "
363 LPRINr" "
365 LPRIN·r ";HE LENGr'H fRC>;.t END r:J "jLi'''1ErRES''
366 LPRUU "i'HE: BEt'lDING ;\O:1E'lC IS ";ML: "kiM"
367 LPRI:;r "PHE SIICAR FOR::E IS ";VL;"ktl "
360 LPRINP",
370 LPRUll'''------------- --- '---------------------"
330 I
4 00 E:ID
4-1 Timoshenko S, Woinowsky-Krieger S 1959 Theory
of Plait'S and Shells McGraw-Hill
4-2 Bares R 1971 Tables for A.no.Jysis of Plales, Slabs
and Diaphragms &uverlag GmbH, Berlin
4-3 lofreit l C 1975 Design of rectangular concrete tank
walls. ACI Journal, July
4-4 Portland Cement Association 1969 (revised 1981)
Rectangular Concrete Tanks Illinois
4-5 Iyengar K T S R. Rarnu S A 1979 Design Tables
for Beams on Elastic Foundations and Related
Structural Problems Applied Science Publishers
4-6 Winterkom H F, Fang H Y 1975 Foundation
Engineering Handbook Van Norstrand Reinhold
4-7 Hetenyi M 1958 Beams on Elastic Foundations The
University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor
77
Design of circular tanks
The operational processes within the water and other
industries dealing with fluids often require circular
structures to ensure their systems of work are carried out
efficiently and economically.
The primary stresses set up within the structure are
usually a result of the ring tension generated by the con-
tained liquid and the main reinforcement, therefore.
consists of bands of circular steel hoops. The ability of
the cylinder to increase in diameter is resisted, however.
at the base where restraint occurs. If outward movement
is prevented by a fixed or pinned joint then the ring tension
will be zero and vertical bending moments and shear
forces will occur.
Tables have been prepared (Refs 5-1, 5-2) to assist the
designer and are used in this chapter. More recent research
has been involved with 'soil-structure' interaction and
the paper (Ref. 5-3) is given as an appendix.
Examples of the design of an open topped 12 m internal
diameter concrete tank,S m high. subjected to various
base conditions, form the basis of this chapter. The
examples. in particular, demonstrate the significant reduc-
tion in calculated moments and forces which occur when
the design takes into account the fact that the soil pro-
vides an elastic rather than plastic reaction.
Three typical base conditions are given, see Fig. 5.1.
(c)
(b)
Figure 5.1 Base conditions of circular tanks (a) free sliding, (b) hinged, (c) fixed
78
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(1N't)
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--,- ( l:;...; / """ 1»
SevhOVl I # (r.N.)
fi1· <£. I I (k:ZN. """)
I V'\ -r tU41-':1 / 2 -) /
f-c:rV' The. f c.- A c.c ek1=-\ e..vvt:r
0.0 Lv -the b<1> -&-.f
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"De.. i VI rt 1- :
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79
rQV "\ 1 f e 1.. Sk"'e-d f Vt:' / t :. 0 - lc 1
tl,p ..... .-. tf .sf e. ': o. '>
D<";' / T\+T,! = L-.t-.o°c.
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0" t? t Q!<J ... o. Ip 1 x I K 0·)")< o. oe-oo I 2 " '-t'o "" \
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Output program SP 1
Typical statements:
10 Input height; IN
20 Input radius; R
30 Input thickness; H
40 B = (3/(R'R'WH»"O.25
50 For I = 11 to 1 step - 1
60 X = (I - 1)/l0'IN
70 0 = IN - X
80 Theta BX = EXP( - B 'X)' COS(B 'X)
90 Sigma BX = EXP(-B'X)'SIN(B'X)
100 W = 9.Bl
110 F = W'R'IN
120 M = -F'WO.2B9'(SigmaBX +
(1 -lI(B 'IN)) 'ThetaBX)
130 FT = F'(l-X/IN-ThetaBX-
(1-1/(B'IN))'SigmaaX)
140 Print statements;;;;;;;
150 Next I
160 V = F'WO.2B9'(2'B-1IIN)
170 Print V
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Using Lightfoot and Michael's tables a circular tank
upon an elastic foundation is now designed.
Example 'f takes into account the fact that the bearing
pressure is related to the elastic properties of the soil which
supports the tank and that the foundation stiffness is a com-
posite function of the properties of the slab and the
supporting subgrade upon which it bears. Winkler's
theory states that:
. At any point the foundation reaction varies linearly with the
deflection ..
The surface deflection is related by the formula:
p = k.w
where p pressure,
k = modulus of subgrade reaction.
w = deflection.
The Modulus 'k' can be determined by such tests as the
plate bearing test but the results are affected by:
(i) method of testing;
(ii) moisture in the soil;
(iii) compaction of the soil.
It tends not to be a precise figure; however, the results
will show a general increase in value as the ground
becomes harder. Approximate values obtained are:
Type of soil
Clay of high plasticity
Low plasticity clays, silts, poorly-
graded fine sand
Well-graded and clayey sands, poorly-
graded and fine gravel
Well-graded gravel
13
27
54
82
Figure 5.3 Typical circular tank. Note joint positions and pressure relief valves
94

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Figure 5.2
De8ign of circular tank with
One common problem with the design of circuiar tanks
occurs where an external channel is fixed at a high level
as shown in Figs 5.3. 5.4 and 5.S. There is a moment
generated at the connection of the channel and the wall;
and also. the base of the channel will prevent the main
wall increasing in diameter and, therefore. the ring tension
should be zero at this point. One solution is to design the
tank as follows.
(i) Using the tables in Chapter 9 analyse the upper part
of the tank above the trough and calculate the
moments and shears at the base of the trough level
'a'.
(ii) Design the lower part of the tank for the triangular
loads and forces generated at trough level.
(iii) Knowing that the ring tension value at the trough
level is zero. calculate the force required to generate
an equal and opposite ring compression at this point
and then calculate all moments created by this force
and add the results to (ii) above for the fmal results.
References
5-1 Timoshenko S, Woinowsky-Krieger S 1959 Theory
of Plates and Shells McGraw-Hili
5-2 Portland Cement Association 1965 (revised 1981)
Rectangular Concrete Tanks Illinois
5-3 Lightfoot E. and Michael D 1963-1965 (4 Parts)
The analysis of ground supported open circular
concrete tanks. Construction Weekly

...
l


-+ CO$l\'o') Ruul+
I
...
r
d
101
(c)
(a)
I
(b)
Figure 5.4 Circular tank (8) plan view. (b) cross section, (c) alternative methods of slab
reinforcement - note mesh can only be used when slab is flat
102
proggm 5P, Analysis of a fixed base, cylindrical tank
4 LPRINT"***********************************************"
5 LPRINT" ..
6 LPRINT"DESIGN OF A CIRCULAR WATER RETAINING STRUCTURE"
7 LPRINT" II
8 LPRINT"
9 LPRINT"************************************************"
10 LV"5.125 h'put:
11 R"6.125 Lv ""
12 H=.25 t WI
13
14 LPRINT"THE RADIUS OF rHE IS ";R;" metres"
15 LPRINT"
16 LPRIN'f"THE 'fHICKNESS OFf HE WALL IS" :H; "metres"
17 LPRINf"
18 LPRINT"fHE BETA VALUE IS ";B
19 LPRINT"
38 LPRINT"------------------------------------------------------"
39 LPRINT"
40 LPRINl'"HEIGHT(M) RING TENSION(kN)
41 LPRINT" "
42 LPR1NT"------------------------------------------------------"
50 LPR1NT" " M t
70 POR 1=11 TO 1 srEP -1 i:bJ
1
110 SBX=EXP(-B*X)*S1N(B*X)
120 W=9.810001
1
14
30
0 P::W*R*LV • a. I l I
M=-F*H*.289*(-SBX+(1-1/(B*LV»*rBX)
150 FT=F*(1-X/LV-TBX-(1-1/(B*LV»*SBX)
180 LPR1N'r"
190 LPRINT D;rAB(9) ,:INT(M);" i';:IW1'(P'f)
191 LPR1NT"----------------------------------------------- _______ H
290 NEXf I
295 LPR1Nl'"
296 LPRINr"
297 LPRINr"
298 LPRINT"
300 V=-F*H*.283*(2*B-l/LV)
310 LPRINT" rHE SHEAR FORCE AT rHE BASE OF rHE WALL IS ";V
311 PRHlr"
312 LPRINT"
313 LPRINT"*******************ft**********************************"
103
i
Figure 5.5 RC details for a circular tank
104
Design of prestressed concrete circular tanks
The benefits of the use of prestressed concrete tanks for
the storage of water and other liquids include the
following.
(i) The concrete is in compression and can be so
designed that cracking of the concrete should not
occur.
Oi) The sections can be relatively thin which generates
savings on costs of materials and reduces foundation
loads.
(iii) Prestressed sections often have a greater resistance
to ground movements than other forms of
construction.
Designers are being encouraged to be more concerned not
only about the adequate design of PS structures but also
their safe construction, maintenance and repair, and,
finally, demolition.
In the design example carried out in this section it is
Table 6.1
Nominal values only
Type Nominal Tensile Steel (kg/m)
diameter strength area
(mm) (Rm) (mm
2
)
(N/mm2)
as 5896 15.2 1670 139 1.09
Standard 12.5 1770 93 0.730
11.0 1770 71 0.557
9.3 1770 52 0.408
BS 5896 15.7 1770 150 1.18
Super 12.9 1860 100 0.785
11.3 1860 75 0.590
9.6 1860 55 0.432
8.0 1860 38 0.298
BS 5896 18.0 1700 223 1.75
drawn 15.2 1820 165 1.295
(Oyform) 12.7 1860 112 0.89
proposed that the post tensioned system of construction
used is for the cables to be held horizontally on external
vertical hangers and be stressed as shown in Fig. 6.1 from
4 external jacking pilasters. The cables used shall be
plastic coated standard strand to BS 5896 (see Table 6.1
below).
In order for the cables to be inspected, maintained or
replaced it is preferable that they be visible on the outer
surface of the wall and sufficient length of cable be left
beyond the anchorage point for future de-tensioning. If
this is carried out then further protection in the·form of
an outer plastic tube will be necessary.
Should the exposure of the cables be impracticable then
the cables and the concrete surface should be sprayed with
gunite: but only after the tank is filled. This is to limit
the risk of the cracking of the gunite when the tank
expands as a result of the internal water pressure.
Specified characteristic values
Mass Breaking 0.1% proof Load at
(m/l0G0 kg) load load 1 % elongation
(Fm) (Fp 0.1) (Ft 1.0)
(kN) (kN) (kN)
917.4 232 197 204
1369.9 164 139 144
1795.3 125 106 110
2451.0 92 78 81
847.5 265 225 233
1273.9 186 158 163
1694.9 139 118 122
2314.8 102 87 90
3355.7 70 59 61
571.4 380 323 334
772.2 300 255 264
1123.6 209 178 184
105
as 8007 (1987) Design and detailing of
prestressed concrete
General: (Section 4.1 of BS 80(7)
This section gives methods of analysis and design that will
in general ensure that for prestressed concrete structures the
recommendations in section two are met.
Basis of design: (Section 4.2 of BS 80(7)
Design should be in accordance with the recommendations
given in section four of BS 8110: Part I: 1985 except where
these are at variance with the specific recommendations of
this code. In general the design of prestressed concrete
members in exposure conditions as defined in Section 2.7.3
of BS 8oo7 is controlled by the concrete tension limitations
for service load conditions. but the ultimate limit state should
be checked.
Cylindrical prestressed concrete structures:
(Section 4.3 of BS 8(07)
The special recommendations for the design of cylindrical
concrete structures prestressed vertically and circum-
ferentially are as follows.
(a) The jacking force in the circumferential tendons
should not exceed 75 % of the characteristic strength.
(b) The principal compressive stress in the concrete should
not exceed 0.33/cu.
(c) The temporary vertical moment induced by the circum-
ferential prestressing operation in the partially stressed
condition should also be considered. The maximum
value of the flexural stress in the vertical direction from
this cause may be assumed to be numerically equal to
0.3 times the circumferential compressive stress. Where
the tensile stress would exceed 1.0 N/mm
2
• either the
vertical prestress should be increased or the circum-
ferential prestress should be built up in stages, with each
106
stage involving a progressive application of p ~
from one end of the cylinder. ' ~ , ? : ,
(d) When the structure is full there should be no re6UlUmt
tension in the concrete in the circumferential direction,
after allowMICC lor all. Josses of prestress and on.fue
assumption that the top and bottom edges of the wall
are free of all restraint.
(e) The bending moments in the vertical direction should
be assessed on the basis of a restraint equal to one-half
of that provided by a pinned foot, when the foot of the
wall is free to slide. In other cases where sliding at the
foot of the wall is prevented, the moments in the vertical
direction should be assessed for the actual degree of
restraint at the wall foot. The tensile stress arising from
vertical moments should not exceed 1.0 N/mm
2

(f) Where the structure is to be emptied and filled at
frequent intervals, or perhaps left empty for a prolonged
period, the structure should be designed so that there
is no residual tension in the concrete at any point when
the structure is full or empty.
Prestressing wire may be placed outside the walls, provided
that it is protected with pneumatic mortar. However in
industrial areas or near the sea, where there is a possibility
of corrosive penetration of the covering concrete, the cables
should preferably be placed within the walls and grouted.
Non-bonded tendons may be used provided that they and their
anchorages are adequately protected against corrosion.
Cylindrical concrete structures which are prestressed cir-
cumferentially and reinforced vertically should comply
generally with the recommendations of this clause, except
that 4.3(f) may be relaxed to allow tensile stresses not
exceeding 1 N/mm
2
• The design for the vertical
reinforcement should be in accordance with section three.
Other prestressed concrete structures:
(Section 4.4 of BS 8(07)
Class 3 prestressed concrete structures as defined in 2.2.3.4.2
of BS 8110 : Part 1; 1985 should be designed in accordance
with 4.2 and 4.3. In addition, the nominal cover should satisfy
the 'very severe' exposure conditions given in Table 4.8 of
BS 8110 : Part I : 1985, and should be not less than 40 mm.
cable He.
t-·
t-·
~ - .
4-·
5-'
,_.
1-·
6-'
Figure 6.1
Method of stressing
-:-1
I
In general terms, in order to reduce the effects of elastic
deformation of the concrete, it is prudent to initially apply
only 25 % of the total force to all the cables in the
following order:
Figure 6.2
strands no. 1 - 4 - 7 - 10 - ..... .
strands no. 2 - 5 - 8 - 11 -
strands no. 3 - 6 - 9 - 12 - ..... .
The stressing operation can then be repeated in three
further increments of 25 % until the strands are fully
stressed. The amount of 'pull-in' of the cable at the
anchorage point can be measured and allowed for so that
losses due to this effect are zero.
If stressing from one point only, i.e., strands la and
Ib tensioned from pilaster A, then, for the next 25 % of
force being applied, tensioning should take place from
pilaster C, the third 25 % from pilaster A and the final
25 % from pilaster C. It is preferable to use two jacks
when stressing from a pilaster since the frictional losses
due to curvature are reduced by this approach.
During the stressing operation it is desirable that the
design engineer be present and that the anticipated exten-
sion of the cable for the maximum force has been cal-
culated in order to ensure that the initial design
assumptions are justified, ~ Figs 6.2 and 6.3.
107
Figure 6.3 Post tensioning cables around circular filter bed
108
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117
Effect of temperature gradient across the wall
There is a temperature difference between the inner and
outer wall surfaces which will create tensile and compres-
sive stresses across the wall. This problem has often been
ignored in the past usually without serious consequences.
In more recent times, however, it has been considered
by various researchers.
In a paper by M J N Priestley it is concluded that the
design approach for this problem should be based on a
serviceability condition whereby, under extreme thermal
conditions, a vertical crack less than 0.1 mm wide should
be acceptable.
The article concludes by proving a calculated crack
width equation which is given below:
(I-x)2 h * fp
w = 4 * --x2- --E-
118
fp maximum prestress in concrete
h wall thickness
a = coefficient of thermal expansion of the
concrete
T = temperature differential
In the example used in this section the maximum stress
in the concrete is, before long term losses, 2.77 Nlmm,
= 0.000 012/oC and T = say 25°C.
x= I 2x2.77 =0.613
~ 31 000 X 0.000 012x25+2x2.77
4 x (1-0.613)2 X 125 X 2.77
w = 0.6132 X 31 000 = 0.018 mm
(which is acceptable).
Reference
6-1 Priestley M J N 1985 Analysis and design of
circular prestressed concrete storage tanks. pel
Journal, July-August
Design of a flat slab roof and columns
for a reservoir
The columns supporting the roof of a reservoir rarely
create a problem with regard to spacing or causing an
obstruction. Downstand roof suppport beams, however,
can be inconvenient particularly when they restrict the
flow of air above the water when the water level is higher
than the soffit of the beam. The introduction of ventila-
tion holes through the beams permits the cross flow of
air but provides a surface area of concrete which cannot
easily be cleaned.
A flat slab roof without beams or drops is the .most con-
venient form of construction which can be easily main-
tained and cleaned and is, therefore, often used in this
situation.
The basic definitions, terms and methods of analysis
specific to the design of flat slab roofs of reservoirs are
extracted from BS 8110 and are given in Tables 7.1 and
7.2. In order that Table 3.19 of the code may be used
it is necessary for the roof to have at least three rows of
panels of approximately equal span in the direction being
considered. If this is not the case a flat slab may stili be
used; however. an elastic moment distribution method of
analysis or similar must be carried out.
Table 7.2 Distribution of design moments in
panels of flat slabs (BS 8110, Table 3.20)
Negative
Positive
Apportionment between column and
middle strip expressed as
percentages of the total negative or
positive design moment
Column strip
%
75
55
Middle strip
%
25
45
Note For the case where the width of the column strip Is taken
as equal to that of the drop. and the middle strip is thereby
increased in width. the design moments to be resisted by the
middle strip should be increased in proportion to its increased
width. The design moments to be resisted by the column strip
may be decreased by an amount such that the total positive and
the total negative design moments resisted by the column strip
and middle strip together are unchanged.
Table 7.1 Bending moment and shear force coefficients for flat slabs of
three or more equal spans (BS 8110, Table 3.19)
Outer support Near First Centre of Interior
centre interior interior support
Column Wall
of first support span
span
Moment -0.04FI' -O.02FI +0.083FI· -0.063FI + O.071FI -O.055FI
Shear 0.45F O.4F 0.6F O.5F
Total column moments O.04FI O.022FI 0.022F1
'The design moments in the edge panel may have to be adjusted to comply with 3.7.4.3 of
BS 8110
Note 1 F is the total design ultimate load on the strip of slab between adjacent columns
considered (I.e. 1.4G
k
+ 1.60J.
Note 2 I is the effective span E 11 2h
c
/3.
Note 3 The limitations of 3.7.2.6 (BS 8110) need not be checked.
Note 4 These moments should not be redistributed.
119
120
CA. 3.-..1. (,

t' 1 vOw r K. 3
.

t"f4?"'...,S :
NOTE. $« 1.2.211)/ ".linillCn • .-il", \0 11e1.1J!m.
3.7.1
3.7.1.1 SVmbols. For the purposes of 3.1 the followll'l9
symbob apply.
'. dil1.nce from tMlldge of the 100ded' area to 1M
perimeter consider.d
A,. area of shur reinforcement
b. breadth of eifectivi moment transfer $!rip (see
figure 3.11)
C .. Cy plan dimensions of column hee figure 3.13)
d
h
depth of tM head
F
total design ultimate load on nrip of slab
cOMiderad (·'.4G. + 1.60.1
characteristic strength of shear reinforcement
e!feelive diameter of • column or column head
effective span of panel I- II - 2/3h,1
penel length parallel to span, manured from
centres of columns
dimensions of the column measured in the lime
direction IS Ih
effective dimension of • head
shorter span of fill slab pan.1
longer spin of flit sllb pan.1
design moment transferred between slab and column
design ultimate load per unit .r .. (- 1.49. + 1.Sq.)
ellective length of the outer perimeter of the zone
effective length 01 the perimeter which louches I
10lded area
design shear \lress
design concrete shur str.ss
design ultimate value of the concentr.ted lo.d
design shur tr.nslerred to column

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Design of RC columns
The columns which support reservoir roofs tend to be
relatively slender, with regard to BS 81l0. clause 8.8.1.5.
given below:
Braced and unbraced columns: A column may be
considered braced in a given plane if lateral stability to
the structure as a whole is provided by walls or bracing
or buttressing designed to resist all lateral forces in that
plane. It should otherwise be considered as unbraced.
It is not unreasonable to suggest that since the water
loading is generally uniform throughout a reservoir that
'lateral forces' cannot be generated.
Movement of the roof, however. particularly when it
is open to the elements. does occur and this movement
50
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40
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has been shown to affect walls and columns adversely.
The design of the column used in this ex.ample assumes,
therefore, that the column is unbraced.
The column is designed firstly for the ultimate load
condition using the processes and tables given in BS 8110.
The column is then checked for the serviceability state
to ensure that the maximum crack width does not exceed
0.2 mm.
In order to carry out this stage of the calculations the
elastic theory again has to be used, see Figs 7.1 and 7.2.
A graph has been prepared to assist the designer; however,
at the end of this chapter the basic equations for the elastic
design of columns are given together with a computer
program which incorporates these equations and permits
the designer to check the column design for serviceability
conditions.
10 11 12 13 14 Hi 16
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Figure 7.1 Limit state chart (BS 8110. Chart 39)
127

x/d • 0.6


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bh2fCb


o
o 0.1 0.2 ('1.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8
e/h
fat • (l;%d)aeofcb
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oft .... OQ.-o (Q] x. ,,0 .0-9-0& ......

'S. e... ':> &-{) X 't J ,.. • . 99'0
K 'to-o K <Pz.t>)( 2.><0
A c-v' ;t '-a f)'" + IS L¥ '\<
_ to :.
W::. S 1<. Ji( Q.9-Q--O 0"'-_
(I + t (1(1, -
, "
t.....l <: 0.2.. ...............
OUtput program 1P1
+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
THE INITIAL FACTORS TO CHECK THE SERVICE S'l'RESSES IN THE STEEL ANO' CONCRETE,
++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ .. +++
01" .8i
NEUTRAL AXIS FACTOR N1 .4701159
M/(B*H*H*FCB) FACTOR = .1023644
Percentage of Reinforcement 2 .5
e/h factor a .5369864
+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
'rHE FULL SERVICE CHECK INCLUDING CRACK WIDTH
+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
FCB FST W H N M
N/sq.mm N/sq.mm mm '11:n kN kNM
+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
7.66 129.49 0.10 500.00 365.00 98.00
+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++t+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
Figure 7.4 Columns in reservoir construction
131
Elastic theory for RC column design and
development of computer program
The equations used are based upon the two conditions
listed below and upon Figs 7.3 and 7.4.
Condition J: Internal compressive and tensile forces =
external forces
[
fcb.x.b & b x-d2 A ] +
----lC.-- sc
2 x
Asc. fsc - AsLfst = N (a)
Condition 2: Internal moment of resistance of section =
external moment (Taking moments about centre line of
column)
(fCbt
b
) (+ _ -}) +
Asc(fcb) (ae-I) (x (-i- - d2) +
(-i--d2) =N.e (b)
Noting that
(i) fsc = (x ae.fcb,
(ii) fst = ae.fcb
and
(iii) p = l()().A&c/b.h
:

I
We combine these equauons to
== (x·f (3 - 2.x·f) +
O.O:.p (1-2 [(x - (ae - 1) +
(1 - x)ae )]/12 "
Eliminating feb from equations (a) and (c) we obtain:
X.x (3 - 2.x·f - 6.f)
[(ae - l)(x.f
. (2d2 + _ I) + ae. i. (l - x)
h h h
e·:
2
- 2
h
e - 1)]= 0 (d)
Using fixed values for 'e/h' and 'p' the value of x can
be determined from equation (d) and then 'feb' can be
determined from equation (c). The value of 'fst' can be
obtained by using the equation:
fst = C ae.fcb
Once all these elements are known then, by using the
equations given in BS 8007 the crack width 'w' may be
readily determined.
Program 7P
1
solves the above equations (page 133).
I M
!i rt .

! 'n/
1

t --- -- '. ,,--.-.---- -.
------ _. -- - -- - ---.--
\-t.
Figure 7.3
132
Program 7P1 Design of RC columns for serviceability limit state

1)1 (,",", t .. 4. tu ...... "MI/II) Fed ...
, ('n",dll.)
5 COUIiT • 1
10 IMPUT "D1."II)1
20 02-1-D1
21 INPUT "11.",1
22 INPUT "H- ", B
23 IIIPUT "Ita- ",Ita
l4 INPUT "n- ",M
29 8-M*1000/IiS
30 F2-E/H
35 '-1'2
40 INPUT "' OF REINFORCEMENT·" II'
......
-'"
-"
SO INPUT "NEUTRAL AXIS. note (If y"" "ish to finish then type 99 ) ",N
51 If' N-99 THEN 400
60 F3- N"N'Ol*ol' (3-2'N'DI-6*F2) -.03"1" (14' (N'01-02) • (2*D2+2 'F2-1) +15*01* (I-N) "
2'02-2*f2-1) )
70 pRINr "THE V,.Lue OF P'J IS";F3
71 COUNT -COUNT +1
72 IF COUNT> 100 THEN 120
80 IF 1'3>.01 THEN N -N'(1.01 + COUNT/(20'COUNT»
90 IF F3<-.01 THEN N -N/(1.01 + COUNT/(2S'COUNTJ)
100 IF F3> .01 THEN GOTO 60
110 IF f'3<- .01 THEH :;OTO 60
120 Fl" (N'OI* (3-2'N*0IJ +. 03'P/N* (1-2*02 J' ( (N-02J "14+ (I-H) '15) J 112
130 PRINT" "
135 PRIN-r" THE CURRENT NUIIBER OF CIRCUITS IS
140 PRINT "02
0
";02
150 PRINT "01
0
" ,01
160 PRINT "Neutral "xi1 ractor n - ",N
170 PRIll1' "Percentage of R.inforc ..... nt ·",P
190 PRINT "M/(b'h'h'fcbJ F,.CTOR - ", f'l
205 COUNT-l
206 LPRlN'Z'" "
210 IF P > 8 -rHEN 400
220 LPRINT" •
221 LPRINT" •
"'COUNT",

