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^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ 2 ways that an atomic structure can be represented. The atomic mass (written accidentally on the diagram as weight) is equal to the sum of the protons and the neutrons in the atom. The number given to a particular element on the periodic table is the number of protons (and electrons – uncharged atom) within the atom. Depending on the amount/number of protons the elements properties/identity/type may change. The amount of protons within an atom will not change. The amount of electrons however will. Electrons can transfer from one material to another. Electrons surround the nucleus – which contains the protons and the neutrons) in shells.
Each shell can only have a certain number of electrons. The electrons are held in the shells/in orbit through magnetic attraction -electrostatic forces - from the nucleus. An atom as a whole is normally neutral due to the fact that there is an equal amount of electrons and protons. An example of an element that has isotopes is hydrogen with 3; Normal hydrogen, deuterium (1 extra neutron) and Tritium (2 extra neutrons). Neucleons – Protons and neutrons Isotope of an element – Two or more atoms of the same element with equal numbers of protons and neutrons but differ in the amount of neutrons within the nuclei. This means
that there are atoms within the element that differ in the number of neutrons in their neucleus. The have the same amount of protons and thus are still the same element Need to know about some experiments to test for compounds and molecules: Hydrogen “pop” test – light a match after hydrogen is created (through the chemical reaction of sulfuric acid and magnesium ribbon), The carbon dioxide limewater test – limewater is shaken with carbon dioxide. When it turns cloudy or milky then there is carbon dioxide. The cobalt hydrogen test – after the pop test place a piece of blue cobalt into the test tube and if it turn pink there is water. Ion: an ion is a positively or negatively charged atom. Ionic bonds and molecular compounds: An ionic compound is when two elements are held together through magnetic attraction. A molecular compound is when two elements are held together by the sharing of a pair of electrons to create the bonds. These bonds occur when an atom has an incomplete electron shell; its outer shell. To become stable they will either rip more electrons or give away electrons or may share electrons to complete their shell. They usually try and get the same electron configuration as the noble/inert gases. A way to tell the difference between the two is within the name. A covalent bond will have the number of atoms of the element within the name (e.g. carbon DI oxide, carbon MON oxide,) Electrolyte – liquid that can conduct electricity due to dissolved ionic compounds. Chemicals are sorted into two distinct groups; acids and bases (and neutral). Acids are usually sour tasting and have a ph scale of <7 (universal indicator). Bases usually contain the hydroxide ion and have a ph scale of >7 (universal indicator). There are 4 main types of chemical reactions: Combination (reactants join) Decomposition (reactants break apart), combustion (burning/explosion) and precipitation (solid forms)
The tectonic plates are not stationary. They move around according to the convection currents in soft, partly molten layer of the asthenosphere, which is the outer most part of the mantle. The plates are continuously changing in size. This is because when one plate is moving towards another plate and vice versa for the other plate, there is a gap in the plates on the other side. This gap allows the molten magma to rise into the ocean. When this magma cools it forms rock and crust, which soon becomes part of a plate or a new plate. Subduction zones: When a tectonic plate rises over another plate. This is due to one plate being less dense and the other being denser. They occur at the edges of some continents where changes in density are more noticeable. Earthquakes can occur in these regions. Volcanoes form in these regions as well. E.g. Coasts of Japan. Collision Zones: When two plates crash/push into each other. They are relatively the same density and therefore cannot go over or under each other. Mountains are created. E.g. the Himalayas. Spreading Zone: Areas where the tectonic plates move apart. They usually occur at mid-ocean ridges.
Transform Fault Zones: Areas where tectonic plates slide past/against each other. E.g. The San Andreas fault. You need to know about Pangea, Laurasia and Gondwanaland. (Pangea being the super continent that had all the countries joined together. Laurasia was in the northern hemispheres, supercontinent that was created when Pangea Split. Gondwanaland was in the southern hemisphere and was also a supercontinent. It was also created when Pangea split into two. Sedimentary Rocks: Formed when layers and layers of eroded rock and particles accumulate and solidify through compression and/or light pressurisation. Fossils: They are the remains or the impressions of a living organism from earths past. Fossilisation only occurs when the organism is preserved before it decays. (That’s why fossilisation happens more frequently in lakes and shallow rivers.) Fossilisation is the most effective in sedimentary rock. Other rocks, such as igneous or metamorphic, destroy and cannot preserve the remains due to intense pressure or high heat. There are different types of fossils. -Altered Hard Parts: Bones and shells changed by minerals replacing the existing minerals (e.g. petrified wood, plant leaves – black carbon) -Unaltered Hard Parts: Only the hard exoskeletons of an organism is preserved (e.g. insects in amber or skeletons in sediments) -Whole Organisms: An entire organism that has remained unchanged (e.g. mammoths in ice) -Trace Fossils: Moulds and casts of an organism in sedimentary rock (Sediments pack hard around the remains of an organism to form a mould. A cast is formed if minerals fill and harden in the space left in the mould when the original remains dissolve away) Foot prints and imprints are also considered trace fossils.
