for the Southern Jurisdiction of the United States. BY ALBERT PIKE.: MASONIC ORIGINES. . Published by the Supreme Council of the 33d Degree. WASHINGTON 1887. Second Edition.

.311 i^t^a.

A Rite might consist of a single Degree first . unless by receiving it from him or them.' the time and the manner of origin are unknown to us. framed and set on foot by individuals. The earliest were undoubtedly or by Committees of Bodies. consisting generally of signs. or more. and instruction intermingled vows or obligations and in the putting him in possession of certain modes of recognition. or Regulations. or from a person or persons or a Body. words. pomp. legal investiture with no one can ever obtain any Degree. being. as if by such first possessor or possessors. have the right to make or to adopt Constitutions. They have either been made by individuals. or instructive. who were their authors and composers. themselves makers of them. Institutes. longer or shorter. having power derived from him or them. is. or with scenic in administering to him certain . by assuming the required vows or obligations. invested the investiture consisting in a ceremony of initiation or reception. the possessor or possessors of the but whether of one Degree or System. spectacular. A 'Kite' is an aggregation and succession of any number of Degrees. and the oral explanations of the Symbols employed. which shall be the . A Masonic Degree is a rank and dignity with which one . Statutes. or his or their successors. and by Except the possessor or possessors. entrusted with the arcana or modes of recognition. ' or for whom they were first made by others. Of most of the Degrees styled Masonic. given by one or more Bodies. scenic. and so as if immediately from him or them. but always by the authority of a single Supreme Government. and grips or 'tokens'. by legal authority.. MASONIC ORIGINES.

by such Constitutions or provided for by them only. it and one of the makers of it and no man can be of the Degree or Rite. have received It or them at the hands or by the authorization of a lawful and for have been put or Ofiicer of the Rite.. and repudiate or set at nought its fundamental law. be so invested can ever be at liberty to or impeach them. such Conor afterwards being in law a party to . By this legislation every one already becoming a member of the Rite. have become entitled legitimate Body derived from the in possession of. or if they purport untruly to have For. wherever and whenever drafted or made. created any rights or powers. political or religious reforms. Degrees and Rites have been invented and created as the means of organization of associations for various purposes for mutual and relief for the prosecution of special studies. of. assistance . become the law of the Rite by being and this adoption makes had a more ancient and special them none the less origin. The benefits intended to be so secured cannot rightfully belong to any person except those who. dues and revenues. system of government for a judicial system and for its administration providing successful for the creation of Bodies. without swearing allegiance to its Supreme Power and obedience to these Constitutions. or merely for notoriety. for fees. by assuming the required obligations. and except those who. as no one can ever be lawfully invested with the Degree or Degrees of the Rite. in French. obligatory. and even mere jollification and vulgar burlesque. mpercherie. he cuts himself off from it. and to obtain for their possessors a factitious dignity and supposititious self-importance. rascality. To do so is simply cheatery. if he denies their authenticity. adopted by the first possessors of it. . providing a . titles evidently.Organic or Supreme Law it of the Degree or Rite. is bound. . having the supreme power first possessors. show. no one claiming to deny their authenticity And. &c. for the purposes of social. If he does that. the to. Institutes. even if their real origin be mythical. stitutions. and arcana and modes of recogni- . However. paying the prices for the Degree or Degrees fixed by the law of the Degree or Rite. pomp. and for its with other legislation needed for propagation and well-being. cozenage. no one can ever claim or dignities.

wholly or in part composed of Master-Masons. and refuses to work. or those of the higher Degrees of another or the same Rite. is not known. belonged to the English Free-Masonry.) by purchase and cession. bolic. in any other way. . It needs no argument to prove that no one can give a Degree to another. or of consideration : and dignity. Those who are only invested with a lower Degree cannot confer upon others a higher one. It is only known that until about a certain date there were no Degrees. perhaps as late as 1725. is plain dishonesty and peculation and for any one not legally in possession of Degrees to take money for conferring them. conRegulations. Charges. In regard to the fundamental law of the English Masonry. and could be legally acquired from it only. or forbids its subordinate Bodies to work. &c." they were first published at London in 1723.. (as the Grand Orient of France used to pretend to do. legislate for or control Bodies of Eoyal-Arch Masons. or of relief or assistance. Keep them in mind. of that Most taining the History. To endeavor to procure for whether pecuniary. Nor can a Body. . These are self-evident axioms. of Degrees.tion—belonging to each Degree. consisting at first of no 'Degrees. make 33ds. One who does it is well styled in French an escroe.. When the First or Second Degree was invented and adopted. at least. A Body of Apprentices cannot make Fellow-Crafts. unless he has it himself.' properly so called. as embodied in what are known as Anderson's "Constitutions of the " Free-Masons. The primary or earliest Rite of Free-Masonry was the Symcommonly known as the 'Blue' Masonry. The Third Degree. or by whom or how. and fundamental principles of Masonic Law and of common sense. repudiates. The three were invented and came into use before there was any other organization than that of the Blue Lodges. the Third was adopted. and that abovi 1723. is the obtaining of money under false pretences. if it be composed wholly or in part of persons who have not been invested with them nor can continue to be owners or possessors of Degrees which it rejects. nor get title. nor a Body of Fellow-Crafts nor could Cemeau's Consistory of 32d8 make Master-Masons. one's self those benefits. No Body can possess or own Degrees.

