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Singapore Airworthiness Requirements Part 66

Aircraft Maintenance Licensing

Issue 2, Amendment 2

18 June 2011

Publication of the Civil Aviation Authority of Singapore Singapore Changi Airport P.O.Box 1, Singapore 918141 Copies of this document may be obtained from from the CAAS website at www.caas.gov.sg

SAR-66

SINGAPORE AIRWORTHINESS REQUIREMENTS SAR 66 CONTENTS

SECTION 1

REQUIREMENTS 66.1 66.3 66.5 66.10 66.20 66.25 66.30 66.40 66.45 66.50 66.55 66.60 66.65 66.70 General Effectivity Definitions Application and Issue Privileges Basic knowledge requirements Experience requirements Continuity of the aircraft maintenance licence Type/task training and ratings Medical fitness Evidence of qualification Equivalent safety cases Revocation, suspension or limitation of the SAR-66 aircraft maintenance licence Conversion provisions

APPENDIX 1 APPENDIX 2 APPENDIX 3 APPENDIX 4

BASIC KNOWLEDGE REQUIREMENTS BASIC EXAMINATION STANDARD TYPE TRAINING AND EXAMINATION STANDARD EXPERIENCE REQUIREMENTS FOR EXTENDING A SAR-66 AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE LICENCE AIRCRAFT TYPE PRACTICAL EXPERIENCE LIST OF TASKS FOR OTHER THAN LARGE AIRCRAFT ACCEPTABLE MEANS OF COMPLIANCE (AMC) AND INTERPRETATIVE/EXPLANATORY MATERIAL (IEM) 1 2 General Presentation

APPENDIX 5

SECTION 2

AMC/IEM 66.1 to AMC/IEM 66.70

Issue 2, Amendment 2

i

18 June 2011

SECTION 1 SAR-66 INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK 18 June 2011 ii Issue 2. Amendment 2 .

Amendment 2 iii 18 June 2011 .SAR-66 SINGAPORE AIRWORTHINESS REQUIREMENTS SAR 66 AMENDMENT RECORD LIST Amendment No First Issue Issue 2 Amendment 1 Amendment 2 Issue Date 4 June 2004 15 August 2006 Inserted By Insertion Date Incorporated into Amendment 2 23 July 2010 18 June 2011 Issue 2.

SECTION 1 SAR-66 INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK 18 June 2011 iv Issue 2. Amendment 2 .

15 August 2006 Issue 2. 15 August 2006 Issue 2. 15 August 2006 Issue 2. 15 August 2006 Issue 2. 18 June 2011 Issue 2. Amendment 2. 15 August 2006 Issue 2. 15 August 2006 Issue 2. 15 August 2006 Issue 2. The following pages of SAR-66 are now current: i ii iii iv v vi 1-1 1-2 1-3 1-4 1-5 1-6 1-7 1-8 1-9 1-10 1-11 1-12 1-13 1-14 1-15 1-16 1-17 1-18 1-19 1-20 1-21 1-22 1-23 1-24 1-25 1-26 1-27 1-28 1-29 1-30 1-31 1-32 1-33 1-34 1-35 1-36 1-37 1-38 1-39 1-40 1-41 1-42 1-43 1-44 1-45 Issue 2. 18 June 2011 Issue 2. 15 August 2006 Issue 2. Amendment 2. Amendment 2. 15 August 2006 Issue 2. Amendment 2 v 18 June 2011 . 15 August 2006 Issue 2. 18 June 2011 Issue 2. 15 August 2006 Issue 2. 15 August 2006 Issue 2. 15 August 2006 Issue 2. 15 August 2006 Issue 2. 15 August 2006 Issue 2. 15 August 2006 Issue 2. 15 August 2006 Issue 2. 18 June 2011 Issue 2. 15 August 2006 Issue 2. 15 August 2006 Issue 2. 15 August 2006 Issue 2.SAR-66 SINGAPORE AIRWORTHINESS REQUIREMENTS SAR 66 LIST OF EFFECTIVE PAGES Issue 2. Amendment 2. 18 June 2011 Issue 2. 15 August 2006 Issue 2. 15 August 2006 Issue 2. 15 August 2006 Issue 2. Amendment 2. 15 August 2006 Issue 2. Amendment 2. 15 August 2006 Issue 2. 15 August 2006 Issue 2. 18 June 2011 Issue 2. 18 June 2011 Issue 2. 15 August 2006 Issue 2. 15 August 2006 Issue 2. Amendment 2. Amendment 2 is dated 18 June 2011. 15 August 2006 Issue 2. 15 August 2006 Issue 2. Amendment 2. 15 August 2006 Issue 2. 15 August 2006 Issue 2. 18 June 2011 Issue 2. 15 August 2006 Issue 2. 18 June 2011 Issue 2. 15 August 2006 Issue 2. Amendment 2. 15 August 2006 Issue 2. 15 August 2006 Issue 2. 18 June 2011 Issue 2. Amendment 2. 15 August 2006 Issue 2. 18 June 2011 Issue 2. 18 June 2011 Issue 2. 15 August 2006 Issue 2. 15 August 2006 Issue 2. Amendment 2. Amendment 2.

18 June 2011 Issue 2. 15 August 2006 Issue 2. 15 August 2006 Issue 2. 15 August 2006 Issue 2. Amendment 2. 18 June 2011 Issue 2. Amendment 2. 15 August 2006 Issue 2. 15 August 2006 Issue 2. 15 August 2006 Issue 2. 15 August 2006 Issue 2. 15 August 2006 Issue 2. Amendment 2. Amendment 2.SECTION 1 SAR-66 1-46 1-47 1-48 1-49 1-50 1-51 1-52 1-53 1-54 1-55 1-56 1-57 1-58 1-59 1-60 1-61 1-62 1-63 1-64 1-65 1-66 1-67 1-68 1-69 1-70 1-71 1-72 2-1 2-2 2-3 2-4 2-5 2-6 2-7 2-8 2-9 2-10 2-11 2-12 Issue 2. Amendment 2. Amendment 2. 15 August 2006 Issue 2. 18 June 2011 Issue 2. Amendment 2. 15 August 2006 Issue 2. 15 August 2006 Issue 2. Amendment 2. 15 August 2006 Issue 2. 18 June 2011 Issue 2. 18 June 2011 Issue 2. Amendment 2 . 15 August 2006 Issue 2. 15 August 2006 Issue 2. 18 June 2011 18 June 2011 vi Issue 2. Amendment 2. 15 August 2006 Issue 2. 15 August 2006 Issue 2. 15 August 2006 Issue 2. 15 August 2006 Issue 2. 15 August 2006 Issue 2. 15 August 2006 Issue 2. 15 August 2006 Issue 2. 18 June 2011 Issue 2. 15 August 2006 Issue 2. 18 June 2011 Issue 2. 15 August 2006 Issue 2. 18 June 2011 Issue 2. 18 June 2011 Issue 2. 15 August 2006 Issue 2. 18 June 2011 Issue 2. 15 August 2006 Issue 2. Amendment 2. Amendment 2. Amendment 2. 18 June 2011 Issue 2. 15 August 2006 Issue 2. 15 August 2006 Issue 2.

Amendment 2 1-1 18 June 2011 . ‘Large aircraft’ means an aircraft. including radio. or a multiengined helicopter. The subcategories are: — — — — A1 and B1. for aeroplanes and helicopters of the following categories: — — — — Category A Category B1 Category B2 Category C (d) Categories A and B1 are subdivided into subcategories relative to combinations of aeroplanes.3 Effectivity The SAR-66 was first issued on 4 June 2004. classified as an aeroplane with a maximum take-off mass of more than 5. if appropriate. ‘Credit’ means recognition of alternative means or prior qualifications.1 A2 and B1.SAR-66 SECTION 1 SINGAPORE AIRWORTHINESS REQUIREMENTS SAR 66 SECTION 1 – REQUIREMENTS SAR-66.700 kg. automatic flight control and instrument systems. helicopters.5 Definitions For the purpose of this SAR-66. ‘The Authority’ means the Civil Aviation Authority of Singapore (CAAS) established under Section 4 of the Civil Aviation Authority of Singapore Act.3 A4 and B1. (b) Certifying staff responsible for issuing the certificate of release to service for Singapore aircraft shall be qualified in accordance with the appropriate requirements of : (1) Section 7 of the Singapore Airworthiness Requirements. Amendment 2 is issued and effective on 18 June 2011. Approved training’ means training conducted under special curricula and supervision approved by the Chief Executive. that is conducted within an approved maintenance training organisation. ‘Aircraft avionics’ means a term designating any electronic device – including its electrical part – for use in an aircraft. ‘Aircraft maintenance licence’ or ‘AML’ means a document issued as evidence of qualification confirming that the person to whom it refers has met the SAR-66 knowledge and experience requirements for any aircraft basic category and aircraft type rating. or (2) SAR-66 Aircraft Maintenance Licensing requirements. ‘Certifying staff’ means those personnel who are authorised by the SAR-145 approved maintenance organisation or other approved organisation in accordance with a procedure acceptable to the Authority to certify aircraft or aircraft components for release to service.4 Aeroplanes Turbine Aeroplanes Piston Helicopters Turbine Helicopters Piston SAR-66. the following Issue 2.1 General definitions shall apply: ‘Aircraft’ means any machine that can derive support in the atmosphere from the reactions of the air other than reactions of the air against the earth's surface. ‘Certification’ means the issuance of a certificate of release to service. SAR-66.2 A3 and B1. ‘Approved maintenance organisation’ means an organisation approved in accordance with paragraph 8A of the Air Navigation Order. Amendment 1 is issued and effective on 23 July 2010. specified in the document. (a) SAR-145 permits appropriately authorised certifying staff to issue a certificate of release to service on behalf of the SAR-145 approved maintenance organisation when satisfied that all required maintenance has been completed. (c) Pursuant to paragraph 17A of the Air Navigation Order (ANO). turbine and piston engines. the SAR-66 prescribes the requirements for the issue of a SAR-66 aircraft maintenance licence and conditions of its validity and use. SAR-66 Issue 2 was issued and effective on 15 August 2006.

Note: The aircraft maintenance licence alone does not permit the holder to issue certificates of release to service in respect of aircraft. The privileges apply to the aircraft in its entirety in a SAR-145 organisation. (d) A SAR-66 aircraft maintenance licence is valid for a period of not more than 2 years from the date of issue or renewal unless suspended or revoked by the Authority. SAR-66. (3) Category B2 – an aircraft maintenance licence which permits the holder to issue certificates of release to service following maintenance of avionic and electrical systems. the aircraft maintenance licence holder must in addition hold a SAR-145 certification authorisation with the appropriate privileges issued by the SAR-145 approved maintenance organisation. 18 June 2011 1-2 Issue 2. and (2) in the preceding 2-year period. powerplant. (b) The holder of an aircraft maintenance licence may not exercise certification privileges unless: (1) he or she is in compliance with the applicable requirements of SAR-145. ‘SAR-7 aircraft maintenance engineer licence’ or ‘SAR-7 AMEL’ means an aircraft maintenance engineer licence issued in accordance with the requirements of Section 7 of the Singapore Airworthiness Requirements. as specified in SAR145. To issue a certificate of release to service for such aircraft.SECTION 1 SAR-66 ‘Organisation procedures’ means the procedures applied by the SAR-145 approved maintenance organisation in accordance with the maintenance organisation exposition within the scope of the approval. SAR-66. he or she has had 6 months of maintenance experience relevant to the privileges of his or her aircraft maintenance licence. (4) Category C – an aircraft maintenance licence which permits the holder to issue certificates of release to service following base maintenance on aircraft. (a) An application for a SAR-66 aircraft maintenance licence or amendment to such licence must be made on a form and in a manner prescribed by the Authority. (2) Category B1 – an aircraft maintenance licence which permits the holder to issue certificates of release to service following maintenance of the aircraft structure. mechanical and electrical systems. within the limits of tasks specifically endorsed on the certification authorisation. (e) An applicant for the grant of a SAR-66 aircraft maintenance licence must: (1) be at least 21 years of age.10 Application and Issue following categories : (1) Category A – an aircraft maintenance licence which permits the holder to issue certificates of release to service following minor scheduled line maintenance and completion of simple tasks in line and base maintenance. write and communicate to an understandable level in English in which technical documentation and procedures necessary to support the issue of certificate of release to service are written. and following replacement of avionic line replaceable units requiring simple tests to prove their serviceability. (b) An applicant who meets the appropriate requirements of SAR-66 and has paid all charges prescribed by the Authority may be granted a SAR-66 aircraft maintenance licence. ‘SAR Section 7’ means Section 7 of the Singapore Airworthiness Requirements. Category B1 shall automatically include the appropriate A subcategory. (c) Upon receiving a SAR-66 aircraft maintenance licence. Amendment 2 .20 Privileges (a) Certifying staff qualified in accordance with this SAR-66 and holding a valid aircraft maintenance licence are eligible to hold a SAR-145 certification authorisation in the (c) Certifications shall be made in accordance with the procedures of the approved organisation and within the scope of the certification authorisation. and (3) be able to demonstrate a need to hold the licence. (2) be able to read. the holder shall forthwith sign his name thereon in ink with his ordinary signature. The certification privileges are restricted to work that the authorisation holder has personally performed.

or (iii) 2 years of practical maintenance experience on operating aircraft and completion of a SAR-147 approved basic training course. or (ii) 5 years of experience exercising category B1. and 3 years of experience working in a civil aircraft maintenance environment on a representative selection of tasks directly associated with aircraft maintenance.1 and B1. Aviation Legislation (Module M10) and the essay paper (Module M50) which are valid for 5 years. by examination.2 and B1. in a technical trade.4 privileges on large aircraft or as SAR-145 B1.2 or B1.1. (b) An applicant for a basic knowledge examination who has not successfully completed a SAR-147 approved basic training course shall have at least 2 years of general experience in an aviation maintenance environment. a combination of both.25 Basic knowledge requirements (2) for category B2 and subcategories B1. (3) for category C with respect to large aircraft: (i) 3 years of experience exercising category B1. or (iii) 1 year of practical maintenance experience on operating aircraft and Issue 2.4: (i) 3 years of practical maintenance experience on operating aircraft if the applicant has no previous relevant technical training.3 or B2 privileges on large aircraft or as SAR-145 B1.2 or B1.3 or B2 support staff working on large aircraft. or a combination of both.1. or (a) An applicant for an aircraft maintenance licence or the addition of a category or subcategory to such an aircraft maintenance licence shall demonstrate. B1. (5) for category C obtained through the academic route: an academic degree in a technical discipline. SAR-66. including 6 months of observation of base maintenance tasks. B1. (c) Full or partial credit against the basic knowledge requirements and associated examination may be given for any other technical qualification considered by the Authority to be equivalent to the SAR-66 knowledge standard. (b) An applicant for an addition of a category or subcategory to an aircraft maintenance licence shall have a minimum civil aircraft maintenance experience requirement appropriate to the additional category or subcategory of licence applied for as defined (a) An applicant for an aircraft maintenance licence shall have acquired: (1) for category A and subcategories B1. (4) for category C with respect to aircraft other than large aircraft: 3 years of experience exercising category B1 or B2 privileges on aircraft other than large aircraft or as SAR-145 B1 or B2 support staff working on aircraft other than large aircraft.SAR-66 SECTION 1 completion of a SAR-147 approved basic training course. from a university recognised by the Authority. or. or a combination of both. (e) A person who fails a basic knowledge examination twice within a 3-month period shall be ineligible to reapply for that examination for a period specified by the Authority. a level of knowledge in the appropriate subject modules in accordance with Appendix 1 to this SAR-66. (d) A pass in a basic knowledge examination paper is valid for a period of 10 years except for passes in Human Factors (Module M09).4 support staff working on large aircraft. SAR-66. or (ii) 2 years of practical maintenance experience on operating aircraft and completion of training considered relevant by the Authority as a skilled worker in a technical trade.3: (i) 5 years of practical maintenance experience on operating aircraft if the applicant has no previous relevant technical training.30 Experience requirements (ii) 3 years of practical maintenance experience on operating aircraft and completion of training considered relevant by the Authority as a skilled worker. Amendment 2 1-3 18 June 2011 .

