ABSTRACT

The Batteries form a significant part of many electronic devices. Typical electrochemical batteries or cells convert chemical energy into electrical energy. Batteries based on the charging ability are classified into primary and secondary cells. Secondary cells are widely used because of their rechargeable nature. Presently, battery takes up a huge amount of space and contributes to a large part of the device's weight. There is strong recent interest in ultrathin, flexible, safe energy storage devices to meet the various design and power needs of modern gadgets. New research suggests that carbon nanotubes may eventually provide the best hope of implementing the flexible batteries which can shrink our gadgets even more. The paper batteries could meet the energy demands of the next generation gadgets. A paper battery is a flexible, ultra-thin energy storage and production device formed by combining carbon nanotubes with a conventional sheet of cellulose-based paper. A paper battery acts as both a high-energy battery and super capacitor, that combining are separate two in components

of energy. Non-toxic, flexible paper batteries have the potential to power the next generation of electronics, medical devices and hybrid vehicles, allowing for radical new designs and medical technologies. The various types of batteries followed by the operation principle, manufacturing and working of paper batteries are discussed in detail. Keywords: paper batteries, flexible, carbon nanotubes

INTRODUCTION TO BATTERIES
An electrical battery is one or more electrochemical cells that convert stored chemical energy into electrical energy. Since the invention of the first battery in 1800 by Alessandro Volta, batteries have become a common power source for many household and industrial applications. Batteries are represented symbolically as

traditional electronics. This combination allows the battery to provide both longterm, steady power production and bursts 1

During discharge. Ampere-Hour Capacity . Terminologies 1.can be delivered by a battery on a single discharge. Battery Capacity . The cutoff or final voltage is usually chosen so that the maximum useful capacity of the battery is realized. 3. the negative electrode of the cell is Fig. Non rechargeable or primary cells b.A rechargeable battery or cell 5. Industrial batteries Based on nature of electrolyte a. Electrons flow from the negative terminal towards the positive terminal.The prescribed lower-limit voltage at which battery discharge is considered complete. During charge. Anode . Miniature batteries b.The electric output of a cell or battery on a service test delivered before the cell reaches a specified final electrical condition and may be expressed in ampere-hours. The anode gives up electrons to the load circuit and dissolves into the electrolyte. Rechargeable or secondary cells Based on the size they are classified as a. watthours. that reverses and the positive electrode of the cell is the anode. 2. Based on the rechargeable nature batteries are classified as a. Dry cell b. Wet cell 4.The number of ampere-hours which 2 . or similar units. The capacity in watt-hours is equal to the capacity in ampere-hours multiplied by the battery voltage. Cutoff Voltage final . Accumulator . 1b conventional battery the anode. 1a Symbolic view Fig.

the total number of 3 battery. Electrochemical within a cell Couple that provides The system of active materials electrical energy storage through an electrochemical reaction. 13. Cycle Life .6 A.6. Internal Resistance . During discharge. Battery capacity is normally listed as amp-hours (or milli amp-hours) or as watt-hours.One sequence of charge and discharge. Capacity . C/5 for the same battery would be 320 mA and C/10 would be 160 mA. Cycle . when fused or dissolved in certain solvents. Electrode conductor 8. Electrolyte - An electrical which an through electric current enters or leaves a conducting medium - A chemical compound which. oxidizes the anode or absorbs the electrons.Used to signify a charge or discharge rate equal to the capacity of a battery divided by 1 hour. that reverses and the negative electrode of the cell is the cathode.The capacity of a battery is a measure of the amount of energy that it can deliver in a single discharge. . 14.The resistance to the flow of an electric current within the cell or 10. in effect. C . End of life is usually considered to be reached when the cell or battery delivers only 80% of rated ampere. Cathode . 11.hour capacity. 9. Thus C for a 1600 mAh battery would be 1. 7. the positive electrode of a voltaic cell is the cathode. 12. charge/discharge cycles the cell can sustain before its capacity is significantly reduced. will conduct an electric current.For rechargeable batteries.Is an electrode that. When charging. usually water.

