PUB.

173

SAILING DIRECTIONS (ENROUTE)

INDIA
AND

THE BAY OF BENGAL

Prepared and published by the NATIONAL GEOSPATIAL-INTELLIGENCE AGENCY Bethesda, Maryland © COPYRIGHT 2007 BY THE UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT NO COPYRIGHT CLAIMED UNDER TITLE 17 U.S.C.

2007

NINTH EDITION

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office Internet: http://bookstore.gpo.gov Phone: toll free (866) 512-1800; DC area (202) 512-1800 Fax: (202) 512-2250 Mail Stop: SSOP, Washington, DC 20402-0001

Preface
0.0

0.0

0.0

Pub. 173, Sailing Directions (Enroute) India and the Bay of Bengal, Ninth Edition, 2007, is issued for use in conjunction with Pub. 160, Sailing Directions (Planning Guide) South Atlantic Ocean and Indian Ocean. The companion volumes are Pubs. 171, 172, 174, and 175. Digital Nautical Chart 3 provides electronic chart coverage for the area covered by this publication. This publication has been corrected to 14 July 2007, including Notice to Mariners No. 28 of 2007.

0.0

Explanatory Remarks
0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

Sailing Directions are published by the National GeospatialIntelligence Agency (NGA), under the authority of Department of Defense Directive 5105.40, dated 12 December 1988, and pursuant to the authority contained in U. S. Code Title 10, Sections 2791 and 2792 and Title 44, Section 1336. Sailing Directions, covering the harbors, coasts, and waters of the world, provide information that cannot be shown graphically on nautical charts and is not readily available elsewhere. Sailing Directions (Enroute) include detailed coastal and port approach information which supplements the largest scale chart produced by the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency. This publication is divided into geographic areas called “Sectors.” Bearings.—Bearings are true, and are expressed in degrees from 000° (north) to 360°, measured clockwise. General bearings are expressed by initial letters of points of the compass (e.g. N, NNE, NE, etc.). Adjective and adverb endings have been discarded. Wherever precise bearings are intended degrees are used. Coastal Features.—It is assumed that the majority of ships have radar. Available coastal descriptions and views, useful for radar and visual piloting are included in geographic sequence in each Sector. Corrective Information.—Users should refer corrections, additions, and comments to NGA’s Maritime Operations Desk, as follows: 1. Toll free: 1-800-362-6289 2. Commercial: 301-227-3147 3. DSN: 287-3147 4. DNC web site: http://www.nga.mil/portal/site/dnc 5. Maritime Division web site: http://www.nga.mil/portal/site/mari time 6. E-mail: navsafety@nga.mil 7. Mailing address: Maritime Division National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency Mail Stop D-44 4600 Sangamore Road Bethesda MD 20816-5003 New editions of Sailing Directions are corrected through the date of the publication shown above. Important information to amend material in the publication is available as a Publication Digital Update (PDU) from the NGA Maritime Division website. NGA Maritime Division Website http://www.nga.mil/portal/site/maritime
0.0

Courses.—Courses are true, and are expressed in the same manner as bearings. The directives “steer” and “make good” a course mean, without exception, to proceed from a point of origin along a track having the identical meridianal angle as the designated course. Vessels following the directives must allow for every influence tending to cause deviation from such track, and navigate so that the designated course is continuously being made good. Currents.—Current directions are the true directions toward which currents set. Dangers.—As a rule outer dangers are fully described, but inner dangers which are well-charted are, for the most part, omitted. Numerous offshore dangers, grouped together, are mentioned only in general terms. Dangers adjacent to a coastal passage or fairway are described. Distances.—Distances are expressed in nautical miles of 1 minute of latitude. Distances of less than 1 mile are expressed in meters, or tenths of miles. Geographic Names.—Geographic names are generally those used by the nation having sovereignty. Names in parentheses following another name are alternate names that may appear on some charts. In general, alternate names are quoted only in the principal description of the place. Diacritical marks, such as accents, cedillas, and circumflexes, which are related to specific letters in certain foreign languages, are not used in the interest of typographical simplicity. Geographic names or their spellings do not necessarily reflect recognition of the political status of an area by the United States Government. Heights.—Heights are referred to the plane of reference used for that purpose on the charts and are expressed in meters. Index-Gazetteer.—Navigational features and place-names are listed alphabetically in the back of the book. The approximate position, along with the Sector and paragraph numbers (e.g. 1.1), facilitate location in the text. Internet Links.—This publication provides internet links to web sites concerned with maritime navigational safety, including but not limited to, Federal government sites, foreign Hydrographic Offices, and foreign public/private port facilities. NGA makes no claims, promises, or guarantees concerning the accuracy, completeness, or adequacy of the contents of the web sites and expressly disclaims any liability for errors and omissions of these web sites. Light and Fog Signals.—Lights and fog signals are not described, and light sectors are not usually defined. The Light Lists should be consulted for complete information. Ports.—Directions for entering ports are depicted where appropriate by means of chartlets, sketches, and photos, which facilitate positive identification of landmarks and navigational aids. These chartlets and sketches are not always to scale, however, and should be used only as a general informational guide in conjunction with the best scale chart. Specific port facilities are omitted from the standard format. They are tabulated in Pub. 150, World Port Index. Radio Navigational Aids.—Radio navigational aids are not described in detail. Publication No. 117 Radio Navigational Aids and NOAA Publication, Selected Worldwide Marine Broadcasts, should be consulted. Soundings.—Soundings are referred to the datum of the charts and are expressed in meters.
0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0

Pub. 173

III

0.0

0.0

Special Warnings.—A Special Warning may be in force for the geographic area covered by this publication. Special Warnings are printed in the weekly Notice to Mariners upon promulgation and are reprinted annually in Notice to Mariners No. 1. A listing of Special Warnings currently in force is printed in each weekly Notice to Mariners, Section III, Broadcast Warnings, along with the notice number of promulgation. Special Warnings are also available on the Maritime Division website. Wind Directions.—Wind directions are the true directions from which winds blow.

Reference List
0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

0.0

The principal sources examined in the preparation of this publication were: British Hydrographic Department Sailing Directions. Various port handbooks. Reports from United States Naval and merchant vessels and various shipping companies. Other U.S. Government publications, reports, and documents. Charts, light lists, tide and current tables, and other documents in possession of the Agency.

IV

Pub. 173

Contents
How to Keep this Book Corrected . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II Preface. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . III Chartlet—Sector Limits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VII Conversion Tables. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . VIII Sailing Directions Information and Suggestion Sheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IX Abbreviations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XI Sector 1 Pakistan and the West Coast of India—Ras Muari to Diu Head (including the Gulf of Kutch) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Sector 2 India—West Coast—Diu Head to Cape Rama (including the Gulf of Cambay and Bombay) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 Sector 3 India—West Coast—Cape Rama to Cape Comorin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 Sector 4 Sri Lanka (including the Gulf of Mannar, Palk Strait, and Palk Bay) and India—East Coast—Cape Comorin to Point Calimere 75 Sector 5 The Laccadive Islands and the Maldive Islands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 Sector 6 India—East Coast—Point Calimere to Balisahi Point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127 Sector 7 India—East Coast—Balisahi Point to New Moore Island—Bangladesh and Burma—West Coast . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151 Sector 8 Burma—South and West Coasts and Thailand—West Coast . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185 Sector 9 The Andaman Islands and the Nicobar Islands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231 Glossaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259 Index—Gazetteer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 265

Pub. 173

V

Pub. 173
0.0

SECTOR LIMITS —PUB. 173

VII

59 24.90 126.14 24.68 25.64 7.28 8.09 68.06 91.95 40.77 26.21 69.01 219.17 Fathoms to Meters Fathoms 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 0 0.16 26.19 15.97 242.18 104.65 75.38 67.23 11.14 127.25 59.37 72.25 31.74 6 10.41 16.46 34.90 21.07 20.41 236.Conversion Tables Feet to Meters Feet 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 0 0.42 27.66 262.09 41.33 26.43 33.05 6.84 3 9.69 239.67 54.40 21.56 47.36 38.55 6.07 35.74 2 0.20 13.16 155.66 13.76 193.76 2 1.82 29.49 7 3.85 18.04 8 4.48 190.90 39.93 179.53 62.46 108.26 47.80 170.21 1 0.44 109.91 5 9.50 22.14 27.59 1 1.65 48.28 43.11 16.23 58.08 173.24 8 26.62 171.65 5 1.69 27.12 23.52 9 29.97 14.37 20.92 45.72 16.22 19.52 29.71 37.30 100.19 144.62 10.79 8.90 288.82 252.56 2 6.04 23.19 291.58 118.81 22.81 38.61 107.73 8.60 43.27 141.35 6.30 118.13 VIII Pub.49 87.42 23.32 25.22 9 16.86 21.06 278.13 232.36 177.10 255.66 21.43 45.10 47.72 64.60 203.52 76.93 78.95 160.40 9.57 8 2.73 128.47 10.77 88.12 53.01 10.32 89.78 26.13 166.50 15.39 154.03 301.55 65.57 226.28 1 3.02 114.02 146.67 149.80 31.89 62.86 73.36 13.55 25.62 285.75 53.10 113.86 25.94 265.79 32.60 28.39 131.21 29.70 138.69 74.51 22.92 183.84 42.74 5.92 10.83 147.29 36.45 39.84 50.95 22.27 111.21 82.47 98.59 9 4.66 6.04 196.26 7 2.25 246.38 27.58 54.39 8 14.15 19.64 96.32 10.70 31.06 60.15 314.09 49.79 170.47 295.99 137.01 82.18 80.28 36.58 18.34 282.27 7.91 28.31 305.42 131.03 52.89 33.38 50.30 164.06 29.92 51.87 27.43 318.28 14.06 13. 173 .33 17.74 49.34 95.94 16.47 26.08 27.96 168.90 101.13 5.96 7.53 35.57 7.18 42.32 200.03 24.39 15.25 25.19 7.99 28.37 9.25 3 5.14 12.88 7.34 24.54 18.75 14.23 164.05 Meters to Feet Meters 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 0 0.67 157.82 44.78 275.76 181.93 17.37 44.95 24.12 38.61 3.83 20.67 19.15 30.15 91.46 19.54 249.98 93.23 25.81 65.59 308.31 3 1.29 49.30 3.63 32.12 102.11 150.33 153.16 209.71 9.00 18.99 157.49 8.54 41.03 71.68 52.63 17.11 12.21 133.53 140.12 4 13.89 14.34 32.55 144.80 Meters to Fathoms Meters 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 0 0.56 7 12.84 84.31 20.12 45.68 6 19.00 5.45 173.43 1 0.71 134.62 36.00 32.64 24.76 20.29 21.11 177.03 17.20 22.08 4 7.48 16.01 46.78 106.95 104.00 40.22 269.29 223.51 167.47 162.10 9.52 4.40 56.36 142.45 213.57 53.97 55.56 12.73 43.41 120.99 324.77 42.17 36.51 28.59 21.38 259.92 10.58 121.24 18.56 129.12 18.58 14.13 30.42 2 3.62 98.74 111.35 78.49 23.40 49.07 124.68 20.97 28.93 115.53 11.85 148.84 11.87 137.91 3.04 135.75 298.85 229.44 5.95 6 3.49 85.80 15.22 4.50 151.35 4 1.64 180.87 9 2.93 51.85 4 2.28 175.96 7 22.20 187.96 6 1.71 321.26 37.56 39.30 14.88 206.73 23.02 17.98 34.48 51.45 12.98 21.00 3.65 160.75 117.75 12.01 11.67 13.76 19.83 4.30 28.97 29.82 159.50 272.87 311.67 85.24 122.86 124.84 15.83 9.40 5 16.20 48.09 6.04 3 0.61 30.40 5 2.73 216.64 42.81 95.46 45.18 8.

/Ste./Nos. Number/Numbers Position approximate Position doubtful Publication Saint/Sainte Pub. PA PD Pub.Abbreviations The following abbreviations may be used in the text: Units °C cm cu. 173 XI . St. dwt FEU grt kHz Directions N NNE NE ENE E ESE SE SSE Vessel types LASH LNG LPG OBO Time ETA ETD Water level MSL HW LW MHW MLW HWN HWS LWN Communications D/F R/T GMDSS LF Navigation LANBY NAVSAT ODAS SBM Miscellaneous COLREGS IALA IHO IMO loa degree(s) Centigrade centimeter(s) cubic meter(s) deadweight tons forty-foot equivalent units gross registered tons kilohertz km m mb MHz mm nrt TEU kilometer(s) meter(s) millibars megahertz millimeter(s) net registered tons twenty-foot equivalent units north northnortheast northeast eastnortheast east eastsoutheast southeast southsoutheast S SSW SW WSW W WNW NW NNW south southsouthwest southwest westsouthwest west westnorthwest northwest northnorthwest Lighter Aboard Ship Liquified Natural Gas Liquified Petroleum Gas Ore/Bulk/Oil ro-ro ULCC VLCC Roll-on Roll-off Ultra Large Crude Carrier Very Large Crude Carrier estimated time of arrival estimated time of departure GMT UTC Greenwich Mean Time Coordinated Universal Time mean sea level high water low water mean high water mean low water high water neaps high water springs low water neaps LWS MHWN MHWS MLWN MLWS HAT LAT low water springs mean high water neaps mean high water springs mean low water neaps mean low water springs highest astronomical tide lowest astronomical tide direction finder radiotelephone Global Maritime Distress and Safety System low frequency MF HF VHF UHF medium frequency high frequency very high frequency ultra high frequency Large Automatic Navigation Buoy Navigation Satellite Ocean Data Acquisition System Single Buoy Mooring SPM TSS VTC VTS Single Point Mooring Traffic Separation Scheme Vessel Traffic Center Vessel Traffic Service Collision Regulations International Association of Lighthouse Authorities International Hydrographic Office International Maritime Organization length overall No.m.

0 Additional chart coverage may be found in NGA/DLIS Catalog of Maps.1. 173 1. SECTOR 1 — CHART INFORMATION 1 . and Related Products (Unlimited Distribution). Pakistan and the West Coast of India—Ras Muari to Diu Head (including the Gulf of Kutch) Pub. Charts.

The Northeast Monsoon (December through March) is characterized by a relatively cool dry land breeze from the NE. Two 10. 66°59'E.3 1. Tides—Currents.) is the W extremity of a sloping headland which rises to a pointed summit about 148m high. Kalubhar Tapu Light.1 to 10. It is low and sandy to Manora Point. extends about 10 miles NE of Ras Muari. A rock. The arrangement of the sector is from NW to SE. a 15m high lattice tower. they are Manora Point Light.3 Karachi.1 1. The Jhil Range. Caution.).—The tidal rise at Karachi is 2.5 miles E of Ras Muari.1 1. the Southwest Monsoon wind brings with it fine alluvial sand. then WSW and W. lie up to 2.5m high. Manora Breakwater Light.3 miles. is a perpendicular cliff at the SE end of a narrow hill. Manora Point Light is shown from a red circular tower with white bands. 70°50'E. the highest hummock.5m.).0 Plan. extend nearly 2 miles SSE of Buleji Point. high temperature. Naval exercises take place S and W of Ras Muari. extends about 3 miles NW from a position about 4 miles W of Ras Muari.. is situated at the end of the breakwater. has general depths of less than 5. 179m high.3 mile NNW of Manora Point.8 miles S of the point. Manora Breakwater extends about 0. Churma Island (24°54'N. is the gateway to the fertile regions of the interior. lies about 4 miles NW of Ras Muari. the principal sea and rail terminal of Pakistan.5 and 2. which continuously blankets the city. marks the N edge of a spoil ground and is on station from September to May. occasionally falling below the level of the chart datum. 66°36'E..pk Winds—Weather.2 Hawkes Bay. In the outer anchorage.3 SECTOR 1 PAKISTAN AND THE WEST COAST OF INDIA—RAS MUARI TO DIU HEAD (INCLUDING THE GULF OF KUTCH) 1.2 Ras Muari to Karachi 1. about 29m high.gov.3m.kpt. with depths of less than 11m. A lighted buoy. lies SW of Buleji Point.7m at MHHW and 2. with depths of less than 18. 1.—The Southwest Monsoon. is situated on the coast about 1 mile SE of Ras Muari.4m at MLHW.1m. In addition to the rain.8m.) World Port Index No. Mandvi Light. Tides at Karachi are semidiurnal and show a pronounced diurnal inequality at times. which is scarcely perceptible.1 Ras Muari (Cape Monze) (24°50'N. The signal station for communicating with vessels outside the harbor is a conspicuous lattice tower. 38m high. with depths of 9. extends about 3.. Karachi is the largest and leading industrial city of Pakistan. is characterized by high humidity..1 1.8 mile E of the headland. respectively.1 1. about 1.5m patches lie on the spit. 234m high. Foul ground and shoal water.—This sector describes the coasts of Pakistan and India between Ras Muari and Diu Head (20°41'N. passing about 4. Nancowry Shoal. SW of Ras Muari Light. Shoals. The sector includes the port of Karachi.—A dangerous wreck is charted 27 miles S of Karachi.2 A submarine cable is laid from Hawkes Bay. 1. The harbor is divided into the Lower Harbor and the Upper Harbor. A submarine exercise area extends up to 40 miles WNW.3m. 48600 1. Chachhi Light. Jakhau Light. A spit.2 mile SSE from Manora Point. The coast from Ras Muari to Buleji Point (Goth Jafar). Ras Muari Light.2 Karachi (24°47'N. shown from a concrete tower. There are ten major lights in the area covered by this sector. which generally runs from July to September. Pirothan Island Light. Some squalls reaching force 6-7 will occur during the Southwest Monsoon. 50 miles SW. Manora Point (24°47'N. 66°39'E.1 1. and coral ridges. a narrow ridge of sand. which generally reaches Karachi in the latter part of July. and Humani Point Light. 42. is rocky and backed by the Jhil Range.5 miles S of Ras Muari. 1. leading S. lies about 3. 1. 66°59'E. and 25 miles SSE of Ras Muari. best seen on the chart.. Pub. about 9 miles E.5 miles farther ESE. sets W. lies in the middle of the entrance to the bay.1 1. about 0. Navinal Point Light. about 8.1 1.1 1. Fog or mist is common at dawn and dusk during the winter months. Karachi Port Trust Home Page http://www. 51m high and painted in horizontal white and black bands. A prohibited anchorage area.3 1. Khuddi Light. moored off the edge of the coastal bank about 3 miles SSE of Manora Point. with depths of less than 9. forming the W side of the entrance to Karachi. lies on the inshore part of this spit.). Beauchamp Reef.3 1. gravel. 173 . about 0.5 miles SW of Ras Muari Light. with a least depth of 8m. and strong winds. and shell. Its position is approximate and is liable to be washed away or withdrawn frequently. particularly at LW. gravel.3 1. about 91m WSW of the light structure.1 1. a ridge with a nearly level crest with several remarkable hummocks on it.3 1. In addition to the light on Ras Muari. including the Gulf of Kutch. Ras Mauri lies about 17 miles W of the entrance to Karachi and is the most likely landfall for vessels approaching Karachi from W.1 1. consisting of a series of sand. with the principal commercial facilities situated on both sides of the Upper Harbor. E of Buleji Point. with depths of less than 1. the flood current sets E and the ebb current.

vessels with a draft exceeding 9.3 1. the frontage then leads about 1.25 miles NNE along the E bank of the New Channel.7m. attention should be paid to unreliable holding ground.5m 11. the rest of the Lower Harbor is dredged to a depth of 9. It is 189m long and 27. Although the authorized maximum draft for vessels entering or leaving the port has been 9. 1. lie in the vicinity of the mooring buoys between the LASH moorings and Baba Pool.6m. a small town built on a sand ridge. according to the prevailing state and conditions. From the S tip. therefore.5 miles NE of Manora Point. It has a width of 106. from Fairway Lighted Buoy K to ENE of Manora Point. 173 . In the Upper Harbor.3 The flood current sets E across the SE end of Manora Breakwater at a velocity of 2 knots.3 1. on the W bank are the naval dockyard and West Wharf. N of this. Berthing information for East Wharf. The channel.3 Karachi Berthing Facilities Berth Merewether Wharf Berth No.3 1.4m Containers. The berths along the E and W banks of the shipyard and the drydocks are dredged to a depth of 6. is dredged to a depth of 12. lies E of the S part of East Wharf. Pakistan and the West Coast of India—Ras Muari to Diu Head When berthing.3 1. The entire frontage of West Wharf S of Berth No. Multi-purpose. Multi-purpose. 5 Berth No. during the Southwest Monsoon. Containers. West Wharf. The oiling pier lies in the NE part of the outer harbor. Its greatest velocity is about 3 knots at springs. Multi-purpose. for the anchor may drag when casting off.5m 11. Caution is necessary as many stranded and dangerous wrecks.1m on its E side and 8.5 mile. where numerous drydocks and slipways are situated. 1. however. Extensive oil storage installations in the vicinity of the oiling pier are visible from a considerable distance. There is a turning basin abreast Berth OP-IV which has a dredged depth of 10. The Upper Harbor is formed between East Wharf on its E side and West Wharf on its W side.3 1. The silting usually occurs during the Southwest Monsoon. during the Southwest Monsoon this may increase or decrease at the discretion of the port officer. 3 Berth No.3 1. where it branches into both the Upper Harbor and Baba Channel.5m 11. 7 Berth No. it is strongest on the W side.2m.5m. making boat work at the Manora piers. between Bunker Island and Baba Pool. Containers.000 dwt can be accommodated.4m 10. Depths—Limitations. then into the channel and harbor toward the S end of W wharf. where it sets strongly toward the E side of the channel. a considerable swell rolls into the Lower Harbor. Berthing information is given in the accompanying table.4m 10. North of this position.3 1. Containers. LASH vessels up to 259m in length. 8 149m 167m 147m 167m 11. which are situated on the W side of the Lower Harbor NW of Manora Point.2m on its W side. The ebb current sets down the channel until abreast the oil facilities on the E side of Lower Harbor.7m and it is dredged to a depth of 7.3 1.4 Sector 1. with a maximum draft of 8. Juna Bundar Wharf. On the flood tidal currents.3 1. berth abreast Bunker Island.4m wide.4m 10.7m are not permitted to enter the port.3 1. Along E side of the Lower Harbor channel are three oil piers. with a dredged depth of 11. On the W side of the channel. while on the E bank lies East Wharf.3m. The channel along the Upper Harbor is dredged to a depth of 10. 2 Berth No. stretches to a position 1. vessels are advised to let go an anchor in midstream to enable them to haul-off when leaving. its greatest velocity in the entrance is about 2 knots. 153m 152m 167m 152m 10.7m. 6 Berth No. dredging in the harbor is continuously in progress to maintain the charted depth as far as possible.4m. New Channel leads W of the naval dockyard and the West Wharf. 4 Erskine Wharf Berth No.8m. Kiamari Groin forms the NE side of the Lower Harbor. vessels up to 26. and the Lower Harbor oil facilities are given in the accompanying table. The largest drydock in Karachi is situated in this area. Aspect.3 1.3 1. 24 is occupied by a shipyard for a distance of about 0. Due to the varying depths at berths and silting in the channels. with a sill depth of 5. 1 Berth No. best seen on the chart. hazardous. the Lower Harbor channel. Length Depth EAST WHARF Remarks Pub.2m. Kiamari.—The depths in the port of Karachi are reduced to the chart datum measured from the lowest astronomical tide.—The Lower Harbor is that portion of the harbor between the entrance and the S end of East Wharf.5m Multi-purpose. there are head and stern mooring berths to accommodate vessels up to 183m in length.

4m Containers. Containers.5m. 16 Berth No. 23 Berth No.1m 7.3m 7.1m 9. Bulk cargo. 13 Berth No.3m 9. Bulk cargo. 22 Berth No. 11 Giles Wharf Berth No.3m 9. Vessels with a length of 275m and over. 2. Vessels with a length of 275m and over.4m 10.1m 9. Containers and ro-ro. Length Depth Remarks Napier Mole Ship Repair Berths JUNA BUNDAR WHARF LOWER HARBOR OIL FACILITIES Pub.4m Bulk cargo. A maximum length of 229m. and grain discharge. 17A Berth No. A maximum beam of 30. A maximum draft of 10. Bulk cargo. 173 .4m 10. 20 Berth No. 28 Berth No.3m 7. Lighterage. 1 Berth No. 17 Berth No. Lighterage.000 dwt and: 1.8m 5. Containers and ro-ro. 9 Berth No. 19 Berth No.4m WEST WHARF 7. 2 Berth No.4m 3. 18 Berth No. Pakistan and the West Coast of India—Ras Muari to Diu Head 5 Karachi Berthing Facilities Berth James Wharf Berth No. 21 Berth No. 15 Berth No.5m 10.3m 10. ro-ro. 18A Berth No. 25 Berth No.4m 10. Lighterage.1m 9. 3. 10 Berth No. 14 Younghusband Wharf Berth No. 27 Berth No. 147m 167m 147m 10.4m Bulk cargo.4m 10.4m 10.5m 13. 24 Berth No. 24A Berth OP-I 147m 167m 147m 36m 79m 79m 149m 164m 164m 168m 374m 167m 167m 182m 190m 182m 213m 152m 37m 196m 10. Containers.0m 7. Vessels up to 35.4m 10. 26 Berth No.4m 10. 147m 147m 167m 11.4m 10.7m. Containers and ro-ro. 12 Berth No.Sector 1.

3 1.—Pilotage is compulsory for vessels of 200 gross tons and over.3 1.4m Remarks Vessels up to 75. A vessel.3 1. they should anchor farther offshore in depths not less than 12m. 12. Three conspicuous chimneys.89m. Pilotage. Directions.6m. 2.89m. at the entrance to the harbor. best seen on the chart. the lights on East Wharf can be seen from some distance seaward and care is necessary not to mistake them for navigational lights when approaching the port. about 3 miles E of Manora Point. which is manned continuously. 160. The following vessels may navigate in the harbor only between LW and 1 hour before HW: 1. From September to May. Vessels should not anchor off Karachi during the Southwest Monsoon. Vessels having had more than two cases of dangerous infectious diseases aboard.6m. Ras Muari makes a good landfall. Bara Andai. or in which more than two deaths have occurred during the 12 days prior to their arrival at Karachi.3 1. When approaching Karachi from S and passing the Indus Delta. best seen on the chart.3 1. Position. Land is not generally seen before sighting Manora Point. 4. 173 .3 Pub. Pilots are requested by VHF. 48 hours in advance. A maximum draft of 11. A maximum beam of 39. Inbound vessels should maintain a listening watch on VHF channel 12 when the pilot boards.—The signal station for communicating with vessels outside the harbor is the tower WSW of Manora Point Light.6 Sector 1. A maximum length of 259m.4m The new part of Karachi.3 1. 2. ships can anchor off Karachi outside the charted prohibited anchorage areas. 2.5 miles N of the Manora Point Light signal station. Vessel’s name and flag. It has been reported (1995) that vessels are not allowed to depart the harbor on the ebb current.” Anchorage. about 1.3 Berth OP-V 322m 13. situated on some low sandhills. and 16.—This facility is situated in the charted position of Berth OP-II and Berth OP-III.—Ships should contact Manora Pilot Control when within range.3 1.—Anchoring is prohibited within the area.3 1. best seen on the charts.3 1. 11. Anchorage is also prohibited within an area. Vessels up to 75. while awaiting the pilot. Note.3 1. making visual determination of the ship’s position difficult. are displayed from the Manora Point Light signal station and from the N entrance of Boat Basin. lies about 1 mile ENE of Manora Point and is the S islet of Oyster Rocks. This tower. 2. ships are recommended not to anchor in depths less than 9m and during April and May. and shift berth during daylight hours only. while that part closest to the harbor is closely-built and crowded.3 1. the following information should be reported: 1. as convenient according to draft.3 1. 3. A maximum length of 259m. using the General System. stand about 8 miles E of Manora Point. During the Southwest Monsoon. will flash the Morse Code Letter “U” if a vessel appears to be lying into danger.3 1. Storm signals. Time of arrival. as several vessels have lost anchors and cables while attempting to do so. A maximum draft of 11.—The best approach is with Manora Point Light bearing about 040° until Fairway Lighted Buoy K is sighted 1. Tankers greater that 259m long berthing at OP-I and OP-IV. via their agent. at the head of the Upper Harbor. one of which emits a flare. sail. Pilots board incoming vessels by day or night in the vicinity of Fairway Lighted Buoy K. Regulations. Vessels should send their ETA and arrival draft to the port. 1. The Manora Point Light signal station will advise the vessel if rough weather prohibits the pilot from boarding. this approach is particularly hazardous. 28m high and marked by a light. 9.3 1. contains many fine buildings. Outbound vessels should maintain a listening watch on VHF channel 12 from 30 minutes prior to departure until when outside the port limits. From the W. must anchor in the quarantine anchorage. At night.3 1. There is a continuous haze and overcast during this season. When arriving at the anchorage.000 dwt and: 1.5 miles NW of Manora Point. Vessels in quarantine may enter the harbor during daylight hours only. bring the wind and sea on the port quarter and lower an accommodation ladder on the lee side. Vessels with their bridge structure aft and having a length greater than 170m must arrive.000 dwt and: 1. the landmarks are not good.3 1.3 1. Pakistan and the West Coast of India—Ras Muari to Diu Head Karachi Berthing Facilities Berth Berth OP-IV Length 305m Depth 13. Cargo.3 1. Signals. Sailing Directions (Planning Guide) South Atlantic Ocean and Indian Ocean under “India—Signals. 3. Several groups of large square buildings are distinguishable at Clifton. which extends 5 miles SW from Manora Breakwater.3 1. Cargo vessels greater than 288m long. A maximum beam of 39. Further information on these storm signals may be found in Pub. The Karachi Pilot hailing and working frequencies are VHF channels 8. extending about 2 miles SSW from a position about 1. on the approach of the pilot boat. should heave-to with its head to wind and sea and. 3.3 1.

0m. a beacon stands on the NE point of the island. Caution.org. Port Qasim Authority Home Page http://www. The turning basins are 370m and 450m in diameter. Surveyor’s Sand is a drying patch with its SW extremity lying 1. Except in the entrance channel.5 Approach to Port Muhammad Bin Qasim 1. The turning basin off the Iron Ore and Coal Jetty is maintained to a depth of 12. 67°20'E. close W of Fairway Lighted Buoy.) is entered 11 miles SE of Manora Point. Other dangerous wrecks lie 2.3 1.4 Port Muhammad Bin Qasim (24°46'N. Bundal Island (Bondal Island). Depths—Limitations. 1. The outer anchorage area is centered about 2 miles W of Fairway Lighted Buoy. lies close NE of the SE extremity of Buddo Island. 48605 1. respectively. 173 . it is capable of handling vessels of up to 50. 27 miles SE from the center of Karachi.3 miles SSE.5 Port Muhammad Bin Qasim is situated in Phitti Creek. A tower. between Buddo Island. Fog or mist may also be encountered during the winter months at dusk and at dawn. as stated previously.000 dwt can be accommodated.5 1. sand and mud.000 dwt and 75.3 1.—No vessel should proceed within 2 miles of the harbor entrance without local knowledge. both maintained at 12.. From the vicinity of Buddo Island and Zulfiquar Bank. Manora Point Light should not be brought to bear less than 030°. From this jetty. with an elevation of 24m. good holding ground.000 dwt and 200m in length. a distance of 13 miles. When leaving the harbor. and 4.4 Phitti Creek (24°40'N. 6.4 1. During the heavy swells of the Southwest Monsoon.5 miles SSW of the rear range light on Surveyor’s Sand. There are several mooring buoys in the channel E of Bundal Island. the channel traverses Gharo Creek. about 3 miles S. Buoys are liable to drag and are moved frequently to mark the best channel. Phitti Creek is approached by Ahsan Channel. During this period. which leads through the shallow flat fronting the entrance.2m. which dries 0. This entrance is marked by Fairway Lighted Buoy. The turning basin off the Marginal Wharf is maintained to a depth of 10. especially in passing the dredges.5 1. Dolphins extend the berthing length to 250m. and under no circumstance should a vessel attempt to enter the harbor without a pilot. moored 7. but in 1995 vessels were limited to a maximum length of 225m. which begins with Ahsan Channel.0m.5m. It is dangerous to proceed within 2 miles of the harbor entrance. with a draft of 12. The least depth in the anchorage is 17m. The Fauji Oil Terminal has a 46m long main platform. When berthing during the Southwest Monsoon. However. Anchorage. the pilot disembarks at the harbor entrance. the channel continues through Phitti Creek and Kadiro Creek.5 1.4 1. maintained at a depth of 10m.—Anchorage. A vessel should swing to an anchor and berth with its head S. Range lights lead through the outer part of Ahsan Channel. it is advisable to drop an anchor in midstream to assist in hauling off. These dangerous wrecks may not be marked by buoys. Pakistan and the West Coast of India—Ras Muari to Diu Head and closed. of Bara Andai Island. then bring the leading lights in line as mentioned below. to the Marginal Wharf. particularly during the Southwest Monsoon.8 miles WSW. and is well-marked.3 7 the E side of Bundal Island. The lighthouse should not be brought to bear less than 030° due to the heavy rollers and swell on the edge of the flats. in 16 to 20m. the current mostly follows the direction of the creek.6m.4 Pub. Vessels should then steer through the buoyed channel on course 220° until Fairway Lighted Buoy K is passed clear. vessels should anchor near the W end of the anchorage area and pay out extra cable. There are dangerous or stranded wrecks which lie within 1. Caution. lie about 1.) World Port Index No. 0.5 miles SW of Buddo Island. rocky heads with a least depth of 10.—Access to the port is through a 24mile long channel.5 and 4. can be obtained in the Outer Anchorage Area. suspended dust in the air also results in reduced visibility.3 1.5 1.—During the Southwest Monsoon. The limits of the anchorage area can best be seen on the chart. and 5 miles W of Manora Point Light.3m alongside. Three dangerous wrecks lie within the red sector of Bari Andai Light. and a maximum draft of 10m (10. and 9 miles SW of Manora Point Light.5 1. The best time to enter Karachi is on the first or last of the flood tidal current. The width of the channel ranges from 185 to 280m in the approach and from 145 to 250m in the reach channel. composed of sand dunes. The rear range light stands off the SE end of Surveyor’s Sand. shown from metal framed beacons situated S of Bara Andai Island. 1.5 miles WSW of Manora Point. 67°09'E. Vessels between 25.4m. Dredging of the channel is continuous.0m. 2 miles farther up the creek.8 miles N of its S extremity. Vessels should not attempt to enter the harbor without a pilot. but silting is liable to occur. 5.3 1.3 1. a heavy swell is also encountered in Ahsan Channel.4 1.Sector 1.8 miles S.5m with special permission).6m. There is a prominent building on 1. There is a maintained depth of 11. Dangey Patches. lies N of Buddo Island. 1. is maintained to a depth of 13. A newly-constructed port. a maximum beam of 32. mud and sand. Ahsan Channel is approximately 9 miles long. The approach channel to the harbor entrance is marked by a lighted range. which is low and sandy. Several vessels approaching Karachi from S have grounded on the banks off the Indus Delta through failure to sound and for not making due allowance for the SE set.portqasim.pk Tides—Currents. The channel is marked on either side by lighted buoys. to a turning basin off the Iron Ore and Coal Jetty.. and Zulfiquar Bank. There are waiting areas on the E side of the channel SW and N of Zulfiquar Bank.—The spring tidal current of 3 knots on the flood and 5 knots on the ebb are normal in Phitti Creek and vessels should proceed with caution.3 1. good holding ground.