EMS – Electromagnetic Spectrum. In order from shortest wavelength/highest frequency to longest wavelength/lower frequency: Gamma Rays, X-Rays, Ultraviolet Rays, Visible Light, Infra-Red, Microwaves, Radio Waves. -Shortest wavelength colour: Violet -Longest Wavelength colour: Red The EMS has its very own equation: V=Fλ (Velocity is equal to Frequency Multiplied by Lambda – A.K.A Wavelength) Use your algebra skills to change the subject of the equation. -Waves: Simply the image of moving energy through a medium. There are two types of waves: Longitudinal and Transverse. Transverse waves have particles moving up and down/vertically from their resting position. Longitudinal waves have particles moving to and from their resting position. These movements are called oscillations. Light and Optics: When light hits an object 3 things can happen, it can reflect, be absorbed or pass through. When it hits a mirror or a reflective substance, light reflects, or bounces back. To measure correctly the angles of incidence and reflection we must draw a normal (A 90 degree line that goes straight through the mirror). From there we can shoot a ray at any angle - towards the point where the normal meets the mirror. This first angle is the angle of
incidence – It is measure to the normal. The angle of reflection is that of the ray – that has bounced back – to the normal. This angle is always equal to the angle of incidence. Refraction occurs when light passes through an object and bends. When a ray of light passes from a less dense to a denser medium, the ray bends towards the normal. When it passes from a denser to a less dense medium, the ray bends away from the normal. As with reflection, the angle of incidence and angle or refraction is measured to the normal. EXTRA KNOWLEDGE: Refraction occurs when light changes medium which changes the speed of light. The light will bend when it slows or speeds up accordingly to the density of the object. Lenses: There are two type of lenses: Convex and Concave. Concave lenses bend/reflect the light to a focus point – the rays converging. Convex lenses reflect/bend the light outwards – the rays diverging. Light travels at 3x108m.s or 300,000km/s through the vacuum of space. Materials are said to be transparent, translucent or opaque Transparent: Light passes through and visibility is not disturbed Translucent: rays are scattered as they pass through so the object on the other side is not seen. Opaque: rays of light do not pass through the object. They are either absorbed or reflected and scattered back. Nuclear Energy: Energy that binds nuclear particles such as protons and neutrons to the nucleus. It is released through fission or fusion. Fission occurs when a large nuclei splits into smaller nuclei through neutron bombardment with the release of energy. Fusion is the joining of two nuclei, of lightweight elements, to form a heavier element with the release of energy. Radioactivity: Emissions of rays and/or particles due to the decay of an unstable nucleus. Radioactive Decay: Radioactive elements have unstable nuclei. The nucleus will decay and break down to try and become more stable. By doing so, the nucleus will emit radioactivity in the form of particles or rays. Radiation includes: -Alpha Particles: Made up of two protons and two neutrons which act as a “single” particle/ they travel in the air for only a few centimetres and can be stopped by a sheet of paper. -Beta Particles: Neutrons which have broken down and “turned” into electrons. They are high-speed and can travel a few meters in air. It can be stopped by a sheet of aluminium or a 1-cm thick wood. -Gamma Rays (electromagnetic) High-Energy radiation rays. They are not changed and are emitted by radioactive atoms with excess energy. They are stronger than x-rays and can travel kilometres through the air. They can be stopped by concrete blocks or a 2cm/3cm of lead. Gamma rays are often released
with alpha and beta particles. Radiation is measure in Half-lives. A half-life is the time needed for one half of any amount of radioactive substance to decay. It indicates how quickly radioactive elements decay. Radiation is very dangerous and can cause disruption to DNA in the form of cancer of mutation. Radiation is also very helpful as it is used in electricity production, treatment and diagnosis of disease and in nuclear weapons. The Eye: Parts of the eye: -Retina: A clear layer at the back of the inside of the eye that -Sclera: Tough, white outer layer of the eye. -Cornea: Bends the light into the pupil of the eye. -Vitreous Humour: Jelly-like substance that gives the eye its shape -Aqueous Humour: Viscous liquid that shapes the cornea and is situated right behind it. -Photoreceptors: Light sensitive pigments that convert light into nerve impulses. They can either be rods or cones. They are situated on the retina. -Conjunctiva: Clear layer covering the surface of the eye and the inside of the eyelids. -Pupil: Circular opening in the centre of the iris that lets light into the eye. -Iris: Expand or contact to change the amount of light entering the eye. -Lens: Further bends light to a focus towards the retina -Ciliary Muscles: Control the expansion and contraction of the lens. -Blind Spot: A part of the back of the eye that does not have any photoreceptors. It is in front of the optic nerve. -Optic Nerve: Transfers the nerve impulses from the photoreceptors to the brain where it is converted into visible images. -Macula: Central part of the retina. It has the most abundant amount of “cones” The eye has four muscles that control its movements.