;: :: D-'-;i-
I:" .-=-t
222 LPRIN;r • +++++++.++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ '" t.+++"'++++++++++++++"'++++++.++
+++++++++++ ..
225 LPRIHT" THE II/ITI,.L ,,.:::TORS TO CHECK THE SERVICE STRESSES IN THE STEEL liND
CON;:UTE •
227 LP RI NT • ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++ +++++++++++++++++++++++
+++++++++++.
229 LPRlltr" "
250 LPRINT "01-",01
251 LPRINT' "
260 LPRINT "IUUTML IIXIS FIICTOR N1 • ",N
261 LPRINT" •
262 LPRINT "1I/(8'H'H'rCBJ rIlCTOR. ", Fl
263 LPRIN-r" "
270 LPRINr "'PercentAge :>f Reinforcement ·"'IP
271 LPRINT" "
280 LPRIN-r "e/h factor • ": F2
295 INPUT "If' ,.1.1. IS OK rHEN INPUT 1 OTHERWISE INPUT 0 ":OK
296 IF OK-lrHEN 321
300 F2-Z
320 If' OK • 0 THEil 50
321 LPRINT" "
112 LPRI NT • +++ r t r+ tt t ttt .... t t ttttt t +1" t tttt t tttt t t t t tt ... tt ...... tt ... +tf ...... ffftttt+ ttt ..
,.
l2J LPRINr" 'THE FULL SER'IICE CHECK INCLUOItI;; CRIICK WIO-fH "
)25 INPUT "UAR OI"HETER - ",011\
J27 02R-40+6+0IA/2
329 OSBO ... -1I-2'02R
lJO PRIHT" 056011-',056011
J)l INPur "OISr"NC£ BE-r;I£EH BARS' ",DB
13J FCB - :1'IOOOOOOI/(H*II'H'FI)
135 Fs'r • 15 'FCB'(I-f2}/F2
137 INPUT "'THEW-TAL AREA OF STEEL 15 ";AREAC
3 J9 INPu'r "TilE IIREA OF s'rEEL IN THE TEl/SlOt! ZONE only IS ",lIST
1H X-F2' (H-02RI
)-13 ss'r- FS'l'/200000 t
HS 51 • SS'T'(H-X)/(H-X-D2R)
141 STEFF-H' I H-X) "2/ (J' 200000 I ''''sr' (H-X-02R) )
149 SII -51-StEFF
351 "CR-SORI (Oa/2) "2+02R"2) -OIA/2
353 W- l· ... CR·SH/I 1+2' ("'CR-DSR+OIA/2)/(II-X)
154 LPRI NT • t f+t .. tttftt++tt+ tt t ttttf+ t+-t r ttf t ... t ........ t ttt tttttt+-t ttf ttt ttttftt+-...
,"
355 LPRlwr " FeB F3T
)56 LPRINT" "
lSI LPRINr" tllsq..... mm .... kN •
359 LPRINr .. t t "++tft t t rtttt++-f t-t tttt+ ttt t ttt t t+ tfttttttt tt t t++-ttt++++ t+ t++t++i
T"
)60 LPRlItr" •
362 LpRINr" •
J65 I.PIUHr USIN:l· Uef.£E ",FCS:Fs-r,W;II,N;H
370 INPUT "CHANGB 1 THEN ZZal O-rHERWISE ZZ-O "lIZ
)13 LPRINT" "
J 1 5 LP Rl Nt • t t .... t++-+++1' t. t t t t "tt ft+ t++ t+ + t+t"'" t+ tt t+ tt+ t++++++ tt ft++ +tt+t t+++ +i
,"
lSO lP n • I TUEll 40
133
Design
This type of construction is used for such structures as
settlement tanks in water pollution control plants or in
water towers. The design of this type of structure is
simplified by the use of the tables given in Chapter 9;
however, where the tank is built below ground level, the
design can be of a relatively simple nature by careful con-
sideration of details (see Chapter 2).
Various authors (8-1 to 8-4) have considered the design
of conical shells. The tables given to assist in the design
of the cone are, as with the circular tanks, mainly con-
cerned with the effect of fixity at the base or apex of the
cone upon the remainder of the structure. Two examples
are given, the first is for a reinforced concrete tank and
the second for a steel tank.
134
When building water towers the engineer has to become
involved in aesthetics as well as structural design. The
tower is usually built at as high a level as possible and
may well become the main feature of a locality.
Many tower structures are built on a wide base and
become slender and elegant with increasing height. The
water tower. however, must store a large quantity of water
as high as possible and hence the structure has, at its apex,
a large container which can easily look unsightly. It is
prudent to take photographs of the site from near and far
and, having decided on a range of suitable shapes, to insert
an elevation of the tower to scale on the photographs
and permit a wider audience than usual to voice their
opinions!
j I'1ow CMn for the calculation of moments and forces
within the· walls of a conical tank supported at the base
I wJ with additiond restraints at either base or apex of
I'he cone, see Fig. 8.1.
(An example of the WIe of the flow chart follows on page
140).
A LOADING
(1) Calculate self weight of walls per unit area.
(2) Calculate load from roof on to circumference of
upper cone. (See Ref. 8-1 for useful tables)
(3) Calculate any surcharge pressure.
(4) Pressure from contained water increases linearly by
9.81 kN/m.
B CALCULATION OF FORCES AND MOMENTS
IN UNRESTRAINED CONE
Using the equations given on page 139 determine the
following:
(I) meridional force N:
(2) ring tension force T;
(3) rotational movement of cone 8 at base and apex of
cone only (y = f' and y = f);
(4) displacement of cone v at base and apex of cone only
(y = t" and y = 0.
(Note: Program 8.P, at the end of .his chapter may be
used to calculate all these value" 1I1Oth positions.)
Refer to page 140 for example, also refer t9 page 141
for Output 8P, which confirms the hand calculations.
Program 8P
I
is used to solve the equations given on page
146.
Figure 8.1
Figure 8.2
135
C DETERMINATION OF FORCES TO CREATE
FIXITY AT BASE
4 /12*,,2"'cota
2
(1) For y = i', calculate x = 2 ~ J
u
t
(where t is the thickness of the shell)
(2) From Table 9.37(b) select values of CoH', C5M',
COH' and COM'.
(3) Calculate Fct = CoH' '" COM' - COH' '" CoM'.
(4) Calculate: KMO' = CoH'/Fct.
KHO' = - CoM' IFct.
KMo' = - COH' IFct.
KH5' = COM' IFct.
(5) Apply equal and opposite 0 and v values as calculated
in Section B to create fixity at base of cone.
(Note: v = 5')
(6) Calculate the values of the moment M' and the shear
force H' which will occur as a result of fixity at base
for y = i'.
The values required are MO' , Mo'. HO' and Ho' •
where
MO' = KMO' '" E '" t '" f' '" 0' I (Tan ci)
Mo' '" KMo' :I< E'" t '" 0' I (Sin ex >II Tab ex)
HO' = KHO' >II E'" t '" 0' I (Sin ex '" Tan ex)
Ho' = KHo' '" E '" t '" 0' I (f' '" Sin ex
2
)
(7) Using coefficients given in Table 9.37(a) determine
the effects of fixity upon the forces calculated in
Sections BI and B2.
136
The coefficients given are for fixity at the base or
apex of the cone. The value of 'x' is calculated at
the point of fixity and the tables give a series of
coefficients in the following way:
For base fixity: For apex fixity:
x = n (value at fixed x = n (value at fixed
point) (y=f') point) (y=f)
x = (n+1) x = (n-l)
x = (n + 2) for y values x = (n - 2) for y values
x = (n+3) >f' x = (n-3) <f
x = (n+4) x = (n-4)
The coefficients
etc indicate how effects of the forces M
as one moves further from the point of
effects are noted in tables for circular tanks
the forces M and V occurring at the ex.trelll1iti'e8
walls.
The 'x' (fil!.ed point) values given in the tables are in
increments of 4 and interpolation when 'X'{flJ<edpoint) is not
a multiple of 4 is satisfactory.
An example is given on page 140 for a cone fixed at
the base but free at the apex. where the X(fixed point) value
is 9 and the coefficient values further up the cone are x
= 10 - 13 incl.
The bending moments, ring tensions and meridional
forces resulting from M' and H' are determined with the
aid of the equations given on page 143 and Table 9.37.
It is quite acceptable to use the tables for fixity at both
base and apex, however, it is only in short thick cones
that the effects of fixity at one end have significant effect
on the other end.
For a detailed analysis and solution of the problems of
fixity in cones Refs 8-3-8-5 are of benefit.
Once an the forces are known then the design is carried
out in a similar manner to the design of a circular tank.
D FOR THE DESIGN OF CONES FIXED AT
THE APEX FOLLOW A SIMILAR
PROCEDURE TO THAT FOR FIXITY AT THE
BASE EXCEPT THAT Y = e AND USE
TABLES 9.38
Note: Tables 9.37 and 9.38 have been prepared assuming
the Poisson' s ratio' 11-' = O. In the example which follows
• 11-' is therefore assumed to be zero throughout the
calculations.
M e.1ooA. b .... .f.p vc..t!- f: i \A c.ov...; CA:V'\. 1- "'" 0 trl:> d..--
pA.-S'e. -
') g i""'1 T t!,..1o"\.-(; 0",", -to V"ce. I T (4-) .;t He-v ic:(A 0 fA,........,(
,..,J ("") ,ave ;-01 Ce.l(. CioV)
... (
I
. TCw)

I 4
1
'\ Cev} ... r' v " 'V+"- b(. 'j" ....... e<:
T (q,.).. 111 t "- ,/£,'"" P< -
N C tV) '::. L...l<!A' I:- rl ...... ...,c.-f"" .......... e. o-ve le...ve.-\ 'j
. C ........ (/1.)""'" f<.,vc-v-c:.e .:vi.- l'
.. r - ( £ - vj) (LSI' '" 0( 4- 1 )]/r Z ii 'j "" K I
t c.ot K '2
- ,\-' (t -'1) ( .t ; V\ + 'j ,; v-. t>()
l '2.. '"0 p( 0( )
< -. "v (1 C. R; '1)/ '2,-= "
=-:L.. '"
2':) Cqs, po<
;: _ ( .e"V - 11-)

N ... - 'V.t _ 11>.;z.
'1 '"
137
138
I-to .... p .... ... "e. t<-k
1
(k:."j rvopov'l-ioiA)J
I
' ::
M".t.,e..,..Ve.-l '1
f'vo o."-l-t'Q,,,,) ]
: L (-1) .. K
U
e
'1)'
w.e-
v
(.L'1) , s..;...., K -
t
i"", Co""e (S-v'j>fD ....... a.-t'
--
.. V'\. rc"-,,e< H OlP\e,&"'I.l:-'t.
l.
I'll
(- +t -
1CJJ
TI
4 Y <;""'"" t><

fa- ;«ec:.o<- .. .. ",)))
e- el
v
zel;
S<:I?,

11'q,.{"Cj." +A...Aoc:' '\.0( +.c.- j( )
1" ..tv
('2!:t:)
N"t - W/(n-1 20<)
N,*e:. !

--
(,.J "*

",-+rl;e..c 1"0 Dott-o..,
T1..
0
It.
Yt1"" ";'0"-

-W/c
21T
1
&t,.
.. L ....
V1. r;1
('2 Tt E t; .c...:n 0<. )

- o· 5" f t K ( -
1)
V
t>( / "-
T3
r ........
___
e
3
*
(- t 1- C( +? t )) /(1. et)

(p t o<'(i (l-f)));{'2eb)

Nt.k
+
'1 T c- <A
\yJ
TIf'
w e Y ( 1 ) ( '1) 0(

- w e- .c ( l; - "V'((,eb)
e .....
IN..ek_ ",..-e .
----
+
Vu
139
140
1.
(;-I ...
$v ..... c;.t..._je.. :. 0
....r;. r .... '" 10 kc.J(_
I
foV'c.e.. (N) 'l.l..:'3
Nt,. - - U':r9.o
\ ;Z./p n ll ......
N"l. : -110..0 /(n)(. Si"" 'Z.'() "" -ILk(.g.o
N4 A -La l(. .... -?)( "t.!.,.:'!> +- '2..l<'2..t.,.>3fi V\t< :: - c...,zt·o
Co "2..<&,.:;:; II·\ .. __ _
Ton...A ,..J bA...('c. :;. - 12tCo fo:.,J •
(T)
It -= 1"2,· x )(. Vi", CI< +"'-" C<
o 0
10 1l-3.·c.,
j __ _
lordA ,.. b""c:..:: -I--'2oZ.....,.
(e)
'9, ..
'2 )(. e l(, 0.4-
81.'" -1'2.Q<l / exo.4-xCA:lroz.0 .. _o,oooo'l7
9-\ot'" -lO ><: 1\''-1-);)':> 1. x. 0 )( 0
0
''-4
Tc;>rM e I::;>_te. ,. - o· 0002
L:H.f (v-) 1.'!.R !."3
VI :: €
o
1& -0000
./4 1: lo.ox: ... o')" .. p.
Tot-..vI. v- b,,-,>-c. ;:

I
FRSE CONB ANALYSIS - RESULTS
LENGTH OF SHELL WALL ••••••••••••• 8.856001 M
LENGTH TO START OF SHELL ••••••••• 11.489 M
SHELL WALL THICKNESS .............. 4 M
SEMI-CENTftAL ANGLE ............... 48.32 DEGREBS
No. OF POINfS FOR ANALYSIS ••••••• 10 STEPS
THE MODULUS OF ELASTICITY IS ••••• 1.5E+07 kN/sq.m
POISSONS RATIO ••••••.•••••••••••• 0
SHELL WALL DEAD LOADING •••••••••• 12.85 kN/sq.m
THE TOTAL WEI:;H'r OF 'rHE ROOF ••.•• 1200 kN
THE SURCHARGE PRESSURE IS •••••••• 0 kN/sq.m
'fHE WATER PRESSURE INCREASES BY •• 10 kN/sq.m
RESUL'l'S FOR COM3INED LOAD CASE
1 OIs'rANeE y ( MERIDIONAL HOOP ! HORIZONrAL 1
1 FROM BASE OF! FORCE FORCE ROTA'rION (DISPLACEMENTI
1 SHELL WALL 1 1 1
1 (M) (kN) (kN) 1 (mm) 1
1----------------------------------------------------------------1
(11.489 -33.5 123.9 +.132E-03 0.1772 1
(10.505 -60.2 190.5 (+.717E-04 0.2491 1
9.521 -97.6 242.6 +.176E-04 0.2875 1
8.537 -148.3 280.3 -.308E-04 0.2978
7.553 -214.1 303.5 (-.741E-04 0.2853
6.569 -302.2 312.2 -.113E-03 0.2553
5.585 -119.3 306.5 -.150E-03 0.2131
4.601 -582.0 286.3 (-.1878-03 0.1640
3.617 -823.4 251.7 -.230E-03 0.1133
2.633 -1226.4 202.5 (-.2968-03 0.0664
Figure '.3 Aeinforcement and upper surface formwork fixing supp;orts for inclined conical slab
141
142
----- - --_. --
X. -:: '2. 4'/ 1'2.)(
'j )
fvoV'""\ r e. 0 / ?. 7
cS' ... /:: l,.o.\..kl. ... f '.
C eM' 1'2 b· : I<. He I '::' /

C9.-tt,. K ;:.1'Zt>.t:./(Io.'-I;I....lK.I2.2.> . ''22>l
t1 e I .. '01 '-f 1. x. e K . I....\- >< 'Z. ' K (+·'0002'?(P)/+JI...-. '-"p( '"
M\ I:. _'O'-{;l.f K. EK.' Y K (_ 0 ,,+ea.l

I \
H e - , oy. }<. e- )(, \...4. >< (+, Q-OO 2 r>( '" - \.
H ... . '2 >< ex, u
_ 110.0

O. 'I- := •
t I )c 1 ___ '_ ( ......... _ ......... _. o (7
+-;x;t:1 ::.
------------------------
f.
; .......

V\e.,.c:l ...... 1d\...U..
---
X
Ie
II 1"2-



( .... )

;.'l...{l 3, . ':).z
I...f·tgl
<.,.'",Yb
\l
.... -
1-1'
-+ +13.·1
+1!.·1

+11."
MM;O ....

H'
-\1.0·0
-(1.0.0
-I/o. 0
-tlo.o
-110,0
I
Coe.(ft{
CH
M
' 1·0
o·S'S
0,20 0·03- -o·oz,..
lS
+"'0"",,\
-


MM
I
+1:,'l
+I..il,p . ..,
H'-!·l
+- 'Z,.t.
- 1... 'Z.
i

)( -

---- -- -- -- --- - -
-
::t:
CHrt' 0
+0.0'0
+0 . .01..0 +o.ooq. I
-.
'l:
r

-z
-t-C) b

U 0

II
.,
-
H ti"
r
1:
0
-1;·-:," -( '::,'·2 - (P.o -.0- !:
1"
l.M + l g·l
- 0·':>-
- s· b
-
Cr-J""
,
0 -1·8>8
-I· -O·l&>
_.0'\0
1-'\\+4-."'';';
tS:·I;;"O 21.10
11'10
1':('. \0

',H-'I'

... '2
:r

0
-<;;'0
. -Il
- - --- --- --- - - -
-

CNH I

iA
).0 o.oL:>
-0·l7
-0, -o·o';{"
+-
..t Isir"\\>( tY.j
t
-
-1'2-1

- bs'" -1'2. - G::. \
r
"2
"2
Nt-! ' -1'2..1


\J
U
-w

4
...
;;
N !....,e.!.I
-\'21.1.0 -1'3.{p
-S'Co';)
-uLkO
I
2 2

- 12,;,s'!> -1090> -l<:::3
-S;(ol

CT"",'

-+ o· k>
--:;
-t..-{!
-"2

.
)C
)(
TM' -+ '2.-.0. '-t
-(I
-3.0
t'
+- c;. L .....,
-\ <=Y'l"

Vi
- - -- -- -- - -- ---
+: -

CIt;
I
-+ (p + + .Q·3 0 - o.y-
_0.4-


Tl-\' - b 13
-2.'Z.l -tl

+3.--\
U
l-
1\
U
-
u
-t-1..0 'Z.
-t + 't.-Lo'Z.
+'Z.tx+
\...!

2,/

+::',0 +11
+lY:O +'Z.4"l.

143
144
l2.eA.
\0.2>-1'_1-_-+++-_+
10.)1-
-+- --+++--+

.. '
,1(-+ __ +,,+-11--_ f
....1·00
--_._+---
'S11-1<:.-l •
. ----
---1--- - ---
'20'2-.,1 .
e: .... , V\

1;:-!1c-I .......

Di4"''''''''''' eM)
- 1.>0:' IGJ .
'D ; .... c:..c:..1:'
..... tI.A
fo .... c.c:.. .. ",-......

Now I 1
0
.... ' kn.Q\.-J"" - d..eA" 6 V\
C-I vc,vL 4...N t" k - c...c.-Ic: M.co Go""", r vC!-
c..-ov-..c..rc:..t-e ....tve +c ,...).
ROOF
CONE
BASE OF CONE
AND UPPER SHlI.FT
SHAFr
roUNDATIONS
Figure 8.4 Design of structural elements ef tower
Ref. 8-1
Ref.s 8-1 to 8-5 incl.
rabIes 9/31 , 9/32
J.
Reinforced Concrete
J.Faber and F.Mead
E.& F.N.Spon Ltd.1965
Reinforced Concrete
i) J.Faber and F.Mead
E.&F.N.Spon Ltd 1965
Design of Circular Raft
Foundations for Chimneys.
S.N.Manohar & S.B.Desai
Construction Weekly 1967
and 8-9
145
Program 8P 1 Calculation of forces and movements in
forces
unrestrained c'One 'Subjected to external
146
10 E=1.5E+07:U=0:PI=3.1415927£:S=10:W=10
20 CLS:PRINT:PRINT:PRINT
30 PRINT" CALCULAl'ION OF FORCES AND IN FREE
40 PRINT"
50 PRIN£:PRINr" PLE:ASE INPUT 'rHE FOLLOWING Dr,TA :-"
60 PRINf
70 INPU'f"
80 INPUT"
90 INPUT"
100 PRItH
CONE THICKNESS,(M) T·",T
TOTAL ROOF WEIGHT ON UPPER CONE PERIMETER W=fl;WR
'THE SURCHARGE PRE:5SURE (KN/M-Z) P=" iF
110 INPUT" THE LENGTH OF CONE FROM IT'S ORIGIN (M) ",L
120 INPUT" rHE Sf ART OF THE: CONE FROM IT'S ORIGIN (M) "'\Ll /' :<.
130 INPUT" fHE: HALF ANGLE OF THE: CONE (deg) ";ALPHA I
140 INPUT" THE NUMBE:R OF POINTS FOR ANALYSIS "IS
150 PRINT
160 INPUT" fHE MOO. ')1" ELASTICITY (DEFAULT=O .15E+08) ., E:
(DE:FAULT-O) ";U U .0
190 ALPHA = PI*ALPHA/180
200 Q=f*24/{SIN{ALPHA»
210 LC = L-Ll
220 DIM L{S) ,N{S) ,T{S) ,R(S) ,D{S) ,Nl(S) ,N2(S) ,N3(S) ,N4(5)
230 DIM -fIlS) ,T2{S) ,T3{S) ,1'4(5) ,R1(S) ,R2(5) ,R3(5) ,R4{S) ,Dl{S) ,D2(3) ,D3(3) ,04(5)
m ,
280 N2(I)=-WR/(Pl*Y*SIN(2*ALPHA»
290 N3(I)=-P*L*fAN(ALPHA)*(L/Y-Y/L)/2
300 N4(I)=-W*L"2*(L/Y-3*Y/L+2*Y"2/L"2)*SIN(ALPHA)/6
310 N(I)=Nl(l)+N2(I) tN3(I)+N4(1)
320 Tl{I)=Q*Y*SlN(ALPHA)*TAN(ALPHA) P
330 T2(I)=O
340 T3(I)=p*rAN(ALPHA)*Y
350 r4(I)=W*L-2*(Y/L)*(L-Y)/L*SIN(ALPHA)
360 T(l) =1'1 (I) +1'2 (I) tT3 (1) +':'4 (1)
370
4*(SIN(ALPHA)"2)+2*U*(COS(ALPHA)"2»)/(2*E:*T)
380
390 R3(I)=-P*L*(TAN(ALPHA)"2)*(L/Y+3*Y/L)/(2*E*T)
400
410 R(I)=Rl(I)+R2(I)+R3(I)+R4(II
420
430 D2 (I) =U*ilR/ (2*PI*E*T*COS (ALPHA»
440 D3 (II =p*[," 2*51N (.ALPHA) *TAN (ALPHA) * (? *y" 2/ G" 2 tU* ( l_Y" 2/L" 2) 1/ (2*E* n
450 D4(I)=rl*L"3*(SIN(ALPHA)"2)*«Y"2/L"2)*(L-Y)/L+U*(1-3*Y"2/L"2+2*Y"3/L"3)/6)/
E* r)
460 D(l)-=Dl(I)+D2(IPDJ(I)+D4(I)
470 NEXT I
480 PRINT:PRINT:PRINr" CHE:CK THE: PRINTER IS SWIfCHED ON.":INPUT Z
490 LPRINT" FREE CONE ANALYSIS - RESULfS"
500 LPRINT" ----------------------------..
510 LPRINT
520 LPRINT" LENGTH OF SHELL WALL •..•.....•••. ·;L;" M"
530 LPRINT" LENGTH ')1" INITIAL SfE:P ..•...•.... "'Ll, .. M"
540 LPRI N'r" SHELL WALL THICKNE:SS ............... ; r;" M"
550 LPRINT" SE:MI-CENTRAL ANGLE ........•....•. "':LPRINT USING "EEE.E£EB",ALPHA*
BO/PI,:LPRINT" deg"
560 LPRINT" NO. OF POINTS ANALYSIS ......... ,5'· STEPS"
570 LPRINl'
590 LPRIN'r" MOD. OF ELASTICI fY ............... "; E," kN 1M" 2"
590 LPRINT" POISSONS RATIO •...•...•.....•.... "; U
600 LPRIlH
610 f"PRINr" SHELL WALL DEAD LOADING .......... ";Q;" kN/tl"2"
620 LPRINT: LPRINT
630 LPRItU" RE:SULf5 FOR COM3INED LOAD :ASE": LPRINl'
640 LPRINT"------------------------------------------------------------------"
650 LPRINl'" I DIsrANCE y ! ME:RIDIONAL! H,)OP! ! HORI Z:)NT,i\L !"
660 BASE: OF! FORCE: FORCE ROTATION !DISPLACEMENT!"
670 LPRINT"! SHE:LL WALL! I"
680 LPRIN'f"! (tl) ! (kNI ! (kNI (mm) I"
690 LPRINf"!----------------------------------------------------------------1"
700 A$="£££.EBE":B$="+£££E£.£":C$="££££.£":D$="+.£E£""-"":E:$="£.££E£"
710 FOR )(=S-l 'ro 0 s'rEP-l
720 LPRIllr"! ";:LPRINT USING A$;L(XI,:LPRINT" ! ',:LPRINT USING B$;N(X);:LP
IN'i'" ! n;:LPRINT USING C$,'f(X);:LP!UtH" ! ",:LPRIN'r USING D$;R(X);:LPRINT"
I ""LPRINT USING E$;;)\.\)·lOOO;:LPRINr" 1"
7 30 NEn i{
740 LPRINT .. ------------------------------------------------------------------"
s;f 120
106
106
:;1
94
__ L.
103
89
'OJ
89
89
80
89
t:\..-?.R rlK c;;.' ///1-5' /...15<·,1 ____
A../,t::-
10 - 30
21
o
v
Figure 8.5 Enlarged rc details at base of cone
,0
J
I
;;;1
147
:".nlr"\ P'Dt {
fO'
\
\
\
\
Figure 8.6 Water tower construction details
148
]'>Or:>m "1,1(11(, ,'or
OUf\,t!'l1a,n
]':to""""d •• ,hHtdt,ron
0v t l,l"'a,l'lfro""o .. t-
Figure 0.7 Plan showing reinforcement in cone walls
Figure 8.8 Detail at base of cone and head of shaft

