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Well Completion

Well Completion

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Published by Sanny Astari

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Published by: Sanny Astari on Feb 24, 2013
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Well Completion

Once the design well depth is reached, the formation must be tested and evaluated to determine whether the well will be completed for production, or plugged and abandoned. To complete the well production, casing is installed and cemented and the drilling rig is dismantled and moved to the next site. A service rig is brought in to perforate the production casing and run production tubing. If no further pre-production servicing is needed, the christmas tree is installed and production begins. Well completion activities include:
Fig. 1. Completed well

    

Conducting Drill Stem Test Setting Production Casing Installing Production Tubing Starting Production Flow Beam Pumping Units

After production starts, the well may need further servicing. If it's decided that the well will not be completed, then it will be plugged and abandoned.

Fig 2. Well completion service rig

Post reliable people to stop them from coming to the location. Instruct workers in handling and using the special tools required during drill stem testing. then lowers it to the bottom of the hole. This process enables workers to determine whether the well can be produced. If in an H2S area. They should be fully informed of and trained in appropriate safety procedures. A packer seat failure or fluid loss to an upper formation could cause a kick that might result in a blowout causing injuries and deaths. Opening the tool ports allows the formation pressure to be tested.  Setting Production Casing . Ensure all workers on the location understand the dangers before starting any drill stem test. Weight is applied to the tool to expand a hard rubber sealer called a packer. Drill stem test assembly  Run a pump-out-sub or downhole circulating device in the test string to to enable the system to be reversed. Other hazards are similar to those encountered during trippingout/in. the operator may order a drill stem test (DST).     Possible Solutions:   Wear appropriate PPE. Before any test starts. including the use of safety equipment and breathing apparatus. Define a minimum of two muster points with all vehicles parked in an appointed area.  Fig. Swabbing the hole on the way out with the test tool could cause a kick to occur. Keep a method for filling the hole in place at all times. post a sign indicating the test in full view for the general public to see. 3. Being exposed to unexpected release of H2S or other gases or liquids. which could result in a blowout leading to injuries and deaths. The DST crew makes up the test tool on the bottom of the drill stem.Conducting Drill Stem Test To determine the potential of a producing formation. the rig management must ensure that the blow-out prevention system includes a kill system that is capable of pumping fluid into the well below the annular preventer and at least on-set of pipe rams. Potential Hazards:  Being pinched or struck by the drill stem test tools during floor operations.

4. Installing production casing .Production Topics Completing the Well Drive Mechanisms Enhanced Recovery Techniques Offshore Operations Fig.

How are Crude Oil and Natural Gas Produced? Production is the operation that brings hydrocarbons to the surface and prepares them for processing. It provides a secure seal between everything above and below where it is set. . measured. surface casing. The production casing runs to the bottom of the hole or stops just above the production zone. The water is disposed of and the oil and gas are treated. gas and water from the well is separated on the surface. When the valve senses something amiss with the surface equipment of the well. the completion crew runs a final string of pipe called the tubing. Subsurface Safety Valve A subsurface safety valve is installed in the tubing string near the surface. Completing the Well After a well has been drilled. This is a perforated completion. a separate tubing string width packers is run in for each producing zone. In this case the casing must be perforated to allow liquids to flow into the well. and testing. Directional drilling technology allows the industry to access deposits that would otherwise be inaccessible. and production casing. In this situation the casing and cement seal off the reservoir and prevent fluids from leaving. The production casing or oil string is the final casing for most wells. The well fluids flow from the reservoir to the surface through the tubing. Usually. The valve remains open as long as fluid flow is normal. Tubing is smaller in diameter than casing-the outside diameter ranges from about 1 to 4-1/2 inches. Usually. measuring. intermediate casing. It keeps well fluids and pressure away from the casing above it. Since the packer seals off the space between the tubing and the casing. Production begins after the well is drilled. Production operations include bringing the oil and gas to the surface. it must be completed before oil and gas production can begin. A packer is a ring made of metal and rubber that fits around the tubing. maintaining production. The first step in this process is installing casing pipe in the well. The production casing completely seals off the producing formation from water aquifers. Most wells are completed by using a perforated completion. Tubing and Packers After cementing the production casing. preventing the flow of fluids. and tested. and purifying. The mixture of oil. Oil and gas wells usually require four concentric strings of pipe: conductor pipe. it forces the formation fluids into and up the tubing. it closes. Multiple Completions The operator uses a multiple completion when one wellbore passes through two or more zones with oil and gas in them. Perforating is the process of piercing the casing wall and the cement behind it to provide openings through which formation fluids may enter the wellbore. the casing runs to the bottom of the hole.

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