40 Continuity of the maintenance licence aircraft (c) A SAR-66 aircraft maintenance licence will be renewed provided the applicant is not suffering from any disability likely to adversely affect his or her technical skill or judgment. Satisfactory completion of training shall be demonstrated by an examination and/or by workplace assessment carried out by an appropriately approved SAR-145 or SAR-147 organisation. the experience must be practical which means being involved with a representative cross section of maintenance tasks on operating aircraft. Additional recent practical maintenance experience on the maintenance of civil aircraft shall. B2 or C aircraft maintenance licence shall only exercise certification privileges on a specific aircraft type when the aircraft maintenance licence is endorsed with the appropriate aircraft type rating. however. For subsequent category/subcategory addition to an existing aircraft maintenance licence. The required practical maintenance experience must be dependent upon the difference between the licence category/subcategory held and applied for. aircraft maintenance experience gained outside a civil aircraft maintenance environment may be accepted by the Authority when satisfied that such experience is equivalent to that required by SAR-66. (e) Failure to renew the SAR-66 aircraft maintenance licence shall invalidate any certification authorisation issued on the basis of such SAR-66 aircraft maintenance licence and may require recent aircraft maintenance experience and/or the re-sit of some examinations before re-issue of the licence.SECTION 1 SAR-66 in Appendix 4 to this SAR-66. The Authority will decide for each particular case. (d) For category A and subcategories B1. B2 or C aircraft type training accepted by the Authority. (b) The SAR-66 aircraft maintenance licence holder shall apply to the Authority to renew his licence at least 1 month. the holder of a category B1. the entire duration of maintenance experience as required in Appendix 4 to this SAR-66 must be recent. SAR-66. at least 2 years of the required practical maintenance experience must be recent maintenance experience on aircraft of the category/subcategory for which the initial aircraft maintenance licence is sought. All recent practical maintenance experience must be demonstrated in a manner acceptable to the Authority. before the date of expiry of the licence. The training shall include theoretical training and practical hands-on training as appropriate for each task authorised. at least 1 year of the required practical maintenance experience must be recent maintenance experience on aircraft of the category/subcategory for which the initial aircraft maintenance licence is sought. 18 June 2011 1-4 Issue 2. (c) Except as otherwise specified in paragraph (h). (f) Notwithstanding paragraph (a).4. (c) For categories A.2 and B1. a SAR-66 aircraft maintenance licence held by a person who is not a Singapore citizen or permanent resident may not be renewed unless the licence holder is working for a CAAS approved organisation. For category B2 and subcategories B1. be required to ensure understanding of the civil aircraft maintenance environment. SAR-66. (d) Notwithstanding sub-paragraph (c). but not more than 3 months.1 and B1.45 Type/task training and ratings (a) The holder of a category A aircraft maintenance licence may only exercise certification privileges on a specific aircraft type following the satisfactory completion of the relevant category A aircraft task training carried out by an appropriately approved SAR-145 or SAR-147 organisation. (b) Except as otherwise specified in paragraph (g). ratings shall be granted following satisfactory completion of the relevant category B1. (d) Category B1 and B2 approved type training shall include theoretical and practical elements and consist of the appropriate course in relation to the 66.30(a)(5) must be demonstrated in a manner acceptable to the Authority.20(a) privileges. the 6 months of observation of base maintenance tasks as required in SAR-66. B1 and B2. (a) The SAR-66 aircraft maintenance licence holder shall inform the Authority of any change in the particulars which will affect the information contained in the licence. Amendment 2 . Theoretical and practical training shall comply with Appendix 3 to this SAR-66. or conducted by an appropriately approved SAR-147 maintenance training organisation. (e) For category C to be obtained through academic route.3.

composite structure — aeroplane multiple piston engines . unless the Authority has determined that the complexity of the aircraft in question requires a type rating. or the training organisation accepted by the Authority to conduct the approved type training course. The examinations in respect of category B1 or B2 or C aircraft type ratings shall be conducted by training organisations appropriately approved under SAR-147. the holder of a category B1. where paragraph (c) approved type training is required. (g) Notwithstanding paragraph (b).wooden structure Certifying staff must not exercise the privileges of their certification authorisation if they know or suspect that their physical or mental condition Issue 2. B2 or C aircraft type examination and demonstration of practical experience on the aircraft type. (f) Completion of approved aircraft type training. as required by paragraphs (b) to (e). subject to satisfactory completion of the relevant category B1. (2) The examination shall comply with Appendix 3 to this SAR-66. or organisations accepted by the Authority. The examination shall comply with Appendix 3 to this SAR-66.metal structure — aeroplane single piston engine . approved training organisations. the Authority. Amendment 2 1-5 18 June 2011 .30(a)5. (2) Full group ratings may be granted after complying with the type rating requirements of 3 aircraft types representative of the group from different manufacturers.50 Medical fitness for category B1 or C: — helicopter piston engine — helicopter turbine engine — aeroplane single piston engine . (1) Category B1. where only manufacturer group rating applies.SAR-66 SECTION 1 (e) The first type training for a holder of an academic degree seeking a category C licence as specified in 66.single engine — aeroplane turbine . (3) The groups following: (i) shall consist the — aeroplane multiple piston engines .metal structure — aeroplane multiple piston engines . (3) Aircraft type practical experience shall include a representative cross section of maintenance activities relevant to the category. when the aircraft maintenance licence is endorsed with the appropriate group ratings. for a person qualified by holding an academic degree as specified in 66. ratings on aircraft other than large aircraft may also be granted. B2 or C aircraft maintenance licence may also exercise certification privileges. The examination may be conducted by the Authority.wooden structure — aeroplane single piston engine . the first relevant aircraft type examination shall be at the category B1 or B2 level. However. for aircraft other than large aircraft. B2 and C approved type examinations must consist of a mechanical examination for category B1 and an avionics examination for category B2 and both mechanical and avionics examination for category C.30(a)(5) must include both theoretical and practical training at either category B1 or B2 level. or manufacturer group ratings. SAR-66.multiple engine (ii) for category B2 or C: — aeroplane — helicopter (h) Notwithstanding paragraph (c). no full group rating may be granted to B1 multiple turbine engine aeroplanes. In the case of category C ratings on aircraft other than large aircraft. shall be demonstrated by an examination.composite structure — aeroplane turbine . unless the Authority has determined that the aircraft is complex. (1) Manufacturer group ratings may be granted after complying with the type rating requirements of 2 aircraft types representative of the group from the same manufacturer.

60 Equivalent safety cases (b) Where necessary. suspend or limit the SAR-66 aircraft maintenance licence or direct the SAR-145 approved maintenance organisation to revoke. SAR-66. suspension or limitation of the SAR-66 aircraft maintenance licence (a) The Authority may. The Authority may exempt any person.55 Evidence of qualification Certifying staff qualified in accordance with this SAR-66 may be issued with an aircraft maintenance licence by the Authority as evidence of one of the qualifications necessary for the grant of a SAR-145 certification authorisation. SAR-66. SAR-66. a SAR-7 aircraft maintenance engineer licence issued prior to the effective date of this SAR-66 shall be replaced with a SAR-66 aircraft maintenance licence upon renewal without further examination. (b) In the case where the Authority has determined that the safe operation of the aircraft is adversely affected the Authority may provisionally suspend the SAR-66 aircraft maintenance licence without prior notice. SAR-66. Certifying staff must be able to produce their licence if requested by an authorised person within a reasonable time.65 Revocation. revoke. (c) The holder of a SAR-66 aircraft maintenance licence that has been suspended or revoked shall forthwith forward the licence to the Authority. from any requirement in SAR-66 when satisfied that a situation exists not covered by SAR-66 and subject to compliance with any supplementary condition(s) the Authority considers necessary to ensure equivalent safety. the replacement SAR-66 aircraft maintenance licence and the rating(s) therein shall contain technical limitation(s) in relation to the scope of the pre-existing qualification. Amendment 2 . (d) Limitations on SAR-66 aircraft maintenance licence may be removed when the licence holder successfully applies to the Authority for their removal after fulfilling the necessary theoretical and practical requirements. 18 June 2011 1-6 Issue 2. required to be qualified in accordance with SAR-66. (c) Persons taking examinations under the SAR7 requirements prior to the effective date of this SAR-66 may continue to be qualified in accordance with SAR-7 requirements but will be issued a SAR-66 aircraft maintenance licence subject to limitations where applicable upon qualifying.70 Conversion provisions (a) Subject to sub-paragraph (b). suspend or limit the SAR-145 certification authorisation if the Authority is not satisfied that the holder of the licence and authorisation is a fit and proper person to hold such licence and authorisation. on reasonable grounds after due enquiry. or any experience as required by the Authority.SECTION 1 SAR-66 renders them unfit to exercise such privileges.

B1 and B2 are indicated by the allocation of knowledge levels indicators (1. simple drawings and schematics describing the subject. (ii) able to give a simple description of the whole subject.SAR-66 SECTION 1 SINGAPORE AIRWORTHINESS REQUIREMENTS SAR 66 APPENDIX 1 BASIC KNOWLEDGE REQUIREMENTS 1. and apply his or her knowledge in a practical manner using detailed procedures. The applicant should: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) know the theory of the subject and interrelationships with other subjects. as appropriate. The knowledge level indicators are defined as follows: LEVEL 1 Objectives: A familiarisation with the principal elements of the subject. give a general description of the subject using. The applicant should be able to: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) understand the theoretical fundamentals of the subject. typical examples. LEVEL 2 A general knowledge of the theoretical and practical aspects of the subject. 2 or 3) against each applicable subject. using common words and examples. A capacity to combine and apply the separate elements of knowledge in a logical and comprehensive manner. understand and be able to use mathematical formulae related to the subject. Objectives: Issue 2 1-7 15 August 2006 . An ability to apply that knowledge. B1. understand and prepare sketches. read and understand sketches. drawings and schematics describing the subject. The applicant should be: (i) familiar with the basic elements of the subject. and be able to interpret results from various sources and measurements and apply corrective action where appropriate. be able to give a detailed description of the subject using theoretical fundamentals and specific examples. use mathematical formulae in conjunction with physical laws describing the subject. KNOWLEDGE LEVELS — CATEGORY A. Objectives: LEVEL 3 A detailed knowledge of the theoretical and practical aspects of the subject. be able to apply his knowledge in a practical manner using manufacturer's instructions. B2 AND C AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE LICENCE Basic knowledge for categories A. be able to read. Category C applicants must meet either the category B1 or the category B2 basic knowledge levels. and (iii) able to use typical terms.

Structures and Systems Aircraft Aerodynamics. MODULARISATION Qualification on basic subjects for each SAR-66 aircraft maintenance licence category or subcategory should be in accordance with the following matrix. Structures and Systems X X X X X X M04 X X X X X M05 X X X X X M06 X X X X X M07 X X X X X M08 X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X M09 M10 M11A X M11B X M12 X X M13 X 15 August 2006 1-8 Issue 2 . Module Name Cat A or B1 Aeroplanes with: Turbine Engine Piston Engine X X X Cat A or B1 Helicopters with: Turbine Engine X X X Piston Engine X X X Cat B2 Avionics M01 M02 M03 Mathematics Physics Electrical Fundamentals Electronic Fundamentals Digital Techniques / Electronic Instrument Systems Materials and Hardware Maintenance Practices Basic Aerodynamics Human Factors Aviation Legislation Turbine Aeroplane Aerodynamics.SECTION 1 SAR-66 2. Structures and Systems Piston Aeroplane Aerodynamics. Applicable subjects are indicated by an ‘X’: Module No. Structures and Systems Helicopter Aerodynamics.

SAR-66 SECTION 1 Module No. 2 Issue 2 1-9 15 August 2006 . A16 and A17.1 licence with limitation against propeller. A11. A14. Module Name Cat A or B1 Aeroplanes with: Turbine Engine Piston Engine Cat A or B1 Helicopters with: Turbine Engine Piston Engine Cat B2 Avionics M14 M15 Propulsion Gas Turbine Engine Piston Engine Propeller Bridging Paper for Category A X X X X X X X X X X X M16 M171 M602 1 Candidates who do not have examination credit in Module 17 may be considered for the grant of a SAR-66 Category A1 or B1. A12. B12. M60 is a bridging paper for applicants seeking to qualify for SAR-66 category A after having passed the following subjects under SAR-7: B11. B13.

2 1 2 2 - 1 1 2 - 1 2 2 1 2 2 15 August 2006 1-10 Issue 2 . multiplication and division. weights. 1 B1 2 B2 2 1. fractions and decimals. ratio and proportion.1 Arithmetic Arithmetical terms and signs. Indices and powers. factors and multiples. Simultaneous equations and second degree equations with one unknown. squares. (b) Linear equations and their solutions. Binary and other applicable numbering systems. averages and percentages. methods of multiplication and division. (c) Simple trigonometry. areas and volumes. graphs of equations/functions. 1. MATHEMATICS Level A 1. negative and fractional indices. cubes. trigonometrical relationships. square and cube roots.SECTION 1 SAR-66 MODULE 1.3 Geometry (a) Simple geometrical constructions. Logarithms. Algebra (a) Evaluating simple algebraic expressions. (b) Graphical representation. addition. nature and uses of graphs. simple algebraic fractions. use of tables and rectangular and polar co-ordinates. subtraction. measures and conversion factors. use of brackets.

fluid resistance. heat. Elements of theory of stress. Velocity ratio. effects of streamlining. efficiency. Impulse.2 1 2 1 2. Kinetics Linear movement: uniform motion in a straight line. moments and couples. inertia. power. Changes between states. shear and torsion. Friction: nature and effects. dynamic and total pressure: Bernoulli's Theorem. Static. molecules Chemical compounds. Fluid dynamics (a) Specific gravity and density. conservation of momentum. Centre of gravity. energy (potential. Gyroscopic principles. Rotational movement: uniform circular motion (centrifugal/ centripetal forces). Force. liquid and gaseous. representation as vectors. motion under constant acceleration (motion under gravity).2. Pressure and buoyancy in liquids (barometers). mechanical advantage and efficiency.SAR-66 SECTION 1 MODULE 2. kinetic and total energy). structure of atoms. Effects of compressibility on fluids.1 Statics Forces. work. venturi. Simple theory of vibration. coefficient of friction (rolling resistance). Nature and properties of solid.2 2.2. 1 2 1 1 B1 1 B2 1 2. Periodic motion: pendular movement. harmonics and resonance.2. (b) Momentum. Mechanics 2. Dynamics (a) Mass. (b) Viscosity.2. strain and elasticity: tension. Level A 2.4 2 1 2 2 2 1 Issue 2 1-11 15 August 2006 .3 1 2 1 1 2 2 2. PHYSICS Students should become conversant with Metric. States: solid. fluid and gas. Imperial (British) and US units and measurements.1 Matter Nature of matter: the chemical elements. compression.

production of sound. Fahrenheit and Kelvin. Optics (Light) Nature of light. thermal energy. engine cycles. adiabatic expansion and compression. 2 B1 2 B2 2 - 2 2 2. reflection by spherical mirrors. heat of combustion. Gases: ideal gases laws. intensity.SECTION 1 SAR-66 MODULE 2. Isothermal. Doppler effect. sinusoidal wave motion. Heat definition. refrigerators and heat pumps. speed of light. specific heat at constant volume and constant pressure. standing waves. work done by expanding gas. Fibre optics. constant volume and constant pressure. (b) Heat capacity. Wave Motion and Sound Wave motion: mechanical waves. specific heat. refraction. Heat transfer: convection. Volumetric expansion. interference phenomena. Laws of reflection and refraction: reflection at plane surfaces. Sound: speed of sound.5 - 2 2 15 August 2006 1-12 Issue 2 . Latent heats of fusion and evaporation. pitch and quality.4 - 2 2 2.3 Thermodynamics (a) Temperature: thermometers and temperature scales: Celsius. radiation and conduction. First and second law of thermodynamics. lenses. PHYSICS (Continued) Level A 2.

Significance of the internal resistance of a supply. heat. gases and a vacuum. nickel cadmium cells. Calculation of total resistance using series.7 - 2 2 Issue 2 1-13 15 August 2006 . Cells connected in series and parallel. Kirchoff's Voltage and Current Laws.1 Electron Theory Structure and distribution of electrical charges within: atoms. their units and factors affecting them: potential difference. Molecular structure of conductors. Resistance / Resistor (a) Resistance and affecting factors. charge. DC Circuits Ohms Law. lead acid cells. voltage and current. Specific resistance. resistance. parallel and series parallel combinations. Electrostatic laws of attraction and repulsion. conductance.SAR-66 SECTION 1 MODULE 3.5 1 2 2 3. Coulomb's Law. Conduction of electricity in solids. 1 B1 1 B2 1 3. magnetism and motion. Operation of Wheatstone Bridge. liquids. molecules. Resistor colour code. Internal resistance and its effect on a battery. Static Electricity and Conduction Static electricity and distribution of electrostatic charges. values and tolerances. electron flow.2 1 2 2 3. ELECTRICAL FUNDAMENTALS Level A 3.6 - 2 2 3. preferred values. secondary cells. ions.4 1 1 1 3. conventional current flow. Resistors in series and parallel. Units of charge. electromotive force. pressure. other alkaline cells. semiconductors and insulators.3 1 2 2 3. compounds. Operation of photo-cells. Generation of Electricity Production of electricity by the following methods: light. current. Electrical Terminology The following terms. chemical action. voltage. Calculations using the above laws to find resistance. Operation and use of potentiometers and rheostats. materials and operation of thermocouples. DC Sources of Electricity Construction and basic chemical action of: primary cells. wattage ratings. Construction. friction.

voltage rating. work and energy. Precautions for care and storage of magnets. Calculations involving power. Exponential charge and discharge of a capacitor. Properties of a magnet. Magnetism (a) Theory of magnetism. time constants.9 - 2 2 3. hysteresis loop. Magnetic shielding. Capacitance / Capacitor Operation and function of a capacitor. work and energy (kinetic and potential). dielectric and dielectric constant. retentivity. Calculations of capacitance and voltage in series and parallel circuits. voltage dependent resistors. working voltage. distance between plates. Variable resistors. Power formula. (b) Magnetomotive force. methods of construction. Testing of capacitors. number of plates.SECTION 1 SAR-66 MODULE 3. Construction of Wheatstone Bridge. Power Power. 2 2 B1 1 B2 1 3. Electromagnets construction and principles of operation. stability. field strength. permeability.8 3. Hand clasp rules to determine: magnetic field around current carrying conductor. ELECTRICAL FUNDAMENTALS (Continued) Level A 3. construction and function. tolerance and limitations. Action of a magnet suspended in the Earth's magnetic field.10 - 2 2 - 2 2 15 August 2006 1-14 Issue 2 . Capacitor colour coding. Magnetisation and demagnetisation. Dissipation of power by a resistor. eddy currents. Capacitor types. coercive force reluctance. thermistors. saturation point. Construction of potentiometers and rheostats. magnetic flux density. Factors affecting capacitance area of plates.7 (cont) (b) Positive and negative temperature coefficient conductance. Various types of magnetic material. Fixed resistors.

torque. Back emf.11 Inductance / Inductor Faraday's Law. and factors affecting output power. Principal uses of inductors. Starter Generator construction. C and R circuits. average. peak to peak current values and calculations of these values. root mean square. Factors affecting mutual inductance: number of turns in coil. Power dissipation in L. Action of inducing a voltage in a conductor moving in a magnetic field.12 - 2 2 3. phase angle.14 - 2 2 Issue 2 1-15 15 August 2006 . physical size of coil. speed and direction of rotation of C motors. AC Theory Sinusoidal waveform: phase. Lenz's Law and polarity determining rules. Impedance. peak. Instantaneous.13 1 2 2 3. B1 2 B2 2 3. Induction principles. power factor and current calculations. Triangular/Square waves. The effect the rate of change of primary current and mutual inductance has on induced voltage. C and R circuits. series and series parallel. True power. period. cycle. Effects of the following on the magnitude of an induced voltage: magnetic field strength. permeability of coil. shunt wound and compound motors. rate of change of flux. Mutual induction.SAR-66 SECTION 1 MODULE 3. self induction. Operation of. apparent power and reactive power calculations. in relation to voltage. number of conductor turns. frequency. Resistive (R). Capacitive (C) and Inductive (L) Circuits Phase relationship of voltage and current in L. Single / 3 phase principles. position of coils with respect to each other. DC Motor / Generator Theory Basic motor and generator theory. current and power. ELECTRICAL FUNDAMENTALS (Continued) Level A 3. Operation of. Series wound. parallel. and factors affecting output and direction of current flow in DC generators. Construction and purpose of components in DC generator. Saturation point.

