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Consumer behavior is very complex and is determined to a large extent by social and psychological factors and it is necessary for a marketing manager to understand properly before he plans his marketing strategy. Within the broad framework of marketing, the area that entices the most researchers is the study why a consumer behaves in a particular way. The complexity of the behavior, however, varies with the nature of the product and the need, which it is required to satisfy. The term consumer behavior may be defined as the decision process and physical activities in which individuals engage them while evaluating, acquiring, using or disposing off goods and services. The study of consumer behavior is the study of how individuals make decisions to spend their available resources on consumption of related items. Buying behavior is an attempt to understand and predict human actions in the buying role. The issues that dealt within the discipline of consumers’ buying behavior are: What products and services do the consumers buy? How do they buy? Why do they buy? From where do they buy? When do they buy? Consumer behavior provides a sound basis for identifying and understanding consumer needs. It is the act of the individuals directly involved in obtaining and using economic goods and services. The study of consumer behavior is an essential component of marketing. The adoption of marketing concept by the marketers provides the impetus for the study of consumer behavior. In case of New Product Introduction in the market, there is a risk of product failure. To increase the chances of success of new products, better information of the consumer behavior is required. Their desires, tastes and preferences are to be taken care of. So from all these aspects the study of consumer behavior is important. The following are a few examples of the benefits of the study of consumer behaviour derived by the different categories of people: 1. A marketing manager would like to know how consumer behaviour will help him to design better marketing plans to get those plans accepted within the company. 2. In a non-profit service organisation, such as a hospital, an individual in the marketing department would like to know the patients' needs and how best to serve those needs. 3. Universities & Colleges now recognise that they need to know about consumer behaviour to aid in recruiting students. "Marketing Admissions" has become an accepted term to mean marketing to potential students.
culture is the part of every society and is the important cause of person wants and behavior. If the customer is not happy with purchase. and she looks for alternative product or service. 2 . once information is obtained from different sources next step. The starting with need recognition. a bad word of mouth follows. regions or even countries. Consumer buying process is five step activities. MAJOR FACTORS INFLUENCING BUYER BEHAVIOUR There are four major factors which influence the consumer buying behaviour are as follow: Culture Culture Subculture Social Class Social Reference Group Family Personal Age Occupation Economic Circumstances Psychological Motivation Perception Belief and Attitude Role and Status Personality CULTURAL FACTORS Cultural factors exert the broadest and deepest influence on consumer behavior. CULTUREBasically. The next step in five-step activity is the purchase decision where in intent is converted into an actual purchase of the good or the service. The roles played by the buyers culture.Understanding of the consumer behaviour begins with study of the consumer buying process. sub culture and social class are particularly important. is the evaluation and intent where in consumer evaluates various parameters of the product or service. which leads to information search. The influence of culture on buying behavior varies from country to country therefore marketers have to be very careful in analyzing the culture of different groups. The final step is post-purchase reaction where in customer if she is satisfied with goods or services recommends to other prospective customers or repeat the purchase.
unmarried couples etc which help marketers to develop appropriate products for each stage. 3 . organization etc. married couples. These include the buyer’s age & stage in the life cycle. Here we should note that buying roles change with change in consumer lifestyles. FAMILYBuyer behavior is strongly influenced by the member of a family. If the buying decision of a particular product is influenced by wife then the marketers will try to target the women in their advertisement. one of finance manager and other of mother. Family life-cycle consists of different stages such young singles. personality & self concept. education. ROLE AND STATUSESEach person possesses different roles and status in the society depending upon the groups. SOCIAL CLASSEvery society possesses some form of social class which is important to the marketers because the buying behavior of people in a given social class is similar. car etc then the influence of reference groups will be high. For example a woman is working in an organization as finance manager. PERSONAL FACTORS A buyer’s decisions are also influenced by personal characteristics. Therefore her buying decisions will be influenced by her role and status. Marketers can use these groups by segmenting the market into various small portions. lifestyle. For example if the product is visible such as dress. geographic regions. racial groups etc. Now she is playing two roles. nationalities. shoes. occupation. knowledge or other characteristics). family. The impact of reference groups varies across products and brands. economic circumstances. Here we should note that social class is not only determined by income but there are various other factors as well such as: wealth. clubs. In this way marketing activities could be tailored according to different social classes. AGE & STAGE IN THE LIFE CYCLEAge and life-cycle have potential impact on the consumer buying behavior. wife and children. to which he belongs. For example marketers can design products according to the needs of a particular geographic group. SOCIAL FACTORS REFERNCE GROUPSReference groups have potential in forming a person attitude or behavior. SUB-CULTUREEach culture contains different subcultures such as religions. Therefore marketers are trying to find the roles and influence of the husband. It is obvious that the consumers change the purchase of goods and services with the passage of time. Reference groups also include opinion leader (a person who influences other because of his special skill. occupation etc.