3m Non-monsoon season (September to May) 225m 9.—Night navigation is restricted due to vandalism of the lighted aids to navigation.6 There are seven berths at the Marginal Wharf.—The climate of the Indus Delta is hot in the summer. Turshian Creek (24°03'N. The jetty is connected to the steel mill by a trestle and a conveyor. and nothing is seen for many miles but swamp. cool in the winter. at 1.—All berthing limitations are subject to change. Vessel name and flag. a dangerous wreck lies near the SE edge of the dredged channel. Vessels of 50.6 1. Length overall.5 1. Loading/discharging information.5 1. which normally occur from June to September.5 Regulations. 5. handles bulk carriers serving a steel mill.5 miles SW of Fairway Lighted Buoy. 4. The rate of the current is usually less than 1 knot.0m 10. Khuddi Creek (24°36'N. During the Southwest Monsoon..—Pilotage is compulsory. Pilots board 1.0m 11. in the charted anchorage area W of Fairway Lighted Buoy. 4.. good holding ground. Sir Creek (23°38'N. 67°12'E.. with limiting dimensions. 1. usually from June through August and in December. 2. Tides—Currents. sand and mud. a heavy dust-haze hangs low over the coast.000 dwt 25.000 dwt 35.6 1. 67°09'E. Caution. and is partially flooded at HW to a considerable distance inland. making the coastal features unrecognizable. Gross registered tonnage. and can attain the following rates at ebb: 1.)—5 knots.—The currents in the Indus Delta tend to be variable. 11. October—The currents are variable. Berthing limitations are given in the accompanying table.—The vessel’s ETA is required 72 hours.5 The Iron Ore and Coal Jetty. 3. Deep-draft vesels are normally boarded by the pilot about 2.) is fronted by a bar with a depth of 2. with the exception of a little jungle. although it is planned to increase the capacity to 100.5 1. Phitti Creek (24°40'N. 2.. Each berth is 200m long. Pub. leads between low sandy islands on either side of the entrance.—Vessels can obtain anchorage. During the heat of the day. which can be seen at LW at a distance of 5 or 6 miles. Vessels contact with Port Muhammad Bin Qasim Control via VHF channel 16 is required 6 hours prior to arrival. Caution. close SW of Ahsan Channel Lighted Buoy No.)—3 knots. 3.6 1. Pilotage.6 1.6 Winds—Weather. which is backed by mangrove swamps and fronted by drying sandbanks. and 24 hours in advance. A narrow strip of sand hills generally fronts this coast. in order to assure that vessels berth at HW.5 1. The delta is low and flat throughout. 1 mile ESE of the Fauji Oil Terminal. The vessel’s arrival draft should be forwarded at this time. The land is scarcely discernible at more than 2 miles offshore. 67°16'E. 3.000 dwt 35. 1. The pilot boat is gray-hulled with a white superstructure. as follows: 1.000 dwt 25. Aspect. The ETA message should contain the following information: 1.5-10. and unhealthy during the floods.4m.5m 11.000 dwt.5 hours prior to HW.8 Sector 1. except where bushes exist. on the S side of the creek.—It is difficult to identify the different mouths of the Indus River on a coast so devoid of landmarks and. as follows: Berthing Limitations—Marginal Wharf Berth 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Maximum Vessel Dimensions Size — 25.5 1. the currents have a seasonal variation that is related to the monsoons. Draft.000 dwt can be accommodated.5 The Indus Delta—Phitti Creek to Khori Creek 1. 173 .3m Note. and especially during the dry season when the wind blows off the land.6 1. it is 270m long. Updated information can be obtained from the Pakistan Notice to Mariners or the local port authorities. It is destitute of trees and shrubs. Tidal currents at the mouths of the Indus Delta are strong. A light shown from a round tower. In Ahsan Channel. Updated information can be obtained from the Pakistan Notice to Mariners or the local port authorities. with black and white bands.000 dwt 25. within the bar a 1-mile wide channel. 68°02'E. In bad weather. 1.—All berthing limitations are subject to change. Net registered tonnage..5m 11. Maximum Vessel Dimensions Iron Ore and Coal Jetty Monsoon season (May to September) Length Draft Beam 201m 10. the pilot may board in the waiting area or in the channel abreast the SE end of Bundal Island.)—3 knots. even from a short distance to seaward. February to September—The set is usually SE.)—4 knots. 67°23'E. Anchorage. as the maximum allowable draft varies. but the sets of the currents do tend to parallel the coast. Pakistan and the West Coast of India—Ras Muari to Diu Head 2.5 1.5m 10. with the strongest consistancy occuring from June to August. when a heavy swell persists. with depths from 4 to 11m. but a rate of as much as 2 knots can occur. 48 hours. 6.6 1.000 dwt Length 183m 183m 183m 183m 200m 200m 200m Draft 9.—The Indus Delta extends about 115 miles SE from Karachi to Khori Creek. Farther off the delta. November to January—The set is usually NW. vessels shouls anchor in the W part of the anchorage and pay out extra chain.5m 25. messages are to be sent through Karachi.5m Beam 25m 25m 25m 25m 25m 25m 25m Note. Dabba Creek (24°19'N.0m 10.5m 25.

as the coastline and creek is constantly changing.7 Off-lying features.9 1. 67m high. except in the clearest weather. about 28 miles inland. the channel. 160. where a deep-water channel leads into the creek. An echo sounder trace of maximum depths can help provide a clear indication of the vessel’s position. but is navigable by local craft as far as Lakhpat.5m or more. The creek has depths of 5. this is especially so during the Southwest Monsoon. owing to the constantly changing coastline. when it sweeps over the sand banks in the entrance.9 1.). 173 1. can be identified by some sand hills. 1.1 to 13.8 Khori Creek (23°30'N. a few beacons remain.. 68°35'E.7m high.7m. about 19 miles NW. Vessels should approach the entrance cautiously. sandy ridge. The coast between Godia Creek and Khori Creek.6 Maniara (23°28'N. Tides—Currents.9 1. when the low hills NE will be visible. The bottom and sides of The Swatch consist of soft. 68°20'E...—Tidal currents are strong in the estuary of Khori Creek.1m high. in about 8m. a light is shown about 2 miles E of the entrance.1m high. partially submerged.8 Khuddi Island Light times. The coast between Godia Creek and Asar Mata. has a shallow bar.—Sir Creek (Sir River) (23°38'N. with some sand and gravel on its NW edge. 68°02'E. as the breakers on the shelving coastal banks.7 1. about 9. Khori Creek to the Gulf of Kutch 1. on the S side of the creek.7 1. It is dangerous for a deep-draft vessel to approach the Indus Delta.5m high. The bar.9 Godia Creek (Goria Creek) (23°14'N. 68°37'E. 6. leads through the creek for a distance of 10 to 12 miles.5 to 8. Local knowledge is necessary for entering the creek.6 1. Villages are numerous and the land is wellcultivated. Beacons marking the mouths have long since collapsed or disappeared.. is uniformly low and fronted by a narrow. with depths of 3 to 3. the bar had a least depth of 1. especially during the poor visibility and the strong sets of the Southwest Monsoon.Sector 1.8 1. is about 4 miles across and lies with its outer edge about 10 miles seaward of the E entrance point of Khori Creek. As the channel and banks are subject to constant changes. Pub. about 7 miles offshore. 0.). The S side of the entrance is low and fronted by ridges of sand. The entrance to Godia Creek is marked N and S by beacons.. When a vessel is in depths of over 5. The entrance of the creek is obstructed by several sand banks.” Anchorage. the low land cannot be seen. from about 3 to 8 miles wide. with depths of 5. with depths exceeding 1. Pakistan and the West Coast of India—Ras Muari to Diu Head 9 bank has depths of 20. It is almost regular in shape and has steep sides and a flat sloping bottom.—Good anchorage can be obtained. is surmounted by a fort. extending about 52 miles SSW from approximately 23°40'N. This 1. when during spring tides it extends more than 10 miles offshore. local knowledge is necessary. except near Asar Mata where it is slightly higher.5m off the mouth of Khori Creek. attaining a velocity of 5 knots at springs and about 3 knots at neaps. on the SE side of the river.2m in the fairway in 1961. 1. especially off the main fresh water mouths on the ebb tidal current.8 1. The flood sets up the channel until three-quarters flood. about 43 miles ESE. except on the E side. The Swatch is a remarkable submarine valley. The Swatch has depths of less than 183m on either side of it. Inside the bar. which extend many miles offshore. 67°27'E. as the depths shoal abruptly in places.—Storm signals are shown at Jakhau Harbor using the Brief System. Signals.6 to 1.097m at its SW end. which is about 9.7 1. especially in the vicinity of The Swatch.) enters the sea about 100 miles SE of Karachi and is the approximate boundary between India and Pakistan. one of the outlets of the Rann of Kutch. about 5 miles SW of the creek entrance. as few distinguishable landmarks are visible until in the vicinity of the 10m curve.1 to 33m and extends as much as 60 miles offshore. are broken by numerous waterways. especially during springs.5 to 22m. is very low and indented by creeks.9 1. Salt is loaded into barges from a jetty near the above-mentioned light. The discoloration of the water is very marked. A dangerous wreck lies about 15 miles WSW of the entrance to Kori Creek. known locally as Jakhau Harbor. are often seen before the coast is sighted. Further information on these storm signals may be found in Pub. Vessels navigating along this coast should remain in depths over 18m.). The banks of the creek.9 . mud. gray mud. The Swatch can be of great assistance to vessels approaching Karachi from S. Khori Great Bank is an extension of the coastal bank SW from the coast between The Swatch and Khori Creek. Sailing Directions (Planning Guide) South Atlantic Ocean and Indian Ocean under “India—Signals. Heavy tide rips are common off the mouths of the Indus Delta.8m within the entrance. 1. on the N side of its entrance. when visibility is poor and the sea breaks in depths of 5.

). 26m high. consists of two rocky shoals. Asar Mata (22°50'N. at a velocity of 1.4m patch lies about 6. consistng of sand and mud. 1.10 1. They cause heavy tide rips and overfalls over the uneven ground in the vicinity of the shoals and W toward Asar Mata. lies about 18 miles N of Asar Mata. and a house are conspicuous about 3.9 1.5 miles ENE of Krikubbah. the strong tidal currents over the uneven bottom cause a confused breaking sea. sheltered from W winds by the breakwater. the E end of the sand hill is a steep bluff. about 3.which lies about 24 miles E of Nanu Hill and may sometimes be seen from the S side of the gulf.10 1. The SE shoal. the coastal bank and some detached shoals.7m can berth alongside the breakwater at high tides. has a pier and pitched slope. particularly on the ebb tide.1m. 69°21'E.8 miles SW.). on either side of the intervening deepwater channel. or beneath the surface.. Katrura. Aspect. Across the mouth of the Gulf of Kutch. have been reported.10 1. particularly on the ebb tide. the tidal currents set E with the flood and W with the ebb.. Dholo Pir Temple.5 miles WNW. A lighted buoy is moored off the SW side of the SE shoal.7 to 3m can secure alongside to 1.9 Chachhi Light is shown on the W side of the entrance of the Chok River (22°57'N. Depths of less than 10m extend about 2 miles WSW of the shoal. with a small creek at its foot. 31m high. This danger.) lies in the fairway of the W approach to the Gulf of Kutch. and has a least depth of 3m. attaining a velocity of 1.3 miles long. situated on the W bank of the Rukmawati River. with a least depth of 4. 69°13'E.9m. 69°21'E.3m high. The depths in the gulf are very irregular for about 30 miles inside the entrance. The N shore is backed by a range of hills. with the bottom changing from rock and sand to mud.). about 6 miles S of the breakwater at Mandvi (22°49'N. extending in an E-W direction and nearly parallel with the coast for a distance of about 35 miles. The small harbor. 69°00'E. is the most important commercial town in the Gulf of Kutch. contains some sheltered anchorages and harbors. setting in any direction for short periods. about 15 to 20 miles inland. Krikubbah. with a sharp peak.). 1. 434m high and circular. Pilotage.12 Pub. The sea sometimes breaks in this fairway even in calm weather.). They then decrease gradually. Detached shoals.. at an elevation of 34m. with depths of 9. The bottom consists of sand and rock.10 1.10 1. can usually be identified by the discoloration of the water over it.9 to 4m and depths of 5.) World Port Index No.9 1. which are very visible at night. The tidal currents in the vicinity of Lushington Shoal set ESE with the flood. lies about 5.10 1.—Albert Edward Breakwater.5 miles ESE of the Chok River. The N shore. The NW shoal.12 1. Depths of less than 10m extend about 2. is the highest of the E peaks of this range. lies on the coast. and 1.—Pilots for the Gulf of Kutch are obtained at Mandvi (22°50'N. Along the coast on the N side of the gulf.10 1. 173 . there are heavy tide rips on both sides of the fairway.5 miles W of Humani 1.10 1. large quantities of mud and sand are sometimes held in suspension. radio messages to Mandvi are relayed through Kandla Radio. giving the impression of being in shoal water. is composed of sand and rock.—Lushington Shoal (Unniamor) (22°38'N. This may occur between the meridians of 69°00'E and 69°30'E. The Gulf of Kutch 1. Gurur Shoal. attaining a velocity of 2 to 3 knots. Strong cross currents.10 1. is fronted with white sandhills. about 7 miles E. Pakistan and the West Coast of India—Ras Muari to Diu Head Point.8 knots at neaps.11 The coast between Asar Mata (22°50'N. Ranwara Shoals. 253m high. and 1. is fronted by numerous shoals. is conspicuous about 3. with a least depth of 7.5 and 2 miles offshore.11 Mandvi (22°50'N. 69°04'E. either on the surface causing discoloration.5 knots at neaps. extend between 1.5m and less near its SE end.5 miles long. separated from each other by a narrow passage.—Tidal currents are strong in the estuary. The tomb is situated on a sand hill. lies about 6. a conspicuous Hindu temple.— In the entrance to the Gulf of Kutch. heavy tide rips are experienced.. from a white masonry tower with black bands. the tidal current sets E with the flood and W with the ebb.10 1. 25. on the crest of the sandhills..10 1. about 23 miles SSW.5 miles NNW of the W end of this shoal. Vessels with a maximum drasft of 3. about 18 miles WNW of Humani Point.5 miles S of Asar Mata. about 5. 69°13'E. entered between Asar Mata and Humani Point (Vomani Point) (22°29'N. also circular and 378m high. The sea sometimes breaks in this channel. has an area at its E end with a depth of 3. The S shore is fronted with islets and islands covered with brushwood and surrounded by coral reefs. about 5 miles NW of Humani Point. protects the harbor from W winds. The shores of the gulf are uniformly low. 68°47'E. Tamachi Pir Tomb. on the N side of the gulf. however. At the W edge of Gurur Shoal. 10m high. Nanu Hill (Nunnomar Hill).5 miles E of Asar Mata. has an area at its NW end with depths of 0. with depths of less than 5m. Tides—Currents.11 1.) and Mandvi.10 1. between 6. Between Gurur Shoal and the coast S and SE. with depths of less than 10m. Vijayvillas Palace.7m..2m high. even in calm weather. lie about 2.10 The Gulf of Kutch—North Coast 1. A 9.3m. Caution.10 The Gulf of Kutch. oriented EW. Between Asar Mata and Mandvi. Between Gurur Shoal and the mainland S and SE.10 1. where sailing vessels and lighters with a draft between 2. the depths are irregular.. which will be churned up by a ship’s propellers. The port authority at Mandvi is exercised by the Port Officer. Tidal currents over Ranwara Shoals attain a velocity of 5 knots at springs and 3 knots at neaps.. A shoal.12 Mandvi.10 1. Depths—Limitations. 564m long and lighted at the head. It has been reported that the tidal currents in the gulf are very irregular in direction and that a vessel proceeding into or out of the gulf may be set considerably N or S in a short time.5 miles NE of the shoal.10 Sector 1. 69°21'E.1m and 15. 48620 1.

Sailing Directions (Planning Guide) South Atlantic Ocean and Indian Ocean under “India—Signals. extends 0.5 mile offshore in places.000 dwt can be accommodated. 2 Berth No.5m high. is shown from Mandvi Light.—The town is surrounded by a wall flanked with bastions. stands 4. Long narrow ridges of sand.” Anchorage. marked by lighted buoys and a lighted range. The height of HW at Mandvi ranges between 3 and 4. The tidal currents at the anchorage attain a rate of 3 knots at springs and less than 2 knots at neaps.8m and a mean neap range of 2.12 1.0m Remarks Tankers Tankers Bulk cargo Bulk cargo 1.14 An offshore SPM. 69°43'E. a container terminal. Cargo is handled by means of lighters at these anchorages. a drying bank extends about 1 mile seaward of the coast.13 Mundra International Container Terminal. The two berths have a total berthing length of 632m and can accommodate vessels with a maximum draft of 18.12 Raval Pir Tomb (Rawal Pir Tomb). Pakistan and the West Coast of India—Ras Muari to Diu Head 11 half-ebb.12 http://www. conspicuous and lighted. with Mandvi Light and the breakwater lights in line bearing 358°.5m. N. with gusts up to 22 knots.13 The coast between Mandvi and Mudwah Point (22°46'N. During the first half-flood. Tides—Currents. 160. front the coast between Mudwah Point and Navinal Point.14 1. The port consists of the Navinal Marine Terminal. 1.. in daylight only.com 1.14 1. Mudwah Point is a sandy bluff. lies about 5.5 knots at springs and 2 knots at neaps.com Winds—Weather.mict.0m 10. Aspect. the winds are generally SW. There are some sand hills with clumps of trees in the vicinity of the Tomb. Further information on these storm signals may be found in Pub. and an offshore SPM. the bank can be identified by the discolored water. 69°30'E.12 1. with a racon. Depths—Limitations. There is no navigable passage N of this bank. Mundra Port Home Page Mandvi Light work cargo on a HW only. and NE of the point. 69°42'E) lies about 1. maintained to a depth of 14. a sand bank.5m. lies from 4 to 7 miles ESE of Mudwah Point and consists of detached drying ridges of sand. a T-head jetty.3m.14 Maximum vessel Length 250m 180m 200m 180m Draft 15. it is steep-to on its S side..5 miles NNW of Navinal Point. Mundra Port—Navinal Marine Terminal Berth Berth No.—Tides are semi-diurnal. however.portofmundra.5 miles NE of the entrance to the harbor.5 miles E of the harbor. the backwater is entirely flooded at very high spring tides and at ordinary HW during the Southwest Monsoon. in a depth of 32m. sand and shingle bed.12 1. the bank can be identified by the rippling of the water. Navinal Point (22°44'N. the greatest elevation being not more than 3m. in depths of 9 to 11m. farther offshore the strength increases. A light.Sector 1.com http://www. partly covered with mangrove bushes and through which several small creeks flow.2m. and after 1.—Good anchorage may be obtained.14 Mundra Port (22°54'N. Signals.—Storm signals are displayed.—The weather is generally dry. 2. North of this point an extensive backwater runs to within 2 miles of Raval Pir Tomb. From the masthead.5 to 3m high. Vessels up to 80. located near Navinal Point. 1. 4 1. From April to September.poport. with a mean spring range of 4. 12. within which a large flat roofed building forms a prominent landmark.000 dwt can be acPub.7 mile SSE from the shore and has two outer berths and two inner berths.. Tidal currents run up to 4. a tall white masonry tower with red bands. 3 Berth No. 1 Berth No. about 12 miles E. the General System is used.) is fringed by a sandbank which extends about 0. A conspicuous radio mast.14 1. from a flagstaff at the Customs House. Berth information can be found in the accompanying table. lies about 2. 173 . the entire harbor dries out at a half tide.12 1. Sonar Durree. A sonar lighted buoy is moored 1.0m 9. A large swamp. Mundra International Container Terminal Home Page http://www. the winds are generally NE.5 miles S of Sonar Durree. 1. 75m high. Tankers up to 360. is approached from the SE through a channel.mundraport. from 1. From September to April. on the SW bastion of the wall mentioned above.3 miles SW of Navinal Point.) consists of a few ridges of sand.—Navinal Marine Terminal. extends NW.5m 15.13 1.3 miles offshore. Between these sand ridges and the mainland there is an extensive swamp which is covered with mangroves and intersected by numerous small creeks.

sheltered from W winds. A fog signal is sounded from the tower. The port limits extend approximately 2.—Vessels should send their ETA 10 days. An anchorage area for vessels using the SPM is located S of the SPM and is bounded by lines joining the following positions: a..47'N. 173 . A submarine pipeline extends NNE from the SPM to the shore.) World Port Index No. Okha (22°28'N.47'N. Pakistan and the West Coast of India—Ras Muari to Diu Head to approach the offshore oil terminal near Sikka Creek. The port is protected and open year round. and a confused sea occurs over the shallow ground NW of Padmatirth Point. the town of Okha lies on this point.00”E. is fitted with a radar reflector and lies about 0. standing about 14.net.5 miles NE of Navinal Point.3 to 6. 2 miles NW.5 mile stretch of the route NNE of Okha.14 1.. attaining a velocity of 3. having depths of 23m. and 24 hours in advance.17 The Port of Okha lies between the N end of the Okhamandel Peninsula (22°29'N. is about 1.7m shoal lies about 3 miles E of Navinal Point. is conspicuous.8 to 1. with a least depth of 2.16 aplport@ad1. at the N extremity of the Okhamandal Peninsula. A Deep Water Route has been established leading from SW of the entrance point of the Gulf of Kutch for the use of VLCCs 1. Deep-draft vessels working cargo can anchor about 1. 22°38. with a least depth of 6.17 1. Southeast of the island.—Pilotage is compulsory.5 miles W of Humani Point. navigating in the Gulf of Kutch. 7 days.5 knots at neaps. 69°05'E.8 knots at neaps.17 1. but must keep clear of the range line leading to the container terminal. forms the S entrance point of the Gulf of Kutch.8m at MHWN. respectively. Humani Point Light.5 miles from the coast. Okha Point. then E into the gulf. extend about 1. about 27 miles ENE. with a dome. about 4 miles WSW of Humani Point. bauxite. lies about 2.—Vessels waiting to berth at Navinal Marine Terminal can anchor. There are two beacons standing 0. The port can be contacted by e-mail. The pilot boards. 69°22'E. and sodium carbonate. shown from a tall white masonry tower with red bands. The route varies in width from 0.25 miles S of Navinal Marine Terminal. Its main exports are cement.17 1. West of Samiyani Island. in 30m. the tidal currents set NE with the flood and SW with the ebb. 69°04'E. 1. The flood current sets strongly around the S end of Samiyani Island in a S and E direction. and a chain of shoals. situated close SSW of the light. 69°39. Vessels with drafts less than 15m.5 miles ENE of Bhadreswar Temple. extends about 8. Two radio masts.16 Humani Point (Vomani Point) (22°29'N. and then WNW in the area N of Samiyani Island. 24m high.14 1. with a white dome 25m high. with depths of 0.4m. the tidal currents set ESE with the flood and WNW with the ebb.2 and 0.15 Between Navinal Point and Nakti Creek.16 The ebb current.17 1. should keep N of the Deep Water Route and S of Ranwara Shoals (22°41'N.in 1. The route is entered 7 miles WNW of Kachchigadh Light. 69°42.16 1.15 The Gulf of Kutch—South Coast 1.17 1. the ebb current attains a velocity of 2 knots at neaps.vsnl. Bhadreswar Temple.— Aramda Reefs. 22°37. from there it sets S through Okha Harbor. passing N of Investigator Reef.17 Pub. There is a strong undertow at the anchorage off Okha Point. 3 days. with its SW extremity over 30m high. 21m high. 48 hours. SPM—about 1. with a velocity of 1. 69°05'E. in 5m.4 mile SSE and SSW. commodated.00”E. the 8. Pilotage.). one setting along the W side of the harbor and W of Samiyani Island. b. and between it and Chandri Reef.17 1. Tides—Currents.3 to 1. sets N through the harbor until it reaches the shoal water NW of Padmatirth Point. 2.5 miles having controlling depths of 25m. The flood current attains a velocity of 3 knots at springs. It has a velocity of 1.14 1. Another temple. 5 days. lies on the point.2 miles ESE of Navinal Point. lies about the same distance WNW of Humani Point. E of Navinal Point. about 3. 22°38.17 1. A 6. the reverse is the case. with facilities to accommodate deep-draft vessels. and the other setting N and NE between Samiyani Island and Beyt Shankhodhar.6m. 69°39.5 miles ENE of the same point. Samiani Island (Samayani Island) lies about 1 mile N of Okha Point.14 1.12 Sector 1. curving E around the S end of Beyt Shankhodhar.17 1.17 1. 69°42. the coast is fronted by a mud flat which dries up to 3 miles offshore..59'N.59'N. A clump of banyan trees is conspicuous about 3.75 miles S of the SPM.15 1. Strong eddies form in the harbor at springs with both tidal currents. A tower.16 1. 1. Regulations. and Bobby Shoal. of the point. low and sandy. coming from the E around the S end of Beyt Shankhodhar.7m.3 miles S from the above temple. North of Samiyani Island.2 miles SSE of Navinal Point. are marked by fixed red obstruction lights. Terminal—about 1.8 miles NE. lies about 1 mile ESE of Humani Point and is marked by a 28m high flagstaff.—The tidal rise at Okha is 3..5 knots at neaps and 2 knots at springs. Here it divides into two branches.16 1. the tidal currents set SE with the flood and WNW with the ebb. a fort lies close W from it.). In the W approach channel to Okha Harbor. it was reported that the shallowest depth of 23m lies between the meridians of 69°08'E and 69°10'E. 1. c.06”E. Depths—Limitations.14 1. Small shallow-draft vessels can anchor.75 miles SW from the town. In 1982.4 mile SSE from the point. The ebb current has a velocity of 1.3 to 2 knots at neaps. with a least depth of 0.4m.) and Beyt Shankhodar.14 Anchorage. Marian Shoal.5m at MHWS and 2. 22°37. 48670 1. d. as follows: 1. leads between Lushington and Gurur Shoals. as follows: 1.7 miles.06”E. and 1. with its first 4.

which lies about 0.3 miles.5 miles ENE of Samiyani Island and is marked close SW by a lighted buoy. then bringing the NE corner of Sayaji Pier in line with the 10. 1 is moored about 0. in a least depth of 5. lies W of Chandri Reef. Vessels should not proceed farther until the arrival of the pilot.17 1. on its W side.—Vessels can obtain anchorage in the outer roadstead.3 mile apart.5 hours before LW. it can accommodate vessels up to 119m long. 2 marks the SE end of the shoal. lies 1. Samiyani Island is fringed by a reef. lies with its SW extremity about 2 miles NE of Samiyani Island. The E side of this pier provides a deep-water berth. The pier can accommodate vessels up to 164. leads between Okha and Samiyani Island. Buoy No. It is seldom used and should not be attempted without local knowledge. During the Northeast Monsoon.7 and 8. Vessels with a draft of not more than 4. and generally used. a tomb. There is a heavy tide rip on all the shoals. The W of the two channels from the N leads close NW of Samiyani Island. It is only used by coasters and small craft with local knowledge. a vessel should be in the above position 1.17 1. Pilots board vessels about 1. an extensive area with depths of less than 3.3 mile N of the N extremity of Samiyani Island. Sailing Directions (Planning Guide) South Atlantic Ocean and Indian Ocean under “India—Signals. Storm signals are displayed at Okha. Several other shoal patches lie in this vicinity.17 1. on its E side. the maximum permitted length is 164m. the maximum permitted length is 160m. Samiyani Island North Light is shown from a white concrete tower with black bands standing at the NE edge of the drying 13 1.17 1. and has a depth of 9.17 reef. has a least depth of 4. extends about 1.17 1.1m extend about 0. when the tidal currents on each side of the island are comparatively slack and a vessel may take a sheer while entering or leaving.17 1. Less water than charted has been reported (1993) about 0. 145m long.5 hour before HW or 1. A large shoal. locally known as the Southern Channel. lies close SW of Sayaji Pier and is similar to it in construction. Sayaji Pier. in a least depth of 7. Mariners are advised to keep well clear of Gurur Shoal. 1 is moored about 0.5 miles NNE of Samiyani Island. The E channel of the two from the N is buoyed.17 1. depending on the height of tide.5 mile. Okha Point and Samiyani Island have been reported to be good radar targets at 12 to 15 miles. 101m high. These beacons. Second Pier (Dry Cargo Berth). lies close N. bearing about 207°. At other times there is a strong race N and S of Samiyani Island.17 1.5m. Lighted Buoy No.8m. passing close SE of Samiyani Island. A large shoal.17 1. in line bearing 231°. a conspicuous chimney.17 1. A wreck.17 Pub.3 mile E of the NE extremity of Samiyani Island. they lead through the W channel in a least depth of 3. circular. it was reported (1994) that the maximum beam is restricted to 28.9m. is connected with the railway system. 173 .4m.5 mile W of the shoal. a 5m patch lies about 0. Chandri Rock. which dries in places and extends about 0. lead through the fairway of this channel in a least depth of 3.3 mile W of the same extremity.9m in the channel. Strong tidal currents flow across this channel and it should not be attempted without local knowledge. the General System is used.—There is a Coast Radio Station and a Port Radio Station. Further information on these storm signals may be found in Pub.17 1. considered safe. lies about 5. 3 miles SW of Okha. There is a drying patch in the SE part of this shoal.5 mile ESE of the buoy.17 1.3 mile farther NNW. Chandri Reef (Chinri Reef).17 1. extends SSE and dries over its central portion for about 0.5 miles SW of Humani Point.17 1. 1.—In addition to the landmarks and navigational aids mentioned for the S approaches to the Gulf of Kutch. Aspect. which dries. although caution is necessary as a dangerous wreck lies close N of the pilot boarding position.17 1. Buoy No. two from the N and one from the S of Samiyani Island. and during the Southwest Monsoon 0. with depths of 2 to 5m.5 hours before HW or at LW. detached patches. especially on the ebb. stone tower near the center of Samiyani Island. with a depth of 5m. berthings are port side-to. with its W edge about 1. Directions. During the Northeast Monsoon. Vessels should signal their ETA 24 hours before arrival.7m.8 miles WNW from its E extremity.17 1. and vessels up to 93m in length. lies close S of Okha Point.2m.—Three channels lead to Okha.4m high beacon.8m.Sector 1.2 mile NE from the NE extremity of the island. Pakistan and the West Coast of India—Ras Muari to Diu Head Samiyani Shoal. a concrete pile structure 122m in length. in depths of about 12m.5 miles NNW of Island Center Light. Signals. with depths of 4 to 5.17 1. lying on Adatra Point.6m in length. The Center Light is shown from a white.3 miles ENE of Padmatirth Point. this leads through the fairway with a least depth of 4. The leading marks for this channel are two black beacons on Humani Point. amending the time as necessary. lie between the buoy and the shoal. The leading marks for this channel are two beacons which lie 0. 160.4m in Okha Harbor. Because of the narrow entrance. Passenger Jetty and a small slipway lie close SW from Second Pier. There are general depths of 6.4m.17 1.1m alongside. An airstrip is situated at Mithapur.17 1.7 miles NNW of Samiyani Island. black disc top marked. The best time to enter and leave the port is about the time of slack water. the NW end of which lies about 0.17 1.1m high. The maximum draft varies between 6.1 to 9. In line bearing 116°. Pilotage.2 mile W of the NW extremity of the shoal. The E channel is approached to pass between Samiyani North Light and Lighted Buoy No.9m in the fairway.17 1.17 1. during the Southwest Monsoon. The W channel.3m. sand and broken shell.17 1. The reef lies on the SW corner of an extensive shoal with depths of less than 1. with a draft of 7m. Depths of 6. with a spire 27. A light is shown from the top of a building. Daily permissible drafts for vessels entering or leaving the port are published for each month by the port officer. distant about 1. lies about 1. 1.—Pilotage is compulsory for all vessels greater than 350 gross tons and is available during daylight only.” Anchorage. 2. 50m high. The entrance channel.9m and a length of less than 160m can anchor SE of Okha Point. lying close NE of the chimney. 2 marks the NW extremity of this shoal.17 1. Strong tidal currents flow across and the channel is extremely narrow and difficult.17 1. Buoy No. a shoal with a least depth of 2.5m.17 1. with Samiyani Island Light bearing 171°.

the village of Positra lies 2 miles SW of the point. the rest of the island consists of open jungle with thorny scrub.3 mile N of it. a bluff island 21m high at its S extremity. Although the island is surrounded a by rocky reef and dangers. has a sand ridge on its SW side which covers only at HWS. Vessels are cautioned to avoid shoals extending NW and SW from the NW edge of the reef.18 1. a town with a pilgrim resort.14 Sector 1.).18 1. Pakistan and the West Coast of India—Ras Muari to Diu Head The Gulf of Kutch—South Coast—Pindara Bay and Approaches 1.19 1.18 1.5 mile E of Merodi Bet and also on its W side. A stranded wreck. lies 0. Hanuman Temple. Mitha Chusna (Chusra Bet) is a small rocky islet.18 Bet Shankhodhar Island (Beyt Shankhodar) lies with its NW extremity.18 1.8 miles SE of Hanuman Point. The head is almost impassable and extends S forming the E side of the Okhamandal Peninsula. is composed mainly of sand hills on its NE part. Merodi Bet the W entrance to the bay.—Anchorage for a small vessel with local knowledge can be obtained 0. Positra Bay (22°26'N. when course may be altered towards the anchorage. concrete tower with black bands at the edge of Bural Reef. On the E and SE sides of Bural Reef. with a 3.19 1. when the village of Positra.19 1. The highest group of trees lie on its E side. Bhaidar Island (Baidar Tapu) lies 3 miles NE of Mitha Chusna.) lies about 3.5 mile E of Bet Shankhodhar Island. bearing about 205°.5 miles SSW of Positra Point. a small reef lies about 0. Small vessels may anchor. local knowledge is necessary when navigating in the vicinity. Dwarkadish Temple. is the only building on this part of the island. Anchorage.5 miles. The red sector of Samiyani Center Light covers Paga Reef between the bearings of 260° and 290°. extending between 2. The tidal current in this vicinity flows E and W at rates between 2. is sandy on its W part. Hanumandauda Reef lies on the foul ground extending about 1 mile N from the NE shore of Bet Shankhodhar Island. Anchorage. mud. is most prominent.17 The continuation of all three channels S lead to anchorage and moorings SE of Okha Point.19 1. with Hanuman Point bearing 334°. an extensive drying coral reef. another wreck lies about 1 mile S. Chank Tapu Light is shown from a white. Directions.7m shoal patch about 0. 69°09'E. 173 .) is entered W between the SE point of Bet Shankhodhar Island and Positra Point. as described above. lies at the E edge of foul ground extending E from Positra Point. Local knowledge is necessary when navigating in the vicinity. there are deep channels N and W of the reef.19 The summit of Ajad Island is 8 miles SE of Positra Point and in line with Great Peak.8 miles ENE and 2 miles E of Hanuman Point. Following this course. The island is mainly composed of sandhills on its N part.5 miles E of Hanuman Point. Local knowledge is essential in navigating in the vicinity. the bay is very shallow and dries in places. The ruins of an old tower lie high on the summit of a round hill at the S point of the island. attaining a rate of 1. A light is shown and a racon transmits from a round tower.8 mile E of it. about 0. lying at the S point of Bural Reef. several dangers exist in the fairway of the W channel. lies S of the NW point.. for the anchorage. with another tomb 0.18 1. lying on 20m high ground bears 180°. 1 mile NNE of Chank Island.18 1. is steep-to on its N side. is small and wooded. Hanuman Point (22°28'N. Paga Reef. which dries out to a distance of 1. in a depth of 7m. however. however.—Vessels proceeding to the anchorage can pass either E or W of Chandri Reef.5m. with another islet close to it. The Gulf of Kutch—South Coast—Okha to Bet Shankhodhar Island and Pindara Bay 1.5 mile S of Padmatirth Point and is surrounded by many temples and shrines. Bural Reef (Chank Reef) (22°30'N. steer E to pass clear N of Chandri Rock and a shoal patch about 0. E of this position the bottom is rocky. the E extremity of the island. A small. about 1 mile SE of Okha Point. in depths of 11 to 16.18 1.5 to 3 knots. The W limit of the Saushtra coast extends ENE to the head of the Gulf of Kutch. Shiyardi Bet marks the E entrance to the bay. there is good shelter from W winds. steer for it and proceed. the highest summit of Barda Hills. lying 3 miles E of Nora Island. There are some clumps of coconut and a few other trees. The tidal currents at the anchorage flow S with the flood and N with the ebb. The reef extends about 10 miles from E to W and 9 miles from N to S.18 1.19 1. a large square building near the center of the town. Pindara Bay is large and shallow. 37m high and 9. Bet (Beyt). Vessels passing E of the reef should.8 mile N. but covers at HWS tides. Chank Island (Chank Tapu).. seen between two islets of Merodi Bet. Ajad (Ajar).).—During W gales.5 to 5.18 1. 12m high. 69°12'E. from a position about 0. Padmatirth Point. vessels anchoring E of the reef should avoid Bubasir Rock off its E end. 69°19'E. a small bluff tableland about 9m high.. when Positra village bears 180°. There is a small jetty at the town. leads close SE of Paga Reef. white domed tomb lies on the point. which leads close NE of Paga Reef. sheltered from all winds. This anchorage can be approached by the deep channel E of Paga Reef.18 Positra Point (22°25'N..19 1. mud. 69°09'E. The SE bluff of the Okhamandal Peninsula. square. which dries. 35 miles SE.5 mile W. Its head forms a salt marsh.5m patches lie about 1. There is a deep channel between Paga Reef and Boria Reef. on the NW side of Bural Reef.19 1.19 1. steer for it until Samiyani Center Light bears 275°.8 mile N of Samiyani Center Light.19 1. the N side is sandy. Padmatirth Point.18 1. close W of the NW edge of Bural Reef. Pub. which has been reported to give a good radar response. lies 3 miles N of Shiyardi Bet. bearing 140°. Detached 5.19 1. becomes an islet at highest spring tides. 1.19 1.5 knots at springs. and is covered with mangroves.3 knots at neaps and 1. Boria Reef. Vessels passing W of Chandri Reef should.8 mile W of the point. sheltered anchorage may be obtained about 0. and formation of a rocky tableland on its SW part. 1. Nora Island (Nora Tapu) lies 3 miles NE of Bhaidar Island and is low and covered with mangroves.