149
<0000
Figure 8.9 Steel conical water tower
150
All thIck.
45E
2m dio. shaft-
Figure 1.10 Completed steel water tower
Design of steel conical water tanks
Figure 8.9 is of a conical steel water tower built at
approximately 420 m above sea level in an area subject
to high wind speeds and low temperatures. Grade 43E
steel was used for the tower and. because of concern over
the water freezing in the tank. the wall and roof were
insulated externally.
The tank contains 90 m) of water and. because it was
small. steel was chosen for both economical and speed
of construction reasons. There is no British Standard for
the design of this type of structure; however. a very useful
guide had been prepared for Australian designers and with
the help of this article (Ref. 8-6) and the tables prepared
for this handbook the analysis was carried out and the
tower built. Although the designed tank wall required
relatively little thickness of metal. a minimum thickness
of 12 mm plate was used to comply with the recommenda-
tions of the Australian article. which took into account
experiments on the buckling of cylinders and cones.
One further problem was the possibility af the tower
oscillating as a result of wind induced vibrations and also.
should the water 'slosh' at the same frequency as the
tower, then the results could be serious! Although no
specific guidelines had been prepared for this type of
structure with regard to this problem. calculations were
carried out using the BS for the design of chimneys (Ref.
8-7) and articles from technical journals (Ref. 8-8),
Of considerable value in the design was information
provided in an article in the Structural Engineer on wind
tunnel tests carried out on a model of a conical water tower
built at York (Ref. 8-9). The calculations indicated that
serious oscillations would not occur and that the water,
which responded more slowly to wind action, would tend
in simple terms. to act as a dampener to any movement.
The tower has stood for the past 10 years in often extreme
conditions and has shown little signs of structural distress.
References
8-1 Timoshenko S. Woinowsky-Krieger S 1959 Theory
of Plates and Shells McGraw-Hill
8-2 Arya D S. 1969-1970 Analysis and design of
circular shell structures. Indian Concrete Journal,
August 1969-June 1970
8-3 Batty D I 1973 Computerised Design of Conical
Shells for Water Towers MSc Bradford University
8-4 Flugge W 1967 Analysis of Shells Springer Verlag
8-5 Taylor A R. Airey E M 1978 The Structural Design,
Construction. Inspection and Repair of Reinforced
Concrete Settling Cone Shells used in Coal
Preparation Plants Mining Research and Develop-
ment Establishment Report No 74
8-6 Ramm D W 1978 Design of Elevated Steel Tanks
Australian Institute of Steel Construction (with
particular reference to conical tanks) Vol 12 No I.
8-7 BS 4076 Steel Chimneys
8-8 Irish K. Cochrane R G 1971 Wind induced
oscillation of circular chimneys and stacks.
Structural Engineer
8-9 Williams G M J, Houghton D S, Moss G M 1967
Design of two unusual structures at York University
Structural Engineer, May
151
Design for water .. retaining structures
Table 9.1 Details of (a) bar reinforcement. and (b) fabric reinforcement
Groups of Bars
(kg/metre run)
Bar S.ze Number 01 bars
mm 1 2 10
, Denoles non·preferred s.zes
6 ' 0.222 0.444 0.666 0.888 1.110 1.332 1.554 1.776 1.998 2.220
0.395 0.790 1.185 1.580 1.975 2.370 2.765 3.160 3.555 3.950
10 0.616 1.232 1.848 2.464 3.080 3.696 4.312 4.928 5.544 6.160
12 0.888 1.776 2.664 3.552 4.440 5.328 6.216 7.104 7.992 8.880
16 1.579 3.158 4.737 6.316 7.895 9.474 11.053 12.632 14.211 15.790
20 2.466 4.932 7.398 9.864 12.330 14.796 17.262 19.728 22.19-4 24.660
25 3.854 7.708 11.562 15.416 19.270 23.124 26.97 30.632 34.686 38.540
32 6.313 12.626 18.939 25.252 31.565 37.878 44.191 SO.504 56.817 63.130
40 9.864 19.728 29.592 39.456 49.320 59.184 69.048 78.912 88.776 98.640
I
SO' 15.413 30.826 46.239 61.652 77.065 92.478 107.891 123.304 138.717 154.130
I I
I
Weight par m
2
in one
direction. (Add both
Bar Size Spacing of Bars (milhmetres)
directions for total m
2 75 100 125 ISO 175 200 225 250 275 300
weight)
6 ' 2959 2.220 1.776 1.480 1.268 1.110 0.986 0888 0.807 0.740
• Denoles non·preferred sIzes
5.261 3.9-46 3.157 2.631 2.255 1.973 1.754 1.578 1.435 1.315
10 8.220 6.165 4.932 4.110 3.523 3083 2.740 2.466 2.242 2.055
12 11.638 8.878 7.103 5.919 5073 4.439 3.9-46 3.551 3.228 2.959
16 21.044 15.783 12.627 10.522 9.019 7.892 7.015 6.313 5.739 5.261
20 32.882 24.661 19.729 16.441 14.092 12.331 10.961 9.865 8.968 8.220
25 51378 38.534 30.827 25689 22.019 19.267 17.126 15.413 14.012 12.845
32 84.178 63133 SO.S07 42.089 36.076 31.567 28.059 25.253 22.958 21.044
40 131.528 98.646 78.917 65.764 56.369 49.323 43.843 39.458 35.871 32.882
SO' 205.512 154.134 123.307 102.756 88.077 77.067 68.504 61.654 56.049 51.378
(a)
152
Table 9.1 (8) (continued)
Sectional A.reap of
Groups of liars (mm2)
• Denotes non·prelllrred sizes
Sectional Areas per
Metre Width for
Various Spacings
(mm2/m)
• Denotes non-preferred Siles
6 •
10
12
Number of bats
2 10
28.3 56.5 84.8 113.1 141.4 169.6 197.9 226.2 254.5 282.7
SO.3
78.5
113.1
100.5 lSO.8 201.1
157.1 235.6 314.2
226.2 339.3 452.4
251.3 301.6 351.\1 402.1 452.4 S02.7
392.7 471.2 549.8 628.3 706.9 785.4
565.5 678.6 791.7 904.8 1017.9 1131.0
16 201.1 402.1 603.2 804.2 1005.3 1206.4 1407.4 1608.5 1809.6 2010.6
20 314.2 628.3 942.5 1256.6 1570.8 1885.0 2199.1 2513.3 2827.4 3141.6
25 490.9 981.7 1472.6 1963.5 2454.4 2945.2 34361 39270 4417.9 4908.7
32 604.2 1608.5 2412.7 3217.0 4021.2 4825.5 5629.7 6434.0 7238.2 8042.5
40 1256.6 2513.3 3769.9 S026.5 6283.2 7539.8 8796.5 10053.1 11309.7 12566.4
SO' 1963.5 3927.0 58905 7854.0 9817.5 11781.0 13744.5 15708.017671.519635.0
Bar Size
6 •
10
12
16
20
25
~ - : : : : T
SpaCing of Bars (millimetres)
75 100 125 ISO 175 200 225 2SO 275 300
377.0 282.7 226.2 188.5 161.6 141.4 125.7 113.1 102.8 94.2
670.2 S02.7 402.1 335.1 287.2 251.3 223.4 201.1 112.8 167.6
10472 785.4 6283 523.6 4488 392.7 349.1 314.2 215.6 261.1
lS08.0 1131.0 904.8 754.0 646.3 565.5 502.7 452.4 411.3 377.0
2680.8 2010.6 1608.5 1340.4 1148.9 1005.3 893.6 604.2 731.1 670.2
41888 31416 25133 2094.4 1795.2 1570.8 1396.3 1256.6 1142.4 1047.2
6545.0 49087 3927.0 3272.5 2805.0 2454.4 2181.7 1963.5 1715.0 1636.2
32 107233 8042.5 6434.0 5361.6 4595.7 4021.2 3574.4 3217.0 2924.5 2680.8
40 16755.1 125664 10053.1 8377.6 7180.8 6283.2 5585.0 S026.5 4569.6 4188.8
SO' 26179.9 196349 15708.0 13090.0 11220.0 98175 8726.6 7854.0 7140.0 1545.0
Mesh Sizes Cross· sectional
Area Per
Nominal
Weight
perm'
Sheets Sheets
Type
SOUARE
MESH
FABRIC
STRUCTURAL
MESH
FABRIC
LONG MESH
FABRIC
WRAPPING
FABRIC
BS Nominal Pitch
I!eference of Wires
393
252
A 193
142.
98
·s 1131
8 785
8 503
B 385
8 283
8 196
785
S03
C 385
C 283
C 636
98
49
Main
200
200
200
200
200
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
100
200
100
wire Sizes
Cross Main
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
200
400
400
400
400
400
200
100
mm
10
8
12
10
8
10
2.5
Metre Width
Cross Main Cross
mm
10
8
25
mm'
393
252
193
142
98
1131
785
503
385
283
196
785
S03
385
283
636
mm'
393
252
193
142
98
252
252
252
193
193
193
70.8
49.0
49.0
49.0
70.8
98.0 980
49.1 49.1
, A142 also available 3.&m x 1.Om shem. SO sheets per burnal. - merchant slu stocked.
(b)
kg
6.16
3.95
3.02
2.22
154
10.90
814
5.93
4.53
3.73
3.05
6.72
4.34
3.41
2.61
555
154
77
per tonne Sheet per Sq Metres
(approx) Wetght bUnale pertonne
15
22
29
40
57
B
11
15
20
24
29
13
20
26
34
16
57
113
leg
70.96 18
45.SO 28
34.79 34
2557
17.74
125.57
93.57
68 31
5219
42.97
35.14
77 41
SO.OO
39.28
30.07
6394
46
60
10
14
18
24
30
36
16
26
30
32
20
17.74 60
8.87 SO
162.34
253.16
331.13
4SO.45
649.35
91.74
122.85
168.63
220.75
268.10
327.87
148.81
230.41
293.26
383.14
180.18
649.35
1298.70
153
Table 9.2 Ultimate anchorage bond and lap lengths as multiples of bar size (BS 8110)
154
25 TenSIon anchor. and lap lengttl
1.4 x tenstOn tap
2.0 x tenSIon tap
39
55
78
32
72
101
143
58
51
71
101
41
40
57
81
32
31
44
62
25 CompresSIOn anchorage IengtI\
Comp<esslon lap IengtI\ 39 72 51 40 31

30 Tension anchor. and lap IengtI\
1.4 x tenSIon lap
36
50
2.0 x tensIOn lap 71
Comp<esslon anchorage IengtI\ 29
. ____ ___ 3_6
35 Tension anchorage and tap length
1.4 x tenSion lap
2.0 x tenSion lap
33
46
66
Comp<esslon anchorage length 27
______ .. ___ ._
40 Tension anchorage and lap length
1.4 x lenSlon tap
2.0 x tenSion lap
Comp<esslon anchorage length
Compression lap length
31
43
62
25
31
66
92
131
53
66
61
85
121
49
61
57
80
113
46
57
46 37
64 52
92 74
37 29
46 __ ..:.3_7_
43 34
60 48
85 68
34 27
43 34
40
56
80
32
40
32
45
64
26
32
29
40
57
23
29
27
37
53
21
27
25
35
49
20
25
Table 9.3 Reinforcement scheduling details for (a) preferred shapes, and (b) other shapes
of bending dlmeneIona - pnlferN<f fINIpee -lIS 44Gll.
-"""'_"'lIonIIInGoI
T_lon;IIIoI ..... (L)

_&long_line
.....

' __ ... ----l
A

A+h

--A--

A+2h

Ire
V
A f'/

A+n
-.Ilo<Nfl<alldimons.oo
allhebobl$O'11lCaI use

"'-codt37
'--- A
I
--------
:iij
A+2n
INhere the ov.,aa dmen$Ol
01_ bob .. entreat do not
ne
u.M ''Ir, ShapI

A+(Bj-',.r-d
ThtsforrnWal$appt"oIlmate
'Nhererl, gteaterrhan It'4
i---- (B)
t'ntIWT\Umvaru.!ntable3
"',
as U65 1989. UN shape
axIo 51
---.J

A+S.(Cj-r-2d

(e)

a
_._.---'
t. , II"ldcates!he mlf'WnUm value In table 3 as 4466 1989
&.
-... ... bo
....... -
Straight
'---
A
C-.-::::>
A
L-
A
L--J
A
AL-

a
" To sepal .... equ&tJons Ie< each ..... and bendong 'aOOs. 1o\aI
n. 78. 79ard62 n",S<llormulae."

_of_ofllonlllnGoI
T_lonQIIIofbor(L)


_&long_line
..... In_
"""
rm
KangIos_""''''''''DIUI
.,...," orIoN.
--
Ie)
A.S.(e)

, 0 Seenoce.

8 -' I
.-- A
-
,
O?2d

" angIM_.".hoN"",",

are "S"'OI IctsI
(E)

A+28.C.(Ej 0
A --1
Seenof ••

r " (" 0
r . ___ --1

O?2d
Iijr
A+(Sj-",r-d
R non standard
thIS formula IS ;JClPfOImato

A
tt R IS mnmum. UN SI'\ape
-'37 nRlS9'8_iNn
200mm. $.Ie nexe 2 to
'(B)
10 as U65 198V
2(A+8j.12d

_AnorBarelObeless
'-Bh
than 12d Ot lSOmm,
whrche_lStno_I8r.Ie<
-0
0:

20mm not tess
..
andover Neltt'lefAnt')lBare

250 WI1h a rTllmmum value of
A and 8 of l00mm
See ""'. 3

If angle WItI'! honzorrtai's.5
or less.
r ;. B
A.(C)

i ,-;--/ A_1
-- te) --t '.p
See note "

2A.3B.1Bd
1f8ISgfeaferthan400 .. 2tJ.
see flOUt 210 dause 10
... 1
) ?
as 4466 1989
c::Ja
(C
$4)ef'()le3
T
4. The Iengttl formula IS approlrrnate and when ben:.1Ing ang}es elceed 45 the \enqth
should be calculaled ffiOf8 ac:o..trater; artow1OQ to( the difference the specrlJed
overall dlfl'l(triSJOnS and \tie true length measured alono lhe central ilXlS ol1t\e bat Of '!We
When the bendtno angfes approach 90" >1 15 pcelerab'e to !.4)eC'rl'y 5I"lape c:oda 99 wrth I
luftydlmen$)Q(\illskeld"l
Genorol No .. : me unsooaf>ed 0< und>meosoonod portron 01 'he bat sI'<lvId not be 01 • cotrcaI
nature as aU tokH"al"CeS of wrtlf"lg am bendlrq etc are taken up on th'" portlOn
(a)
155
Table 9.3 (continued)
o
[J
c=::::l- ,-C ___ I
.. Ai IE)

-,
, 0
-C-
156
A.B.(C)-,-2d

C
A

C
A
aD
C
(b)

-8-
r-
C _ Bl
!
ThoMboIowillbosuppi>O<l
O1toq,t_ .... rIldIus,.
grNWIhanIhalIl""""'"

2A.3B.1Od
_Arae_bo ....
Ihan l2dcr '5Omm.
_ ......
grIIIooteoonSlZ"""
oxooedlng2Ommra_
Ihan • ...,tot ..... '"
25mm ord fNfII _ A not
SlfOlObo_lhonlOdtot
grIIIo 250 """ • monmum
vaau.oIAord SoI'OOmm
SNr'OI03
A+B+O.57C+(D)-'1tr
-2.57d
K C .. grM' .. 1IIan 4OO.2d.
_noI02lOdouM'O
854466'9119
_SOSnolgr __ INIn
M
i' (A-d)
.. ,.

/leII1,w"nm)
........ """"01_''''"''"1
C ...... <NfII .. hoogItol""".
I'" mm) Where B tS ",Nter
IhonM ..... lormuIadoosnol
II>IJIyTher.shalbo8l1e ....
_ilJloumo"' ..... _
NoIo· ......... A .. smaI
_lOd."""",-os
fl!lbncalold ... dooedtorm
andpulle<llO",-an_
.,. ..... Ic __
A_s>.eId>_
be cWawn CMA at. !CNOJle
-.mnsAlOE E.-y
-.anshalboopoollod
,,,,,-.anlNlltSlO

_1IOnI_bootOcaled
ftil:lncalr .. _I0_
""""'-......_--
tot .... '0'."""" "."'-
Chaltlgrtenl"llhts\.lilibllOfJn
_'BS'-'9119 ..
"""""",bula_
-.an .. IO_tot""

",-_bodr-."'" ,
II""""INI ",-."..99 &
..... " .. ""'*'""'"_bo

1OIe<ancoogrven .. _.
BS'-'911901ool1JP1Y
R

A
A ,5 the eI'lefNll
..-01_
• oS .... """"01
"...
ClSthaovera'
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Table 9.10 'x' and 'z' factors for sections
reinforced in tension only - serviceability
limit state
******** ******1<** * * * * -.. *
As*100
I x I
I z'
---- factor factor
b.d
0.100 0.159 0.947
0 . 1 2 ~ 0.176 0.941
0.150 0.191 0.936
0.175 0.204 0.932
0.200 0.217 0.928
0.225 0.228 0.924
0.250 0.239 0.920
0.275 0.249 0.917
0.300 0.258 0.914
0.325 0.267 0.911
0.350 0.276 0.908
0.375 0.284 0.905
0.400 0.292 0.903
0.425 0.299 0.900
0.450 0.306 0.898
0.475 0.313 0.896
0.500 0.319 0.894
0.525 0.326 0.891
0.550 0.332 0.889
0.575 0.338 0.887
0.600 0.344 0.885
0.625 0.349 0.884
0.650 0.355 0.882
0.675 0.360 0.880
0.700 0.365 0.878
0.725 0.370 0.877
0.750 0.375 0.875
0.775 0.380 0.873
0.800 0.384 0.872
0.925 0.389 0.870
0.350 0.393 0.869
0.875 0.398 0.867
0.900 0.402 0.866
0.925 0.406 0.865
0.950 0.410 0.863
0.975 0.414 0.862
1. 000 0.418 0.861
***1<**** ********* *******
Table 9.11 'zld' lever arm factors for ultimate
bending moment
*************** ***** ••• *.***
Mu
--------
z/d FACrOR
b.d.d.fell
0.000 0.950
0.005
0.950
0.010
0.950
0.015 0.950
0.020 0.950
0.025 0.950
0.030 0.950
0.035 0.950
0.040 0.950
0.045 0.947
0.050 0.941
0.055 0.935
0.060 0.928
0.065 0.922
0.070 0.915
0.075 0.908
0.080 0.901
0.085 0.894
0.090 0.887
0.095 0.880
0.100 0.873
0.105 0.865
0.110 0.857
0.115 0.850
, .120
0.842
0.125 0.833
0.130 0.825
0.135 0.816
0.140 0.807
0.145 0.798
0.150 0.789
0.155 0.779
0.156 0.777
*************** **************
Lever Arm Factors obtained by
using CLAUSE 3.4.4.4 BS 8110
l***************x**************
163
Tabie 9.12 Concrete grade C25: permitted values of shear stress 've' for a range of As x 1001
(bv x d) and effective depth, d (Values derive from an equation given in BS 8110. Table 3.9)
164
Effective 'd' mm

100 125 150 175
0.15 0.47 0.45 0.43 0.41 0.40 0.39 0.38 0.37 0.36 0.35 0.34
"-
0.20 0.52 0.49 0.47 0.45 0.43 0.42 0.41 0.40 0.38 0.37
0.25 0.56 0.53 0.51 0.49 0.46 0.45 0.44 0.43 0.41 0.40
0.30 0.60 0.54 0.52 0.50 0.49 0.48 0.46 0.45 0.44 0.42
0.35 0.63 0.68 0.57 0.55 0.53 0.51 0.50 0.49 0.48 0.46 0.45
0.40 0.66 0.62 0.60 0.57 0.55 0.54 0.?2 0.51 0.50 0.48 0.47
0.45 0.68 0.65 0.62 0.60 0.58 0.56 0.54 0.53 0.52 0.50 0.48
0.50 0.71 0.67 0.64 0.62 0.60 0.58 0.56 0.55 0.54 0.52 0.50
0.55 0.73 0.69 0.66 0.64 0.62 0.60 0.58 0.57 0.56 0.54 0.52
0.60 0.75 0.71 0.68 0.66 0.63 0.62 0.60 0.59 0.57 0.55 0.53
0.65 0.77 0.73 0.70 0.67 0.65 0.63 0.62 0.60 0.59 0.57 0.55
0.70 0.79 0.75 0.72 0.69 0.67 0.65 0.63 0.62 0.60 0.58 0.56
0.75 0.81 0.77 0.73 G.71 0.68 0.66 0.65 0.63 0.62 0.59 0.57
0.80 0.83 0.78 0.75 0.72 0.70 0.68 0.66 0.64 0.63 0.61 0.59
0.85 0.85 0.80 0.77 0.74 0.71 0.69 0.67 0.66 0.64 0.62 0.60
0.90 0.86 0.82 0.78 0.75 0.73 0.70 0.69 0.67 0.66 0.63 0.61
0.95 0.88 0.83 0.79 0.76 0.72 0.70 0.67 0.64 0.62
1.00 0.89 0.85 0.81 0.78 0.7) 0.73 0.71 0.69 0.68 0.65 0.63
1.05 0.91 0.82 0.79 0.76 0.74 0.72 0.71 0.69 0.66 0.64
J .10 0.92 0.87 0.83 0.80 0.78 0.75 0.73 0.72 0.70 0.67 0.65
1.15 0.94 0.89 0.85 0.81 0.79 0.76 0.74 0.73 0.71 0.68 0.66
1.20 0.95 0.90 0.86 0.83 0.80 0.78 0.76 0.74 0.72 0.69 0.67
1.25 0.96 0.91 0.87 0.84 0.81 0.79 0.77 0.75 0.73 0.70 0.68
1.30 0.98 0.92 0.88 0.85 0.82 0.80 0.78 0.76 0.74 0.71 0.69
1.35 0.99 0.93 0.89 0.86 0.83 0.81 0.79 0.77 0.75 0.72 0.70
1.40 1.00 0.95 0.90 0.87 0.84 0.82 0.80 0.78 0.76 0.73 0.71
1.45 1.01 0.96 0.91 0.88 0.85 0.83 0.80 0.79 0.77 0.74 0.72
1.50 1.02 0.97 0.92 0.89 0.86 0.84 0.81 0.79 0.78 0.75 0.72
Table 9.13 Concrete grade caO: permitted values of shear stress 'vc' for a range of As x 1001
(bv x d) and effective depth. d (Values derive from an equation given in as 8110, Table 3.9)
Effective depth
'd'mm
100 125 150 175 200 225 250 275 300 350 400
0.15 0.50 0.48 0.46 0.44 0.42 0.41 0.40 0.39 0.38 0.37 0.36
0.20 0.56 0.53 0.50 0.48 0.47 0.45 O. <14 0.43 0.42 0.41 0.39
0.25 0.60 0.57 0.54 0.52 0.50 0.49 0.48 0.46 0.45 0.44 0.42
0.30 0.64 0.60 0.57 0.55 0.53 0.52 0.51 0.49 0.48 0.46 0.45
0.35 0.67 0.63 0.60 0.58 0.56 0.S5 0.S3 0.52 0.51 0.19 0.47
0.40 0.70 0.66 0.63 0.61 0.59 0.57 0.56 0.54 0.53 0.51 0.49
0.45 0.73 0.69 0.66 0.63 0.61 0.59 0.58 0.57 0.55 0.53 0.51
~
0.50 0.75 0.71 0.68 0.66 0.63 0.62 0.60 0.59 0.57 0.55 0.53
I(
>-
:9
0.55 0.78 0.74 0.70 0.68 0.65 0.64 0.62 0.60 0.59 0.57 0.55
-
~
<
0.60 0.80 0.76 0.72 0.70 0.67 0.65 0.64 0.62 0.61 0.59 0.57
"
o
0.65 0.82 0.78 0.74 0.72 0.69 0.67 0.65 0.64 0.63 0.60 0.58
o
""-
0.70 0.84 0.80 0.76 0.73 0.71 0.69 0.67 0.65 0.64 0.62 0.60
0.75 0.86 0.82 0.78 0.75 0.73 0.70 0.69 0.67 0.66 0.63 0.61
0.80 0.88 0.83 0.80 0.77 0.74 0.72 0.70 0.68 0.67 0.64 0.62
0.85 0.90 0.85 0.81 0.7G 0.76 0.73 0.72 0.70 0.68 0.66 0.64
0.90 0.92 0.87 0.83 0.80 0.77 0.75
0." 3 0.71 0.70 0.67 0.65
0.95 0.93 0.88 0.84 0.81 0.79 0.76 0.74 0.73 0.71 0.68 0.66
1.00 0.95 0.90 0.86 0.83 0.80 0.78 0.76 0.74 0.72 0.69 0.67
1. 05 0.97 0.91 0.87 0.84 0.81 0.79 0.77 0.75 0.73 0.71 0.63
1.10 0.98 0.93 0.89 0.85 0.82 0.80 0.78 0.76 0.74 0.72 0.69
1.15 1.00 0.94 0.90 0.87 0.94 0.81 0.79 0.77 0.76 0.73 0.70
1. 20 1. 01 0.95 0.91 0.88 0.85 0.82 0.80 0.78 0.77 0.74 0.71
1. 25 1. 02 0.97 0.92 0.89 0.86 0.84 0.81 0.79 0.78 0.75 0.72
1. 30 1. 04 0.98 0.94 0.90 0.37 0.85 0.82 0.80 0.79 0.76 0.73
1. 35 1.05 0.99 0.95 0.91 0.88 0.86 0.83 0.82 0.80 0.77 0.74
1.40 1.06 1.00 0.96 0.92 0.89 0.87 0.84 0.83 0.81 0.78 0.75
1.45 1. 08 1. 02 0.97 0.93 0.90 0.88 0.85 0.83 0.82 0.79 0.76
1.50 1. 09 1. 03 0.98 0.95 0.91 0.89 0.86 0.84 0.83 0.79 0.77
165
Table 9.14 Concrete grade C35: per-mil1ed values of shear stress 've' for a of As x ;001
Table 3.9) (bv x d) and effective depth. d derive from an equation given in as 81
166
mm
100 125 150 175 200 225 250 275 300 350 400
-- ------------ ----
0.15 0.53 0.50 0.48 0.46 0.45 0.43 0.42 0.41 0.40 0.39 0.38
0.20 0.58 0.55 0.53 0.51 0.49 0.48 0.47 0.45 0.44 0.43 0.41
0.25 0.63 0.60 0.57 0.55 0 S3 0.51 0.50 0 . ~ 9 C 48 0.46 0.45
0.30 O.Li 0.63 0.60 0.58 0 . ~ 6 0.55 0.53 0.52 0.51 0.49 0.47
0.35 0.70 0.67 0.64 0.61 0.59 0.58 0,56 0.55 0.54 0.52 0.50
0.40 0.74 0.70 0.67 0.64 0.62 0.60 0.59 0.57 0.56 0.54 0.52
0.45 0.77 0.72 0.69 0.67 0.64 0.63 0.61 0.59 0.58 0.56 0.54
0.50 0.79 0.75 0.72 0.69 0.67 0.65 0.63 0.62 0.60 0.58 0.56
0.55 0.E2 0.77 0.74 0.71 0.69 0.67 0.65 0.64 0.62 0.60 0.58
0.60 0.84 0.80 0.76 0.73 0.71 0.69 0.67 0.65 0.64 0.62 0.60
0.65 0.87 0.82 0.78 0.75 0.73 0.71 0.69 0.67 0.66 0.63 0.61
0.70 0.89 0.84 0.80 0.77 0.75 0.72 0.71 0.69 0.67 0.65 0.63
0.75 0.91 0,86 0.82 0.79 0.76 0.74 0.72 0.71 0.69 0.66 0.64
0.80 0.93 0.88 0.84 0.81 0.78 0.76 0.74 0.72 0.71 0.68 0.66
0.85 0.95 0.90 0.86 0.82 0.80 0.77 0.75 0.74 0.72 0.69 0.67
0.90 0.97 0.91 0.87 0.84 0.81 0.79 0.77 0.75 0.73 0.71 0.68
0.95 0.98 0.93 0.89 0.85 0.83 0.80 0.78 0.76 0.75 0.72 C.70
1.00 1.00 0.95 0.90 0.37 0.84 0.82 0.80 0.78 0.76 0.73 0.71
1 • 05 1 .02 0 .96 0 . 92 0 . 88 0 . 85 0 . 83 0 . 81 0 . 79 ,) .77 0 .74 G . 72
1.10 1.03 0.98 0.93 0.90 0.87 0.84 0.82 0.80 0.78 0.75 0.73
1.15 1.05 0.99 0.95 0.91 0.88 0.86 0.83 0.81 0.80 0.77 0.74
1.20 1.06 1.00 0.96 0.92 0.89 0.87 0.84 0.83 0.81 0.78 0.75
1.25 1.08 1.02 0.97 0.94 0.91 0.88 0.86 0.84 0.82 0.79 0.76
1.30 1.09 1.03 0.99 0.95 0.92 0.89 0.87 0.85 0.83 0.80 0.77
1.35 1.11 1.05 1.00 0.96 0.93 0.90 0.88 0.86 0.84 0.81 0.78
1.40 1.12 1.06 1.01 0.97 0.94 0.91 0.89 0.87 0.85 0.82 0.79
1.45 1.13 1.07 1.02 0.98 0.95 0.92 0.90 0.88 0.86 0.83 0.80
1.50 1.14 1.08 1.03 1.00 0.96 0.93 0.91 0.89 0.87 0.84 0.81
Table 9.15 Shear reinforcement spacing (mm) for beams, where 'v' is greater than (vc + 0.4)
**k***** * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * ~ * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * . * * * * * * * * * . * * * *
bv(v-vc DIAMErER OF LINK (mm)
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
450
500
550
600
650
700
750
800
850
900
950
1000
1050
1100
1150
1200
1250
6
453
226
151
113
91
75
65
57
50
45
41
38
35
32
30
:'8
27
25
24
23
22
21
20
19
18
a
805
402
268
201
161
134
115
101
89
80
73
67
62
')7
54
50
47
45
42
40
38
37
35
34
32
10
1257
629
419
314
251
210
180
157
140
1 ~ 6
114
105
97
90
84
79
74
70
66
63
60
57
55
52
50
12
1811
905
604
453
362
302
259
226
201
181
165
151
139
129
121
113
107
101
95
91
86
82
79
75
72
16
3219
1610
1073
805
644
537
460
402
358
322
293
268
248
230
215
201
189
179
169
161
153
146
140
134
129
****** ********** * * * * * * * * * * ~ * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * ~ * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *
Link diameter and spacing obtained by using equation in TABLE 3.8 BS 8110
FORMULA rABLE 3.8 IS
sv = Asv x 0.87 x fyv / (bv(v-vc»
sv
Asv
fyv
bv
= spacing of links along the member
= Total cross section of links at neutral axii at a section
= characteristic strength of links - 460 N/mm
= breadth of section or average width of rib below flange
vc = design concrete shear stress (refer tables 9/12-13 incl.
design shear stress at cross section v =
¥¥¥¥*******************************************************************
167
Table 9.16 Minimum percentage of reinforcement to resist early thermal cracking
168
Table 9.17 Deflection - modification factors for tension reinforcement for varying values of
Mu/(bdd) and serviceability stresses
********
.
*******.********.************* ••
Service
Stress
100.00
no.oo
120.00
130.00
HO.OO
150.00
160.00
170.00
180.00
190.00
200.00
210.00
220.00
230.00
240.00
250.00
260.00
270.00
280.00
290.00
300.00
0.50
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
1. 96
1. 90
1. 84
1. 78
1.72
1. 66
1. 60
0.75
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
2.00
1. 95
1. 90
1. 85
1. 80
1. 75
1. 70
1. 65
1. 60
1. 54
1. 49
1. 4 4
2
Hu/(b.d
1. 00 1. 25
2.00 2.00
2.00 1. 97
2.00 1.93
2.00 1. 89
2.00 1. 86
1. 98 1. 82
1. 94 1. 78
1. 90 1. 74
1. 85 1. 70
1. 81 1. 66
1. 76 1. 62
1.72 1. 58
1. 68 1. 55
1. 63 1. 51
1.59 1. 47
1. 55 1.43
1. 50 1. 39
1. 46 1. 35
1. 41 1. 31
1. 37 1. 27
1. 33 1. 24
)
1. 50 1. 75 2.00
1. 86 1.74 1. 63
1. 82 1. 70 1. 60
1. 79 1. 67 1. 58
1. 75 1. 64 1. 55
1. 72 1. 61 1.52
1. 69 1. 58 1. 49
1. 65 1. 55 1. 46
1. 62 1. 52 1.43
1. 58 1. 4 8 1. 40
1. 55 1. 45 1. 37
1. 51 1. 42 1. 35
1. 4 8 1. 39 1. 32
1. 44 1. 36 1. 29
1.41 1. 33 1.26
1. 37 1.30 '
1. 23
1. 34 1.26 1.20
1. 30 1. 23 1.17
1. 27 1. 20 1.14
1. 2 3 1. 17 1. 12
1. 20 1.14 1. 09
1.16 1.11 1. 06
********

odification factors obtained by using EQUATION 7 TABLE 3.11 BS 8110
*******w********************************************** ***************l
Table 9.18 Deflection
types of loads
modification factors for tapered cantilever walls subjected to different
CANrILEVER
LOI\DING
THICKNESS 'h' TOP / THICKNESS 'h' BTM