a person with low income and savings will purchase inexpensive products. learning. emotional feelings. Personality is not what one wears. activities etc and shapes his whole pattern of acting and interacting in the world. PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS A person’s buying choices are influenced by four major psychological factors-motivations. whereas a low level worker in the same organization will purchase rugged work clothes. On the other hand. biological needs. An attitude is person’s enduring favorable or unfavorable evaluations. social needs etc. How the motivated person actually acts is influenced by his or her perception of the situation. Therefore a need becomes a motive when it is more pressing to direct the person to seek satisfaction. beliefs and attitudes. PERCEPTIONPerception is the process by which an individual selects. The nature of the needs is that. PERSONALITY AND SELF-CONCEPTPersonality changes from person to person. time to time and place to place. opinions. It is determined by customer interests. people acquire beliefs & attitudes. LIFESTYLELifestyle of customers is another import factor affecting the consumer buying behavior. self-confidence etc which can be useful to determine the consumer behavior for particular product or service. rather it is the totality of behavior of a man in different circumstances. some of them are most pressing while others are least pressing. ECONOMIC CIRCUMCTANCESConsumer economic situation has great influence on his buying behavior. perception. Actually. MOTIVATIONThe level of motivation also affects the buying behavior of customers. It has different characteristics such as: dominance. Therefore it can greatly influence the buying behavior of customers. aggressiveness. and action tendencies towards some object or idea. Particularly important to global marketers is the fact that buyers often hold distinct disbeliefs about brands or products based on their country of origin. organizes. Lifestyle refers to the way a person lives in a society and is expressed by the things in his/her surroundings. If the income and savings of a customer is high then he will purchase more expensive products. & interprets information inputs to create a meaningful picture of the world. BELIEFS & ATTITUDESA belief is a descriptive thought that a person holds about something. Through doing & learning. Every person has different needs such as physiological needs. A motivated person is ready to act. These in turn influence their buying behavior. 4 . For example a marketing manager of an organization will try to purchase business suits. OCCUPATIONThe occupation of a person has significant impact on his buying behavior.