A steep-to submerged rock extends SE from Bural Reef. mud.20 1. about 1. Blunt Channel is narrow. The island. the latter range leads to the inner anchorage.6m.19 1.20 can go alongside for 2 hours on either side of HW. 1. The continuation of the harbor S is Salaya Creek. causing heavy tide rips off the NE end. 69°36'E. Depths—Limitations.8m..3 miles from its N and SW sides.3m at MHWS and 4.19 15 The Gulf Harbor of Kutch—South Coast—Salaya 1. The harbor extends about 6 miles SE.20 Pub. lies near the center of the Gulf of Kutch. with flats of very soft mud in places. Deep-draft vessels without local knowledge should not proceed S of Nora Rock.Sector 1. the uneven bottom causes overfalls and tide rips which at springs are alarming to a stranger. distant about 3 miles. extends about 0. Steer for the light on that bearing. with an average width of 0. leads S of Karumbhar Island and into Pathfinder Inlet. keeping on this course until the SE beacon of the 302° range bears 114° ..20 Salaya Harbor (22°26'N. and Paga Reef. passing between Taylor and Hand Shoals. Taylor Shoal.3m in the fairway. fringed with mangrove scrub. and difficult to recognize when the reefs and mud flats are covered. with a least depth of 2. steer for Kalubhar Tapu Light bearing 128°. coral. about 8 miles ENE of Chank Island Light.19 1. extending about 1.19 1. Kudda Reefs consist of three detached drying reefs centered about 4 miles NE of Ajad. Nora Rock. about 3.) and SW from Karumbhar Island. and in line bearing 302°. Caution. Similar beacons mark the entrance and head of Salaya Creek. the Brief System is used.5 mile SSW and 0. Pakistan and the West Coast of India—Ras Muari to Diu Head A vessel may anchor. in a depth of about 15m.3 miles WNW of the W extremity of Karumbhar Island.20 1.. They are intended for the guidance of local craft. or farther SE. the tidal currents set E with the flood and W with the ebb. with a least depth of 8m. after passing Chank Island Light. mud. until the beacons in the S part of the harbor are in range 158°. A tongue.) is entered between the drying reefs extending NE from Dhani Island (22°24'N.19 1.5 mile W from Nora Rock. with a depth of 6.—Kalubhar Tapu Light is shown from a circular stone tower. gradually shoaling to 9. lies on the bar. A pier extends N from the point. 2. extends along the N side of the island. are situated about 2.20 1. lies on the E side of the harbor. The outer anchorage is situated about 0.2m patches lying about 0. is submerged at HWS. is closely built with small stone houses and surrounded by a wall about 12m high. and consists of hard dead coral.19 1. then steer on this range to the anchorage. 173 . Storm signals are shown at Salaya. Anchorage. The tidal currents in Salaya Harbor set SE with the flood and NW with the ebb. attaining a maximum velocity of 2 knots at the entrance to the harbor. at the head of Salaya Creek.35 mile apart. Investigator Reef (22°36'N. Kalubhar Tapu (Karumbhar Island) is similar in composition to Dhani Island. covered with low scrub. Further information on these storm signals may be found in Pub. Hand Shoals consist of two 8. in a depth of about 9m. The inner anchorage is situated about 2 miles S of Kalubhar Tapu Light.8 mile.2 mile.).5 and 3 miles. respectively.9m at MHWN.20 1. mark the edges of the reefs on both sides of the channel.20 1.20 1. During the Southwest Monsoon.20 1. in a depth of about 14. with a least depth of 6.7m. an easterly continuation of the channel for small craft. A pair of white stone beacons.20 1. tortuous. respectively. The fairway in the approach has a least depth of 8. The town of Salaya (22°19'N. 14m high. about 2 miles SE of the above pair.—The harbor has depths of 10 to 25m in the entrance. at the W extremity of Kalubhar Tapu. covers at half tide.—The tidal rise at Salaya Harbor is 5.” The harbor entrance is not easily identified when the reefs that extend from the islands are covered. large local vessels seek shelter on the lee side of Chank Island.20 1. 69°33'E. A similar pair of beacons. Sailing Directions (Planning Guide) South Atlantic Ocean and Indian Ocean under “India—Signals.—Deep-draft vessels approaching from NW.8 mile SSE. are situated on the W side of the harbor.7 to 0.20 1. after which the reef at the head of the pier dries. Wooden pole beacons. Chandri Reef. and constricts the channel to a width of less than 0.20 1.—Along the N face of Bural Reef. The coral reef surrounding the island extends from 1 mile to 1.9m. and cannot be relied upon as they are not always standing. A low ridge of sand.6m high.1m.5 miles SW of the W extremity of Karumbhar Island.20 1. 1. where the tidal flow is NW on the ebb and SE on flood. in line bearing 164° and about 0. A bar of soft mud extends across the approach. with a channel between Bural Reef having a least depth of 7. with the exception of some sand ridges at its N end.20 1. the rate of tidal flow varies between 4 to 6 knots. 69°33'E. 160. Another anchorage lies. Dhani Island is a sand and mud flat. Light-draft vessels continue on the 158° range until the beacon in the NW part of the harbor are in range 302° astern.20 1.5 miles NE from its NE side and dries 3m.8 mile NNW of Nora Rock. Blunt Channel. in the outer or inner anchorage. then steer for the beacon on that bearing until Kalubhar Tapu Light bears 114°. Tides—Currents.—Vessels proceeding to anchor on the E side of Bural Reef and passing N of the reef should keep a good lookout for the trees on Nora Island and Chank Island and maintain a distance of about 3 miles from these islands. near the edge of the shoal with the trees on Chank Island bearing 271° distant about 2 miles. Directions. Directions.20 1. 2 miles SE of Chank Island. At a distance of 2 to 3 miles outside the entrance.20 1. in a depth of 12m. Kalubhar Reef (Karumbhar Reef). Aspect. attaining a velocity of 1 knot at neaps.20 1.). of Taylor Shoal. 0.. with the trees bearing 293°. Sykes Point lies at the junction of Salaya Creek and Blunt Channel.20 1.4m high. boats and lighters 1.—Large vessels can obtain anchorage in Salaya Harbor. 69°33'E.1m about 5 miles up the harbor. Between Bural Reef. W of Kalubhar Tapu Light.

Vessels should maintain a listerning watch on VHF channel 12 during operations. Vessels are berthed during daylight hours only but may unberth at any time..21 1.7m patch lies about 0. 22°34. about 4 miles S of the root of the pipeline. 1. a large drying coral reef. is conspicuous about 5 miles S of the entrance. lies about 1. mud. berthing attempts should not be made from E. Pilotage. 69°42'E. Pakistan and the West Coast of India—Ras Muari to Diu Head insufficient sea room. 69°38.22 1.—Siri Reef. and 4. d.5 mile SSW of the charted Beacon A. The tidal rise at Sikka Creek is 6. A 3.8m. approaching from W. A small detached drying reef lies about 0. the tidal currents generally set in a direction parallel to the axis of the creek and channel.. Anchorage.23 Sikka Creek (Sikka Kari)(22°29'N. It is prohibited to anchor within 2 miles of the SBMs. Sailing Directions (Planning Guide) South Atlantic Ocean and Indian Ocean under “India—Signals. 1 SBM. 1 SBM. 69°37. The entrance is marked by lighted beacons on each side.2'N.23 1. has a conspicuous long sand bank on it which dries before the reef itself. lies about 0. Anchorage. a Single Buoy Mooring (SBM) terminal with discharging facilities. In 1987. 69°36. A detached reef. lies on the E side of the entrance to the inlet. Due to the 1. An overhead ropeway extends ESE form the disused jetty to the shore Aspect.—The vessel’s ETA should be sent to the harbormaster at Kandla and the vessel’s local agent 72 hours. with a pair of mooring dolphins at the ends. during the Southwest Monsoon. 22°33.22 The Gulf of Kutch—South Coast—Pathfinder Inlet 1. Tilburn Shoal. is about 0. the lighterage operations take place about 5 miles WNW of the Vadinar Offshore Oil Terminal in an area bounded by lines joining the following positions: a. a drying coral reef.—Outside the entrance to Sikka Creek.22 1.2m.23 1.) lies about 5 miles SE of the entrance. 22°30.23 1.5 miles NE of the N extremity of Kalubhar Tapu (Kalubhar Island). 1 SBM lies about 2.0'N.22 1. 69°50'E. Ammonia Discharge Berth. Pub. sheltered anchorage can be found.22 Vadinar Offshore Oil Terminal (Vaadinaar Terminal) (22°31'N. fringes Narara Bet. Submarine oil pipelines are laid between Narara Bet and the SPMs. Sikka (22°26'N. The channel becomes narrow inward. A disused jetty is located about 0.—The entrance range.5'N.21 Pathfinder Inlet (22°28'N. in a depth of 20m. Storm signals are shown at Sikka. It is reported that buoys may liable to drag in strong winds.—Vessels should berth at the SBMs at slack water or during an ebb tide. which dries 1. Tidal currents at the latter anchorage attain a maximum velocity of 3 knots.5 mile SSE of Ammonia Discharge Berth.22 1.0'E. The berth has a length of 220m. It has been reported (2007) that an SPM has been installed about 2. about 1.35 mile SW.1'N. The channel is marked by IALA Maritime Buoyage System (Region A).5 miles within the entrance. mud with broken shells.7 mile SW of Goos Reef and is marked on its E side by a white beacon.23 1. 69°47'E. with depths of 24m in the entrance. 1.23 1.22 1. 69°40'E.0'E. about 0. in the deep channel between Goos Reef and Siri Reef. pilots board vessels in the anchorage area 4. consists of a concrete island jetty joined to the shore ESE by a breakwater.2 mile ENE of the SE extremity of Siri Reef.23 1.21 1.23 Sikka Channel has a least depth of 8.” Goos Reef. Tides—Currents. Directions.2m and a general width of about 183m.0'N. Ambla Hill. No.0'E. the Brief System is used. in a depth of 33m.23 1. e.2 mile NW of Siri Reef. under the lee of Kalubhar Tapu.5 miles W of No.. with a maximum length of 350m and a maximum draft of 22m. with a least depth of 8. Both SBMs can accommodate tankers up to 300.000 dwt. 28m high. between Kalubhar Reef and Narara Reef.22 1.. attaining a maximum velocity of about 3.0'E.0'E. 2 SBM lies about 1 mile WSW of No. c.22 1. with local knowledge. 22°30.5 knots. as charted. can anchor.5 miles W.). The terminal consists of two SBMs.16 Sector 1. with a depth of 7m. located about 0. A white concrete beacon lies on the SW edge of Goos Reef. about 1 mile within the entrance. which is then pumped to a refinery 260 miles inland. and extends about 2 miles N and NE of the island. and 12 hours in advance. b. It has been reported (2007) that when lighterage operations in the area located 22 miles W of Malabar Point (see paragraph 2. Within Sikka Creek and Sikka Channel. A road to the shore runs over the breakwater.—During the Southwest Monsoon.).1m at MHWN.3 mile wide.2m.3 miles NNW of Siri Reef. Regulations. 24 hours. a coral reef which covers at 0. in a depth of 18m. the flood current sets E and ebb current sets W. with another beacon on the reef 0. it was reported that a beacon lies on the W side of Siri Reef. 22°33. S of Narara Bet.—VLCCs awaiting pilot or berth at the SBMs should anchor in position 22°33'N. 69°38'E.22 1. The terminal functions under the jurisdiction of Kandla Port Trust.5 miles NW of the SBM. attaining a maximum velocity of about 2 knots. 69°38. A small vessel. Further information on these storm signals may be found in Pub.27) have been suspended due to the conditions associated with the Southwest Monsoon.8 mile N of the inlet entrance. A conspicuous water tower lies at Vadinar. decreasing to 10m about 1. The Gulf of Kutch—South Coast—Sikka Creek Entrance 1. respectively. No. is situated at about 8 miles NE of Kalubhar Tapu Light.) is entered between Goos Reef and Narara Reef. and has an alongside depth of 11m.8 miles NNW of the N extremity of Narara Bat. Crude oil discharged from the tankers is stored in a tank farm at Vadinar. is marked by range beacons. The seaward edges of all reefs are generally steep-to.23 1. leading between the reefs into the anchorage.2 to 0. 69°36. 173 .23 1. Depths—Limitations. and leads from the fairway (red can) buoy moored 1. there are heavy breakers over the off-lying reefs.—Pilotage is compulsory.2m at MHHWS. Narara Reef. 160.

Facsimile: +91(0)288-23012699 The ETA should be confirmed 48 hours. Maximum vessel size of 40.5 miles S of Fairway Lighted Buoy.000 to 350. The use of this berth is dangerous during the Southwest Monsoon. about 3.5m Draft Remarks Berth A 27m — See Remarks 105 to 195m 12.000 dwt for LPG vessels and 60. 24 hours.9m. Directions. marked by a buoy. All times are to be given in local time.23 1.2 mile E of Siri Reef. and LPG at RPL Jetty. The pilot boards about 1. Another berth for discharging ammonia was in operation the same year.). A tower.0m is required at the berths. in a depth of 11m. Pilotage. in depths from 14 to 20m.23 1.— All vessels are to maintain a listening watch on VHF channels 11 and 13 during oil-lightering operations from May to October. an underkeel clearance of at least 1. about 0. Vessels up to 165m long. however. to the anchorage. The tidal range at springs is about 6. There are no pilots available for the stretch between Pirothan Island and the anchorages off Kalyan Light. In 1987.—Vessels proceeding to Sikka Creek should not proceed into depths of less than 27m until the lighted entrance buoy is sighted. stands close offshore at Sikka. Regulations. Berth information is given in the accompanying table titled Jamnagar Terminal—Berth Information.—The terminal is exposed to W winds. RPL Jetty—2 miles SSW of SPM-1.000 dwt for product carriers. 22. taking care to avoid the 3. Caution. 130m high.23 17 berth. stand about 0. Tides—Currents. it was reported to be congested. Pilots come from Okha in a tug. A dangerous wreck lies in the S part of the anchorage area. Jamnagar Terminal—Berth Information Berth Length Depth alongside Maximum Vessel size Vessel length Offshore SPMs SPM-1 SPM-2 — — 32m 30m 20.6 mile SW of the first two chimneys.Sector 1. 69°50'E.23 1.—Berthing is permitted only from 2 hours before until 2 hours after HW. Winds—Weather. E-mail: port_operation@ril. The is a least depth of 28m in the approach to SPM-1. chemicals. with a maximum draft of 7.—Pilotage is compulsory for all vessels using the terminal. can use this anchorage.23 1.4m must be maintained when transiting the channel. Anchorage.6m shoal. 1. it was reported that vessels berth port side-to and leave stern first because of insufficient turning room off the 1. stand in Sikka. Caution should be taken when entering Sikka Creek during a strong ebb or flood tide.—The least depth at SPM-1 is 32m. by one of the following methods: 1.5m 22. This buoy should be approached in a direction from the W through N to NE until on the entrance range.—Sikka Creek provides sheltered anchorage.5 miles N of Siri Reef for vessels waiting to berth alongside and for berthing at Vadinar Offshore Oil Terminal (paragraph 1.—Vessels are required to inform the terminal of their ETA at the pilot boarding position 72 hours in advance. The terminal handles crude oil discharging at the SPMs and petroleum products. in 1987. The pilot should be requested 48 hours in advance.000 dwt 345m 345m RPL Jetty Length of berth increased by four breasting dolphins and several additional mooring dolphins.23 1.22). a minimum underkeel clearance of 1. is established about 2. local guides are provided upon request.24 Jamnagar Terminal (Reliance Jamnagar Terminal) (22°30'N.23 1.000 dwt 20. The least depth in the channel to RPL Jetty is 13. usually boarding ships 2 hours before HW during daylight hours only.5m. Regulations. Pakistan and the West Coast of India—Ras Muari to Diu Head Two chimneys.com 2..—Pilotage is compulsory. An outer anchorage. 72m and 70m high.5 mile within the entrance.5m Pub. Depths—Limitations.9m. about 0. then steer on the entrance range. between the W end of Goos Reef and Siri Reef.23 1. SPMs—1. it has been reported (2004) that pilotage is available during daylight hours only.000 to 350. which is part of Sikka.75 miles N of Sikka. Pilotage. as follows: 1. the least depth at SPM-2 is 30m.23 1.75 miles N of SPM-1. between Siri Reef and Goos Reef. two other chimneys. 173 . 25m high. and RPL Jetty. Pilots board.—Currents at the terminal normally do not exceed 2 knots but may reach 3 knots under certain conditions. four berths located in the channel between Goos Reef and Munde Reef. Southwest Monsoon conditions may affect operations from the beginning of May until the end of September. and 12 hours prior to arrival. The anchorage is exposed to the Southwest Monsoon. comprises two SPMs about 9 miles NNW of Sikka. 2.

Berthing is suspended if maximum sustained winds speeds exceed 30 knots or wave heights exceed 1.24 1.500 dwt 160 to 246m 13. Range lights.23. 173 . Length of berth increased by four breasting dolphins. 4. Port Control will assign a working channel for use within the terminal area and will give the vessel berthing instructions.0m Aspect.18 Sector 1.—The VLCC Anchorage lies between 2 and 6 miles ENE of SPM-2. in depths of 28. 2. Vessels unmoor at the discretion of the master/pilot if sustained wind speeds exceed 40 knots of wave heights exceed 3m. in line bearing 130°.0m. During the monsoon season (May 1 until September 30). The following restrictions in effect at the SPMs: 1.0m 12.0m 12. or Berth D. vessels should contact Port Control on VHF channel 16 or 71. Vessels at the SPMs must also maintain a listening watch on the cargo control room on a frequency assigned by the terminal. 1. Vessel lengths of 160 to 246m accommodated during the monsoon season.—A buoyed channel leads ESE from Fairway Lighted Buoy.—The outer buoys of the buoyed channel leading to RPL Jetty are liable to drag in bad weather.000 dwt 160 to 252m 14. berthing is undertaken when the wind and tide are in the same direction. Night berthing and unberthing restrictions are given in the accompanying table titled RPL Jetty—Night Berthing/ Unberthing Restrictions. Anchorage. If wind speed is greater than 20 knots. berthing will be done on the flood tide during daylight hours only. Maximum vessel size of 112.500 dwt during the monsoon season. The maximum sustained wind speeds for berthing are 27 knots during the day and 20 knots at night. This frequency is normally VHF channel 68 or 71. Vessels berthed at RPL Jetty must maintain a listening watch on VHF channels 16 and 71 while berthed at the jetty.0m 8. A listening watch should be maintained on VHF channels 16 and 71.5m Remarks Length of berth increased by four breasting dolphins. Length of berth increased by four breasting dolphins and several additional mooring dolphins.24 1.0m 12. this anchorage was previously described in paragraph 1.8m. Berth C. about 3 miles SSW of SPM-1. The following restrictions may be in effect at RPL Jetty: 1. Vessel lengths of 160 to 228m accommodated during the monsoon season.5m At least 3 hours prior to arrival.5m Berth D 27m — 120.5m when berthing at Berth B.24 Anchorage can also be obtained 3 miles W of SPM-1. 1.500 dwt Berth C 27m — 112. 4. 3. Berthing at the SPMs is done during daylight hours only 2. RPL Jetty—Night Berthing/Unberthing Restrictions Berth Berth A Berth B Berth C Berth D Situation Berthing Unberthing Berthing Unberthing Berthing Unberthing Berthing Unberthing Maximum Length 170m 195m 185m 200m 195m 210m 195m 220m Draft 8. Berth B 27m 86. Pakistan and the West Coast of India—Ras Muari to Diu Head Jamnagar Terminal—Berth Information Berth Length Depth alongside — Maximum Vessel size Vessel length 108 to 228m Draft 13. as best seen on the chart. 3. lead between Goos Reef and Munde Reef to RPL Jetty. Maximum vessel size of 86.0m 8. Loading/discharging is suspended when sustained wind speeds exceed 35 knots. Discharging is suspended if maximum sustained winds speeds exceed 35 knots 5.5 to 36.0m 8. 6.500 dwt during the monsoon season. in a depth of 36m. and in the tanker anchorage off the mouth of Sikka Creek. Partly-loaded vessels arriving for further loading may not have a draft exceed 10m when berthing at Berth A or a draft exceeding 10. Caution.24 Pub.0m 12.

with red bands. The island lies about 1 mile from the mainland.5m.25 1.27 1. lies on the summit of the hill. in 5. A small conical hill.7 mile ESE of the least depth.. 12. and is liable to flood. and the 1. providing access to Bedi Docks.26 1. about 1 mile NW of the village of Bedi. About 2 miles NW of the fort a light is shown.8 mile N. At Balachadi (Balachiri). and a house close SE.26 1. Depths of less than 5. on a stone base.25 1.) lies at the N end of Rozi Island. in 15m.26 Pub. 69°57'E. 24m high. according to a vessel’s draft. mud.5 mile NE of Kalyan Beacon. sheltered from W winds. Bedi Creek. 70°03'E.5 miles from the village. 15m high. Pilotage. a dangerous wreck about 2 miles NNE.1m.3 miles N of the stone pier. extends about 0. which dry.. with a least depth of 1.—A submerged rock lies about 1.27 Bedi (22°31'N.—Large vessels may anchor. on which bearing anchorage can be taken.75 miles N of Kalyan Beacon. The basin at Bedi Docks dries at half-tide.27 1.27 The coast between Rozi Mata Temple (22°33'N. Bedi Bandar Light is shown from a white metal framework tower lying about 1 mile SSW of Rozi Jetty. Caution. About 0.27 1. fronts the coast about 3 miles NNE of Sachana.). sheltered from strong NE winds. Aku Pir (Akria Pir). The port is an all-weather lighterage port open throughout the year. with which they are connected by a railway.5 miles NE of the NW extremity of Dera Island.). NW of Aku Pir.3m high. 70°03'E. about 1. mud. on the edge of the reef about 1.. Balachadi Rocks (Balachiri Rocks) (22°41'N.5m extend about 0. about 3. and a conspicuous water tower with an elevation of 38m is situated on the SE side of the island. A light is shown from the head of the stone pier. lies 6. about 2. 48650 1. 1. but local guides are available. 173 . This will avoid the reefs and shoals extending offshore between Pirotan Island and Rozi Island.5m.—No pilots are available.2 to 15. with the fort at Jodiya bearing 109°.6m high. rocky and 11. on the NW corner of the temple courtyard. Rozi Island. 0. the seaward end of which covers at half tide.). lies about 2. lies on the E side of Rozi Island.8 mile within the W extremity of Mungra Reef lies a heap of sand and shells. Vessels entering or leaving the anchorage should keep N of Ranson Shoal. is a good landmark as the trees on it are not allowed to be cut down. Anchorage. form the port for Jamnagar.5m.5 miles NE of Aku Pir and 2. in 5. 70°18'E.25 1. a Mohammedan building.26 1. These objects are unmistakably identifiable and can be seen 10 to 12 miles in clear weather. There is a white mooring buoy about 0. detached from the mainland and isolated at HW. is located about 3. is fringed by mangroves. may be approached with Aku Pir bearing 120°. Ranson Shoal.27 1.5 miles NE of Pirotan Island Light. about 1 mile NNW of the temple. with an elevation of 76m and marked by an obstruction light. The N side of the island consists of sand dunes. A light is shown from Kalyan Beacon. Anchorage may be taken. and Pratap Clock Tower. Jindra Bet (Pirotan Swamp).5 miles SE. Pirotan Island (22°36'N.—Vessels approaching from the W should not alter course S until Kalyan Beacon bears 185°. lies about 5 miles SE of Pirotan Island.8 miles inland.. mud. and the position of the remainder of the reef may be determined from it. The anchorage is protected from NE gales by the reefs N.27 1.25 miles farther SE. lies about 0. to which it is connected by a drying coral reef.27 1. at the W edge of the drying coastal reef.8 mile NNW from the N end of Rozi Island. 1.25 1.Sector 1.—Rozi Mata Temple (22°33'N. A better berth is about 2 miles NE of Kalyan Beacon. Cargo is worked at the anchorage. about 7. Mungra Reef.27 1.5 to 9. about 1. consists of sand and mud flats. A light is shown from the N extremity of the quay wall at Jodiya Bandar (Bandar). a mangrove islet with a range of low sandhills. 1. fringed with mangroves.5m high. is entered W of the stone pier.5 miles NE of the N extremity of Goos Reef. having an elevation of 44m. Directions. another dangerous wreck lies about 1 mile NE of the light.26 1.—Balachiri Roads. about 0. soft mud. A group of four conspicuous radio towers. These mounds are isolated at HWS. consists of sand and mud flats.5 miles E.25 19 Small craft with local knowledge can anchor. about 6. about 3.25 Dera Island.. Pirotan Island Light is shown from a pyramidal concrete tower. Anchorage. on the NE edge of the drying reef.27 1. The NW end of this islet is a bluff about 4. and 4. A light stands on a small detached drying reef close S of the W extremity of Mungra Reef.8 mile SE of Kalyan Beacon. A stone pier. and another wreck 3 miles NE from the same light. and intersected by creeks.3 miles SE of Rozi Mata Temple.26 Bedi Docks. The NW bastion. 70°10'E. Two radio masts. 70°02'E.8 mile NNE of Balachadi. lies with its W edge about 6 miles WNW of Jodiya Bandar. A drying reef extends about 1. 1 to 3m high.26 1. on the NW extremity of the island. Pakistan and the West Coast of India—Ras Muari to Diu Head Sikka Creek to Bedi 1. Another light is shown from an iron framework beacon.8 miles NNE of Sachana. Tidal currents in the creek have a maximum velocity of 2. have been reported to give good radar returns at 9 miles. A small range of rocky mounds.8 miles N of the stone pier. This is the first part of the reef that dries. Aspect. a range of hills about 30m high extends SE and terminates rather abruptly about 1.26 1.2m high. A wreck with a 10m depth lies about 2 miles ENE of Kalyan Light.5 miles NE from the NW extremity of Dera Island. of the fort at Jodiya (22°42'N.26 1.. in 5. which prevail from February through October.5 miles W.5 knots in spring tides. are conspicuous.26 1. Rozi Mata Light is shown from a white circular tower. are conspicuous about 7. but local knowledge is necessary for navigating this part of the gulf. about 1.26 Bedi to Mungra Reef 1. they are embarked N of Pirotan Island Light. A radio mast. with its NW extremity about 4 miles W of Pirotan Island.) and the village of Sachana (Sachara).8 miles E of Kalyan Light.) World Port Index No. 36.5 miles S of Rozi Mata.

.3m. which include Pathfinder Inlet.5 miles N of the cargo jetty. situated on a sandy ridge on the S edge of a mangrove swamp. 70°07'E.7m and consists of hard dry sand. respectively.—The tidal rise at Kandla is 6.2 mile S.29 1. 1. At Outer Tuna Fairway Buoy. The approach to Kandla leads W of Khara Dhada and Mid Shoals.28 1. and Hantal Creek.3 miles WNW of the W entrance point of the creek. in the Southwest Monsoon it is navigated by boats drawing from 0.7m at MHWN. entrance and departure depend on the tide. painted black and surmounted by a ball. has depths of less than 5. Sathsaida Leading Lights lead through Sogal Channel. About 4. On Kandla Bar the flood current sets NE with a velocity of 2 to 3 knots at springs tides. about 3 miles up the creek on its W side.30 Port Authority of Kandla http://www.5 knots at springs and 1. A seventh berth.29 1.30 1. Its W edge is fringed with mangrove bushes. The salt mooring in the N part of the harbor can accommodate vessels up to 183m in length and 8.. the ordinary HW mark extends from the mouth of Hanstal Creek toward Jodiya. distant 1. beacon off the W end of Mungra Reef bearing 003°. Depths—Limitations.7m high. The channel leading to Tuna Bandar is marked by range beacons. their durations being about 8 hours and 4 hours.5 miles. Pakistan and the West Coast of India—Ras Muari to Diu Head Beacon H. is situated on the W side of Kandla Creek about 1.30 1.3 to 1.1m at HW springs. 14m high.29 1.3m draft. about 1.30 1. Tekra Islet.9 to 1m. Caution. front the rann on the W side of the creek. because of the large shallow area which it covers and uncovers.30 1. is under construction at the S end of the quay.30 1. 173 .000 dwt. with a maximum draft of 9. The W entrance point of the creek is very low and is covered with mangrove bushes which are nearly submerged at HW. lies about 6 miles W of Tekra Light.) lies about 1. can be accommodated. Sogal Channel leads towards Kandala Creek between Khengarji Bet and Kala Dara Shoal. lying about 1 mile E of the ordinary HW mark.1m. with white bands. At HW this area is like a large inland sea of only about 1m depth.30 The port of Kandla. with a maximum draft of 9. lying close NNW.—The head of the Gulf of Kutch between Jodiya and the entrances of Kandla Creek and Hanstal Creek is encumbered with numerous changing shoals.28 1. with a total quayage of 1. consists of mud covered with mangroves.30 1.5m and a least depth of 1.29 Tekra Light (22°56'N. attains a velocity of 6 to 7 knots at its mouth.) World Port Index No. Local knowledge is necessary while navigating in this part of the gulf. a second pair. 70°09'E. covered with bushes. Beacon I. Vessels up to 225m in length. 1.8 miles NE of Tekra Light. when the sea is driven many miles E by the wind. Rozi Anchorage. can be accommodated.—In the W approach to Kandla Creek and Hanstal Creek. Mooring berths close NE of the quay can accommodate vessels up to 152. the velocity is 2. The flood tidal currents in Kandla Creek attain maximum velocities of 3 to 4 knots at spring tides.30 1.2m at HW neaps and 10.30 1. about 2. An oil jetty. Kandla Creek. leads across the inner bar to Kandala Creek.440m. These creeks are subject to the regular tides.5 knots at neaps. A similar islet lies about 0.30 1.28 1. 48630 1.6m in length and 11. painted black. Maximum permissible drafts are issued quarterly by the Deputy Conservator.2m high. with a maximum length of 213m and a maximum draft of 10. 340m long. the ebb current flows longer than the flood.5 miles NNE is Jodiya. It is a great inland sea and quite impassable during the Southwest Monsoon.. is dry during the Northeast Monsoon from November to February.28 1.29 1.—Kandla is a tidal port. painted red.8m draft. there is another rann resembling Little Rann. with a diamond topmark and 15m high. The channel is dredged and marked by lighted buoys conforming to the IALA Maritime Buoyage System (Region A). from 0. then N through a buoyed channel passing over Kandla Bar to the creek. The light is shown from an iron column on a black masonry tower. with two berths. in the entrance to Kandla Creek. 1.8 mile SE of and parallel to Kala Dara Shoal. The Kandla port jurisdiction extends to Kalubhar Tapu marking its W limits. the buoys are moved frequently to meet changes in the channel.4 and 183m in length and 7 to 8. and Hanstal Creek. A deep-draft mooring in the harbor can accommodate vessels up to 225. dries 2. The ebb current in Hanstal Creek. tankers up to 40. Narrow ridges of coarse sand and broken shell.29 Head of the Gulf of Kutch 1.30 1. a rocky islet. the tidal currents are very irregular and appear to be greatly influenced by a strong wind from any quarter. 1. This vast sheet of water is drained by Nakti Creek.) has almost entirely silted up and can now be used only by small local craft at HW proceeding to Tuna Bandar. Kala Dara Shoal (Kara Dhada Shoal). a second oil jetty lies 0.5 mile SE of Tekra Islet. Vadinar Offshore Oil Terminal. through Sogal Channel. Beacon G.8m draft.3 miles SW of the W entrance point of Nakti Creek.com Tides—Currents. on the W bank of Kandla Creek. and 5.5m in length. Vessels up to 225. Pub.30 1. The main cargo jetty has six berths. 70°13'E.20 Sector 1.5 miles within its entrance. is a naturally-sheltered harbor in all seasons. at the entrance of Hanstal Creek the velocity is 7 knots at springs and 4 knots at neaps. A tank farm stands close to the root of this jetty.30 1. Tides—Currents. lies about 3 miles E of Beacon G. Kapoor Shoal.6m at MHWS. lies about 2. about 0.28 Kandla (23°00'N.29 Nakti Creek (22°56'N. surmounted by a rectangular topmark and 13. which flows into the head of the Gulf of Kutch. can use the port.kandlaport. They are strong and gradually increase in velocity to within the entrance of Hanstal Creek.28 Little Rann.29 1. Between the mouth of Hanstal Creek and the coast on the S side of the head of the gulf.

and Beacon E is 9m high.30 1. 1. at the entrance to Kandla Creek.30 1. between Khengarji Bet and Sathsaida Bet. a blue square flag by day and two green lights shown vertically by night will be displayed from the yardarm of the signal mast.).2m at MHWS and 6. Regulations.31 Hanstal Creek (Hansthal Creek) is entered about 8 miles ESE of the entrance to Kandla Creek. or with a speed capability of less than 9 knots. as follows: 1.30 1. which dries 0. A black masonry radar tower.30 21 1. both of which are typical rann ground of hard mud flats. on the W side of the harbor and about 0. each 26m high.30 1.8 mile WNW of the W entrance point of Kandla Creek. The movement of tankers is also restricted to daylight transit of Sogal Channel.30 than 8. about 0. 3. 1. 1.3 mile N of the NE extremity of Kala Dara Shoal. and broken shells. had a least depth of 4. in 8.9m high. The depth over the bar is subject to constant change. The nature of the bottom throughout the creek is coarse sand. as follows: kpt@kandlaport.4 mile NE of the oil pier in the N part of the harbor..) World Port Index No. small stones.31 Pub.30 1. Beacon B. lies 0. The width of the entrance has doubled by erosion in the last 50 years.2m. Mid Shoal.30 1.30 1. respectively. are similar to Beacon B.30 1. may not enter or leave the port during darkness nor may ships at moorings be berthed or unberthed except in daylight. Both sides of the creek are protected by steep mangrove-lined banks. with a cone topmark and 18m high.4 miles N.30 1. Further information on these storm signals may be found in Pub. Pakistan and the West Coast of India—Ras Muari to Diu Head 1. Storm signals are displayed. are situated about 0. it is available during daylight hours only for tankers and 24 hours for all other vessels. In the vicinity of Lighted Buoy No.30 1. and Beacon I. along with Beacon G. is a ridge with depths of 2. with a draft of more 1. It is cautioned that the buoys and channels are liable to be moved due to frequent changes in depths. 0. The tidal rise at Navlakhi is 7. 24m high. Navinal Point and Bhadreswar Temple have been previously described in paragraph 1. Vessels suspected of having minor inectious diseases on board may be brought into the harbor and anchored or berthed in a suitable quarantine area. about 1 mile S of Outer Tuna Lighted Buoy until pratique is granted.30 1. eight short blasts followed by one long blast will be sounded on the port siren and repeated at short intervals.—Good anchorage can be taken. during freshets. coarse sand. The port can be contacted by e-mail. photography of shore installations is forbidden.Sector 1. It was reported (1993) that berthing is restricted to daylight hours only due to the small number of pilots available and the poor condition of the lighting on the jetty.30 1.3 to 0.30 Signals. Beacon A.2m. it then extends N for about 7 miles.2m at MHWN. SE of Beacon B. lies close N of the cargo quay.7m. Sailing Directions (Planning Guide) South Atlantic Ocean and Indian Ocean under “India—Signals. 1. lies about 0. Two framework water towers. and broken shell. The port is also equipped with VHF. marks the entrance of the channel to Kandla.5 miles wide between Sathsaida Bet and the coast S.—The port signal station is situated near the radar tower. 48640 1. which just cover at HWS. Aspect. Beacon H.5m near the banks.30 1.30 1.1 miles SSW of Outer Tuna Lighted Buoy.” Signals used in the port are given in the Kandla Port Rules issued by the port administration. less water was reported in the entrance to the channel between Kala Dara and Kapoor Shoals.5 hours before HW. extends about 2 miles S from the SW extremity of Sathsaida Bet. It has been reported (2007) that tank vessels 20 years old and older are not permitted in the port. painted black.31 1.3 miles. Tekra Light. the velocity may sometimes increase to 7 knots. In 1980.30 Hanstal Creek (22°56'N. Tankers or vessels with an overall length exceeding 189m.—Kandla Creek is entered among mangrove bushes. and is now about 1. The depths over the bar and in Kandla Creek are subject to constant change and the latest information should be obtained from the Deputy Conservator.30 1. it consists of ridges and pinnacles of coarse sand.8 and 3. Kandla Bar. except in depths of less than 5. painted black.13 and paragraph 1. About 1.28. where the bottom is mud. of the radar tower.30 1. about 1.8 miles ENE of Beacon A.—Pilotage is compulsory.5 mile S of the radar tower. 173 . 160. 70°24'E. Requests for pilots should be sent to the ship’s agent 12 hours in advance. Vessels should contact Kandla Tower via VHF channel 16.30 1.—The flood and ebb currents in Hanstal Creek attain a velocity of 5 knots in the channel between the mangrove bushes. Flamingo Flat.30 1. Communication may be made with the signal station by semaphore and the International Code of Signals by day. where the creek forks. small stones. and by flashing light at night. lies about 0. A water tower. respectively.5m.2m. the General System is used. 2. The S side of the approach is formed by a coast fringed with ridges of coarse sand and broken shell. situated about 1. Vessels liable to quarantine regulations will remain in the quarantine anchorage. is situated on Sathsaida Bet.com Outer Tuna Lighted Buoy (22°51'N.15. respectively. Beacon C and Beacon E.7 to 5. with a ball topmark and 12m high. 70°07'E. Barry Shoal.3m in 1994.30 1. Pilotage. 29m high. Kandla.30 In the event of an outbreak of fire in the port area or on a ship alongside a berth. In addition.6 mile WNW and 1. Tides—Currents. painted red. Anchorage. A black ball displayed at the masthead of the signal station indicates a vessel is about to enter or leave the harbor. 2 and Lighted Buoy No. Kandla lies in a controlled area where special security regulations are in force.30 1. and broken shell. except they are surmounted by an inverted cone and a rectangle. a drying mud bank.. small stones.30 1. have been previously described in paragraph 1.30 1.30 1. respectively.—Vessels berth at HW only.5 mile N of the cargo quay. The pilot boards 2.