Methods of speed control and direction of rotation. AC Generators Rotation of loop in a magnetic field and waveform produced. Power transfer. Single phase. efficiency.15 Transformers Transformer construction principles and operation. polarity markings. AC Motors Construction. band stop. Auto transformers. principles of operation and characteristics of: AC synchronous and induction motors both single and polyphase. voltage. shaded or split pole.18 - 2 2 15 August 2006 1-16 Issue 2 . Calculation of power in a three phase system. band pass. power. efficiency. Calculation of line and phase voltages and currents. Three phase star and delta connections advantages and uses. Filters Operation.17 - 2 2 3.16 - 1 1 3. ELECTRICAL FUNDAMENTALS (Continued) Level A 3. Operation and construction of revolving armature and revolving field type AC generators. inductor. Transformer losses and methods for overcoming them. Primary and Secondary current. Methods of producing a rotating field: capacitor. two phase and three phase alternators. Permanent Magnet Generators. application and uses of the following filters: low pass. turns ratio. high pass. Transformer action under load and no-load conditions. B1 2 B2 2 3.SECTION 1 SAR-66 MODULE 3.

Testing of transistors. flip-flop circuits. varistor. Base. clampers. Multistage circuit principles: cascades. 2 1 2 B1 B2 - 2 2 - - 2 4. photo conductive diode. light emitting diode. decoupling. Transistor characteristics and properties. Functional testing of diodes.1. photo conductive diode. development of a potential across a PN junction in unbiased. push-pull. B. Main characteristics and use of silicon controlled rectifiers (thyristors). frequency. P and N type materials: effects of impurities on conduction. Diode parameters: peak inverse voltage. PN junction in a semiconductor. electron configuration. (b) Materials. Diodes in series and parallel. electrical properties. voltage doublers and triplers. rectifier diodes. Detailed operation and characteristics of the following devices: silicon controlled rectifier (thyristor).3 Integrated Circuits (a) Description and operation of logic circuits and linear circuits/operational amplifiers. majority and minority characters.SAR-66 SECTION 1 MODULE 4. power dissipation. Simple circuits including: bias. Transistors (a) Transistor symbols. (b) Construction and operation of PNP and NPN transistors. Basic appreciation of other transistor types and their uses. oscillators. leakage current. Shottky diode. Diode characteristics and properties. forward biased and reverse biased conditions.2 - 1 - Issue 2 1-17 15 August 2006 . ELECTRONIC FUNDAMENTALS Level A 4.1. temperature. varactor diode. Zener diode. bridge rectifiers. rectifier diodes. full and half wave rectifiers. varistor.1. feedback and stabilisation.1 Semiconductors Diodes (a) Diode symbols. 4. Component description and orientation. Application of transistors: classes of amplifier (A. Operation and function of diodes in the following circuits: clippers. maximum forward current. multivibrators. collector and emitter configurations. C).1 4. light emitting diode.

control and torque.1. Advantages and disadvantages of positive and negative feedback. inductive (transformer). (b) Understanding of the following terms: Open and closed loop.3 - 1 - - - 2 15 August 2006 1-18 Issue 2 . differential. voltage follower. follow up. comparator. Principles of operation and use of the following synchro system components/features: resolvers. E and I transformers.SECTION 1 SAR-66 MODULE 4. follow up.3 (b) Description and operation of logic circuits and linear circuits. Introduction to operation and function of an operational amplifier used as: integrator. Operation and amplifier stages connecting methods: resistive capacitive. synchronous transmitters. inductance and capacitance transmitters. ELECTRONIC FUNDAMENTALS (Continued) Level A 4. differential. feedback. Construction operation and use of the following synchro system components: resolvers. 4. analogue. capacitance transmitters. transformers. Servomechanism defects. 1 2 B1 B2 2 4. reversal of synchro leads. deadband. hunting. Servomechanisms (a) Understanding of the following terms: Open and closed loop systems. direct. transducer. inductance transmitters. inductive resistive (IR). feedback. analogue transducers. null. damping. differentiator. control and torque. servomechanism.2 Printed Circuit Board Description and use of printed circuit boards.

3 - 1 - 2 5.5 - 2 - 2 - - - 2 1 2 - - - - - 2 Issue 2 1-19 15 August 2006 . Operation. Numbering Systems Numbering systems: binary. DIGITAL TECHNIQUES / ELECTRONIC INSTRUMENT SYSTEMS Level A 5. (b) Computer related terminology. limitations of various types. 5. Memory associated terms.2 - 1 - 2 5. octal and hexadecimal systems and vice versa. and various memory devices such as RAM. software. tables and equivalent circuits. octal and hexadecimal.6 Basic Computer Structure (a) Computer terminology (including bit.4 - 2 - 2 5.2 B1.1 Electronic Instrument Systems Typical systems arrangements and cockpit layout of electronic instrument systems. Data Conversion Analogue Data. PROM).3 2 B1. CPU. 1 B1. Computer technology (as applied in aircraft systems). layout and interface of the major components in a micro computer including their associated bus systems. and digital to analogue converters.SAR-66 SECTION 1 MODULE 5. Demonstration of conversions between the decimal and binary.4 2 B2 3 5. Operation of typical memory devices. ROM. Logic Circuits (a) Identification of common logic gate symbols. Applications used for aircraft systems.1 B 1. Digital Data. IC. inputs and outputs. hardware. Data Buses Operation of data buses in aircraft systems. byte. including knowledge of ARINC and other specifications. Information contained in single and multiaddress instruction words. Operation. Operation and application of analogue to digital. advantages and disadvantages of the various data storage systems. schematic diagrams. (b) Interpretation of logic diagrams.

control terminals. Multiplexing Operation. arithmetic logic unit.2 B1. Uses of medium. Terminations. large and very large scale integration. Integrated Circuits Operation and use of encoders and decoders. Electromagnetic Environment Influence of the following phenomena on maintenance practices for electronic system: EMC – Electromagnetic Compatibility EMI – Electromagnetic Interference HIRF – High Intensity Radiated Field Lightning / lightning protection B1. DIGITAL TECHNIQUES / ELECTRONIC INSTRUMENT SYSTEMS (Continued) Level A 5.12 1 2 2 2 5.SECTION 1 SAR-66 MODULE 5.11 - 2 - 2 5. Fibre optic data bus. Fibre optic related terms.4 B2 2 5. register.13 - 2 1 2 5. Basic operation of each of the following microprocessor elements: control and processing unit.8 - - - 2 5. Fibre Optics Advantages and disadvantages of fibre optic data transmission over electrical wire propagation.14 - 2 2 2 15 August 2006 1-20 Issue 2 . Electronic Displays Principles of operation of common types of displays used in modern aircraft. Function of encoder types. application and identification in logic diagrams of multiplexers and demultiplexers. component and personnel anti-static protection devices.1 B 1.7 Microprocessors Functions performed and overall operation of a microprocessor. Awareness of risks and possible damage.10 - 1 1 2 5. clock. airworthiness requirements and possible catastrophic effects of unapproved changes to software programmes. Light Emitting Diodes and Liquid Crystal Display. Couplers.9 - - - 2 5. Electrostatic Sensitive Devices Special handling of components sensitive to electrostatic discharges. including Cathode Ray Tubes.3 B1. remote terminals. Application of fibre optics in aircraft systems. Software Management Control Awareness of restrictions.

B1.2 B1. DIGITAL TECHNIQUES / ELECTRONIC INSTRUMENT SYSTEMS (Continued) Level A 5.SAR-66 SECTION 1 MODULE 5.3 2 B1.1 B 1.15 Typical Electronic / Digital Aircraft Systems General arrangement of typical electronic/digital aircraft systems and associated BITE (Built In Test Equipment) testing such as: ACARS – ARINC Communication and Addressing and Reporting System ECAM – Electronic Centralised Aircraft Monitoring EFIS – Electronic Flight Instrument System EICAS – Engine Indication and Crew Alerting System FBW – Fly by Wire FMS – Flight Management System GPS – Global Positioning System IRS – Inertial Reference System TCAS – Traffic Alert Collision Avoidance System Note: Different manufacturers may use different terminology for similar systems.4 2 B2 2 - Issue 2 1-21 15 August 2006 .

(b) Testing of ferrous materials for hardness.3. properties and identification of common non-ferrous materials used in aircraft.2 Wooden structures Reserved Fabric covering Reserved Corrosion (a) Chemical fundamentals. Heat treatment and application of non-ferrous materials. susceptibility to corrosion.SECTION 1 SAR-66 MODULE 6. Sealant and bonding agents. fatigue strength and impact resistance. (b) Types of corrosion and their identification. properties and identification of common composite and non-metallic materials. 6. microbiological. Material types. (b) Testing of non-ferrous material for hardness. galvanic action process.2 Aircraft Materials – Non-Ferrous (a) Characteristics. used in aircraft. fatigue strength and impact resistance. 6. MATERIALS AND HARDWARE Level A 6.3. other than wood.4 - - - 1 1 1 2 3 2 15 August 2006 1-22 Issue 2 .3 6. tensile strength. 1 B1 2 B2 1 - 1 1 1 2 1 - 1 1 1 2 2 1 2 - 6. 6.1 Aircraft Materials – Ferrous (a) Characteristics.1 Aircraft Materials – Composite and Non-Metallic Composite and non-metallic other than wood and fabric (a) Characteristics. properties and identification of common alloy steels used in aircraft. stress.3. Causes of corrosion. Heat treatment and application of alloys steels. (b) The detection of defects/deterioration in composite and non-metallic material.3 6. Formation by. Repair of composite and non-metallic material. tensile strength.

material. fuel.5. idler gears. Nuts: self locking. Locking Devices Tab and spring washers. circlips. Self tapping screws. characteristics and applications. international standards. Thread forms.4 1 2 1 6.6 2 2 2 2 2 1 6.8 1 2 2 6. pneumatic and air system pipes. Measuring screw threads.5.7 - 2 1 6.SAR-66 SECTION 1 MODULE 6. wire locking. insertion and removal. Transmissions Gear types and their application. split pins. driven and driving gears. Belts and pulleys.1 Fasteners Screw Threads Screw nomenclature. Aircraft Rivets Types of solid and blind rivets: specifications and identification. (b) Standard unions for aircraft hydraulic. reduction and multiplication gear systems.9 1 2 2 Issue 2 1-23 15 August 2006 .5. keys. loads. chains and sprockets. Studs: types and uses. dowels. MATERIALS AND HARDWARE (Continued) Level A 6. Bolts. identification and marking of aircraft bolts. studs and screws Bolt types: specification. standard types. mesh patterns. Springs Types of springs. Pipes and Unions (a) Identification of. construction.2 2 2 2 6. Bearings Purpose of bearings. Gear ratios. materials. Types of bearings and their application. 2 2 2 B1 B2 6. Machine screws: aircraft specifications. locking plates.5 6.5. oil.3 2 2 2 6. pal-nuts. dimensions and tolerances for standard threads used in aircraft. cotter pins. quick release fasteners. heat treatment. anchor. and types of rigid and flexible pipes and their connectors used in aircraft.

Bowden cables.10 Control Cables Types of cables. High tension and co-axial cables. sockets.11 1 2 2 15 August 2006 1-24 Issue 2 . insulators. MATERIALS AND HARDWARE (Continued) Level A 6. coupling. identification codes. End fittings. Pulleys and cable system components.SECTION 1 SAR-66 MODULE 6. turnbuckles and compensation devices. Aircraft flexible control systems. pins. 1 B1 2 B2 1 6. plugs. construction and characteristics. Electrical Cables and Connectors Cable types. Crimping. Connector types. current and voltage rating.

Operation. Common system of fits and clearances. Calibration of tools and equipment. standards of workmanship. control of tools. Use of crimp tools: hand and hydraulic operated. protective sleeving techniques including heat shrink wrapping. shielding.7 1 2 2 Issue 2 1-25 15 August 2006 . AN. dimensions. Tools Common hand tool types. Microfilm.3 3 3 3 7. Also. Operation and use of precision measuring tools. Electrical Cables and Connectors Continuity. MS. tolerances and projections. Testing of crimp joints. Co-axial cables: testing and installation precautions.4 - 2 3 7. instruction in the remedial action to be taken in the event of a fire or another accident with one or more of these hazards. function and use of avionic general test equipment. oils and chemicals. twist and wear. Fits and Clearances Drill sizes for bolt holes.1 Safety Precautions – Aircraft and Workshop Aspects of safe working practices including precautions to take when working with electricity. Common power tool types. Wiring diagrams and schematic diagrams. microfiche and computerised presentations. Specification 100 of the Air Transport Association (ATA) of America. Avionic General Test Equipment Operation.SAR-66 SECTION 1 MODULE 7. their symbols. insulation and bonding techniques and testing. Connector pin removal and insertion. Engineering Drawings. Identifying title block information. Lubrication equipment and methods. Schedule of fits and clearances for aircraft and engines. cable clamps. classes of fits.6 1 2 1 7.2 3 3 3 7. NAS and MIL. Workshop Practices Care of tools. Aeronautical and other applicable standards including ISO. calibration standards. 3 B1 3 B2 3 7. MAINTENANCE PRACTICES Level A 7. use of workshop materials. Limits for bow. Diagrams and Standards Drawing types and diagrams. Standard methods for checking shafts. allowances and tolerances. gases especially oxygen. Dimensions. bearings and other parts. Wiring protection techniques : Cable looming and loom support.5 1 2 2 7. function and use of electrical general test equipment.

Inspection of riveted joints. aircraft flexible control systems. push-pull rod systems. cleaning and inspection of bearings. Tools used for riveting and dimpling.11 1 2 - 7. Inspection methods. Inspection of screw jacks. Bowden cables.1 7. Soldering and Bonding (a) Soldering methods. Lubrication requirements of bearings.10 1 2 - 7. Springs Inspection and testing of springs. Material Handling Sheet Metal Work Marking out and calculation of bend allowance. Inspection of belts and pulleys.13 1 2 - 7. Brazing. chains and sprockets.9 1 2 - 7. MAINTENANCE PRACTICES (Continued) Level A 7. backlash. Composite and non-metallic Bonding practices. Control Cables Swaging of end fittings.SECTION 1 SAR-66 MODULE 7.14 7. Inspection of sheet metal work. lever devices. Transmissions Inspection of gears.2 - 2 - 7. rivet spacing and pitch. Pipes and Hoses Bending and belling/flaring aircraft pipes. Bearings Testing.14. Environmental conditions.14. Inspection and testing of control cables.8 Riveting Riveted joints. Defects in bearings and their causes.12 1 2 - 7. including bending and forming. inspection of soldered joints. Inspection and testing of aircraft pipes and hoses.15 - 2 2 15 August 2006 1-26 Issue 2 . Installation and clamping of pipes. 2 1 B1 2 B2 - 7. Sheet metal working. Welding.

penetrant. Repair and Assembly Techniques (a) Types of defects and visual inspection techniques. (b) Inspections following abnormal events such as heavy landings and flight through turbulence. MAINTENANCE PRACTICES (Continued) Level A 7. radiographic. B1 2 B2 - - 2 2 - 2 - 7.16 Aircraft Weight and Balance (a) Centre of Gravity / Balance limits calculation: use of relevant documents. Aircraft Handling and Storage Aircraft towing and associated safety precautions. Modification procedures.20 1 2 2 Issue 2 1-27 15 August 2006 . Disassembly. Aircraft weighing. Maintenance Inspection/Quality Control/Quality Assurance.18 2 2 - 3 2 2 2 2 2 1 2 2 7. ultrasonic and boroscope methods. Effects of environmental conditions on aircraft handling and operation. Ageing. Abnormal Events (a) Inspections following lightning strikes and HIRF penetration. De-icing/anti-icing procedures. (e) Troubleshooting techniques. Aircraft jacking. fatigue and corrosion control programmes. Maintenance Procedures Maintenance planning. Bonding methods and inspection of bonded joints. assessment and reprotection.15 (b) Welding and brazing methods. Certification/release procedures. Aircraft storage methods. Stores procedures. Control of life limited components. Interface with aircraft operation. Inspection of welded and brazed joints. Structural Repair Manual. chocking. Corrosion removal. 7. (b) Preparation of aircraft for weighing.17 2 2 2 7.19 2 2 2 2 2 - 7. hydraulic and pneumatic ground supplies.SAR-66 SECTION 1 MODULE 7. eddy current. (d) Disassembly and re-assembly techniques. Electrical. Additional maintenance procedures. (c) Non destructive inspection techniques including. (b) General repair methods. Inspection. Refuelling / defuelling procedures. securing and associated safety precautions.

vortices. Flight Stability and Dynamics Longitudinal. Thrust. application to aerodynamics. wing shape and aspect ratio. free stream flow. upwash and downwash. Lift coefficient. Theory of Flight Relationship between lift.SECTION 1 SAR-66 MODULE 8. lateral and directional stability (active and passive). BASIC AERODYNAMICS Level A 8. Glide ratio. Lift augmentation. Boundary layer. Steady state flights. relative airflow. stall. weight. centre of pressure. thrust and drag. wash in and wash out. induced drag. polar curve. Drag coefficient. laminar and turbulent flow.1 Physics of the Atmosphere International Standard Atmosphere (ISA). Aerodynamics Airflow around a body. fineness ratio. flight envelope and structural limitations. Aerofoil contamination including ice. The terms: camber. Influence of load factor: stall. angle of attack. Weight. stagnation. frost. chord.3 1 2 2 8. profile (parasite) drag. performance. mean aerodynamic chord. Generation of Lift and Drag: Angle of Attack. snow.2 1 2 2 8. Aerodynamic Resultant. 1 B1 2 B2 2 8.4 1 2 2 15 August 2006 1-28 Issue 2 . Theory of the turn.