It consists of a number of voltaic cells. 1.e.15. but prevents mixing of the electrolytes. On the other hand the high electrochemical potential changes in the reactions of lithium . end-point. Voltage. while anions are oxidized (electrons are removed) at the anode. Voltage. The voltage developed across a cell's terminals depends on the energy release of the chemical reactions of its electrodes and electrolyte.e. the anode or negative electrode. In the redox reaction that powers the battery.Voltage at the end of useful discharge. a no-load condition). 17. but approximately the same emf of 1. the cathode or positive electrode.. One half-cell includes electrolyte and the electrode to which anions (negatively charged ions) migrate.The difference in potential between the terminals of a cell when the circuit is open (i. Likewise NiCd and NiMH cells have different chemistries..5 volts.. Fig. Alkaline and carbon-zinc cells have different chemistries but approximately the same emf of 1. (See Voltage. Open-Circuit Voltage . determined by its ability to drive electric current from the interior to the exterior of the cell.2 principle operation Principal of Operation of cell A battery is a device that converts chemical energy directly to electrical energy.) connected by the electrolyte.e. cations are reduced (electrons are added) at the cathode. The other half-cell includes electrolyte and the electrode to which cations (positively charged ions) 4 Each half cell has an electromotive force (or emf).2 volts. Some cells use two half-cells with different electrolytes. migrate. The electrodes do not touch each other but are electrically 16. i. A separator between half cells allows ions to flow. Each voltaic cell consists of two half cells connected in series by a conductive electrolyte containing anions and cations. cutoff . voltage end-point .Cell below which the connected equipment will not operate or below which operation is not recommended. i.

Primary batteries irreversibly (within limits of practicality) transform chemical energy to electrical energy. since the chemical reactions are not easily reversible and active materials may not return to their original forms. When the initial supply of reactants is exhausted. Primary batteries: This can produce current immediately on assembly. energy cannot be readily restored to the battery by electrical means. cannot Disposable be reliably Fig. enabling the battery to be charged by plugging into a USB port 5 recommend against attempting recharging primary cells. Common . That is. These are most commonly used in portable devices that have low current drain. which reverses the chemical reactions that occur during its use. Disposable batteries are intended to be used once and discarded. 1. Devices to supply the appropriate current are called chargers or rechargers. they can have their chemical reactions reversed by supplying electrical energy to the cell. Rechargeable batteries or secondary cells can be recharged by applying electric current.compounds give lithium cells emf of 3 volts or more. They are usually assembled with active materials in the discharged state. restoring their original composition. types of disposable batteries include zinc-carbon batteries. with a built-in charger and USB connector within the AA format. are only used intermittently. batteries and alkaline Types of batteries Batteries are classified into two broad categories. Secondary batteries: These batteries must be charged before use. or are used well away from an alternative power source.3b Secondary cell recharged. Secondary batteries can be recharged.3a Primary cell Fig. such as in alarm and communication circuits where other electric power is only intermittently primary cells available. Battery manufacturers Recent developments Recent developments include batteries with embedded functionality such as USBCELL. 1.

although . This will affect the initial voltage of the battery. Fig. primary short Fig 1. 1. either spontaneously or through accident. poisonous. For an AA alkaline battery this initial voltage is approximately normally distributed around 1. the chemicals released may be dangerous 6 which occur within the cell even if no load is applied to it. original disposable charge (or "primary") year at a batteries can lose 8 to 20 percent of their every temperature of about 20°–30°C.4 USB cell Hazards related to batteries Explosion A battery explosion is caused by the misuse or malfunction of a battery. Rechargeable batteries. Most nickelbased batteries are partially discharged when purchased. High or low temperatures may reduce battery performance. "side" Corrosion Many battery chemicals are corrosive. The batteries include a USB connector to allow recharging using a powered USB port. and thereafter discharges at a rate of about 10% a month. and must be charged before first use. or both. If leakage occurs.6 volts. such as attempting a or to recharge battery.without a charger USB Cell is the brand of NiMH rechargeable battery produced by a company called Moixa Energy. The product range currently available is limited to a 1300 mAh. some batteries can be damaged by freezing.5 Life cycle Life of battery Even if never taken out of the original package. [54] This is known as the "self-discharge" rate and is producing (non-rechargeable) circuiting a battery. due to non-currentchemical reactions. The rate of the side reactions is reduced if the batteries are stored at low temperature. batteries especially self-discharge nickel-based more rapidly than disposable alkaline batteries a freshly charged NiCd loses 10% of its charge in the first 24 hours.