but if requested. Rupen Bandar. consists of a high sandy ridge. marked by a red obstruction light. at its junction with Hanstal Creek. with a ball topmark and 12m high. furnishing good landing places where small boats can lie aground in the mud.) is the W extremity of the promontory on which the town of Dwarka is situated.. a freshwater current flows into the sea during the rainy season. painted black. Regulations. In clear weather this temple is conspicuous and can be seen from 17 to 18 miles. Warwala. Anchorage.32 1.32 Depths—Limitations. and thence to Madhi.5 miles SE of Madhi. a small village with a fort.5m high. Dwarka Point (22°14'N. about 0.600 dwt. Small vessels can anchor farther N. The bottom is rocky in the approach to the Gulf of Kutch.32 1.33 Pub. carved with figures from base to summit. 68°57'E. is a large walled town.2m. A wooden beacon. Baptista Shoals. Meda Creek has been reported to give good radar returns at 15 miles. Aspect.33 1. similar in composition to Kapoor Shoal.5m.—The holding ground in Hanstal Creek is not good. 173 .5 miles. on the NW extremity of Navlakhi Bet.33 1.31 1. about 11. 1. At HWS tides and during the Southwest Monsoon. with depths of less than 5. dries. There are many such streams along the Kathiawar coast.31 1.8 mile NW of Navlakhi Bet. Caution. Cargo is worked at the anchorage. local pilots can be provided by the Port Authorityduring daylight hours only. Singare Shoal (Singari Shoal).). 70°27'E.31 1. Another dangerous wreck lies 4. is situated 4. dry 1. which extends from Madhi in a NNE direction for about 12 miles to Pindara Bay. is situated near the SE extremity of Sathsaida Bet.31 1.22 Sector 1. and lie about 0.33 1.32 1. the coast is cliffy. the pilot will board in position 22°44'N.31 1.—A dangerous wreck has been reported (2007) to lie 5.33 1. square stone tower. The cliffs between Rupen Bandar and Dwarka are about 12m high and covered with cactus bushes. The largest vessel accomodated was 24. is shallow and obstructed by rocks at its entrance.29 with Kandla. lies on the E bank of the creek. Three chimneys. the coast is again composed of low sand hills.—A wreck. with a diamond topmark and 12m high. the estuary of a river. The coast between Meda Creek and Porbandar.8 mile NW of the entrance of Moti Patar Creek. A column lies close to the edge of the cliff a short distance W of the temple. A 30m sand hill with bushes on it lies about 2 miles N of Kachigadh. a stone structure. is shown from a white round concrete tower with red bands at Kachchigadh. Miani.5 miles SSE of Kachigadh and 1 mile inland. and the strong tidal currents cause a vessel to drag anchor easily. with Dwarka Temple bearing 069°. the tallest beig 70m high. 1. Vessels over 2.5 miles off the S side of Flamingo Flat and has a least depth of 2.31 1. with a triangular topmark and 3m high. lies on the SW extremity of Murga Bet. and SSE with the ebb. The only conspicuous objects on this coast are two small conical hills about 3 miles SE of Madhi. Beacon D.31 1. 51m high..31 1. The above coast forms the W side of a very low peninsula. Pilotage. the port for Dwarka. as rock lies a little way beneath the mud.32 1. is low but rises gradually NW. A light. at a velocity of more than 2 knots. but cross currents from the creeks cause excessive yawing and a great strain on the anchor cable. lies in the middle of Hanstal Creek.—The vessel’s ETA should be provided 24 hours in advance. Farther N. is composed of low sand hills.32 The coast of Kathiawar from Humani Point. are conspicous near the point. lies S of Kapoor Shoal. Tidal currents abreast Rupen Bandar set N with the flood. at about the same velocity.33 1.33 The Gulf of Kutch to Porbandar 1.5 miles offshore about 6 miles SW of the light.31 1. 1. Meda Creek.33 Dwarka Temple (Jagat Mandir). in 20 to 22m. about 12 miles farther SE. and the directions of the tidal currents are fairly steady.8 miles NW of Madhi.5 miles SW. on the point. The holding ground here is fairly good. about 1 mile N of Dwarka. Between Kachigadh and Dwarka Point.—Murga Bet (Murga Island).5 miles offshore about 8 miles S of the light. sand. about 16 miles SE. abreast the village. several vessels have lost their anchors. Navlakhi Bet lies on the N side of Sui Creek.7m. 23. about 4 miles NE of the entrance to the latter creek. this peninsula is separated from the mainland Madhi. in 9m. The coast between Madhi and Meda Creek. A prominent radio mast.31 1. extends up to 1. with dispersed gaps. distant 1. is a village with a small dark temple and an old tower lying on elevated rocky land near the coast.000 grt should anchor. the S entrance point of the Gulf of Kutch. Caution. are situated on the S side of Navlakhi Bet. consisting of several islets covered with mangroves. which cause breaks in the coral reef that fringes the coast.31 1. with a racon. A square tower in the town is conspicuous and visible several miles to seaward. about 5. Kapoor Shoal was previously described in paragraph 1. 1. in the approach to Hanstal Creek.—The approach channel to Hanstal lies between Kapoor Shoal and Singare Shoal to the N.31 1. Pakistan and the West Coast of India—Ras Muari to Diu Head by Okha Rann. with a depth of 3. about 0. Anchorage for large vessels can be taken. About 4. to Kachchigadh. lies within Dwarka Fort on high ground close to the sea. about 2. On the W side of the creek. Beacon F. 70°05'E. a lighterage port. A light is shown from a white.4m on its S edge. the tidal currents are stronger. about 12 miles SE of Dwarka. 37m high.—Pilotage is not compulsory. which lies on the SE side of Hanstal Creek. and Baptista Shoals to the S. about 22 miles SE. A light is shown from a conspicuous steel framework tower. The alongside facilities for Navlakhi (22°58'N. is a pagoda or temple on a hill about 56m high. painted black.5 miles S.31 1. Local knowledge is necessary for navigating Hanstal Creek and its approaches.8 mile SE of the E end of Kapoor Shoal. lies about 3 miles W of Beacon F at the S extremity of Sathsaida Bet.

a town of about the same size as Veraval.5m. about 15 miles SE. Small vessels can anchor closer inshore according to draft. Somnath.34 1. 173 . 1. a 0. consists of sandhills with clumps of trees near the villages.34 1. Aspect.8 mile S of Kadar Pir. 69°47'E. Anchorage.35 The coast between Porbandar and Navibandar. it is prominent from Porbandar to abreast Diu Head.36 1. The quay provides one berth for vessels up to 183m long with a draft of 8.8 mile offshore. 69°36'E. in a depth of 7m.2 mile ESE from the breakwater head. There is a pier. At Tukda (Tunkra). on the coast SW of Mangrol.36 1. Madhavpur. there is a quay 235m long with depths from 9. lies about 53 miles NNW of Diu Head and about 35 miles inland. close SE of the customhouse.—The outer anchorage is 2. like most rivers on this coast. about 11 miles SE of Mangrol. as follows: 1. tiles. exports include cement.36 1.—Tidal currents are not perceptible in the roadstead.). but. A dangerous wreck. The Megal River. depending on the wind Depths—Limitations. In addition.—Pilotage is compulsory and is available during daylight hours only. upon which there are numerous temples and monasteries. In clear weather.5 mile ESE of New Hazur Palace.—The port can be contacted by e-mail. 70°22'E. A shoal.5 miles N of the palace. There are two basins in the inner harbor. the ebb current runs very strongly and continues for some time after LW. Signals.34 1.35 1.34 Pub. has a high tower which is conspicuous from 10 or 12 miles. is situated on the coast about 1. Inland there is an extensive swamp. Tides—Currents. is the most conspicuous landmark.34 1. This buoy. extends S from the point on which lies Kadar Pir and provides shelter for a port which is in operation throughout the year. 70°32'E. its mouth is generally choked with sand.) World Port Index No. a white square building with a red roof.com Anchorage.36 1. It was reported that the breakwater S of the berth had been breached in two places. but there is sometimes a surface drift of about 0. the towers of the water works. about 15 miles SE of Navibandar. marked by a white can buoy. with depths of less than 5. 122m long. off the entrance of the Bhadar River. are used for lighterage operations. 2. isolated. lies 0.2 mile SE of the breakwater head. flows into the sea during the Southwest Monsoon. about 0.) is a walled town close to the coast. conical.—During the Southwest Monsoon. which flows out between the town and a point on which lies Kadar Pir.34 1. 1.Sector 1.—The customhouse.—The Barda Hills (Barda Range) (21°48'N. A light is shown from the sea-face wall of the center bastion at Navibandar from September to June.35 1.34 1. 48680 1. A detached rocky shoal.6m swell is generated within the breakwater.5 mile NW of the mosque. Mangrol Light is shown from a square house at Mangrol Bandar.5 miles WNW of the head of the breakwater.6m. The mountain is an enormous granite rock. with the light structure at Navibandar bearing 099°. Conspicuous chimneys are situated 1 mile N and 0. There is a mooring buoy about 0. An S-shaped breakwater. in a depth of 17m.36 1. A conspicuous pillar is situated on the coast 0. heavy fore and aft springs are essential for ships berthed alongside.—Veraval is an open roadstead where vessels load and discharge by lighters working to quays in the inner harbor..5 knot.) World Port Index No. about 10 miles SE of Porbandar. and bare.. The port is closed to shipping from May 15 to September 15. In the entrance of the shallow creek. two of the quays have depths of 4m alongside. in 9.34 1.—The indentation of the creek is shallow as the coastal bank. The Bhadar River enters the sea about 0.36 The town of Veraval shows up well from seaward. The town of Mangrol. Tides—Currents..4 mile S of the breakwater.—Tidal currents are not perceptible in the offing. lies about 0. and cotton.5m. and petroleum products..34 23 Porbandar to Veraval 1.1m.8 mile NW of the town. as many of the houses rise up abruptly from the surrounding countryside. lies about 1 mile SSE of the breakwater head. On the E side of the breakwater. There are depths of 3 to 4m in the inner harbor.36 popbr1@rediffmail. Pakistan and the West Coast of India—Ras Muari to Diu Head Porbandar (21°38'N. timber. Porbandar Light is shown from a tall round stone tower with black horizontal bands lying on the coast in front of the town. and an anchor berth E of the breakwater.) are conspicuous and make a good landfall.35 Veraval (20°54'N.—Good anchorage can be taken. Porbandar lies on the E side of the entrance to a narrow creek.34 1. lies about 0.34 1.5 to 11m alongside.34 1. in clear weather they are visible from 25 or 30 miles. with a least depth of 4. its entrance is shallow and rocky.34 1.5 mile ESE of New Hazur Palace. a large white building facing the sea. An examination anchorage is established and is centered about 1. 1. The principal imports are fertilizers. about 12 miles farther SE and 1 mile inland. The Rajah’s old palace. groundnut oil. a conspicuous mosque with an elevation of 8m. the deck of the quay is a 5m above MHHW. The inner harbor. is sheltered by a breakwater extending SE from the coast.116m high. 48690 1. but farther NW it is obscured by the Barda Hills.34 1. 1. is a small walled town on the coast. there is a conspicuous temple.8 miles ESE of Veraval. extends about 0..34 1. Caution.35 Gorakhanath (21°32'N. fresh dates. Navibandar (21°27'N. Pilotage. The channels leading to the quays are maintained by dredging.34 1.36 1. 1. A light is situated at the head of the breakwater.560m in length. are prominent. which is flooded during the rainy season. 1. An anchor berth E of the breakwater is used for lighterage operations. Aspect. The pilot boards 0.35 1.25 mile E of the quay.34 Porbandar is the largest town on the coast of Kathiawar.3 miles SSW of Porbandar Light. 69°44'E. Depths—Limitations. with a least depth of 10m.

In December and January. about 3 miles ESE of Mul Dwarka. hatches. the W tidal current is increased.5 miles offshore. the temple on Deni Barra bearing 313°.37 The coast between Sutrapara. Pilotage.6m high. the jetty is used for unloading cement.5 mile E of the point.—Pilotage is not compulsory.5 knots. 6. Pakistan and the West Coast of India—Ras Muari to Diu Head Pilotage is compulsory. Crew list.38 Veraval to Diu Head 1. in a charted depth of about 23m. the ebb current sets WNW and the flood ESE at a velocity of 1 to 1. about 10 miles ESE. official number. with the customhouse bearing 343°. with the customhouse bearing 348°. but they are subject to irregularities.38 1.37 1. 7.8 miles ESE of Veraval. the Singavado River empties about 0.37 1. call sign. and freeboard. sand. 160...” Anchorage. both of which are removed when the port is closed.. A conspicuous temple. with depth of 2m or less. situated near the coast about 1 mile WNW of the custom house. P and I Club/H and M Policy details and contact details of representative. and Mul Dwarka.5m high. including the following information: 1. Validity of ceretificates. The port contains a 250m long private jetty. including last ten ports of call. Two buoys. Mul Dwarka (20°45'N. Vessels should send their ETA messages through Mumbai or Kandla. is shown from a white masonry tower. 70°40'E. a cliffy point. lies on the seaward side of the town.37 A chimney.36 1. Name.36 1. Sailing Directions (Planning Guide) South Atlantic Ocean and Indian Ocean under “India—Signals. 51. Lighted Beacon A is shown from a white square mansonry structure. is conspicuous about 1 mile NW of the customhouse. The coast is more densely wooded here and the trees are larger than elsewhere on the coast. Kodinar. and Bhirria Temple bearing 058°. while the E tidal current is weakened and may at times be imperceptible. is conspicuous about 0.36 1. Further information on these storm signals may be found in Pub. 5.—The coast between Mul Dwarka and Diu Head is fronted by a rocky shoal lying about 1. Vessels can anchor about 2. 4. 1. In fine weather anchorage can be obtained farther inshore. A vessel should not approach it to a depth of less than 24m. 3.1m high. Storm signals are displayed from the mast above the customhouse. Signals.1m high. and with Bhirbhanjan Temple in line bearing 040° with Lighted Beacon A close SW. The latter river has very little water in it except during the rains.8 mile E of the custom house.—There is a signal station at Veraval which vessels may communicate with by the International Code or Morse Code.38 1. Somnath. 2. a town about 3 miles NE of Mul Dwarka. Vessels should send their ETA 72 hours in advance. 6. A submerged rock.5 mile NW of Veraval Light.37 The coast between Mul Dwarka and Diu Head (20°41'N. in depths of 12 to 18m. about 7. lies about 2. Port health details.5 miles W of Mul Dwarka. A white tomb lies close to the coast about 0. Any restrictions.). 33. Caution. or other areas of concern. about 11 miles farther ESE.5m high.36 1. beam. arrival draft. 1.—Good anchorage can be obtained.38 Pub. 69°23'E. 9. and flag.36 1.38 1. nrt. 1. with a racon. 70°50'E. the pilot boards about 2 miles SSW of the temple.36 1. is just visible among the trees.36 1.36 1. the temple on Deni Barra bearing 315°. Deni Barra. with black bands. 56m high. with an alongside depth of 9. Tides—Currents. 7.). GRT.36 1.5m. 1. 10.5 miles W of Diu Head Light. coral rock. is low and sandy with patches of cliffs at intervals. ISPS information. obstructions. with a least depth of 3m.).5 miles S of the temple. about 1. consists of rocky points with sandy bays between and some cliffs 9m to 12m high.37 1. with the current setting up the coast. close SW. with a temple. in 10 to 12m.) is below a small bluff point with a temple on its summit which has an elevation of 24m. Veraval Light (20°54'N.36 1. 9. mark the entrance to the inner harbor. 173 . dwt. loa. the General System is used. Chara is a village near the coast.8 mile W of Chara. Last port of call and port clearance number. 8.24 Sector 1. etc.—Between Sutrapara and Diu Head. The point can be identified by the white sand on the top of the cliffs and the dark building of the temple. Cargo details (including cranes.5 miles ESE of Veraval.38 The Surmat River flows into the sea about 1. is surrounded by a wall of dark-colored stone. Bhirbhanjan Temple (Bhirria Temple ) is conspicuous about 0.36 1. Pilots can be contacted on VHF channel 15. 1.

25 2. India—West Coast—Diu Head to Cape Rama (including the Gulf of Cambay and Bombay) 2. 173 .0 Additional chart coverage may be found in NGA/DLIS Catalog of Maps. and Related Products (Unlimited Distribution). SECTOR 2 — CHART INFORMATION Pub. Charts.

usually without lights.9m patch about 0.2 2. Small craft can anchor. The bay affords shelter from NW winds. on which there is a cairn.5 mile E of the SW entrance point of Brancavara Creek. sometimes marked by buoys. 173 . over which the sea breaks heavily. in 7m. about 2. which dries.5 mile farther NE.3 2. pipelines. but cannot be seen from any great distance from the SW. 529m high..2 Diu Head (20°41'N.2 mile E of the E extremity of Diu Head. and a small temple lying near its summit. There are depths of 10 to 12m. strong tide rips and overfalls occur E of Madhwad Bainsla. Kachbi Reef (Khasbi Reef). terminating in a rocky point. about 1 mile ENE of the E extremity of Diu Head. rising to a 20m summit marked by a bush. lies about 1.3 mile WSW from Nagwa Point. Madhwad Creek. At springs. and the meridians of 71°00'E and 72°40'E. oil production platforms. and the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea. which dries from 0. 2. The anchorage should not be used with S or E winds. these features are not all charted due to their compelxity and frequent change.3 2.6 mile offshore.—This sector describes the W coast of India between Diu Head and Cape Rama.5 miles E.—Rocky Shoal.3 2. Nagwa Point (20°42'N.2 2. Caution.. between Nagwa Point and Kachbi Reef. can be identified by the lighthouse. General Remarks 2. lies about 0.2 2.4m. distant 0. The Indian government requests that vessels remain 1 to 2 miles to starboard of the tracklines shown on the chart.3 2.1 Shoal water. single point moorings. over which the sea occasionally breaks. and about 0. Foul ground. lies about 27 miles NE of Diu Head and is conspicuous from the S.3 miles ENE. vessels usually lie across the wind and tide when the ebb current sets out of Brancavara Creek. the largest seaport on the W coast of India.2 2.3 2. Another prominent temple is situated about 0.1 mile N and 0. The E end of this steep-to shoal. with the S entrance point of the creek about 1. Vessels can anchor when the cliffs on the S side of the entrance of Madhwad Creek bear 270°. 2. lies about 0.27 SECTOR 2 INDIA—WEST COAST—DIU HEAD TO CAPE RAMA (INCLUDING THE GULF OF CAMBAY AND BOMBAY) 2. consists of low sand hills backed by marshy land..—Vessels intending to anchor E of Rocky Shoal should approach with the conspicuous temple on the E entrance of Brancavara Creek bearing 322°. 70°54'E.3 mile E from this rock. The arrangement of the sector is from N to S. Recommended routes have been established by Indian authorities to aid traffic transiting the area. Vessels approaching from the E and intending to anchor NW of Rocky Shoal should steer with Madhwad Bainsla.6 to 0. Anchorage. The sector includes the port of Bombay.). The Gir Hills. consistent with safe navigation. the coast consists of sand dunes which extend inland to a thick unbroken belt of palm trees. bearing more than 283°.) lies between the E extremity of Diu Head and Nagwa Point. sand and mud. Course should be altered N for the anchorage about 1 mile ENE of the E extremity of Diu Head. 8m high.3 Pub.9m. which is partly submerged at HW springs. as it is a favorite anchorage for sailing craft waiting for the flood current to proceed up the Gulf of Cambay.2 2.2 2. The extent of the development area and the recommended routes are best seen on the appropriate chart. at this anchorage. about 25 miles N of Diu Head.) is a dark bluff. and well heads. 2. obstruct navigation within the area.9 mile NNW of the E extremity of Diu Head. 2. bounded approximately by the parallels of 18°00'N and 19°50'N. Moderate-sized vessels can anchor. may be found here at night. over which the sea breaks occasionally. when the E of two distant sharp peaks bears 005°. sand and mud. submerged obstructions. extend about 40 miles in an E-W direction and attain an elevation of about 640m. 70°50'E.1 2. and open well N of the light structure on Diu Head. a rocky bluff about 30m high. etc. as well as vessels bound to or from the port of Bombay. extends about 0. including the Gulf of Cambay. 70°56'E. This course leads S of the S extremity of Rocky Shoal. Madhwad Bay (Mandwa Bay) (20°42'N. is being developed for oil production. lies in the middle of the entrance of the bay. exist in this area. The coast at the head of the bay between Diu Head and Brancavara Creek. and anchor when the S extremity of Nagwa Point bears 077°. At the anchorage E of this shoal. From this summit the land slopes gradually E. a rock 2m high. with a least depth of 1. Vessels are not advised to anchor midway between Madhwad Gainsla and the W end of Rocky Shoal because of the strong tidal currents and the exposed position. Dhows. Between Brancavara Creek and Nagwa Point. but there is frequently a swell setting into it. extends about 0.9 mile.1 to 12. sand and mud. with cliffs 9.0 Plan. the SW extremity of Diu Island. in 8m.3 miles WSW of Nagwa Point. the SE peak of the range.3 2. two long buildings. or the E extremity of Diu Head. is entered about 0.—Anchorage can be taken on either side of Rocky Shoal. and the holding ground is good. Numerous oil derricks. Nandivela. Other unlit objects.5 mile NW of Rocky Shoal.. 1972 (72 COLREGS).1 An extensive offshore area. A conspicuous temple lies on the E entrance point of Brancavara Creek. Directions.25 miles. When approaching this latter anchorage it should be remembered that the flood current sets strongly toward Rocky Shoal and the ebb current toward Madhwad Bainsla.3 Madhwad Bainsla.3 2. in 11m. taking care to avoid a 4. Steer for this peak on this bearing.2m high. sheltered from E winds and out of the influence of the tidal currents.2 Diu Head to Diu Harbor 2. about 3.

5 mile ENE from the E extremity of Diu Island. A breakwater ends with an L-shaped jetty extending about 0.4 mile N of Bhesla Rock. To reach it.5 Diu Harbor (20°43'N. in 9. These irregularities of tides will account in some measure for the eddy currents off Diu Head.4 2.” Anchorage.4 2. A guard house.—Storm signals are displayed from a flagstaff in Forte do Diu. Storm signals are shown at Nawabandar. about 1 mile inland on the W bank of the river of the same name. extends about 1 mile E of the bluff. Tides—Currents.5 2.3 mile WSW of Bhesla Rock.3m spit. lies about 10. which runs through the middle of a large swamp. is open E and somewhat encumbered by shoals. except on its SE side.5 miles ENE of Panikota Islet. mud.4 2. with steep cliffs. with a depth of 1. with a least depth of 4. situated on high ground. for although there is plenty of water.3m. From a position ENE of Bhesla Rock the track leads WSW. There are several prominent buildings in the town. and also based at Diu. lies with the light structure near the center of Forte do Diu bearing 315°.4 Diu Harbor. with a red roof and a palm tree. 160. on the highest of which there is a flagstaff. There is anchorage.4 2..5m high. between the E end of Diu Island and the mainland N. is situated on the mainland. and often runs for 2. A temple. Simar Fort (Simbor Fort). has a large conspicuous temple with twin minarets. is conspicuous from seaward.5 2.5 mile E of the E extremity of Diu Island. A 3m rocky patch lies about 0.—Diu Harbor affords no protection from the E.” Anchorage.5 2. the Brief System is used. the intervening coast is high. about 0.) World Port Index No. the hills on its W part are about 30. vessels should steer for the temple N of Ghoghla. in 5 to 7m. extends about 0. and it is advisable to give them a wide berth. 48710 2.6 2. Further information on these storm signals may be found in Pub. The channel between the reef W of Bhesla Rock and the reef projecting ENE of Panikota Islet is not recommended. A light is shown from a white circular building on the promontory. which dries in places.—A rock. There is high ground.5 mile W from the E side of the harbor entrance.7m depth lies about 1 mile ENE of the E extremity of Diu Island.. Caution. there are no navigational aids. The harbor is shallow and a ledge of flat rocks extends nearly 0. 71°00'E. about 1 mile E of Ghoghla.5 2. Aspect. Sailing Directions (Planning Guide) South Atlantic Ocean and Indian Ocean under “India—Signals.1m. 2.5 2. lies about 0. 71°23'E. bearing 298°. sand and rock. close W of the village. clear of the 4. the Brief System is used.7m. are conspicuous about 1. it lies at the SE edge of a spit and is periodically marked by a light. The seaward side of the island is composed chiefly of sandstone cliffs. A 4.6 Jafarabad (20°52'N.5 Nawabandar (20°44'N. is connected to the mainland W by a drying reef.4 2. with deep water close to it. a light is shown seasonally from the fort. Signals. lies about 5 miles farther ENE. with several round towers. about 4..28 Sector 2.2m.5 hours after the water along the shore has began to rise. A detached drying reef lies from 0. The town of Delvada.) is an open roadstead affording little protection during the Southwest Monsoon. Close W of Panikota Islet.2 mile N of Forte do Diu. the holding ground. 2.3 miles E of Panikota Islet and is fringed by a drying reef.6 mile. Jafarabad Harbor is situated in a shallow bay about 1 mile across. lies about 0. at the entrance to the Jafarabad River. these vessels leave barrel buoys and logs to mark the fishing grounds. Bhesla Rock. is situated at the N end of the islet. passing between the dangers ENE of Forte do Diu. distant 1 mile.—The flood current S of Diu sets ENE.5 to 0. 35m high. 160.2 to 0. A shoal. a white flat-topped structure with a flagstaff. distant 0.—Good anchorage can be obtained.4 2. The town of Diu.4 2. about 2. Couraca Light is shown periodically from the NE extremity of the same fort. Nawabandar.8 mile SW of the point. a range of cliffs extends about 2 miles W and attains an elevation of 13m. the W end of these cliffs appears as a sharp bluff when seen from E. a light is shown seasonally from this point. The safest and best anchorage. at the E extremity of Diu Island.2m.4 2. A temple.5 2.—Diu Island is separated from the mainland by Sesalkhada Creek.4 2.5 miles NW of Nawabandar. and 2 miles N of Forte do Mar. Murex Bluff. in 14 to 16m. 11m high. vessels should not anchor in the harbor during strong E winds.8 to 2. Sailing Directions (Planning Guide) South Atlantic Ocean and Indian Ocean under “India—Signals. Panikota Islet.4 2. The town. close W of the fort. at the W end of Diu Island. Further information on these storm signals may be found in Pub.3 mile offshore.3 mile ENE from the islet. From October to the end of January large fleets of fishing vessels based at Brancawara.4 2. The citadel of Forte do Diu. 173 .4 Forte do Mar is situated about 0. 71°05'E.5 2. towards the anchorage.5 knots. A light is shown near the center of Forte do Diu. and anchoring when Couraca Light bears 240°.5 mile W from the shore near the cement factory on the E side. 2. India—West Coast—Diu Head to Cape Rama Diu Harbor to Pipavav Bandar 2. It often runs for 2 hours after the time of HW by the shore. in 8.. which also extends about 0. on the N side of the entrance to Sesalkhada Creek.8 mile farther ENE. The ebb current sets WSW at a velocity of 2 knots at springs. which dries from 1. in Simar Anchorage (Simbor Anchorage). and about 0. with the light structure at Nawabandar bearing 254°. A reef. 71°10'E. about 0.7 mile NNW of Forte do Mar. with a greatest velocity at springs of 1. This anchorage is used by local vessels and affords protection from W winds.3 mile SW of Simar Fort (Simbor Fort).5 miles ENE of Nawabandar. is conspicuous in the N part of the village of Ghoghla.) will be found from 4 to 8 miles offshore. The village of Rajpura (Rajvla) lies on a point about 3.5 2. Jafarabad is a walled town. Murex Reef. a rocky islet 8m high. mud. A second Pub. is enclosed by a wall which is breached in many places on its W sides. mud. 25m high.5 2. and Simar (20°46'N. can be seen from the S and E over the intervening rising ground.) is a promontory situated 2 miles E of Diu Harbor. There is good anchorage for small vessels about 0.4 2.3 miles NNE.

a bluff rocky islet. in 14m.7 Pipavav Bandar is the principal port for Dongar. extends about 0.).. lie on most of the hilltops on the coast. One branch sets W through East Channel and then SW through West Channel. Small watch towers. East Channel. break bulk. 71°31'E. leads between the W entrance point and Shiyal Bet (20°54'N. and a conspicuous tower. Savai Bet Reef.2m. and LPG. the E current continues to run for 30 minutes after the time of HW.—The shores of the islet are composed of rocky cliffs.5 hours before the time of the following HW. is situated close to the coast. is located 1 mile ENE of Savai Bet. divides N of Bhensla Rock.6 2.6 2.5 miles.5m in 1986. The other branch sets toward Savai Bet Reef and then W along the coast at a velocity of 2 to 2. Tides—Currents. At neaps. which sets SW from S of Chanch Island. A new LPG jetty is being constructed close NE of the new container berth.—In fine weather. and then toward Bhensla Rock at a velocity of 3 knots at springs and 2 to 3 knots at neaps. creating a container berth that will accommodate vessels with a maximum draft of 14.3 miles NNE of Shival Island.6 2. a drying reef.7 2. 106m high. 90m high.6 2. lead to the jetty.7 Pipavav Bandar (20°54'N.pipavav. The flood current sets across the S approach to West Channel and there divides.5m. and the W current continues to run until 4 hours before the time of the following HW. A chimney. Vararup Temple. is 725m long. from there to the N end of the LPG Jetty. Both currents attain a maximum velocity of 4 knots after running for 3 hours. with a dredged depth of 13. A light shows from the W breakwater head. Aspect. 48730 2.7 2.—Pipavav Port is approached through a dredged channel marked by lighted buoys. There is an extensive mangrove swamp close inland. 71°31'E.6 2.8 mile E of the SW entrance point of the harbor.7 The GPPL Jetty. At springs.6 2. as there is only a depth of 2. about 6 miles N. being dredged to a depth of 5. with the light structure on the SW entrance point bearing 260°. Caution. 2. Depths—Limitations.5m.7m.6 2. and the principal town on this part of the coast. West Channel.5m alongside.com Tides—Currents.7 2. and fringed by a coastal reef. steep-to on its E edge. good anchorage can be taken.5 knots at springs and about 1 knot at neaps. passing N of Shiyal Bet.5 knots. At neaps. 146m high. which is submerged only at very high spring tides A heavy swell occurs during the Southwest Monsoon. fronts the coast for about 4. is conspicuous about 6. about 5 miles ENE.—Barman Hill. is cliffy with precipitous points.7 2. 102m high.4 mile E from Savai Bet. One branch sets N through the channel and then NE toward Chanch Island at a velocity of 1.5m up to Lighted Buoy No. in line bearing 222°°. the W extremity of which is located about 2. Remains of old fortifications are on the N and E sides of the islet. The jetty is L-shaped.7 Port Authority of Pipavav Bandar http://www.7 Pub.7 2. The coast between Jafarabad Harbor and the W entrance point of Pipavav Anchorage.6 2. It is being developed as an all-season port. 5. about 2 miles W of the W entrance point of Pipavav Anchorage. around the Lshaped jetty. The channel is dredged to a depth of 11.7 2.3 mile from the W entrance point of the bay.5 knots at springs and 1.5 miles NNW of Jafarabad. The other branch sets ENE past Savai Bet Reef. 2. The jetty will have a dredged depth of 15. Inland the country is undulating and partially cultivated. about 1. Bhensla Rock.7 2. Only small vessels with local knowledge can proceed to Pipavav Bandar. Pipavav Bandar lies on the NW shore of the West Channel. Anchorage. with the exception of the NE side and the shore of a small bay on its NW side. the tidal current sets E with the flood and W with the ebb along the coast. 2. The GPPL Jetty is being extended (2006) to the NE for 350m.6 2.6 29 Chanch Island. 10. A cement factory.. India—West Coast—Diu Head to Cape Rama breakwater extends ENE about 0.7 2. The mean neap tide range is only 1. the current changes from ebb to flood in a clockwise direction and the flood to ebb in a counterclockwise direction. cement and fertilizer. is served by a jetty.Sector 2. 29m high. and is conspicuous from S. the recommended channel to Pipavav Anchorage. Lights are shown from the SW and NE entrance points of the harbors.8m high. the E current continues to run for about 1 hour after the time of HW.—Outside the harbor. are situated close together at a cement factory on the E entrance point of the river.6 2. The greater part of the islet is covered with ruins of what must have been extensive buildings and temples. should only be used by light-draft vessels with local knowledge. The ebb current.5 knots at neaps. is also conspicuous.—A dangerous wreck lies about 0. 2. consisting of three berths. which are low and sandy.5m high. about 3 miles W of Barman Hill.—A channel about 40m wide. The channel width varies from 380m at its beginning and widens to 575m in the vicinity of the GPPL Jetty before narrowing to a width of 200m in the vicinity of the N end of the LPG Jetty. Range lights.) World Port Index No. Depths—Limitations. and only at low water. 15m high and nearly steepto on its E side.7 2. A white beacon marks the W edge of the ledge of flat rocks extending from the E side of the harbor entrance. and with the light structure on the NE entrance point bearing 036°. 173 . It imports and exports bulk cargo including coal. Lor Hill.5m alongside.7 2. The maximum velocity of the flood is 1.4 to 16. with a berth 400m in length and a charted depth of 11m alongside.8 knots and of the ebb 1. 2.5 to 2. Aspect. attaining a velocity of 2 knots at springs and 1 knot at neaps. the dredged depth is 11. on the W side of the entrance channel about 1 mile ESE of Chachuda Temple.6 2.1m in the channel leading to it.—The mean spring tide range is about 2. and the W current continues to run until 4. Strong eddies form in West Channel at HW and LW. leads to a dredged basin of the same depth having a diameter of 300m.

