1. Geometric shape compact settlements are generally found in fertile alluvial plains and in the northeastern states. 1. Compact settlements due to defence are found in the Bundelkhand region of central India and in Nagaland. 2. Compact settlement in Rajasthan is due to scarcity of water. 3. Semi-Clustered Settlements are found in the Gujarat plain and some parts of Rajasthan. 4. The units called panna, para, palli, nagla, dhani are examples of Hamleted settlement. 5. Hamleted villages are found in the middle and lower Ganga plain, Chhattisgarh and lower valleys of the Himalayas. 6. Dispersed settlements are found in Meghalaya, Uttaranchal, Himachal Pradesh and Kerala. 7. Towns which developed as religious and cultural centres are called Ancient Towns. 8. Towns which emerged as headquarters of kingdoms are termed as medieval towns. 9. Jamshedpur is an industrial town. 10. Greater Mumbai is the largest urban agglomeration/city of India. 11. Class I town or city: Urban centre with population of more than one lakh is called a city or class I town. 12. Metropolitan cities: Cities having population size between one to five million are called metropolitan cities 13.Mega cities: Cities having population more than five million are mega cities. 21% of urban population lives in mega cities. 14. Urban Agglomeration consist of a town and its adjoining urban outgrowths, Two or more contiguous towns with or without their outgrowths, A city and one or more adjoining towns with their outgrowths together forming a contiguous spread. 15. Examples of urban outgrowth are railway colonies, university campus, port area, military cantonment, etc. located within the revenue limits of a village or villages contiguous to the town or city. 16. More than 60 per cent of urban population in India lives in Class I towns. 17. Out of 423 cities, 35 cities/urban agglomerations are metropolitan cities. 18.Six of them (Greater Mumbai, Kolkata, Delhi, Chennai, Bangalore and Hyderabad) are mega cities with population over five million each. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Q.1 Define the term human settlement. Ans. Human Settlement means cluster of dwellings of any type or size where human beings live. For this purpose, people may erect houses and command some area or territory as their economic support-base. Q.2 Ans. What are urban settlements? Urban settlements are generally compact and larger in size. They are engaged in a variety of nonagricultural, economic and administrative functions. They are functionally linked to rural areas around them. Thus, they are connected directly as well as indirectly with the villages and also with each other. What do you mean by urbanization? What is the level of urbanization in India? Urbanization is measured as percentage of urban population to total population. The level of urbanisation in India in 2001 was 28 per cent, which is quite low in comparison

Q.3 Ans.

Suryaveer Singh


Chhattisgarh.4 Explain the basic differences between rural and urban settlements. The type of rural settlements in India is determined by the extent of built-up area and the inter-house distance. way of life is complex and fast. Clustered. d. 4. The three factors are: 1.Dispersed type of settlements is found in remote jungles. Ans. on the other hand. whereas. In this type of settlement the built-up area is compact and inter-house distance is small. Climate: .due to ethnic factors settlement may become fragmented and Hamleted e. depend on processing of raw materials and manufacturing of finished goods on the one hand and a variety of services on the other. LONG ANSWER QUESTIONS: Q. whereas urban settlements are large and compact. Defence from invasions and Wild animals: . Altitude: . They are of 4 types: 1.2 Ans.due to frequent droughts settlement may become hamleted. Types of the settlement are determined by the extent of the built-up area and interhouse distance. Explain any three factors and conditions responsible for having different types of rural settlements in India. Nature of terrain: . Cultural and ethnic factors – a. Caste and tribal structure: . Physical factors – a. agglomerated and nucleated settlement: a. Compact settlements are found in highly productive alluvial plains of Punjab. b. and social relations are formal. Suryaveer Singh 2 .Dispersed settlements are found in hills of Meghalaya and clustered and semi-clustered settlements are found in Gujarat plains. 2. Urban settlements provide goods and services to the people of the rural settlements and in return rural settlement provide food and raw materials. In urban areas. Availability of water: . 3.Scarcity of water in Rajasthan has resulted in development of compact settlements. This functional relationship between the urban and rural settlements takes place through transport and communication network. Rural people are less mobile and therefore. social relations among them are intimate. Cities act as nodes of economic growth. 2. Total urban population has increased eleven fold during twentieth century due to 1. Rural settlements are small in size because they depend on extensive land for cultivation etc.1 Ans. b. Religion – people of same religion prefer to live together making a settlement large or small. urban settlements. Q.to developed countries.due to defence from dacoits. c. small hills of Himachal Pradesh. wild animals or fear settlements may cluster and form compact settlements. Emergence of new towns. Explain the four types of rural settlements found in India. Security factors – a.g. The basic differences between rural and urban settlements are as follows: 1. 3. Enlargement of urban centres 2. Q. The rural settlements derive their life support or basic economic needs from land based primary economic activities.

