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Math 7370-Lecture 15

# Math 7370-Lecture 15

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Published by Sean Li
Notes from lecture. Cornell University, Spring 2013.
Notes from lecture. Cornell University, Spring 2013.

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Published by: Sean Li on Feb 23, 2013
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# Sean Li Math 7370 Notes − Spring 2013 Algebraic Number Theory Lecture 15 − 2/22/13 Last time we showed that R is a ﬁnitely

generated Z-module. This implies R is Noetherian. f g

0

N

M

P

0

Claim. M is Noetherian ⇐⇒ N, P are Noetherian. Also last time, we proved (⇐). The other direction (⇒) is easy. P is Noetherian because the inverse image of a chain in P stabilizes in M , and N is Noetherian because a chain in N is a chain in M . √ The Quadratic Case. Let F = Q[ d], where d is a squarefree integer. Last time we got √ √ that R has a Z-basis {1, d} if d ≡ 1 (mod 4), and {1, 1+2 d } if d ≡ 1 (mod 4). √ What is the dual basis in√each case? Consider {1, −5}. Then e∗ ∈ Q and Tr(e∗ ) = 1, so 1 1 −5 e∗ = 1 . Similarly, e∗ = − 10 . Thus 1 2 2 √ 1 −5 ∗ ∗ {e1 , e2 } = ,− 2 10 is the basis for R∗ . Then R∗ /R ≈ Z /2 ⊕ Z /10. So, this group has order 20, which corresponds to mod 20 when ﬁnding solutions to p = a2 + 5b2 . Consider the number given by det(TrF/ Q (ei ej )) where {ei } is a basis of R. This number is called the discriminant of R. This result is an integer because the ei are integers. Also, it cannot be 0 as Tr(xy) gives a non-degenerate bilinear form, so the matrix is invertible. To set the determinant as based on R, we need to show it is independent of the chosen basis. Consider the basis {ei }. Then there exists an invertible matrix P with coeﬃcients in Z, i.e. an element of GLn (Z), such that P (ei ) = (ei ). But P is invertible over integers, so it has determinant ±1. Since Tr is bilinear, (ei ej ) = (P (ei ), P (ej )) = P (ei ) · P (ej ) giving P (v · w)P . So we have det(ei ej ) = det(P (ei ej )P ) = det(P ) det(ei ej ) det(P ) = det(ei ej )

since det(P ) = det(P ) and det(P )2 = +1. It follows that D(R) is an invariant of R and also of the ﬁeld F . √ √ Example. In R = Z[ −5], use the basis {1, −5}. This gives 2 0 0 −10 and the determinant is −20, so D(R) = −20. This gives some extra information over the order or R∗ /R, namely the negative sign. Another Example. For R = Z[i], with the basis {1, i}, the matrix is 2 0 0 −2 and D(R) = −4. Result. A prime ramiﬁes ⇐⇒ it divides the discriminant.

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