the NE entrance point. about 0.1m. Bhensla Rock. is situated on the edge of a cliff. in about 13. about 0. Chachuda Temple. and about 2 miles N of Shiyal Bet.8 Islet Point (21°00'N.8 2.5 miles WSW. has bold rocky cliffs on its S and E sides. in 10m. Anchorage for small vessels can be obtained.8 2. Gadhada. Beacons stand on drying reefs on each side of the entrance to West Channel. with a tower close inland. 1. with a depth of 4m.3 mile WSW from the W extremity of Chanch Island.5m. 2.5 mile N to the average elevation of the undulating land in this vicinity of more than 30.8 2.—Vessels should enter West Channel with the beacons on the mainland in line bearing 019°. Tidal currents S and W of Jegri Island set in the direction of the line of the coast. Its SW entrance point is a bluff. on top of a sandhill at the head of Jegri Bay. which is marked by a light.—There is good anchorage. Mahuva Bandar is situated at the head of Mahuva Bay. when course can be shaped to the anchorage. is shallow and mostly dries. with the light structure on Jegri Island bearing 040°. Several islets front the point and are connected with each other and the coast by a drying reef of rocks. with deep channels to the W and E. The Gulf of Cambay (The Gulf of Khambhat) 2. Beacons on the mainland. which dries 0. A detached 7. as the mariner is able to accurately fix his position from the objects on the coast. the head of which. lies on the drying coastal reef about 2.6m high. is 14m high. 2. A drying reef extends about 0. Anchorage can be taken SE of Savai Bet Light.) is 26m high and conspicuous. is a low rocky projection.7 2. Anchoring is prohibited N of 20°52.4m high.5 miles NE of Methla Point. 27. hours.9 mile SE of the fort.7 2. 12 hours. India—West Coast—Diu Head to Cape Rama The coast between Gadhada and the SW entrance of Mahuva Bay is composed of limestone cliffs and is fringed by a steep-to oastal reef extending about 0. rising about 0.8 miles SW from the SW edge of the above-mentioned reef. the flood current attains a velocity of 2.7 harbourmaster@portofpipavav. about 2 miles ENE of the circular tower. separating the NW and N sides of Chanch Island from the mainland. 173 .6 mile. sand and mud. which frequently change because of the force of the bores and freshets from the rivers. One Tree Hill. submerged at HW. 15m high. about 2 miles farther ENE. and about 1. about 2.5 knots and the ebb current a velocity of 1 knot.8 2. 71°47'E. Vessels should contact Port Control on VHF channel 71 for advice prior to anchoring.. Jhanjhmer is a walled town on the coast about 4 miles NE of Methla Point. is prominent and hilly. from which it is separated by an extensive swamp.8 2. Vessels may also anchor with Chachuda Temple bearing 161°. boats can land on the NE side of the bluff. Kotada Bluff (21°07'N. During W winds. is a shallow bight. Methla Point.2'E.7 2. 9m high. The pilot boards in position 20°53. in a depth of about 10m.7 Montapat Creek.8 miles offshore. and its W part consists of sandhills from 18 to 23m high. sparsely cultivated. Pilotage. Mahuva Bay (21°02'N.8 miles N of Mahuva Badar. The S part of the gulf is deep. is filled with the coastal reef. consisting of sand and mud.5'E and 71°31.8 mile S of the point. The bight between Islet Point and Gadhada. with the flood setting E and the ebb setting W. which extends about 1.8 2.2 mile offshore.8 mile ESE from this islet. is similar.5'E. Vessels should call Port Control on VHF channel 71 for pilot boarding and anchoring information. in a depth of 9m. there is a projecting point. 71°30.2 mile S of the fort. but 18m high. and is approached through a creek which nearly dries. mud and sand. is 15m high and nearly steep-to. 71°41'E. the depths increase gradually to seaward.30 Sector 2. dries to a distance of about 0.7 Directions. The SW edge of Spit Sand is called The Spit and has a least depth of 1.3m.) and Suvali Point (21°05'N. Mahuva. is conspicuous at the W edge of a reef extending about 0.8 2. a village. is the outlet for waters that cover an immense tract of marshy land at high water. is conspicuous.7 mile seaward. in line bearing 019°. Patva Bay. Malacca Banks. which is the SW extremity of Jegri Island. lie in the fairway of the approach.. The remains of a square and conspicuous old fort are situated close S of the town. 71°58'E.4 miles distant. is conspicuous on the mainland.).7 2.—Pilotage is compulsory. at the W extremity of Chanch Island. about 10 miles NE of Shiyal Bet. is a good landmark from the SE and S. and 6 hours in advance to the Harbormaster. A palace. 27m high. but the N part is encumbered with sand banks.8 2. 72°07'E.).—The harbormaster can be contacted by e-mail.3 miles offshore in places.9m.3 miles NE.0'N.7 2.8 2. Jegri Island. The S islet. lies about 2.5'N between 71°29.8 2. Jegri Bay (Katpur Bay).7 2. sheltered from the Southwest Monsoon. between Jegri Island and Cave Point. as follows: 2.. About midway between Jhanjhmer and Gopnath Point. Grant Channel and Sutherland Channel are safer to use than the channels between the banks. Sutherland Channel should be used only by those with local knowledge. 48 hours.2 mile E from the SE extremity of Jegri Island. and steer in on this bearing until Chachuda Temple bears 275°. Anchorage.5 miles WSW of Shiyal Bet.7 2. extends about 0. a walled town with a conspicuous temple near its center.8 2.9 The Gulf of Cambay is about 30 miles wide at its entrance between Gopnath Point (21°12'N.7 2. mud. 7.9 2. between Islet Point and a bluff point. Bhawani Temple.com 2. about 1. at springs.8 Pub. between the N end of Shiyal Bet and The Spit. Spit Sand.. A light is shown about 0.8 2. 72°38'E. A circular tower. Vessels should send their ETA 72 hours. 24m high.8 2. 24m high.7 2. Anchorage can be taken by small vessels.) nearly dries and shows a mass of rocks and stones. 24. distant 0.7 2.. 20m high. extends nearly 1. A spit.3m patch lies about 3 miles SW of Gadhada. lead through West Channel. Signals. 26m high. about 2. about 4 miles ENE.8 2. Pipavav Bandar to Gopnath Point 2.

The sand and banks in the upper part of the gulf are subject to great alterations.. India—West Coast—Diu Head to Cape Rama Deep-draft vessels can proceed up the gulf as far as Piram Island. soundings do not give sufficient warning. Sutherland Channel. The pilot boards 3 miles S of the SPM and can be contacted on VHF 2. but they are narrow at their N ends. bottom is sand toward the bank and mud toward the Channel off the N end of Western Bank Depths in Grant Channel between Gopnath Point and Western Bank.10 2.000m3. were reported (2002) to be 1 to 1.3m lie at the N end of Breaker Bank.—Tidal currents attain a rate of at least 4. 48 hours. WNW of Suvali Point.in 2. and it is inadvisable to use them.9 2. Narbada Bank has a large area of drying sand near its center. soundings give little warning of the approach to these dangers. with a maximum length of 295m. has been reported (2003.—The harbor. one for general cargo and one for chemical and LPG cargo.10 Hazira Offshore Terminal (21°09'N. except in an emergency.—Considerable shoaling is reported in the entrance of the Gulf of Cambay and mariners should navigate with caution in this vicinity. Grant Channel. and 6 hours prior to arrival. via the agent. some of which dry.9 2. 2006) in an area extending from 2 to 3 miles SW of the SW corner of the charted General Lighterage Area.9 2.5m. can be accommodated. because. an LNG terminal. with a maximum draft on arrival of 13m. but it is submerged at high water springs. between the parallels of 20°20'N and 21°20'N.5m less than charted. is steep-to on both sides.) is situated about 6 miles NW of Suvali Point.—Tidal currents set N and S in the channel at rates of up to 6 knots at springs. Aspect.9 2. A dangerous wreck lies about 5 miles SW of Breaker Bank. The seaward end of the entrance channel is marked by a pair of buoys.10 2. The facility itself can be contacted by e-mail.—Vessels bound for the terminal must report to Magdalla Port Control when 2 miles S of Magdalla Port Limits. lead through the entrance channel.9 2. are located about 5 miles W of Suvali Point. between Eastern Bank and the coast E. Breaker Bank has a long sand bank near its center. Breaker Bank. 2. Vessels are berthed only during daylight hours during slack water. is dredged to a depth of 12m. Depths—Limitations.—Pilots should be requested the agent. being nearly steep-to. which are best seen on the chart. and Eastern Bank. a drying patch was reported (1954) in this vicinity. 72°35'E. Depths—Limitations.10 2. Local knowledge is necessary for vessels navigating above Gogha. The entrance channel. Regulations. as follows: portcontrol.—Vessels should send their ETA.—Pilots board S of the General Lighterage Area in position 20°57'N. Deep channels are between these shoals. Unlit structures are situated on the Malacca Banks. local knowledge is necessary. Because the depths are deep within 0.10 Anchorage. a maximum beam of 50m.3 to 27m. The terminal is an SPM and is approached through Sutherland Channel. 12 hours. Depths of 2. as follows: shippingradioroom@ril. 173 .com 2. has an alongside depth of 13m. at the head of Sutherland Channel. open WSW.9 2. on the N side of the harbor.—There is a depth of 25m at the SPM. Tapti Oil Development Area. The tidal range is reported to be about 7m.10 2. Tides—Currents. The berth.9 2. Caution. The facility can be contacted by e-mail. is located in the W approach to the Gulf of Cambay.9 2. Magdalla Port Control can be contacted on VHF channels 9 and 16 and by e-mail. which are best seen on the chart.hazira@shing. about 16 miles ENE of Gopnath Point. Malacca Banks is the general name for four long narrow shoals lying in and obstructing the entrance of the Gulf of Cambay. The width of the channel is reduced to 0. Pilots. Vessels between 15.000 dwt. Any directions for navigating this area must be considered as general only. and a maximum draft of 11..10 gmbpomin_adl@sancharnet. which may be seen a long distance from the masthead when the sun shines on it at high water neaps. is located on the W side of the Hazira peninsula and is approached through the S part of Sutherland Channel. Surat Roads.5 miles wide at its narrowest part. 72 hours.9 2.—The N end of Malacca Banks should not be approached with an ebb tide. The use of tugs is compulsory. including a drying patch about 300m wide.000 and 50. named in order from W. and consists of four breasting dolphins and five mooring dolphins. best seen on the chart. about 6 miles NW of Piram Island.10 2. as best seen on the chart. between Western Bank and the coast NW. These shoals.10 2.—Anchoring is prohibited within the Magdalla Port Limits. about 28 miles NNE of Gopnath Point.2 mile of these shoal patches in many places. four tugs secure to the LNG carrier prior to entering the dredged entrance channel. Regulations.10 Pub.10 Only one vessel at a time is allowed to be underway in the approach corridor. 72°34'E.10 channel 67.9 2.10 The facility can accommodate an LNG carrier of 145.). Narbada Bank.65 mile long and 0.10 2.com Hazira Port (Surat Port) (21°06'N. Pilots. is about 2.—Range lights. Caution. Eastern Bank has several shoal patches.7 to 3. as follows: 2. 2. Tides—Currents.2 mile wide. with general depths of 11.Sector 2. This area also has not been closely examined. Western Bank dries in places. is protected by breakwaters.10 2. which is 0.9 2. Two lighterage areas. 2.5 knots at springs.—Shoaling.9 31 2. and the Sutherland Channel. in line bearing 070°. 72°37'E.9 2.15 mile between the breakwater heads. Caution. is oriented in a NE/SW direction. 6 miles SSE of Gopnath Point. are Western Bank. All LNG carriers must obtain passage approval from Magdalla Port Control prior to entering the entrance corridor.

India—West Coast—Diu Head to Cape Rama uous near the middle of the island. The duration of SW at the N end of Bhavnagar Channel varies from 13 to 20 minutes at springs and from 12 to 22 minutes at neaps. and the ebb current continues to run for more than 1.—Vessels up to 152m long.2m. A shoal.13 2. about 1. Kuda Point (21°38'N. and the tidal rise is 8. 23m high.5 hours after the tide has commenced rising. Tides—Currents.—Tide information is produced by the port department and can be attained by contacting local agents. 173 . is conspicuous.7m. Perigee Rock.2 to 2.5 mile E.8 mile N of the point.5m. 10m high. which dries from 1. Depths—Limitations. Tides—Currents.9m at MHWS and 7. The permissable draft is reported to be the height of the predicted tide less 5..—The tidal rise at Bhavnagar is 10. A reef.3m at MHWN. with depths of less than 11m. Depths E and SE of Perigee Rock. 48760 2. Vessels arrive and depart at about HW slack.3m at MHWN. the basin has depths of 7. are irregular.13 2.8m can enter the tidal basin.) World Port Index No.8m. These shoals consist of drying rock.). is moderately high. At the N end of Bhavnagar Channel.—Within Gopnath Shoal and Sultanpur Shoal the flood current at springs does not turn until more than 1 hour after the time of HW. The narrow channel between Mallock Reef and Piram Island should not be used without local knowledge as the tide runs through at a great velocity and there is very little slack water.11 2.13 2.5 miles ENE from Gopnath Point. with a conspicuous light structure and bungalow on it. the W entrance point of the Gulf of Cambay. At Piram Island. is a steep conical hill.5m. a small village is situated close N of the lighthouse. is low and covered with sandhills for about 18 miles to Mitivirdi.2m. can anchor N of Perigee Rock. to a distance of about 4 miles.13 The port of Bhavnagar consists of a tidal basin capable of receiving deep-draft vessels.12 2. 596m high. The lighthouse is conspic2. depending on the height of the tide.1m. and vessels with a maximum beam of 19. near the N end of the range. nearly steep-to on the E side. can enter the port. Perigee Light Vessel is moored about 0. with a least depth of 8. lies about 2.3 miles NE of Ghogha.7m. where they are usually swung and berthed starboard side-to.6 to 5. is only accessible to small coasters. The concrete wharf on the S side of the tidal basin. Anchorage. They enter with a tug ahead. 0.13 2.5 miles SE of Kuda Point.3 miles WNW of the shoal.13 2. The shoals consist of a reef. and 24 hours prior to arrival.6 to 9.—The primary anchorage is 5 miles S of Piram Island Light. The Kalubhar River (Bhaunagar Creek).8 miles SSW from the S end of the reef surrounding Piram Island. Piram Island. with a maximum beam of 19. A shoal. Shoal water..5 miles NNE. about 0. extend about 3. At the S end of the island there are a few trees and a little cultivation.5 miles N.. the flood and ebb currents have a velocity of about 3 knots at springs and 2. extends about 7. and 5 miles inland. extends N from a position about 2 miles NE of Perigee Rock. Khokhra Hills. Palitana Mountain. lies about 4.5 miles NNE of Talaja Hill. 72°18'E. The permissible draft varies between 7m and 9.8m patch lies about 1. it shows three heads above water at the lowest ring tides.11 Bhavnagar (21°46'N. the S end of which lies about 9. with many scattered villages mostly surrounded by trees. and the bungalow shows well during the forenoon when seen from E. extends about 7. The coast between Gopnath Point and Kuda Point. then W to the coast. At neaps the flood current turns 2 hours after the time of HW.) is located about 5 miles SSW of Piram Island Light. another is available in the turning basin. 72°20'E.3 miles NNE of Piram Island.5 miles NNE from about 2 miles ENE of Gopnath Point. Tides—Currents. A temple.11 2..12 2. rising from a level plain about 10 miles NNW of Gopnath Point. near its head. Vessels slated for demolition must arrive without any cargo on board. 2. then it is comparatively high. the current divides. 2. lies near the coast.12 2. with several ravines close to the coast. At the S of Channel Bank.5 miles N of Piram Island. 72°14'E. Sultanpur Shoals extend about 4 miles NNE from the N end of Gopnath Shoals to about 9 miles NNE of Gopnath Point. the NE side is fringed by a few mangrove trees. Its summit.9 mile S of Perigee Rock.5 knots at neaps. The tidal basin of Bhavnagar New Port can accommodate two vessels of up to about 128m in length.11 2. 300m high.2m at MHWS and 8. Reefs surround the island and extend about 2. especially in Malcolm Channel. has a thick clump of trees and a white bungalow on it. The general direction of the tidal currents is parallel to the coast. Gopnath Shoals. and numerous patches with depths of 0.12 Alang Shipbreaking Yard (21°30'N.13 2. The direction and velocity of the tidal currents are irregular between Gopnath Point and Bhavnagar and are affected by local winds. 11m high and composed of sand. A 5. An 8. These velocities are likely to increase when freshets occur in the Kalubhar River. with a conspicuous temple on its summit. which dries 2.13 2.12 2. about 113m high.5 miles SSE from the island.5m. is conspicuous about 12 miles WNW of Talaja Hill.11 Gopnath Point (21°12'N.11 2. The country is flat and cultivated. inland it is generally from 30 to 61m high. 2.12 Pub. sand and clay.12 The Gulf of Cambay—West Side 2.11 2. Mallock Reef.1m.13 2. 48 hours. is 269m long. The trees are conspicuous from N or S.13 2.1m.13 2. Regulations.). lies on the W side of the channel between it and the reef extending NW from Piram Island. or discharge cargo in the stream. entered about 3 miles farther N.12 2. which dries 2.32 Sector 2. Vessels to be scrapped are normally run in to the beach on high tide (HW over 10m) twice a month. extends about 1. Large vessels wishing to communicate with the city of Bhavnagar (Bhaunagar). The entrance width of the lock gate is 21m. and several patches with depths of less than 5.11 2.1m patch lies about 5.— Masters are to send their ETA’s 72 hours. and 1.11 2. There are no size restrictions for vessels calling at Alang to be scrapped.12 2. about 28 miles NNE. 72°07'E. which dries 1. Talaja Hill. lies with its N end about 2.8 miles SE of Kuda Point.13 2. high tide is 40 minutes earlier.

Sector 2. India—West Coast—Diu Head to Cape Rama
A stranded wreck lies 2.8 miles E of Perigee Rock. Channel Bank, which dries 5.5m and is covered with grass, extends N from about 2 miles N of Gogha. Aspect.—On the S side of the Kalubhar River, and N of the city of Bhavnagar, there is a steel pier which can accommodate coastal vessels of medium draft. Vessels using the pier lie alongside with an anchor down, and can lie on the mud at LW. The coast between Kuda Point and Ghogha (21°41'N., 72°17'E.), about 4 miles NNW, is low and marshy. It is fronted by reefs, parts of which dry, and shoalwater extends nearly 2.5 miles offshore. Abreast Ghogha, the foreshore is mud and shingle, drying to a distance of about 0.5 mile offshore. Ghogha is a walled town and the land in the vicinity is inundated at spring tides. The coast from Ghogha to Bhavnagar Point, about 9 miles NNW, consists of a mud flat overgrown by low mangrove bushes intersected by numerous small drying creeks. Rhuk Bank, with its S end about 7 miles NNW of Gogha, extends about 10 miles N, partially covers at HWS, and is covered with mangrove bushes. Bhavnagar Channel lies SW of Channel Bank. Ruvapari Light (21°47'N., 72°14'E.) is shown from a gray hut on piles, on the SW side of Bhavnagar Channel, about 1 mile NNW of Bhavnagar New Port.

33

2.13

2.13

2.13

2.13

2.13

2.13

2.13

2.13

2.13

time at night. The pilot boat maintains radio watch on VHF channel 16 when on duty. Regulations.—Vessels should send their ETA to the Port Office at least 48 hours in advance. Vessels dock and undock during daylight hours only, except for special circumstances. Anchorage.—Vessels anchor in the charted anchorage area E of Perigee Rock. Tidal currents have been reported to reach a rate of about 6 knots at springs. To prevent yawing during spring tides, consideration should be given to the use of a second anchor and/or steering. The second anchor should be heaved up and dropped 1.5 hours before and after the tidal current change to avoid fouling the first anchor. It is recommended that engines are kept on standby, to be available within 20 minutes, during spring tides. Directions.—No directions are given due to the frequent changes in the channels and banks, and local knowledge is necessary. A wide berth should be given the area around Perigee Light Vessel due to extensive silting. Lock Gate Surge is unusual in that it is lifted vertically before being swung clear. Successive heights of tide at HW during springs can vary by up to 2m, resulting in unequal water levels. The initial lock gate lift, at any time between 2.5 hours and 0.5 hour before HW, can cause a surge within the dock basin and attention to moorings and gangways during this period is recommended.
2.13 2.13 2.13 2.13 2.13 2.13 2.13

The Gulf of Cambay—East Side
2.14 Suvali Point (21°05'N., 72°38'E.), the E entrance point of the Gulf of Cambay, is fringed by the drying coastal reef which extends about 1 mile W of the point. Tapti Light is shown from a white circular stone column, 27m high, on the point; a tomb lies close SE of the light structure. The coast from Suvali Point to the entrance of Tena Creek, about 8.3 miles N, is fringed by a drying coastal reef. About 5 miles N of Suvali Point there are some sand hills, known as Suvali Hills. Between the entrance to Tena Creek and the entrance to Sena Creek, about 9 miles N, the coast is fringed with thick groves of palmyra trees. The Kim River, about 2 miles farther N, dries in its entrance. Tena Bank-Outer Bhagwa Sand, one continuous narrow bank nearly parallel with the coast, lies between the entrance to Tena Creek and the S entrance of the Kim River. Tena Bank, the S part of which dries, is a continuation of Outer Bhagwa Sand, the N part of which dries in patches. Bhagwa Channel, E of the above bank, is used only by small vessels with local knowledge. Dani Point Light is shown from a steel framework structure, 26m high, about 2.5 miles SE of the entrance to the Sena River. Gulwala Bank, with depths of less than 11m, extends about 6.3 miles S from a position about 3.5 miles W of the S entrance point of the Kim River. There is a drying patch near its N end. Between Gulwala Bank and Tena Bank and Outer Bhagwa Sand there are several shoals with depths of less than 5.5m. The intricate navigation required to pass through the channel E of Gulwala Bank, with its rapid tides, should not be attempted
2.14 2.14 2.14 2.14 2.14 2.14

Ruvapari Light
2.13

2.13

2.13

A tower, 25m high, is conspicuous about 0.8 mile S of Bhavnagar New Port, and 0.5 mile inland. Lights, in line bearing 251°, situated at the head of Bhavnagar New Port, lead into the tidal basin. Mariners are warned that due to frequent changes in the banks and channels N of Piram Island, local knowledge is necessary.

A light is shown on Bhavnagar Point and on Johnson Point, about 1.3 miles ESE. The above points are the W and E entrance points, respectively, of the Kalubhar River. Beacons, in range, lead across the drying banks in the Kalubhar River. Due to the continual silting, the depths in the river and its approaches are liable to change, and the range beacons are liable to alteration. Dredging is continually in progress. Pilotage.—Pilotage is compulsory. Pilots will board vessels about 4.5 miles NNE of Piram Island, not later than 2 hours before the time of HW at Bhavnagar for docking on the same tide. Prior notice of ETA and draft must be sent to obtain a pilot. The pilot vessel is a tug with a black hull, buff superstructure, and a buff funnel with a black top. In addition to the usual signals for a pilot vessel, a searchlight is flashed from time to
2.13 2.13 2.13 2.13

Pub. 173

34

Sector 2. India—West Coast—Diu Head to Cape Rama
to the entrance to the Dhadar River, about 7.5 miles farther NNE, the coast is low and composed of sand and mud. Dahej and Gandhar, about 3.8 and 15 miles, respectively, NNE of Luhara Point, are the only large villages near the coast. They both have conspicuous buildings, which can be seen from a considerable distance. Dahej is an open roadstead, used for the unloading of bulk fertilizers to barges. The GCPTCL Jetty (Offshore Marine Jetty), a bulk chemical facility, is a 241m-long T-headed jetty, with alongside depths of 16 to 18m, situated about 2.3 miles NW of Lahura Point. Vessels up to 60,000 dwt, with lengths of 111m to 215m and a maximum draft of 14.5m, can be accommodated.
2.16 2.16

without local knowledge. At night, or in a large vessel, it is necessary to keep well W of Gulwala Bank. The coast between the entrance of the Sena River and Luhara Point, about 18 miles N, is low and marshy. It is intersected by several streams and rivers, and is flooded at spring tides from 1 to 4 miles inland. The Narmada River flows into the Gulf of Cambay, S of Luhara Point, through a wide estuary in which there are extensive sand banks which dry and are subject to change. The river itself also contains many sand banks with channels between them, which are mostly shallow and very intricate. Alia Bet, low and covered with small scrub, lies in the middle of the estuary. Mariners should navigate with caution off the S part of the estuary of the Narmada River, as the depths have changed considerably. Tides—Currents.—The tidal currents on the E side of the Gulf of Cambay set in a NE direction with the flood tide and in a SW direction with the ebb, except when their direction is altered by the sand banks.
2.14 2.14 2.14 2.14 2.14

GCPTCL Jetty Home Page http://www.gcptcl.com
2.16

2.15

2.15

2.15

2.15

2.15

2.15

2.15

2.15

2.15 Luhara Point (21°39'N., 72°33'E.), the N entrance point of the Narmada River, is the highest ground in the vicinity; the land is generally low, and consists of sand hills covered with trees. The highest sand hill, about 24m high, rises just within Luhara Point. Luhara Point Light, with a racon, is shown from a white tower with red diagonal stripes on the point. The drying coastal bank extends about 2.5 miles SSW, and about 1.3 miles W of the point. Bar Sands, which dry, lie close S of the S edge of the coastal bank, and are marked W by a red conical buoy. Bharuch Roads is the roadstead W of the entrance to the Narmada River. The anchorage is unprotected, but the bottom is good holding ground of sand and mud. At the anchorage the tidal currents set N with the flood and S with the ebb; the flood runs for about 1 hour after the time of HW. Anchorage in Bharuch Roads can be obtained, in 16.5m, with the light structure on Luhara Point bearing 024°, distant 4.5 miles and the light structure on Piram Island bearing 272°. The Narmada River, which is tidal for about 55 miles, can only be navigated by vessels drawing more than 1.8m between half flood and half ebb, and then only if possessing local knowledge. Pilotage for the river can generally be obtained off the bar of the river. Kerselea Bank, lying between Luhara Point and Alia Bet, is an extensive area of mud and sand, which dries up to 5.5m. Bharuch Channel, the principal entrance of the river, leads W and N of Kerselea Bank. Vessels can pass either N or S of Bar Sands. Tides—Currents.—The flood current entering the Narmada River flows until about 1 hour after the time of HW, and sometimes attains a velocity of 5 to 6 knots. The ebb sets out strongly and runs occasionally until 1 hour after the time of LW. During the flood tide there are heavy overfalls on the outer edge of the bar.

2.16

2.16

2.16

The Petronet LNG Jageshwar Jetty (IPCL) is a 1.3-mile long trestle jetty, with a pier head length of 84m. Vessels up to 90,000 dwt, with a maximum length of 300m, a maximum draft of 12.5m, and a maximum beam of 45m, can be accommodated. Pilotage is compulsory and should be requested, via the agent, 72 hours, 48 hours, 12 hours, and 6 hours in advance. Pilots board, as follows: 1. GCPTCL Jetty (Offshore Marine Jetty)—1 mile NW of the jetty. 2. Petronet LNG Jageshwar Jetty (IPCL)—5 miles W of the jetty. A drying flat extends from 1 to 3 miles offshore between Luhara Point and the S entrance of the Dhadar River. The S part of this flat is steep-to at its W edge. Anchorage can be taken, in about 18m, with Luhara Point Light bearing 137°, about 5.3 miles.

2.17 The Dhadar River nearly dries about 1.5 miles within the entrance; local knowledge is necessary to enter the river. Devjagan Light is shown periodically from a circular stone column, 13m high, on Tankari Point, the N entrance point of the Dhadar River. A pagoda lies about 0.5 mile NW of the light structure. Makra Bank, which dries near its center, lies with its SE extremity about 6 miles NW of Luhara Point and about 4 miles offshore. The bank is narrow and extends about 10.3 miles N. Mariners are warned that owing to frequent changes in the banks and channels in the upper part of the Gulf of Cambay, local knowledge is necessary. Tankari Road, the roadstead off the entrance to the Dhadar River, can be identified by the light structure and pagoda on Tankari Point. Vessels can anchor with the light structure bearing 047°, distant about 3.8 miles, and the buildings at Gandhar bearing 086°. The flood current in Tankari Road continues to run for about 1 hour after the time of HW. The greatest velocity of the tidal currents in the roadstead is 6 knots at spring tides.
2.17 2.17 2.17 2.17 2.17

Head of the Gulf of Cambay
2.18 The coast of the W side of the head of the gulf from Johnston Point (21°49'N., 72°13'E.) to the entrance of the

2.16 The coast between Luhara Point and Ban Creek, about 4.5 miles N, consists of moderately-high sand hills. Then Pub. 173

Sector 2. India—West Coast—Diu Head to Cape Rama
Bhadar River, about 26 miles NNE, is composed chiefly of mangrove jungle, extending several miles inland. The sand bank fronting this coast dries and extends from 1 mile to 4 miles offshore. Mal Bank, the S end of which lies about 7.5 miles E of Johnston Point, is a large sand bank lying in the middle of the head of the gulf, and extends about 4 miles N. There are channels on the either side of Mal Bank, each about 1 mile wide in the fairway, but local knowledge is necessary. Malcolm Channel is the W channel. Khambhat Channel leads NE into the estuary of the Mahi River from the N end of Mal Bank. Khambhat (22°18'N., 72°37'E.), the chief town in the area, lies on the N side of the estuary of the Mahi River. Storm signals are shown at Khambhat; the Brief System is used. Further information on these storm signals may be found in Pub. 160, Sailing Directions (Planning Guide) South Atlantic Ocean and Indian Ocean under “India—Signals.” Bore Rocks, with depths of less than 1.8m, lie about 6.5 miles SE of the entrance to the Bhadar River, on the NW side of Khambhat Channel. They lie on the N entrance of a channel that leads between the banks at the entrance of the Sabarmati River. The shores of the Sabarmati River are rather elevated and well-cultivated. Sikotar Mata (22°19'N., 72°24'E.) is a pagoda, 5.8m high, with a flagstaff, on the E entrance point of the Sabarmati River. In the upper part of the Gulf of Cambay, the tidal current sets NE with the flood into the Mahi River, and SW with the ebb, with a velocity of 4.5 to 6 knots. Tidal bores form near the entrance to the Sabarmati River; one travels up that river while another travels up Khambhat Channel and the Mahi River. Each sweeps through the channels as a line of disturbed and breaking water, and tends to alter the configuration of those channels. In the Mahi River, the bore may be as much as 2.4m high, and attain a velocity of 10 knots at the highest spring tides. The magnitude of the bore varies with the range of the tide. The bore is not perceptible at neap tides, but becomes increasingly prominent as spring tides approach. The bore preceding the higher HW is greater than that preceding the lower of two successive HWs. The bore in the Sabarmati River is similar but less pronounced. The flood current commences at a great velocity with the passage of the bore, then decreases in strength for a time, and finally attains its full strength about 45 minutes after the passing of the bore.
2.18 2.18 2.18 2.18 2.18 2.18 2.18 2.18 2.18 2.18 2.18

35

2.19

2.19

The Tapti River lies between Suvali Point, previously described in paragraph 2.14, and the N entrance point of the Mindhola River, about 3.5 miles E. The river and its entrance are encumbered with numerous sand banks, several of which are dry. The river is tidal for 15 miles, and small craft can ascend the river to Surat, about 14 miles above the entrance. A vessel of 1.8m draft can only navigate in the river at more than half-tide. Directions for entering the river cannot be given, as the sands and channels are continually changing; the navigable channel can only be pointed out by local pilots. The bar dries, but there is a spring rise of about 6.1m, and off the city of Surat there is a pool with depths of from 3.7 to 5.5m.

The Gulf of Cambay to Daman
2.19 In the N part of the coast, between Suvali Point (21°05'N., 72°38'E.) and Daman, is an alluvial belt through which the Tapti River forms a deep and fertile delta. Along the S part of this coast are small hillocks of drifted sand; the coast in some parts is watered by springs and covered with a thick growth of creepers and date palms. Through the river mouths and inlets the tide runs up behind the sandhills and floods a large area of salt marshes. The rise of the tide renders these rivers and inlets accessible at HW, but local knowledge is necessary.

Magdala is a lighterage port 5 miles within the Tapti River on the S bank, with a 107m long wharf. Storm signals are shown at Magdala; the Brief System is used. Further information on these storm signals may be found in Pub. 160, Sailing Directions (Planning Guide) South Atlantic Ocean and Indian Ocean under “India—Signals.” Surat lies in a bend on the E bank of the river and extends about 1.5 miles along the river front. A splendid girder bridge spans the river at the city. Surat Roads is the name given to the anchorage off the entrance of the Tapti River, about 2 miles SW of Suvali Point. Tides—Currents.—The flood current sets N and continues to run for 1 hour after the time of HW. At the outer anchorage, during springs, the tidal currents are very strong, especially the ebb, which sets S at a velocity of 4 to 5 knots; nearer the bar the tidal currents are weaker. The tide frequently falls more than 1.8m before the tidal current turns S. Directions.—Vessels bound for Surat Roads from the S should, from abreast Daman, set course for the roads, keeping in depths of 9.1 to 18.3m. Between the Mindhola River and the Purna River, about 9 miles SSE, there is a low sandy plain with some scattered palmyra trees. A black beacon, 14m high with white bands, lies on the N entrance point of the Purna River. Warsi Borsi Light is shown from a white, square, concrete tower with red bands 0.6 mile NNW of the entrance point of the Purna River. A tomb, with a white dome about 3.5 miles farther SE, is conspicuous among the dark green trees, especially when seen fromthe SW. The entrance to the Ambika River lies about 10.5 miles SSE of the Purna River. Kanai Creek lies just N of the entrance to the Ambika River. Kanai Creek Light is shown from a white, round, concrete tower with concrete tower with black bands 0.6 mile NW of the N entrance point of the creek. Caution.—A dangerous wreck, with masts showing, is reported (2006) to lie about 15 miles WNW of of the entrance to the Ambika River.
2.19 2.19 2.19 2.19 2.19 2.19 2.19 2.19 2.19 2.19 2.19 2.19

The Auranga River (20°38'N., 75°53'E.) flows into the sea through Bulsar Khari, a creek. A light is shown on the S entrance point of Bulsar Khari. Hills, about 31m high, are about 5.5 miles NE of the light structure and about 5 miles inland. Shoals, with depths of less than 1.8m, lie about 3.5 miles W, and 4.3 miles SW, respectively, of Bulsar Khari. A 5.8m patch lies about 9 miles WSW of Bulsar Khari. Pub. 173

36

Sector 2. India—West Coast—Diu Head to Cape Rama
miles NE of Mahim, is 468m high and resembles a castle when seen from NW. The coast between Umargam and Gulur Point, about 8 miles S, is low and sandy. The latter point is low and covered with coconut trees. A detached 9.4m rocky patch lies 6.5 miles offshore, 6 miles NW of Gulur Point. Dahanu (19°59'N., 72°43'E.) is a village on the N side of the entrance of Khonda Creek. A light is shown at Dahanu. Vadhavan Point, about 4 miles farther SW, is low and covered with mangrove bushes. Foul ground extends nearly 2 miles W and about 2.8 miles SSW of the point.
2.21 2.21 2.21

2.19

2.19

Anchorage can be taken by large vessels, in 7.3 to 9.1m, about 8.5 miles W of the entrance to Bulsar Khari. The Par River flows into the sea through Umaradi Creek, about 6 miles S of Bulsar Khari. Parnera Hill, 184m high with a fort on it, lies about 3.5 miles ENE of the creek entrance.

2.20

2.20

2.20

2.20

2.20 Daman (Damoa) (20°25'N., 72°50'E.) lies on both sides of the Damanganga River; itcan be identified by the forts on either side of the river entrance and by two square steeples and its white buildings. Other landmarks are a 109m hill, with an idgah, or Mohammedan place of prayer, on its summit, about 2.8 miles NE of the river entrance; Indragad Hill, 108m high, with a fort in ruins on its summit, about 3.3 miles SSE of the river entrance; and Jogmari Hill, 231m high, about 2 miles farther SSE. Daman Light is shown from a white masonry tower on the bastion of the fort on the S side of the entrance. The bar at the mouth of the Damanganga River is flat, mostly hard sand, except N of the N point of the river entrance, where the rocky ground projects some distance offshore; the bar has 0.3m or less over it. Vessels not exceeding 500 grt sometimes enter the river at HW in fine weather and moor abreast the forts, where there were depths of 4.1 to 5.2m, soft mud. Local knowledge is necessary. Anchorage can be taken, in 9m, about 4.5 miles W of the river entrance.