***** ****** ****** ****** ******
0.75 0.69 0.63 0.58 0.52

*** •• l .... ** .** ••••••••••• * •••
----------------
0.5 0.4 0.3
*******
*********
0.46 0.40 0.33
---------
0.68 0.61 0.54
---------
0.92 0.85 0.7 S
*.*******
+
POlnt Load
Modification Factors for oasic span/eff. death ratios TABLE 3.10 958110
**************** •• ********.******* •••••• ******.**************************
169
Table 9.19 Values of 'k' factor used for estimating deflections of cantilever walls under hydrostatic
pressure
I
1
O.U
I I '\.0
• ...l--""?"
\.. ... IV'
--
_ ......
I---'"
...
k
I-'P"'"
-I-'
I---'"
--r I I I
L....-
l-
I-
..-1-
......
-l-
I--
t-
l-
I-' .......
-I--
I-'
1.-1-'
I-'
I I .10.7
1-'1-'
-I--
I--t- I\,}\ _1--'1--
I
O.'l.O
L--
t-I--

I-f- r-n
-I-
1-1-'
l-
I I
I I
t-t-
\'0 0'8
0·$
170
TOT"L
LOAOW
h top I h btm
based on BS 8110 : 2
clause 3.7.2, equation 11 and Table 3.1
L .....
EXAMPLE
OF
GRAPH CONSTRUCTION
Coefficient k coef. of max. deflection at point being considered
coef. max. Bending Moment
3
Maximum Deflection W x (Lw) x (1 + (5x(Lh - Lw)/(4 x Lw»
15 x E x I
Maximum Bending Moment = W x Lw 1 3
i.e. when Lw = 0.7 x Lh
3
k W x 0.7 x (1 + (5 x 0.3)1(4 x 0.7»
h.top/h.btm =1.0
W x 0.7/3
k 0.151 1 ( E x I)
Table 9.20 Moment and shear force coefficients for walls subjected to hydrostatic pressure in a
three-dImensional rectangular tank, assuming a hinged base, free top and continuous sides
(adapted from peA tables)
LOlGfALL
lotUOITAL
!!OII!1fS
SlotT v.i.!
YllTICAL
IIOdm
SlOIf vALL
lotlZOITAL
!!OIIUH
LOIG vm
SlotT VALL
SlwrOICU Slwrmu
_,. cIa LlI'" Lll L,I L,l L,l Ly' SII" SII S,I S,2 S,I S" L.I L.2 L.I "I Sd "I
2.02.0 .... '11. -11. ·4S. ·n. 'l'. -Ii. 'Il. -11; •• S.! -n. '16. 'lI. '10. 'lI •• )1. '10 •• )1.
2.0 I.S ·ai. ·lI. -12 •• SO. -a .• ,!. -60. '11. -12. '11.1 -14. '22. '11. '10. '11. 'lI. .S •• )4.
2.0 1.0 -I'. '11. -SI •• S4. -14 .• 42. -IS. '10. -sa. -II. -64. '0. 'lI. '10. '11. '14. '2. '26.
1.00.S -... '11. -u. ·S4. -14. '44. -IS. '2. -61. -61. -64. -J4. '11. '10. '11. '14 •• 0. '1).
Ult tt.tt .. it .... tu lUlU U .. H UUttt Uttl tUlU tIIIU" ttttt u .... tut .. tit
I.S I.S -40. '22. -S2. '21. -6) •• 21. -10. '21. -S2. '21. -II. '21. 'JI. '1. '34. '12 •• S. '14.
1.1 1.0 -.e. ·2S. -JI. -ll. -.,. ·J2. -JS. -10. -ll. -'. -". '10. '12. '1 •• 34. -14 •• 2. ., ••
1.1 0.1 -60. -24. -14. '11. -44. -34. -IS. '2. -J6. -21. -44. -20. ·Il. ·S. '14. 014. -0. 'Il.
1.01.0 -!S. '10. -\'. '10. -li. '11. -JI. '10. -". '10. -J'. ,". '24. '1. '16. '24. '2. '11.
1.00.S -ll. -12. -II. '20. -12. '21. -IS. '2. -II. oS. -J). os. '24. '1. '11. '14. '0. 'Il.
uu ttt •• uu" ttt.. IUU uuu lUU" AUIi
O.i 0.\ -II. '2. -I. '2. -\0. ". -II. '2. -J. '1. -\0. ". '14. '0. ·Il. '14. '0. 'Il.
uttf'IUH UUtl .U*' HUt .... u itHUt UUI
3
MOMENT ~
1000
SHEAR
FORCE
Moment Coefficients
3
~
1000
~
1000
Horizontal Span
"U' ...... IUUit ttt.. ttt .. tUttt iUit ttUU UUU itt
~
1000
• a
2
~
100
e/2
Fr .. Til'
s,1
I,)
2
~
100
ell
~ - - - - b / - - 2 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - ~
~
rr- /'"
\ a/2
ui"
Sri
" • a
L,)
$,1
Moment COi;t ht:ionts
Vertical $pan
S,I'
S,I
** (LxI and sxl coefficients only to be used where
a fixed base alternative is being considered)
171
Table 9.21 Moment and shear force coefficients for walls subjected to hydrostatic pressure in a
three-dimensional rectangular tank, assuming a hinged base, hinged top and continuous sides
(adapted from peA tables)
.,
LOI'VALL
YUTIClL
lIOIIlITS
cia I.JI Lxl L11
-60. 0. O.
LQIGVllL
IOIlZOlUL
!!OHms
Ly2 L11 1.,4
O. 59. 20.
nOIf IllL
100IUlUL
lIOIIUTS
1,4
20.
21.
11.
-9.
1.01' VlLL
UOlt IIlLL
mAl OOU nwoou
hi LvI LVI
'fl
h2 h)
ll. O. 16. lO. O. l8.·
ll. O. l6. lO. O. H.·
ll. O. l6. 1I. O. 26 ••
ll. O. J6. 11. O. !l ..
U .. It ... 'Utu ...... uuu HUt tU.u UUt UHH' tu .. HUH t ....
UUt tu.U .....
1.\ I.S -51. 18. O.
I--t--
1.\ 1.0 -51. )0. O.
f-- r-
1.\ 0.\ -51. l5. O.
Uti IUU H"H HUt tttttt
1.0 1.0
-l2. 11. O.
r-
'--
1.0 0.5 -J2. 15. O.
tau uu. tt.u .. ..... ... ttt
0.\ 0.1 -11. 2. O.
.... ttlU
,tt.tt. tUH ......
MOMENT COEr .... a
1000
SI1EIIR
rORCE
jr.-- ---
. b/2
O. -52.
O. -43.
O. -l1.
.u ... ttttH
O. -l5.
O. -21.
HUH ttttU
O. -10.
ttt ... .tt.tt
3

1000
11.
21.
21.
HUt
16.
8.
..t ..
1.
u ....
----
fl-
r IqI4T,,==t
IL,l
t _
Ly4

-51. 28.
-ll. 8.
-II. -5.
tttUH tt ...
-32. II.
-u. -J.
.. .... .... t
-II. 1.
...... Httt
b/2
O.
O.
O.
HUH
O.
o.
IU.tt
O.
Itttit
1
,
O. -52.
O. -0.
O. ll.
... ttt u .. tU
O. -J5.
O. -21.
.tt.tt .......
O. -10.
.u.tt .......

1000
11.
11.
-1.
...u
16.
-2.
.....
1.
.....
lO. O. H.
lO. O. H.
lO. O. H.
24. O. 26.
24. O. 26.
Httt
11. ll.
.. tt •
COEI'· ... a
--roo-
e/2

l2. O. ll ••
24. O. 26.·
U. O. 1l.·
HU .. ttu .. .. u
11. O. 26 ••
U. O. ll .•
...... HUH .. it
U. O. lJ ••
............ .. ..
2
COEr· ... a
100
e/2
;I<
I

fSYl

i hi
Moment Coefficients
W • a
172
Lvi
hi
Vertical Span
•• (Lxl and Sxl coefficients only to be used where
a fixed base alternative is being considered)
,.,t'
si)
Sv)
Table 9.22 Moment and shear force coefficients for wall panels subjected to hydrostatic pressure,
assuming hinged base, free top and continuous sides (adapted from PCA tables)
b
Vhl)
V¥1
t
t.
P" MonMnt PoeItIoM Pr._.
dlegram
P .. st.. Ferce Peeitiane
It
I
b/a 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 4.0 5.0
I1hl - 3 - 19 - 52 - 91 -13.8 -196
Fr.
Mh2 + 2 + 10 • 27 + 45 + 61 + 70

IIhl -10 - 36 - 63 - 89 -115 -137

11M + 6
• 17
+ 27 + 36 + 44
• 49
Vhl 0 + 1 + 4 • 10 + 14
• 17
'1
Vh2
• 13
• 26
32 + 38 • 39
• 41
IE
Vh3 + 18
• 31
38 + 41 • 41 + 42
IIvl 0 0 0 0 0 0
j IIv2
·
2 + 10 + 22 + 33 + 42 + 49
vvl
• 14
-24 + 32 + 38 + 42 + 45
Vv2 0 0 0 0 0 0
But . Pmed-
Table 9.23 Moment and shear force coefficients for wall panels subjected to hydrostatic pressure,
assuming fixed base, free top and continuous sides from PCA tables)
b/. 0.5 1.0 1.5
Mhl 2 - 18 - 40
Mh2 • 1 + 9 + 21
Mh3 - 9 - 29 - 42
Mh4 + 6 . 13 + 16
Vh1 . 2 + 3 + 11
Vh2 + 13 + 23 + 26
Vh3 + 16 + 19 + 17
Mvl -
15
- 35 - 60
Mv2 + 2 . 9 + 16
Vvl + 20 + 32 + 41
Vv2 0 0 0
3
Moment • Coefficient x 'II x a I 1000
2
Shear Force • coefficient x 'II x a I 100
2.0 2.5 3.0 4.0 5.0
- 62 76 - 89
Tap • Fret
-101 -103
+ 27
• 27
+ 25 + 14 . 7
- 49 - 53 - 55 - 55 - 55
+ 16
·
14 + 10 + 4 0
+ 20 + 27 + 11 + 34 + 35
+ 25 + 24 + 23 + 20 + 20
+ 15
·
13 + 12 + 10 + 10
- 86 -108 -126 -148 -158
+ 15 + 11 + 5
-
6 - 13
• 46 + 48 + 50 + 50 + 50
0 0 0 0 0
Base: fixed
173
Table 9.24 Moment and shear force coefficients for wall panels subjected to hydrostatic pressure,
assuming pinned base, pinned top and continuous sides (adapted from peA tables)
b/a 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 4.0 5.0
Mh1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Top . Pinned
Mh2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Mh3 -10 - 35 - 52 - 59 - 62 - 63 -64 - 64
Mh4 + 5 + 16 + 21 + 20 + 17 + 16 + 16 + 15
Vhl 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Vh2 + 13 + 26 + 34 + 36 + 37 + 38 + 38 + 38
Vh3 + 19 + 32 + 38 + 39 + 39 + 39 + 39 + 39
Mv1 0 0 0 0 0 0
- -
Mv2 + 1 + 11 + 28 + 42 + 52 + 57 + 62 + 63
Vv1 + 14 + 24 + 30 + 32 + 33 + 33 + 33 + 33
Vv2 + 4 + 8 + 12 + 14 + 16 + 16 + 16 + 16
~
l
. .
~
".."T" ... Base ............ ·"""-"'p ... jm .... "8d,.".,· .... r-.' ..
Table 9.25 Moment and shear force coefficients for wall panels subjected to hydrostatic pressure.
assuming fixed base. pinned top and continuous sides (adapted from peA tables)
b/a 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2. S 3.0 4.0 S .0
Mh1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Top . Pinned
0
Mh2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Mh3 -11 - 27
-
34 - 35 - 35 - 35 - 35 - 35 ~
11M + 6 + 12 + 12 + 9 + 8 + 7 + 6 + 5
Vh1 0 0 O· 0 0 0 0 0
"g
~ If
"h2 + 13 t 26 + 34 + 36 + 37 + 38 + 38 + 38
Vh3 + 19 + 32 t 38 + 39 + 39 + 39 + 39 + 39
Mv1 - 12 - 32 - S1 - 60 - 6S - 65 - 65 - 65
Mv2 + 3 + 11 + 21 + 26 + 29 + 30 + 30 + 30
.. ..
~ ~
~ en
Vvl + 20 + 32 + 38 + 39 + 39 + 39 + 39 + 39
Vv2 + 3 + 8 + 9 + 10 + 10 + 10 + 10
t 10
Base . Fixed
174
Table 9.26 Deflection of two way spanning slabs with various edge conditions subjected to (a)
triangular pressure, (b) rectangular pressure
b/a
0 0
0.50 0.10 0.09
0.60 0.19 0.16
0.70 0.33 0.27
0.80 0.52 0.41
i
0.73 0.90
I
0.57
1.00 0.98 0.76
1.10 1.24 0.96
1. 20
I
1. 57 1.15
1. 30
I
1. 97 1.28
1.40
2.30 1. 40
1. 50 2.63 1.52
1. 60
3. 02 1. 64
1. 70 3.38 1. 78
1.80 3.72 1.90
1.90 3.98 1.98
2. 00 4.22 L04
~
DEFLEC'fION
'"
"'.0
b/a
0 0
0.50
0.16 0.16
0.60
0.27 0.33
0.70
0.58 0.53
0.80
0.91 0.83
0.90
1. 33 1.14
1. 00
1.9'2 1. 57
1.10
2.58 1.98
1. 20
3. l4 2.33
1. 30
3.75 2.71
1. 40
4.33 3.18
1.50 5.00 3.42
1. 60 5.74 3.75
1. 70 6.33 3.97
1. 80 7. Of;
4.17
1. 90 7.83
4. 33
2.00 8.44
1.19
I
DEFLEcrI'JN
'"
P
0 0
[]
0.08 0.02 0.07
0.20 0.05 0.16
0.34 0.08 0.24
0.50 0.20 0.40
0.72 0.36 0.59
1. 04 0.58 0.81
1.44 0.84 1.03
1.92 1. 36 1. 28
2.47 1.92 1.58
3.10 2.70 1. 88
3. 83 3.60 2.20
1.66 4. 65 2.59
5.60
I
5.86 3. 03
6.62 7.14 3.40
7. 80 8.46 3.77
8.96 11. 70 4.14
5
COEFFICIENT * wa ME·rRES
-------------------
1000 x E x I
(a)
0 0 0
0.16 0.16 0.15
0.33 0.33 0.10
0.52 0.52 0.48
0.95 0.95 0.91
1. 54 1. 67 1. 33
2.29 2.48 1.138
3.21 3.67 2.50
4.33 5.24 3.22
5.50 6.67 4.18
7.33 9.17 5.18
9.16 12.33 6.33
ll. )0 15.42 7.50
13.66 19.56 8.64
16.16 24.17 9.75
18.91 29.42 10.87
22.56 33.60 11. 84
,.
~
COEFr'IC [ENl'
* P .a
MErRES
-----------------
1000 x E x I
(b)
0
0.02
0.04
0.07
0.19
0.33
0.53
0.80
1.20
1.66
2.16
2.70
3.34
4.12
5.02
6.00
7.05
~
w,e
0
0.16
0.25
0.42
0.83
1. 60
2.58
3.75
5.21
6.74
8.91
11. 25
14.00
17.00
20.19
24 .22
28.47
~
p
POSrTrON WHERE
.. DEFLECTION IS TO
BE CALCULATED
PINNED EDGE
(/ (i /1,' f I / (
FUED EDGE
FREE EDGE
175
Table 9.27 Ground pressure created beneath a base slab carrying an edge force '0' and an edge
moment 'M' and supported upon an elastic soil
Table for X
y values
)..L
0.25 0.5 0.75 1.0
0.1 4.000 2.500 1.000 -0.500 -2.000
).
0.5 4.002 2.S00 0.999 -O.SOO -1.998
4 lC E lC I
1.0 4.040 2.486 0.980 -0.502 -1. 99 6
Where 'k I is the modulus of subgrade reaction
1.5 4.18S 2.469 0.909 -0.506 -1. 861

0
J
2.0 4.480 2.400 0.722 -0.516 -1.570
" .. 0.""'1
2.5 5.174 2. 285 0.447 -0.522 -1. 168
3.0 6. 019 2.102 0.096 -0.514 -0.663
3; 5 6.971 1.859 -0.232 -0.473 -0.220
b
J
4. a 7.942 1. 562 -0.479 -0.395 0.077
"t ,.
"II.
5. a 9.848 0.849 -0.687 -0 .174 0.278 L
6.0 -0.628 0.017 0.288
X • Position of Load '0'
11. 682 0.082
Y • Point under consideration
7.0 13.418 -0.628 -0.458 0.121 0.363
I
"''3-'+7
I
I
8.0 15.026 -1.222 -0.294 0.172 0.527
I
I
I
I I I
y.
O-IIL o.UL O.SoL 0:1'5\.
.,OL
9.0 16.484 -1. 682 -0.201 0.217 0.728
, Q ' Coefficient Values
Note When X • 0 and Y • 0 read value
Table for X 0.0251.
y values
0.25 0.5
0.1 3.850 2.425 1. 000
0.5 3.852 2.425 0.999
1.0 3. 895 2.420 0.980
1.5 4.010 2.399 0.919
2.0 4.328 2.345 0.752
2.5 4.863 2.247 0.508
3.0 5.583 2.098 0.195
3.5 6.384 1.901 -0.101
4.0 7.187 1.663 -0.327
5. a 8.709 1.102 -0.533
6.0 10.110 0.508 -0.508
7.0 11. 386 -0.035 -0.381
8.0 12.529 -0.486 -0.244
9.0 13.534 -0.837 -0.149
Pressure
Q
coeff. •
Q
I
l +
176
When X • land Y • 0 same va lue as X s 0 and Y s 1
When X • 0.025 and Y • 0 read value
When X • 0.975 and Y • 0 same value as X • 0.025 lind Y • 1
Q
0.75 1.0
1;M
Mt'
-1.850 -0.425
-0.425 -1. 848
=
J
<l
-0.428 -1.797
t
-0.506 -1. 726
-0.440 -1.380
-0.450 -1.108
Gl, Q.
+
Q, 01,
-0.447 -0.656
ft°.
0
2.SL

-0.417 -0.256
I

C)M.SL
X·MlSL
-0.356 0.016
0., " M/c. o.oa51.)
-0.178 0.206
-0.020 0.207
0.065 0.240
0.101 0.338
0.124 0.465
2
M Coeff.
*
(
M
I
(
0.025 •
l
»)
Table 9.28 Bending moments created within a base slab carrying an edge force 'Q' and an edge
moment '1',,1' and supported upon an elastic soil
Table fer X 0.01.
..
4 x II " I

Where 'k' is the 1IIOdululiI ot liIUb<J rade react ion
AI..
0.25 0.5 0.75
o
0.1 -0.141 -0.125 -0.047 ... 0.}1..
o .S -0.141 -0.12S -0.047
1.0 -0.140 -0.124 -0.046
1.5 -0.137 -0.120 -0.041
2.0 -0.131 -0.109 -0.0]9
L
2.5 -0.120 -0.092 -0.0]0
x • Position of Load '0'
3.0 -0.106 -0.070 -0.020
3.5 -0. 091 -0.048 -0.010
4 :0 -0.077 -0.031 -0. 004
'l • Point under consideration
I I
... '3 ..... r ,I f
'1. ••
5.0 -0.054 -0. 010 O. 002
6.0 -0.037 -0. 001 0.002
7.0 -0.024 0.002 0.001
8.0 -0.017 0.002 O. 001
9.0 -0. 008 O. 002 O. 000
, M . Coefficient Values
Note When X a and y = 0.25 read value
When X = 1 and y = 0.25 same value as X 0 and Y 0.75
When X 0.025 and Y = 0.25 read value
When X = 0.975 and Y = 0.25 same value as X • 0.025 and Y • 0.75
Table for X • O.O25l
y values
).1. 0.25 0.5 0.75
0.1 -0.120 -0.11] -0.047
0.5 -0.120 -0.il2 -0.043
La -0.119 -0.111 -0.042
1.5
-0.117 -0.108 -0. 041
2. a -0.112 -0.098 -0.036
2.5 -0.102 -0.083 -0.028
3.0 -0.089 -0.064 -0.019
3.5
-0. 077 -0.045 -0.010
4.0 -0,065 -0.029 -0.004
Q. = M/c o .oa51.)
-0.045 -0.010 0.001
{).O -0.031 -0.002 0.001
7.0 -0. 024 O. 002 0.001
8.0
-0.015 0.001 0.000
9.0
-0.008 0.001 0.000
Moment· Q coot. It Q x L + M coof. )( til I ( 0.025 J( L )
177
::::i Table 9.29 (a) tension, and (b) moment coefficients in cylindrical tanks supporting a triangular
00
load, assuming a fixed base and a free top (adapted from peA tables)
Ft = c,)ef. , p.Lv. r p'?r :n
(Positive sign indicates tensi0n)
Lv'
Coefficients a.t point
O.OL 0.1 L 0.2 L O.)L
v
0.4 L 0.5 Lv 0.6 L O.lL
v
0.8 Lv 0.9 Lv
2rb v v y y y
0.4 +0.149 .0.1 }!. .0.120 .0.101 .a.082 +0.066 +0.049 .0.029 +0.01" '0.00l.
0.8 +0.26} '0.2}9 .0.215 .0.190 +0.160 .O.I}O .0.096 +0.06} .a.o}!. +0 .. 010
1.2 +0.28} ... 0.271 +0.254 +0.2}!. +0.209 .0.180 +0.142 .0.099 +0.054 +0.016
I 4-
1.6 +0.265 +0.268 +0.268 +0.266 .0.250 +0.226 '0.185 .'J.l }!. .0.075 .0.023
2.0 .0.2}!. +0.251 +0.273 .0.285 +0.285 +1J.214 +0.232 +0.172 +0.104
3.0
I
+0.1}!.
I
+0.20}
I
.0.267 +0.322 +0.357 +0. )62 +0.3)0 +0.262 +0.157 .0.052
[
4.0 +0.067 +0.164 +0.256 +0.339 +0.40} +0.429 +0.409 +0.)34 +0.210 .0.073
5.0 +0.025 +0.137 +0.245 +0. }!.6 +0.428 +0.477 +0.469 +0. )98 +0.259 +0.092
6.0 .0.018 +0.119 .0.234 .0. }44 .0.441 +0.504 .0.514 +0.447 .0.)01 +0.112
8.0 -0.011 +0 .. 104 +0.218 +0.}}5 +.1.443 +0.5}!' +0.575 +0.530 .a.)81 +0.151
10.0 -0.011 +0.098 +0.208 +0.323 .0.437 +0.608 +0.589 +0.440 +0.179
12.0 -0.005 +0.097 +0.202 +0. )12 .0.429 +0.628 +0.6)3 .0.494 +0.211
14.0 -0.002 +0.098 +0.200 +0. )06 +0.420 +0.6)9 +0.666 .0.541 .0.241
16.0 0.000 .0.099 .0.199 .0.30l. .0.1.12 '0.641 +0.687 +0.582 +0.265
(a)

fIXED BASE - FREE TOP
L 2
...!.....
Coefricients at point ;Vei'Jht of Liquid (kN 'lee ",3)
2rh O.IL 0.2L 0.3L
y
o.L.L
y
0.5L
y
O.6L
y
0.71,
v
0.8'[,
v
1.0t
v
Lv Effect ive Height of wall (m)
v v
0.4 +.0005 +.0014 +.0021 +.0007 -.0042 - .01,0 -.0302 - .0529 - .1.;'0'!
Effective Ra1i'Js of cylinder (111)
0.8 +.0011 +.0037 •. 006) +.0080 +. )010 +.0023 - .0068 -.0224 - .0795
1.2 +.0012 +.0042 + .0077 +.0103 +.0112 +.0090 +.0022 -.0108 -.oGO?
rh ickness of cylinder "'311 I'll)
1.6 +.0011 +.0041 +.0075 +.0107 •. 0121 +.0111 +.0058 -.0051
2.0 +.0010 •• 0035 •• 0068 +.0099 +.0120 +.0115 •• 0075 - .0021
Ft Ring IkN)
3.0 +.0006 +.0024 +.0047 +.0071 •• 0090 +.0097 + .0077 +.0012 - .0119 - .0333
Marnen t (kN m)
4.0 +.0003 + .0015 +.0028 +.0047 +.0066 •• 0077 + .0069 .-.0023 -.0080 - .o26e
5.0 +.0002 +.0008 +.0016 + .0029 +.0046 + .0059 +.0059 +.0028 -.0058 - .0222
6.0 +.0001 +.0003 •. 0008 +.0019 +.0032 •• 0046 +.0051 +.0029 -.0041 -.0187
8.0 .0000 •. 0001 + .0002 + .0008 •. 0016 •. 0028 •. 00}8 •. 0029 - .0022 - .0146
10.0 .0000 .0000 +.0001 +.0004 +.0007 +.0019 + .0029 +.0028 - .0012
12.0 .0000 -.0001 •• 0001 +.0002 +.0003 +.0013 +.0023 +.0026 -.0005
14.0 .0000 .0000 .0000 .0000 .... 0001 +.OOOS •. 0019 +.0023 - .0001
16.0 .0000 .0000 -.0001 - .0002 -.0001 +.0004 •• 0013 +.0019 +.0001
I
- • r '
3
= ':::Jef. x p .. Lv <Nm oer m
(b)
(Po.31tive sign indicates
t'?ns ion on the f)uto;ide f3ce .. )
::i
\0
Table 9.30 (a) tension, and (b) moment coefficients in cylindrical tanks supporting a triangular
load, assuming a pinned base and a free top (adapted from peA tables)
L.,.'
Coerricient:l at point
2rh 0.0 Lv O. ',ILv 0.2 Lv O.H
v
0.4 ,Lv 0.5 Lv 0.( Lv 0.7 Lv o.e Lv O.? Lv
0.4 '0.474 .G.440 .0.J95 .0.J52 .0. }O8 .0.264 .0.215 '0.165 .n.i11 .0.0')7
0.8 .0.42J .0.402 .O.JII, .0.J58 .G.JJO .0.297 .0.249 .0.202 .0. '45 .1.07(,
'.2
I
.0.350 .0.}55 .0.}6'

.0.}58 .0.34} +0.J09 +0.256 +0.186 '0.098
1.6 +0.271 +0.J03 ... .0.3115 .0.385 +0. }62 .0.}'4 .0.233 .0.1"1 •
2.0 .0.205 • 0.260 .0.}2, .0. }7} .. 1.4" .O.l.}4 .0.419 +0.569 .0.2[10 +').1',1
3.0
I
+0.074
1
.0.'79
1
.0.28' .0.}75 .0.449 .0.506 .0.5'9 .0.479 .O.}75 +-O.?H)
4.0 '0.0' I .G.' }7 .0.25} .0.}67 .1).469 .0.545 .0.579 ").553 0.447
5.0 -0.008 .0. Ill. '0.2}5 '0.}56 .0.469 '0.562 .0.6'7 .0.606 .0.503 .0 .... )4
6.0 -1.0" .\l.10,} .0.22} .a.34} '0.463 .0.566 '0.6}9 .0.64} '0.547 ""I.VI
8.0 -0.0'5 .0.096 .0.208 .a.l24 .(l.44} .0.564 .0.66, '0.697 '0.621 .. n. VI()
0.0
I
-0.008
I
").095
I
.0.200
I
.0.311
I
... ". 1 .0. '"
I
·O.U< 1
'0. nO '0.678 .. 0.4
2.0 -0.00? .0.097 .0.197 .').}O2 .. 0.1.17 +0.541 .0.664 .0.750 .0. nq .O.J.II
4.0 O.UOO .U.0'l8 .0.197 .O.M)!' .0.659 .0.761 .0.71)2 .1). f) 1
6.0 +1),007 .').100 .0.198 .0,),)9 +0.1.0.5 +tl.6,}{) .0.764 ·').176 .,). t,
(a)
Lv'
Cr)efficients at point
I
I
2rh
0.1 L 0.2 L
v
0.3 Lv 0.1. Lv 0.5 Lv 0.6 L
v
O.TL
v
0.8 L
v
).9 Lv 1.0 Lv
v
0.4 +.0020 +.0072 •• 0151 •• 0230 •. 0301 +.0348 '.0}57 •• 0312 •• 0197 0
0.8 +.0019 +.0064 +.0133 •. 0207 •• 0271 +.0}19 •• 0329 + .0292 •• 0187 IJ
1.2 +.0016 •• 0058 +.0111 +.0177 •• 02}7 +.0280 •. 0296 •• 0263 •• 0171 (\
1.6 +.00'2 •• 0044 +.0091 +.0145 •• 0195 •• 0236 +.0255 +.0232 +.0155 G
2.0 +.0009 •• 0033 '.0073 +.0114 +.0158 +.0199 +.0219 +.0205 +.0145 0
3.0
1
•• 0004
1
+.0018 +.0040 +.0063 •. 0092 +.0127 +.0152 •• 0153 +.0111 0
4.0 +.0001 +.0007 +.0016 •• 0033 •• 0057 •• 0083 +.0109 +.0118 +.0092 0
5.0 .0000 +.0001 + .0006 +.0016 •. 0034 +.0057
I
+.0080 +.0094 +.0078 0
6.0 .0000 .0000 •• 0002 +.0008 +.0019 •• 0039 +.0062 •• 0078 •• 0068 0
8.0 .0000 .0000 -.0002 .0000 •. 0007 +.0020 +.0038 +.0057 +.0054 0
,"0 1

.oooo
1-=' 1-='
1 .. 1 .. 00"

•• 0043 + .0045
12.0 .0000 .0000 - .0001 - .0002 .0000 + .0005 +.0017 + .00}2 '.0039
14.0 .0000 .0000 - .0001 - .0001 -.0001 .0000 +.0012 +.0026 +.0033
16.0 .0000 .0000 .0000 - .0001 - .0002 - .0004 •• 0008 +.0022 +.0029
I
(b)
Ft = ::oet'. x ".Lv.r kN :)"c '11
(?')sitlve sig'1 in:ii::ates tension)
\
-0.0'"""
["
---0.' Lv
-·-o.tI ...
:.
.3
-,-()oiLy
---0 .• ""'-
,f -·-c."JL'I
-'-o.IILv
..
.. -- t.c>Lv
PI"
IJ\I
PIlE) BASE fREE TOP
3
P = 'Neight)f Li'lui:l (k!; ?er m )
Lv = Effect ive H"i} It ')f '1,,11 (m)
Effect lve Ra 1:'J5 of cylinder (m)
I'hicl;ness 'f ':)'lindec wall (m)
Ft (!('I)
:1 = t'\,)ment (k:l m)
I
''':lment :: co'!:!'f. x ?Lv :CJP.t m
(Positive 5i911 i'1::jic!ttes
ten3 ion l)n the outs f"lce.)