and their faithful traditions of many ages. who came and composed a General Lodge. some in Latin." &c " and now by the command of our said Right Worshipful Grand Master Montagu.English Lodges according to the foreign model :" and that "Prince Edwin. Deputy of the Duke of Wharton. with several proper explications.Ancient and Eight Worshipful Fraternity. and having brought with them all the writings and records extant. when he was Grand Master. from the contents thereof that Assembly did frame the Constitution and Charges of an English Lodge. for the use of the Lodges in London. Anno 1721. as they have been drawn out and collected from the records of ancient times. and approved by the Grand Lodge on St. for the use of the Lodges in and about London and Westminster. and of those in England. " as it was desir'd and obtain'd for these Regulations." intituled: "The Charges of a Freefrom the ancient records of Lodges beyond sea. Scotland and Ireland. the said King's youngest son. the author of this book has compar'd them with and reduc'd them to the Ancient Records and immemorial usages of the Fraternity. some in Greek. " that those Charges and Laws of Free-Masons have been seen and perused by our late Sovereign. and said that they be right good and reasonable to be holden. George Payne. John Baptist's Day. and by the Lords of his honorable Council." In Article 39 of these Regulations it is stated that the approval and consent of the majority of all the Brethren present must be " solemnly desir'd " to make new Regulations binding." Also. some in French. 930) many Masons from France. D. summoned all the Masons in the Realm to meet him in a Congregation at York. Ex-Grand Master." dedicated by J." " encourag'd stated that King Athelstan (about A." The "Charges" are thus extracted Mason. Right Worshipful Grand Master. when propos'd by the . to the Duke of Montagu. and digested them into this new method. King Henry VL." who " brought with them the Charges and Regulations of the Lodges preserv'd since the Roman times. of which he was Grand Master. Desaguliers. and other languages. F. who haveallow'd them. And the Regulations: "General Regulations. The whole purported to be " collected from their general recThe History ords. compiled first by Mr. Anno 1720. who also prevail'd with the King to improve the Constitution of the .

tutions in the times of lous.. had " order'd the author to peruse. ' ' James Anderson. Deputy Grand Master and Grand Wardens. Grand Lodge. Nymph origin. fabu- No one knows anything about the real origines of the least. known and in short. mangled. of which Prince Edwin was Grand Master. (tho' in many things erroneous. . long after. any more than the laws of Numa Pompilius were. and from thence. by the Grand Master. "extracted from the Ancient Records of Lodges beyond Seas. and the Masters and Wardens of twenty particular Lodges. in the reign of in the reign of : of Montagu. because. King Edward IV. at were and. the Duke first. in plain words. and miserably corrupted that the late Grand Master. they were adopted by Grand Lodge. an impudent congeries of lies. The "approbation" of the whole. 1721. M. — the But being drawn out by Anderson. and. on St. he pretended that they were dictated to him by the Egeria . Master. Charges and Eegulations recited. and of the adoption of Consti. was . that the King Athelstan. the History. the Norman: that the old Constitutions in England had been much interpolated. the author of this Book. . Henry VI. and sundry parts of England. John Baptist's Day. Charges and Regulations" had come from Italy that the Charges were not . the Saxon. ." he had "drawn forth the above written new Constitutions. it is used in Scotland before they were in England no longer denied that the whole account of the sources from which both were derived is a fiction. and of Edward IV. with the Charges and General Regulations.. correct and digest. . Charges and Regulations of the Ancient Fraternity cordingly. " "examin'd several copies from Italy and that he had. and by that became obligatory. to give them greater sanctity. being in no ' ' wise vitiated by the false statements as to the antiquity of the sources from which they were derived." to about 150 Brethren. (among whom was XVII. A." Every one now knows that no such " History. who claimed for them a divine . Charges or Regulations." because there were no other such Lodges that the whole account of Constitutions adopted by a Grand Lodge at York. or those of Minos. except that the former.) and from several other ancient Records of Masons. acand Scotland. into a new and better method.") Free-Masons of England had twice thought it necessary to correct their Constitutions.

' and the 25th the ' Prince of the Royal Secret. worked. where and by what Body these Regulations were adopted. which afterwards appeared before the world. And so nothing is known ' as to the real origin of the Constitutions of by what authority the ' Symbolic Masonry. assembled at Berlin or Bordeaux in 1762. What is known as to the origin and the adoption tof statutes and rules by any one of all the many Guilds of England ? to Nothing. nothing whatever is or ever has been known. before the organization of the Rite. One by one they had been invented. the inventors to others. and at which place who the Commissioners were. the 18th being the ' Rose Croix. since 1762. been organized into a Rite before 1762. any or separate working. twenty-five Degrees had. I have manuscript Rituals of it as old as the beginning of the present century. in France. if there was. no information whatever has come down to us and little reliance is to be placed on what has been told in regard to even those two or three. of except two or three of the twenty-two Degrees. lawful Rite. Associations are alike enshrouded Nothing. and at by how and by whom nobody knows.' Of the authors or origins. But tJw Rite was an actuality. except under the authority of those Regulations. existed in manuscript only for seventy Mason of that years.and Nations and of ancient Churches. become a regular and . Societies in the obscurity of the Past. communicated last. called a Rite. how appointed and empowered and how. its and continued to exist. History and tradition are alike mute on the subject. and then or at a later time had Regulations purpmiing to have been framed by nine Commissioners. The next Rite that made its appearance in Masonry was that of Perfection or H6r6dom. Who knows Ancient Landmarks were established ? No one. when. which. The . The Rite belonged to those who invented it and set it to work: they . it met in 1762. It certainly existed before 1762. Whether there ever was any such assembly whether. . . . before being for the first time printed and published at Paris in 1832. in regard to the origin of Kome ? The m-igines of What is really known Niebuhr long ago exploded the accepted fictions in regard Romulus and Remus. composed of the Blue Degrees and 22 others. accepting these Regulations as the law of being and no man has. had been arranged and aggregated into a system. if they were made in 1762.