Workload: overload and underload. Memory. shiftwork. Time pressure and deadlines.5 1 1 1 9. Repetitive tasks. ‘Culture’ issues. Illumination. supervision and leadership.SAR-66 SECTION 1 MODULE 9. Social Psychology Responsibility: individual and group. Incidents attributable to human factors / human error. Tasks Physical work. HUMAN FACTORS Level A 9. Attention and perception. Climate and temperature.3 1 1 1 9. Sleep and fatigue. Alcohol.6 1 1 1 Issue 2 1-29 15 August 2006 . ‘Murphy’s’ law.4 2 2 2 9. Team working.1 General The need to take human factors into account. 1 B1 2 B2 2 9. Claustrophobia and physical access. Management. Factors Affecting Performance Fitness / health. Working environment. Stress: domestic and work related.2 1 2 2 9. Information processing. Human Performance and Limitations Vision. Complex systems. Hearing. Physical Environment Noise and fumes. Motivation and de-motivation. Peer pressure. Motion and vibration. Visual inspection. medication. drug abuse.

Types of error in maintenance tasks. Dealing with emergencies. 2 B1 2 B2 2 9. Dissemination of information.e accidents). Keeping up to date.7 Communication Within and between teams. Implications of errors (i. Work logging and recording. Avoiding and managing errors.8 1 2 2 9. currency.9 1 2 2 15 August 2006 1-30 Issue 2 . Hazards in the Workplace Recognising and avoiding hazards.SECTION 1 SAR-66 MODULE 9. HUMAN FACTORS (Continued) Level A 9. Human Error Error models and theories.

SAR-66 SECTION 1 MODULE 10.7 1 2 1 2 1 2 Issue 2 1-31 15 August 2006 .5 2 2 2 10.3 1 1 1 10.1 Regulatory Framework Role of International Civil Aviation Organisation Role and responsibilities contracting states Air Navigation Order Singapore Airworthiness Requirements Air Operator Certificate Requirements Airworthiness Notices Advisory Circulars Notices of Amendment and Information Circulars SAR-21 Certification of Products and Design and Production Organisations Familiarisation and understanding of SAR-21 SAR-39 Airworthiness Directive Familiarisation and understanding of SAR-39 SAR-66 Certifying Staff – Maintenance Detailed understanding of SAR-66 SAR-145 Approved Maintenance Organisation Detailed understanding of SAR-145 SAR-147 Approval of Maintenance Training Organisation Familiarisation and understanding of SAR-147 Air Operator Certificate Requirements (a) General understanding of the AOCR (b) Aircraft Maintenance Maintenance Responsibility Maintenance Management Aircraft Maintenance Programme (including CMR) Aircraft Technical Log Maintenance Records and Log Books Accident / Occurrence Reporting 1 B1 1 B2 1 10.4 2 2 2 10.6 1 1 1 10. AVIATION LEGISLATION Level A 10.2 1 1 1 10.

SECTION 1 SAR-66 MODULE 10. AVIATION LEGISLATION (Continued) Level A 10.8 Others Airworthiness Notices Airworthiness Circulars Minimum Equipment List / Master Minimum Equipment List Dispatch Deviation List Airworthiness Notices Services Bulletins / Manufacturer Service Information Modifications and Repairs Continuing Airworthiness Test Flights ETOPS – Maintenance and dispatch requirements Any new aircraft maintenance related requirements published by CAAS 2 B1 2 B2 2 15 August 2006 1-32 Issue 2 .

ties. stall wedges or leading edge devices. anodising. compressibility buffet.1 Theory of Flight Aeroplane Aerodynamics and Flight Controls Operation and effect of: – roll control: ailerons and spoilers.1 B2 11. Structure assembly techniques: riveting.2 1 2 - 11. critical Mach number. longerons. doublers. Airframe Structures – General Concepts (a) Airworthiness requirements for structural strength. area rule. shear. spoilers. rudder limiters. (b) Construction methods of: stressed skin fuselage. Effects of wing fences. hoop stress. ruddervators. damage tolerance concepts. – pitch control: elevators. Surface cleaning. reinforcement. Drag inducing devices.1. frames. shock wave. methods of skinning. System installation provisions. compression. flaperons. High lift devices. TURBINE AEROPLANE AERODYNAMICS. bolting. control surface bias.1 11. Effects of sweepback on critical Mach number. beams. wing. speed brakes. Lightning strike protection provision. mass balance. Airframe symmetry: methods of alignment and symmetry checks. vortex generators. Zonal and station identification systems. High Speed Flight Speed of sound. flaps. Drains and ventilation provisions. transonic flight. strain. bulkheads. empennage and engine attachments. tension. aerodynamic balance panels. torsion. – yaw control. Mach number. Structural classification. slats. painting. bending. Methods of surface protection. subsonic flight.SAR-66 SECTION 1 MODULE 11A. primary. spring tabs. Boundary layer control using. balance and antibalance (leading) tabs. struts. Control using elevons. stabilators. floor structures. Factors affecting airflow in engine intakes of high speed aircraft. formers. fatigue.1. saw tooth leading edges. such as chromating. 1 2 B1. STRUCTURES AND SYSTEMS Level A1 11. variable incidence stabilisers and canards. anti-corrosive protection. aerodynamic heating. safe life. secondary and tertiary. bonding. supersonic flight. slots. Aircraft bonding. lift dumpers. Fail safe. stringers. servo tabs. Stress.2 2 2 - 1 2 - Issue 2 1-33 15 August 2006 . Operation and effect of trim tabs.

Air cycle and vapour cycle machines.3 11. stabiliser.2 1 3 - 11.SECTION 1 SAR-66 MODULE 11A. Pressurisation Pressurisation systems.3. Seat installation and cargo loading system.5 1 2 - 11. Control surface attachment.4.4 1 2 - 11.4. Control and indication including control and safety valves. Air Conditioning Air conditioning systems.3 1 3 - 11.3 1 2 - 11. Firewalls. Landing gear. pylon and undercarriage attachments. STRUCTURES AND SYSTEMS (Continued) Level A1 11.2 1 2 - 11. control surface and high lift/drag attachments.4.4 11. Windows and windscreen construction and mechanisms.1 Airframe Structures – Aeroplanes Fuselage (ATA 52 / 53 / 56) Construction and pressurisation sealing. Air Conditioning and Cabin Pressurisation (ATA 21) Air Supply Sources of air supply including engine bleed. Flight Control Surfaces (ATA 55 / 57) Construction and attachment. Cabin pressure controllers. 1 2 1 2 B1. Fuel storage. pylon.1 11. Nacelles / Pylons (ATA 54) Construction.3. Balancing – mass and aerodynamic.3.3.4 1 3 - 15 August 2006 1-34 Issue 2 . Wings (ATA 57) Construction. operation and safety devices. mechanisms. TURBINE AEROPLANE AERODYNAMICS. Doors and emergency exits: construction. Safety and Warning Devices Protection and warning devices. temperature and humidity control system. Flow. Distribution systems. APU and ground cart.4. Engine mounts.1 B2 11. Wing. Stabilisers (ATA 55) Construction.3.

AC power generation. 1 2 B1.5. Equipment and Furnishings (ATA 25) (a) Emergency equipment requirements. Power distribution. attitude director. rectifiers. vertical speed indicator. Avionic Systems Fundamentals of system lay-outs and operation of: – Auto Flight (ATA 22).5 11. Gyroscopic: artificial horizon. Fire Protection (ATA 26) (a) Fire and smoke detection and warning systems. stall warning systems. – Communications (ATA 23). Equipment lay-out. remote reading. External/Ground power. Inverters. Airstairs. Galley installation. Electrical Power (ATA 24) Batteries Installation and Operation.SAR-66 SECTION 1 MODULE 11A. turn and slip indicator. Cabin entertainment equipment. TURBINE AEROPLANE AERODYNAMICS. Compasses: direct reading.2 1 1 - 11. – Navigation Systems (ATA 34). harnesses and belts.5. Circuit protection. direction indicator. Seats. Other aircraft system indication. STRUCTURES AND SYSTEMS (Continued) Level A1 11. air speed indicator. DC power generation. Fire extinguishing systems.7 2 2 - 1 1 - 11. Angle of attack indication. (b) Cabin lay-out.1 Instrument / Avionic Systems Instrument Systems (ATA 31) Pitot static: altimeter.6 1 3 - 11. transformers. Emergency power generation. Cabin Furnishing Installation. turn coordinator. Cargo handling and retention equipment. System tests.1 B2 11.8 1 3 - Issue 2 1-35 15 August 2006 . Voltage regulation. horizontal situation indicator.

hot air and chemical. Artificial feel. TURBINE AEROPLANE AERODYNAMICS. Indications and warnings. pneumatic and chemical. Interface with other systems.8 (b) Portable fire extinguisher.12 1 3 - 15 August 2006 1-36 Issue 2 .10 1 3 - 11. Power distribution. classification and detection. gust locks. Fuel tanks. pneumatic. speed brakes. Fuel Systems (ATA 28) System lay-out. Longitudinal balance fuel systems.1 1 B2 - 11. Cross-feed and transfer. Anti-icing systems: electrical. High lift devices. venting and draining. rudder limiter. Supply systems. Refuelling and defuelling. Hydraulic reservoirs and accumulators. spoiler.SECTION 1 SAR-66 MODULE 11A.9 Flight Controls (ATA 27) Primary controls: aileron. electrical. Hydraulic fluids. hydraulic. Wiper systems. Balancing and rigging. Probe and drain heating. STRUCTURES AND SYSTEMS (Continued) Level A1 11. Indication and warning systems. Dumping. fly-bywire.11 1 3 - 11. De-icing systems: electrical. Stall protection system. elevator. rudder. pneumatic. Hydraulic Power (ATA 29) System lay-out. Emergency pressure generation. Rain repellant and removal. Mach trim. 1 3 1 B1. Pressure generation: electric. Lift dump. Trim control. Yaw damper. 11. Pressure Control. Active load control. mechanical. Ice and Rain Protection (ATA 30) Ice formation. System operation: manual.

Structure monitoring (damage tolerance monitoring).15 1 3 - 11.16 1 3 - 11. landing. servicing and draining. 2 B1. Oxygen (ATA 35) System lay-out: cockpit. compressors. STRUCTURES AND SYSTEMS (Continued) Level A1 11.18 1 2 - Issue 2 1-37 15 August 2006 . Extension and retraction systems: normal and emergency. reservoirs. Internal: cabin. flushing and servicing.SAR-66 SECTION 1 MODULE 11A. Sources: engine / APU. Tyres. Indications and warning.14 2 3 - 11. Pressure control. ground supply. anti-collision. On Board Maintenance Systems (ATA 45) Central maintenance computers. Steering. cargo.13 Landing Gear (ATA 32) Construction. Electronic library system. Printing. Indications and warnings. Water/Waste (ATA 38) Water system lay-out. Emergency. cabin. Indications and warnings. distribution. cockpit.17 2 3 - 11. Toilet system lay-out. Distribution. Lights (ATA 33) External: navigation. storage. taxiing. antiskid and autobraking. Supply regulation. Pneumatic/Vacuum (ATA 36) System lay-out. Interfaces with other systems. supply. Wheels. charging and distribution. TURBINE AEROPLANE AERODYNAMICS. Data loading system. Sources.1 3 B2 - 11. ice. shock absorbing. brakes. Corrosion aspects.

SECTION 1

SAR-66

MODULE 11B. PISTON AEROPLANE AERODYNAMICS, STRUCTURES AND SYSTEMS
Note: The scope of this module should reflect the technology of aeroplanes pertinent to the A2 and B1.2 subcategory

Level A2 11.1 11.1.1 Theory of Flight Aeroplane Aerodynamics and Flight Controls Operation and effect of: – roll control: ailerons and spoilers; – pitch control: elevators, stabilators, variable incidence stabilisers and canards; – yaw control, rudder limiters; Control using elevons, ruddervators; High lift devices, slots, slats, flaps, flaperons; Drag inducing devices, spoilers, lift dumpers, speed brakes; Effects of wing fences, saw tooth leading edges; Boundary layer control using, vortex generators, stall wedges or leading edge devices; Operation and effect of trim tabs, balance and antibalance (leading) tabs, servo tabs, spring tabs, mass balance, control surface bias, aerodynamic balance panels; High Speed Flight – N/A Airframe Structures – General Concepts (a) Airworthiness requirements for structural strength; Structural classification, primary, secondary and tertiary; Fail safe, safe life, damage tolerance concepts; Zonal and station identification systems; Stress, strain, bending, compression, shear, torsion, tension, hoop stress, fatigue; Drains and ventilation provisions; System installation provisions; Lightning strike protection provision; Aircraft bonding. (b) Construction methods of: stressed skin fuselage, formers, stringers, longerons, bulkheads, frames, doublers, struts, ties, beams, floor structures, reinforcement, methods of skinning, anti-corrosive protection, wing, empennage and engine attachments; Structure assembly techniques: riveting, bolting, bonding; Methods of surface protection, such as chromating, anodising, painting; Surface cleaning; Airframe symmetry: methods of alignment and symmetry checks. 1 2 B1.2 B2

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SAR-66

SECTION 1

MODULE 11B. PISTON AEROPLANE AERODYNAMICS, STRUCTURES AND SYSTEMS (Continued) Level A2 11.3 11.3.1 Airframe Structures – Aeroplanes Fuselage (ATA 52 / 53 / 56) Construction and pressurisation sealing; Wing, stabiliser, pylon and undercarriage attachments; Seat installation; Doors and emergency exits: construction, mechanisms, operation and safety devices; Windows and windscreen construction and mechanisms. Wings (ATA 57) Construction; Fuel storage; Landing gear, pylon, control surface and high lift/drag attachments. Stabilisers (ATA 55) Construction; Control surface attachment. Flight Control Surfaces (ATA 55 / 57) Construction and attachment; Balancing – mass and aerodynamic. Nacelles / Pylons (ATA 54) Construction; Firewalls; Engine mounts. Air Conditioning and Cabin Pressurisation (ATA 21) Pressurisation and air conditioning systems; Cabin pressure controllers, protection and warning devices. Instrument / Avionic Systems Instrument Systems (ATA 31) Pitot static: altimeter, air speed indicator, vertical speed indicator; Gyroscopic: artificial horizon, attitude director, direction indicator, horizontal situation indicator, turn and slip indicator, turn coordinator; Compasses: direct reading, remote reading; Angle of attack indication, stall warning systems; Other aircraft system indication. Avionic Systems Fundamentals of system lay-outs and operation of: Auto Flight (ATA 22); Communications (ATA 23); Navigation Systems (ATA 34). 1 B1.2 2 B2 -

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SECTION 1

SAR-66

MODULE 11B. PISTON AEROPLANE AERODYNAMICS, STRUCTURES AND SYSTEMS (Continued) Level A2 11.6 Electrical Power (ATA 24) Batteries Installation and Operation; DC power generation; Voltage regulation; Power distribution; Circuit protection; Inverters, transformers; Equipment and Furnishings (ATA 25) (a) Emergency equipment requirements; Seats, harnesses and belts. (b) Cabin lay-out; Equipment lay-out; Cabin Furnishing Installation; Cabin entertainment equipment; Galley installation; Cargo handling and retention equipment; Airstairs. Fire Protection (ATA 26) (a) Fire and smoke detection and warning systems; Fire extinguishing systems; System tests. (b) Portable fire extinguisher Flight Controls (ATA 27) Primary controls: aileron, elevator, rudder, . Trim tabs; High lift devices; System operation: manual, Gust locks; Balancing and rigging; Stall warning system. Fuel Systems (ATA 28) System lay-out; Fuel tanks; Supply systems; Cross-feed and transfer; Indications and warnings; Refuelling and defuelling. 1 B1.2 3 B2 -

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Issue 2

Ice and Rain Protection (ATA 30) Ice formation. 1 B1. Internal: cabin.17 2 3 - Issue 2 1-41 15 August 2006 . De-icing systems: electrical. Power distribution. shock absorbing. Indications and warning. Oxygen (ATA 35) System lay-out: cockpit. distribution. antiskid and autobraking. servicing and draining. Wheels. Pressure generation: electric. Hydraulic reservoirs and accumulators.12 1 3 - 11. hot air. cabin. flushing and servicing.2 3 B2 - 11.11 Hydraulic Power (ATA 29) System lay-out. Probe and drain heating. Pressure Control. Steering. reservoirs. Pressure control. Toilet system lay-out. Emergency. pneumatic and chemical.14 2 2 - 11. Indication and warning systems. Indications and warnings. Water/Waste (ATA 38) Water system lay-out. Supply regulation. classification and detection. Tyres. Extension and retraction systems: normal and emergency. Lights (ATA 33) External: navigation. Interfaces with other systems. Hydraulic fluids. supply. Distribution. ice. landing. cargo. ground supply. STRUCTURES AND SYSTEMS (Continued) Level A2 11. Indications and warnings. Pneumatic/Vacuum (ATA 36) System lay-out. Sources. Landing Gear (ATA 32) Construction. anti-collision.SAR-66 SECTION 1 MODULE 11B. Corrosion aspects. mechanical. PISTON AEROPLANE AERODYNAMICS. compressors.15 1 3 - 11. cockpit. charging and distribution.16 1 3 - 11. storage.13 2 3 - 11. Wiper systems. brakes. taxiing. Sources: engine / APU.

primary. Tail rotor. Fail safe. Static and dynamic balancing. Ground effect. hoop stress. Auto-rotation.2 2 3 - 12. shear. Torque reaction and directional control. Effects of gyroscopic precession. HELICOPTER AERODYNAMICS. Transmissions Gear boxes.5 2 2 - 15 August 2006 1-42 Issue 2 . hydraulic. Trim control.1 Theory of Flight – Rotary Wing Aerodynamics Terminology. strain. STRUCTURES AND SYSTEMS Level A3 A4 12. Main Rotor Head: Design and Operation features. fixed and adjustable stabilisers.SECTION 1 SAR-66 MODULE 12. Main and tail rotor tracking. System operation: manual. Blade Dampers: Function and construction. damage tolerance concepts. safe life. overpitching. electrical and fly-by-wire. Collective control. Clutches. Flight Control Systems Cyclic control. main and tail rotors. Airframe Structures (a) Airworthiness requirements for structural strength. Ground resonance. Translating tendency and its correction. Stress. free wheel units and rotor brake. Swashplate. Blade tip stall. 1 B1. tension. bleed air. Yaw control: Anti-Torque Control. Structural classification. secondary and tertiary. Balancing and Rigging. Vortex ring state. Vibration types. Blade Tracking and Vibration Analysis Rotor alignment.3 1 3 - 12.4 2 B2 - 12. Artificial feel.Lightning strike protection provision.3 B1. fatigue.4 1 3 - 12. torsion. Drains and ventilation provisions. compression. System installation provisions. power settling. Dissymmetry of lift. vibration reduction methods. Zonal and station identification systems. bending. Rotor Blades: Main and tail rotor blade construction and attachment. Coriolis effect and compensation.