India is going to be one of the biggest markets for us. music. hybrid and electronic vehicles are new developments on the automobile canvas and India is one of the key markets for them.06 per cent year-onyear (y-o-y). there is huge opportunity for growth. Moreover. India's scooter and motorcycle manufacturers have registered 4 per cent growth during AprilNovember 2012. as per data published by Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion (DIPP). as per Mr Joginder Singh. So. the passenger vehicles segment grew at 9.71 per cent during AprilJune 2012.People have attitude toward almost everything: religion. Volvo Auto India. clothes. politics. India is the largest base to export compact cars to Europe. It is also home for the largest motor cycle manufacturer and the fifth largest commercial vehicle manufacturer.5 per cent compound annual growth rate (CAGR) for the next five years. technologies and supply chains. and so on. amounting to 4 per cent of the total FDI inflows (in terms of US$). The Indian small and light commercial vehicle segment is expected to more than double by 2015-16 and to grow at 18. Attitude put them into a frame of mind of liking or disliking an object.518 million. Ford is looking at India as a major export hub. Current Scenario The amount of cumulative foreign direct investment (FDI) inflow into the automobile industry during April 2000 to November 2012 was worth US$ 7. By 2020. according to the recent data released by the Society of Indian Automobile Manufacturers (SIAM). 'Strategic Assessment of Small and Light Commercial Vehicles Market in India' by Frost & Sullivan. the luxury car segment is estimated to be around three per cent of the overall passenger car market in India. 5 . President and Managing Director. Managing Director. according to a report titled. Ministry of Commerce. Global and Indian manufacturers are focusing their efforts to develop innovative products. India is expected to become the third largest automobile market in the world. moving toward or away from it. Ford India. AUTOMOBILE INDUSTRY IN INDIA The Indian automotive industry has emerged as a 'sunrise sector' in the Indian economy. Moreover. while overall commercial vehicle segment registered an expansion of 6. India is being deemed as one of the world's fastest growing passenger car markets and second largest two wheeler manufacturer. worldwide. food. according to Tomas Ernberg.
Maruti Suzuki is leading the industry with 46% market share. The company has crossed the millstone of becoming the first Indian company in March 1994 by manufacturing in totality one million vehicles. Tata Motors have a market share of 14%. different factors influencing the buying behavior of consumers for cars are studied. 6 . SAMPLE SIZE The universe for the study consists of teachers community in faculty of commerce Dayalbagh Educational Institute Agra. It is known for its mass production and selling of more than one million cars. all are trying to increase their market share in India. Maruti Udyog Ltd is one of India's leading automobile manufacturers and the market leader in the car segment. 1983. The Joint Venture agreement was signed between Government of India and Suzuki Motor Company (now Suzuki Motor Corporation of Japan) in Oct 1982. Topic Consumer buying towards Maruti cars behavior 20 Universe or Sample Respondents 12 Percentage 60% ANALYSIS OF DATA In the study. MARUTI SUZUKI INDIA LTD Maruti Udyog Limited (MUL) was established in Feb 1981 through an Act of Parliament. The number of respondents included in the study was 12 out of 20 sample or universe for convenience in evaluating and analyzing the data and because of time constraint. Therefore.Major Passenger car Automobile Players in India Maruti Suzuki Hyundai Motors Tata Motors Mahindra & Mahindra With a tough competition among different players. Mahindra & Mahindra have a market share of around 7%. Data analysis is an attempt to organize and summarize the data in order to increase results’ usefulness. Maruti Suzuki India ltd is the India’s automobile largest company which entered in the market with affirmed aim to render high quality fuel –efficient and low cost vehicles. The company went into production in a record time of 13 months and the first car was rolled out from Maruti Suzuki India Limited Gurgaon in December. an attempt was made to understand the choice and preference of consumers for different car brands and the factors that influence their buying behavior. both in terms of volume of vehicles sold and revenue earned. Hyundai Motors has been a bleto capture 14% of the market.
00% 20.Maruti have a wide variety of cars No. which are used. are tables. the statistical tools.For the analysis of primary data.00% MARUTI WAGON-R MARUTI ALTO-800 MARUTI 800 Interpretation: As per the survey conducted. fresh and specious interiors and easy driving. Maruti Swift.67% Figure 2 .33% are the owners of MARUTI WAGON-R cars. of Respondents 42% 58% Strongly Agree Agree Interpretation: As per the survey 58% of the total respondents are strongly agreed and 41% are agreed that Maruti Suzuki has a wide variety of cars to choose such as Maruti WAGON--R. 50% 33. Figure 1 -Model of Maruti Car posses by respondents No.67% are the owners of and Maruti 800.00% 50. 33. The Maruti Alto 800 possess by higher number of respondents because of its wave front design.00% 30. 7 . Maruti Zen and Dzire etc. where as 16. Maruti 800. 50% of the respondents are the owners of Maruti ALTO800 Cars.00% 0.33% 16. Pie Charts and bar graphs.00% 10.00% 40. Maruti Gypsy. of Respondents 60.