for a pound ' or two. is supposed. By what authority. composed of artizaus. had and have the power to confer its and they and their sucDegrees as Degrees of that Rite. Then Encampments appeared in New England. and. if they had. them were invested with the Degree. of which the 7th was the Kadosh. no one knows but as they adopted a Where the makers of . Degree in France. the Rose Croix. In England. one Lodge would another. nor ever will know. they would have been furnished with Rituals whereby to establish Bodies. is such a Degree spoken of. ceremony totally different from those of the English. it and govern it. who they were. The Grand Orient of France took the 18th of that Rite. by what Ritual they worked. sell to In Scotland. assumed to be its Chief. of that Rite. Then Dunckerly took possession of it. Who knows any thing about the origin of the Degree. from France. the right to confer the Tem- plar Degree. the presumption is that they had never been legally invested with the Degree by the rightful possessors of it because. and would have had no power or right to reject these and make new ones for themselves. as ever having existed by any French Masonic writer. no body knows or . nor has any one ever seen a French Ritual of a Templar Degree like ours or like the English . or whether they had it at all. which conferred the Templar Degree for seven and sixpence. were given by the Blue Lodges.— had the right cessors alone to adopt regulations for it. by whom and when and where it was invented and first worked ? No man on earth. 2 . and made it an 'Order. brought. the Lodges conferred it.' with a new organization. added these four to the Blue Degrees. Nobody has ever disputed that. and afterwards the falsely called Grand Lodge at York chartered an Encamp' ment at Manchester. The Templar Degree made its appearance in England. and Irish Encampments. with nothing whatever in them that even savours of or remotely resembles the ancient real Templar ceremony of reception into . Scottish. administer. and so created It was the inventor and maker the French Rite or Bit Modeme. made three others out of some of its Degrees below the 18th. and worked in England as the first All these of seven Degrees. had the exclusive right to propagate. where they were invested with the Degree. as such. It is supposed to have originated in France but no one knows that. Certain persons established an Encampment in Pennsylvania.

with Councils. . Who knows the origin or author or time of origin of the Mark Master or Master Mark Mason Degree of the Past Master Degree of the English Royal Arch of the Royal Master of the . Mark Masonry and Royal Arch Masonry — having no connection there with each other. The Degree of Master Mark Mason. was also organized. before 1795. by whom made or introduced. Excellent Master Degrees. No one. a National Grand Council. . were worked . . however creditable the American Ritual may be to the inventor of it. no body knows at what date. and a General Grand Chapter of the United States and a Rite consisting of the Royal and Select Master. the Mark Master. In England there grew up Chapters of Royal Arch and Mark Lodges. in the Island of Santo Domingo.10 the Order. and a Grand Encampment of the United States. no one knows. and. by whom Red Cross was made ? they were made. Most Excellent Master. or by whom invented. Select Master. of the Super-Excellent : Master? No one. when. as composing one system. Grand Encampments or Grand Commanderies. Grand Councils. with how. and Royal Arch Degrees. So the Royal Arch Degree appeared in England. And those who had possession of the Templar Degree in New England made the Red Cross Degree out of two Degrees of the Rite of Perfection. finally. and very lately. When. and organized it and the Templar Degree Encampments or Commanderies. or the present Ritual of any foreign Teraplarism.) and Royal Arch. . The Degree of Mark Master appeared also. But in the West Indies. (known to have been made ganized. with a Ritual one. and in some States of the Supers in the . Past Master. was about the : same time worked at Charleston Select Master appeared and by and by the Degree of and was given with that of Royal Master. Who knows anything in regard to the origin of the two Degrees out of which the into another Rite. with Chapters. no one knows. with Rituals translated from the English and it was required that a person should have the Royal Master and Super-Excellent Master Degrees before he could receive the Royal Arch. was orGrand Chapters of States. and totally different totally different from the West Indian from our present one. Past Master. But Bodies of these Degrees were organized a Rite consisting of the Mark Master. United States.

with periods of inactivity All this Bodies. in been made at Berlin. And though a Negro Lodge. being regularly invested with either of the Degrees. . sixty and more years ago. 1801. not having the Degrees from the legitimate authority. having a special Masonry of its own. and was but sive. reduced to that. Sovereign Grand Commander. Chapter. composed of the 25 Degrees of the Rite of Perfection. 1786. every where in the United States. to be no Master Mason. once. the Rite as orgauized. should un- dertake to give lent impostor it. one so receiving either is held.11 But. duly and legally established and constituted there on the 1st of May. subordinate . the title created the Supreme Council for the Northern itself Jurisdiction of the United States at New York. In 1802. the Supreme Council of the 83d Degree for the United States of America announced to the world. by identically the regular Rituals. a spurious Select Master. and claiming to have been organized at Berlin in 1786. purporting to have In 1801 another Masonic Rite ton. until after 1855. as three Master- Masons constitute a Lodge. and eight others added to them. in manuscript. Constitutions to the present had continuous existence under its its sometimes. no Knight Templar. no Royal Arch Mason. three constitute a Supreme Council. or Commandery may give precisely the same Degrees in all respects. would be a frauduand a knave. never with many. regarded the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite as intruIt has never had less than three members. and. with na day. in Prussia. exclusively belongs and if the Degrees of either are given by any other authority. which. . Frederic the Great. and that any one who. and in such a country. it In 1814. perhaps. in a Supreme Council of the 33d Degree. to one thing all agree : that to the Bodies of each of these and as administered by them. not Rites. Since then it has establishment on the 31st of May. no better than a sneak-thief. its Grand Constitutions written in French. Supreme Power of such a Rite. made its appearance at Charlesr South Carolina. the recipient is a spurious Royal Arch. was but natural for such a Body. and establish Bodies of it. It had. and took of the Supreme Council for the Southern Jurisdiction. a spurious Templar. by its organic law. by formal manifesto. at which Council was present the King of Prussia.