Table 9.31 (a) tension, and (b) moment coefficients in cylindrical tanks subjected to a moment per
m, 'M' applied at base (adapted from peA tables)
L/
2rh
0.'
0.8
1.2
1.6
2.0
3.0
'.0
5.0
6.0
8.0
10.0
12.0
1".0
16.0

?Th
0._
n.9
I.'
I.h
7.0
l.O
_.0

h.O
•• 0
10.0
11.0
lll.O
H •• O
O.OL
y
+2.70
+2.02
+1.06
+o.n
-0.68
-1.79
-1. 87
-1.5'
-1.0'
-0.14
+0.21
+0.32
+0.26
+0. '21
n.ll,.
Hl.Ot:l
+O.ooq
+O.OOf,
+0.on3
-0.002
.0.007
-O.OOA
_0.001
-0.005
-0.00\
0.000
O.noO
O.IL
y
+2.50
+2.06
+1.42
+0.79
+0.22
-0.71
-1. 00
-1.03
-0.86
-0. S3
-0.23
-0.05
+0.014
0.2 L
y
+2.30
+2.10
+1. 79
+1.43
+1.10
+0.43
-0.08
-0.'2
-0.59
-0.73
-0.6'
-0 •• 6
-0.28
O.3L
y
+2.12
+2.1'
.2.03
+2.0'
+2.02
+1.60
+1. 0'"
+0.45
-0.05
-0.67
-0.9'
-0.96
-0.76
-O,f.4
at oointt't
a.li L
v
+1.91
+2.10
+7.46
+2."12
.2.90
+2.95
+2.47
+1.96
+1.71
-0.02
-0.73
-1.15
-1.29
-1. 28
O.SL
v
+1.69
+2.02
'2.65
+3.25
+3.69
+-ta,29
... 4.31
+3.93
+3.3&1
+2.05
+0.82
-0.18
-0.87
.1.30
0.6 L
y
0.7L
v
+1.'1 +1.13
+1.95 +1.75
+2.80 +2.60
+3.56 +3.59
t4.30 +4, Sli
+5.66 1+6.58
+6.34 +9.19
+6.60 .9. 41
+6.5. +10.29
+5.87 +11.32
... 79 ,+11.63
+3.52 +11.71
+2.29 +10.55
.1.12 tQ.67
0.8L
v
+0.80
+1.39
+2.22
+3.13
".08
+6.55
+8.82
+11.03
+13.08
+16.52
+19."6
+21.80
+23.50
+74.53
• this table is for moment d?plied at t09, while
the t<>p is hinge:J, O.OLv is the bottom of the wall and
I.OLv is the top. : .. omcnt a9plied at an edge is "Jositiv+?
whcn it causes outward rot:'lt ion at that edge.
O.:;>L
v
+0.051
+0.011
+0.011
-0.002
-o.on
-0.016
-0.0""
-0.0\9
_0.007
0.000
0.000
0.3f ....
+0.109
+0. Otto
+0.063
+0.03'5
+0. (l} '2
-0.030

-O.o"S
_O.IlIH)
-o.on
-o.OOq
-0.003
0.000
+0.001
(a)
j"'''ts .It pointi!
O'''L
v
+0.1')(,
.0. If,"
+0·11 ....
+0.019

-0.0'>1
_0.061
_".OSA
_O.Olt"
-0.028
-0.016
_O.OOA
-0.003
o. "'!'v
+0.:?'1(,
+0.' .... 3
+0.70r,
+Q.lr!7
+o.O'lr,
+0.010
-O.OJ"
·0.0')7
-o.or.s
.n,Of!9
-0.053
.0.0"0
-0.01'1
-o,o:?!
(b)
0.6L ..
+0.4116
+0. J7S
+0 .. 316-
+0.7S3
+0.1f'l3
+0.087
+0.013
-0.015
-0.037
-0.0,;2
-O,OF.7
-0.0(.16
-o.oc-,q
-n.or,l
O.7L
v
.O.Sit7
+0.S03
+O.it'ilt
+0.313
+0.340
+0.117
+0.150
H).Oq,)
+0.057
-0.031
_o.O"q
.".Ofin
-0, or,,;
O.SL
v
+0.692
+0.659
.0.616
+0 ..... ,0
+0.51'l
+n,lI1fl
"0.3")"
+0.']'1(·
+0.152
+0.178
+0.173

+0.04A
+0.07""
n."L
v
+0.Att3
+O.R']"
+0. A07
+<1. -f7",
+0.11IR
.. n,f.'l7
.. o.r,ll')
.n.r·flf.
+0. r\77
to.
'
I,lI
+n.1R?
0.9L
v
+0.44
+0.80
+1.37
.2.01
+2.75
+4,73
+6.81
+9.07
+11.'1
+16.06
+10.07
+25.73
+30.34
+34.fJ5
l.n!.v
+ l.non
+J .oon
+1. f"lIIO
"1.onn
+1.nno
+1. nqn
+1. non
"I.nnn
+l.nno
"1.nrH1
+1.000
.l.ono
+l.nno
+t.flnn
Ft = coef. X H.r/Lv kN per m
(Positive sign indicates tension)
\

I 1
I
, - __ 0.%.1..01'
---0-,3\.,,-
---o·4Lv
;- ---o-SL",
-. ---O."Lv
?: -.--O,'lL.V
.t Itt -0-81..V'

-O . .,l ....
\' . ..1 _, :' •. -- ,-OL"
3
P = Weight of Liquid (kN ;:>er :n )
Lv Effect ive Height of wall (m)
Effective Radius of cylinder (m)
Thickness cylinder wall (m)
Ft R ;:>9 Tens ion (kN)
'I = Moment (kN m)
Moment coef x M kNm per m
00
Table 9.32 (a) tension, and (b) moment coefficients in cylindrical tanks subjected to a shear per m,
'V' applied at top (adapted from peA tables)
L ' Coefficient .. ..'It pointh
2;h f-I -O-.OL--'
y
1r--O.I-Ly-'-l-o.-ny-'-,-0-.3L--'v I-n"'-Ly-r-I r-, -0.9-
Ly
'T'",-0.---lOL
y
I
0.4
0.9
1.7
1.(1
2.0
3.0
4.0
5.0
6.0
8.0
10.0
17.0
1'''.0
16.0
Lv'
2rh
0."
0.8
\.7
\.6
7.0
3.0
-.0
5.0
6.0
8.0
io.o
17.0
1'.0
1( •• 0
-1. 57
-3.0Q
-3.95
-4.57
-5.12
-6.32
-7.34
-8.22
-9.02
-10.42
-11.67
-n.76
-13.77
-J".7l1
0.1 Lv
+n.OQ.1
'0.085
+0.0,.1
+0.079
"0.071
+0.07')
+0.0&8
.0.Ofl"
.0.0(,2
+0.051
.0.053
to.Oll!}
+0.0'16
+0.0'14
-1.32
-2.55
-3.17
-3.54
-3.83
-4.37
-4.73
-4.99
-5.17
-5.36
-5.43
-5.41
-5.34
-5.n
-1.08
-1.04
-2.q ...
-2.hO
-2.68
-2.70
-2.60
-2.45
-2.27
-1.85
-1.43
-1.03

·0.33
-0.9h
-1.57
-1. 7q
-1. 80
-1.7"
-1.43
-1.10
-0.70
-0.50
-0.02
+0.36
+0.63
+0.80
+O.qf,
-0.65
-1.15
-1.25
-1.11
-1.02
-0.58
+o.lQ
+0.11
.0.34

+0.78
+0.83
+O.Al
+0. 'If.
_o.tJ7
-o.RO
·0.91
_o.r.ll
-0.02
'0.26
.0.47
to.S'}
tr).66
+0.h7
to.
... 0."1
+O.:\?
-0.31
-0.51
-0.48
-0.36
-0.21
+0.15
+0.38
'0.50
+0.53
+0.46
+0.33
'0.21
+0.13
to.OS
-0.18
-O.lA
-0.25
-0.16
.0.19
'0.33
+0.37
'0.35
+0.'24
.0.12
+0.04
*.-Jhen this tat:lle is use·":l f-"Jf ar),lie1 olt !:>1S'?, whil::.o
the ton is Eix2'd, 0.0 Lv 13 the b"Jtt,)'ll ')E t:!'e- 3nd
1.0 Lv i5 the t09. Shear inwarj-:; is )o:;ltiv-e,
l5 n0gative.
(a)
COf'ff ic j.'nl.-: at (lointn
O.1L
v
.0.117
.0.145
+0.132
+0.122
.0.llS
+0.100
+0.088
+0.078
.0.070
.0.058

+0.042
+0.036
+0.031
n.3L
v
+0.11,10
+0.19S
+0.157
'O.lH
+0.126
+0.100
+0.081


+0.0'11

+0.012
+0.017
'0.012
fl,ll Lv
+0.300
.0.208
+fl.l()t,
'0.IJ9

+O.OAn
+o.or.J
+0.Ott7
+0.036
+0.021
+0.012
+0.007
+0.004
.0.001
n. r, r,v
+0,1,)4
+fl.770
+O.lSI)
.n.12S
+n,nfi6
+O,f)4J
.0.029
.0.018
+0.007
+0.001
0.000

-0.002
(b)
n,r, Lv
+n,40,}
.0.724
+0.145
.0.105
+0.080
+0.0144
'0.025
'0.013
.0.006
0.000
_0.002
-0.002
-0.002
-0.002
n.7 Lv
+O.lf4A
'0.223
'0.171
'0.081
'0.056
.0.025
+0.010
+0.003
0.000
-0.002
-0.-02
-0.002
-0.001
-0.001
n.e Lv
+o.t,q::
'0.21Q
.0.016
+0.0'\6
.0.031
+0.006
-0.001
-0.003
-0.003
-0.003
-0.002
-0.001
-0.001
0.000
-0.08 -0.02
-0.13 -0.01
-0.10 -0.07
-0.05 -(J,nI
'0.01 .0.01
'0.13
+0.19
'0.20
+0.11
+O.Oq
+0.04
.0.06
+O.Of,
+0.01
+0.01
0.00 .0.02
-0.02
_0,,)1
-O.nc,
nt
n. IlLv
+0.
+0. :?t4
+0.00"
+0.0:10
+0.00f)
-0.010
-0.010
_0,001

-0.002
-0.001
0.000
0.000
0.000
1.01 .•
tn. \7a
tn.
+o.nf.}
+o,nol ,

-0.07'
-O.OI't
-O.lIll
-0.01l(,
-n.onl
o.noo
n.nno
O.noo
0.000
Ft = coef. • V.r/Lv klf/ ..
(Positive sign indicates tension)
[
4.
"

_._ •• IL"
_.- ......
-·-0 .• ""
--0 ... '"
_._ •. n ...
_.- 0·"".
-.- o.lLw
_.- o.tL.o
_.-0._
\oOW
...Jhk-
FIXED BASE - FREE TOP
3
:ielght ot Liquid (kN ?er :n )
Lv Ufective Hei'lht 0f .. all (m)
Radius of ::ylinder (m)
:'hL:kn(!ss Clf cylinjer \1311 <m)
f't = Ri:'l3 :'ension (kN)
fl = :1oment (kif m)
"o_nt • coef. • V. Lv "1IIiLf.

Table 9.33 (a) tension, and (b) moment coefficients in cylindrical tanks supporting a rectangular
load, assuming a fixed base and a free top (adapted from peA tables)
L '
Coeffir.i('nts a.t point
I
y
0.BL
v
0.9 Lv I
2rh
a.OLy o. I L
v
0.2L
y
O.}L
v
0. 4Lv 0.5 L
v
O·€L
v
O.7 L
v
0.4 .0.562 .0.505 '0.431 .0.353 .0.277 .0.206 .0.145 .0.092 .0.046 .0.013
0.8 .1.052 .0.921 .0.796 .().669 .0.542 +1).415 .0.289 .0.179 .0.OH9 +!).O)4
1.2 .1.211\ .1.078 .0.946 +0.808 .0.665 .0.519 .O.}IB '0.246 .0.127 .G.O}4
1.6 .1.257 ".'4' +1.009 +0.1181 .0.742 .0.600 .0.449 .0.294 +Q.1h3 .0.045
2.0 ".25} .1.144 +1.041 .0.929 .0.661 .0.514 ,o.}45 .').186 .0.055
3.0
I
+1.160 ... 1.112 ".06, .0.998 .G.912 .0.796 .0.646 .• ().459 ").251\ .0.081
4.0 +1.085 .1.073 ".057 .1.029 .1.977 .0.746 .0.553 .0.J22
I
5.0 ".037 ., .047 ".042 .1.015 +').t}J.9 +iJ.f125 .0.629 .0. j79
6.0 ".010 .,.024 .I.OJS .1.045 + I .0}4 +0.9116 .0.819 .(\.694 .. O./dO +11.149
fLO .0.989 .1.005 ".022 ".0}6 +1.0l.4 .1.026 .0.953 .0.1118 ·'J.5'? +0.IU9
to.O
I
.a.989 .0.998 .1.0tO .1.023 ".0'9 .'.040 .0.996 .0.859
""U
12.0 .0.994 .0.997 .1.003 .'.014 ... 1 .1.('43 +1.072 +0.911 .. ...n..
14.0 +\1.')97 .0.998 .'.0011 .1.007 .'.07? ".()I,O ., , +n.;'14
1(,.0 .1.1\()O +)."'1') .. II. ".003 .'.015 .1 .'.Ott1 .. fl. 'I 1', ). 'I;' I
------------
(a)
Lv'
Coefficients at point
2rh
0.1 Lv 0.2L
v
0.3 L
v
O.4Ly o.r) Lv O.6L
v
0.7L
v
0.8L
v
1),9 L
y
1.0 L
v
0.4 -.0023 -.0093 - .0227 ·.0439 -.0710 -.IOIR -.1455 - .2000 - .2593
0.8 .0000 -.0006 -.0025 - .0083 -.0185 - .0362 -.059" -.0917 -.1325
1.2 +.0008 •• 0026 •• 0037 •. 0029 -.0009 -.0089 -.0221 - .0468 - .OB15
1.6 •• 0011 +.00}6 •• 0062 +.0077 '.0068 +.0011 - .0093 -.0267 - .0529
2.0 +.0010 •• 00,6 •• 0066 •• 0088 ·.OQR9 •. 0059 -.0019 -.0148 -.031\9
3.0 •• 0007 •• 0026 •. 0051 + .0074 +.0091 •• 008} + .0042 -.0053 -.0223 -.<\1.0
4.0 +.0004 ·.0015 •• 0033 •• '.006R •. 0075 •• 0053 -.0013 -.011.5 - .0365
5.0 •• 0002 +.0008 •. 0019 •• 0035 •• 005 1 •. 0061 •. 0052 +.\)007 -,.'1101 -.02'33
6.0 +.0001 •• 0004 '.0011 •. 0022 '.0036 •. 0049 •• 001.8 ·.0017 -.007} -.0242
8.0 .0000 '.0001 +.no03 +.0008 •• 0031 .... 1103R +.0024 -.OfJ40 -.OIAi.
10.0 .0000 ,.1021 +.0030 +.0026
12.0 .0000 +.00t11o +.')021. +.0022
14.0 .0000 +.()l)10 •. 0018 +.0021 -.!)OO7
16.0 .0000 •• ()1)()6 .,!){)12 +.0020 -.tj·)05
(b)
Ft = coe f. x !2" r kN ?er m
(Positive sign indicates tens i.)n)
cl
[
-- O-CLv
-._ o·'Lv
-'- G .• Lv
--o· .. L.....
_._ ".,Lv
.. _._ O·6.&.v
-. - ().1"Lv
-'- O.'L ...
-.-
.
. .
__ \oOLv
j.i/

RXED BASE . FREE TOP
pi =- uniform ?res!3ure applied
vert ically around ?eri .. eter
of tank. (kNperm)
Lv Height )f wall (m)
Effective iladius of cylind"r (m)
h = Thickness .)( cylinder tm)
Ft = Tens ion «I,)
:-I = :Iome'lt (kN m)
Iloment = CJeE. o'.Lv
2
kNm per "'
(Positive si'Jn indicates
tens ion on the outs ide face.)

Vol
Table 9.34 (a) tension, and (b) moment coefficients in cylindrical tanks supporting a rectangular
load, assuming a pinned base and a free top (adapted from peA tables)
L/
Coefficients at pOint
2rh O.OL
v
O.
IL
v 0.2 L
v
0.3L
v
0.4L
v
0.5 L
v
0.6L
v
0.7L
v
O.SLv 0.9 L
v
0.4 .1.474 .1.340 .1.195 .1.052 .0.908 .0.764 +0.615 +0.465 +0.311 ,0.154
0.8 ".423 ".302 +1.181 ".058 .0.930 .0.797 .0.649 .0.502 +0.345 .0.166
1.2 +1.350 ".255 .1.161 ".062 .0.958 +0.84} .0.709 +0.556 .O.}86 +0.198
1.6 ".27' .'.20} ".'4' .' .069 .0.985 .0.885 .0.756 .0.614 .0.433 +0.224
2.0 +1.205 +1.160 +1.121 .1.073 +1.011 +0.934 +J.819 +0.669 .0.480 .0.251
3.0 .1.074 +1.079 .1.081 .1.075 .1.049 .1.006 .0.919 .0.779 +0.575 +0.310
4.0 ".017 .1.037 +1.053 ".067 .1.069 .1.045 .0.979 .0.853 +0.647 .0.356
5.0 .0.992 ".0'4 ".035 ".056 .1.069 .1.062 ".017 +0.906 +0.703 .0.394
6.0 .0.989 ".003 +1.023 .1.043 .1.063 .1.066 +1.039 +0.943 .0.747 .0.427
8.0 • 0.985 .0.996 .1.\)08 .1.024 .1.043 .1.064 .1.061 .0.997 .0.821 • 0.486
10.0 • 0.992 .0.995 +1.000 +1.011 .1.028 .1.(}52 .1.066 .1.030 .0.878 .0.533
12.0 .0.998 .0.997 .0.997 .1.002 ".017 +1.041 .1.064 ".(}50 +0.920 .0.577
14.0 .1.000 ·0.998 .0.997 .0.999 .1.008 .'.0}1 ".059 +1.061 .0.952 .0.61}
16.0 >1.002
..
.. 1.021 +1.0S0 +1.064 .. 0.916 +0.6)6
(a)
Lv'
Coefficients at point
2rh 0.1 L
v
0.2 Ly O.}L
v
0.4 Lv 0.;: Lv 0.6 L
v
O.TLv 0.8 Ly 0.9 Lv 1.0 Lv
0.4 +.0020 +.0072 +.0151 +.0230 •. 0}01 •• 0346 •• 0357 •• 0312 •• 0197
0.8 •• 0019 +.0064 +.0133 •• 0207 •. 0271 •. 0319 +.0}29 •• 0292 +.0187
1.2 •• 0016 •• 0(}58 +.0111 +.0177 '.02}7 •. 0280 •. 0296 + .0263 •• 0171
1.6 +.0012 +.0044 •• 0091 +.0145 +.0195 •• 0236 +.0255 +.0232 +.0155
2.0 +.0009 I + .0033 •• 0073 +.0114 •• 0158 +.0199 +.0219 +.0205 •. 0145
3.0
1
+.0004
1
+.0018
I··"
1
•• 0063 •. 0092 +.0127 +.0152 •• 0153 •• 0111
4.0 +.0001 +.0007 +.0016 + .0033 •• 0057 +.0083 +.0109 +.0118 +.0092
5.0 .0000 +.0001 +.0006 +.0016 +.0034 +.0057 +.0080 +.0094 +.0078
6.0 .0000 .0000 +.0002 +.0008 +.0019 + .0039 +.0062 +.0078 +.0068
8.0 .0000 .0000 - .0002 .0000 •• 0007 +.0020 +.00}8 +.0057 +.0054
,., I
.0000
I
.0000
1"-
I"'"

•• 0011 + .0025 +.oo.} +.0045
2.0 .0000 .0000 -.0001 -.0002 .0000 +.0005 +.0017 +.00}2 +.0039
4.0 .0000 .0000 -.0001 -.0001 -.0001 .0000 •• 0012 +.0026 +.oon
6.0 .0000 .0000 .0000 -.0001 -.0002 -.0004 +.0008 +.0022 +.0029
(b)
Ft • coef. X o·.r kN per II
(Positive sign indicates t"nsion)
\
r r r 1
[

--0.& ....
_.-0-.....
'" -·-0-4 ....
• t -'-0-'''' .;I , -.-0 .• 1...
", --0." ....
.. -'-0..'"
_.-0. .....
. • r'lt • -- ,.oL.'1
.....
PNfED BASE • flEE TOP
p' = Uniform pressure applied
vert ica lly around per imeter
of tank. (kN per a )
Lv • Effective Height of wall (m)
Effective Radius of cylinder (a)
h * Thickness of cylinder wall (a)
Ft • Ring Tens ion (kN)
It • Itoment (kN 111)
2
Moment * coef. x p'. Lv kNa per.
(Positive sign indicates
tension on the outside face.)
Table 9.35 (a) shear at base of cylindrical tanks subjected to: triangular load, rectangular load, mo-
ment at edge; (b) stiffness coefficients for cylindrical walls; (c) stiffness coefficients of circular plates
with and without centre support (adapted from peA tables)
Lv'
Tritlngular load,
fixed
Rectangular load, Triangular or Moment
fixed base rectangular load l at edge
2rh
hinged base
0.4 +0.436 755 +0.245 -1. 58
0.8 +0.374 +0.552 +0.234 -1. 75
1.2 +0.339 +0.460 +0.220 -2.00
1.6 +0.317 +0.407 +0.204 -2.28
2.0 +0.299 +0.370 +0.189 -2.57
3.0 +0.262 +0.310 to.158 -3.18
4.0 +0.236 +0.271 +0.137 -3.68
5.0 40.213 +0.243 +0.121 -4.10
6.0 +0.197 +0.222 +0.110 -4.49
8.0 +0.174 +0.193 +0.096 -5.18
10.0 +0.158 +0.172 +0.087 -5.81
12.0 +0.145 +0.158 +0.07g -n.38
14.0 +0.135 +0.147 +0.073 -6.88
16.0 +V.l27 +0.137 +0.068 -7.36
V (triangular load) coef. x p.Lv kN
v (rectangular Load) coef. x p' .Lv kN
(Moment at base) coef. x M/Lv kN
(Positive sign indicates shear acting inwards)
(a)
3
k = coef. x E.h ILv
1
,

,
v

v
Coefficient
2rc 21":-,
S ,l.i 0.130 0.713
['.8 C • '27 0.783
1.2 (',34:- O.9C3
l.E
1[' 1. 010
7 .0 (I .... '" 12 1.108
3. C! 1- 1.198
".0
O. 3:, 1. ?81
(b)
3
k = coC!f, x E.h Ir
hc!2r D.IS 0.20 0.25
Coef. O,2'jC 0.3')9 0.332 0.358 0.387
;1i thout cent re sup!"ort - Coef. = 0.104
Note - he is diameter of c"lumn head.
(c)
184
Table 9.36 Supplementary coefficients for values of Lv
2
/(2 x r x h) greater than 16 (adapted from
peA tables)
"?'
TULE 9/29.