Daman to Bassein Creek
2.21 The coast between Daman and Vadhavan Point, about 30 miles SSW, is bordered by extensive reefs and foul ground extending up to 4 miles offshore. Vessels should not approach this coast in depths of less than 18.3m when navigating in the vicinity. Between Daman and Umbargaon, about 13 miles SSW, the coast is low, fringed with bushes, and backed by several conspicuous hills. Indragad Hill and Jogmari Hill were previously described with Daman in paragraph 2.2. Dhodi Phar, 148m high, is conspicuous about 7 miles S of Daman. Patia Hill, 98m high, lies about 3.3 miles SW of Dhodi Phar. A light is periodically shown from a white framework tower, 10.7m high, at Maroli, about 6 miles N of Umbargaon. Umargam (Umbargaon) (20°12'N., 72°45'E.), a small town with a ruined tower, lies on the S side of the entrance of the Varoli River. Umargam Light, with a racon, is shown from a white concrete tower with red bands, close SSW of the ruined tower. Storm signals are shown at Maroli and Umargam; the Brief System is used. Further information on these storm signals may be found in Pub. 160, Sailing Directions (Planning Guide) South Atlantic Ocean and Indian Ocean under “India—Signals.” A partially-wooded range, the summits of which are conspicuous from seaward, lies from 7 to 12 miles inland, between Umargam and Mahim, about 34 miles S. High Land of St. John, a rounded mountain 540m high, slopes gradually N and S from its center about 9 miles SSE of Umbargaon. Muslia (Maha Luxmi), about 9.5 miles SE of the High Land of St. John, has a pointed summit, 458m high. Kaldurg Fort, about 6
2.21 2.21 2.21 2.21 2.21 2.21

2.22 Tarapur Point (19°50'N., 72°39'E.) is bordered by foul ground extending about 0.8 mile W; a narrow reef extends about 2.8 miles NNW from the N extremity of the point. A light is shown from a white square masonry tower, 23m high with black bands, on the N extremity of the point. Tarapur Harbor, formed by the barrier reefs extending SSW from Vadhavan Point and NNW from Tarapur Point, is only accessible to small coastal vessels. The coast between Tarapur Point and Satpati, about 7.5 miles S, is low, rocky, and densely wooded. Vessels should not proceed into depths of less than 14.6m off this part of the coast. A light is shown at Satpati and at Nawapur, about 3.5 miles N. Storm signals are shown at Nawapur; the Brief System is used. Further information on these storm signals may be found in Pub. 160, Sailing Directions (Planning Guide) South Atlantic Ocean and Indian Ocean under “India—Signals.” The village of Mahim (19°39'N., 72°43'E.) lies on the coast, about 5 miles SSE of Satpati. Kelve, about 2 miles farther S, lies on the N side of the entrance of Danda Creek. A small detached rock, with a fort on it, lies just off the entrance of the creek. A light is shown at Kelve. A detached 5.5m patch lies about 4 miles WSW of Mahim. Drying reefs extend about 2 miles off this part of the coast. Ussapur Rock, 16m high, lies on the coastal reef about 4 miles S of Kelve, and about 0.5 mile offshore. Drying rocks extend about 1 mile W of the rock.
2.22 2.22 2.22 2.22 2.22 2.22

2.23 Arnala Island (19°28'N., 72°44'E.), 4m high with a fort on it, lies about 0.5 mile offshore, and is fringed by rocks on all sides. Shoal water, with depths of less than 5m, extends about 1 mile W of the island. Arnala Island has been reported to give good radar returns at 27 miles. Arnala Light is shown from a white framework tower on the coast, abreast the S end of Arnala Island. Agashi Bay, entered N of Arnala Island, is very shallow, encumbered by shoals, and can only be navigated by a small vessel at about the time of HW. The coast between the low point abreast Arnala Island and the N entrance of Bassein Creek, about 8 miles SSE, is very low; shoal water, with depths of less than 5m, extends about 2 miles offshore.
2.23 2.23 2.23

Bassein Creek to Bombay
2.24 Dongri Point (19°18'N., 72°48'E.), the S entrance point of Bassein Creek, is a bluff point as seen from seaward. It rises to an elevation of 94m about 0.5 mile S of the point, and then slopes gradually to level country about 2 miles farther S.

Pub. 173

Sector 2. India—West Coast—Diu Head to Cape Rama
A light is shown from about mid-September to mid-June. Poshpir, a rocky islet 13m high, lies about 3 miles NW of Dongri Point. Drying rocks extend about 2 miles WNW of the same point. When there is no wind the sea does not break on the drying rocks and the sandbanks in the entrance to Bassein Creek, and there are no indications of their existence. Depths of less than 5m extend about 3.5 miles W of the entrance to Bassein Creek. North of Bassein Creek there are several landmarks conspicous from seaward. Girij Hill, a small round hill 53m high, lies about 4.5 miles N of Dongri Point, and about 2 miles inland. Kamandurg, about 9 miles E of Girij Hill, is conical and 652m high. This mountain, with the high land of Salsette Island to S, cannot be mistaken by a vessel N of Bombay. The conspicuous plateau of Tungar, about 2 miles long in a N-S direction, and attaining an elevation of 662m, is located about 4 miles NNW of Kamandurg. Bassein Creek, entered between Dongri Point and a point about 1 mile NNE, is a tortuous stream which can be navigated only by small vessels with local knowledge and a draft of not more than 3.7m. The entrance of the creek is always difficult except at slack water, as both flood and ebb current set across the channel. The sea breaks heavily across the entrance during the Southwest Monsoon. Tides—Currents.—Currents in Bassein Creek attain a velocity of 3 knots at springs, but about 5 miles above the entrance they decreases to 1.5 and 2 knots. In the creek the tidal currents continue to set about 1 hour after the times of HW and LW. Slack water lasts for about 15 to 25 minutes. Vasai lies about 0.5 mile inland on the N side of the creek. A fort, with the citadel near the middle, lies S of Bassein near the landing place. Storm signals are shown at Vasai; the Brief System is used. Further information on these storm signals may be found in Pub. 160, Sailing Directions (Planning Guide) South Atlantic Ocean and Indian Ocean under “India—Signals.” The village of Dongri lies on the S side of the creek, about 1 mile SSE of Dongri Point.
2.24 2.24 2.24 2.24 2.24 2.24 2.24 2.24 2.24 2.24 2.24

37

2.25

2.25

2.25

2.25

2.25

Utan Light is shown from a black and white square tower, 12m high, on a salient point about 2 miles SSE of Dongri Point. Storm signals are shown at Utan; the Brief System is used. Further information on these storm signals may be found in Pub. 160, Sailing Directions (Planning Guide) South Atlantic Ocean and Indian Ocean under “India—Signals.” Gori Rock, a conspicuous sharp black pinnacle, 30m high, about 3.3 miles NNE of Manori Point, and about 1.5 miles inland, forms a good landmark. A temple, with a white dome, lies on the N summit of a round hill, 35m high, about 2.8 miles E of Gorai Rock; the dome is conspicuous from seaward. High Rock, a sharp pinnacle, 9m high, about 2 miles SW of Dongri Point, lies on a drying reef. Outer Islet, 4m and composed of sand, lies at the S end of this drying reef, about 1 mile S of High Rock. Green Islet, from 0.9 to 1.2m high, covered with short green scrub and surrounded by a ledge of rocks, lies about 3 miles NNW of Manori Point and about 0.8 mile offshore. Marva Island, low and covered with palm trees, lies close E of Manori Point. Reefs extend about 0.5 mile W of Madh Island.

2.25

2.25

2.25

2.25

2.25 Panju Island (19°20'N., 72°51'E.) is connected to the mainland N and S by an iron railroad bridge; the island is low and swampy. Salsette Island lies between Bassein Creek and Bombay. The mountain range on the island has several conspicuous peaks; the central and highest, Kanheri (Khanher Peak) (19°13'N., 72°55'E.), 462m high, lies about 9.5 miles SE of Dongri Point. From the W, Kanheri appears to have a flat summit. Shendur, about 3 miles NNE of Kanheri and the N peak of the island, is a sharp detached peak, 459m high. An aviation light is shown from a 27m tower near the S end of Salsette Island. The W side of Salsette Island is fronted by islands and islets, which are separated from it by creeks and drying flats. Foul ground extends about 1.5 miles W from these islands and islets. Dharavi Island, the N and largest of the islands facing Salsette Island, extends from Dongri Point to Manori Point, about 7 miles S. The latter point is a bluff of dark bare rock, 30m high.

2.26 Ambu Islet (19°08'N., 72°47'E.), at the SW edge of the reefs, is low, covered with palms, and has an old watchtower on it. Mehti Khada, a small rock, 4.3m high and steep-to on its W side, lies about 0.5 mile W of Ambu Islet. Madh Island, about 36m high and well-cultivated with coconut and fruit trees, lies close S of Marva Island. There are some ruins on its summit; a fort in ruins stands on its SE point. Harvey Patches (Hervey Patches), with a depth of 1.8m, about 1 mile S of Madh Island, are marked N by a buoy from October to May. The sea always breaks over Harvey Patches. A dangerous wreck lies about 4.5 miles W of Harvey Patches and is marked close W by a lighted buoy. Juhu Island, with its S extremity about 4 miles SE of Ambu Islet, has a sandy coast and is covered with coconut and date palms. Andheri Hill, 61m high, isolated and bare, lies about 1 mile E of the N end of Juhu Island. Uarashi, a reef, lies about 1 mile W of the S end of Juhu Island. A light is shown from October to May on the S end of Uarashi. Some rocks, one of which is awash, lie about 0.8 mile NW of the S end of the reef. Shoals, with a least depth of 4.6m and 4m, lie about 1.5 miles W and NW, respectively, of Bandra Point, the S extremity of Salsette Island. The coast between Worli Point, the NW extremity of Bombay Island, and Malabar Point, about 5.3 miles SSW, is fringed by drying reefs and shoal water, with depths of less than 5.5m extending up to 1 mile offshore in the N part and about 0.5 mile off the S part. A conspicuous TV tower lies at an elevation of 305m, 1.5 miles SSE of Worli Point.
2.26 2.26 2.26 2.26 2.26 2.26 2.26

Bombay (Mumbai) (18°56'N., 72°51'E.)
World Port Index No. 48840 2.27 The city of Bombay, on Bombay Island, is the largest city of India and the principal seaport on its W coast. Bombay Harbor lies between Bombay Island and Trombay Island to W Pub. 173

5 knots. it sets about NNE.27 2.). and then to Sunk Rock in a SW direction. including pilotage. the ebb current sets from SW to SSW.27 2. A least depth of 9.27 2.27 2.5 knots.27 2. During rains in the Southwest Monsoon the ebb sets strongly W out of Dharamtar Creek. and Karanja Island and the mainland to E and S.27 2. The facilities of the port are mainly on the E side of Bombay Island. with numerous bays and inlets indenting its shores.3m at MHWN.27 2. the ebb current occurs about 45 minutes before the time of HW. the current taking a S direction near the breakwater pier.27 2.27 2.27 2. with a depth of 7. a depth on the blocks at thr entrance of 6. with a depth of 8.27 2..27 2. the flood current sets NE along the W shore of Karanja Island. the flood current sets between ESE and ENE. On the S side of the entrance of the harbor. the current sets WSW. Vessels are not handled at night in Indira Dock except under special circumstances.5m. 072°50'E. Off the SW extremity of Prongs Reef the flood current at first sets ESE and. In other parts of the harbor the velocity is from 0. The tide does not set fairly through the channel.mumbaiporttrust. The ebb current sets WSW from the S of the channel between Butcher Island and Elephanta Island and along the W coast of Karanja Island.2m on the outer sill and 7m on the inner sill at LW. has an entrance width of 24.5 to 10. Ballard Pier. Less water than charted has been reported (1990) S of Sunk Rock. shifts to the NE. from Cross Island to inside Middle Ground Islet. The ebb current on the W shore of the harbor occur from 30 to 35 minutes earlier than on the E shore. Tides—Currents. docking. The shallowest bar extends from abeam the entrance buoys to abeam Middle Ground Islet. Indira Dock (Alexandra Dock) has depths of 8.27 2. but this is liable to vary due to silting. but the flood sweeps E over the foul ground of Thal Shoal.27 2. and during strong tides from 40 minutes to 1 hour sooner.5 to 3 knots and perhaps as much as 4 knots during the rains. The direction and management of the port. Between Thal Shoal and a position about 4 miles WNW. taking a more easterly direction as it crosses the mouth of Dharamtar Creek. from Sunk Rock to Cross Island.1m.4m at MHWS and 3. and wharves under control of the trustees of the port. the flood current sets NE to NNE.27 and N. rocks. and then NE toward Trombay Island. berthing.6m was reported in the entrance channel and approaches to the tanker berths on Butcher Island. The velocity and direction of the tidal currents in the approaches to Bombay are generally as follows.6m. On the N side of the entrance the ebb current sets SW from Sunk Rock to abreast the light structure on Prong Reef. The dock has five berths equipped for container traffic.27 2. In East Channel Swatch. Hughes Drydock is entered from Indira Dock. Vessels entering the dockyard with a flood current are advised to keep the rear range beacon slightly open N of the front beacon to avoid being set onto breakwater pier.27 2. The velocity of strong tides between Thal Shoal and Prongs Reef is from 2. it sets about WSW. The Deputy Conservator of Bombay Harbor issues maximum drafts monthly.7m alongside. as the velocity increases. and shoals. a breadth at the entrance of 30. changing to about SSW as the tide strengthens. Since completion of the South Breakwater.com Winds—Weather. N of Indira Dock.27 2. The maximum size ship that can enter Indira Dock at HW is 206m in length. Eastward of this reef.27 Pub. marked by range lights in line bearing about 085°. The maximum drafts for alongside berths are subject to change due to siltation and dredging. An oil terminal is situated on Butcher Island. but at the first of the ebb the set is more W. with a draft of 9. 16 multi-purpose berths. It has a maximum length of 304m. it sets between NNE and N by E. and has maintained depths of 10. South of Dolphin Rock. and a depth of 10m alongside the extension.4m wide. This is important for vessels docking.5 to 1.27 2. On the W shore. The harbor contains several islands. during the Southwest Monsoon.—Visibility may be reduced by heavy rain during the Southwest Monsoon. It sets NE between Butcher Island and Elephanta Island. Depths—Limitations. was located in the center of Indira Dock Approach Channel (18°56'N. where it shifts to between NW and SW. India—West Coast—Diu Head to Cape Rama channel. but they are greatly influenced by winds and heavy rains. It is the only natural deep-water port on the W coast of India. When vessels are entering or leaving the dock by day.27 2. Between Thal Shoal and a position about 4 miles WNW. Victoria Dock. 173 . Abreast Dharamtar Creek. four general cargo/tanker berths. tidal eddies have been reported by ships berthing at Ballard Pier.3m below chart datum and a depth over the blocks at the entrance of 10. from there to Sunk Rock it sets SW.1m in the fairway of the entrance to Bombay Harbor until abreast Sunk Rock Light. The maximum size ship that can enter the dock is 140m 2. it was reported that an uncharted rock. It has been reported (1994) that Ballard Pier has been dredged to accommodate vessels up to 228m long.27 2. It has been observed that the flood current divides in the vicinity of Ballard Pier.27 2. are vested in the Deputy Conservator. E of Thal Shoal. The main channel.6m alongside.—There is a least depth of 9. continues SE of Elephanta Island. has a passenger berth.38 Sector 2. resulting in a more northerly direction as the velocity increases. and still more to the S as it continues S. On the W shore of the harbor. the ebb current sets SSW. On the E shore of the harbor.27 2.27 2. There are 21 berths inside the basin and five berths along the harbor wall. In 2002. 2. in mid2. the flood current at springs has a velocity of 2 knots and the ebb current 1.27 2. causing a counterclockwise movement off the naval dockyard.4m. A smoky haze frequently hangs over the area from November to March. a blue flag is hoisted at the flagstaff on Bulls Nose. and one berth for heavy lifts. From Cross Island to E of Middle Ground Islet.—The tidal rise at Bombay is 4. as far as Sunk Rock. the continuation of the W side of Indira Dock entrance lock. the ebb current sets WSW across the entrance of Dharamtar Creek altering to between SW and SSW on nearing Thal Shoal.3m.5m at MHWS. with a maximum draft of 9. The entrance lock is 228m long and 30.27 2.27 Port Authority of Bombay (Mumbai) http://www. Inshore and near the Indira Dock wall. with a depth of 7.8 to 11m.

The port provides container berths.27 2.6m deep channel. Berth information can be found in the accompanying table titled Jawaharlal Nehru Berth Information. a ship repairyard.000 dwt.com 2. can be berthed. Fertilizer and grain. and breakbulk cargo and motor vehicles Jawaharlal Nehru Container Terminal CB01 CB02 CB03 Total length of 680m 13.5m 12. Prince’s Dock has an entrance width of 20.5m. 1.000 dwt can be berthed at this pier. Ships can be taken into Prince’s Dock only from about 2 hours before the time of HW to 30 minutes after the time of HW. and general cargo. No. and bulk liquid berths accommodating vessels to 80.5m 13. Tankers up to 70. Generally. In addition to the berths mentioned above.000 tons. The maximum draft for entering the docks is subject to the tide. with drafts of 10. Containers.0m 12.jnport.3m. Containers.000 dwt.5m 12.8m alongside. 4 is 14. lying S of Butchers Island. Can accommodate vessels up to 70.1m and a width of 23. is 19. These open shallowdraft wharves are used by local smaller vessels to load and discharge cargo.1m and lengths of 97 to 197m. respectively. Tankers up to 125.1m and a width of 18. there are a number of “Bunders” throughout Bombay.) (World Port Index No. Loaded tankers are berthed at HW. The jetty has three pier heads. motor vehicles. The maximum draft in the approach channel is 12m for inbound vessels and 12. Jawaharlal Nehru Port (18°57'N. with dolphins at each end of the pier head. A fourth oil berth.5m.4m. with a draft of 6. vessels are only admitted 3 hours before HW. The maximum draft of a vessel mooring at No. General. Tankers up to 171m long.5m 13. 2. motor vehicles. Can accommodate vessels up to 70.5m.0m 300m Jawaharlal Nehru Multi-purpose Berths BB03 212m — 12. can be accommodated.0m 270m 270m Fertilizer and grain. Containers. The jetty carries a roadway and pipelines and has berths for three vessels of various sizes.5m.27 2. 2.27 The port has been established as a satellite for Bombay and is administered by a separate port authority. It consist of a concrete jetty about 520m long. liquid.1m in length. can be accommodated. The maximum size ship that can enter Prince’s Dock is 152. 6.0m 270m Pub. Pir Pau Deep.27 Jawaharlal Nehru Port http://www. with a draft of 6. The berths are numbered from N to S as No. motor vehicles. and general cargo. There is a terminal facility situated on the E side of Butchers Island (Jawahar Dweep). has been added for loading and discharging of crude oil. The dock is entered through a 20m wide. Jawaharlal Nehru Berth Information Berth Length Depth alongside Maximum vessel Draft Length Remarks Jawaharlal Nehru Bulk Terminal BB01 BB02 250m 250m 13. with a maximum length of 229m and a maximum draft of 11m. Containers. at the S end of Trombay Island.1m. It is compulsory to test astern power during the approach and before berthing at the terminal. 48845) is a new port on the mainland SE of Elephanta Island.27 New Pir Pau Jetty has a depth of 11m alongside. with a maximum draft of 5. 3.0m 12.0m 300m 300m 300m Nhava Sheva International Container Terminal CB04 and CB05 600m 13. and general cargo. bulk cargo berths. 72°57'E. leads W from W from the channel to the pier. T-headed. and No.27 2.5m for outbound vessels. close S. 2.5m 12.000 dwt.6 to 11. dredged to 5. They cannot leave the dock after the time of HW because the ebb current commences in that vicinity about 90 minutes before the time of HW and sets directly down on to the reef N of Cross Island at about the time of HW.. Each berth is provided with dolphins and mooring dolphins. Vessels up to 45.27 2. and a linkspan for ro-ro traffic. although the maximum draft allowed may be less during the monsoon season.27 39 Pir Pau Pier.5m 13.27 2. the width of the passage leading to Victoria Dock. is 174m long with a dredged depth of 6. India—West Coast—Diu Head to Cape Rama in length by day and 122m in length at night.27 2. 2. 173 .Sector 2.0m 12.000 dwt.

off its E edge. Transshipment of petroleum products is carried out from large storage tankers moored in the vicinity of position 18°53'N. oil production platforms. can be seen.27 2.27 2.. on Salsette Island on the N side of the harbor. the break-bulk jetty is 500m long.27 2. and petroleum products. India—West Coast—Diu Head to Cape Rama Jawaharlal Nehru Berth Information Berth BB04 Length 160m Depth alongside —. about 53 and 70 miles NW of the entrance to Bombay Harbor. Sailing Directions (Planning Guide) South Atlantic Ocean and Indian Ocean. 2. best seen on the chart.) or the light structure on Prongs Reef. and Kankeshwar and the Sagaragarh Range. Vessels should exercise caution when navigating in this vicinity. Indian authorities have established recommended routes to aid traffic transiting the area. Vessels approaching Bombay from the N of Direction Bank will run a considerable distance before the depths will decrease from 73m to 55m. the high peak of Malangar (19°06'N. Three lighted tanker mooring buoys are situated close together in the N part of the area. The area extends 14 miles in an E-W direction and 40 miles in a N-S direction. which depth is found about 15 miles W of Khanderi Island (18°42'N.—In clear weather. with its N end about 39 miles WSW of the SE entrance point of Bombay Harbor. 173 . 73°11'E.0m Length 140m Remarks General. It has been reported (2007) that lighterage operations are not conducted in this location during the Southwest Monsoon. and the service jetty is 212m long. the depths will decrease rapidly from 73m to 55m. and has depths of 37 to 64m.27 2. For further information consult Pub. SPM.—This area is situated with its center 50 miles NW of the entrance to Bombay Harbor. Maximum vessel Draft 9. then gradually shoal to depths of 73m. is conspicuous in the offing. as follows: 1. Submarine oil and gas pipelines have been established from some producing fields to the entrance of Bombay Harbor. Aspect. light deisel oil. Jawaharlal Nehru Liquid Bulk Terminal LB01 LB02 250m 180m — — 12. topped by a fort in ruins. kerosene. Any vessel in difficulty within 50 miles of any production platform or rig and likely to drift towards platforms or rigs should contact Bombay Radio and standby offshore supply vessels on VHF channel 16 for assistance. On nearer approach Kanheri and Shendur. 69°42'E.5 miles of production platforms. Well heads exist in position 19°20'N..27 2.27 2. Vessels are advised not to approach within 2. Kankeshwar. It is separated by a valley from a thickly- 2. towards the coast.27 Pub. Mukta Panna and Bassein Oil Field Development Area..22.5m 10. Bombay High Oil Field Development Area. liquid.27 2. each jetty has a dredged depth of 13.27 gas pipeline branching 115 miles NNE to Danti at the Mindhola River (21°04'N. Another lighted tanker mooring buoy is situated 10 miles SSE of the above buoys.5 miles farther N. 789m high. All vessels are advised to maintain a continuous listening watch on VHF channel 6 and to give the area a wide berth. and are prohibited from passing within 500m of any installation or structure. kerosene. A vessel approaching this bank from the W will pass over Fifty Fathoms Flat.—This area is situated with its center about 90 miles WNW of the entrance to Bombay Harbor. or bound for the port of Bombay. if the vessel is S of Direction Bank.27 2. and petroleum products. Neelam Heera and Ratna Oil Field Development Area.27 2. Crude oil. which may be seen on the appropriate chart. East of this bank. 72°26'E. 160. After crossing the bank the depths will again increase to more than 55m over the greater part of the bank. Numerous derricks. about 10. A circular lightering area. and continue between 55 and 37m for some distance until the latter depth is obtained about 17 miles offshore... and to about 50m at its S end. 72°01'E.5m alongside. The established development areas are. and other obstructions impede safe navigation of the area. Flares are lit from this vicinity. light deisel oil. 72°49'E. Oil and gas pipelines are laid ESE from the center of the oilfield to Bombay. The area extends 25 miles in an E-W direction and 47 miles in a N-S direction and contains numerous production platforms within. wells. Approaching Bombay from the SW. for further information see paragraph 1.—This area is situated with its center about 40 miles SW of the entrance to Bombay harbor.0m 270m 180m The container jetty is 680m long.27 2.—An extensive area of producing oil fields and exploration areas lies off the Indian coast and the approaches to the port of Bombay. and breakbulk cargo and motor vehicles Crude oil. extends about 27 miles in a S direction. but the depths will then decrease rapidly to 37m. Offshore Oil Development Areas. a mountain 384m high.27 2. Kanheri and Shendur were previously described with Salsette Island in paragraph 2.27 2. coarse sand and small shells. The area extends 21 miles in a E-W direction and 33 miles in a N-S direction. 72°43'E. on the S of the harbor.40 Sector 2. Submarine oil and gas pipelines from Bombay High Oil Field are laid passing through the center of Bassein Oil Field Area with a 2.). is located about 22 miles W of Malabar Point.). but are transferred to Vadinar (22°31'N. 3.27 2. and then suddenly to 55 and 42m over Direction Bank.25. 72°03'E and in position 19°44'N.27 2.27 2. lies about 26 miles SW of Malangarh. Direction Bank. the depths decrease gradually from about 55m. On the summit of this peak is an enormous perpendicular cliff.).

52.8 miles NNW of Karanja. about 0. is a long and flat-topped hill at the S end of Karanja Island. Thal Reefs. lie on the Colaba Peninsula. It is connected by telephone with Bombay. respectively. has two hills. and the International Code signal “U. SE of Thal Shoal. Sheva Beacon lies on a drying reef at the S end of the port. consists of numerous reefs and rocks extending about 1.27 2.27 2.8 miles S of Sunk Rock. Fifty Fathoms Flat. painted in red. 2. lies about 1 mile farther N. with depths of less than 5. India—West Coast—Diu Head to Cape Rama wooded range of hills which extends along the SE side of the entrance of Bombay Harbor. is shown at an elevation of 47m from an octagonal tower. respectively. a 214m hill near the NW extremity of the island. A dangerous wreck. stand out well among the coconut trees. Thal Shoal. 212m high at the N end of Karanja Island.5 mile NNW of the Taj Mahal Hotel.4 mile NNE from it.27 2. but somewhat lower.5m high.27 2.) is moored nearly 5 miles SW of Prongs Reef Light. about 10.).. It has been reported that Bombay Lightship has been off station for an extended period. white and black horizontal bands near the S end of Prongs Reef. 18m high on its summit.5m high.5 miles SSW of Prongs Reef Light.5 miles offshore. flanked by two parallel ridges of low hills. The city consists generally of wellbuilt houses and broad streets. when in line bearing 168° they lead W of the drying rock and to the landing place. The area is considered foul and dangerous to navigation. A lighted buoy moored about 1. SW Prongs Lighted Buoy. on the summit of Khanderi Island.5m high.5 miles SW of Prongs Reef Light. sparsely covered with trees and scrub. 72°49'E..2 mile NE of Khanderi Island. A depth of 11m and a wreck. A conspicuous flare chimney lies at the SE end of the island. with many fine public buildings. If a vessel is seen to be lying into danger. lies about 4. Prongs Reef. lies 2.. Another dangerous wreck. marked by a lighted buoy.5 miles offshore. respectively. and a least depth of 4. False Knob. lies about 1. about 0.. Sunk Rock (18°53'N.8 miles ENE of Gull Islet. has two hummocks named The Paps.). Kharavli.3m. Among the conspicuous buildings in the densely built tract known as The Fort. A black beacon. 72°57'E.3 miles SW. of the lightship.27 2. Khanderi Island (Khanhoji Angre Island) (18°42'N. is prominent near the root of the S breakwater. 1. is shown from a round tower. lies 0. fine sand. Karanja (Great Karanja). and 1. Foul ground extends about 1 mile SW. Gull Islet (Kansa Rock) (18°50'N.5m. A prohibited area. A wreck area. with a depth of 11m. surmounted by a dome 70m high. A spoil ground lies 4 miles WSW of Colaba Point. lies between Thal Shoal and the detached shoals W of Thal Reef. Ashuerra Hill. about 0. and E of the light structure. 72°54'E.27 2. about 1 mile farther NE.Sector 2. is an extensive bank with depths of 82 to 92m.4m high. extends about 1 mile SSW from Colaba Point. Khanderi Island Light. Khanderi Island has been reported to give good radar returns at 17 miles. with several detached heads. but the N side slopes gradually from its base to a peak on which there is a ruin.27 2. Nhava Island (18°58'N. Bombay Lightship (18°50'N. with masts above water. 173 .5 miles ESE of Thal Knob. 24m high. about 2. is situated 5. a narrow peninsula extending SW from Bombay Island.27 41 irregular intervals. 72°49'E. lie 4. stands on it. 302m high. 55m high.7 mile SSW.5 mile SSW of Thal Knob. about 0. lies S and SW of the lightship.27 2.. Malabar Point.) is the S extremity of the Colaba Peninsula. The most conspicuous of these is the Taj Mahal Hotel. W of Indira Dock.8 mile ENE of Sunk Rock. Foul ground and shoal water extend about 3 miles offshore between Khanderi Island and the SE entrance point of Bombay Harbor. on the S and higher of which lies the lighthouse with a flagstaff NE of it. Oyster Rock.5 miles S of Prong Reef Light.27 2. and the spire of St.3 miles E of Colaba Point.27 2. 243m high. East Channel Swatch.27 2. of Taj Mahal Hotel. awash and marked by a light. and Malabar Hill. lies close N of Thal Shoal. which dries. 54m high. The Naval signal station. A black conical buoy is moored off the W side of Thal Shoal. being detached from the more distant highland. In thick weather these hills. surmounting a flat-roofed house. lies 1. with a least depth of 5. moored about 1. a warning rocket signal is fired. with an elevation of 28m.).3 miles NNE of Thal Knob. best seen on the chart. Another tower. SE.27 2. 72°50'E. is composed of sand and rock. have been reported to give good radar returns at 22 and 39 miles. 72°48'E. lie within 1 mile W of Thal Reefs..8m. a prominent visual navigation aid.” (You are standing into danger) is displayed.27 2. best shown on the chart. are the cathedral and the municipal buildings. lies about 2. about 2. with another dangerous wreck 0.5 miles W and 2.3 miles NW of Kankeshwar.8 miles S. with a white dome 53m high.8m. marked by a lighted buoy. The island. Detached shoals. a tower. although a muddy bottom has occasionally been found between this bank and Direction Bank.) lies close E of N breakwater head. is conspicuous among the prominent buildings on the esplanade on the E shore of Back Bay. about 6 miles N of Khanderi Island and 2. about 2 miles NE of Colaba Point. with a flagstaff.. 72°44'E. 54m high with a conspicuous white beacon.3 miles SE of Sunk Rock. drying 3. 31. it is removed and replaced at 2. is surrounded by the remains of a wall. Thal Knob. lies on North Pap.5 miles SE of Prongs Reef Light marks the N side of the fairway into the harbor. 20.27 2. A clock tower.27 2.27 2. is formed by the junction of 4 ridges and has a very sharp summit. John’s Church. the tower of which is 71m high. The S side of this hill is steep and almost inaccessible. The light structure is reported to be a good radar target at 17 miles. about 3 miles NNW of Colaba Point. marks the edge of the shoal water SW of Prongs Reef.5 miles offshore. A stranded wreck. Bombay Island consists of a low-lying plain.27 2.27 Colaba Point (18°54'N.27 2. S of the harbor entrance and about 2. 6. is flat and 21. lying between 60 and 120 miles W of Bombay.27 2. a conspicuous tower lies on the SW slope of Kharavli. Prongs Reef Light (18°53'N. about 3. is similar in appearance. A conspicuous chimney.1m high and marked by a lighted beacon.27 2.27 2. The peninsula is covered with buildings which continue N in an unbroken line and connect with the more thickly-settled part of the city.).3 miles NE of the light. 85m high. Range lights are shown on the E side of Khanderi Island. A rock. Pub.27 2.