certainty. It is more widely diffused than any other Rite of Masonry in the world. they of the Supreme Council have been destroyed or lost. with the exception of have been created by authority. from that established at Charleston in 1801. like the : origin of all other Rites. this Rite belonged to those who formed. : 12 There are now some twenty-four Supreme Councils of this Rite two or three. This Rite was and is called the Ancient Rite. the authority of its Grand Constitutions. either immediate or transmitted. If there were written minutes of those at Charleston for half a century. So the early records or minutes of Templarism in England. since the adoption of the Constitutions. the 'records' of the 'immemorial Encampments. have utterly disappeared. No man of this or the last generation has seen the minutes of any of these early Lodges. no record of its sessions remains. Whether its Constitutions were framed and adopted at Berlin or not.' if they kept any. of the Grand Lodge of France for a score or two of years after its establishment. of any Encampment of Templars before . many times more so than either the Royal Arch or Templar Rite. Scotland and Ireland. like those of the Bodies of the Rite of Perfection in France. The Rite exists and is active. No man larly received its Degrees. with its Organic Law* and its Governing Bodies. By the same law that obtains as to the other Rites. organized and established it. There was not anciently any law that required the minutes of a Body to be recorded in books and they were universally kept on loose sheets or paper-rolls. all of which. is not historically known to us with If there was a Supreme Council at Berlin. they were valid as its fundamental law. adopted and promulgated as such law in 1801.. without swearing to obey them as the supreme law of the Rite and it is not possible that a if it denies Body of any Degree can be a Body of this Rite. and.. in its higher Degrees. iu the world. which are confined to English-speaking countries and the two Supreme Councils of the United States have of their Obedience over two hundred different Bodies. and those of the old Blue Lodges in France and England. precisely as the other Rites exist and are active and its origin and the origin of its Constitutions. because they were accepted. and no oiher Rite under that name and Accepted Scottish or with all the same has ever regu- Degrees has ever made its appearance. when kept at all.

pretend to have been invested with any other Degrees than Afterwards he falsely pretended to have the additional Degrees of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite. Folger. ligion or history or mythology. Nothing. made such in 1806. and multitudes of Masons religiously believe these impudent fictions yet. and he and in one called 'Aaron's Band. a disturber of the Masonic peace. from 1807 to 1815. fictions. of the 25th Degree of the Rite of Perfection. an Inspector of the Rite of Perfection. it is no longer considered necessary to resort to impudent and ridiculous.13 the time of Dunckerly. which was within the Jurisdiction of the Supreme Council of the United States at Charleston. in re- Fortunately. by auMorin and he was no more. have had. at Baracoa in Cuba. intruder and interloper. to support the claim to legitimacy of any Degree or Rite of Free-Masonry. at thority transmitted from Etienne first. and whatmodities. in regard to the Blue or Symbolic Masonry. more mythical than that of Etruria or Rome. therefore. They sufficed at the time when they were invented. I have been endeavouring in vain to Grand Orient of France. in 1806 or 1807. and the Templar Degree. Mathieu Dupotet. he invaded the jurisdiction of a lawful and regular Supreme Council of the United States. from the Island of Cuba to New York. that he did not. the twenty-five of the Rite of Perfection. ever 'authority or commission or inherent prerogative he may trafficked in all. without the . He was a Prince of the Royal Secret. but they are unnecessary and exploded now. and also made Deputy Inspector for the northern part of that Island. When did the Grand Lodge of England begin to keep its minutes? and who has seen those from 1717 to 1723? Where are the oldest minutes of "the old Grand Lodge at York? " Who has seen the earliest minutes of Dermott's Grand Lodge? Where is the book that contains the find the minutes of the proceedings of the record of its sessions during the first years of its existence? The keeping of formal records was not an essential characteristic of Masonry in the old days and the ancient history of Blue Masonry is. It is admitted by his Historiographer.' and so plyed a somewhat profitable trade in these shoddy and bogus comWhatever he may or may not have been. One Joseph Cemeau came. by . has ever equalled the riotous earlier exuberance of fiction in which the Masonic writers in England revelled. was a trespasser. .