Other aircraft system indication. Auto Flight (ATA 22). bonding. ties. vertical speed indicator. painting.2 1 1 - Issue 2 1-43 15 August 2006 . STRUCTURES AND SYSTEMS (Continued) Level A3 A4 12. such as chromating.6 12. Compasses: direct reading. air speed indicator. 1 2 1 2 1 B1.1 12. longerons. direction indicator. bulkheads. turn and slip indicator. formers.6. Fuel storage. horizontal situation indicator. stringers. Engine mounts. Surface cleaning. Air Conditioning Air conditioning systems. Structure assembly techniques: riveting. Doors: construction. Avionic Systems Fundamentals of system layouts and operation of. Gyroscopic: artificial horizon. Communications (ATA 23). stabiliser and undercarriage attachments. Pylon. Distribution systems. frames.4 2 B2 - 12.7. Windows and windscreen construction.1 Air Conditioning (ATA 21) Air supply Sources of air supply including engine bleed and ground cart. struts.7 12. beams.7. Navigation Systems (ATA 34). HELICOPTER AERODYNAMICS. Methods of surface protection. Instruments/Avionic Systems Instrument Systems (ATA 31) Pitot static: altimeter.6.SAR-66 SECTION 1 MODULE 12. turn coordinator. anodising. Seat installation. Flow and temperature control systems.3 B1. Firewalls. 12. attitude director. Protection and warning devices. operation and safety devices. reinforcement. bolting. doublers. floor structures. Airframe symmetry: methods of alignment and symmetry checks.2 1 3 - 12.5 (b) Construction methods of: stressed skin fuselage. Vibration indicating systems – HUMS. mechanisms. methods of skinning and anti-corrosive protection. remote reading.

Circuit protection. Fire Protection (ATA 26) Fire and smoke detection and warning systems. External/Ground power. Equipment and Furnishings (ATA 25) (a) Emergency equipment requirements. Lifting systems. Refuelling and defuelling.12 1 3 - 15 August 2006 1-44 Issue 2 . Indication and warning systems.SECTION 1 SAR-66 MODULE 12. Hydraulic fluids. Fuel Systems (ATA 28) System lay-out. Equipment lay-out. HELICOPTER AERODYNAMICS. Power distribution. transformers. Cross-feed and transfer. Power distribution.3 B1. cargo retention. rectifiers. 1 B1. Emergency pressure generation. DC power generation. Indications and warnings. Seats. (b) Emergency flotation systems. Hydraulic Power (ATA 29) System lay-out.8 Electrical Power (ATA 24) Batteries Installation and Operation.10 1 3 - 12. Dumping. Voltage regulation. mechanical. STRUCTURES AND SYSTEMS (Continued) Level A3 A4 12. System tests. venting and draining. Fuel tanks. AC power generation. Fire extinguishing systems. pneumatic. Emergency power generation. Pressure generation: electric. Cabin Furnishing Installation. harnesses and belts.4 3 B2 - 12. Cabin lay-out. Pressure Control.11 1 3 - 12. Supply systems.9 2 2 - 1 1 - 12. Hydraulic reservoirs and accumulators. Interface with other systems. Inverters.

Sources: engine. floats. Interfaces with other systems. HELICOPTER AERODYNAMICS. Distribution. Steering. Lights (ATA 33) External: navigation. Internal: cabin. brakes. Extension and retraction systems: normal and emergency. Pneumatic/Vacuum (ATA 36) System lay-out.3 B1.15 2 3 - 12. Pressure control. classification and detection. STRUCTURES AND SYSTEMS (Continued) Level A3 A4 12. cockpit. taxiing. Wheels. Anti-icing and De-icing systems: electrical.4 3 B2 - 12.16 1 3 - Issue 2 1-45 15 August 2006 . shock absorbing.SAR-66 SECTION 1 MODULE 12. Skids.14 2 3 - 12. Probe and drain heating. hot air and chemical.13 Ice and Rain Protection (ATA 30) Ice formation. Indications and warning. ice. compressors. cargo. Rain repellant and removal. Landing Gear (ATA 32) Construction. Emergency. Indications and warnings. ground supply. tyres. reservoirs. landing. 1 B1.

variable incidence stabilisers and canards. STRUCTURES AND SYSTEMS Level A 13.2 Structures – General Concepts (a) Fundamentals of structural systems. – pitch control: elevators. lift dumpers. AIRCRAFT AERODYNAMICS. - - 3 15 August 2006 1-46 Issue 2 . flaps. glideslope. supersonic flight. transonic flight. approach. Mach number. system monitors and failure conditions. stabilators. (b) High Speed Flight Speed of sound. Command signal processing. ruddervators. slats. Drag inducing devices: spoilers. modes of operation.1 Theory of Flight (a) Aeroplane Aerodynamics and Flight Controls Operation and effect of: – roll control: ailerons and spoilers. Yaw dampers. Autopilot navigation aids interface. Autothrottle systems. – yaw control. rudder limiters. servo tabs. collective and anti-torque controls. Stability Augmentation System in helicopters. B1 B2 1 - - 1 - - 1 13. - - 1 - - 2 13. critical Mach number. land. (c) Rotary Wing Aerodynamics Terminology. Modes of operation: roll.SECTION 1 SAR-66 MODULE 13. go-around.3 Autoflight (ATA 22) Fundamentals of automatic flight control including working principles and current terminology. Automatic trim control. pitch and yaw channels. Automatic Landing Systems: principles and categories. High lift devices: slots. Operation and effect of trim tabs. Electrical bonding. control surface bias. (b) Zonal and station identification systems. subsonic flight. Lightning strike protection provision. speed brakes. Control using elevons. Operation and effect of cyclic.

AIRCRAFT AERODYNAMICS. transmission lines. transformers. – ARINC communication and reporting. – Automatic Direction Finding (ADF). antennas. – Radio altimeter. Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS). – Distance Measuring Equipment (DME). RNAV systems. communication. External/Ground power. – Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System (TCAS). – Global Positioning System (GPS). – Doppler navigation. – Very High Frequency omnidirectional range (VOR).6 - - 3 Issue 2 1-47 15 August 2006 . – Cockpit Voice Recorder. receiver and transmitter. Inverters. Power distribution. Cabin entertainment equipment. – Flight Management Systems. Emergency power generation. – Weather avoidance radar.5 - - 3 13. secondary surveillance radar.4 Communication/Navigation (ATA 23/34) Fundamentals of radio wave propagation. B1 B2 3 13. DC power generation. Circuit protection. Electrical Power (ATA 24) Batteries Installation and Operation. – Microwave Landing System (MLS). – Flight Director systems. – Instrument Landing System (ILS). – Area navigation. Equipment and Furnishing (ATA 25) Electronic emergency equipment requirements. – Audio. Working principles of following systems: – Very High Frequency (VHF) communication.SAR-66 SECTION 1 MODULE 13. Voltage regulation. – Inertial Navigation System. – Emergency Locator Transmitters. – Very Low Frequency and hyperbolic navigation (VLF/Omega). STRUCTURES AND SYSTEMS (Continued) Level A 13. rectifiers. AC power generation. – Air Traffic Control transponder. – High Frequency (HF) communication.

13. Slip indicators. Altitude reporting/alerting systems. Yaw damper. elevator. gust locks. Machmeters. Directional gyros. (b) System operation: electrical. 2 2 Flight Controls (ATA 27) 1 B1 B2 15 August 2006 1-48 Issue 2 .8 Instrument Systems (ATA 31) Classification. Stall warning systems and angle of attack indicating systems. System operation: manual.7 (a) Primary controls: aileron. speed brakes. Pitot static systems. Terminology. Electronic Flight Instrument Systems. AIRCRAFT AERODYNAMICS. spoiler. pneumatic. Pressure measuring devices and systems. Lift dump. Air data computers. Fuel quantity indicating systems. Stall protection systems. STRUCTURES AND SYSTEMS (Continued) Level A 13. Temperature indicating systems. Vertical speed indicators. hydraulic. Instrument warning systems including master warning systems and centralised warning panels. rudder. Trim control. Active load control. High lift devices. Artificial feel. Atmosphere. Compass systems. rudder limiter. Flight Data Recording systems. Mach trim. Direct reading pressure and temperature gauges. Instrument pneumatic systems. Airspeed indicators. Gyroscopic principles. Ground Proximity Warning Systems. Artificial horizons. Vibration measurement and indication. fly by wire.SECTION 1 SAR-66 MODULE 13. Altimeters.

Printing. AIRCRAFT AERODYNAMICS. Emergency.SAR-66 SECTION 1 MODULE 13.9 Lights (ATA 33) External: navigation. B1 B2 3 13. landing. Electronic library system.10 - - 2 Issue 2 1-49 15 August 2006 . Internal: cabin. ice. cargo. cockpit. Structure monitoring (damage tolerance monitoring). taxiing. Data loading system. STRUCTURES AND SYSTEMS (Continued) Level A 13. On board Maintenance Systems (ATA 45) Central maintenance computers.

2 B1 B2 1 - - 2 15 August 2006 1-50 Issue 2 . Engine torque. Engine speed. Oil pressure and temperature. Fuel pressure.SECTION 1 SAR-66 MODULE 14. Engine Thrust Indication: Engine Pressure Ratio. engine turbine discharge pressure or jet pipe pressure systems. (b) Electronic Engine control and fuel metering systems (FADEC). PROPULSION Level A 14. 14. temperature and flow.2 Engine Indicating Systems Exhaust gas temperature/Interstage turbine temperature systems. Manifold pressure. turboshaft and turbopropeller engines. turbofan. Propeller speed.1 Turbine Engines (a) Constructional arrangement and operation of turbojet.

Pressure. power. static thrust. Inlet Compressor inlet ducts.1 B1. turboprop. rotating stator blades. Nozzle guide vanes. divergent and variable area nozzles. Combustion Section Constructional features and principles of operation. flat rating. Engine Performance Gross thrust. Constructional features and operating principles and applications.5 1 2 - 15. Blade to disk attachment. resultant thrust.3 2 2 - 15. variable inlet guide vanes. limitations.1 Fundamentals Potential energy.3 2 B2 - 15. Engine efficiencies. temperature and velocity of the gas flow. Methods of air flow control: bleed valves. Thrust reversers. Fan balancing. thrust distribution. Causes and effects of compressor stall and surge. By-pass ratio and engine pressure ratio. Constructional arrangement and operation of turbojet. Newton's laws of motion. acceleration.4 Compressors Axial and centrifugal types. Causes and effects of turbine blade stress and creep. Engine noise reduction. Exhaust Constructional features and principles of operation. work. choked nozzle thrust. Turbine Section Operation and characteristics of different turbine blade types.6 2 2 - 15. Convergent. net thrust. influence of speed.7 1 2 - Issue 2 1-51 15 August 2006 . energy. Brayton cycle. turboshaft.SAR-66 SECTION 1 MODULE 15. specific fuel consumption. velocity. turbofan. variable stator vanes. Ice protection. GAS TURBINE ENGINE Level A1 A3 15. The relationship between force. Engine ratings. Operation.2 - 2 - 15. Effects of various inlet configurations. altitude and hot climate. thrust horsepower. kinetic energy. 1 2 1 B1. equivalent shaft horsepower. 15. Compressor ratio.

8 Bearings and Seals Constructional features and principles of operation. Lubrication Systems System operation/lay-out and components. B1. Engine Thrust Indication: Engine Pressure Ratio.14 1 2 - 15. Engine speed. Fuel pressure and flow.15 - 1 - 15 August 2006 1-52 Issue 2 . Air Systems Operation of engine air distribution and anti . Water injection. Power. Starting and Ignition Systems Operation of engine start systems and components. Maintenance safety requirements. sealing and external air services. Ignition systems and components. Power Augmentation Systems Operation and applications. Oil pressure and temperature. including internal cooling.11 1 2 - 15. GAS TURBINE ENGINE (Continued) Level A1 A3 15.3 2 B2 - 15. Torque. Fuel additives.12 1 2 - 15.10 1 2 - 15. Safety precautions. water methanol. Lubricants and Fuels Properties and specifications.SECTION 1 SAR-66 MODULE 15.1 B1.ice control systems. Systems lay-out and components. Vibration measurement and indication. Afterburner systems. Fuel Systems Operation of engine control and fuel metering systems including electronic engine control (FADEC). engine turbine discharge pressure or jet pipe pressure systems. Engine Indication Systems Exhaust Gas Temperature/Interstage Turbine Temperature.13 1 2 - 15.9 1 2 - 15.

Turbo-shaft engines Arrangements. Powerplant Installation Configuration of firewalls. engine mounts. reduction gearing.1 B1. operation. couplings. connectors.22 - 2 - Issue 2 1-53 15 August 2006 . Interpretation of engine power output and parameters. drive systems. Trend (including oil analysis. hoses. GAS TURBINE ENGINE (Continued) Level A1 A3 15. Foreign object damage. vibration and boroscope) monitoring. cowlings.17 1 2 - 15.21 1 3 - 15. Inspection of engine and components to criteria. wiring looms. Engine Monitoring and Ground Operation Procedures for starting and ground run-up. acoustic panels. pipes. protective systems. feeders. Compressor washing/cleaning. Overspeed safety devices. lifting points and drains. Auxiliary Power Units (APUs) Purpose. Fire Protection Systems Operation of detection and extinguishing systems.20 1 2 - 15.SAR-66 SECTION 1 MODULE 15. tolerances and data specified by engine manufacturer.18 1 2 - 15. Engine Storage and Preservation Preservation and depreservation for the engine and accessories/systems. Reduction gears. 1 B1.16 Turbo-prop Engines Gas coupled/free turbine and gear coupled turbines.19 1 2 - 15. control cables and rods. control systems. Integrated engine and propeller controls. anti-vibration mounts.3 2 B2 - 15.

construction and principles of operation. 4 stroke. Exhaust and Cooling Systems Construction and operation of: induction systems including alternate air systems. Piston displacement and compression ratio. Ignition harnesses. cam shafts. engine cooling systems — air and liquid. Factors affecting engine power. Induction.4 16. 1 2 1 B1. PISTON ENGINE Level A2 A4 16. Electronic engine control Operation of engine control and fuel metering systems including electronic engine control (FADEC). construction and principles of operation. Magneto types.2 1 2 - 16. Icing and heating.6 1 2 - 15 August 2006 1-54 Issue 2 . Systems lay-out and components. Mixtures/leaning.1 16. Engine Construction Crank case. pre-ignition.SECTION 1 SAR-66 MODULE 16. sumps.4. spark plugs.2 B1. Low and high tension systems.2 1 2 - 16. Propeller reduction gearboxes. Fuel injection systems Types. thermal and volumetric efficiencies. Engine Fuel Systems Carburettors Types. Connecting rods. inlet and exhaust manifolds. Cylinder and piston assemblies. construction and principles of operation. Engine Performance Power calculation and measurement.5 1 2 - 16.4.3 1 2 - 16. Valve mechanisms. Operating principles — 2 stroke. Starting and Ignition Systems Starting systems. pre-heat systems. Accessory gearbox. Exhaust systems. Otto and Diesel.4 2 B2 - 16. crank shaft.1 Fundamentals Mechanical. Engine configuration and firing order.4.3 1 2 - 16.