27 2. N of the harbor. shown on the SW side of Elephanta Island. marked by a buoy.3 mile off Victoria Dock. The pilot boards about 1. 72°55'W. A conspicuous water tower. with a flagstaff.42 Sector 2. about 1 mile E of Butcher Island. If awaiting a pilot. lies about 5 miles NE of Middle Ground Islet. and shows a light. Karanja Beacon. and about 0. about 1. with an elevation of 31m.5m high. with an elevation of 17m.). farther N. Pilots can be contacted on VHF channel 13. Cross Island. 19. Pilots can be contacted on VHF channel 12.6 mile S of Butcher Island and is marked by Butcher Beacon. 174m high. marks the S edge of the bank. lies about 0. lies about 1. The pilot boards about 1. as the stakes are often broken off just below-water.8 mile ENE of Oyster Rock. from the islet. The channel leading ENE and NNE between Butcher Island and Elephanta Island is marked by ranges. 20m high. South Breakwater.27 Fishing stakes extend about 0.27 2. with an oil terminal on its SE side. on a bank filling the SE part of Bombay Harbor. attains an elevation of 305m at Trombay Peak (19°02'N.27 2.27 2. care is necessary when navigating in this vicinity. or 16. and black horizontal bands. The N side of the harbor is occupied by an extensive coastal bank. astern. vessels may anchor. 173 .5 mile NW of Elephanta Island. Gull Pub. white. This range intersects with a lighted range leading NNE.2 mile NNE. lead through the middle of the approach channel to the pier. stand on the SW end of Trombay Island. Regulations. lies about 1. and a chimney. stands on the S extremity of Trombay Island. about 0. Shoal water extends about 110m SW and 0. a red stone beacon. are conspicuous about 0. is wooded with two hills separated by a ravine.5 miles SW of Karanja Beacon.27 2.—Pilotage is compulsory in Bombay for all vessels over 100 tons and is available 24 hours.8 miles ENE of Middle Ground Islet.27 2.—A Vessel Traffic Service controls traffic to Bombay and the Jawaharlal Nehru Port. lie on the islet. stands near the center of the island. When arriving within a distance of 24 miles from Prongs Light.). Radio masts. nearly steep-to on its E side and marked by a light. Range lights. 8. 24m high.5m high. Pir Pau Tomb. a black steel structure.). Pilotage is compulsory in Jawaharlal Nehru for all vessels over 200 tons and is available 24 hours. pilots will board inside the channel.27 2. 14. Two spoil grounds. a conspicuous mosque with a white dome.. from which a light is shown. two towers. SE of Sunk Rock Light. rocky and about 12.27 2. There are several oil refinery chimneys on the S side of the island. which is in line bearing 203°. surmounted by a cone..27 2. A breakwater.27 2. Vessels boarding a pilot should maintain a continuous listening watch on VHF channel 13 for Jawaharlal Port Control and on VHF channel 12 for Bombay Port Control. Dolphin Rock.5 miles S of Sunk Rock Light.27 2. Range lights. steep-to on its S and E sides.27 2.27 2. 72°54'E. in line bearing 305°. lies about 0. respectively.5 miles N of Oyster Rock. The Naval Dockyard lies about 0.5m. Middle Ground Islet. painted in red. 125m high.27 2.5 mile E of Oyster Rock.5 mile NNW by a lighted buoy. vessels must register 2.5 miles S of Sunk Rock Light. Karanja Reefs. Trombay Island. The beacon is a cylindrical structure.27 Gull Islet (Kansa Rock) lies off the entrance to Dharamtar Creek. 72°54'E. lies near the NW edge of the reefs. lies about 1. 42.. from which a light is shown. is 3m above chart datum and uncovers at half tide.27 2.27 2. are situated between South Karanja Buoy and Karanja Reefs. each marked by red lights. A dangerous wreck. Tucker Beacon. During monsoon conditions. extend about 2 miles off the W side of Karanja Island. A white dome.5 mile farther N. the flares from these chimneys are conspicuous and visible from seaward. about 5 miles N of Gull Islet. Butcher Rock. lead between the shoals on either side of the channel.27 2.27 2. lies about 0.27 2. Butcher Island (Jawahar Dweep) (18°58'N.27 2. 8m high. marked at its head and root by towers having an elevation of 58m. is conspicuous near the root of South Breakwater. India—West Coast—Diu Head to Cape Rama Islet Light is shown from a framework tower on the summit of the islet.5 mile NW of Middle Ground Island.27 Courtesy of Mumbai Port Trust Tucker Beacon 2. The Naval Signal Station. Elephanta Island. extending NNW from Butcher Rock. The rear light of the latter range is shown from a lighted beacon on Uran Shoal (18°56'N. Pilotage. with depths of less than 5. on Ballard Pier. the N marked approximately 0. forms an enclosed area E of the Naval Dockyard. Elephanta Patch Beacon.27 2. 2.27 2.5 mile farther NNE.8 miles farther N. draft permitting. in line bearing 055°.5m high.5m high.

draft. and 82m on the N anchor. and the Naval Dockyard. 5. Vessels should call Bombay Port Control on VHF channel 12 when approaching Bombay Light Float. Maximum draft in meters. 9. The docking signal station is on Bull’s Nose at the entrance to Indira Dock. Sailing Directions (Planning Guide) South Atlantic Ocean and Indian Ocean under “India—Signals.5 mile SW of the Port Signal Station. Jawaharlal Nehru Vessels should send their ETA together with the request for pilotage at least 48 hours prior to arrival. it was recommended for vessels to pass N of Bombay Lightship in order to avoid the spoil ground and fishing stakes lying W of Thal Shoal and the foul area.27 43 2. 160.27 2. India—West Coast—Diu Head to Cape Rama their approach by contacting Bombay Vessel Traffic System on VHF channel 14. as indicated on the chart. 2. the General System is used. 3. 3.27 2. Supplies and cash requirements. Master’s name.” The port of Bombay can be contacted by e-mail. Vessels at anchor are required to maintain continuous listening watches on VHF channels 13 and 16. Communication is by the International Code of Signals.vsnl. Vessels liable to quarantine or carrying certain types of dangerous cargo are required by Bombay Port Rules to make certain signals to Prongs Reef Light. vessels bound for the Jawaharlal Nehru Port must contact that port on VHF channel 13. The 96hour message should contain the following information: 1.in mbpt@vsnl. vessels moored in the eddies off Middle Ground Islet should have 137m on the S anchor. these are answered by day by corresponding signals at the light. awaiting berthing instructions. by signal lamp at night. Vessels subject to quarantine may be instructed to anchor in a position convenient for the health officer to board. but attention must be paid to areas in which fishing stakes may be encountered. Anchoring is prohibited in an area in the harbor entrance extending approximately 5 miles E from Bombay Lightship. Storm signals are displayed from the port signal station and from a flagstaff at the NE corner of Victoria Dock.—Vessels usually anchor on the W side of the harbor. in mud and shingle. The ETA should be confirmed on VHF channel 13 at least 3 hours prior to arrival. Directions. The message should contain the following information: 1. Signals. 10. Middle Ground Islet. or by VHF radiotelephone. outside the 20m curve. Type of vessel. Ports visited in last 30 days.27 2.27 2.27 2. Length overall. as follows: jawahar@giasbm01.7 to 11. A dangerous wreck lies in anchorage A5.27 2.—A naval signal station at Colaba Point may call up vessels by signal lamp. Last port of call.—Vessels may approach Bombay from N to S through W. gross tonnage. 7. Present loaded displacement. with a confirmation sent 48 hours in advance. to their agents.27 2. vessels in the harbor should be moored in a SSW-NNE direction between October 1 and May 31 with 82m of cable each way.27 The port of Jawaharlal Nehru can be contacted by e-mail. as follows: 2.27 2. Vessel name.com Anchorage. Cargo quantities on board.27 2. Gross tonnage. Advance notificationn requirements for Bombay and Jawaharlal Nehru are given in the accompanying table titled Advance Notification Requirements for Bombay and Jawaharlal Nehru. 4. Vessel’s ETA. 5.27 2. 2. 2. 4. 173 . In addition. Anchoring and fishing are prohibited in the vicinity of the pipelines. but good anchorage can be obtained in other parts of the harbor. The Naval Signal Station lies about 0. Vessels should also send their ETA 24 hours in advance to the harbormaster. Distance of manifold from amidships. Class of dangerous cargo. reportedly good holding ground.27 Advance Notification Requirements for Bombay and Jawaharlal Nehru Bombay Vessels should send their ETA 96 hours in advance. 8. which they are required to answer by the same system. 7. The Port Signal Station is in a tower on the E side of Ballard Pier.27 2. Any defects. abreast Bombay.net. An area reserved for naval vessels lies between Sunk Rock. 6.3m. 6. Deep-draft vessels should anchor about 7 miles W of Prongs Reef.Sector 2. Pub. Further information on these storm signals may be found in Pub.27 2. As a general rule. and nrt. Master’s name Port of registry. and between June 1 and September 30 with 109m on the S anchor.27 2. in depths of 6. In 1987.

and to be consistent with the 72 COLREGS. keep North Pap Beacon (18°46'N. it was reported that numerous fishing vessels were anchored directly in the inbound and outbound traffic lanes. consists of sandy bays separated by bold rocky capes.29 Numerous wrecks. 2. with a velocity of about 1 knot in spring tides. 72°58'E.27 2. lies S of Alibag. If approaching from the S.8m.44 Sector 2.29 2. passing W and E of Neelam Heera and Ratna Oil Field Development Area. 72°56'E. lie like a wall parallel to the coast at an average distance of 30 miles inland.. All fishing stakes are normally removed each year for the duration of the Southwest Monsoon. Sagargarh (18°39'N. 173 .27 2. but even within this area they are sometimes placed. passing S of Bombay High Oil Field Development Area and Mukta Panna and Bassein Oil Field Development Area and N of Neelam Heera and Ratna Oil Field Development Area.—Between Khanderi Island and Boria Point. on a bearing of 121.28 2. no fishing stakes are permitted.27 2. Occasionally the heads of the stakes are broken off at the waterline. are joined by low stone walls and are used as fish traps.524m high.—Depths in the approach to the coast between Bombay and Cape Rama are fairly deep and clear of dangers. lie in the approaches.3 miles offshore. Other routes lead in NNE-SSW directions. Chaul Kadu Reef. shells.27 Pub. when it may be difficult to identify marks. It has a rounded summit and is faced on its S side by high conspicuous cliffs.27 2. A light is shown periodically from Kolaba Fort. are likely to be encountered up to 25 miles offshore from Bombay. about 0. Vessels should approach this area with caution. lies about 1. and depths of less than 5. about 228 miles SSE.28 2. either from N or S. almost closed by sand. Another submarine exercise area is centered between the Fifty Fathoms Flat and Direction Bank. Depths—Limitations. A volcanic disturbance was reported observed (1949) in an area about 100 miles SW of Angria Bank.27 2.29 The coast from abreast Khanderi Island to Alibag.27 Khanderi Island to Murud-Janjira Harbor 2. when the lights are still visible. Caution. The sea breaks heavily over these reefs at LW. At the NW end of this range. and is composed of sand. which are generally from 609 to 904m high. which lie in narrow ridges parallel to the shore. The tidal currents set NE across the bank during the flood and SW with the ebb. Mariners should use caution while transiting these waters.) in line with Thal Knob Beacon.29 2. stands on a drying reef on the NW side of the entrance to the creek. lies about 65 miles off the coast. Mariners are advised not to anchor or fish near the pipelines to avoid damaging them. about 4 miles S. with great depths surrounding it.1m. In the approaches to Bombay. Caution. Alibag Creek. In 2001.3 miles W of Kolaba Fort. 2. 313m high. Submarine oil and gas pipelines are laid from the SW point of Karanja Island. Caution is necessary in the harbor and its approaches as many buoys have been reported (2007) missing. WSW through the entrance to Bombay Harbor and then NW to Bombay High Field.5 miles from the coast. the best time to make Bombay is about 1 hour before sunrise. when a smoke haze often reduces visibility..5 miles offshore. with some peaks nearly 1. may be encountered anywhere in depths up to 18. Heavy smog and haze may reduce the visibility in the harbor. 2. Numerous small fishing vessels. fishing stakes and logs are liable to be encountered in depths up to 22m. which project about 6. There are a number of river estuaries and it is often bordered by tableland in the middle of its S part. are three high bare.27 2.5 miles farther S. which leads close SW of SW Prong Lighted Buoy.28 2. recommended routes are charted to assist mariners to navigate safely in the vicinity of the previously-described Offshore Oil Development Areas. farther S the range is lower and covered with jungle.27 2. surmounted by baskets. 69°55'E. S of Kankeshwar. within the area shown by dashed lines on the charts. and adjacent waters of the port of Bombay. consists of a low ridge of sandhills backed by dense groves of palm trees. It was reported (2001) that heavy pollution and siltation in the harbor prevented the vessel’s depth finder to give accurate readings. and so may be encountered before the port authorities have been able to remove them.The Western Ghats.1m in position 16°43'N. and the highest peak of this range. A depth of 23m was reported in 1987 close W of the 200m depth contour in approximate position 19°00'N. The inner reefs. Mariners are advised to keep 1 or 2 miles to starboard of the centerlines of these routes in the approaches or departure from Bombay.27 2. Alibag Outer Reef. 72°03'E. lines of strong fishing stakes. a group of rocky patches with a least depth of 2. A light is shown from a white round masonry tower. Kolaba Fort.28 The harbor entrance lies between lighted buoys moored N of Thal Shoal and SE of Prongs Reef. or during the cold weather.27 2. pass W of the buoy marking Thal Shoal. which is conspicuous from seaward. and coral. The Sagargarh Range.) and Cape Rama. The bank is steep-to on all sides. with a depth of 1. about 75 miles offshore.3m and sometimes up to 22m.5m extend about 3.5 miles NW of the shoal.27 2. lies about 2.28 2. In the immediate approach to the harbor. has a spur forming two narrow ridges extending W to about 2 miles ENE of Alibag. and conspicuous peaks. During the Southwest Monsoon. 415m high. 72°49'E. with the exception of Angria Bank. lies about 5 miles E of Alibag. 19m high. The fort can be recognized by the cupola of a temple in the shape of a pogoda. with a least depth of 20..and then they may not be seen above water. The S of these three is the sharp and conical Parhur. on the NE extremity of the reef. 2.27 2. A submarine exercise area is centered 67 miles W of the entrance to Bombay Harbor. If approaching from the NW.). with buoyed nets.1m out of the water. about 80 miles SSE. India—West Coast—Diu Head to Cape Rama Bombay to Cape Rama 2. It is fringed by sandbanks and reefs extending in places about 1.27 2.5°. best seen on chart. about 5 miles NW of Sagargarh and 2.—In the approach to Bombay.27 2. Close SE of Sagargarh is a sharp rocky peak.28 The coast between Khanderi Island (18°42'N. One route leads in an E-W direction. 2. channels.27 2. Angria Bank.27 2.5 mile SW of Alibag. and is marked SW by a red conical buoy from October to May.

30 2. can be taken. extends some distance along the S bank of the river.5 mile WNW. with a racon. in about 5m.8 mile N of Vihur Point.31 2. the S entrance point of the bay. There is a jetty at Dighi and a small sugar exporting port is planned. a village on the S shore of the Rajpuri River. 232m high and bare. The tower of the Franciscan convent. 37m high and conspicuous. The tide flows over a considerable part of the low-lying land on either side of this moderately wide river at HWS. from November to April. Sandy Point lies about 3.5 knots at springs.31 2. Local vessels call at the port. about 1. a wooded bluff.—The coast in the vicinity of the harbor is hilly and well-wooded.5 miles E of the same point. Depths are irregular for a short distance W of this shoal and vessels in the vicinity should keep in depths greater than 11m.5 miles N of Nanwell Point. distant about 1. An offshore production platform lies about 33 miles W of the entrance to Murud–Janjira harbor.31 2. is conspicuous above the walls of the fort. or steer for Sandy Point bearing 116° to the anchorage. The N part of this headland slopes gradually to the sea and terminates in a rocky point.31 Muhud-Janjira Harbor to Port Bankot 2.31 2.31 Murud-Janjira Harbor (18°18'N. Tides—Currents. on the S side of the river entrance. is shown from the fort. with depths of less than 5m.33 Port Bankot lies from 1 to 2 miles within the bar at the entrance of the Savitri River. Then bring Fort Janjira to bear 090° and steer for it on that bearing until Nanwell Point Light bears 180°.) World Port Index No.8 mile NW of the latter temple. the estuary of the Kundalika River. which is entered between Devgarh Point. A light is shown from the S end of the N entrance point of the bay from September to May. with Janjira Fort bearing 001°.31 2.5 miles S of Nanwell Point and is the N entrance point of Kumbaru Bay. about 3 miles WNW of Srivardhan Point (18°01'N.. Anchorage off Srivardhan for large vessels can be obtained. 33m high.31 Janjira Fort. but they normally show well above HW. 30. Six Foot Patch lies about 0.4m. has a bight SE of it fringed with mangroves. a small round headland 70m high. lies about 1 mile NNW of Janjira Fort. The point fronts densely wooded hills rising to about 240m.31 2. is conspicuous about 2. with a grassy summit. Revadanda. connected to the mainland by a low.7 mile. stands on the summit of a reddish-colored headland. 70m high. Kansa Fort.3m. Nine Foot Patch lies about 2.—The tidal rise is 3.30 Revadanda Port (Port Chaul) (18°33'N. A prominent white temple stands 2 miles NE of Revadanda. and is the summit of a range of wooded hills. Tidal currents have a velocity of 1 knot to 1. about 0. its walls about 6.). and sandy isthmus.30 2. India—West Coast—Diu Head to Cape Rama 2. near a group of palm trees. but this may be subject to change. lies about 1 mile SW of Kumbaru Point.3 miles WSW of Nanwell Point. The Savitri River becomes a narrow stream above the village. 255m high.—Depths of less than 5m extend about 10. Srivardhan Bay. The Nawabs Palace and flagstaff are conspicuous on a steep bluff. a drying mud flat fills the bight.5m. SE of Kumbaru Point.3 mile S of the reef. Korlai Fort.. is situated on the N side of the entrance between Bandar Hill and Nawabs Palace. is shallow and the village of Srivardhan lies at its head.1m high and partly in ruins. 48870 2. Dighi Hill. 72°57'E. at the mouth of Rajpuri Creek. 231m high and thickly wooded. in about 5. lies about 3. dries 3. in a depth of 4. Dighi. mud. there is a conspicuous bluff about 2.32 Port Bankot (17°59'N.5m high. is only available to vessels able to cross the bar. Bandar Hill. The town of Murud. narrow. by fishing stakes. is 250m high and the highest point of the peninsula. 45 2. Pub.—Anchorage can be obtained. Depths—Limitations. Shoal water. Another temple is conspicuous on the summit of a 172m hill above the preceding temple.31 2. SSE of Nanwell Point. A peninsula with two conspicuous peaks lies on the S side of the harbor. lies about 0. 2.3 miles NW of Korlai Fort. and Rankuran Point. A light. Anchorage with better shelter can be obtained. and Round Hill. Anchorage.). 306m high. Approach to the anchorage may be obstructed by lines of fishing nets and. A light is shown from the fort. stands on the N entrance point of the river. Bankot. with high ranges behind the coastal hills.32 2. Chaul Knob. 55m high. A Muslim tomb stands at a height of 128m. about 0. about 1.31 2. 73°00'E. sheltered from NW winds.5 miles SSE. extends about 0. is entered between Vihur Point (Yeoor Point) and Nanwell Point (Rajpur Point).8 mile farther S.31 2.30 2.31 2.32 2.32 2. 2.31 2.). Aspect.32 Kumbaru Point (18°13'N. Whale Reef. Course is then altered SE into the harbor. stands on a reef about 2. and 3m at MHWN.1m. Conical Hill. about 1. and 0.. round and conspicuous.Sector 2.3 miles NE of Kansa Fort. surrounded by a large grove of palm trees. A light is shown periodically from the hill. a fishing village.30 2. Nanwell Point Light is shown from a white masonry tower with red bands.5 miles SE of the same point.3miles E of the point. Fishing stakes. Murud Hill.. stands on a rocky islet. In the fairway over the bar there is a depth of 2.2m. on Nanwell Point. Anchorage.. 134m high. may be met within the harbor. 73°03'E.30 2.31 2.). The harbor affords good shelter to moderate-sized vessels from all winds except those from W and NW. in a least depth of 4. with a least depth of 4.5 mile E of Nanwell Point. with the fort bearing 330°. Shah Jehan Shoal. about 5 miles SSE of Kumbaru Bay.31 2. about 4 miles SSE. 72°55'E. about 2 miles NE of Nanwell Point and abreast the village of Rajpuri. 72°56'E. A hill. lies about 1.5m. about 1. 173 .31 2.8 miles ESE of Korlai Fort. lie about 2 and 3 miles. consisting of large poles or stripped palm trees. Directions. in 10m. 2.3 miles S of Kansa Fort. respectively. an old fortress.31 2.30 2.75 miles and Sandy Point bearing 100°.9m at MHWS.—A vessel bound for Murud-Janjira Harbor should keep in depths greater than 11m until Janjira Fort is identified.

34 2. which dries. Anjanvel Bay. The channel over the bar is liable to change and passage into the river should not be attempted without local knowledge.3 miles ENE of Tolkeshwar Point and is a good landmark as it lies out above the flat rocky ridges in the vicinity.1m in 1968.33 2. E of the fort.33 2. Anchorage.34 The coast between the entrances of the Savitri River and the Vashishti River.7m.35 2. attaining a velocity of about 1.35 2. The N side of the entrance is marked by a red can buoy.35 2. with a least depth of 2.—Outside the bar. A red can lighted buoy is moored about 0. about 16 miles within the entrance. Burondi Bay lies about 6 miles SSE of Janjira Fort. extends about 1. is not easily distinguished from seaward. The existence of these buoys is doubtful. Depths—Limitations. Aspect. lies close S of a promontory projecting from the coast at Harnai. to Chiplum.5 mile SW of Sil Point. 10 miles farther up. lies nearly 2 miles ENE of Tolkeshwar Point.8 mile E. 2. This light may be occasionally obscured by clouds because of its elevation of 104m. and off Panbruj Point there is a pool with depths of 13m. Pir Balu. The entrance to the channel over the bar was 1 mile W of Rankuran Point.35 2.33 2. Pilotage. is located about 4. 73°05'E. and thence.6m to 12. is shallow.33 2.35 2.—The services of a local unlicensed pilot can be obtained on application to the Customs and Port Officer. The front light is situated close N of Anjanvel Fort and the rear light stands on the N slope of Veldur Hill.3 miles ESE of Bankot.34 Port Bankot to Port Dabhol 2. anchorage can be taken. about 25 miles SSE. in a depth of 3.8 mile NE of Rankuran Point.35 2. which lies about 0. 81m high. stand at an elevation of 140m. is situated about 0.. about 0. another red can buoy is moored off the S side of Churpulti Sand. The bay affords anchorage.—The tidal rise at Port Dabhol is 2. 73°09'E.7m at MHHW and 2.). in a depth of 9m. Kanta.35 2. a fortified islet. Anjanvel Fort.34 2.34 2.34 2.33 2. The high black walls of Fort Victoria. A vessel proceeding between the two rivers will not encounter any shoals by keeping from 1. Chirpulti Sand. the hills. both prominent from outside the bar.1m.7m on the entrance range.35 2.35 Port Dabhol (17°35'N. extends about 0. Janjira Fort.) lies in the estuary of the Vashisti River. Caution. in about 10m.3 mile E of Devgarh Point.5 knots. Care must be taken to avoid the logs marking the fisheries. Tolkeshwar Point (17°34'N. about 0. which may be met about 5 miles W of the entrance to the Jog River (17°50'N. on the S side of the river. 2. is marked by a red can buoy. 109m high.. 173 . off the custom house. 2. the S entrance point of the river. Hareshwar Donghur. is located on the E side of Anjanvel Bay. India—West Coast—Diu Head to Cape Rama Harnai Light is shown from a white masonry tower on the promontory. about 10 miles farther SSE. Churpulti Sand lies on the N side of the channel. Directions. the ebb current occasionally commences 1 hour before HW. 19m high and covered with vegetation. At the anchorage off Bankot the velocity of the tidal currents at springs is about 2.35 Pub. Janjira Fort. Aspect. Depths gradually increase within the bar.34 2.35 2.35 2. about 0. The channel then leads 055° and passes close W of Panbruj Point. consists of a series of plateaus at elevations of 150 to 210m. about 0.). a peak 346m high.8 mile ENE of Rankuran Point. has a very large boulder and overhanging cliff N of it.—The bar.—The services of a local unlicensed pilot can be obtained on application to the Customs and Port Officer. Tides—Currents. during strong W breezes heavy breakers are raised over the bar and there is always a cross sea. Inside the bar the flood current sets into Anjanvel Bay and the ebb onto Churpulti Sand.—The NW corner of Fort Victoria bearing 079° leads across the bar. about 90 to 120m high. about 2.. Tides—Currents.33 2.33 2. 306m high. Ranvi Point. stands about 0. The point has been reported to be a good radar target at 23 miles.35 2. 73°10'E. an ancient Hindu temple and a prominent clump of trees stand on its summit. with a least depth of 2.5 mile NW of the above-mentioned islet. Sili Point. Off Port Bankot vessels may anchor.8 knot at springs. and conical. The tidal current sets NE over the bar with the flood and SW with the ebb. The vegetation consists of sparse bushes with very few trees.5 knots.5 mile S of Tolkeshwar Point.46 Sector 2. The flood current continues for about 1 hour after HW and the ebb current for about 1 hour after LW.8m. Range lights. 125m high. An islet. Veldur Hill. standing under a range of hills.35 2. and SSW with the ebb. in line bearing 081°. stand in a cemetery close under the walls of the fort. The hill from Fort Victoria slopes down to Panbruj Point. slope steeply to the coast and terminate in cliffs from 5 to 25m high. and the S side by a black conical buoy.8 mile ENE of Tolkeshwar Point.2m at MLHW.—The tidal currents set over the bar NNE with the flood.33 2. in ruins. the depths increase from 7. Tolkeshwar Point Light is shown from a white square masonry tower on Tolkeshwar Point.33 2.—The entrance of the Savitri River may be identified by Hareshwar Hill.8 mile farther NE. attaining a velocity of 0. in ruins.—The land on both sides of this river is hilly and undulating. while the ebb follows the direction of the channel.35 2. with a dome-shaped tomb on its summit. lead across the bar.5 to 3 miles offshore and in depths of over 9. At neaps. and Gimona Peak.3 mile ENE of Panbruj Point. the N entrance point of the river.7 mile NW of Tolkeshwar Point. Pilotage.—Caution is required in crossing the bar. A high pillar and large pyramidal headstone. dark. is bold and faced with cliffs about 90m high. A red can buoy marks the W end of the bar. are two conspicuous peaks along this coast.33 2. Between the bar and the anchorage off Bankot the flood current sets slightly toward the sandbank on the N side of the channel. is conspicuous about 0.35 2.33 2. about 2 miles S of the entrance to the Jog River. over which the sea breaks heavily. The seaward slopes of the plateaus are generally abrupt.33 2. Within the bar. at HW only. with some shelter from S winds. which is navigable at all times by vessels with a draft of 3m as far as Karbone. but in places there is a narrow strip of land between the plateaus and the beach. A drying sandbank N of the channel.33 2.5 miles WSW of the point. about 0. a conical hill 248m high.

The estuary of the Shastri River. a large village. with steep cliffy sides and small sandy indentations.—The bar of the Shastri River extends NNE from close W of Jaigarh Fort to close E of Katane Reef. Anchorage may be obtained. Care must be taken to avoid fishing logs which are often moored both inside and outside the river.3 mile offshore.35 2. a high rocky headland. steer to pass about 137m N of Anjanvel Fort Light. The coast between Boria Headland and Bhandarawadi Point. mud. Jaigarh Head Light is shown from a tall. Boria Bay lies SE of Boria Headland. the SW extremity of the headland.37 2. about 61 to 91.5 mile SE of the W extremity of Warori Bluff.35 2.3m. The town of Jaigarh extends along the coast for about 0.8 mile SSE. the NW extremity of Vada Mirya.7m in 1964. the position of which is approximate. The point has been reported to be a good radar target at 15 miles. 115m high. bring the range lights in line bearing 081°. about 5. sandy bays divided by rocky points. but the best anchorage. in 8.35 47 Port Dabhol to Jaigarh Bay 2. is available in 7.38 Pub. Guhagar. 173 . Boria Headland (17°24'N.) has Karateshwar Point at its NW extremity.38 2.37 2.8 miles NE. clay. The NE side of Jaigarh Bay consists of ridges of bare hills..37 2. lies about 0. this point appears from seaward 2. about 1. 2.37 2..5 miles SSE.—Good anchorage may be obtained outside the bar.4m high. 73°13'E.38 2. leaving a navigable channel about 183m wide between Mora Sands and Jaigarh.—Vessels approaching Jaigarh Bay from the S should not close Karhateshwar Point within 0. stands at the NW end of the headland within a summit of the point. The W end of the headland terminates in steep cliffs. extend about 0. Mirya Peak.38 2.37 2.7 mile E of Sookana Point and 0.) lies E of Ambwah Point. black iron tower with white bands.37 2. on the SW end of Jaigarh Head. S of the pier at Dabhol. for vessels of about 3. attains an elevation of 118m. convenient harbor..37 2. sheltered from NW winds.—A dangerous wreck. about 0.36 2. 73°13'E. in a depth of 5. a light is shown from the NW corner of the fort. Caution. Tonkul Peak. about 1 mile S.37 Jaigarh Bay (17°18'N. A Hindu temple stands on the steep face of the cliffs.5 miles NE. may be obtained by small vessels. is a conspicuous promontory. Local vessels call here during the Southwest Monsoon. 142m high.5 mile NNE of Miyet Point. Depths—Limitations.5 miles SSE of Warori Bluff. best seen on the chart. 70m high. Jaigarh Head has been reported to be a good radar target at 20 miles. in 8m. of Ambwah Point. Directions. 3. in 10m. 73°11'E.38 2. which dries 0.—Anchorage can be taken in Dhamankhol Bay.38 2.4m draft with local knowledge. a small conspicuous temple. along the 20m line.35 2. the light is obscured by high land when bearing more than 141°. India—West Coast—Diu Head to Cape Rama Anchorage.2m. Aspect. keeping about 0. about 1. sheltered from NW winds. is situated 6 miles WSW of Tolkeshwar Point. and resembles an island when seen from the N or S. Anchorage. 2.—Small vessels can obtain sheltered anchorage during the Southwest Monsoon on the N side of Warori Bluff. distant 1. is situated on a rocky point.Sector 2.8 mile SE of Jaigarh Fort.37 Vada Mirya (Mirya Donghur) (17°02'N.1 mile offshore to avoid the coastal reef which extends about 91m offshore near Veldur Hill. about 0. is 64m high. When Tolkeshwar Point Light bears 180°.37 2. Boria Pagoda. which flows into the head of the bay. Kalbadevi Bay is entered between Sookana Point and Kurne Point.8 miles SSE from a position about 3 miles SE of Tolkeshwar Point.2 mile offshore and had a least depth of 3. about 100m high inland near their N end. Anchorage. There is good sheltered anchorage E of Jaigarh. the conspicuous summit of this headland. Trize Kila.35 2. mud. Good radar returns have been reported from Vada Mirya at 16 miles. in a depth of about 8. Mora Sands. Cliffs. When the latter light bears 180°. in calm weather.5m. with a least depth of 9. Sookana Shoals. Good radar returns have been reported from Warori Bluff at 17 miles. When the light structure is on this bearing.38 2.5m. is composed of small. Anchorage.1m until Tolkeshwar Point Light bears 095°. is situated about 1 mile E of Jaigarh Fort.6 mile W of the NE entrance point of the Shastri River. steer a mid-channel course. Jaigarh Fort. about 2 miles SW of Palshet Bay.2 mile SW of Bhandarawadi Point.37 2.3 miles WNW of Tolkeshwar Point.5 mile NE of Jaigarh Head Light. Anchorage may also be obtained in midstream.36 2. Dhamankhol Light is shown from a white tower about 0. A light is shown about 0. Another dangerous wreck lies 5 miles SW of the same point.5 miles. the S extremity of Jaigarh Head. A channel leads E across the S end of the bar about 0.).36 2. A 10m patch and an 8. 73°10'E. Neori Point. extend from the sandy beach to Palshet Bay.38 2. lie about 1 mile NNW of Sookana Point.—Jaigarh Head (17°18'N. lies nearly 1 mile N of Mirya Peak. ESE of Ambwah Point.5 mile SW and 0. an old fortress containing a few houses. in a depth of 8m. 73°16'E. 2. is lighter in color than the adjacent coast.38 2.6m about 0.5m. respectively.37 Jaigarh Bay to Ratnagiri Bay 2. even during the Southwest Monsoon.3 mile to avoid foul ground. about 4.—Vessels intending to enter the Vashishti River should not proceed into depths less than 9.4m. Warori Bluff. Caution. 2.8 mile S of the fort.). forms a sheltered. Boria Pagoda has been reported to be a good radar target at 18 miles. lies about 0.36 A sandy beach extends about 3.5 miles SSE of Ambwah Point. lies parallel to the beach close inland. Anchorage. mud and sand. in about 8m.. the front range light. about 2 miles E of Jaigarh Head Light.38 Ambwah Bay (17°16'N.36 to be a level and almost barren plateau terminating in steep rocky cliffs. but it is subject to change.. fairly easy to access.4 mile E of Dhamankhol Light. Palshet Light is shown from the N entrance point of the bay.8m patch lie about 0. which dry 1. 2.) is entered between Jaigarh Head and Bhandarawadi Point. a ruined fort. A dangerous wreck lies 23 miles W of Jaigarh Head. about 2.

mud and sand. 85m high.38 2.3 miles E of The Fort.6 to 7. about 5 miles S.39 2.39 2. Mudle Shoal (Taylor Shoal). the bottom is sand and mud. The bar of the river has depths of 1. The town of Ratnagiri is situated on the N side of the river entrance.3 miles E of Ratnagiri Light. and is free from dangers.. it is sandy and backed by a range of hills 84 to 97m high. About 0. 120m high.. about 1 mile SW. about 1. distant about 0.39 2. with a small drying patch at its center. 2. in a depth of about 8. the Brief System is used. It appears as an island from a distance.).40 Between Ratnagiri and the Machkandi River (Muchkundi River). is an old structure which covers a bold. and the ruins of a large salt works stand in a valley on the S side.—At the beginning and end of the Southwest Monsoon vessels should anchor. Signals. 73°17'E. from the N entrance point of Purangad Bay. Khavri. about 1 mile SSE. round.5m high.” Anchorage. The sea breaks over this shoal at LW. However. and is connected to the mainland by a sandy neck. The Fort. about 3 miles farther S. lies about 1 mile NE of Pavas Point. a mountain 346m high.4 mile ENE of N end of breakwater. about 46m high.5 mile. Bhagwati Bunder (Mirya Bay).1m. a round wooded hill 280m high. and rocky headland up to 91m high. is a round sloping conspicuous hill on the E side of Rajapur Bay. about 9. about 2 miles S. with Ratnagiri Light bearing 315°. Ambolgarh Bay lies between Ambolgarh Point and Musakazi Point (Musargagi Point). Vessels can anchor in Pavas Bay. consists of cliffs about 21m high.5 miles SSE.39 2. 73°18'E.6m. India—West Coast—Diu Head to Cape Rama Vessels can anchor. in 9. square. entered about 1.—In the N part of the bay. A palace. A radiobeacon and a racon are situated at the light.) is shown. About 1 mile farther E.1m. Purangad Bay Light (16°49'N. The Rajapur River flows into the head of Rajapur Bay at its NE end. with Ratnagiri Light bearing 000°. Pub. and lies out from the tableland in this vicinity which is faced with steep cliffs. on which the sea breaks heavily in bad weather.39 2. the land rises gradually from the coast in undulating hills reaching a height of 200m about 5 to 6 miles inland. Depths—Limitations. 173 . Chandralli (Dhulia) (16°56'N.).. The coast between Pavas Bay and Purangad Bay. The coast between Wagapur Point and Vijayadurg Harbor. Shallow draft vessels can anchor farther N.39 2. It presents the same appearance from all directions.41 2. 3.39 2. a ruined fort stands on a bare hill on the N side of the entrance to the Machkandi River. decreasing gradually E.3m. concrete tower on the S bastion of The Fort.3 miles E of Wagapur Point. about 2 miles S.). it provides sheltered anchorage throughout the year in depths up to 9. concrete tower with black bands on Wagapur Point.. Brum Mudle Rock. The Ratnagiri River. in 11m. the sea breaks heavily over this reef. lies about 10 miles E of the river entrance. on the brow of a flat ridge.4 mile SW of Ambolgarh Point.3m.41 Rajapur Bay (16°37'N. Ambolgarh Reef.39 2.40 2. has a breakwater 0. Aspect.. which breaks heavily during the Southwest Monsoon. Depths of less than 7m extend nearly 1 mile NW of Kushipur Point. with a least depth of 1. lies about 0. 2.) is entered between Musakazi Point and Wagapur Point. which lies on the S bank of the river about 1 mile within its entrance. thence to Ambolgarh Point. 2. a reef. affords no shelter during the Southwest Monsoon.—Storm signals are shown at Ratnagiri Light. each point is about 21m high. about 11 miles S.5 mile NW of Wada Vetye.).4m. lies about 0. attention should be given to Taylor Shoal.39 Ratnagiri Bay.8 to 2. when smooth-water anchorage can be found in Kalbadevi Bay. There is a sandy beach at its head. except during the strength of the Southwest Monsoon.3 mile NNW of the same point. with a least depth of 3.) World Port Index No. 83m high.40 2. A light is shown from a tall. Further information on these storm signals may be found in Pub.41 2.38 Ratnagiri Bay (16°59'N. entered between The Fort and Kushipur Point (16°57'N. conspicuous. a new port. A conspicuous hill.40 2.5m. is the only conspicuous feature. Sailing Directions (Planning Guide) South Atlantic Ocean and Indian Ocean under “India— Signals.40 2. on the N side of the entrance. lies about 0. 160. 73°17'E. Ratnagiri Bay to Vijayadurg Harbor 2. the N extremity of The Fort. is only navigable by small craft at HW. lies about 0. extends about 0. abreast the village of Jaitapur. Pavas Bay (Paos Bay) is entered S of Pavas Point (16°54'N. 48900 2. sheltered from NW winds.4 mile SSW.7 mile. Close S of the S edge of this reef is a depth of 8. and marked on its S side by a buoy.—Ratnagiri Light is shown from a tall black and white checkered.39 2. Holi Hill.48 Sector 2. distant about 0. consists of a rocky tableland.7m.39 2. A light is shown from September to May from Musakazi Point.5 miles ESE of The Fort. A black conical buoy is moored near the SW extremity of the reef.3 mile long extending N from Galee Point.40 2. there are depths of 4. foul ground extends about 0.38 Mirya Bay is entered between Miyet Point and Galee Point (17°00'N. 103m high. which lies N of the entrance to the breakwater. The coast between Purangad Bay and Wada Vetye (Yetia).40 2. the depth in the entrance is about 11m.1 mile WNW of the point. The shore at the head of this bay is covered with coconut palms and is fronted by a ridge of sand hills.40 2. is conspicuous about 2. but abruptly to the reef which extends from the N shore.7 mile ENE of the N entrance point. 73°20'E..7 mile SE of Miyet Point. lies 0. 73°17'E.. a shoal. A conspicuous temple stands on Galee Point. 73°16'E. white. about 2. Golap Hill. There is a Coast Radio Station at Ratnagiri. 73°26'E. sand and mud. consists of rocky tableland and sandy bays. a village about 6 miles S.