e: A disruption of the normal functioning of the body. Dis“Ease”. Microbes are classified into the kingdoms: Monera (Bacteria), Protists (Protozoan) and Fungi. Viruses are not classified into a kingdom because they cannot survive alone and must live on or in a host body. There are two groups that viruses can be separated into: Infectious and Non- Infectious. Infectious Diseases are then classified into smaller groups: Prions e.g. mad cow diseaseozoan e.g. Malaria Fungi e.g. Tinea Bacteria e.g. Common Cold
Viruses e.g. Influenza/HIV Macro-organism e.g. Tapeworm Non-Infectious Diseases can also be classified into groups as well: *Genetic abnormality e.g. Down Syndrome (An extra chromosome, disrupts natural formation of some brain functioning– From 46 chromosomes to 47 chromosomes) Haemophilia (Lack of our disrupted gene that is necessary for blood clotting) *Environmental e.g. Heavy metal poisoning *Physiological Malfunction e.g. Diabetes (Lower insulin levels, fat cannot be absorbed or used in respiration effectively. Fat depository percentage increases) *Multifactorial (caused by many factors) e.g. Heart disease Antigen: Foreign molecule that has marks which cause the immune system to take action Body’s Defence System:
1) First Line of Defence: Non-specific – Prevent the entry of microbes/pathogens
-Preventive barriers e.g. Skin -Acid secretions in stomach and skin surface -Mucous secretions in airways that trap the pathogens -Cilia in airways 2) Second line of Defence: Non-specific – occurs when a pathogen gets past the first line of defence and invades the tissue -Phagocytes (e.g. Macrophages) – White blood cells which can consume and kill the pathogens. This process is called phagocytosis. -Inflammatory Response 3) Third line of Defence: Specific immune system -Lymphocytes target specific pathogens which destroy the pathogens: The blymphocytes (produce the Antibodies, which are proteins, that bond, immobilise and destroy pathogens) and the T-Lymphocytes (T-Killer cells that directly destroy pathogens and Memory cells that remember the pathogen and can allow a faster response if the pathogen invades again. Immunisation: The Process of stimulating the immune system to produce specific antibodies and lymphocytes by placing a dead pathogen or a modified harmless pathogen. The memory cell remembers the pathogen and allows the body to become “Immune” to the disease as it knows what antibodies and lymphocytes to use. Anti-Bodies: Special proteins that bind to pathogens and immobilise or destroy them Living things can reproduce in 2 ways: sexually and asexually. Sexually – 2 parents -The offspring is genetically unique and differ from parents
-reproduce by producing male and female gametes -involves fertilisation or fusion of gametes to produce a zygote - can be done 2 ways: internally and externally (externally: pollination, Internally: sexual intercourse) Asexually – only one parent -offspring identical genetically to parents' -reproduce without gametes -There are several types: binary fusion (e.g. bacteria), Mitosis in budding (fungi), cell mitosis (splitting of cells), spore formation (mosses) , vegetable reproduction Gamete: Sex cell. For males this would be sperm and for the females this would eggs (I.e.: ova).
Space and Earth
Gravity: Field force that causes an attraction. The greater the density of an object the stronger its gravitational field. The red shift is how we know our universe is expanding. As the stars move further and further away their frequency of waves get lower and thus is called red (red is the longest wavelength of visible light that we can see)
Sorry about lack of info for earth and space cause my book got destroyed (I should go and cover my new one -_- and I lost some stuff). Since we're kinda learning it now, I don’t think it should be any problem.
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