of Respondents 25% 75% Highly Satisfied Satisfied Interpretation: 75% of the respondents are satisfied and 25% of the respondents are strongly satisfied with the price of Maruti cars and are happy to spend money to buy Maruti cars.67% Strongly Agree Agree Interpretation: 66.Maruti Car are worth their prices No.Maruti cars are serving better than other brand cars No. Figure 4.Figure 3. & Ford etc. because it provides reassurance to existing customers about resale their car and it is also very approachable and receptive to customer complaints. 8 . TATA.33% of respondents are strongly agreed that Maruti cars serve better than other brand cars like Hyundai.33% 66. Of Respondents 33.67% of respondents are agreed and 33.
5 II 4 0 0 III 3 6 18 IV 2 6 12 V 1 0 0 30 d) After Sales Service Rank Weight Frequency of respondents W×F I II 5 4 1 11 5 44 Mean=4.Features on the basis of which you select the present car a) Fuel Efficiency Rank Weight Frequency of respondents W×F I 5 11 55 Mean = b) Interiors Rank Weight Frequency of respondents W×F II 4 1 4 = III 3 0 0 = 4.16 III 3 4 12 IV 2 6 12 V 1 2 2 26 c) Looks Rank Weight Frequency of respondents W×F I 5 0 0 Mean=2.92 IV 2 0 0 V 1 0 0 59 I II 5 4 0 0 0 0 Mean=2.08 III 3 0 0 IV 2 0 0 V 1 0 0 49 e) Resale Value Rank Weight Frequency of respondents W×F I 5 0 0 II 4 0 0 III 3 2 6 IV 2 0 0 V 1 10 10 16 9 .
Figure 6. of Respondents 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Hyundai Interpretation: 10 50% 25% 16.08 2.Mean=1.50.16 2.33 No.33% Tata M&M Honda .Features on the basis of which you select the present car Mean Value 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 Fuel Efficiency Interpretation: As per the survey conducted the mean value of fuel efficiency is 4.92.5 1.08 followed by looks. interiors and resale value with the mean value are 2.16 and 1.33.92 4. after sale service is 4. 2.33 Figure 5 .Nearest competitor of Maruti Interiors Looks After SALE Resale Value Services 4.67% 8. It means majority of respondents has given first choice or rank to fuel efficiency of car and second rank to the after sale services on the basis of which they have selected their present Maruti car.
Mahindra and Honda with 25%.75 I 5 0 0 II 4 2 8 III 3 8 24 IV 2 2 4 V 1 0 0 36 Mean Value = 3 e) Technical Advancement Rank I II Weight Frequency of respondents W×F 5 3 15 4 5 20 III 3 4 12 IV 2 0 0 V 1 0 0 47 Mean Value=3. Factors forcing you to purchase a Maruti car a) Family or friends Rank Weight Frequency of respondents W×F b) Advertisement Rank Weight Frequency of respondents W×F c) Brand Rank Weight Frequency of respondents W×F d) Style &features Rank Weight Frequency of respondents W×F I 5 0 0 II 4 2 8 III 3 0 0 IV 2 10 20 V 1 0 0 28 Mean Value= 2. followed by TATA.67% and 8.50% of the respondents think that Hyundai is the nearest competitor to Maruti Suzuki.82 11 . 16.33%.33 I 5 0 0 II 4 0 0 III 3 0 0 IV 2 0 0 V 1 12 12 12 Mean Value= 1 I 5 9 45 II 4 3 12 III 3 0 0 IV 2 0 0 V 1 0 0 57 Mean Value=4.