It results from extremely fragmented and small resource support. d. Lucknow. Prayag.b. Ancient towns: a. 4.3 Describe the classification of Indian towns on the basis of their evolution in different periods. Such settlements are found in Gujarat plain and parts of Rajasthan. Towns which are more than 2000 years old and have long history of existence are termed as ancient towns. Q. Such settlements are found in highly productive alluvial plains (Punjab). They were port towns such as Mumbai. Ayodhya. Jaipur. On the basis of their evolution in different periods. dhani etc. 3.g. Medieval towns: a. Dispersed settlement: a. c. palli. Madhya Pradesh) or scarcity of water or cultivable land (Rajasthan). Important towns are – Delhi. d. These small units of settlements are known as panna. b. When a large settlement gets fragmented into several smaller units physically separated from each other but bears a common name it forms hamleted settlement. Towns in India flourished since prehistoric times. Towns which emerged during medieval period as headquarters of kingdoms are termed as medieval towns. d. 2. b. When a settlement has a few isolated huts it is called dispersed settlement. Madurai. Hamleted settlement: a. whereas people of lower status of settle on the outer flanks of the village. c. in the valleys of Shiwaliks (Deheradun) and in north eastern states. small hills with a few farms and pastures on the slope. Himachal Pradesh and Kerala. para. Agra. Pataliputra. c. b. Such settlements are found in Ganga plains. c. c. Semi-clustered settlements: a. Suryaveer Singh 3 . In this type of settlement the built-up area is less compact as compared to the clustered settlement. Modern towns: a. b. It may result from segregation or fragmentation of a large compact village. The land-owning and dominant community occupies the central part of the main village. lower valleys of Himalayas. Some sections of a village society choose or is forced to live a little away from the main cluster or village. They are found in Meghalaya. nagla. In this type of village the general living area is distinct and separated from the surrounding farms. etc. etc. Pre-independence towns: these towns were developed by the British and other Europeans rulers. Hyderabad. Important towns are – Varanasi. Ans. e. b. 3. It occurs due to social and ethnic factors. These types of settlements are found in remote jungles. Uttaranchal. 2. Such settlements are also formed due to security and defence reasons (e. Indian towns may be classified as: 1. d. These towns developed as religious and cultural centres.

8 What are religious and cultural towns? What is their function? Name four such towns.5 What are mining towns? What is their function? Name four such towns.6 What are garrisson towns? What is their function? Name four such towns. Q. Some developed as industrial towns such as Jamshedpur.3 What are transport towns? What is their function? Name four such towns. Kolkata. and Pondicherry. Some old towns also developed as satellite towns around metropolitan cities such as Ghaziabad. Q. Sindri. Bhubaneswar. Post-independence towns: i. Goa. Barauni.1 What are administrative towns? What is their function? Name four such towns. Q. Q. Q.2 What are industrial towns? What is their function? Name four such towns. Q. Gurgaon around Delhi. Chennai. Suryaveer Singh 4 . Q.9 What are tourist towns? What is their function? Name four such towns. iii. Later some hill stations and summer resorts were developed by them such as Shimla. etc. Self Activity: Functional Classification of Towns Q. Q. ii. Gandhinagar.b.7 What are educational towns? What is their function? Name four such towns. Surat. Rohtak. Bhilai. These towns were developed as administrative centres such as Chandigarh. Durgapur.4 What are commercial towns? What is their function? Name four such towns.

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