2rIl
CooN'lol""(8 at point
I
• 75"? .SO"? .85 Ly .%L? .951. I
20 .0.716 .0.65l. +0.520 .0.325 +0.115
2l. .0.746 .0.702 ,0.577 .O.}72
I
32 .0.782 .0.768 .0.66} .0.459
.0.800 .0.805 .0.Hl .0.5JO .0.217
.0.]91 .0.828 .0.765 .0.59} .0.25l.
56 .0.76} .0.8,a .0.824 .0.6}6 .0.285
TENSION IN CIRCULAR RINGS - TRIANGULAR LOAD
nXED BASE - TO\'
:{
TABLE 9/30a
-
2rh
Coefficient. at pOint
.75 L
T
• 80 Lv .85 Lv .90 Lv .95 Lv
20 .0.811 .0.756 .o.60} .. O.}W...
24 .0.816 .0.B}9 .0.79} .0.647 .O.}77
}2 .0.814 .0.661 .0.847 .0.721 • 0.436
40 .0.602 .0.666 +0.880 +O.77P. .0.48}
48 .0.791 .0.864 .0.900 +0.820 .0.527
56 .0.781 .0.659 +0.911 +0.8')2 .O.56}
rENSION IN CIRCULAR RINGS - TRIANGULAR LOIIO
PINNEO 8ASE -

rl>.8LE: 9/33a
2rh
Coefficients at point
.75 L
y .60 Lv .9().L
v
• 95L.
20 .0.949 .0.625 .0.629 .0.}79 .0.128
24 .0.966 .0.879 .0.694 .O.4}O .-0.149
32 .1.026 .0.95} .0.768 .0.519 +0.189
40
·'.OL..O .0.996 .0.859 .0.591 .0.226
48 .1.04}
+1.022 .0.911 .0.652 .0.262
56 +1.040
".0}5 .0.949 '0.705 +0.294
fENSION IN CIRCULAR RIN::;S - RECTANGULAR LOAD
FIXC:O BASE - FREE
r:-:.:.
TI>.8LE 9/34a
2rh
Coefficients at pOlOt
.75L
y
• SOL? .85L
v
.9(£v .9,)L
y
20
.1.062 .1.017 .0.906 .0. ?O} .O.}?4
24 .,.066
".0}9 .O.94} .0.741 .0.427
}2
·,.064 .1.061 .0.997 .O.A?1
40
".052
.,.066
".0}0 .0.878 .0.5}}
48
+1.<:v.1
".064
.1.050 ... 0.921)
.0.577
56
+1.021
".059
., .061 +0,')')2 >O.61}
1:-1 :IRC::ULI>.R RINGS RE::TANGULAR L')I\O
3A3E - fREE 1'01.'
LT'
TMLE 9/29b
2rh
Coi!lt'f'lclenta at point
.60 Lv .85 Lv .90 L,. • 'I5L,. 1.()(J. ..
20 +.00
1
5 •• 0014
'.0005
-.0018 -.006}
24 +.0012 •• 0012 •• 0007 -.001}
}2 •• 0007 •• 0009 •• 0007 -.0006 -.oor.o
/"0 +.0002 +.0005 +.0006 -.0005 -.00}2
48 .0000 +.0001 •• 0006 -.ooo} -.0026
56 .0000 .0000
"00Cl4 -.000' -.002}
/'laMENTS IN CYLINDRICAL rANKS - TRII>.NGULAR LOAD
FIXED 91>.SE - TOP
:{
rl>.8LE 9/30b
2rh
Coerrloient •• t point
• ?SLy .8a.,. .851.,. .9a-
y .95L ..
20 •• 0008 +.0014 +.0020 •• 0024 +.0020
24 +.0005 +.0010 •. 0015 +.0020 •• 0017
}2 .0000
·.0005 •• 0009 +.0011 ..
'.001}
40 .0000
"ooo} •. 0006 +.0011 +.0011
48 .0000 ... 0001
'.00Cl4 •• 0008 +.0010
56 .0000 .0000 •• OOO} +.0007 •• 0008
'---
M3MZNT5 IN:YLINORICI>.L rANKS - TRIMIGULI>.R r,ol>.D
PINNEO BASE - l"REE rap

'n8LE 9/33b
2rh
Coefficients at point
.80 Lv .851.., .9OL
y
.951.,. 1.00I..
y
20 •• 0015 ,.oo'} ,.0002
- .0024 -.007}
24 +.':0'2 •• 0012 •• 0004 -.0018 -.0061
}2 •• 0008
•• 0009 •• 0006 -.0010 -.0046
40 •• 0005 •• 0007 •• 0007 -.0005 -.OO}7
48
'.0004 '.0006 •. 0006 -.ooo} -.00}1
56 ·.0002 +.0004.
·.0005 -.0001 -.0026
IN CYLINORICAL rANKS - REC'rl>.NGULI>.R LOI>.D
fIXED SASE - fREE TOP
:{
fl>.BLE 9/34b
2rh
Coefficient! at point
.75L
v
.6OL
., .85
L
? .9OL
y • 95
L
v
+.0000 .,0014 •. 0020 •• 0024 •• 0020
24 •. 0005 -+.0010 •• 0015 •. 0020 •• 0017
}2
.0000 •• 0005 •. 0009 •. 0014 •• 00l}
40 .0000 •• OOO} •. 0006 +.0011 +.0011
48
.0000 >.0001 '.OOC4 •. 0008 +.0010
56 ,0000 .0000 •• OOO} +.0007 •. 0006
'\J;ontlfS [,1 -:YLINQRICI\[. rANKS - REC'fl>.NGULI>.R U)""O
"nltlEO g""SE - fllEE rop
185
Table 9.37
resulting from
CI1M'
6.000 1.000
7. 000 0.509
8.000 0.164
9.000 0.022
10.000 -O.Oll
9.000 1.000
10.000 0.575
11.000 0.11)9
12.000 0.027
11.000 -0.019
\2.000 1.000
\3.000 0.607
1'.000 0.217
15.000 0.029
16.000 -0.02)
16.000 1.000
17.000 0.63)
18.000 0.232
\9.000 0.032
20.000 -0.026
20.000 1.000
21.000 0.645
22.000 0.241
23.000 0.03)
24.000 -0.028
24 .000 1.000
25.000 0.65.
26.000 0.2'7
27.000 0.034
28.000 -0.029
28.000 1.000
29.000 0.660
30.000 0.252
31.000 0.0)5
)2.000 -0.031
32.000 1.000
)3.000 0.665
34 .000 0.255
35.000 0.035
36. 000 -0.0)1
36.000
i
1.000
)7.000 0.668
38.000 0.258
)9.000 0.0)6
40.000 -0.032
'0.000 1.000
41.000 0.671
'2.000 0.260
43.000 O. 036
44 .000 -0.03)
H.OOO 1.000
45.000 0.67)
'6.000 0.261
11. 000 0.0)6
'8.000
-0.0))
48.000 1.000
49.000 0.675
50.000 0.263
51.000 0.037
52.000 -0.033
52.000 1.000
':>).000 0.617
5 •• 000 0.26.
OS.OOO 0.037
56. 000 -0.034
-56.000 1.000
57.000 0.678
sa.c')o 0.265
59.000 0.037
60.000 -O.OJ(
60.000 1.000
61.000 0.679
62.000 0.266
63. 000 u.031
6'.000 -0.034
186
C'..'8fficients for calculating fOices in a conical tank supported at base level,
at the base of the cone
0.000
0.06'
0.00
0.017
0.003
O.UOO 0.000
0.050 -3.519
0.03S -2.562
0.014 -1.066
O. 002 -0.192
0,000 0.000
0.0<1 -4.442
0.02; -3.252
0.011 -1. 357
(LOO2 -0.243
1.000
0.056
-0.18b
-0.149
-0,066
CTM Cl'l/
4.116
1.617
0.212
-0.?59
--[).Z61
8.HO
3.146
0.)45
0.569
-0.529
_._-------
63.867 11.314
3.239 '.321
-13.81& O.HS
-11.473 -0.759
-5.312 -0.697

1.000 100.261 14.167
O.OS; 5.239 5.)92
-0.191 -21.389 0.548
-0.152 -17.723 -0.914
-0.068 -8. i'll -0.802
-----"-----
D.OOO 0.000 17.0ll
O.OlS -5.359 7.6110 6.459
0.025 -3.938 -30.577 0.652
0.010 -1.6.8 -25.29' 1 • 127
0.002 -0.294 -11.626 -1.025
----_.
--
0.000 0.000 1.000 197.076 19.855
O.OlO -6.273 0.053 10.559 1.525
0.022 -4, 623 -0.195 -'1.382 0.751
0.009 -1.938 -0.156 -3'.184 -1.309
0.002 -0.345 -0.069 -15.677 -1.186
0.000 0.000 1.000 257.'90 22.693
0.027 -7.186 0.053 13.877 8.589
0.019 -5.306 -0.196 -53.805 0.863
0.008 -2.228 -0.157 -44.393 -1.409
0.001 -0.396 -0.070 -20.323 -1.347
0.000 0.000 1.000 325.907 25.530
0.024 -6.091 0.053 11.632 9.6S2
0.017 -5.989 -0.197 -!:7.tJ.46 0.969
0.007 -2.518 -0.lS9 -55.921 -1.669
0.001 -0.H7 -0.071 -25.565 -1. 508
0.000 0.000 1.000 402.325 ;;6.365
0.022 -9.007 0.053 21.825 10.715
O.Olb -6.671 -0.198 -83.50' 1.076
0.006 -2.807 -0.159 -68.769 -1.848
0.001 -0.498 -0.071 -31.4D3 -1.669
0.000 0.000 1.000 486.7·H 31.195
0.020 -9.9\6 0.033 26.453 11.777
0.0)4 -7.352 -0.198 -100.780 1.182
0.00. -3.097 -0.160 -82.935 -2.027
0.001 -0.549 -0.071 -37.836 -1.829
_._----
0.000 0.000 \.000 579.16, 3'.031
0.018 -10.825 0.053 31.520 12 .8)9
O. OlJ -8.0.13 -0.199 -119.674 1.289
0.005 -3.386 -0.160 -98.421 -2.205
0.001 -0.601 -O.Ott -14.865 -1.989
--_._----
0,000 0.000 1.000 679.584 36.863
0.017 -11.7)4 0.053 37.023 lJ.901
0.012 -8.714 -0.199 -140.186 1.396
0.005 -3,675 -0,161 -115.225 -2.384
0.001 -0.652 -0,072 -52 .490 -2.1.e
-.-
-0.000 0.000 1.000 788.005 39.695
0.016 -12.6'2 O. as) 42.961 14.963
0.011 -9.395 -0.200 -162. 115 1.502
0.005 -3.965 -0.161 -133.349' -2.562
0.001 -0.103 -0.072 -60.710 -2.308
0.000 0.000 1.000 904.'26 42.526
0.015 -11.550 0.053 H.ll8 16.024
0.011 -10.076 -0.200 -lB6.062 1.609
0.004 -4.254 -0.\61 -152.192 -2.740
0.001 -0.755 -0.072 -69.526 -2.468
(a)
MM' n CMM' x M'
HH' =- CMH' x B'x L'x Cose.(
CNM'x Mix y
T!4' CrH ' x M' x y
TH' CTH' x J,' x H' x Sin ... / y
. .. .. ...... .... $ ••• i""
•••• q • •••••••••• ,,.,.,, •••••• , •• * ••••••••• "' ••••••••
6.0 )1.0 8.1 8.1 4.3
9.0 128.8 19.5 19.5 6.4
12.0 308.0 35.5 35.5 B.6
16.0 7)2.3 61.9 6).9 11.5
20.0 1430.5 100,3 100. ) 14.)
24 .0 2410.7 14407 144.7 17.2
28.0 3920.6 197.1 197.1 20.0
32.0 5848.1 257.5 257.5 22.S
36.0 8311.2 325.9 325.9 25.7
40.0
I
11'07. 7 402. ) 402.) "l8.S
H.O 15-175.6 486.7 486.7 )l.3
4B.O 19692.) 579.2 579., H.2
52.0 25026.8 679.6 679.6 37.0
56.0 31246.0 788.0 788.0 39.8
60.0 384l8.1 904.4 904.4 42.7
(b)
Table 9.38 (a,b) coefficients for calculating forces in a conical tank supported at base level,
resulting from fixity at the apex of the cone
x eMIl CIM CTtt
6.000 1.000 0.000 6.390
5.000 0.1S3 LUI -O.Ut
4.000 0.333 0.931 -1.237
3.000 -0.008 0.544 -0.614
1.000 -0.213 0.332 -0.003
9.000 1.000 0.000 17.277
1.000 0.1S' 1."0 0.377
7.000 0.344 1.50. -3.255
6.000 0.049 0.723 -2.263
5.000 -0.082 0.201 -0.865
12.000 1.000 0.000 32.710
11.000 0.751 2.603 1.219
10.000 0.33) 2.044 -6.205
9.000 0.050 0.936 -4.627
8.000 -0.066 0.209 -1.919
16.000 1.000 0.000 60.297
15.000 0.741 3.543 2.712
14.000 O.)H 2.747 -11.567
1).000 0.0'1 1.225 -1.921
ll.OOO -0.057 0.247 -3.845
20.000 1.000 0.000 ,s.an
19.000 0.734 4.4"
4,63.
18.000 0.313 3.441 -11.554
17.000 0.046 1.515 -14.541
16.000 -0.052 0.292 -6.350
24 .000 1.000 0.000 139.451
23.000 0.729 5.319 6.917
22 .000 0.)08 4.129 -27.160
21.000 0.045 LiaS -21.415
20.000 -0.049 0.3.0 -9.447
28.000 1.000 0.000 191.023
27. 000 0.724 6.304 9.776
26.000 0.304 4.815 -37.383
25.000 O.OH 2.095 -29.740
24.000 -0.048 0.390 -13.138
)2.000 1.000 0.000 250.581
)1.000 0.721 7.217 13.003
)0.000 0.301 5.499 -U.2H
29.000 0.044 2.384 -)9.311
28.000 -0.046 O.HO -17.424
36.000 1.000 0.000 318.145
)5.000 0.718 8.128 16.671
14.000 0.298 6.U2 -62.674
33.000 0.043 2.673 -50.201
)2.000 -0.045 0.490 -22.)05
40.000 1.000 0.000 393.727
)9.000 0.716 9.038 20.779
38.000 0.296 6.164 -77.747
37 .000 0.043 2.963 -62.411
36.000
·0.0"'''
0.541 -21.182
H.OOO 1.000 -0.000 477.335
43.000 0.114 9.948 25.324
42.000 0.294 7.545 -94.444
41.000 0.043 3.252 -75.945
'0.000 -0.044 0.592 -33.857
48.000 1.000 0.000 568.963
'7.000 0.713 10.857 30.299
46.000 0.293 8.227 -112. 767
45.000 0.042 ). 542 -90.80)
44.000 -0.043 0.643 -40.529
52.000 1.000 0.000 668.593
51.000 0.712 11.767 35.699
50.000 0.292 6.909 -132.717
49.000 0.0'2 J.811 -106.984
48.000 -0.043 0.694 -47.797
56.000 1.000 0.000 776.201
55.000 0.71l 12.676 41.524
54.000 0.291 9.590 -154.2B9
5),000 0.042 4.121 -124 .484
52.000 -0.042 0.745 -55.660
60.000 1.000 0.000 891.763
S9.000 0.710 13.584 47.777
5B.OOO 0.290 10.271 -177.473
57.000 0.042 1.410 -143.297
56.000 -0.042 0.796 -H.1l6
(8)
ell. Cit.
0.000 1.000
-0.164 0.202
-0.159 -0.017
-o.ou -0.114
0.027 -0.101
0.000 1.000
-0.110 0.114
-0.099 -0.163
-0.052 -o.u.
-0.013 -0.092
0.000 1.000
-0.082 0.096
-0.070 -0.114
-0.035 -0.170
-0.001 -0.017
0.000 1.000
-0.061 0.010
-0.050 -0.194
-0.024 -0.172
-0.005 -0.084
0.000 1.000
-0.048 0.072
-0.039 -0.199
-0.011 -0.111
-0.004 -0.012
0.000 1.000
-0.040 0.068
-0.032 -0.200
-0.015 -0.171
-0.003 -0.080
0.000 1.000
-0.034 0.065
-0.027 -0.202
-O.OU -0.170
-0.002 -0.010
0.000 1.000
-0.029 0.063
-0.02) -0.202
-0.010 -0 .170
-0.002 -0.019
0.000 1.000
-a.ou 0.062
-0.020 -0.202
-0.009 -0.170
-0.002 -0.078
0.000 1.000
-0.02) 0.061
-0.016 -0.203
-0.008 -0.169
-0.002 -0.078
0.000 1.000
-0.021 0.060
-0.016 -0.203
-0.007 -0.169
-0.001 -0.078
0.000 1.000
-0.019 0.059
-0.015 -0.203
-0.007 -0.169
-0.001 -0.077
0.000 1.000
-0.018 0.059
-0.014 -0.203
-0.006 -0.16B
-0.001 -0.077
0.000 1.000
-0.017 0.059
-0.013 -0.203
-0.006 -0.168
-0.001 -0.077
0.000 1.000
-0.015 0.058
-0.012 -0.203
-0.005 -0.168
0.001 077
( 1 -
CTB
-3.561
-1.182
-0.109
0.121
0.054
-5.861
-2.082
-0.239
0.248
0.206
-8.076
-2.924
-0.329
0.391
0.341
-10.973
-4.017
-0.4)9
0.519
0.5ll
-13.141
-5.095
-0.546
0.763
0.678
-16."4
-6.167
-0.653
0.946
0.841
-19.540
-7.236
-0.761
1.127
1.004
-22.382
-8.302
-0.866
1.307
1.165
-25.221
-9.367
-0.975
1.486
1.326
-28.059
-10.431
-1.081
1.665
1.487
-)0.896
-11.495
-1.188
1.845
1.647
-)).732
-12.557
-1.294
2.024
1.807
-36.565
-1),618
-1.401
2.202
1.967
-39.396
-14.680
-1.507
2.381
2.127
-42.226
-15.741
-1.615
2.556
2.286
KK • CKM x '4
MH 2 CKH x H x L x Cos ..
NK • CNK x M x TanllC / 'i
NH • CNH x L x H x Sin .. / 'i
TK • CTM x M x l'an ... / 'i
TH 2 Cl'H x H x L x Sin ... / 'i
.......... fI .................................... .
... ! ...... ~ ! ~ ~ ......... ; ~ ~ ...... ; ; ~ ~ ..... ; ~ ~ ~ .. ,
6.0 3 2 . ~
9.0 117.9
12.0 287.6
16.0 695.1
2t;.O 1311.9
24.0 2)85.6
28.0 3804.2
32.0 5695.4
36.0 8127.0
4\1.0 11161.3
44.0 \4884.3
4LO 19346.5
52.0 44621.8
56.0 30771.6
6 ~ a 37681.2
6.4
17. )
)2. 7
60.3
95.9
139.5
191.0
250.6
lI8.1
19).7
477.3
569 .0
668.6
776.2
891.8
(b)
6.4
17.)
J2.7
60.3
95.9
139.5
191.0
250.6
lI8.1
393.7
477. J
569.0
668.6
776.2
891.6
3.4
5.7
7.9
10.6
11.7
1 •• 5
19.4
22.2
25.1
21'.9
)0.1
n.6
36.4
39.2
42.1
187
I. TANKS ON PLASTIC FOUNDATIONS
The analysis of open circular concrete tanks is explained for cases where
the ground support may be assumed uniform. A tank ha ving it, wall
monolithic with its circular base is first analysed for bending moments
and hoop tensions; the effect of extending the base into a peripheral toe
is then considered.
The structural action of a tank having a flexible annular joint in the
base is next explained, for tanks with and without a base toe extension.
A simple "retaining wall" type of analysis is demonstrated for this mode
of construction. The accuracy of this method of analysis has been
checked by comparison with an exact method, from which it is found
that the simple method is quite adequate for radial moments in the base)
though it neglects any account of tangential moments, which may be
appreciable.
Several tables are given for circular tank walls and base slabs, 10
enable analY3es to be achieved for all the cases considered.
(Pari 1)
civil engineers today are familiar with the behaviour of
circular tank walls under hydrostatic pressure, with
bonom edges either hinged or fixed. The interaction of tank
which afe made continuous with circular ba_se slabs is, however,
seldom considered in any de-tail in the design office. There is linle
information available on this type of analysis in this country,
though some engineers are now acquainted with the Portland
• Fellow of Pembroke Col/ege, Oxford.
t Assislanl Engineer, ave Arup & Parmers.
t FigureJ in parenlheses indicate RtftrenceJ lollowing the Grlicll
Cement Association booklets on the analysis and design of concrete
tanks. (These may be obtained very conveniently from the Con-
crete Association of India in a single booklet entitled "Reinforced
2nd Prestressed Concrete Tanks" (1):1:.)
The methods described in the P.C.A. booklets are based on
the asswnptions that such tanks are supJXlrted either at their edges
or on completely plastic foundations. Now the reactive pressure
developed by a soil under leading at ground level depends on
severa'l factors, but two simple approximations may be used for
the purposes of this type of analysis: (a), that of completely plastic
behaviour, when the ground pressure is independent of the deflec-
tion at the surface, and (b) that of simple elastic behaviour, when
the ground pressure, p, is related to the surface deflection, w, by
p = kw, where k is the "foundation modulus" of the ground and
is taken as a constant. Actuaily k may not be constant even in
one particular loading test, and the moisture content, the com-
paction, etc., of the soil may affect the value considerab'ly. The
foundation modulus does, however, increase with the hardness of
the ground and some correlation has already been attempted.
For the purposes of this paper asswnption (a) will be accepted, and
the consequences of accepting asswnption (b) will be considered
in a later conuibution.
It is perhaps worth mentioning that whenever a rationalisation
of analysis and design is desired some simple asswnptions must be
made. Even with the two assumptions mentioned above the analysis
of ground-supported circular tanks is involved enough for any design
office, so there seems little likelihood of any future code of practice
recommending anything more complicated. It is to be hoped that
TABLE I
VERTICAL BENDING MOMENTS AND RING TENSIONS IN A CIRCULAR TANK WALL WITH THE BonOM END HINGED
WHEN THE TANK IS FULL Of LIQUID
M,=cyH' T = ~ rHR
(lop)
xH 1)=0 0'1 0·2 0') 0-4
I 0'5 0·6
i
0·7 0·8 0'9 1·0
-0'0022 -0·0079 -0,0154 -0'0234 --0'0306 -0-0354 I -0'0361 -0'0315 i -0'0200
-0'0016 -0'0058 -0,0115 -0'0180 -0'0240 -0'0283 --0-0296 -0'0265 -0'0173
-0-0006 -00021 - 0-0047 -0'0079 -0'0116 - 0·0150 -0'0172 -0-0170 -0-0121 0
--0,0002 --0-0008 -0'0020 -0'0039 -0-0063 -0,0088 -0,0100 - 0·0081
+0·0002 +0·0001 -0'0001 -0'0010 -0,0025 -0,0045 -0·0062 -0'0058
i
+0-0001 +0·0002 +0·0002 i -0'0001 --0'0008 -0,0023 -0,0039 -0·(}(}44
+0-488) "-0,4427 +0·3971 +0·3511 +0·3045 +0'2569 +02082 +0·J58O +0'1064 +0'0536
+0'3516 +0·3574 +0·3621 +03630 +0·3565 +0'3384 +0·3052 +0·2540 +0·1840 +0'0973
+0·1123 +0'2037 +0-2931 +0·3754 +0-4424 +0'4837 +0-4877 +0·4435 +0'3439 +0·1905
-0'0038 +0-1184 +0·2402 +0'3595 +0'4698 +0'5590 +0·6079 +0-5922 +0·4877 +0·2829
-0,0167 +0·0963 +0·2110 +0·3295 +0·4509 +0'5671 +0·6571 +0·6846 +0'6014 +0·3677
-0,0061
+0'0956 +0·2006 +0·3076 +0-4248 +0'5495 +0·6670 +0·7376 +0-6909 +0·4471
188
detailed IUidance on the ute of these amnnptions will be forth- T
coming, in due course, from further reteareh on IJ'OUIId behaviour.
When the ground is supposed to be comp1eteIy plastic, or when
water uplift can occur, it is found that the upward bending
developed at the centre of a circular bue can be unduly large for
tanks with diameten over 30ft or so. This reverse bending can
be reduced if the base i. continued outwards beyond the tank walls,
and completely removed if a central section of the base is made
independent of the rest by means of a suitable joint. When such
joints are utilised II simple "retaining wall" method of design can
\Ie applied. This method is described here in some detail, for it is
extremely useful for design and seems to be little known. It can
be just IS easily used when the base is continued outwards to form
= tenaile force in a tank wall, per unit depth.
= 'y(k/4EI), also the root of the ditferential equation
a "toe", 15 in the "inverted Tee" type of retaining wall.
Tables are required far ease in handling this type of analysis.
iufficient tabulate. Villues are included in the article for the solu-
tion of circular tanks continueus with circular lIases, which may be
with or without projecting "toes" and internal annular joints. The
simple "retaining wall" methe4 of analysis is also campared with
_an exact treatment. In the examples the same main tank dimen-
are taken throaghout so that the effect of structural modifica-
tions can be appreciated and so that the different methods of
analysis CaR be compared.
P
k
TU
I
I
E
v
D
x,l
K
h,H
'1
",R
pv,
Notation
= loading or pressure.
= foundation tacti .. modulus.
= narmal 4elleclion of a beam.
= thickness of a wall or slab.
= second moment of area of a wall or base section,
per unit width, = t'/12.
= Young's mMuius.
= Poisson's ratio.
= plate rigidity, = EI/(l v').
= distance along a beam, length of a beam.
= EI/l.
= distance down a tank wall, total height of wall.
= h/H.
= radius of a disc, radius to centre of tank wall.
= loading carried by vertical beam and horizontal
ring action in a tank wall.
= circumferential and radial strains.
= horizontal tensile stress in a tank wall.
for a tank wall.
M" M" M. = bending moments; radial, tangential, vertical.
MF = fixed-end moment.
s, s' = rotationai and stiffness coefficients, s = s'.
c, '" = coefficients for bending moments land ring tensions.
a, b = "restrained" and "unrestrained" r,adii of an annular
slab.
Circular Tank Wall. of Con.tant ThiclmCIIIII Subjected to
Hydroatllltic Preuure
If the water pressure at any depth It of a circtilar tank i. written
p = yh, where y is the specific gravity of the contained liquid,
then part of this pressure is misted by vertical I bendilll and the
rest is cartied by horizontal ring beam action. Fbr a vertical strip
of wall,
D(d'w/dx') = ,. = P ..•. (1)
where D is the plate rigidity and equals EI'/1 1 - y'), E and
v being Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio, res clively, for the
material of the wall and I the wall thickness. so ,. and are
the vertically- and horizontally-supported componems of the
pressure p.
Now the ring tension in a horizontal strip of unit 4cpth u4
thickness I is, from symmetry, a constant at any particular depth
h and equals T = PAR, where R is the tank radius. Thill the
horizontal tensile stress is I, = T /1 = pA(l(/I), and the circum-
ferential and radial strains are
fc = f, = f,/E = PA(R/Et).
The outward radial deflection is therefore
w = £,R =
whence = Elw/R'.
Thus, from equation 1,
. ... (2)
D(d'w/dx') + (IE/R2)W = P = yh .... (3)
This equation is identical in form to the familiar beam on elastic
foundations equation
EI(d'w/dx') + kw = P ..•. (4)
for which standard solutions are available in terms of the parameter
,\. = '\/(k/4EI). In the case of the circular tank wall,
A' = IE/4R'D = 3(1 - v')/R't>
and the dimensionless parameter AH, where H is the total depth
of the wall, is
,\.H [Hf\I(Rt)] 'y[3(1 - v'] .... (5)
TABLE II
VEItTICAL BENDING MOMENTS AND RING TENSIONS IN A CIRCULAR TANK WALL WITH THE BonOM END FIXED
WHEN THE TANK IS FULL OF LIQUID
(top)
AH ')=0
+0-0995
+0-2853
+0-1671
+0-0349
-0-0094
-0-0090
0-1
-0-0003
-0-0012
-0-0008
-0-0002
+0-0000
+0-0000
+0-0875
+0-2694
+0-2199
+0-1426
+0·1066
+0-0976
Mv=c_yH'
0-2 :
-0-0005
-0-0042
-0-0027
-0-0008
+0·0000
+0-0001
+0-0754
+0-2527
+0·2699
+0-2480
+0-2230
+0-2061
0-3
i
0-4 0-5
1
+0-0006 ! +0-0040 :
+0-0109 i
-0-0076 -0-0104 -0-0113
-0-0054 -0-0081 - 0-0102
-0-0019 -0-0034 - 0-0051
-0-0003 -0-0009 - 0-0020
"0-0001 -0-0001 -0-0007
+0-0634 ! +0-0514 +00395 i
-t 0-2332 +0-2090 +0·1782
+0-3110 +0-3346 +0-3322
+0-)448 +0-4219 +0-4640 :
+0-3383 +0-4454 +0-5277
-j 0'3189 +0-4352 +0-5438
--===---.-
T=</> yHR
0-6 0-7
I
0-8
!
0·9 1-0
+0-0224
+ 00397 . 1 + 0-0637 I + 0-0957 +0-1366
-0-0089 -0-0019 +0-0111 +0-0315 +0·0608
--0-0105 -0-0078 --0-0004 +0-0136 +0-0362
- 00064
:
--00062 -0-0027 +0-0063 +0-0134
- 0-0034 00042 -00030 +0-0027 +0-0160
0-0016 -0-0027 -0-0026 +0-0009 +0-0116
" 0-0281
+0-0176 : +0-0087 +0-0024
.0-1403 ·0-0970 +0-0528 +0-0161
+ 02973 +0-2292 +0-1370 +0-0452
+0-4541 +0-24t9 +0-0861
-j 0-5586 +0-3537 +0-1351
+0-6160 +0-6035 +0-4570 +0-1888
189
m
VERTICAL BENDiNG IN WALL DUE TO BoTTOM EDGE
..:.......--=--=:-..:::--:::......=-.::.-
Mv=ctM
,H
-0-003 0012 -0-028 - 0-049
+0-001 0-001 -0-008 --0-025
+ 2-846 2'600 -+ 2-354 '-2-106 +1-853
+ 1-090 .;. 1-800 +2-134 ..,.2-426
-1-514 +0-641 - 1-779 +2-976
-1-654 -0-331 +0-629 +2-047
-0'455 -0-750 -0-553 +0-347
+ 0-242
The parameter H'/ZRI is used instead of >"H in the P.C.A_
tables, with v taken as 1/5. If coefficients are tabulated against
>"H, however, it is easier to allow for any particular ,- value. Often
a value of ,. 0 is assumed in the design of concrete structures_
The ven,ical moment per unit width of the tank and the hori-
zontal ring tension may be written
M. = eyH" and .. (6)
T = rj>yHR . (7)
where c and rj> are coefficients which depend onJy upon the ratio
'I = h/H and on ,\H and can easily be tabulated. Values are
given in Tables I and II for circular walls of uniform thickness
under hydrostatic pressure to the lOp, with the bottom edge hinged
and fixed.
When the wall of a circular tank is continuous with the base
it may be subject to an additional edge moment, the effect of which
can be obtained as a further solution to the basic differential equa-
tion 3 above. The resulting vertical moment and ring tension can
be expressed in terms of the edge moment as follows:
M,. = e,M and . (8)
T = rj>,MR/H' .. (9)
these coefficients being tabulated in Table III.
The final moment acting at the boltom edge of a circular
tank wall can be found as the sum of the fixed-edge moment and
a further edge moment obtained by moment distribution. Before
TABLE IV
ROTATIONAL Snn"'NESS CoEFFICIENTS fOR THE BoTTOM EI.XJE
OF A CiRCULAR TANK WALL. WITH Tllf Top EDGE FREE
-
>-H 0 I 2
i
3
5t 0 1-017
3-915 J 5'921
12-000
190
TABLE V
RADIAL AND TANGENTIAL MOMENTS IN A CIRCULAR SLAB FIXED AT
THE EOOES AND SUBJECTED TO A UNIFORM LOADING (POISSON'S
RATIO TAKEN AS 0-2)
r R
centre
M,
--0-075
-0-075
T=9, MR/H'
0-5 0-6 (}7 0-8 0-9 1-0
+0-304 +0-423 +0-555 +0-697 +0-847 +1
-+ 0-209 +0-319 +0-456 +0-619 +0-S03 +1
+0-038 +0-124 '1-0'261 +0-458 +0-710 +1
-0-052 -0-004 +0-109 +0-313 +0-617 +1
-0-065 -0-056 +0-016 +0-199 +0-532 +1
-0-049 -0067 -0-037 +0-109 +0'453 +1
+1-S92 + 1-318 + 1'028 +(}7IS
+2-636 +2-711 +2·581 + 2-068
+4-184 5-257 +5-916 +5-713 +4-011
+4-057 +6-566 +9-065 + 10-366 +8·)77
+2-459 +6-159 + 11-1.13 + 15-481 +14·539
+0-491 +4-406 -+ 11-589 +20-213 +22-312
out-of-balance moments can be distributed at a joint, however, the
rotational stiffnesses of the connected elements must be known.
For a beam AS on elastic foundations, with the end A fixed in
position and the other end free, the rotational stiffness at A is
found to be
s,," 2.\l(sinh >..l cosh >,,1 - sin >..l cos >,,1)/
(cosh' >..l + cos' >,,1)]K.
b
•• __ (10)
where K,," is the El/l value for AB. For the wall of a circular
tank D/H replaces El/I and >"H is found from equation 5, to give
- the rotational stiffness per unit width. If the expression above is
written s,," s',.K.
b
, where s',. is noy, defined as a stiffness
coefficient, then the value of s',. can be calculated for various >"H
values and recorded as in Table IV.
Circular Base Slabs of Constant Thickness Subjected 10
Uniform Loading
The bending of plates is governd by the well-known differential
equation \l 'w p / D, where the deflections are small compared
to the thickness and the thickness is small compared to the -dimen-
sions of the pla,e in its own plane_ For a uniform circular plate,
with axial symmetry in loading and restraint, this equation may be
written in terms of the polar co-ordinates r, 8 as
\l'w (o'/i1r' + (f1'w/ilr' (l/r)(ow/or)]
-- + (2/r)«(l'w/ilr') -- (l/r'XiI'w/ilr') + (1/r')(2w/iir)
= p/D . ., (11)
When the loading p is uniform and the edge of the circular plate
is fixed this equation solves to give
M, (pR'/16)( -(1 + ,) + (3 + vXr'/R')] .. (12)
and
M, (pR'/16)[ -(1 + ,) + (1 + 3v)(r'/R')] .. (13)
for the radial and tangential bending moments per unit width respec-
tively_ Here r is any radius and R the full radius of the circular
plate_ As would be expected, M, = M, at the centre of the base
and M,/M, = " at the edge. When Poisson's ratio is taken as
0'2 the values of M, and M, can be expressed in terms of pR'
for various r/R ')' values, as shown in Table V.
For the special case p 0, equation 11 admits of a -very
simple solution, w Cr', which corresponds to unit edge moment
only_ Then M, = ZCD(l + ,.) and the slope at the edge is
(J ZCr. Thus the rotation stiffness at the edge is
S. = M,/() = D(l + ,-)/R .. (14)
Thus s. l'ZD/R, when v = 0'2.
(To be Continued)
REFERENCE
(I) Portland Cement Association booklets, reprinted as "Reinforced and
Prestressed Concrete Tanks." Concrete Association of India, 1953.
(ParI 2)
Til" first parI of this article appeared IN December 19tH.
Siructural Bf'hllviour of a Circular Tank on a Plaslie
Foundalion
Example 1. A circular tank has a mean diameter of 40ft and an
internal depth of 16ft. Its wall and base are 10 inches thick and
are continuous in construction. The bending moments and tensile
forces are required when the tank is full of water and supported
on a plastic foundation. Poisson's ratio is to be taken as 0'2, and
the densities of water and the concrete in the tank are 62'4 and
150 Ib/cu.ft respectively (Fig. I).
(This problem was solved by Amin Ghali (2)i for, = 1/6, during
his Ph.D. studies under the senior author's supervision.)
The value of AH for the tank wall is calculated from equation
5 as
(16'42/(20 X 5/6)] '\/[3(1 0'04)] = 5'24.
The lixed-end moment at the bottom of the tank wall, at the inter-
section with the centre of the base slab, may be found from equation
6, with c obtained from Table II by interpolation. Thus
M/' = 0'0150 x 62'4 X 16'42' = 4,140 Ib.ft/ft.run.
Also, the rotational stiffness of the tank wall at the base per
unit width is found from Table 4 as
5,. = 10'48D/16'42 0·638D.
If the horizontal continuity of the ground is neglected (as is
usual in simple ground reaction theories), then any uniformly-
distributed loading on a plastic foundation induces an equal upward
pressure and there is no resulting bending. Now a circular tank
full of water would be such a uniformly-distributed loading if the
tank walls had the same specilic gravity as water. It is evident
that the resultant upward pressure on the base is due to the
additional weight of the tank walls over that of water of the same
volume. In this case the effective pressure causing bending is
p. = (2". X 20 X 5/6 X 16 X (150 62'4)]/[11' X (20'42),]
= 112 Ib/sq.ft.
The Iixed-edge moment on the base at the junction with the wall
is obtained from Table V as
Mol" = 0'125 X 112 x 20' = 5,600Ib.ft/fLrun.
Also, the rotational stiffness of the base slab at its edge per
unit width is found from equation 14 to be
(D/R)(l + 'J = 1'2D/20 0·06D.
The plate rigidity D equab E('/12(1 - ,.-). In {his example the
wall and base thicknesses are equal, so the D values are the same.
• Fcllou' "f Pcml"."kc Collcr:c. OxforJ
t AUH/tllIl [!ngllll.:cr. Ot'C A/llp <.:.:.. Pal tlll..'/ \
i. FIJ,:wCJ III pal"clllhc\«( ",d,I..',,,1..' R.:foI..'/lll..'\ /1,IIIIlL'III': lIlt' (Hilde
The Iixed-end moments at the base of the wall and at the edge
of the base slab act in the same direction, as shown in Fig. lb for
the left bottom comer of a cross-section through the tank. The
IOtal out-of-balance moment there equals +4,140 + 5,600
+9,740 lb.ft/ft.run for equilibriwn, therefore, a balancing moment
of -9,740 lb.ft/ft.run has to be distributed according to the stiff-
nesses of the wall and the base, that is, in the ratio 0'638: 0'060.
The distribution factors are therefore 0'914 and 0'086 for the wall
and the base respectively and the distribution proceeds as shown
bel{lw, without any carryover of moments.
Distribution facwrs
Fixed-end moments
Balance
Wall
0'914
+4,140
-8,900
Bas,
0'086
+5,600
-840
Final moments -4,760 + 4,760 lb.ft/fuun.
The linal bending moments in the tank wall can now be calcu-
lated quite easily, by use of intermediate coefficients from Tables
II and III. Alternatively the coefficients in Tables I and III can
be used, if the balancing moment is taken as -4,760 instead of
- 8,900 lb.ft/ft.run, as from the hinged rather than from the fixed
condition. The first method is used in Table VI.
The ring tension in the tank wall can be calculated in a
similar way by means of Tables II and III again, or by means of
Tables I and III. The first method is used in Table VII.
The radial and tangential moments in the base slab can be
calculated for the fixed-edge case, by means of the coefficients in.
Table V. Now {he effect of a uniform radial moment on the edge
of a uniform circular plate is to produce spherical bending, in which
case the radial and tangential moments throughout the plate are
constant and equal to the applied edge moment. The calcula-
tion of final moments is very easily achieved, as shown in Table
VIII.
The linal vertical bending moments and ring tensions in the
tank walls, and radial and tangential moments in the base slab, are
shown to scale by means of full lines in Fig. Ie. The correspond-
ing values for the base of the tank wall being hinged are shown by
means of dotted lines. It will be seen that the effect of the con-
tinuity of construction is to im;rease the bending moments and
ring tensions in the tank wall and over most of the base. The
bending of the base slab forces the tank wall to deform outwards
beyond the hinged base condition.
EIT .. ct of EXI .. nding Ihe Bue of a Circular Tank
The outward rotation of the bottom edge of the circular tank
c:onsidered in Example 1 can be reduced or even reversed if the
base is extended outwards beyond the tank wall. Such an "annular
TABLE VI
C'\I ('lit" liON elf f-IN'\l VI K' H Al UtNUlN(i MO\tEN rs IN THE TANK VwI"lL IN EXAMPLE I
-------------
Distance rrom lOp edge
Coefficients rrom Table II
-_ .. _---- --
Fi.ed-base tank
Coefficients rrom Table III
·--1-
o 2H
00000
-0009
04H 0·6H
-00007 -00030
-190 -830
-0043 -0·059
0'8H H
-0·0150
-800 4.140
0·177
- -- - - --- - --1-------1---------1-------1-------
Effect or balanCing moment 80 380 530 -1,580 -8.900
Final moments 80 190 -30J -2,380 -4.760
(moments to Ib.rt rt run)
191
(values in ibift run of depth)
toe" is subjected to a comiderably greater uplift pressure
effective value calcul2ted before and the fixed-end moment
from this acts against the tixed-end moment at the bottom
tank wall and at the edge of the inner of the circular
Thr effective uplift pressure on the part of the base
be reversed if the toe was made large enough, and would
further increase of fixing moment to the wall. TIle effect
an extension to the base is most easily appreciated in a
example.
Example 2. The
so that the outer
required to find
moments acting
modification.
analysed above has its base extended
43ft shown in Fig. 2a. It is
in the walls, and the
as result of this
At the bottom of the tank wall the fixed-end moment and the
rotational stiffness are the ll8.Ille as before. The effective upward
pressure on the inner part of the base is now due to the differential
weight of the tank walls less the weight Qf an annular ring of
water over the projecting toe, for the full depth of the tank. ThUll,
Pb = [2". X 20 X 5/6 X 16 X (150 - 62-4) - 2". X 20'96
X (13/12) X 16 X 62'4]/[.". X (21'50)'J
= (46,700 45,400)/(21'50)' = 1,300/461:::::: 3 Ib/sq.ft.
There is thus a sma\l fixed-end moment at the edge of the inner
part of the base equal to 3 X (20)'18 = 150 Ib.ft.
The net upward pressure acnng·on the projecting part of the
base is seen to be that due to the depth of water il1llide the tank plus
the effective upward pres.,ure, po, calculated for the inner part of
the base, In this case, therefore, the upward pressure on the toe is
16 X 62'4 + 3 .= 1,001 ib/sq.ft as ahown in Fig. 2b. Now a
vertical strip of the waH of unit width is cOl1llidered in the distri-
bution of moments, and a lit width lit 20ft extends to l'048ft at
the middle of the projecting toe, at 20ft 1Hin radius. The total
upward force on the toe, for unit width of the centre of the lank
wall, is therefore
1'048 X (13/12) X 1,001 = l,136lb
it1
t---'-- """,to-
(a)
M
t
(c)
/WI Uplilt 112 b;"'(I,
(1))
and the moment of this force equals
1,136 X (111/12) = 1,090 Ib.ft (clockwise).
Thus the fixed-cnd moment equals -1,090 Ib.ft (anti-clockwise).
It is asswned that the centre of the joint is at the intersection
of the centres of the wall and the base. For the Win width of
the wall there is a uniform resultant downward pressure, equal
to the excess pressure of the wall above the uniform upward reaction
under the base. This provides two equal and opposite moments of
1,399 X (5/12) X (2;;12) = 1201b.ft
about the joint centre, thus reducing the fixed-end moments in
the base and tbe toe to 30 lb.ft and 970 Ib.ft respectively. This
modification might well be neglected in design.
The stiffness of a free cantilever is known to be zero even
if its width is variable, as in this case. It should be noted, however,
that a cantilever on an elastic foundation might have an appreciable
rotational stiffness, depending on tbe k/EI value. Here, of course,
the foundation is plastic and corresponds to a value of k/ EI equal
to zero, The restraint of the sides of the cantilever agail1llt rotation,
as in this case, can be partly allowed for by taking D in place of
EI; but this cannot, in itse'lf, alter the zero stiffness value which
applies here, The obliquity of the adjacent sides of the cantilever
will, however, cause some rotational stiffness value to develop, but
this will be neglected.
The fixed-end moments can now be distributed as before
with the same distribution factors operative. Thus:
Distribution factors
Fixed-end moments
Balance
Toe Wall Base
o 0'914 0'086
- 970 + 4,140 + 30
o - 2,920 - 280
Final moments - 970 + 1,220 - 250 lb.ft/ft
The vertical moments aod ring tensions in the tank walls, and
the radial and tangential moments in the base, can now be calcu-
lated as in Example 1. The final values are sketched in Fig. 2c,
which should be compared with Fig. lc for the same tank without
,<1