00% Yes No 0.33 1 Interpretation: As per the survey conducted brand has highest mean value is 4.00% Can Not Say 12 .75 3. It means majority of respondents gives the first choice or rank to brand of car and Second rank to the Technical Advancement which force to them to purchase a Maruti car.75. technical advancement is 3.82 3 2.82 followed by style & features. of Respondents 120% 100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% 100% 0.Figure 7. family or friends and advertisement.Factors forcing you to purchase a Maruti car Mean Value 5 4 3 2 1 0 Family or friends Advertisement Brand Style &features Technical Advancement 4. Figure 8.Do you suggest to your friends to prefer a Maruti car No.
References http://www. People consider Hyundai as the biggest competitor of Maruti Suzuki cars. Majority of respondents think that Maruti cars serve better than other brand cars.Interpretation: 100% means all the respondents are satisfied with Maruti car and they suggest to their friends to prefer a Maruti car.google.html http://www. Therefore this study would help the companies in understanding the factors that influence the purchase decision of the consumers and their expectations from the passenger cars.html http://marutisuzukialto800. Majority of the respondents were found satisfied with the performance of Maruti cars and are happy to buy a Maruti car in the future.co. FINDINGS Maruti Alto-800 is the most demanded car by the customer.com/compare/hyundai-eon-and-maruti-alto-800.in/search?q=market+share+of+passenger+car+player+in+2012. Due to increased competition. consumers really have to think hard while making a choice or deciding for the Maruti Suzuki car to be purchased.net/1990prabhjot/peoples-perception-toward-maruti-suzuki-cars http://www. more and more work is to be done by the marketing department so as to understand the purchase behavior of the consumers. Maruti is also benefitted with its goodwill and brand name which is already in market.com/ http://www. Market share of Maruti Suzuki cars is increasing very rapidly because of majority of the respondents are satisfied with the Maruti Suzuki cars. After the survey. with competitively priced and wide variety and colour options.cardekho. People think that Maruti Suzuki has a wide variety of cars to choose. Maruti Suzuki cars have good fuel efficiency. So Maruti can use these as an opportunity to bring new and innovative car models in market and try to attract more and more customers.com/automobile/automobile-industry.surfindia. While purchasing a new car.slideshare. it can be concluded that Maruti Suzuki cars have a very good future in India. Price of the cars was found reasonable by most of the respondents. With the rapid increase in car brands. Brand image is a key point to affect the purchase decision of the customers.html 13 . CONCLUSION Maruti has its vast networks of dealers and service centers they are able to provide good after sale service and are able to maintain good relationship with customers which is their strongest point. fuel efficiency is the feature which people think will affect their purchase decision.
(If any) --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Thank you.3 Maruti car are worth their price? Strongly agree Agree No opinion Disagree Strongly Disagree Range Q.2 Maruti have a wide variety of cars.9 Your suggestions regarding Maruti cars.QUESTIONAIRE Consumer buying behavior towards Maruti Cars Personal information Name: Occupation: Age: 1) 26-35 2) 36-45 3) Above 45 Q. Strongly agree Agree No opinion Disagree Strongly Disagree Range Q.6 Which could be the nearest competitor of Maruti? Hundai Range Q. Date: Place: 14 signature: .1 which model of Maruti car do you Posses? a) MARUTI SWIFT b) MARUTI WAGON-R c) MARUTI ZEN d) MARUTI ALTO e) MARUTI 800 f) Other Q. Fuel Efficiency Interiors Looks After Sales Service Resale Value Other Range Q.4 Maruti cars are serving better than other brand cars? Strongly agree Agree No opinion Disagree Strongly Disagree Range Q. Family or friends Advertisement Brand Range Q.5 Please gives first ranks to your first choice among the following trial on the basis of which you select the present car. Your opinion values a lot for us. Sir\Madam for spending your precious time in filling this Questionnaire.7 Which are the factors forcing you to purchase Maruti car? Please gives first ranks to your first choice.8 Do you suggest to your friends to prefer a Maruti car? a) Yes b) No c) Can Not Say Style &features Technical Advancement Other issues Honda TATA Ford Mahindra Nissan Other Q.
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