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Growth and development of PERSON
Growth and development of PERSON

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Published by: Gwyn Mark Cadigal Yap on Feb 23, 2013
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General Growth Patterns A. Physiologic Changes There are normal physiological changes anticipated in older adults.

These physiological changes are not pathological processes but may render older adults vulnerable to some common clinical conditions. The body changes continuously with age, but the effects on particular older adults depend on health, lifestyle, stressors, and environmental conditions. I. Integument a) Skin color Spotty pigmentation in areas exposed to the sun; pallor even in the absence of anemia b) Moisture Dry; scaly condition c) Temperature Cooler extremities; decreased perspiration d) Texture Decreased elasticity; wrinkles; folding, sagging condition e) Fat distribution Decreased amount on extremities; increased amount on abdomen f) Hair Thinning and graying on scalp; often, decreased amount of axillary and pubic hair on extremities; decreased facial hair in men; possible chin and upper lip hair in women g) Nails Decreased growth rate II. Head and Neck a) Head Sharp and angular nasal and facial bones; bushier eyebrows in men b) Eyes Decreased visual acuity; decreased accommodation; reduced adaptation to darkness; sensitivity to glare c) Ears Decreased pitch discrimination; diminished light reflex; diminished light reflex; diminished hearing acuity d) Nose and sinuses Increased nasal hair; decreased sense of smell e) Mouth and pharynx Use of bridges or dentures; decreased sense of taste; atrophy of papillae of lateral edges of tongue f) Neck Nodular thyroid gland; slight tracheal deviation resulting from muscle atrophy III. Thorax and Lungs Increased anteroposterior diameter; increased chest rigidity; increased respiratory rate with decreased lung expansion; increased airway resistance IV. Heart and Vascular System

PYCHOSEXUAL DEVELOPMENT All older adults. PSYCHOSOCIAL DEVELOPMENT (Generativity vs. Sexuality is linked with identity and validates the belief that people can give to others and have the gift appreciated. there is increase night awakening and insomnia. need to express sexual feelings. decreased ability to respond to multiple stimuli. Musculoskeletal System Decreased muscle mass and strength. VII. the cardiac muscle strength diminishes. In sleep. shortening of trunk as a result of intervertebral space narrowing. C. Reproductive System Decreased levels of estrogen. there is a progressive loss of brain mass. decreased production of digestive enzymes. decreased range of joint motion. Neurological System In the nervous system. weaker pedal pulses and colder lower extremities. those childless acknowledge their sense of loss and express these generative impulse in other ways like helping to care for other people’s children. Naps are common at this stage. especially at night V. Significant increase in systolic pressure with slight increase in diastolic pressure. Balance and coordination is decreased. Some stagnation can lead to physical/psychological individualism and expressive concern with selves. decreased egg count. subsequent loss of protein from kidney. easily palpated peripheral pulses. and pancreatic enzymes. To have children is instinctual. increased incontinence. nocturia. Stagnation) They have the impulse to foster development of the next generation.In the cardiovascular system. Accumulation of fats in the blood vessels may occur and leads to a slight drop in RBC and in Hct and Hgb levels. warmth. common diastolic murmurs. pepsin. decreased peristalsis. Decreased rate of voluntary or automatic reflexes. usually insignificant changes in heart rate at rest. reduced motility VI. steady loss of neurons in the brain and spinal cord. insomnia. bone demineralization. decreased joint mobility. and touching. constipation. including hydrochloric acid. Urinary System Decreased renal filtration and renal efficiency. Urinary frequency and retention resulting from prostatic enlargement VIII. not just the act of intercourse. The heart valves become thickened and more rigid. decreased bladder capacity. which may make swallowing more difficult. Gastrointestinal System Decreased salivary secretions. and so they are the mentors of young adults. . sharing. whether healthy or frail. shorter sleeping periods B. enhanced bony prominences IX. Sexuality involves love.

can affect the sexual activity of the older adult. . duties demanded by society and principles by which they live. They can differentiate between personal wants and needs. and also integrate conflicting facts and ideas.The capacity for sexuality is life-long. The best indicator for continued sexual satisfaction with aging is regularly active sex life during adulthood and into later life. They also tend to be effective problem-solvers. including lack of a sexual partner or declining health. E. They are able to integrate logic with intuition and emotion. Older adults often face health concerns and societal attitudes that make it difficult for them to continue sexual activity. Although their reaction time and speed of thinking slows down. accompanied by the deepening of practical intelligence. Although declining physical abilities may make sex as they knew it difficult. D. Numerous factors. Their crystallized intelligence is improved. MORAL DEVELOPMENT (Postconventional Level) Their committed responsibilities for the care and welfare of others promote moral development. and integrate new information with what they hear and see. people can engage on sex as far into old age as they choose. Theoretically. COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT (Formal Operational Thought) There is very little change in the cognitive functioning of the older adult. learning alternative ways of sexual expression can allow for satisfying sexual activity.

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