Ib.k/ft."idln "'./1 •.
Mv
:ao
i
T
j
'¥<><>
,,;0
/30
/220
M,
it
Me
(e)
Pig. I. Exampl. 1. Fig. 2. Exampi. 2.
(I) kntavre. (hJ loi4lft, aM ftX1ld-end fTIOf'ft4f\Ui. (c) Ven.ral "Mint FnOl'MtltI and rinl tension) in tank wall; r&diaJ aM t::l1nJontial mom.Pltt in slab ban.
192
Effect of lilit A""lular Joint in the
-Approximate "Retaining
Construction joints in tanks can be effectively wliterproofed
by various methods (3). They can be rnade to transmit moment
and/or shear or transmit no structural action at all. It is
practice to construct the cemral part of a circular tank,
rests on the ground, at reduced thickness and without any
structural continuity Wilh the outer part of the base and the tank
wails. There is then no bending induced in the central part of the
floor, which is required only to be waterproof. Special care is
required with the annular joint to prevent water seepage and to
ensure that no structural interaction occurs across it.
The outer part of the base is usually made continuous with
the tank wall, though a construction joint at the bottom of the
would be quite practicable. The outer part of the base may
be extended beyond the tank wall as in the "inverted Tee" type
of retaining wall. It is evident that the outer parr of the base
will both deflect and rotate, in the general case (though it might
be possible to design for zero rotation). Now with a plastic
foundation the ground pressure is a constant value regardless of
the deflection and can easily be calculated in this case from the
vertical equilibrium of [he outer part of the base. The fixed-end
moment for the projecting toe, per unit width of vertical strip,
can therefore be calculated as before. For [he outer part of the
base within [he wall the fixed-end moment can be calculated in a
similar manner, assuming cantilever action as for the toe. More
exactly, in both cases, the theory for annular plates needs to be
used-as explained later.
With [he fixed-end moments for the toe (if any) and the outer
part of the base inside the tank walls thus calculated the total out-
of-balance moment at the junction of the wall and the base can
be obtained, since the fixed-end moment at the foot of the tank wall
is the same as before. The balancing moment needs to be distri-
buted according to the rotational stiffnesses of the connected
elements. It can be assumed, as before, that the parts of the base
have zero rotational stiffnesses, in which case the balancing moment
is allotted directly to the bottom of the lank wall. (This procedure
would, of course, be invalid for the straight retaining wall, but is
(0)
because the ring tension in the lank wall prevents
tank shown in Fig. 1& is to be analyserl
30Droxilma"F theory aoove on the supposition that
at a radius of 14ft llin so that the inner
independently (Fig. 3a). The
plastic. The vertical bending
lanle wall, and the radial moments
are required ioe design.
upward bending pressure on the inner
outer p&rr this effective pressure is found
''''.1<1'''1'''''",· - 14'92') 46,700/194 240Ib/sq.ft.
Now from a 1ft wide strip at the centre of the tank
wall are 0'98ft apart at 19ft 7in radius, aod 0'75ft apart at 14ft 1 lin
radius. The effective upward force equals
4'66 X 0'86 X 240 = 9641b,
and its moment about the joint is
964 X (20 17'33) = 2,570 Ib.!t.
Thus the fixed-end moment for this part of the base is + 2,570
Ib.fr. This means that the fixed-end moment at the bottom of the
tank wall is -2,570 Ib.ft. In Example 1 tbe final moment at the
bottom of the tank wall equalled - 4,760 Ib.ft, so this new value
may be considered an improvement, though it still· means that the
tank wall is subieClcd to more vertical bending and ring tension
than in the hinged condition. The vertical bending moments and
ring tensions in the tank wall are calculated as in the previoUII
The resulting values are shown in Fig. 3b, along with
the radial moments In the outer part of the base, which are found
by simply taking moments.
Example 4. The circular tank shown in Fig. 23 is modified by
the insertion of an annular joint at 16ft radius, as shown in Fig. 3a.
The outer part of the base is thus still 5ft 6in wide, as in the previoUII
example, but it now includes a projecting toe as in Example Z.
It is to be analysed, as before, when full of water and supported on
plastic ground.
In this case the effective upward pressure on the outer part
of the base inside the tank walls equals
(46,700 45,400)/(21'50' - 16'00') = 1,300/206
= 6'3 Ib/sq.ft.
The fixed-end moment on the part of the outer base inside the
wall now equals
3'58 X 0'89 X 6'3 X (20 - 17-88) = 40 Ib.ft (clockwise)
(neglecting the moment of half the width of the wall). The effective
upward pressure on the projecting toe is now 998 + 6 = 1,004
Ib/sq.ft, and the corresponding fixed-end moment is therefore
1'048 X (13/12) X 1,004 X (11l/i2) = 1,090Ib.ft
(anti-clockwise)
(again neglecting the moment of half the width of the wall). The
fixed-end moment at the bottom of the tank wall therefore equals
1,090 - 40 1,050 Ib.ft (clockwise). The tank wall is therefore
restrained between the fixed and the hinged conditions.
t
I
Mt''''·'· T
'''' I )._
1.eft: FiR. 3
Mv 100
t"-
I
j)
Examples 3 aud 4.
(a) Two tank' anal., .. d by
"r,Ulnln. watr· mfthod
i{
1S,900
1S10 ___ Mt
ib) .. (c) Momann and nn, (e"llons In
li10
,,.,
th.unk wall and b'''llab enm,,' ..
'(OlIOCfD
la"d-4r •• p.cu'tely
IS)O M,.
Mt
2""
(b)
(al
Right: Fig. 4.
ExtJ7Jlphs 3 aPEd 4
,t
.,t
V.rtlul bend,", moments and (lnl t
'1
tt""oniin unk wall; udiliand
t
l
"-
i
un,.nuII momenn In but slab
, 20 (a, Enmpl,,] (b) Exampl, .. M, 10 T
IJ,fOO
i
1),001)
I I>'''
. l_
it
I

210 l' 7O<J
9 10 M,.
M;'I'IOICID 1100 lifO Mr Me
«!
(b)
193
TAlILE VII!
C'..ALCULA nON OF
!.lAl!l! SLAB IN EXAMPLE I
Distance from joinl 4' B' 12' 16'
M, (fixed edge) + 5,600 +2,370 --DO -].930 i -3,000 -3,360
M (balance) -840 -840 --840 --ll4O -840 -840
FlOal M, + 4,760 1,530 I -970 -2,770 -3,840 -4,200
M, (fixed edge) -+ J,110 --490 --1,750
I
-2,640 -3,360
M (balance) -840 -840 -840
i
-840 -840 -840
Final M, +280 -1,330 -2,590
!
-3,480 -4,020 -4,200
(values In lb.ft/ft WIdth)
Annular Bue Subjected
The differential equation
uniform circular piate, written as equation 11 (Part 1), can
solved for an annulus if the appropriate boundary conditions are
applied. This has been done for annuli with different ratios of
inner to outer radius, the radial and tangential moments being
tabulated at various radii. The rotational sriffnesses at the inner
and outer radii and the moments due to unit peripheral moments
applied separately at these edges have also been obtained for such
annuli. These tables are not included here, but with this additional
information it is possible to analyse exactly the tanks previously
considered in Examples 3 and 4.
The results of these further calculations are shown in Fig. 4.
It will be seen that the values are almost identical with those
obtained by the simpler method, though the exact treatment now
gives appreciable values for the tangential moments, which were
ignored before. There does not appear to be any simple way of
estimating these tangential moments, but Fig. 4 at least gives the
designer some idea of this effect.
194
C..nnclu6ioDe
are
this approximate method, as are the
the base. The tangential moments 1n base
found from an exact analysis to be appreciable,
disregarded in the approximate method.
This is a paper explaining methods of analysis
forms of circular tanks and though it indicates which types con-
struction minimise the bending moments and ring tensions does
not purport to teach design. The ground reaction is supposed
unifonn, as with a very soft plastic soil. The smlctural behaVIOur
of such tanks when supported on elastic foundatIOns will be con-
sidered in a further paper. [To be published in future issue.-ED.]
REFERENCES
(2) Ghali, Amin. "The Structural Analy.is of Circular and Rectangular
Concrete Tank,." Ph.D. the,is, University of Leeds, 1957.
(3) B. S. Code of Puctice, C.P. 2007, 1960. "Design and Construction
of Reinforced and Prestressed Concrete Structures for the Storage
01 Water and other Aourous Liquids."
(4)
Vol. I, 1952. Kozlekedesi Kiado, Budapest, 1952.
(5) Timoshenko, S. and Woinowsky-Kneger, S. Theory of Plales and
She/ls, 2nd Edn., McGraw-Hili, 1959.
The theory of the bending of circular plat.. on el.stic foundations is

circular tanI<s reating on elastic ground with differ.,..t values ascribed to
the foundation modulus are compared numerically with the solution for
pl",tic ground (which was obtained in Parts I and 2 of this paper (6);).
The theory for the bending of an annular slab on an elutie foundation
i, referred to and an approximate solution for a very narrow annulus is
also dttived; these are used together in the analysis of • circular tanlt
with a projecting toe base. Next, the 'retaining wall' method of analysis
is ""mined and ita range of applications investigated. Asymptotic solu-
tions fot • circular plate and a beam on an elastic foundation are listed
lIDd compared; their use is demonstrated for this c[;<ss of structure. Finally,
an approximate method of analysi. is' described for u flexible annular
:dab b.... A guide to the usage of these various types of analysis is
appended.
(Part 3)
The first parts of this article appeared in Ihe December 1963 and
7anuary 1964 issues
II. TANKS ON ELASTIC FOUNDATIONS
T
HE analysis of the forces and moments in the walls and bases
of open circular tanks supported on plastic foundation was
explained in earlier pans of the paper. A plastic foundation has,
theoretically, a foundation modulus, k, equal to zero, which means
that settlements are infinitely large. This extreme case cannot
occur in fact and the general case must be considered; this is
governed by the ratio of the foundation modulus k to the flexural
rigidity EI of the base. For a strip footing the ratio of k to E1
is defined as 4,\' and calculations proceed in terms of ,\. Similarly,
for a plate resting on an elastic foundation the ratio of k to the
plate rigidity, D, is defined as f3' and f3 is the corresponding ruling
variable. The extreme case of ,\ or f3 equal to zero, which occurs
with k zero and EI finite must not, however, be confused with the
case when k is finite and EI or D is infinite. Then infinite stiff-
ness obtains (except for a rigid cantilever on an elastic foundation)
and a different analysis from the plastic case results.
In the earlier parts of the paper it was found that only joint
rotation needed to be considered, but once k is finite vertical dis-
placements at the joints may have to be introduced as additional
variables for some cases (but not for the approximate 'retaining
wall' analysis).
Once again the Winkler hypothesis is assumed, viz. that at
any point the foundation reaction varies linearly with the deflection.
The behaviour of the ground might be represented more realistic-
ally by the theory of elasticity, if E and I' values for the soil can be
obtained [note the research by Vesic (7) and by Barden (8)], but
a complete account of the interaction of the base and soil of a
foundation should also take account of whesion, the coefficient
of friction, and the effects of voids ratio and moisture content.
These further complications will certainly affect the analysis, but
the results given here, based on the Winkler theory, are a sub-
stantial development beyond the simple plastic theory for soil.
A full explanation of the theory of the bending by circular
plates on elastic foundations was published by Schleicher (9) in
1926. Since then Timoshcnko (5) and Hetenyi (10) have modified
Schleicher's work in attempts to make the solutions usable in design
work. The theory is now presented in summarised form. The
notation of srmbols which was used in Part 1 is retained; additional
symbols are hsted below:
• Fellow of Pembrol .. College, Oxford.
t Smior Engineer, MtHrI. Ove ATilP and Part1Urs.
t Figures in partnthtJtJ indicate References follotL'ing {he art ide
Note that references, figures, tables, tec., follow on {rom ParIS I aNd 2
their numhtrinK.
Additional Notation
f3 = bending of a uniform plm on an
Z" etc. = functions for the bending of a unifonn circular plate
on an elastic foundation.
Z' = dZ/d(frt).
A" etc. = integration constants.
Q normal shear force per unit length of a circumference.
w' = dw/dr.
S .. rotational stiffness, 0 1, w = O.
Seq = Sq, = cross stiffness.
Sq. = shear stiffness, w = 1,0 = O.
S' ,. = rotational stiffness without shear restraint, (J 1, W
occurring.
R" R" inner and outer radii"of an annulus.
y = weight of water per unit volwne.
c" etc. coefficients for radial and tangential bending moments.
Circular Plates on Elastic Foundation.
The differential equation for the defonnations of a circular
plate without any foundation support was given in equation 11
(Part 1). The elastic reaction of the foundation, kw, reduces the
nett plate loading and the equatiJn becomes
'V'w + (kw/D) = p/D .... (15)
The solution of this differential equation, for the R.H.S. zero, may
be obtained in terms of the four Bessel functions ber pr, bei f3r,
ker f1r and kei f3r, where f1' = kiD = 12(1 - v')k/Et'.
The general solution of equation 15 is, however, most con-
veniently written
w A,l,(f1r) + A,Z,(flr) + A,l,(frt) + AiZi(tn') .. (16)
with the l functions simply derived from the Bessel functions.
These l functions were originally derived and tabulated by
Schleicher (9), but they are also to be found in Hetenyi's well-
known book (10). They are oscillating functions, somewhat similar
to the functions such as sinh x. cos x which occur in the solution
of the equation for the bending of a uniform beam on an elastic
foundation.
The slope along a radius, dw/dr, is given by
w' = (A,l', + A,l', + A,l', + Ail',) ... (17)
where l', = dl/d(flr).
These derivatives l'" etc" are not easily derived as with
circular and hyperbolic functions; however, they are also tabulated
in Hetenyi's book. The second derivatives can be fairly simply
expressed in terms of the original functions and their first deriva-
tives, with the first and second, and the third and fourth, functions
and their derivatives paired independently.
Four boundary conditions, usually two at the centre and two
at the circumference of the plate, give the values of the four inte-
gration constants A, to A,. The radial and tangential bending
moments in the plate can be written
M, = -D.{3'{A.[l, - (I - l'll',/f3r]
+ A,[ -Z, (1 1·)l'Jf3r]
+ A,[l, - (I - I·)l',/pr]
+ A,[ -l, - (I l'll'./f3r]) . (18)
and
M, -D.f3'{A,[,ol, + (1 - 1·)l',ff3r]
+ A,[ -Iol, + (I - 1·)l'Jf3r]
+ A,[ .. Z, + (l - 1·)l',/f3r]
+ A.[ -,ol, + (I - 1.)l'./f3rJ) . (19)
The normal shear force at any radius r is
Q = D.{3'(A,l', A,l', + A,l'. - A,l',) ... (20)
In each of these three expressions the parameter of the l-
functions is f3r, where r is the radius at which the moment or force
occurs.
195
When the plate is continuous across its centus the constants
A, and A. become zero, since Z, and Z. tend (0 infinity as
reaches zero. So for the solid disc there are only two boundary
conditions to be found fflf each particular loading case.
Uniform Circular
to a Uniform
When the boundary of the plate is given unit radial rotation
the boundary conditions are U' = 0 and 10' = 1 at r R. The
integration constants are obtained by substituting these values in
equations 16 and 17. The values of the constants then become
f3A, = -Z,/(Z,Z', Z,Z',)
and f3A, Z,/(Z,Z', - Z,Z',).
Substitution in the expressions for M" M, and Q gives the
plate forces for this loading case as
M, -(D/R)f3R.
and
{--Z,.[Z" -Z' ,,(l-- .. )/f3r] +Z,. [--Z"
· (21)
+Z,.[ --,Z,,-"-Z'jl-- 'l/f3rl)
--(Z"Z'" + Z,.Z',,)
Q = -(D/R').(f3R) -----
(Z,.Z'" - Z"Z',,)
These are the "runou,s" of the bending moments and
· (22)
shears in a uniform circular disc on an elastic foundation a
unit edge rotation. Numerical values of the radial and tangential
moments are given in Table X. Poisson's ratio has been assumed
to be equal to 0'2.
By putting r = R in the expressions 21 and 23 the edge
moments and forces required to maintain this edge rotation are
obtained. These are the rotational and cross-sliffness values for
the plate; they reduce to
S" = M. = s •• _(D/R)
and
{-(Z,,'+Z,.')+ [(1--- 1')/f3R](Z',.Z_. -Z'"xZ,x))
-(D/R).f3R--------------
· (24)
10
10
TABLE X
BENDING MOMENTS IN A UNIFORM CIRCULAR PLATE ON AN
ELASTIC FOUNDATION WHEN EDGE ROTATION 6 = 1.
M,=C, x D/R; M, C, >( DjR.
rlR Edge i 0·8 0·6 0-4
----T-
I 0·2
<i
1'241, ),221 1·201 j·184 1'173 I'Hi9
1·785 1'499 12l] 0·978 0·825 0·772
3208 2'164 J'IB9 I 0·452 0·007 -0,140
Co 4·802 2'689! 0·979 --0'072 --0,583 -0-728
C,
6241 2'820 0·547 - 0419 -0658 -0'678
7·649
9-067
10-49
11·91
13-32
j'208
1·317
j'602
1-920
2208
2-490
2-774
]-057
3-341
3'624
2-661 0·022 -0,594 -0-458 - 0·340
2-319 -0440 -0-608 -0'2IB -0,046
1·86 -0,75 -050 --0,05 0'09
J-34 - 0·90 -0·}2 0·04 0-09
0-79 0·91 --0-16 0-06 0·05
1-197 1-186 1'177 1·17J 1·169
1'150 0997 0-876 0-798 0-772
1-025 0525 0-156 -0-066 -0140
0-077 0-412 --0-656 0728
0-713 0-198 --0,576 0-670 0-678
0545 - 0·352
0-374 -0423
0-208 0-430
0-054 - 0-394
-0-085 - 0-332
0501 - 0-401 -0,340
0- 348 - 0-I3J - 0-046
-0-200 0-020 0085
0·087 0-068 0-093
--0-015 0-059 0-052
S", = Q. sq.(D/R')
[(Z,RZ',R+Z,RZ'·,R)
= (D/W)(f3R)'------
(ZIRZ' oR - Z,"Z' 'R»)
These stiffness coefficients, s, have been tabulated for a range
_ . _ (25) of f3R values and are given in Table IX, Poisson's ratio again
being taken as 0'2_
Soo
5'00
196
TABLE IX STIffNESS CoEFFICIENTS FOR A CIRCULAR PLATE ON AN ELASTIC FOUNDATION
1·210 1'356
¢