4 2 B2 - 16. System terminology. pipes.11 1 2 - 16. wiring looms. Coolant temperature. Safety precautions. Cylinder head temperature. control cables and rods. hoses. PISTON ENGINE (Continued) Level A2 A4 16. cowlings.9 1 2 - 16. Engine Indication Systems Engine speed. Manifold pressure. engine mounts. Powerplant Installation Configuration of firewalls. Control systems. Engine Monitoring and Ground Operation Procedures for starting and ground run-up. Oil pressure and temperature. anti-vibration mounts. Inspection of engine and components: criteria. acoustic panels.10 1 2 - 16.12 1 3 - 16. connectors. Lubricants and Fuels Properties and specifications. tolerances. and data specified by engine manufacturer. Fuel pressure and flow. Exhaust Gas Temperature.SAR-66 SECTION 1 MODULE 16. Interpretation of engine power output and parameters.7 Supercharging/Turbocharging Principles and purpose of supercharging and its effects on engine parameters.13 - 2 - Issue 2 1-55 15 August 2006 .8 1 2 - 16.2 B1. feeders. Construction and operation of supercharging/Turbocharging systems. Lubrication Systems System operation/lay-out and components. 1 B1. lifting points and drains. Engine Storage and Preservation Preservation and depreservation for the engine and accessories/ systems. System protection. Fuel additives.

Propeller Pitch Control Speed control and pitch change methods. reverse angle. impact damage. Propeller/spinner installation. Fixed pitch. Aerodynamic. Overspeed protection. Feathering and reverse pitch.2 2 B2 - 17. Propeller Ice Protection Fluid and electrical de-icing equipment. Propeller Synchronising Synchronising and synchrophasing equipment. Propeller slip. angle of attack.1 B1. 1 B1. mechanical and electrical/electronic. rotational speed. Propeller Construction Construction methods and materials used in wooden. controllable pitch. Propeller engine running. constant speeding propeller. and thrust forces. blade face. PROPELLER Level A1 A2 17. blade shank.7 1 2 - 15 August 2006 1-56 Issue 2 . erosion. composite and metal propellers. Vibration and resonance. Propeller Maintenance Static and dynamic balancing.4 - 2 - 17. Propeller treatment/repair schemes.2 1 2 - 17. Relative airflow on blade angle of attack.3 1 2 - 17.5 1 2 - 17. High/low blade angle.1 Fundamentals Blade element theory. blade back and hub assembly. Torque. delamination. corrosion. Blade station.6 1 3 - 17.SECTION 1 SAR-66 MODULE 17. Blade tracking. Propeller Storage and Preservation Propeller preservation and depreservation. centrifugal. Assessment of blade damage.

M10 (Aviation Legislation) and M50 (the essay paper). which are valid for 5 years. Issue 2 1-57 15 August 2006 .5 1. The validity of examination credits specified in paragraph 1. To pass an essay paper. The essay will be marked for contents and overall presentation. Contents will account for 60 % of the marks.4. the candidate must also obtain at least 75 % in each of the 4 questions in the paper. Penalty marking will not be applied on the multiple-choice papers.4 1.8 does not apply to a credit which is common to more than one SAR-66 AML category or subcategory which had previously been used to qualify for another category or subcategory on the licence.6 1.7 1. Each essay question requires the preparation of a written answer and the candidate will be allowed 20 minutes to answer each question. The answer to an essay question is expected to follow a ‘report’ style that presents a logical progression from introduction to conclusion. besides obtaining an overall score of 75 % as in paragraph 1.SAR-66 SECTION 1 SINGAPORE AIRWORTHINESS REQUIREMENTS SAR 66 APPENDIX 2 BASIC EXAMINATION STANDARD 1 1. Each multiple-choice question will have three answers of which only one is correct.2 Standardisation Basis for Examinations All basic examinations will be in multiple-choice or essay question format as specified below.3 1.1 1. The candidate is allowed a total time per module based on a nominal average of 75 seconds per question.9 1. The validity of these converted pass credits will also be 5 years from 15 August 2006. A pass in a written basic knowledge examination is valid for a period of 10 years except for modules M09 (Human Factors).10 On 15 August 2006. 1. while overall presentation will account for the remaining 40 %.8 1. The pass mark for each SAR-66 module and the essay paper is 75 %. A person who fails a knowledge examination twice within a 3-month period shall not be eligible to re-apply for that examination for a 3-month period. pass credits on Paper H11 and L11 under SAR-7 will be converted automatically to pass credits for SAR-66 modules M09 (Human Factors) and M10 (Aviation Legislation) respectively.

4) 25 mins M06 Materials and Hardware Maintenance Practices Basic Aerodynamics Human Factors Aviation Legislation Turbine Aeroplane Aerodynamics. of Questions 16 30 20 Time Allowed 20 mins 40 mins 25 mins Cat B1 No. of Questions 30 50 50 Time Allowed 40 mins 65 mins 65 mins Cat B2 No. Module Name No. Structures and Systems Aircraft Aerodynamics.1 & B1.3) 25 mins 40 50 mins M05 50 mins 70 90 mins 16 20 mins 20 (B1. Structures and Systems Piston Aeroplane Aerodynamics. Number of questions for the SAR-66 Appendix 1 Modules Cat A Module No.2 & B1. Structures and Systems 50 65 mins 70 90 mins 100 mins 25 mins 60 75 mins M07 70 90 mins 80 60 75 mins M08 20 25 mins 20 20 25 mins M09 20 25 mins 20 25 mins 20 25 mins M10 40 50 mins 40 50 mins 40 50 mins M11A 100 125 mins 130 165 mins - - M11B 70 90 mins 100 125 mins - - M12 90 115 mins 115 145 mins - - M13 - - - - 130 165 mins 15 August 2006 1-58 Issue 2 . Structures and Systems Helicopter Aerodynamics. of Questions 30 50 50 Time Allowed 40 mins 65 mins 65 mins M01 M02 M03 Mathematics Physics Electrical Fundamentals Electronic Fundamentals Digital Techniques / Electronic Instrument Systems M04 - - 20 40 (B1.SECTION 1 SAR-66 1.

of Questions 60 50 20 80 Time Allowed 75 mins 65 mins 25 mins 100mins Cat B1 No. This paper comprises questions drawn from the syllabus as follows: Module 07 (2 questions). M50) A 4-question essay paper is also required to be passed for licence issue only. The time allowed for the paper is 1 hour 20 minutes. Module Name No. This is a common paper set to the same syllabus and standard across all SAR-66 aircraft maintenance licence categories. of Questions 25 Time Allowed 30 mins - M14 M15 Propulsion Gas Turbine Engine Piston Engine Propeller Bridging Paper for Category A M16 M17 M60 Essay paper (Module No. Module 09 (1 question) and Module 10 (1 question). The 4 essay questions are administered as a single examination paper for which an overall mark is awarded giving a pass or fail for the paper as a whole.SAR-66 SECTION 1 Cat A Module No. of Questions 90 70 30 Time Allowed 115 mins 90 mins 40 mins - Cat B2 No. Issue 2 1-59 15 August 2006 .

Define the general layout of the aircraft's major systems. at the completion of this Level 2 Ramp and Transit training. 3. Recall the safety precautions to be observed when working on or near the aircraft. (h) Hydraulic power. (e) Powerplant. In addition to the information contained in the Level 1 General Familiarisation course. (c) Fuel. servicing and minor troubleshooting. Identify safety precautions related to the airframe. Water/waste. windows and hatches. (d) Auxiliary power unit. 2. (i) (j) (k) Landing gear. Identify maintenance practices important to the airframe.SECTION 1 SAR-66 SINGAPORE AIRWORTHINESS REQUIREMENTS SAR 66 APPENDIX 3 TYPE TRAINING AND EXAMINATION STANDARD 1 Type training levels The three levels listed below define the objectives that a particular level of training is intended to achieve. Flight controls. Objectives: (g) Environmental Control Systems. (b) Electrical power supplies. systems and powerplants as outlined in the Systems Description Section of the Aircraft Maintenance Manual. Identify special tooling and test equipment used with the aircraft. 15 August 2006 1-60 Issue 2 . LEVEL 1 General Familiarisation . principal components including their location and purpose. 2. Upon completion of the course. its systems and powerplant.Basic system overview of controls. indicators. 5. Objectives: LEVEL 2 Ramp and Transit .A brief overview of the airframe. the student will be able to: 1. its systems and powerplant. 4. Define the general layout and characteristics of the powerplant. powerplant and systems. the student will be able to: 1. Demonstrate knowledge of the main ramp and transit (through-flight) activities of the following: (a) Doors. (f) Fire protection.

Explain the normal functioning of each major system. Describe systems and aircraft handling particularly access. Training levels are those levels defined in paragraph 1 above. Perform system. After the first type course for category C certifying staff all subsequent courses need only be to Level 1. 9. BITE and troubleshooting procedures to maintenance manual level. operation. 4. power availability and sources. Perform the procedures for ramp and transit servicing associated with the aircraft for the following systems: Fuel. 2. Oxygen. 7. Power Plants. 2. the elements in the syllabus below that are specific to the aircraft type must be covered. Objectives: 2 Type training standard Type training must include a theoretical and practical element. 5. Additional elements introduced due to technological changes shall also be included. Correlate information for the purpose of making decisions in respect of fault diagnosis and rectification to maintenance manual level. Avionics. component location. Landing Gear. Issue 2 1-61 15 August 2006 . LEVEL 3 Line and Base Maintenance Training . Demonstrate proficiency in use of crew reports and on-board reporting systems (minor troubleshooting) and determine aircraft airworthiness per the MEL/CDL. and Cabin equipment/furnishings. In addition to the information contained in Level 1 and Level 2 training. Water/Waste. and Oxygen. Describe procedures for replacement of components unique to aircraft type. including terminology and nomenclature. Identify and use appropriate documentation. engine. the student will be able to: 1. Flight and service interphone. removal/installation. Hydraulics. 6. at the completion of Level III Line and Base Maintenance training.Detailed description. Identify the locations of the principal components. 8. component and functional checks as specified in the maintenance manual. 3.SAR-66 SECTION 1 (l) (m) (n) (o) 3.1 Theoretical element As a minimum. Locate those procedures for replacement of components for ramp and transit activities identified in objective 2.

Operation: Electrical/Fly-byWire Fuel Systems Hydraulic Power Ice & Rain Protection 3 3 3 3 3 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 3 3 3 3 1 1 1 1 1 3 3 3 3 3 1 1 1 1 1 3 3 3 3 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 3 1 1 1 15 August 2006 1-62 Issue 2 . Requirement & Cabin Entertainment Equipment Fire Protection Flight Controls Sys.SECTION 1 SAR-66 Introduction Module Title General Time limits/maintenance checks Levelling and weighing Towing and taxiing Parking/mooring Servicing Standard practices-only type particular B2 module-safety items/mechanical interface B1 module-safety items/avionics interface Aircraft(dimensions/weights MTOW etc) Aeroplanes turbine B1 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 1 3 3 3 3 3 2 3 3 C 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Aeroplanes piston B1 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 1 3 3 3 2 3 3 C 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 - Helicopters turbine B1 3 3 3 3 3 3 1 3 3 3 2 3 3 C 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 - Helicopters piston B1 3 3 3 3 3 3 1 3 3 3 2 3 3 C 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 - Avionics B2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 3 3 3 Blade tracking and vibration analysis Transmissions Airframe structure Main rotor Tail rotor/rotor drive Rotor flight control Airframe Structure Fuselage Doors Fuselage Fuselage Windows Wings Stabilisers Flight Control Surfaces Nacelles/Pylons Zonal & Station Identification Systems Air Supply Air Conditioning Pressurisation Safety & Warning Devices Instrument Systems Avionics Systems Electrical Power Equipment & Furnishings Electronic Emergency Equip.

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Aeroplanes turbine B1 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 C 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

Aeroplanes piston B1 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 C 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

Helicopters turbine B1 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 C 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 -

Helicopters piston B1 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 C 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 -

Avionics B2 1 3 1 1 1 3 1 1 1 1 3 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 3 1 -

Landing Gear Lights Oxygen Pneumatic/Vacuum Water/Waste On-board Maintenance Systems Turbine Engines: Constructional arrangement and operation Engine Performance Inlet Compressors Combustion Section Turbine Section Exhaust Bearings and Seals Lubricants and Fuels Lubrication Systems Fuel Systems Engine controls FADEC Air Systems Starting & Ignition Systems Engine Indicating Systems Power Augmentation Systems Turbo-prop Engines Turbo-shaft Engines Auxiliary Power Units (APUs) Powerplant Installation Fire Protection Systems Engine Monitoring and Ground Operation Engine Storage and Preservation Piston Engines: Engine Performance Engine Construction Engine Fuel Systems Carburettors Fuel injection systems Engine Controls FADEC Starting and Ignition Systems Induction, Exhaust and Cooling Systems Supercharging/Turbocharging Lubricants and Fuels Lubrication Systems Engine Indication Systems Powerplant Installation Engine Monitoring and Ground Operation Engine Storage and Preservation Propellers: Propeller — General Propeller Construction Propeller Pitch Control

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Aeroplanes turbine B1 3 2 3 3 C 1 1 1 1

Aeroplanes piston B1 3 2 3 3 C 1 1 1 1

Helicopters turbine B1 C -

Helicopters piston B1 C -

Avionics B2 3 -

Propeller Synchronising Propeller Electronic Control Propeller Ice Protection Propeller Maintenance 2.2 Practical element

The practical training element must consist of the performance of representative maintenance tasks and their assessment in order to meet the following objectives: (a) Ensure safe performance of maintenance, inspections and routine work according to the maintenance manual and other relevant instructions and tasks as appropriate for the type of aircraft, for example troubleshooting, repairs, adjustments, replacements, rigging and functional checks such as engine run, etc, if required. Correctly use all technical literature and documentation for the aircraft. Correctly use specialist/special tooling and test equipment, perform removal and replacement of components and modules unique to type, including any on-wing maintenance activity.

(b) (c)

3

Type training examination standard Where aircraft type training is required, the examination must be written and complies with the following: (a) Format of the examination is of the multiple-choice type. Each multiple-choice question must have three alternative answers of which only one must be the correct answer. The time for answering is based upon a nominal average of 120 seconds per level 3 question and 75 seconds per level 1 or 2 question. The examination must be of the closed book type. No reference material is permitted. An exception will be made or the case of examining a B1 or B2 candidate's ability to interpret technical documents. The number of questions must be at least one question per hour of instruction subject to a minimum of two questions per syllabus subject. The Authority will assess the number and level of questions on a sampling basis when approving the course. The examination pass mark is 75 %. Penalty marking will not to be used to determine whether a candidate has passed. End of module phase examinations cannot be used as part of the final examination unless they contain the correct number and level of questions required.

(b)

(c)

(d) (e) (f) 4.

Type examination standard Where type training is not required, the examination must be oral, written or practical assessment based, or a combination thereof. Oral examination questions must be open. Written examination questions must be essay type or multiple-choice questions. Practical assessment must determine a person's competence to perform a task.

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Examination subjects must be on a sample of subjects drawn from paragraph 2 type training/examination syllabus, at the indicated level. The examination must ensure that the following objectives are met: (a) (b) Properly discuss with confidence the aircraft and its systems. Ensure safe performance of maintenance, inspections and routine work according to the maintenance manual and other relevant instructions and tasks as appropriate for the type of aircraft, for example troubleshooting, repairs, adjustments, replacements, rigging and functional checks such as engine run, etc, if required. Correctly use all technical literature and documentation for the aircraft. Correctly use specialist/special tooling and test equipment, perform removal and replacement of components and modules unique to type, including any on-wing maintenance activity.

(c) (d)

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3 B1.4 B2 6 months 6 months 6 months None 6 months 6 months 6 months 6 months A1 A2 A3 A4 B1. To: From: A1 A2 A3 A4 B1.2 B1.2 B1.3 B1.1 B1.SECTION 1 SAR-66 SINGAPORE AIRWORTHINESS REQUIREMENTS SAR 66 APPENDIX 4 EXPERIENCE REQUIREMENTS FOR EXTENDING A SAR-66 AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE LICENCE (1) The table below shows the experience requirements for adding a new category or subcategory to an existing SAR-66 licence.4 B2 6 months 6 months 6 months 6 months 6 months 6 months None 6 months 6 months 6 months 6 months 6 months 6 months 2 years 2 years 2 years 2 years 6 months 6 months 1 year 1 year 6 months 2 years 2 years 2 years 2 years 6 months 2 years 1 year 1 year 6 months 6 months 6 months 6 months 6 months 2 years 2 years 2 years 2 years 1 year 2 years 1 year 2 years 6 months 6 months 6 months None 6 months 6 months 6 months 6 months 6 months None 6 months 2 years 6 months 2 years 1 year 6 months 6 months 1 year 2 years 1 year 1 year 15 August 2006 1-66 Issue 2 . (2) The experience must be recent practical maintenance experience on operating aircraft in the category or subcategory relevant to the application.1 B1. (3) The experience requirement will be reduced by 50 % if the applicant has completed an approved SAR147 course relevant to the category or subcategory.