Undoubtedly. But the whole of Cerneau's action was a mere impudent inposture and fraud. of the Ancient and Primitive Rite of Heredom. and the Supreme Council at Charleston could have had nothing to say against it for its Rite had not swallowed or extinguished that of Perfection. title to its twenty-five Degrees. the 'Thirty-second' Degree. and absolutely null and void. a merely ornamental group. earning money by dealing in stolen wares under false pretences . This person established in New York. if he had had competent authority. but calling it of the 32d. All that he did was. would have been utterly irregular. for that Rite consisted of twenty-five Degrees and no more and he never had any Thirty-second Degree. his action. he could have established Bodies of the Rite of Perfection in twenty-five Degrees in New York. and therefore not the 83d Degree established by the Grand Constitutions of the Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite. and these 33ds. but was a mere naked decoration. and providing for a nominal -Supreme Council with none. without any authority to do so.. which had no powers at all all powers of government and administration. . so made. make a 33d of the Ancient Nor could there be a Supreme Council of that Rite without powers. slightest cient . belonging to the Princes of the Royal Secret in Grand Consistory. of that Rite.14 power to give a Degree or establish a Body of the Anand Accepted Scottish Rite. whose members from time to time selected some of themselves and rewarded them with what they called the 33d Degree. nor obtained any . even under his Patent from Dupotet. Heredom or Perfection. merely null and void. Nothing could have been more brazenly fraudulent than his exclusive styling the Degree of Prince of the Royal Secret of the Rite of . were in the aggregate styled a Supreme Council. a mere nominis umbra. of the 25th Degree. of legislation and judicial decision. in to create sistory with • gross violation of the Constitutions of the Rite. investing a Grand Consupreme powers. on that ground alone. which gave them no powers. And if Cerneau had actually been a 33d and had had power a Supreme Council. a "Sovereign Grand Consistory" of Princes of the Eoyal Secret. All the 32ds in the world could not and Accepted Scottish Rite. or any other Degree above the 25th He was simply an audacious knave and impostor.

in the Ancient and Accepted Rite. by inventing or procuring some one to invent for him eight Degrees. and the right to letters. any one not legally invested with the Degrees of the Rite or Order. the Grand Orient of France never controlled the Degrees above the 18th. Society. —the right to be defended in danger and aided in adversity. or what he pretends are. and he covM not have had one. because. he might have made himself the author of a Rite. Grand Orient of France. which is an audacious no man has ever seen such a commission. a joint ownership in the property of the Lodge or other Body to which he belongs. which also he never Had. and only by paying the person or Body tions of the Rite to receive the fee." nor pretend and claim that it was the same as that practiced by the Supreme Councils at Charleston. When any Rite has become established. for new Undoubtedly. sometimes very considerable sums. a person obtains valuable rights and privileges. making him favourably known to distinguished persons in other countries. if he travels. nor claim and pretend that the Degrees of his invention were identithose. By being invested with these Degrees. nor give to his Rite the name of " Ancient and Accepted Scottish Rite. and making a Body of it the Supreme Power of the Rite. and calling the last the 33d. Now. the privilege of finding Brothers wherever the Order exists. (only to be honestly obtained by paying for them. and of obtaining money under false pretences. and having no authority derived from the founders to give its Degrees and establish Bodies of it. if . in addition to those possessed by him. It is now boldly asserted that he had a commis- sion from the lie. by the possession of the means of recognition. if be proud he pays for them and obtains them honestly. its Degrees. or Association. under the Grand Constitutions purporting cal with have been made in 1786. until 1815. and others.15 as he was in giving the Degree of Knight Templar. titles and decorations which. All such performances are what in the French language are styled to escroquerie' and frvprnnerie. those who obtain its Degrees pay for them. without being guilty of imposture and rascality.) entitled by the Cotistituand by becoming a member of the Order. But he could neither appropriate the names borne by Degrees of the same numbers. comes into its Jurisdiction and gives what are. he has a right to of. of France.

would be as good a Mason as anyone. the whole bottom of Masonry has dropped out. or cease to govern in Masonry. that Degrees belong to those who make. "My obligation and if a man who never Degree to the real owner and lawful possessor of it. and who do not sell or abandon their right of proprietorship over them. were not true. cozen. malignite If the axioms. entrap the unwary by lying. which need no demonstration. cheat. there would no longer be any clandestine or irregular Masons. even worse than a thief." asked. and all Masonry would be : destroyed." "Lafowrherie ajouie h. Commanderies. when an Apprentice is . the persons invested with his gewgaws are not lawfully in possession of them. obligation of a but surreptitiously. for so obtaining money by false pretences and selling what does not belong to him a knave of the scurviest sort a poor. what makes him a Mason. One can occupation. and he is a rogue. it scarcely conceive of a more disreputable or dirty The pretended lies. and the bodies that he creates are spurious. still has the Degree and can give it and create Bodies of it. than sent it it is to make a Degree and repre- to be and sell it for a regular Degree of a regular Rite. Councils and Consistories. If he actually. or compile them. contemptible. — . impudent impostor and sharper. it is a baser act on his part to use for profit what has been basely obtained. or any Masonic legitimacy a man receiving the Blue Degrees in a Negro Lodge. compose. sell his stolen or shoddy wares by the aid of lies. and that Rites belong to those who organize and establish them. or spurious Bodies. be saturated with mendacity. and anybody who pleased could give Degrees and establish Lodges and Grand Lodges. pilfer by and be equally without conscience or au memonge. For. must live in an atmosphere of lies. be- come a walking shame. fraud. filch lies. must lie from the rising of the suu until the going down thereof. took the he answers. and are the first workers of them. make decent men parties to fraud by lying.16 and establishes Bodies of it. or could be changed into lies. authority of the bilk who practices rests on He must sustain himself by continual lying. money from men's pockets by lies. has obtained a knowledge of the whole Ritual of the Degree. . Chapters. or by reading a book.