The anatomy of paper battery is based on the use of Carbon Nanotubes tiny cylinders to collect electric charge.000 tons of those end up in landfills across the country. The tiny nuclear batteries that can provide energy for 10 years.Environmental pollution The widespread use of batteries has created many environmental concerns. Battery manufacture consumes resources and often involves hazardous chemicals. Few years back some researchers from Stanford University started experiments concerning the ways in which a copier paper could be used as a battery source. It’s astounding to know that all the components of a conventional battery are integrated in a single paper structure. but they use radioactive elements and are quite expensive. swallowed by young children. such as toxic metal pollution.6 Electronic waste One of the many reasons behind choosing the paper as a medium for battery is the well-designed structure of millions of interconnected fibers in it. In the past few years a lot of inventions have been made in this particular field. The batteries made from a plain copier paper could make for Ingestion Small button/disk batteries can be the future energy storage that is truly thin. hence the complete mechanism for a battery is minimized to a size of paper. Used batteries also contribute to electronic waste. After a long way of struggle they. The nanotubes will act as electrodes allowing storage device to conduct electricity. and about 179. concluded that the idea was right. These fibers 7 can hold on carbon . Fig 1. recently. PAPER BATTERY Energy has always been spotlighted. Americans purchase nearly three billion batteries annually. The paper is dipped in lithium containing solution. While in the digestive tract the battery's electrical discharge can burn the tissues and can be serious enough to lead to death.

They exhibit extraordinary strength and unique electrical properties. metallic nanotubes can carry an electric current density of 4 × 109 A/cm2 which is more than 1. In paper batteries the nanotubes act as electrodes. Fig. can provide a 8 mostly electric vehicles. since the diameter of a nanotube is on the order of a few nanometers (approximately 1/50.000:1. You can fold it in different shapes and forms plus it as light as feather. They may also have applications in the construction of body armor. Nanotubes are categorized as singlewalled nanotubes (SWNTs) and multiwalled nanotubes (MWNTs). which functions as both a lithium-ion battery and a super capacitor. Nanotubes have been constructed with length-to-diameter ratio of up to 132. electronics. Usage of paper as a battery will ultimately lead to weight diminution of batteries many times as compared to traditional batteries. It is said that the paper battery also has the capability of releasing the energy quickly.000th of the width of a human hair). Output voltage is modest but it could be increased if we use a stack of papers. Further. while they can be up to 18 centimeters in length (as of 2010).2 paper battery CARBON NANOTUBES Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are allotropes of carbon with a cylindrical nanostructure. Also a paper has the capability to bent or curl. significantly . The battery. In theory. where for copper interconnects current densities are limited by electro migration. useful in making many them potentially in applications nanotechnology.000. as well as potential uses in architectural fields. optics. Hence the voltage issues can be easily controlled without difficulty. larger than any other material.nanotubes easily. That makes it best utilization for devices that needs burst of energy. allowing the storage devices to conduct electricity. These cylindrical carbon molecules have novel properties. the medical uses are particularly attractive because they do not contain any toxic materials. Their name is derived from their size. and are efficient thermal conductors.000 times greater than metals such as copper. and other fields of materials science.

the paper battery integrates all of the battery components in a single structure. . as well as a super capacitor’s quick burst of high energy and while a a conventional number of battery separate contains Step 1: The copier paper is taken.long. efficient. Carbon nano ink c. steady power output comparable to a conventional battery. Step 4: place the multi meter on the sides of the paper and we can see voltage drop is generated. The paper is scratched and rolled to protect the nano rods on paper. Carbon nano ink is spread on one side of the paper. Carbon nano ink is a solution of nano rods. Step 3: the paper is kept inside the oven components. Copier paper b. surface adhesive agent and ionic salt solutions. including mechanical memory elements(NRAM being developed by Nantero Inc. Carbon nanotubes have been making it more energy at 150C temperature. The paper and the nano rods get attached to each other. implemented in Nano electromechnical systems. Oven The steps involved in the preparation of the paper battery are as follows 9 After drying the paper becomes flexible. Step 2: carbon Nano ink which is black in color is taken. Fabrication process preparation of paper battery are a.) Fig 3. light weight in nature. This evaporates the water content on the paper. Carbon nanotubes FABRICATION OF PAPER BATTERY The materials required for the Fig 4.