Replace pressurisation controller. Connect ground power. Replace static discharge wicks. Parking and mooring Tie down aircraft. Issue 2 1-67 15 August 2006 . Replace controller. ‘B’ or ‘C’ check (transport category aircraft). Check stability augmentation system. Replace cabin blower. Check hydraulic fluid level. Check autoland system. Check operation of air conditioning/heating system. Check operation of pressurisation system. Procedure for inspection following heavy landing. Vibration and Noise Analysis Analyse helicopter vibration problem. Replace amplifier. Review records for compliance with airworthiness directives. Replace heat exchanger. Levelling/Weighing Level aircraft. Check flight management systems. Perform antenna VSWR check. Sling or trestle major component. Check battery capacity. Secure rotor blades. Position aircraft in dock. Servicing Refuel aircraft. Functionally check audio integrating system. Replace outflow valve. Towing and Taxiing Tow aircraft. Analyse noise spectrum. Deep-cycle ni-cad battery. Communications Replace VHF com unit. Check and adjust servo clutch. Perform symmetry check. Jack complete aircraft. Check tyre pressures. Charge pneumatic system. Rig bridle cables. Troubleshoot faulty system.SAR-66 SECTION 1 SINGAPORE AIRWORTHINESS REQUIREMENTS SAR 66 APPENDIX 5 PRACTICAL EXPERIENCE FOR AIRCRAFT OTHER THAN LARGE AIRCRAFT LIST OF TASKS Time limits/Maintenance checks 100 hour check (general aviation aircraft). Perform mach trim functional check. Defuel aircraft. Service toilet/water system. Lifting and Shoring Assist in: Jack aircraft nose or tail wheel. Perform pre-flight/daily check. Check oil level. Dimensions/Areas Locate component(s) by station number. Perform autopilot gain adjustments. Electrical Power Charge lead/acid battery. Check aircraft for correct markings. Prepare weight and balance amendment. Check operation of auto-pilot. Troubleshoot faulty system. Clean outflow valves. Replace air cycle unit. Check operation of radios. Park. Air Conditioning Replace combustion heater. Repair co-axial cable. Review records for compliance with component life limits. Check operation of yaw damper. Check aircraft against equipment list. Check operation of auto-throttle. secure and cover aircraft. Check accumulator pressure. Replace existing antenna. Replace vapour cycle unit. Replace HF com unit. Troubleshoot faulty system. Replace generator/alternator. Be part of aircraft towing team. Placards and Markings Check aircraft for correct placards. Grease aircraft. Perform Selcal operational check. Charge ni-cad battery. Weigh aircraft. Auto flight Install servos. Procedure for inspection following lightning strike. Perform operational check of passenger address system.

Replace elevator. Bleed brakes. Replace trim tabs. Replace passenger seats. Adjust micro switches. Replace fuel tank cells. Replace master caution unit. Inspect engine fire wire detection systems. Functional check DME. Perform emergency lighting system checks. Repair upholstery. Check inertia reels. Lights Repair/replace rotating beacon. Indicating/recording systems Replace flight data recorder. Replace timer. Replace shimmy damper. Repair/replace electrical feeder cable. Flight Controls Replace horizontal stabiliser. Check control range and sense of movement. Replace rudder. Replace nose wheel. Repair/replace emergency lighting system. Check indicating systems. Replace ADI. Ice and rain protection Replace pump. Replace powered flying control unit. Repair toilet waste container. Replace aileron. Check calibration of fuel quantity gauges. 15 August 2006 1-68 Issue 2 . Check operation of shut off valve. Check cabin fire extinguisher contents. Check lavatory smoke detector system. Check operation of systems. Change cabin configuration.SECTION 1 SAR-66 Replace switches. Replace air data computer. Rig nose wheel steering. Replace HIS. Repair/replace interior lights. Check filters. Change bungees. Replace clock. Install control cable and fittings. Replace FDR. Inspect for HIRF requirements. Check operation of directional gyro. Replace brake unit. Functional check Doppler. Functional check TCAS. Check operation feed/selectors. Check operation of warning system. Amend electrical load analysis report. Replace brake control valve. Flow checks system. Replace cockpit voice recorder. Functional check ATC Transponder. Functional check flight director system. Replace shock strut seals. Landing Gear Build up wheel. Navigation Calibrate magnetic direction indicator. Replace airspeed indicator. Fuel Replace booster pump. Repair/replace landing lights. Test out brake system. Replace main wheel. Replace flat actuator. Troubleshoot faulty system. Equipment/Furnishings Replace carpets. Troubleshoot faulty system. Check pitot static system for leaks. Replace standby pump. Adjust trim tab. Replace accumulator. Replace VOR unit. Check seats/belts for security. Repair/replace navigation lights. Adjust voltage regulator. Replace crew seats. Functional check inertial navigation system. Replace altimeter. Check filters. Troubleshoot faulty system. Test anti skid unit. Troubleshoot faulty system. Troubleshoot faulty system. Troubleshoot faulty system. Adjust control cable tension. Implement ESDS procedures. Check emergency equipment. Replace fire bottle squib. Replace fuel selector. Replace flaps. Replace circuit breakers. Perform FDR data retrieval. Troubleshoot faulty system. Functional check weather radar. Check ELT for compliance with regulations. Troubleshoot faulty system. Check for correct assembly and locking. Troubleshoot faulty system. Test gear retraction. Charge struts. Install wiper motor. Hydraulics Replace engine driven pump. Install new fire bottle. Perform functional checks. Fire protection Check fire bottle contents.

Tail Rotor Drive Replace bevel gearbox. Recover fabric wing. Overhaul main gearbox. Install mixing box. Test door warning system.SAR-66 SECTION 1 Complete quadrantal error correction of ADF system. Test AVM. Replace governor. Adjust governor. Check chip detectors. Dress out blade damage. Perform static functional checks. Troubleshoot faulty system. Troubleshoot faulty system. Install main gearbox. Check track. Fabric repair. Vacuum systems Replace vacuum pump Check/replace filters Adjust regulator Troubleshoot faulty system Water/Waste Replace water pump. Troubleshoot faulty system. Replace tip. Propeller Assemble prop after transportation. Check Satcom. Check gearbox chip detectors. Doors Rig/adjust locking mechanism. Windows Replace windshield. Rotor Drive Replace mast. Replace oxygen generator. Replace drive belt. Troubleshoot faulty system. Replace clutch/freewheel unit. Replace blades. Install drive assembly. Troubleshoot faulty system. Check operation of emergency exits. Inspect hot section. Oxygen Inspect on board oxygen equipment. Troubleshoot faulty system. Check dynamic balance. Recharge dessicator. Compass replacement direct/indirect. Replace compressor. Replace drive coupling. Check marker systems. Check incidence/rig. Overhaul bevel gearbox. Issue 2 1-69 15 August 2006 . Replace regulator. Replace universal joints. Fibre glass repair. Troubleshoot faulty system. Update flight management system database. Replace rib. Check track. Check for leaks. Perform BITE check. Perform auto oxygen system deployment check. Airborne Auxiliary power Install APU. Treat corrosion. Replace tap. Troubleshoot faulty system. Pneumatic systems Replace filter. Replace window. Check calibration of pressure altitude reporting system. Replace toilet pump. Replace CMU. Adjust air stair system. Test crew oxygen system. Troubleshoot. Repair transparency. Replace damper assembly. Apply protective treatment. Check operation during ground run. Check setting of micro switches. Check GPS. Wooden repair. Adjust regulator. Replace blades. Central Maintenance System Retrieve data from CMU. Wings Skin repair. Tail Rotors Install rotor assembly. Check calibration of pitot staticinstruments. Adjust pitch links. Main Rotors Install rotor assembly. Replace propeller. Rotorcraft flight controls Install swash plate. Check static balance. Recover fabric control surface. Dynamically balance prop. Purge and recharge oxygen system. Structures Sheet metal repair. Troubleshoot.

Troubleshoot. Troubleshoot faulty system. Adjust pedestal micro-switches. Replace heat shields. Ignition systems. Adjust cowl flaps. Replace oil cooler. Troubleshoot faulty system. Check filter(s). Replace turbo-blower. Troubleshoot faulty system. piston engines Replace PRT. Rig mixture HP cock lever. Piston Engines Remove/install reduction gear. Replace oil temperature bulb. Check carburettor float setting. Replace engine. Adjust AMC. 15 August 2006 1-70 Issue 2 . Establish/check reference RPM. Replace oil tank. Pressure check cabin heater muff. Check tappet clearance. Check ignition unit. Replace thermocouples. Check controls for assembly and locking. Ignition systems. Replace waste gate. Troubleshoot faulty system. turbine Change jet pipe. Exhaust. Rig RPM control. Check control sync (multi-eng). Change ignition vibrator. Engine Indicating Replace engine instruments(s). Clean/test fuel nozzles. Replace firewall shut off valve. Establish reference power. Test plugs. Check H T leads. piston Replace engine driven pump. piston Change magneto. Check compression. Adjust ABC. Check cranking speed. Engine Controls Rig thrust lever. Oil Change oil. Replace start control valve. Check crankshaft run-out. Change shroud assembly. Clean/replace filters. Adjust carburettor/injector. Rig power lever. Troubleshoot. Extract broken stud. Install new leads. Engine ground run. Check calibration. Troubleshoot. Install helicoil. Power Plant Build up ECU. Perform oil dilution. Install trimmers. Check controls for range and sense of operation. Turbines. Replace engine driven pump. Inspect welded repair. Troubleshoot faulty system. Repair faulty wiring. piston Replace exhaust gasket. Rig anti-torque system. Replace oil pump. Adjust FCU. Fuel and control. Change plugs. Troubleshoot faulty system. Rig cyclic system. Clean injector nozzles. Troubleshoot faulty system. Repair cowling. Adjust density controller. Hot section inspection. turbine Check glow plugs/ignitors. Check timing. Troubleshoot faulty system. Trend monitoring/gas path analysis. Troubleshoot faulty system. Adjust pressure relief valve. Replace primer line. turbine Replace FCU.SECTION 1 SAR-66 Rig collective system. Check controls for correct assembly and locking. Perform ground run. Replace start relay. Troubleshoot faulty system. Replace ignition unit. Exhaust. Turbine Engines Replace module. Starting Replace starter. Check H T leads. Install carburettor/injector. Fuel and control. Check controls for operation and sense. Repair cooling baffles. Check system bonding.

Replace drive shaft.SAR-66 SECTION 1 Engine water injection Replace water/methanol pump. Flow checks water/methanol system. Issue 2 1-71 15 August 2006 . Adjust water/methanol control unit. Check fluid for quality. Check chip detector. Troubleshoot faulty system. Accessory gear boxes Replace gearbox.

SECTION 1 SAR-66 INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK 15 August 2006 1-72 Issue 2 .

A numbering system has been used in which the Acceptable Means of Compliance and Interpretative Material uses the same number as the paragraph in SAR to which it refers. Where a particular SAR paragraph does not have an Acceptable Means of Compliance or any Interpretative/Explanatory Material. it is considered that no supplementary material is required.ACCEPTABLE MEANS OF COMPLIANCE (AMC) AND INTERPRETATIVE/EXPLANATORY MATERIAL (IEM) 1 1. 1. The number is preceded by the letters AMC or IEM to distinguish the material from the SAR itself. be noted that where a new AMC is developed. The acronyms AMC and IEM also indicate the nature of the material and for this purpose the two types of material are defined as follows: (a) Acceptable Means of Compliance (AMC) illustrate a means. Interpretative/Explanatory Material (IEM) helps to illustrate the meaning of a requirement. PRESENTATION The Acceptable Means of Compliance and Interpretative/Explanatory Material are presented in fullpage width on loose pages. It should however.1 2.4 Explanatory notes not forming part of the AMC text appear in a smaller typeface. Amendment 2 2-1 18 June 2011 . any such AMC (which may be additional to an existing AMC) may be amended into the document or issued as a separate Advisory Circular.3 2 2.SAR-66 SECTION 2 SINGAPORE AIRWORTHINESS REQUIREMENTS SAR 66 SECTION 2 .1 GENERAL This section contains Acceptable Means of Compliance (AMC) and Interpretative/Explanatory Material (IEM) that have been included in the SAR-66 to assist holders of or applicants for an aircraft maintenance licence in meeting the necessary requirements. In addition. Advisory Circulars issued by the Authority may contain further Acceptable Means of Compliance and/or Interpretative/Explanatory Material.2 2.3 (b) 2. Issue 2. but not necessarily the only possible means by which a requirement can be met. or several alternative means.2 1. each page being identified by the date of issue or the change number under which it is amended or re-issued.

SECTION 2 SAR-66 INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK 18 June 2011 2-2 Issue 2. Amendment 2 .

Amendment 2 2-3 18 June 2011 . provided the serviceability of the system can be established by a simple self-test facility. systems and powerplant items which are visible through quick opening access panels / doors. The scope of these inspections may include internal structure. The results of such a test must be a clear go-no go indication or parameter. AMC 66. A category A certifying staff is not permitted to perform defect diagnosis.20 (a) (2) Privileges The category B1 licence also permits the certification of work involving avionic systems. or supervise individuals and certify for their work. a category A certifying staff may also perform limited tasks in both line and base maintenance. AMC 66. Built-In-TestEquipment (BITE) or external test equipment not involving special training. Privileges 2 AMC 66. AMC 66.SAR-66 SECTION 2 IEM 66.20 (a) (3) Privileges The category B2 licence holder will need to be qualified as category A in order to carry out simple mechanical tasks and be able to make certifications if he or she was needed to exercise the privileges of a category A licence holder. which does not involve interpretations of the test results or is dependent on other test results.1 General The privileges of aircraft maintenance engineers licensed under SAR Section 7 will remain valid until 31 December 2008. Issue 2.other than a simple go/no-go decision . or will be working for. the applicant must show that he or she is working for. To demonstrate a need to hold a SAR-66 aircraft maintenance licence. This list of tasks is specified in SAR145.20 (a) (1) Privileges 1 For the purposes of category A. 2 In addition to minor scheduled line maintenance. 3 AMC 66. Defect rectification involving test equipment which requires an element of decision making in its application .20 (a) 1 Certifying staff may be granted a SAR-145 certification authorisation in relation to the SAR-66 category/subcategories held. (b) Tests that determine the serviceability of aircraft systems using switches.cannot be certified. minor scheduled line maintenance means any scheduled minor check performed during line maintenance which are limited to the following groups of tasks: (a) Visual inspections that will detect obvious unsatisfactory conditions / discrepancies but do not require extensive in-depth inspection. other on-board test systems/equipment or by simple ramp test equipment. subject to the SAR-66 aircraft maintenance licence being valid at the time of the issuance of the authorisation. and (c) Routine fluid servicing. a SAR-145 approved maintenance organisation.10 1 Application and Issue Applications for SAR-66 aircraft maintenance licence must be submitted to the Authority using Form CAAS(AW)66-1.

Licence holders should also be aware that such operations are unacceptable. 3 AMC 66. B1 and B2 staff have signed for the maintenance under their respective specialisations. Category C personnel who also hold category B1 or B2 qualifications may perform both roles in base maintenance. clearly stating that for any maintenance input the individual may work as either a category C signatory or a supporting category B1 or B2 signatory but not both. Amendment 2 . Basic knowledge examinations are conducted without the use of training notes. any combination of categories may be granted. the company should adopt procedures to prevent any conflict of interest. ‘Electrical systems’ refer to the electrical power generation and distribution system. IEM 66. and the electrical power.SECTION 2 SAR-66 AMC 66.20 (a) 1 Privileges The following titles shown against each category designator below are intended to provide a readily understandable indication of the job function: Category A: Category B1: Category B2: Category C: Certifying technician Line maintenance certifying engineer . Note: It should be noted that the category C certifier is to be considered as a maintenance management role. The principal function of the category C certifying staff is to ensure that all required maintenance has been called up and signed off by the category A.avionic Base maintenance certifying engineer 2 Individual aircraft maintenance licence holders need not be restricted to a single category.25 (a) 1 Basic knowledge examinations are conducted by the Authority. powerplant and systems as appropriate to the category or subcategory and relevant to the type or group rating held. B1 and B2 staff before issue of the certificate of release to service. Candidates may apply for such examinations using Form CAAS(AW)66-3. AMC 66.mechanical Line maintenance certifying engineer . control and indication elements of the electromechanical systems on which the category B1 or B2 licence holders are trained and qualified to ATA 104 Level 3. Examination subjects required for each category are given in SAR-66 Appendix 1. Provided that each qualification requirement is satisfied. Basic Knowledge requirements 2 3 IEM 66.20 (b) Categories and Certification Privileges The required 6-month maintenance experience should be on aircraft structure.25 (a) 1 Basic Knowledge requirements Basic knowledge examinations may be attempted at the conclusion of each SAR-66 subject module of a CAAS approved basic training course. Whilst category C certifying staff may also hold the appropriate category B1 or B2 type rated licences to act within base maintenance to support the category C signatory. 18 June 2011 2-4 Issue 2. The conflict of interest between doing the task and managing the task has been criticised previously in Air Accident Investigation Reports as a causal factor and companies should take steps to avoid this occurring. Experience should be supported by documentary evidence.20 (a) (4) Privileges The category C certification authorisation permits the certification of scheduled base maintenance by the issue of a single certificate of release to service for the complete aircraft after the completion of all such maintenance. The basis for this certification is that the maintenance has been carried out by competent technicians and categories A. Refer to SAR 66 Appendix 3.