is with a Degree. and without taking the proper obligations to the regular possessors. there- a knave. but the Grand Lodge was established in 1716. For him to give it for is money. the Mother . lawful and regular investiture it." I am indebted to him for pointing out an error into which I had Bro." Bro. claims to possess an impostor. he only steals and. I copy the followiug paragraph from his notice "He asks (1). is dishonesty and indecency. For. of any Eite. which many of us have seen and handled. has noticed London Free-Mason the pamphlet.— : 17 when it is not that at all. without having fore. "Masonic Origines. it did for six or seven years.-. being copies of the Original records still preserved at Free-Masons' Hall. and we have no record of what Speaking of " the great Masonic event of the eighteenth centuj. in the shape of authenticated minutes. he steals that and the substance of It is it together.-. •. 'when did the Grand Lodge of England begin I reply. of Torquay in England._the Assembly of 1717. absence of records or minutes of the organization of Bodies. for sums far smaller than those pay who obtain it at the hands of regular Bodies.y. in the William J. in the former. Gould. Gould says: of England. the name of the Degree . Hughan. and. out of which sprang the Grand Lodge of Grand Lodges. time that some things should be called by the right names. by Bro. Theft is nothing less than theft. whatever it be that a man steals. hoping thereby to share in what is not their own. from 1723. to endeavour to get the right to enjoy the benefits and privileges. The man who." No according to Anderson doubt. fallen. to be found of the mganizatim of the Grand Lodge of England. and what I was commenting on was the . is cozenage : : to for establish spurious or irregular Bodies sheer rascality and men not ignorant and misled. which I have corrected in this edition. in the latter case. and their chief records to keep its n)inutes?' are to be found in the History of Free-Masonry. of None at all are their 'origines.' and of their earliest proceedings.

24 June. 281." 4 GouM. «nd Captain Joseph Elliott. and "constituted themselves a Grand Lodge ^ro tempore in due form. which did not elect the Grand Master and Grand Wardens. the selection of the Grand Master was provided for. 1720. at the Quarterly Communication. Then. a Carpenter. on St. at the Assembly and Feast. at those . nothing whatever relating Grand Lodge. George Payne was elected Grand Master of Masons." GoiM. 24 June. on 24 June. 1719. therefore. was elected Grand Master of Masons. on the nomination of the actual Grand Master. 279. Grand Wardens Desaguliers. except the General Regulations' 4 of 1121." 4 Gould. Gentleman. 280. But the Assembly and Feast (annual) were held afterwards. The date of this Anderson says that after the rebellion four old Lodges (which had no meeting is not given. to the the mimites of Grand Lodge only commence on June "For the history. 24. on St. 279. or Grand Lodge in ample form. when Antony Sayer. Grand Wardens. 1723. regvme. at the Assembly and Feast. 1718. 1720. John Evangelist's day. and Jacob Laraball. and the power of appointing the Deputy and the Grand Wardens was given to the Grand Master "according to antient custom. the names or numbers. to be made by the Grand Lodge.18 " UnfortunaMy. 1717. having been inserted in the earlier edition of 1723. in the ' Anderson Constitutions' of 1738. John Baptist's day. The Grand Master " commanded the Masters and Wardens of Lodges to meet the Grand Officers every quarter in communication. when noble Brothers were Grand Masters." This was the Grand Lodge. These statements and others that follow. at the Goose and Gridiron Alehouse. until they should have the honour of a noble Brother at their head. met at the Apple Tree Tavern. and George Payne a second time. being designated only by the ale-houses or taverns where they met)." and "revived the Quarterly Communication of the officers of Lodges (cail'd the Grand Lodge). and a city Carpenter and a Stonecutter. and then to chuse a Grand Master from among themselves. with some old Brothers. were published by . of the first six years of the new we are mainly dependent on the account given by Dr. proceedings of the ' was over in 1716." and resolved to hold the Annual Assembly and Feast. semblies and Feasts and the in regard to the As- Grand Lodge.

from 1717 to 1723. and November 27. 1724. 1725. August 28. December 19. Vol." and this is what I have found The earliest proceedings recorded in the minutes of the Grand Lodge of England are of 24 June. Dr. John's Day. There were present the Duke of Wharton. Wardens. And in a note he very unsatisfactorily attested. Gr. Gould says in regard to two ancient Lodges. given by Gould. The two extracts Then follows Anderson's statement of what was done on the day of that Quarterly Communication. 1728. each distinguished by its brevity.Gould's History for those " chief records" which are to be found therein. 1723. contain at best very trivial entries. is. each older than the Grand Lodge of England "Between the years 1710 and 1748. shows that the information which Anderson was derived from hearsay. Then are given certain questions settled on the 19th of February. Dep. and extracts and quotations from the records or minutes of the following dates: November 21.'. furnishes I add here. Master. 1725. and the 28th of April of the same year." 4 Gmild. the Alnwick records. ^ not wholly wanting.'. 373-375. show anything ? regard to origin or early history But I have looked into Bro. as he was not affiliated in English Masonry until after the election as Grand Master of the Duke of Montagu. Christmas. pp. and Gould admits "that the history of the Grand Lodge. what Bro.: : 19 Anderson in 1738.". same year — the Lodges represented. and the former only naming St. . being "copies of the Original Records. December in the . 292. meeting. as narrated by Anderson." this. as illustrating what I have said in regard to uncertainty as to the origins of Bodies. . IV. November 26. Gr. 1727. this After the minutes of cover three quarto pages. 1724. 1725. those of the Quarterly Communication of November 25 are given. 1730. 267. May 20. in 1721." 4 Gould organiza- Do tion any minutes of first it show anything in regard to its and meeting ? minute-book of Swalwell Lodge in is "The Does its earliest entry in the of September 29. or anything afterwards. to say the least. Desaguliers. and the latter being a resolution of 3| lines. and the two Grand Master.