It can store energy like a super capacitor and it can discharge bursts of energy because of large surface area of nano tubes. These tiny filaments act like the Chlorine ions flow from the positive electrode to the negative one. The paper works as a conductive layer. For example if a battery is cut in half. each piece will function. lithium batteries take 20 minutes to recharge. conducting electricity when the paper comes into contact with an ionic liquid solution. however. Conversely. Two sheets of paper kept facing inward act like parallel plates (high energy electrodes). but all the components have been incorporated into a Fig. providing current. placing two sheets of paper 10 . The paper electrode stores charge while recharging in tens of seconds because ions flow through the thin electrode quickly. As a result. flexible sheet of paper. while electrons travel through the external circuit. battery is that it can be bent to any such shape or design that the user might have in mind. The devices are formed by combining cellulose with an infusion of aligned carbon nanotubes. Ionic liquids contain no water. In contrast. The battery can easily squeeze into tight crevasses and can be cut multiple times without ruining the battery's life.WORKING OF PAPER BATTERY The battery produces electricity in the same way as the conventional lithiumion batteries that power so many of today's gadgets.5 working of a paper battery lightweight. each piece will only contain 1/2 the amount of original power. ADVANTAGES • The flexible shape allows the paper battery to be used small or irregularly-shaped electronics: One of the unique features of the paper The paper is made conducting material by dipping in ink. The carbon is what gives the batteries their black color. electrodes found in a traditional battery. which means that there is nothing to freeze or evaporate in extreme environmental conditions. paper batteries can function between -75 and 1500C.

battery on top of one-another will double the power. the key characteristics that make the paper battery very appealing are that it can be transformed into any shape or size. This can conserve the usage of battery acid and rely on an environmental friendly 11 batteries mechanism of fueling battery cells with the help from our bodies. like a car door: As stated earlier. it can be cut multiple times without damaging it. • Carbon nanotubes are very expensive. the sheets of battery paper can be stacked on top of one another to give off tremendous power. the devices are only a few inches across and they have to be scaled up to sheets of newspaper size to make it commercially viable. "paper-thin". the battery's voltage and current can be increased that many times. • Cutting of trees leading to destroying of the nature. • The paper battery can be molded to take the shape of large objects. This can allow the battery to have a much higher amount of power for the same size of storage as a current battery and also be environmentally friendly at the same time. Thus to maximize even more power. APPLICATIONS  Pace makers in heart (uses blood as electrolyte) . and batteries with large enough power are unlikely to be cost effective. • Supply power to an implanted pacemaker in the human body by using the electrolytes in human blood: An improvement in the techniques used in the health field can be aided by the paper battery. LIMITATIONS • Presently. Experiments have taken place showing that batteries can be energized by the electrolyte emitted from one's own blood or body sweat. • The paper battery may replace conventional completely: By layering sheets of this paper. Since the main components of the paper battery are carbon nanotubes and cellulose. and it can be fueled through various ways besides the typical harmful battery acid that is used in the current day battery. the body structure of the battery is very thin.

principle of operation of a battery and recent developments related to it. The life of a battery is an important parameter which decides the area of application of the battery. These surfaces can produce energy. Fabio La Mantia. In the year 2007 paper battery  Used as alternate to conventional batteries in gadgets was manufactured. Stanford. and Yi Cui  E-cards. Flexible Secondary Li-Ion Paper Batteries Liangbing Hu. The technology is capable of replacing old bulky batteries. David Linden “Handbook of batteries” Engineering.of batteries gives rise to E-waste which poses great damage to our environment. posters  Girls/boys’ apparel • greetings. The adaptations to the paper battery technique in the future could  Powered smart cards RF id tags allow for simply painting the nanotube ink and active materials onto surfaces such as walls. talking Department of Materials Science and 94305. Stanford University. Yuan Yang. children sound books REFERENCES • Thin.  Smart toys. Increased use 12 . California CONCLUSION We have discussed the various terminologies. The paper batteries can further reduce the weight of the electronic gadgets. Hui Wu.

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