e= +1 .
M soo.D/R
Q = sqo_DjRl
1·836 2-556 3286
1
+-
M = S{jQ_DjRl
Q sQq.DjRl
3-987 4-686
w=+l
where D is the flexural rigidity of the plate and EP/l2 (1_1-'); (.- = l.l
M and Q are the edge moment and shear I unll cIrcumference;
and 11' k j D where k is the modulus of subgrade reaction.
5-389 6·093
M s·"". D/R
Q
10
13·32
Othe!' Boundary ConditioDli
Two other set3 of bounduy cooditioru are important in the
analysis of circular tanks; these are firstly II unit edge sway without
rotatioo at the circumference, and secondly a unit edge rotation
only when no shear restraint is applied on the circumference. The
method of ca1cuIation is aimilu to that outlined above for the unit
edge rotation.
In the first boundary case U! = 1 and w' = 0 at ,. = R. The
bending moments and radial shear in the plate at any radius r
become
and
Sqq = Q. = s D/R>
=(D/R')(j3R)'{[(Z',JO)'+(Z\.)']iCz,aZ',,,-Z,..z',.)} .. (29)
In the case of unit edge rotarion only the boundary conditions
are that
w' = 1 and Q = 0 at r = R.
The bending moments and normal shear in the plate then
become
(Z',.{Z'r- (l-v)/,Br)Z',r}
+Z' .. { -Z,,- [(l-v)/pr)Z',,})
(Z',Il{Z,,-[(l-v)/,BrjZ',,} Mr=-(D/R)(j3R)
-Z',ll{ -Z,,- [(l-v)/,Br)Z',,})
M,=-(D/R')(j3R)' -------------
(ZtRZ',. - Z,.Z' ,,,)
· ... (26)
[(Z'"e)'+(Z',.)']
· _ .. (30)
(Z',,,{,·Z,,+ [(l-v)/,Br)Z',,}
+Z',lI{ -,.Z" + (l-v)/,Br]Z'.,} )
(Z',.{vZ,,+[(l-v)/,BrjZ',r} M (D/R)fQR)
-Z""{-'vZ,,+[(l-v)/,8r)Z',,}) ,=- II'
M, = -(D/R')(j3R)'
· _ .. (27)
and
Q=-(D/R')(j3R)'[(Z',.Z',r+Z',.Z',,)/(Z,.Z',.-Z • ..z'llt)]
· ... (28)
Numerical values for Mr and M" with Poisson's ratio at 0-2,
are tabulated in Table XI.
In particular the edge moments and forces, which are the cross
and sway stiffness values for a uniform circular plate are
10
10
S.q = M" (= S .. in equation 2S)
TABLE Xl
BENOING MOMENTS IN A UNIFOIlM Cn,euLAIl Pl.An ON AN
ELA.STle FOUNDATION WHEN EOOE D£FUCTlON w=1.
, Cj
i
C.
-C}074
1·783 i 0·723 -HlI3
6·492 i 2-218 : -o·m; -2-040 . -2,769 - 2·978
13·09
I
2-943 -1·939 i -3'SQ8 - 3·649 -3'56l
21·26 2'019 -40406 -40402 I - 2-833 -2,092
31·49 -0·42\ i -7·167 -40498 : -1,257 i -0,067
43·79 -4,12 i -9,30 -3'69 0·11 1-14
58·09 -8'78 -10,26 0'8S 1·25
74·38 -14-oS -9'98 -0'65 1·00 0·74
92-67 -19·54 I c}62
I
0·78 0·19
0·025 i -0'011'0-0391-0.058 I -0,070 ·0·074
0'357, -0'158 : -0·544 I -0,808 ! -0·962 .. 1·01l
1·298 : -0'596 -1·818: -2,525 -2,874 2·978
2-618
4-253
6·297
8·757
11·62
-1·268 i -3-062 -3·597 - 3-610 -3,563
-2,155 -3-847: -3'349 -2-468 2-092
-3-2521-4-212 . -2-340 . -0,663 i -0,067
-4-4821-4.173 -1'1771 0'636' 1·139
-5-75 1_3-76 I -0,21 I 1·07 1·25
[(Z',II)'+(Z' .. )']
· ... (31)
Q=-(D/R')(j3R)'{(Z',RZ'"-Z'uZ',.)/(Z',,,)'+(Z',.)'}}
· ... (32)
In this case there is only one stiffness value, the edge bending
moment, which will produce a unit edge rotation when the edge
shear force is zero. This rotational stiffness is S' .. =M.=s' ..D/R
(Z •• Z',.-Z •• Z',lI)
= (D/R)(PR)
+ [(l-v)/,8R] [(Z'.lI)'+(Z',lI)')}
[(Z/
,
.)' +(Z' ,.)']
_ . __ (33)
TABLE XU
BENDING MOMENTS IN A UNIFOIlM CIRCULAIl PLAn ON AN ELASTIC
FOUNDATION FOil EDGE UNIT ROTATION WITH NO EOOE SHEA" RESTIlAINT.
BR r/R Edge 0·8
<i.
1·210 1·208 1·188
1·356 1-325 1·015
1·836 1'695 0·489
2·556 2·184 ' 1·312 0·()4)
-0'111
3·286 ' 2·540 1·160 0'193 -0,265 I -C}387
3-987 ' 2·710 0·856 I ·0·071 i -0'312 -0,332
I
I I
4·686 2·730 I 0·491 ! -0·238 ; -0'229 -0,160
5·389 2'631 , 0'150 ! -0,298 i -0,122 -C}024
6·093 -0,040
0-035
10 6·797
0·039
1,202
1'188
1·2.11
1·IK8 f
1-128
1·070 I
1·029 1·015
1·327 1·151 0·909 ! 0'689. 0'541 0·489
C. 1'471 1·089 0·603 ' 0·206 -0-037 -0,117
1·617 1·013 , 0')36 -0,327 -0,387
1·757
0'
923
1
0·138 -0,229 ":0'324 ·0·332
1·897 0·822 ·0·005 -·0·230 , .. 0'196 -0,160
I
1-0,181 1-0-074 2-038 0·713 -·0·100 -0,024
2·179 ·0'120 -0,002
0-035
10 2·319 -0,066 :
I
0·024 0-039
191
The stiffness coefficients which have been developed here
are tabulated in Table IX and the runouts of the radial and tan-
gential bending moments in the plate, for this last case, are given
in Table XII.
Note that the cross stiffness values s.q and Sq. are found to
be equal; this might have been expected from Betti's Theorem.
If the foundation modulus k is put equal to zero the moments
and shears reduce to those in a circular slab with edge supports
only. Considering the circular plate with a unit edge rotation, if
fJR = 0 the expressions 21 and 22 reduce to
M, = M, -(D/R)(1 \.),
which represents the spherical bending of a circular slab. The case
of unit edge sway also reduces to that of a circular slab carrying
a uniformly distributed load of p = k.w per unit area. Then the
fixing moment reduces to pR' /8 while the tangential moment at
the edge becomes vpR' /8; these are identical with the expressions
for a uniform pressure, p, on a fixed-edge uniform circular slab.
It is unnecessary to supply tables of fixed-end moments for
the only common case of internal loading on a disc, that of a
uniform pressure on the plate', since these are simply the ronouts
of moments for a unit edge sway multiplied by the free deflection
of the slab, p/k, where p is the unifOimly-distributed loading. (It
is supposed that the deflection p/k first freely occurs, then has to
be restored.)
EXAMPLE 5.
It is required to analyse the structural action of the tank which
was used in the first example in Part 1 when the tank is supported
on an elastic foundation. A very soft subgrade will be considered
with the modulus of reaction k equal to 3 tons/sq.ft/in. Young's
modulus for concrete is taken as 3 X 10" Ib/sq.in.
4760
/740 I
j
Me
Ie)
/
4760
Fig. S. Circular tank 011 ela$lic foundation in Example 5. (0) jlrl.lcrurt,
(b) elaslic and planic Joils compared) and (c) values for a range 0/ para-
meters.
198
TABLE XII!
RADIAL
Position acrosssiab
Centre
Final radial moments
-140
Final tangential moments
-140
Then fJ' kiD = 3 X .2,240 X 12 X 12 X 0·96/3 X 10'
X 144 X 0·833'.
ThusfJ= 0·25, and fJR = 5·0.
From Table IX the plate rotational stiffness is
5' •• = 3·286 X D/20 0·164D.
Since the uniform vertical load due to the head of water
causes no bending of the base slab, only the edge vertical shear
due to the differential weight of the wall needs to be considered in
calculating the fixing moments in the base. This force has a value
of 16·0 X 0·833 x (150 - 62"4) = 1,169Ib/ft run.
Now Sq. = 153·0 D/20' 0·0191D and 58. = 21·26D/.20' =
0·0532D. (Table IX)
The fixing moment at the edge of the slab when it deflects with no
edge rotation is therefore
M'" = 1,169 X (0"0532/0·0191) = + 3,250 Ib.ft/ft.
The rotational stiffness of the tank wall is Sw = 0·638D
and the fixed-end moment in the wall is Mr
ll
= +4,140 Ib.ft/ft.
Since the plate provides the vertical support at the joint and
S' 88 is now used for it, there no need to consider the vertical
force equilibrium further and the joint is analysed by simple
moment-distribution, thus:
Distribution factors
Fixed-end moments
Balance
Wall
0·796
Base
0·204
+3,250
-1,510
Final moments -1,740 + 1,740 Ib.ft/ft run.
With the joint now in equilibrium the final bending moments in
the slab can be found as the sum of the fixed-joint moments (Table
XI) and the joint-release moments (Table XII). These slab
moments are summarised in Table XIII.
The curves of the bending moments in the base are shown in
Fig. 5b, along with the moments and hoop tensions in the tank
wall. It is seen that the elastic foundation reduces the rotation
of the base joint and gives a large reduction in the bending
moments near the centre of the base slab, as compared with a
plastic foundation. The tangential bending moments remain of
significant magnitude and must be provided for in the base slab
reinforcement. This large reduction of the bending moments has
been produced by a very soft foundation; stiffer soils produce
correspondingly greater effects. The forces in the tank wall for
a wide range of foundation conditions are shown in Fig. 5c.
The exact vlhlue attributed to the foundation modulus is not
critical in the calculation of the forces in the tank structure as the
bending moments are proportional to its fourth root. Thus 100
per cent change in the modulus value alters fJR by only 19 per
cent, and the final moments to a similarly small degree. The
numerical values of the body deflections of tbe structure would be
inversely proportional to the modulus value, but the deflections
would not usually be estimated in the course of this type of
computation.
(T a be Continued)
REFERENCES
(6) Lightfoot, E. and Michael, D. "The Analysis of Ground-Supported
Open Circular Concrete Tanks; I, On Plastic Foundations." Cit'il
Engineering oud Public Works Review, Dec. 1963 and Jan. 1964
(7) Vesic, A. B. "Beams on Elastic Sub-grade and the Winkler's
Hypothesis." Proc. 5th 1>11. COllf. Soil Mech. F. Eltg. Paris, 1961
(8) Barden) L. "Distribution of Contact Pressures under Foundations."
Geotechnique Vol. 12, 1962.
(9) Schleicher, F. "Kreisplatten auf Elasticher Unterlage.'· B'lin, 1926.
(10) Hetenyi, M. "Beams on Elastic Foundation." Michigan Univ
Press, 1946.
(PIIrl 4)
Parts 1, 2 and 3 appeared in 1M Dec. 1963, 7an. 1964 and Sept.
1965 issues resputiveiy.
Annular on Ewtie Foundationa
The theory of the bending of annular slabs on elastic founda-
tions is similar to the theory for the solid disc which has been
outlined above, but four boundary constants mUlt now be evaluated.
Tabulation of the stiffness coefficients for the annulus involves a
further variable, the ratio of the innet' and outer radii R;/R., in
addition to the parameter f3(R. - R;). Tables of edge stiffness
coefficients have been published elsewhere (11):1: for the far end
fixed and the far end free conditions, with a range of the two
parameters fi(R. - R;) and R;/R •.
A shon toe is often provided round the perimeter of a circular
base slab to reduce the joint rotation. While in an exact analysis
the toe should be considered as an annulus on an elastic foundation
it can often be treated as a rigid beam cantilevered out from the
tank wall. It is found from a comparison with the analytical
solutions that the rigid beam stiffnesses are accurate to within 10
per cent at f3(RQ - R;) = 1, with smaller errors at lower para-
meter values. At greater parameter values the rigid beam asswnp-
tion gives stiffness values. The expressions for a rigid
cantilever on an elastic foundation are now derived.
Consider a rigid cantilever of length i,Alnd unit width. When
the restrained end is given unit normal deflection, end rotation
being prevented, the edge balancing shear and moment are
Sq. k X I X 1 = kl . (34)
and
S", = kl x ;1 = lkP . . . (35)
Similarly when the beam end sustains unit rotation and nonnll
deflection at the suppon is prevented the rotational and cross
stiffnesses are obtained. These are
Sq. = ; X I X I X k = 1kl' = S", as in equation 35
and
S .. = !kl' X (2/3)1 = 1kf3 .... (36)
The rotational stiffness of the rigid cantilever when no end shelr
restraint occurs is found to be
S'H = 1 X 11 X 11 X k x (2/3)1 = kl'/12 .. (37)
For this two-member tank base account must be taken of the
venical deflection and shear forces at the wall joint, as the applied
loads are divided between the inner and outer pans of the slab
to a statically indeterminate degree. The slope deflection method
of analysis then becomes the most suitable technique.
EXAMPLE 6
In Example 2 a tank with its projecting base slab supported on
• plastic foundation was analysed. The analysis when the founda-
tion is elastic, with a modulus k = 33 tons/sq.ft/in, is now
described.
The foundation constant f3' =
33 X 2,240 x 12 X 12 X 0'96
3 X 10' X 144 X 0'833'
giving p == 0'45, and pR = 9'00.
The stiffness values of the inner plate are from Table IX:-
S .. = ll'9ID/20 = +0'596D,
S .. = 74'38D/20' = +0'1859D
and S .. = 951-9D/2O' == +O'l190D.
The stiffness values for the cantilever toe are
__ kl'/3 = _________ _
• Fellow of Pembrolu Colleg" Oxford.
t Senior Engin,er, MetsrJ. OV4 Arup and Partners.
* Firures in parenth4J.s indicate Refer,nCts following Ihe arliclt.
S .. = ;kl' = -01)461D
and S .. = kl = +0'0615D.
The rotational stiffness of the wall is Sw = O'638D.
Assuming zero joint rotation initially, the fixed-end moment
at the joint at the base of the wall due to the horizontal water
pressure is M'w = 4,140 Ib.ft/ft run, as before.
Now the entire base of the tank alone would produce a uni-
form settlement without any bending being induced; this can be
ignored. Similarly, if the pan of the base-up to the centre-line of
the walls was subject only to the pressure of water above it would
senle a distance yH /k and no bending would be induced, This
displacement, however, would cause the cantilevered toe to be
subject to an upward pressure of yH and on unit width (at the
joint) the resulting fixed-end moment and vertical force would be
M', = -yHI'/2 and V', = +yHI (uniform width being asswned).
The values in this case are -62-4 X 16 X 11'/2 = -1,125 Ib.ft
and 62'4 X 16 X Ii = 1,500lb per foot run of structure at the
joint.
The downward force V w due to the weight of the wall should
have half the weight of the wall as water deducted, since this has
already been allowed for. In this example, V", = 150 X 16 X
5/6 - 62'4 X 16 X 5/12 = 2,000 - 417 = l,5831b.
If the subsequent venical displacement of the joint is w and
the joint rotation is IJ, then the following equations can be estab-
lished for moment and venical force equilibriwn at the joint:
(0'638 +0'596 +0'046)DIJ +(0'186-0'046)Dw }
+4,140-1,125 =0 (38)
(0'186 -0'046)DIJ +(0'119+0'061)Dw+ 1,500= 1,583
These equations solve to give IJ = -2,628/D and w = 2,500/D.
The balanced joint members are then calculated by back-
substitution and are:
Mw ," = 4,140 - 1,678 = 2,462,
M,o. = -1,125 - 121 - 115 = -1,361,
Mb ... = -1,568 + 465 = -1,103 Ib.ft/ft run.
The variations of the radial and tangential moments in the base
slab are shown in Fig. 6. From a comparison with the values for
the plastic foundation in Example 2 it is seen that the effect of

'(a)
,uo
'(b)
-- -- Plastic
-- {1lR. 9
12600
15000
Fig. 6. Circular ta"k with exltndtd ball 011 an f1aure foundation, Example
6. (a) rtructUrl, (h) moments and forctJ.
199
the elastic medium is not so great as when there is no toe on the
base slab. The joint rotation remains relatively small because of
the balanced proportions of the base.
For other values of the foundation modulus these comments
remain valid, the chief effect of modulus variation for this type of
tank being on the rate of damping of the joint disturbances.
Retaining Wall Method of Analysis
When the base slab of a circular tank is divided by a circular
flexible joint (see Figs. 3 and 4) a section through the tank
resembles a retaining wall. One method used to treat the structure
is to design the base slab to carry the tank wall fixed-end moment,
bu\ this method can be correct only fortuitously when the joint
rotation is zero. Now the vertical cantilever of a straight retaining
wall has no stiffness against outward lotation and it is unnecessary
to consider the joint deformations in the analysis. However, a
circular tank wall has considerable rotational stiffness and th
circular retaining wall type of structure is statically indeterminate.
The moment carried by the base depends on the amount of joint
rotation.
In this retaining wall method the base slab will first be
assumed to be rigid. Then the complete deflection pattern of the
foundation is defined by the joint displacements and the inner slab
and toe can be treated as one member. A sector of the tank witb
unit width at the wall radius is considered. The error of treating
this area as rectangular in plan when in fact it is almost trapezoidal
is usually small. The method of analysis based on these assump-
tions is now described.
The structure is allowed to deflect vertically while the
joint is held fixed against rotation. Vertical equilibrium is achieved
and needs no further consideration. The foundation reactive pres-
sure is uniform and is equal to the vertical load divided by the total
annular area. The three unbalanced moments about the centre of
the base are caused by the weights of the water and the wall and
by the equilibrant of the fixed-end moment. This moment is
balanced between the wall and the base in the ratio of the stiffnesses.
The rotational stiffness of the base slab, without vertical force
restraint, is found to be S' •• = (l/12)kL' (for any point on the
base). The final moments in the wall and base are calculated as
before.
This simple method can be applied with accuracy only where
the base is very stiff, where {J(R. - R.) < I. Comparison of the
exact and "retaining wall" rotational stiffnesses of the inner base
of the tank used in Example 4, when {J(R, - R.) = 1'0 gives
Exact "Retaining Wall"
S.. O'0777D O'0828D
S'.. O'0295D 0·0207D.
The differences reptesent in part the rotational stiffness of the
annulus itself and also the error in assuming a rectangular base
plan.
EXAMPLE 7
It is required to analyse the structural action of the tank given in
Example 4 when the foundation is an elastic medium with a value
of foundation modulus of k = 3 tons/sq.ft/in and the base is
assumed to be rigid. The values for the tank wall are as before: -
S ... = O'638D
and
M"" = +4,140D lb.ft/ft run.
The stiffness of the base beam is
S. = (1/12) x 3 x 2,240 x 12 x 5'5" = O'054D.
The moments of the weight of the water and the wall about the
centre of the base are
M. = 62'4 x 3'58 x 16 x 0'96 - 150 x 0'833 x 16 x 1'25
= +9301b.ft/ft.
The moment distribution proceeds as shown: -
Distribution factors
Fixed-end moments
Balance
Wall
0'922
+4,140
+2,960
Base
0'078
- 930
- 250
moments + 1,180 -1,180 Ib.ft/ft run.
Th·: runout of moments is shown in Fig. 7 along with the
200

t 0/0'
Ib!/ft'Jj ..
(b)
Mt 240
--Retainin9 1Ii,,1I vAI"¢5
- - - - -. v41..... ( )
b,,.cketed
liJooo;
13200
Fig. 7 Circular {auk alla/yuJ by Retaining WrJII U/OJII'J II' Exump!e 7.
(0) JlrHcllIft, (b) momellts and I(lfas
results from the exact analysis. The difference in the values of the
wall base moment, 280, is about 8 per cent of the wall fixed-end
moment. If the base is assumed to be trapezoidal, the difference
is reduced to 2 per cent.
Provision of a toe on the base gives a structure which is
approximately statically balanced. Thus similar joint moments
occur in the above example even when the foundation is assumed to
be plastic. When the tank section is L-shaped this effect is lost
the accuracy of thc retaining wall analysis is reduced. For a
stiff foundation, when 131 becomes large, the retaining wall analysis
should not be used, particularly when there is no projecting toe
However, the base can then be assumed in many cases to be a finite,
uniform beam on an elastic foundation and the retaining wall
analysis can then be followed in a modified form.
Asymptotic Approximations
It is possible to obtain fairly simple approximate solutions for
the behaviour of various structural elements on elastic foundations
when the parameters AI, {JR, {J(R, - R.), etc., become sufficiently
large. In the case of a beam with constant EI, for example, the
behaviour approximates to that of a semi-infinite beam once Al
exceeds 3 or 4 (the lower limit for AI depends on the accuracy
required). There is then no effective "carry-over" from one end to
the other.
The behaviour of a finite beam on an elastic foundation is
thus seen to be asymptotic to that of a semi-infinite beam when AI
is large enough. For a circular plate, however, the solution for
infinite radius is not so easily derived, but an asymptotic solution
is possible from the asymptotic values for the Schleicher functions
and their derivatives (10). A close parallel exists between the
extreme solutions for these two cases, as can be seen from Table
XIV, where the expressions are all wrinen in terms of A. (It is
apparent that {J can be wrinen as \/2,>. since 13' = 4A' = k/D.)
The stiffnesses are seen to be identical in the two cases, except
for the terms {I - (I v)/2>.R) and {I - (1 - I)/AR)
which have to be included in the expressions for S .. and S' .. for
a uniform circular plate. The run-outs of moments are writtcn in
terms of the B
A
" CAr and DAr functions which apply for the semi-
infinite uniform beam, (where for the circular plate x = R - r)
The annular plate can be considered in a similar manner,
depending on the value of {J(R. - R.). If, however, this is less
than unity, tabulated functions should be normally used. If, in
addition, R./CR. R.) is large, such II IWTOW annulus may be
comidered as II rigid toe, When PCR. - R.) is not very high, each
&eCtor may be treated as II finite beam (see Reference 12) for stiff-
neHeS and run-outs). When P(R. - R;) exceeds 6 asymptotic
lIpptoximations may be used (12). Two examples of these asymp-
totic approximadons are given in Table XV, with exact valu!s
coming first.
TABLE XIV
ASYMPTOTIC SoLUTIONS FOR THE UNIFOIlM BEAM AND THE UNIFORM CIRCULAR
PLATE ON ELASTIC FOUNDATIONS
Sliffnesse-; and
Uniform beam Uniform circular plate
run-outs
See
2DA
S.6 = S6q 2DA'
S ••
4DA'
S'ee DA
0=1. w=O. Mr 2DA,O •• 2DAy'(R/r) [o".-(I-v)Ch/2Arj
at end/edge M. t
2DA.vD),x 2DAy' (R/rl [vO .. + (1- v)CA,/2Ar]
w=l. 0=0. Mr 2DA'.C .. 2DP v'{R/r) [C •• +(I-V)Bblkj
at end/edge M. t 20A'.v.C)" 20Aly'(R/r) [>C •• -{I-v)B,,!Ar.j
6=1. Q=O. M.
D),.Ah DAy'(R/r) [Ah-(l-.·)o"./),r.]
at end/edge M. t D), .• ·.Ah DAy'(R/r) [vA),x +(I-v)Dh/Ar.j
t Only if edges restrained to remain paralic I.
TABLE XV
COMPARISON Of EXACT AND ASYMPTOTIC VALUES
Stiffness coefficients Uniform circular plate
(xD for stiffnesses) BR = 10
Sq6 = Seq
Sq.
,'ee
13·32
92·7
1J16
6'80
13·34
Condu.ions
Uniform annulus
B(Ro-R,) = 4
(in Example 3)
0·975 1·022
0·517
0·536
0·524
This paper explains the theory required for the analysis of
ground-supported open circular tanks when the reactive pressure
is proportional to the deflection of the foundation. The Tables
published here enable these tanks to be analysed quite easily,
provided some value of the foundation modulus is known. The
structural behaviour of such tanks resting on very soft ground
with the foundadon modulus taken as zero--the extreme plastic
case-was explained in Part 1. It is seen that the complications
resulting in taking an estimated value for the foundation mo:lulus
are nor at all difficult and that considerable economies may be
obtained if elastic rather than plastic foundations are allowed for.
The circular retaining wall method of analysis, which was
explained in Part 1 for plastic ground, is still very quid and
attractive even for an elastic foundation, provided the base is
assumed rigid. Even allowing for flexure in the base the analysis
is not very difficult, so it is hoped that designen will utilise this,
as well as the simpler methods. A guide to the various types of
tank and the various methods of analysis considered here is in-
cluded in the Appendix.
REFERENCES
(11) Michael, O. "The Structural Actions of Circular Tonk, and Pris-
matic Bunkers." Ph.D. Thesis, Leeds Univ., 1962.
(12) E. "Moment Distribution." Spon, London, 1961.
TABLE XVI
SUMMARY Of ANALYTICAL METHOOS FOR VAIUOUS TyPES OF GROUND-
SUPPORTED CIRCULAR TANKS
Structural element
Circular wall
Circular base
Circular toe
Annular base
inside wall
i.H = 0 to 6
),H>4
Aid for analysis
, BR = 0 I Plastic solution.
< I I base
I . Auume tinite beam. Ref. (12). Use
annular slab tables. Ref. (I I)
'l(R.-R,»6 Asymptotic solulion-Table XIV

Appendix
GUIDE TO THE ANALYSIS OF THE VARIOUS TYPES OF GROUND-
SUPPORTED CIRCULAR TANKS CoNSIDERED IN THIS ARnCLE
For ease of reference the different kinds of tank and the different
methods of analysis classified in Table XVI which also identifies
the examples given.
Simple moment distribution solutions were possible in all
examples except Example 6.
201

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