said about their us the chief records or not. I hardly think that I can agree with my Brother Hughan. had any commission to do so from the four old Lodges to which they belonged that these ' ' . sions for six or seven years were kept. and a smaller number own it. as showing the progress of innovation. but he has not given us the records themselves. Grand Lodge? Nowhere. Gould has given sources of history. that are given "the chief records" of the Bro. if any minutes of its ses. What if it did begin to record its doings in 1723? Do the minutes then commenced give any information as to its originesi No. 1730. entire. December 15. 1731. Grand Lodge of England have extracted all by Gould. June. A great many shining lights in Masonry would be benefited by a larger knowledge of what the old Masonry really was. in such shape that they can be accessible at small cost to Masons genI should prefer to judge for myself whether Brother erally. . 1735. old Bodies themselves have I do not understand that the few persons who revived Masonry in England. in 1716 and 1717. 25. 1731. Gould for the minutes and records of the Grand Lodges is idle. There may be much in them that would be of very great value otherwise than historically. 1733. Not one Mason in a thousand in the United States will will ever even see the work . 1735. Let us go to the and hear what the origins and doings. they are lost. I have asked him why such minutes as remain cannot be published. •.20 same year.-. and just as they are. I have said to Brother Hughan that to refer Masons to the costly history of Bro. 1754. which does not appear. March 31. March 17. two brief resolutions. complete. as well in the way of depravation as of improvement. He may that he considered of Value historically. These continue all in the . February 24. clouds. certain reso- lutions. Lodges were working at all until afterwards and that the making of the Grand Lodge was the act of these Lodges as organized Where is the proch verbal of the organization of the Bodies. with brief references and extracts down to March . December 13. Gould has perhaps extracted all that is of any importance from the early records and it is very certain that they contain nothing at all in regard to the origin and first organization of the Grand Lodge of England and that.

there are minutes of 19 Lodges. "Where were Let us see exactly what they There is a roll of parchment York. 271/. Treasurer and and elected a nor is any subsequent This is not signed by any one ' GmM. President. . in more than thirteen years. . Dep. one of a Lodge.' one of a new Lodge. Wardens. December.' which were general ones. March 19.' and 'adjournment of a Lodge' were not. Dep.' The four old Lodges are only nominum umbrce. Hughan next and the whole story sounds says." Up to December 27. 1712. as well as of the general Lodges as of the private ones. President. in existence.. as at a private one. and no ' Orand Lodge' meniioned. and from 1725 as a Grand Lodge and all from 1712 to'1730. (2. 1725. went in procession to Merchants' Hall. . Bowes. Esq. We know nothing ' of their previous Bro.' if . And these brief minutes. had the Grand Master. 1725. one of a general Lodge by Sir Walter Hawksworth. 1729. contain literally m)thing except mention of the swearing and admission of members.' and two of St. a minute shows that the Society' Grand Feast. 1730. from the year 1712. as the new Lodge. ." The first entry begins: held at the house of and admission of six "March the 19." he says.: 21 names." York. 4 of a St. and one President. Deputy.) life . at a private Lodge James Boreham . Dep. President. any minutes of the 'old Grand Lodge at "I reply. quoting my words like a myth. private ' "Geo. 1712. as well at a general Lodge. and others. Most some of those of private of the entries are not signed at all ' . "they there was such a Body?" are still at York. and the last of Persons were "sworne and admitted" and "adentry being of mitted and sworne" "into the Honourable Society and Fraternity of Free-Masons. are exactly reproduced in Gould's justly celebrated history. John's Lodges. We thus have fmir general Lodges only. John's Lodge by Charles Fairfax. On the 27th Clerk.' a Lodge. entry signed by any officer until that of June 24. . and nothing more. as respects the old Lodge." and occasionally of " a general Lodge" May 4.' two of general Lodges." and notes the swearing It is signed by persons. containing minutes at of "ajsriuafe Lodge. . Lodges are signed by George Bowes. the first are. the shades of They are wholly impersonal to us.' one of ' ' ' ' an ad' journment of a Lodge.