30(a). maintenance planning.4 licence – at least 180 days in the 1year period immediately preceding the date of application of an aircraft maintenance licence. the applicant must also pass an essay paper.1 (sub)category. or qualifications based on Singapore GCE ‘O’ or ‘A’ level examinations. record-keeping. All aircraft maintenance licence applicants are required to provide a letter from their employer certifying that they meet the prescribed civil aircraft maintenance experience requirement in accordance with SAR-66. When such application has been concluded. should establish an acceptable system to evaluate such qualifications against the required training and examination curriculum. While an applicant to a SAR-66 category C licence may be qualified by having 3 years experience as category B1 or B2 certifying staff only in line maintenance. which means that category A must demonstrate a limited but adequate level of knowledge. approved spare parts control and engineering development.66. the applicant must demonstrate recent practical maintenance experience on operating aircraft and in the relevant (sub)category by submitting a schedule of experience (SOE) for the minimum number of days as shown below: (i) for category A or subcategory B1.25 (c) 1 For an applicant being a person qualified by holding an academic degree in an aeronautical. the need for any examination will depend on the course curriculum undergone in relation to SAR-66 Appendix 1. Amendment 2 2-5 18 June 2011 . unless the period between the two attempts is more than 3 months. AMC 66. Singapore polytechnics or universities with courses specially designed to meet the training and examination curriculum of SAR-66 may apply to the Authority for possible credits against relevant SAR-66 basic knowledge modules. mechanical or electronic engineering discipline from a recognised university or other higher educational institution. it is however recommended that any applicant to a category C holding a B1 or B2 licence demonstrate at least 12 months experience as a B1 or B2 base maintenance support staff. quality assurance. 2 3 AMC 66. This can be demonstrated by passing the full complement of the basic knowledge examinations for either category.2 or B1. Basic Knowledge requirements 4 AMC 66.SAR-66 SECTION 2 2 3 For initial licence issue. an Airworthiness Notice will be published to reflect the possible credits allowed under the specific course(s) of the polytechnic or university. B1 or B2 support staff are those who ensure that all relevant tasks or inspections have been carried out to the required standard before the category C certifying staff issues the certificate of release to service. and be able to make the necessary recommendations to the Authority. In addition. A SAR-145 approved maintenance organisation wishing to seek exemption against any SAR66 examination module(s) based on qualifications obtained from overseas universities or higher educational institution. 2 3 Issue 2. The levels of knowledge are directly related to the complexity of certifications appropriate to the particular SAR. whereas category B1 and B2 must demonstrate a complete level of knowledge in the appropriate subject modules.30 1 Experience requirements For a category C applicant holding an academic degree the representative selection of tasks should include the observation of hangar maintenance.25 (d) Basic Knowledge requirements (Barring period) A person who fails a basic knowledge examination subject in two consecutive attempts will be ineligible to apply for the same examination for a period of 3 months from the date of the last attempt. Category C certifying staff from the academic route must also meet the relevant level of basic knowledge for category B1 or B2.

involving the manufacture. acceptable to the Authority.30 (d) Recent practical maintenance experience may be presented in a form of a schedule of experience (SOE). Amendment 2 . The training would include the use of tools and measuring devices. IEM 66. As a guide. No SOE is necessary but the employer must ensure compliance with this requirement when supporting any application for a category C licence.40 1 Continued validity of the aircraft maintenance licence The SAR-66 aircraft maintenance licence is only valid if issued and/or amended by the Authority and the holder has signed the document in ink after having checked the correctness of the information contained therein. Recent practical maintenance experience is the experience gained in an appropriate (sub)category immediately before the date of application for an initial grant or extension of an aircraft maintenance licence. Persons applying for a SAR-66 aircraft maintenance licence should submit a compilation of such a schedule as part of the licence application. (iii) for category C licence via academic route – at least 180 days. all computations pertaining to the number of minimum workingday necessary to comply with a SOE requirement for a basic licence should be based on 180 days per year. AMC 66. a requirement for a 2-year of recent practical maintenance experience should be interpreted as a requirement to demonstrate such experience in a SOE for a minimum of 360 days (180 days x 2) in the 2-year period immediately preceding the date of application for an aircraft maintenance licence. Experience requirements 2 3 IEM 66. repair. a requirement for a 6-month of practical maintenance experience should be interpreted as a minimum of 90 days (180 days divided by 2) of SOE accumulated in the 6-month period immediately preceding the date application for a SAR-66 aircraft maintenance licence or its extension. Note: Non-base maintenance tasks may be demonstrated with records of such tasks in a logbook which must be countersigned by the supervisor.30 (a) 1 Experience requirements Practical maintenance experience on operating aircraft means the experience of having actively participated in the carrying out of maintenance tasks on aircraft which are being operated by airlines. including a minimum of 90 days on observation of base maintenance tasks in the 1-year period immediately preceding the date of application of an aircraft maintenance licence. 18 June 2011 2-6 Issue 2. The point being to gain sufficient experience in the environment of commercial maintenance as opposed to only the training school environment. overhaul or inspection of mechanical. Such experience may be combined with approved training so that periods of training can be intermixed with periods of experience rather like the apprenticeship. (v) for additional category/sub-category – SOE for the necessary duration indicated in Appendix 4 to SAR-66.SECTION 2 SAR-66 (ii) for category B2 or subcategory B1.3 licence – at least 360 days in the 2year period immediately preceding the date of application of an aircraft maintenance licence.1 or B1. For example. The time necessary for any additional classroom training should be added to the practical maintenance experience time. Similarly. electrical or electronic equipment. A skilled worker is a person who has successfully completed a course of training. (iv) for category C licence via B1 or B2 route – at least 180 days as a base maintenance support staff in the 1-year period immediately preceding the date of application for the extension of the aircraft maintenance licence.

In granting the SAR-145 certification authorisation the SAR-145 approved maintenance organisation needs to be satisfied that the person holds a valid SAR-66 aircraft maintenance licence. The certification authorisation cannot be granted by the SAR-145 approved maintenance organisation until the individual has undertaken the required task specific training on the aircraft types that the licence holder is to be authorised upon and has met the additional requirements of SAR145. The theory training is therefore not dissimilar to that required for the full licensed aircraft engineer type training in the relevant systems. but the renewal fee for 24 months is payable. This reflects the category A certifying staff holding responsibility for making the same certifications as a licensed aircraft engineer would within the limits of the licence and corresponding authorisation. theoretical training in this case would be straightforward and may be limited to the orientation of the belt and the reasons for it. Consider the following examples: (i) Passenger Seat Belt change – given the simplicity of the task. With regard to continued validity of the SAR-145 certification authorisation. The practical training should be relevant to the task and should allow the category A certifying staff to demonstrate that he or she can carry out the task and the associated function checks to permit the aircraft’s release to service. The category A task training requires both theoretical and practical training as appropriate to the task to be authorised. The SAR-145 approved maintenance organisation issues the SAR-145 certification authorisation when satisfied that compliance has been established with the appropriate paragraphs of SAR-145 and SAR-66. 2 3 Issue 2.40 1 Validity of the SAR-66 aircraft maintenance licence is not affected by recency of maintenance experience whereas the validity of the SAR-66. Satisfactory completion of training may be demonstrated by an examination and/or by workplace assessment carried out by an appropriately approved SAR-145 or CAAS approved training organisation.SAR-66 SECTION 2 2 A licence which has lapsed for less than 24 months will only be renewed for the remaining period up to 24 months from the date of last expiry. Type/task training and ratings 2 AMC 66. but in any case. Amendment 2 2-7 18 June 2011 .20 privileges is affected by maintenance experience as specified in SAR-66.20(a)(1). the applicant must pass modules M09 (Human Factors) and M10 (Aviation Legislation). This should include the ability to establish the belt to be fitted is the correct part number (and modification standard).20 (b). as a minimum. and pay up the renewal fees in arrears for the elapsed time. but will not extend to any significant level of defect diagnosis. due consideration should be given to the currency of maintenance experience and training in accordance with SAR-145. The theoretical training may require a degree of classroom training on the relevant aircraft systems for a particular type at ATA104 level 3. that it is serviceable and shows that he or she can fit it and check its security and operation after fitment. Certifying staff should note that the renewal of a licence which has expired cannot be backdated and consequently any certifications made in the intervening period would be illegal. Specific task training on each aircraft type will be required reflecting the authorised task(s) as indicated under SAR-66. A licence which has lapsed for more than 24 months may only be revalidated after the licence holder has sat for and passed the examinations as determined necessary by the Authority. Continued validity of the aircraft maintenance licence 3 4 IEM 66. The practical training would need to establish the competence of the individual to correctly perform the required task. The revalidation will only be for the remainder of the last 2-year renewal cycle.45 (a) 1 An individual holding a SAR-66 category A licence is eligible to hold an authorisation for one or more tasks.35.

If a technical log or other entry states that the aircraft pulls to the left. The task authorisation when issued should show the individual tasks that are authorised as well as the relevant aircraft types. If there is a problem with the operational checks a licensed aircraft engineer must be summoned. a brake unit change on several Airbus models may be the same but it does vary significantly to the same task on an aircraft of Boeing manufacture. It should be noted however that it is not intended that the category A certifying staff replace brake units other than where there is an obvious leak or the unit is worn to limits (as evidenced by a brake wear indicator). significant airworthiness directives and/or service bulletins. including the engines. feedback from in-service difficulties/occurrence reporting etc. A wheel has to be removed and refitted. interior and applicable components. engine ground running and computer based training (CBT) etc may also be utilised. Brake fans may have to be disturbed. The theoretical training required therefore should cover the scope of the operational systems noted above (those shown are not necessarily exhaustive) to the ATA104 level 3 depth to the point where the category A certifying staff understands the systems and their operation and can check them after he or she has completed the task without further reference to a licensed aircraft engineer. equipment. A brake change is normally associated with other maintenance tasks. 5 AMC 66. The course should also take into account the following: (a) (b) (c) (d) 2 in service experience on the aircraft type. Theoretical training should be supported by training aids such as aircraft system components. Hydraulic systems have to be disconnected. 3 4 5 18 June 2011 2-8 Issue 2. When the task training is complete. Electrical systems should be included in the type training for both categories B1 and B2. moisture. Knowledge is also recommended of relevant inspections and limitations as applicable to the effects of environmental factors such as cold and hot climates.SECTION 2 SAR-66 (ii) Brake Unit change – This task is more complex and would require detailed theoretical knowledge in order to accomplish it. its main parts. This should cover those procedures that are both general and type specific as relevant to the task authorisation being issued. wind. Amendment 2 . There may also be a need to disassemble hydraulic pipeline and electrical cabling runs. Anti-skid systems may have to be disturbed. Where the individual wishes to progress onto a similar task on another aircraft the process must be repeated unless it can be demonstrated that the tasks is in all respects the same to that already held. but this can be reduced to a minimum of 2 weeks for applicant with such previous experience. Ground simulator time.g. etc. Limited avionics system training should be included in the category B1 type training as the B1 privileges include the replacement of avionic line replaceable units. systems. and known human factors issues associated with the particular aircraft type. including training in the systems in use for technical manuals and maintenance procedures. the individual must also demonstrate an understanding of the organisation’s procedures and the paperwork control systems that are in use before being authorised. The practical training needs to reflect the practical ability and competence to do the job. although a brake change might rectify the problem the category A certifying staff cannot diagnose this fault. 4 Tasks should be performed three times or more until competence is established.45 (d) Type/task training and ratings 1 The training should give adequate detailed theoretical knowledge of the aircraft. e. The practical training must comprise a period of 4 months (minimum of 80 working days) for applicants with no recent recorded previous practical experience of aircraft of comparable construction and systems.

45 (d) 1 The required duration of practical training must be accepted on a case by case basis by the Authority prior to the type rating endorsement. its acceptance by the Authority should be supported by a detailed syllabus showing its content and duration. Where the practical training element is conducted by a maintenance organisation approved under SAR-145. the applicant should be able to: (a) demonstrate by knowledge examination a detailed understanding of applicable systems. 7 Before grant of the aircraft type. and correctly use specialist/special tooling and test equipment. glass cockpit avionics. repairs. etc. as appropriate. Some examples of differences may include. The list of tasks should be accepted directly for each individual – depending on the individual’s previous experience. The means by which the practical element is supervised and the control of the standard should be acceptable to the Authority. in the case of a structured OJT. which. or indirectly through the acceptance of a procedure giving delegation to the maintenance organisation. The agreement on the practical training contents and duration should be reached before the training starts.SAR-66 SECTION 2 6 A programme of structured on-job-training (OJT) may be prepared to satisfy the practical training requirement. etc. In all cases the practical element should include an acceptable cross section of maintenance tasks. These differences will require considerably more practical training for certifying staff that are not familiar with the new techniques and technologies. the following elements: Fly by wire. The logbook should be designed such that tasks may be countersigned by the SAR-147 school or other course provider. adjustments. ensure safe performance of maintenance. Amendment 2 2-9 18 June 2011 . inspections and routine work according to the maintenance manual and other relevant instructions and tasks. The duration of the practical type training element should take into account significant differences between types and be acceptable to the Authority. the following may be used as guidelines: 2 Issue 2. their operation and maintenance. Such records may take the form of an individual training logbook. perform removal and replacement of components and modules unique to type. including any on-wing maintenance activity. if required. the practical training element may consist of a structured OJT programme. In this case the maintenance organisation approved under SAR-145 should provide applicants for a type rating a logbook indicating a list of tasks to be performed under supervision. Where the practical training element is conducted by or under the responsibility of the training organisation under a SAR-147 approval or a direct type course approval. While it is not feasible to establish a formula giving the required training duration in all cases. The individual practical training records should be designed in a manner that they demonstrate compliance with the detailed practical training syllabus. under its own responsibility. replacements. but are not limited to. for the type of aircraft. The logbook should be designed such that tasks may be countersigned by the supervisor. it should be considered as part of the approved course and as such. can be tailored to accommodate the operating profile of the SAR-145 organisation whilst also supplementing the theoretical course elements. The individual practical training records should be designed in a manner that they demonstrate compliance with the detailed practical training syllabus. rigging and functional checks such as engine run. Alternatively. correctly use all technical literature and documentation for the aircraft. for example troubleshooting. its acceptance by the Authority should be supported by a detailed syllabus showing its content and duration. Type/task training and ratings (b) (c) (d) IEM 66. significant structural differences.

45 (h) Type/task training and ratings 1 Type experience should cover an acceptable cross section of tasks from Appendix 5 to this SAR-66. or equivalent within base maintenance.45(d) specifies a practical training duration between 2 weeks and 4 months. line maintenance environment with one aircraft per week would permit limited experience compared with the constant base maintenance check environment.45 (g) Type/task training and ratings 1 “Aircraft types representative of a group” means that: . retractable undercarriage.experience on aircraft type of a similar technology. Amendment 2 . flight guidance systems. . at a minimum.for the B1 category the aircraft type should include typical systems and engines relevant to the group (e.45 (e) Category C certifying staff may not carry out the duties of category B1 or B2. EFIS (Electronic flight instrument system).g. 4 Except in those cases where the SAR-147 organisation determines the practical training required it is the responsibility of the maintenance organisation to determine that the duration of practical training commensurates with the candidates’ experience.the quality of the practical experience. its duration may need to be extended in order to fulfill the required list of supervised tasks. (b) 3 The minimum 2 weeks practical training is normally required for all type training courses. AMC 66.recency on type. AMC 66. A proportionate amount of practical training should be included in the case of a differences or bridging type course. construction and systems including engines. These tasks should reflect. For example experience gained will depend upon the environment e. 18 June 2011 2-10 Issue 2. for the single piston engine metal subgroup) and. In either case the organisation must establish an acceptable system to determine and ensure that the practical training is sufficient in content and duration with respect to a particular target population. unless they hold the relevant B1 or B2 category and have passed type training corresponding to the relevant B1 or B2 category. The type of tasks carried out. Type/task training and ratings AMC 66.the quantity of the practical experience. as applicable to the concerned aircraft type and licence category should be performed. due to the occasional unavailability of aircraft. in the case of a structured OJT performed at line stations. 2 A “multiple engines” group automatically includes the corresponding “single engine” group.SECTION 2 SAR-66 (a) For a first type training course with no recent recorded maintenance experience. variable pitch propeller. full authority digital engine control (FADEC).for the B2 category the aircraft type should include complex avionics systems such as radio coupled autopilot. etc. Some factors that may lead to a reduction in the maximum duration of 4 months practical training required are as follows: . at least 50% of the Appendix 5 tasks. 4 months (minimum of 80 working days) of practical training on specific aircraft type is required. For the first aircraft type of each manufacturer group.g. those tasks specified by the practical training needs matrix developed by the organisation approved under SAR-147. pressurisation. It should be noted however that while AMC 66. . etc. . .

Eyesight. this may be reduced to 30%. In the context of this SAR-66.50 1 Medical opinion considers that alcohol present in the blood stream in any quantity affects the ability to make decisions. The use of any legally administered drug. including those used for the treatment of a disease or disorder.65 Revocation. Medical fitness IEM 66.60 Equivalent safety cases All proposed equivalent safety cases should be submitted to the Authority for consideration as an acceptable case. Negligent maintenance. Reasonable time means within 2 working days. Failed to carry out requested maintenance combined with failure to report such fact to the organisation that requested the maintenance. It is the responsibility of all certifying staff to ensure that they are not adversely affected. particularly in operational attitudes or any relevant personality factor. No other drugs should be used. 2 3 4 5 Issue 2. including colour vision. which has been shown to exhibit adverse side effects. Certifying staff are responsible for ensuring that their physical condition does not adversely affect their ability to satisfactorily certify the work for which they are responsible. Failed to carry out required maintenance resulting from own inspection combined with failure to report such fact to the organisation for whom the maintenance was intended to be carried out. For subsequent aircraft types of each manufacturer group. Falsification of maintenance records. this should be reduced to 20%. suspend or limit a SAR-66 aircraft maintenance licence if the person has knowingly carried out or involved in one or more of the following activities: 1 Obtained the SAR-66 aircraft maintenance licence and/or the SAR-145 certification authorisation by falsification of submitted evidence.55 Authorised person means any person who is required to establish that the holder has a valid SAR66 aircraft maintenance licence including the scope of such licence. AMC 66. suspension or limitation of the SAR-66 aircraft maintenance licence The Authority may revoke. which affect the decision making ability of the user. 2 Type experience should be demonstrated by the submission of records of practical experience showing the SAR-66 Appendix 5 tasks performed by the applicant. Authorised persons include the SAR-145 approved maintenance organisation for qualifying the holder for issue/amendment of the SAR-145 certification authorisation and any officer of the Authority. or medicines.SAR-66 SECTION 2 For the second aircraft type of each manufacturer group. is particularly important in this respect. should be administered according to medical advice. Amendment 2 2-11 18 June 2011 . Evidence of qualification 2 3 4 IEM 66. IEM 66. mental condition means psychological integrity.

Carrying out maintenance or issuing a certificate of release to service when adversely affected by alcohol or drugs.SECTION 2 SAR-66 6 Issuing a certificate of release to service knowing that the maintenance specified on the certificate of release to service has not been carried out or without verifying that such maintenance has been carried out. 7 18 June 2011 2-12 Issue 2. Amendment 2 .