at which it was ordered by the Dep." veniences that may Evidently. any officer of the Lodge should be absent from the company at the monthly Lodges. This was signed by the Dep. on the 24th St. a general Lodge.22 Then follow thirteen entries of two lines each of the swearing and admission of members at private Lodges." expel him from the Society with provisions in regard to the other persons concerned in the irregularity. 1726. Grand Master. Deputy Grand Master and Grand Wardens. 1725. and the approbation of the whole Lodge. by the Grand Master. and at election of a John's Lodge. John's Stonegate. 1721: and. But who "I" was. How the Grand Lodge was formed." and declaring that "I do. 1730. Gr. one 'Dr. as Gould admits.' "to assist in regulating the and redressing from time to time any inconarise. one of June 24.' state of the Lodge. and the appointment of a Committee to assist in regulating the state of the Lodge. and when. and one of June 24. they do not contain the name "Grand Lodge" on They chronicle a meeting of "a general the 24th of June. at a general Lodge. June. Masf then present. Lodge held at y° Starr in The last also records the election of a Grand Master.'' And the last entry is of May 4. Master. after the election of a Grand Master by "the December 27. "held there by the Hon"' Society and Company Society. Lodge. and for others who might in like manner afterwards offend. 1729. and six 'Mr's. 1713. On the 6th of July. ohe on Christmas. these minutes with the consent of the : do not show. 1716. 'at St. Ceiling's. in the City of York . does not appear. this so-called "Grand Lodge was without any chartered subordinates. of like admission. of seven persons. and the appointment. 1726. there is an entry in regard to a person who had "presumed to call a Lodge and make Masons without the consent of the Grand Master or Deputy :" beginning shilling for "Whereas it has been certify" to me." In fact. of like admission. the Grand Master.'' and the same persons met . one on the 24th of June. 1726. 24th June. and the preceding entry by the newly elected Grand Master. and redressing from time to time any inconveniences that may arise." one on Christmas. Deputy Grand Master. and Grand Wardens. being the sign of y° White Swann in Petergate. 1714. at a private Lodge at Mr.' ' York." of Free-Masons. he should be fined a that if thenceforth each omission. 1729.

a Grand Lodge. "Mr. the exist- note to the ence of the Ancients should be carried back. to be . and. (3. minutes of September 14. think that Bro.-. except that and that Bro. Hughan refers me give us mighty little information about " the Grand Lodge of York. Moreover.' " IV. in June and December. had nothing to do. "From their What origin. and am glad to be better informed. John Lodges. Hughan further quotes has seen the minutes of Dermott's Grand Lodge? the book that contains a record of its sessions during the first twenty-five years of its existence?" I reply. as they are in the archives of the United Grand Lodge from 1751-2 to 1813. impossible to say how far. 2 to 10. as an organized body. The minutes of the Grand Lodge of the "Ancients" date from the election of Laurence Dermott as Grand Secretary.: 23 Lodge and as a private Lodge. Morgan did keep any book of Transactions did not." It is —though there is no certainty that he lished. *. Hagarty" in the chair. he says. 406." The private Lodges as a general apparently were distinct from these." he says. 1752. 1752. 1751. says. therefore. ' As thirty-six of the entries are of these "private" (or occa- and only seven of general Lodges and St. "Several of us have seen the minutes and registers /rom their origin in 1751-2. were convened exclusively for makings. •." is but not from the origin of the Grand as to that? I did not known know that there were any early records of it. as Gould present the officers of Nos. and there were regular monthly meetings. and their main characteristics are faithfully exhibited in Gould's History." Who Where is Lodge. on the 5th of February. "nor does Laurence Dermott.) " it it was not. Its origines are not even hinted at." sional) Lodges. when the Masters of six Lodges were present. It is. Gould adds. states that a General Assembly A was held on the 17th of July. The general Lodges "were held on the Festival days. "the present Secretary. which took place in Grand Committee at the Griffin Tavern. the note says that Dermott never received any copy or manuscript of the former Transactions from his predecessor. "it may well be. in any sense of the word. and additional to the ordinary assemblies. these minutes to which Bro. hoped that Dermott's minutes will some time be pubKeeping hid away from the general eye maunmutilated.

being the 27th day of December. we should not have their names. Nothing is known in regard to most of these Brethren. the Grand Lodge of England is said to have been formed.' by members of which. . It was also entered thus.: : 24 terials for selete. Herbert Phaire. Gould V. Minutes of the Grand Lodge of Munster. All that preceded that event as far as they 3. 1727 " Several Lodges within the Province had neglected to pay their attendance. the date of the inventioa and first working of two De- and of the Mark Degree ? .- wrapped in the impenetrable not touch the princi. " At an assembly and meeting of the Grand Lodge for the Province of Munster. on the 27th of December. John's Day." . the subject of the obscurity of Masonic Origines. Grand Lodge of Ireland. In regard to the Grand Lodge of JEngland.' i. Masonic History is a custom that ought to become obThe demand of intelligent Masons to-day is for more light. by unanimous consent. and but for information given by Dermott. ' How before the revival is. and other Brethren. Esq". is Ihe oldest extant minute 28. I in regard to the Upon this add It from Gould. e. elected Grand Master for the ensueing yeare. ' Hughan do Masonic Origines. Thus the criticisms of Bro.re cOtocerne"d. origin of He has not succeeded in throwing much light on the two of the English Grand Lodges. darkness of oblivion. The Hon"' James O'Brien. A°° D". the total absence of original minutes and records. or of authentic evidence in regard to beginnings of Masonic Bodies and Grand Bodies in pal matter treated of in the general. is pre-historic. on St." how they began and when they formed a Grand Lodge of Munster. 1726. are matters as to which history tells us nothing whatever. we have no minutes or records of either of the four old Lodges. in Cork. The age of these four old Lodges long these 'several Lodges' had existed. tell Perhaps he can me where are to be found the minutes of the formation and earliest proceedings of the the Royal Order of Scotland at Edinburgh? Grand Lodge of its Or grees. to exist. 1726. at the house of M'.

Y.P63 1887 PAMPHLET BINDER Mafwtaetuntfbr GAYLAMOUNT Masonic orig nes. 3 1924 030 280 196 olln. Inc. SyioeuM. H.anx ^ APR LIBRARYANNEX 29|'86 NOV 12 ASHEX ^no m 23233B . Stockton.Cornell University Library HS397 . Calif . •AYUMtD BROS.

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