stands on Fort Point. 73°22'E. Kura Islet (16°06'N. 49 2. over which the sea breaks.3 mile wide. with an elevation of 220m. 108m high.8m. 2. Devgarh Hill. about 0. 73°26'E. Foul ground and depths of less than 5m extend 0.3 mile.43 2. another tower stands about midway between the two towers.3 mile SSW of Fort Rajkot. of Fort Point.43 2.6m. stand about 0. The town of Devgarh lies NE of the sandy neck. in 8m. consisting of two rocky heads with depths of less than 1. lie about 2. from which a light is shown.43 2. about 4 miles inland. and 160m N from Fort Point. on the N side of the entrance. Depths in the harbor restrict its use to vessels of comparatively shallow draft.7 mile. Devgarh Hill has been reported to give a good radar response at 14 miles.8 mile ENE of Burmana Point. 19m high. A light is shown during good weather from the point.44 The coast between Devgarh Harbor and Achra Point.5m patch lies about 2 miles NNW of Kura Islet and about 1. is sandy and fringed with coconut palms.5 miles ENE of Malvan Bay.42 Vijayadurg Light is shown from a white steel tower with red horizontal bands on the NE corner of the fort. protected from NW winds which may blow strongly.). Johnston Castle Rock. about 7 miles SSE. at the head of the bay. lies in the center of a group of rocks. India—West Coast—Diu Head to Cape Rama Anchorage. 37m high. 73°20'E.45 2.43 The coast between Vijayadurg Harbor and Devgarh Harbor.45 2. with a least depth of 9. Achra Point (16°12'N. 21m high. 41m high.44 2. Further information on these storm signals may be found in Pub. Pub. 173 . A range of hills of moderate height.45 2. is situated about 0. according to draft.7m.3 miles NW of the entrance of Kalavali Creek.43 Storm signals are shown at the light tower using the Brief System.44 2. Burmana Reef. Rajkot Rock.44 2. and a point about 1.Sector 2.4 mile W of the N end of Sindhudrug Janjira. Steep. 73°27'E. is similar to the coast N of Devgarh Harbor to Vijayadurg Harbor.42 2. 2. with a depth of 3. about 10 miles S. Vijayadurg Harbor to Malvan Bay 2. This point forms the W side of the entrance to the Vaghotan River. distance 0.45 Malvan Bay (16°06'N. is fairly regular.43 2. 140m high. the fairway between being about 0. about 1. and the bay is accessible to shallow draft vessels but only during good weather.5 knots with the spring ebb. lies about 0.8 mile S of the light. small vessels can find more sheltered anchorage SE of Fort Point. although entered by numerous streams and creeks.2 mile NW of the same point. about 0.7 mile S of Kura Islet.). Sailing Directions (Planning Guide) South Atlantic Ocean and Indian Ocean under “India—Signals. 160. abrupt cliffs are fronted by sandy beaches and coves.2 mile WNW and 0. Sindhudrug Janjira is a low fortified island on the coastal reef. Depths—Limitations. in a depth of 8m. respectively. The land behind the cliffs is flat. is situated at the SW end of the fort.41 2. 73°19'E. when 1 mile from Fort Point. 24m high.3 mile SW from the N entrance point of the harbor.—Vessels proceeding into Devgarh Harbor should approach with Saddle Hill in line with the N side of the fort on Fort Point. but its S end is connected to the mainland by a narrow sandy neck. An old fort.42 2.5 mile S. in line bearing 075. A light is shown from the W end of the island during good weather.45 2. lead through the buoyed fairway into Malvan Bay.. An 8. The range lights and buoys are only in operation during good weather.44 2. extends about 0. The town of Malvan is situated on the N side of the bay almost hidden by coconut palms.7 mile ENE. which is connected to the mainland E by a drying reef. The peninsula appears like an island. The coast from the mouth of the Achra River to the entrance of Kalavali Creek.” Round Hill. 2. with no conspicuous peaks. lies close to the coast. steer 080° to pass 0. 73°28'E. but the anchorage is not safe during W winds. Anchorage.5°. A 10. are about 6. about 5 miles SSE of Fort Point. a small village. 9m high and the largest of three rocks. mud.43 2.. Range lights. on several occasions they were observed to set NW on the flood and SSW with the ebb.) is entered between Fort Rajkot and Sindhudrug Janjira.—Depths in the harbor decrease regularly from about 12m in the entrance to the E shore of the bay..2 mile NNW of Burmana Point. A 5m patch lies about 0.2m shoal lies about 0.) is entered between Burmana Point (16°33'N. has foul ground extending S and SE of it. 41 and 36m high. with a velocity of up to 1. during good weather. Vijayadurg. extends roughly parallel with the coast. but decrease sharply farther within the river to 3.2 mile N of Fort Point. in a depth of 6m. Kura Patches.).4 mile and 0.) is entered N of Fort Point. which lies at the N end of a rocky peninsula. A conspicuous radio tower. lies about 0.45 2.—Rajapur Bay affords anchorage. and when Mumbri Point bears 153°. and the N entrance point of the harbor bearing 306°.43 2.—The recommended anchorage is with Devgarh Harbor Light bearing 203°. 2. 2. Farther in depths shoal gradually. The entrance is much encumbered by rocky shoals. A conspicuous fort stands on a projecting rocky point.. A convenient position is about 0. Two towers.44 2. The town of Devgarh has a post office and a hospital.—Outside the harbor the tidal currents are irregular.5m.—Anchorage can be taken anywhere in the harbor. Devgarh Harbor (16°23'N. is the N entrance point of the Achra River. Depths in the fairway between the point on which the fort lies and a cliff. in depths of 3 to 4m. Anchorage. being much influenced by the wind. Fort Rajkot. lies about 2 miles SSW of Achra Point.5 miles offshore. but farther inland it rises to bare rocky hills with no vegetation except in the rainy season. Directions.42 Vijayadurg Harbor (Viziadrug Harbor) (16°34'N. A flagstaff. which raise a heavy short swell in the bay.5 miles NNE and E respectively. stands 5. 95m high. which is only accessible to boats. about 12 miles SSE.5 mile NNE of Vijayardurg Light.. S of Fort Point. Tides—Currents.. about 26m high and 0. The fort is obscured from the S by the higher land in that direction.5 miles NNE. and Saddle Hill. bearing 090°.42 At the entrance to the harbor the currents attain a velocity of 1 to 1. both in strength and direction.7m.5 knots.

lies about 4. the bottom is sand and rock and there are sudden overfalls. steer through the fairway on that bearing which leads N of Karil Rock.3 mile SSW of Vengurla Rock.46 2.9 mile WSW of Mandel Rock. and provides a useful mark to avoid the dangers N and S of it.8m. with the N end of Sindhudrug Janjira bearing 095°. in 15m. a conspicuous wooded mountain. Chaldea Rock. 73°26'E.47 2.) is shown from the NW point of an islet about 0. Vengurla Rocks (Burnt Island) is a group of islets and rocks in dangerous foul ground extending about 3 miles S of Karil Rock (15°56'N. 73°28'E. on the range line. Caution. in a depth of 21m... Pub.—When passing Malvan Rock at night Vengurla Rocks Light (15°53'N. on which is situated the ruins of Niuti Fort.7 mile SSE and SW and nearly 0.5m. a flagstaff stands on the point. Caution.5 miles WSW of Sindhudrug Janjira. Anchorage.. 11m high. 2.47 2. nor should a vessel approaching this rock proceed into depths of less 27m. South Rock. 11m high. Malvan Bay to Vengurla Roads 2.3 mile NNW of Tapti Rock. Course may then be gradually altered SE to pass SW of Bhubra Rock. distant 1 mile. awash.48 2.47 2.3 miles NW of Niuti Fort. lies about 0. about 0. Malvan Rock (16°02'N.. the coast forms a bight with several rocky capes and sandy bays. Vengurla Rock.3 mile W of Vengurla Point. with a depth of 3. except in the N end of Karil Kachal Channel. a vessel will be E of the rock awash lying E of Karil Rock. lies about 2. lies about 2 miles N of Niuti Fort. bearing 163°. Mandel Rock. Small vessels with local knowledge can anchor.2m. 159m high.48 2. with a velocity of about 1 knot in spring tides.5 miles SSE of Vengurla Point. in the bight on the E side of Vengurla Point.. Tides—Currents. lies about 0.47 2.49 2. with a least depth of 1.47 Vengurla Rocks Light (15°53'N.) lies S and SW of Vengurla Point. with a swept depth of 2. Tapti Rock.2m lies about 0. and consists of two rocky heads with less than 1. Bhubra Rock. When the fort bears 093°.50 Sector 2. in charted depths of about 9.47 2. There are detached shoal patches. lies about 0. about 1 mile S of Sindhudrug Janjira. 15m high at its W end. lies about 1 mile S of the point. or closer inshore. in 10m. East Rock.48 Vengurla Roads to Marmagao Bay 2. 322m high.3 mile SW of the fort.3 mile E of Karil Rock. in similar depths on the same bearing with the flagstaff distant about 0. 73°39'E.—Vessels can anchor off the entrance to Malvan Bay.47 2. about 1.. about 0.46 The coast is sandy between Malvan Bay and a point about 7 miles SSE. Vengurla Rocks have been reported to give good radar returns at 18 miles. with the flagstaff on Vengurla Point bearing 036°. Some above-water rocks. lies about 2.4 mile. Shallow draft vessels can anchor in the bay in depths of 4m.4m patch lies about 0.). Vengurla Point Light is shown from a hexagonal masonry tower on the point. Anchorage.5 miles WNW of Niuti Fort. Karil Kachal Channel leads from seaward between Chaldea Rock and Karil Rock. A 6.) bearing 105° and well open S of the point on which Niuti Fort stands. lies about 0. 173 . it is steep-to on its S side. A prominent hill. A buoy.46 2.5 mile WSW of the rock during good weather. extend about 137m NW of Karil Rock. 73°28'E.48 2. in about 4m.3 miles S of Karil Rock and is the highest of the group. steep-to on their N side. Vessels load ore at the anchorage from lighters working to jetties near the ore mines. shoal patches lie W and SW of it. it lies at the S end of foul ground between it and the shore NE.49 Machlimar Point.—Currents between Vengurla Point and the N entrance to Karil Kachal Channel set N on the flood current and S on the ebb.47 2. Vessels coming from the N should approach this channel with Wagh-Giri (15°53'N.47 Square Rock (15°59'N.47 2. lies about 1. 2. lies about 0.4 mile S of Vengurla Point. which is unreliable. 73°27'E. A similar depth lies about 0.47 2. about 8 miles farther SE.3 mile SE of Vengurla Point. awash. awash.) should not be brought to bear more than 158°.—Anchorage.46 2. the rock is marked SW by a buoy.46 2. with depths of less than 5. lies about 5 miles ENE of Vengurla Point.9 mile. An islet. 44m high and conical. 73°42'E. moored about 229m NW of South Rock. When Vengurla Rock bears more than 186°. lies about 3. at the S end of foul ground extending W and SSW of the 2. A buoy is moored about 0.47 2.3 miles SSW. which is 14m high and the N of the group. 73°37'E.45 2.—Between Malvan Rock and the S extremity of Vengurla Rocks. and with a small fort. 7m high. 2. No vessels should proceed into depths of less than 18. lies about 0.8 mile SSW of Vengurla Rock.—South West Point Rock. 85m high.3 mile S of Chaldea Rock.6m. Port Redi (15°45'N.—Large vessels can anchor. India—West Coast—Diu Head to Cape Rama Caution.) is an open roadstead off Redi Point. lies about 0. The entrance of the Talavda River lies about 1 mile SSE of the point.2 mile NE of Sindhudrug Janjira.). 1 mile ESE of the S end of Vengurla Rock. lies at the W edge of a group of shoals. 73°28'E. marks these dangers.3m in this vicinity.5m. 79m high. Then to Vengurla Point..48 2. Wagh-Giri. mud.48 Vengurla Roads (15°51'N. mud. A depth of 7. with a depth of 1. with good protection from NW winds can be obtained. The port is protected from N winds and currents by cliffs which almost encircle it. It is closed during the Southwest Monsoon from mid-September to mid-May. Redi Rock (Rairi Rock). Redi Point is a flat rocky projection. some of which are awash. and marked SW by a buoy.8 mile SSW of the rock. situated about 0. A rock.47 2. 2.48 2. but should pass W of Vengurla Rocks in depths of 31 to 37m.45 Anchorage.8m. with a disused lighthouse near its SE extremity. and in position only during good weather. Vessels should not use this channel at night.48 2.2m. and marked W by a buoy.3 mile ENE of Karil Rock.). the S danger of the group.. and the foul ground extending E of it to the coast.47 2. and then to Vengurla Roads.

a fort with a flagstaff lies on its S side. a tower lies close SE in the N part of the fort. Pilotage.49 2. which enters the head of the bay.49 2. lies about 0. A dangerous wreck lies in about 4. stands about 1 mile NE of Redi Point. about 2. stands about 0. vessels should anchor here to wait for the pilot. is fronted by a bar with depths of about 2. 2. These lights are extinguished during the Southwest Monsoon when the bar is closed to navigation. The bar of the Mandavi River. Kabo Point.50 2.8 miles SSE. Aguada Light is shown from a white rectangular tower close N of the fort.3m.49 51 Havelock Rock.50 2.—Anchorage can be obtained. Another rock. 2. about 1. in 6..3 mile NNE of Raij Magus Point. with an elevation of 101m.49 2. with Aguada Fort Light bearing 333°. with a disused white round tower. S of Panaji. A conspicuous church is situated on Baga Point.50 2. Depths—Limitations. mud. which is subject to frequent change.50 2.—The tidal rise at Panaji is 2m at MHHW and 1.).50 2. The bay is free from dangers.50 2.” Anchorage. Range lights shown at Tejo and bearing astern 191°18'' lead through the channel W of Raij Sand. with an elevation of 86m. Kandoli Hill (Candolim Hill). off Redi Rock by vessels loading ore. which appears from seaward to have a flat summit.50 2.8 mile W of Kabo Rajniwas. The Terekhol River (Tirakul River).6m. about 2 miles N of Aguada. Panaji. the S entrance point of the river.1m.50 Range lights.49 2.50 2.50 2.50 2. Signals. decreasing gradually to the head of the bay. lies in the fairway W of Panaji.—Pilotage is not compulsory in the Mandavi River. is a prominent headland. is situated on the S bank of the Mandavi River.5 mile E of Aguada Fort Light.1m during good weather.50 2. about 7 miles SSE of the Terekhol River. mud. Vessels with a maximum length of 80m and a maximum draft of 3. 80m high. previously described with Aguada Bay in paragraph 2. where the flood current is barely perceptible. During the Southwest Monsoon. lies about 2 miles W of the river entrance..50 2. is easily recognized by three conspicuous banyan trees. Sailing Directions (Planning Guide) South Atlantic Ocean and Indian Ocean under “India—Signals. is easily identified by its black walls. Port authority is exercised by the Port Officer.—Pilotage at Port Redi is compulsory. about 2. The vessel’s ETA should reach the Port Office Redi (Ratnagiri) 24 hours prior to arrival.—Anchorage can be obtained.5 mile farther SE. lies between sand banks extending about 0. heavy breakers extend across the entrance and render it impassable.5 miles W of Redi Point. A racon is situated at the light. 73°44'E.50 2.50 2.). the capital and seat of government of the State of Goa. with prominent buildings along the waterfront.50 2. Redi Fort (Rairi Fort).9m at MLHW.—Depths in the entrance of Aguada Bay are about 7. 55m high.50 Marmagao Bay (Mormugao Bay) (15°26'N. Raij Magus Light is 2.50. but it is advisable to employ a local guide who may be engaged by telegram or fax to the Captain of the Port. a sharp pinnacle awash.Sector 2.50 2. Caution. Pilotage. Anchorage. A bridge spans the river at the E end of the city. 73°48'E. with an elevation of 74m. less than 183m wide. about 3 miles N. The entrance Pub. about 0. The city is well built. the Brief System is used. The dangers in the channel are not marked.5 mile SW of Gasper Dias. Further information on these storm signals may be found in Pub. The headland is fortified on its N side.51 Marmagao Bay (Mormugao Bay) is entered between Marmagao Head and Kabo Point. about 2 miles W of Aguada. Tides—Currents.5 miles farther S.50 2. Panaji (15°30'N. with an alongside depth of 4. and stands on a high bluff on the S side of the entrance of the Chapora River. with an elevation of 82m. entered between Aguada and Kabo Rajniwas. but strong W winds produce a heavy swell.. with a least depth of 0. 173 . which lie on it. who also acts as pilot.50 2. Another light is shown about 183m S of the tower. but subject to change. which dries.9m.—Vessels approaching from the N should give the W extremity of Aguada a berth of at least 1 mile. A conspicuous church spire is situated near the seaward end of the headland. In 1987. the N entrance point of the river. Outer Patches. Terekhol Fort lies on the brow of a hill on the N side of the river entrance. A group of radio masts.49 2. has a depth of 2. Chapora Fort (15°36'N. and about 0. at the W extremity of the island of Goa. 73°47'E.5 miles SE of Redi Point.) World Port Index No.8 mile SE of Havelock Rock. A chapel.50 Aguada Bay (15°29'N. Raij Sand. 2.49 2. in about 13m.—During good weather large vessels can anchor.2m can be accommodated. with an elevation of 34m. but is weak at the anchorage off Aguada. India—West Coast—Diu Head to Cape Rama point. stand near the summit of Panaji Hill.49 shown from mid-August to mid-June from a white round tower 0. 73°50'E.3 mile W from Gaspar Dias. lies nearly 0. mud. 48970 2.—Aguada is a bold bluff headland. affords anchorage to moderate-sized vessels during the Northeast Monsoon. Anchorage. A conspicuous water tower.50 2. awash.50 2. a shoal depth of 2m existed about 0. is situated about 0. lead close W of Outer Patches and across the bar at the entrance to the Mandavi River. Vessels approaching from the S should take care to avoid the dangers in the entrance to Marmagao Bay and the foul ground extending W from Kabo Point. Vessels of moderate size can anchor. The main channel.—Storm signals are shown at Port Redi. distant 1 mile. Daman. The pilot boards 1 to 1.4m. The port has a jetty.50 2. and Diu.5 miles NW of Mormagao Head.50 2.8 mile SW of Raij Magus. in 9. Aspect.). The ebb current sets strongly out of the Mandavi River. The coast close N of Aguada is low and a heavy surf always runs along the foreshore.5m. 2.. 160. in line bearing 053°54'. 92m long.5 mile farther ENE. in about 14m.

It was reported (1991) that the swell conditions associated with the Southwest Monsoon often close the port to shipping and can significantly reduce the limiting draft for vessels using the port. 14m high. can berth alongside. The channel has been dredged to a depth of 14. lies about 0. Vessels requiring to top-off to their seasonal mark may be permitted W of the breakwater during fair weather season.3 mile E of Grandi Island.5 mile NNW and 1.51 2.3 mile offshore.0m 13.51 Marmagao Bay—Berth Limitations Berth No.000 dwt can be accommodated in midstream.51 2. 5A 6A 7 8 Length — 255m 100m 298m Depth 13. and container cargo. lies on the N side by Marmagao Head.0 to 11. Can accommodate vessels up to 235m long.mptgoa.1m 14.4m although lesser depths have been reported (2002). A quay extends 1. Both structures are best seen on the chart.7 mile N and 0.1m. Can accommodate a vessel up to 35. General. The maximum length allowed is 260m. 1 and Lighted Buoy No. 2. protected by a breakwater.0m during fair weather and 12. However. The berthing length is 335m between mooring dolphins. The Grandi Islands lie in the S approach to the bay. 2. A breakwater extends NE from between Berth No.5m 13.1m at MHHW and 1. These winds usually last from 3 days to a week and decrease in strength from sunset to sunrise. Can accommodate a vessel up to 35. Oil berth.51 2. India—West Coast—Diu Head to Cape Rama Limitations at these berths are given in the accompanying table titled Marmagao Bay—Berth Limitations. Tides—Currents. Barges.8 mile WNW of Grandi Island.5 to 12.5m. A reef. Saint Georges Reef. 173 . 6. with a maximum draft of 14.51 2. 3.2m during the Southwest Monsoon. with depths of 3. with a maximum length of 203m and a maximum draft of 10. The maximum draft allowed is 12. including berths for tankers and ore carriers at its SE end.9m patch lie about 0. The port of Marmagao.com 2.000 dwt. lies about 0.5 mile NE of the E end of the island.6 mile NNW of the same position. bulk. lie 0.8m at MLHW. Vessels up to 275. Marmagao Rocks.000 dwt.2m and a swell allowance of 0. the maximum draft allowed is 10. A 5m patch lies about 0.51 2.51 Port Authority of Marmagao http://www. Coal berth.5m. with a least depth of 6. 2. bulk.2m patch and a 7.4m.51 2.5m.51 2. Depths—Limitations. Details of changes can be obtained from the local pilot or the Port Officer. lie about 1 mile N of Grandi Island. The maximum length allowed is 305m. and are marked on their S side by Lighted Channel Buoy No. An 8. prevailing sea. which dries 1. The berthing length is 260m between mooring dolphins.9m. 9 10 11 222m 250m 300m 14. lie about 0. which leads to the inner anchorage and the berthing area.7m.51 2.51 Winds—Weather.51 2. this pillar rock can easily be mistaken for a sail. and weather conditions. 2 and Berth No.000 dwt. The channel. It is an important port for the exportation of iron and manganese ore. 2.5 miles E and SE from the root of the breakwater and affords ten numbered berths. Vessels up to 70. 9.2m during the Southwest Monsoon.0m.5 mile S of the W end of Grandi Island.3 miles W of Marmagao Point. moored 2 miles W of of Marmagao Point. Ore berth. Five finger piers for small vessels and barges lie within 0.—The tidal rise at Marmagao is 2.5m.52 Sector 2.51 2. a group of rocky shoals with a least known depth of 2. with a maximum draft of 14. with a maximum draft of 12m.0m during fair weather and 12.51 2.1m 11. General. Sail Rock. which dries 1. other patches. with a maximum length of 203m and a maximum draft of 11. The port authority applies an underkeel clearance of 1.51 2.51 2.—Occasional strong NE winds from about the middle of February to the end of March cause a heavy swell in Marmagao Bay.5m.1m 3. lies about 0.2m. Foul ground borders Grandi Island up to 0. A floating dock extends NE from Berth No. lies about 0.51 to the bay is encumbered with shoals.1m Remarks Being reconstructed to be used as a coal berth.51 2. with a least depth of 6. Tidal currents in the outer anchorage off Marmagao Bay are weak.51 2.1m Pub. and container cargo. During the Southwest Monsoon. Draft limitations for the above berths are subject to frequent change in conjunction with the state of tide. Several mooring buoys are situated NE and E of the head of the mole.51 2. 1.51 2.—The port is approached through a dredged channel entered between Lighted Buoy No. while the maximum length allowed is 198m. it has been cautioned by the local authorities that the weather deteriorates without warning. Saint George’s Bank.2 mile NE of Sail Rock.2 mile SE of the Berth No. underkeel clearance.5 mile N of Marmagao Point. Martha Patches. is 250m wide.

” Anchorage. The sea breaks heavily on the dangers in the entrance during the Southwest Monsoon. especially W. Storm signals are displayed from a flagstaf. then keep Kambariam Islet in range with the E end of Grandi Island.4m. their ETA.51 mgpt@goatelecom.5 miles NE of Grandi Island.. 60m high and the third of the Grandi group. Further information on these storm signals may be found in Pub. During the Southwest Monsoon.51 Pilotage. about 4.51 2. but is not available at night diring the Southwest Monsoon (June to September). consists of alternating stretches of sand and rock.) consists of three islands about 2. Foul ground extends about 0.com 2. about 0. in 7m. 73°46'E. with shelter from NW winds. is covered with jungle.51 2. with an elevation of 94m. It is connected to the mainland SE by a narrow neck of low ground. call sign “Goa Port. about 1 mile S of Kabo Rajniwas.51 2. North Head Breakwater Light 2. and covered with trees. in presence of heavy swell at the approach to the port. The port can be contacted by e-mail. Grandi Island Light is shown from a four-sided metal tower on the summit of the W island.8m. 2.51 2.—Vessels bound for Marmagao Bay from the S should pass about 2 miles W of Grandi Island and about 1 mile W of Kambariam Islet.9m. Sunchi Reefs.4 mile SW of the SE extremity of Grandi Island. This circular island is flat-topped. 1 mile SW. is situated about 0.51 2. 76m high and conical. The N shore of the bay between Kabo Point and Nazaret Point. the NW extremity of Marmagao Head. 53 2. 1 and Lighted Buoy No. The land within is covered with jungle and rises to an elevation of 45m. Radio pratique may be granted. The S side of Marmagao Bay is bold and rocky. In bad weather. is bold. Marivel Patches. the General System is used.51 2. an obstruction was reported 1. 73°46'E. Caution.6 mile NE of the head of the breakwater.51 2. in about 17m. 2.5 miles ESE.1 mile ESE of the above point. about 61m high.51 2. is a group of shoals with a least depth of 1.Sector 2. is conspicuous about 2 miles NNW of Nazaret Point. then steer NE to enter the buoyed channel. The W of the two islands. with the N side of the island.—Pilotage is compulsory. along with a request for pilotage. The Grandi Islands (15°21'N. via their agent. Anchorage can be taken in Marmagao Bay. A conspicuous water tower. as follows: 2.51 2. which. 6m high. Regulations..” when within a radius of 12 miles from the breakwater.1 mile from E side of the breakwater.51 2. A radio mast.51 A mole extends E about 0.51 2. lies about 1 mile SW of Marmagao Point. Anchorage is prohibited between Searle Patch (15°27'N. rocky.2 mile N of the islet. Sawyer Patches.51 Vessels approaching from N should steer to pass about 2 miles W of Aguada Head (15°29'N. at least 24 hours in advance. mud. is a tableland peninsula with steep sides. Sailing Directions (Planning Guide) South Atlantic Ocean and Indian Ocean under “India— Signals.51 2. Vessels should contact Marmagao VTMS Center on VHF channel 16. 173 .51 2.51 2.51 2.). Directions. The pilot boards about 0.9 mile W of Lighted Buoy No.51 Vessels at anchor should maintain a continuous listening watch on VHF channel 16..—The quarantine signal of the International Code of Signals must be shown by all vessels entering the port. North Head Breakwater Light is shown from a white concrete tower at the N point of the breakwater. It has been reported (2001) that pilotage is available 24 hours during the fair weather season (October to May). 73°48'E. are rocky shoals. Aspect.) and Amee Shoals. In 1974.51 2.51 Pub. ensure 2. and covered with trees towards its summit. which are connected by a narrow reef of rock and shingle. 160. A prohibited anchorage projects 1. lie close NE. about 0. bearing 168°. rising to the tableland of Marmagao Head.51 2.8 miles W and 1 mile S from the W end of Grandi Island.51 2.—At night do not proceed into depths less than 13m when between Aguada Head and the Saint George’s Islands. lie about 0.5 miles SSW of Marmagao Head and is the collective name of the two S islands. The health official boards either at the anchorage or alongside the quay. lies about 1. The E island rises to a 76m summit at its E end. one of which dries 0.—Large vessels can anchor S of Grandi Island.—A Vessel Traffic Management System (VTMS) controls traffic to the approaches to Marmagao Harbor. India—West Coast—Diu Head to Cape Rama Amee Shoals.51 2. in about 18m.5 miles WSW of Grandi Island Light. A signal station is near the NW extremity of Marmagao Head.).51 2. with an elevation of 175m. Pikene Island. and kept flying until pratique has been granted.51 2.51 2.5 mile N of Kambariam Islet.51 2. this leads W of all dangers in the entrance to Marmagao Bay. Breakwater East Head Light is shown from a squat masonry tower at the head of the mole. 73°48'E. precipitous.9m. Signals.. Kambariam Islet (Buffalo Rock). the pilot will guide the vessel from the pilot vessel until boarding is possible.—Marmagao Head (15°24'N. with a least depth of 0. Vessels should send. good steerage should be maintained while rounding the breakwater to avoid being set E. about 0. close N of Marmagao Rocks and lying in the middle of the entrance to Marmagao Bay. Smaller vessels can anchor.5 mile SE of Marmagao Point.51 2. with depths of 4.

Cliffs.3 mile. and Moliem Point. 0. about 38m high.54 Sector 2.1 mile and 0. marked by lighted and unlighted buoys. Anchorage. Anchorage can be taken. A rocky islet. A channel. 2.8 miles from the fairway buoy. entered close N of Betul Point (15°08'N. lies at the head of the bay.3 and 0.3 to 2. on the S side of the river entrance. The Sal River.52 Marmagao Bay to Cape Rama 2. from 1. about 14 miles SSE. each drying 1. respectively.52 2.3 miles SSW.52 2. mud. 173 .52 The coast between Cola Bay (15°22'N.. Two rock patches.51 2.52 2. 0. lie about 0.51 2.2m. lie on the E half of the bay.. Canaguinim Bay is entered between Canaguinim Point.52 2. 73°57'E. Submarine Exercise Areas are centered 30 miles and 45 miles W and 20 miles SW of Marmagao Head.52 Pub. leads S of the spoil ground and N of Marmagao Head to the harbor. Anchorage can be obtained. in Cola Bay.5 mile NNE of Cape Rama there is sufficient underkeel clearance to allow for the swell and maneuvering. Chandranath Temple stands on a hill with an elevation of 349m. mud. 0.52 2. 73°53'E. about 2 miles SW. Cliffs at the head of the bay rise to elevations of 40 to 61m.52 2. Anchorage can be obtained.1m. consists of low cultivated land with several churches on small hills. about 7 miles NE of the entrance to the Sal River. A spoil ground lies 2 miles WNW of Marmagao Point.5 mile NNE of Moliem Point.) and the Sal River. about 1. SW of Canaguinim Point. sheltered from NW winds. in about 11m. about 1 mile SW of Betul Point. India—West Coast—Diu Head to Cape Rama ledge is required. can be taken. in about 10m.9m high.51 2.). Cargo is handled by lighters from the wharf at Betul. A small islet lies close W of Moliem Point. may only be used by small vessels and local know- 2. in a depth of about 7m. Dangerous wrecks lie 1.3 miles W of Betul Point.51 2. Rama Bay lies between Moliem Point and Cape Rama. in 9.

0 Additional chart coverage may be found in NGA/DLIS Catalog of Maps. 173 . India—West Coast—Cape Rama to Cape Comorin 3.55 3. Charts. SECTOR 3 — CHART INFORMATION Pub. and Related Products (Unlimited Distribution).

gentle slopes and gradually widening valleys succeed the forest-clad uplands. almost detached and precipitous on their W sides. 173 . on the summit of Devgad Island. and with its summit rising to a height of 60m. rock. 74°10'E..4 Karwar (14°49'N. encircled by fortifications. is flat and covered with an almost unbroken belt of coconut and areca palms.4 Pub.).500 grt per day for 35. lies about 0.2 3. 85 miles NNW. with charted depths of about 7m. 44m high to the tops of the trees. a 5.2 mile offshore. is covered with dense jungle. about 5.—Ore carriers.1 The Western Ghats continue parallel to the coast at distances of 5 to 25 miles inland.5 miles SE of Cape Rama.5 miles NW of Devgad Island. Kankon Peak (Kanakona Peak). 33m high and covered with jungle. which are connected with lower hills diminishing in height towards the coast.2 mile N of the rock. Guddehalli Betta (Godhulli Peak) (14°47'N. lie about 1 mile S of Loliem Point. Tortuous rivers flowing into lagoons and backwaters are connected in places by canals and. 48990) is a lighterage port on the SE side of Karwar Bay.. South of the gap is an extensive hill area. leads to the wharf. The land then rises gradually E in a succession of hills for a distance of 4 miles and terminates in East Peak. it takes more than a week to fully load such a carrier. where the low tablelands shelve into rice plains and backwaters fringed with coconut palms. with the adjacent summit. which lies about 48 miles NE of Cochin at the NW end of the Anamalai Mountains. Good radar returns have been reported from Cape Rama at 16 miles.2 Cape Rama (15°05'N.4 3. A detached 10m patch lies close E of the rock. lies about 4 miles WSW of Karwar Head. a bare rock. awash at LW springs. A 0.2 mile inland.1 to 10.3m patch lies between Karkal Island and East Island. 3. is the largest and highest island. 74°04'E.3 mile farther E.6m. 110m wide and dredged to depths of from 9. The entrance leading to Kalinadi Creek is much encumbered by sand banks and the channels are subject to frequent change.000 dwt. The offshore loading of iron ore is carried out by the use of ore barges and ship’s gear.—Loliem Point (Lolien Point) (14°55'N.8m over it.4 3. 19m high and fringed with rocks.2m patch lies about 183m E of the island. This break in the Western Ghats is about 16 miles wide. is the W summit of a range of hills extending E. A channel. lies about 2.000 dwt carriers. appears from the S as a saddle-backed hill. between Kurmagad Island and Sunghiri Island (Shimishgudda Island). the depth alongside both berths is 7m. lies about 0.). Parker Rock.4 3. 3. Cape Rama to Karwar Bay 3. which rises abruptly E of the tableland of Cape Rama to a height of about 200m. 74°07'E. Karkal Island (Karkaigudda Island). and steep-to on its W side. lies about 0. the channel is marked by ranges. high white sand dunes and areas of red sand along the coast form good landmarks. which includes some mountains. Oyster Rocks Light. extending about 10 miles inland. lies about 1.8 miles SE of Loliem Point. The island is surrounded by foul water. Kangiguda Island. 74°03'E. and Badchidhar Point (14°48'N. call at Karwar. lies between the parallels of 10°52'N and 10°35'N. is a steep projecting headland rising to an height of 192m. fringed by a reef.—This sector describes the W coast of India from Cape Rama to Cape Comorin. with a racon.. Kurmagad Island (Kurmagadgudda Island). with less than 1. 51m high.4 3. 73°55'E. Depths—Limitations. is shown from a red round masonry structure. and shell.8 miles SSW. 3.) is entered between Dayamada Point. Aspect. Berth No.2m.) consist of a prominent group of islands and rocks. lies about 2 miles farther SE. The average loading is reported to be about 4. a village is situated on its N side. 74°06'E. 26m high. Loliem Rocks. rocky.3 Karwar Bay (14°49'N. Devgad Island (Devgadgudda Island). but there is a safe narrow channel.. between Alleppey (9°29'N. 448m high. rocky. lies about 2. 76°19'E.. it is bold.) (World Port Index No. with a depth of 2m lies close SE of this rock. East Island. the NW extremity of Karwar Head. its S side is formed by Kollengode Bluff.57 SECTOR 3 INDIA—WEST COAST—CAPE RAMA TO CAPE COMORIN 3. with a maximum size of 35. attains an elevation of 175m about 0. 1 is 122m long and Berth No. Oyster Rocks (14°49'N. and attain heights of 1.2 mile SW. Cape Rama is prominent and has a fort on it. until near the coast. with a least depth of 4.) projects 1 mile W from Rama False Bluff. and well-wooded. lies about 4 miles SE of Loliem Point and about 0. about 2. 9m high. Palghat Gap. 550m high and conspicuous.4 3. the sea breaks over this rock at HW. no part of this coast is visible for more than 4 or 5 miles.5 miles N of Karwar Head. and is separated from East Peak by a gap. sand. Kankon Islet.7m. but during the thick weather of the Southwest Monsoon. 646m high. Pandigat Point (Paidegal Point).0 Plan. about 0. The port is closed from May 16 to September 15 during the Southwest Monsoon. A rock. about 9 miles ESE of Cape Rama.. 2 is 172m long. the N entrance point of Kalinadi Creek. General Remarks 3. 31m high. A detached shoal. and is steep. in the N approach to Karwar. a striking feature on this coast.4 3. a rock.4 3.) and Ponnani. The coastal belt. Black Rock (Kumbae). These mountains have general heights of 750 to 900m. Karwar Head..). lies close E of East Island. In Baitkal Cove is a 355m long all-weather quay containing two general cargo berths.800m. with white bands and a white cupola. Mandal Island (Mandelgudda Island). The arrangement of the sector is from N to S. with an elevation of 207m.2 mile SW of Devgad Island. North of Palghat Gap. form a continuous line of smooth water. 74°06'E. which dries 1. lies close E of Devgad Island.

4m. in a SW direction for about 0.7 mile ENE of the same extremity. pass between Oyster Rocks and Karwar Head.4m. about 1 mile N of Bachidhar Point.7 Pub.7 3. 55m high and wooded. barely leads clear of. about 3 miles WNW of Kwada Guda. lies about 3 miles S of Karwar Head. is the conspicuous summit of a steep. Pilotage. 56m high.. from a white tower with black bands on Kukra Islet. rocky. anchorage can be obtained NE of Karkal Island.) lies between Binaga Point and Arge Cape. North Breakwater connects Binaga Point with the N extremity of Anjadip Island. rocky headland. has a summit close within the cape. should have no difficulty after having made Oyster Rocks Light. 3. 173 .4 3.—Belekeri Bay has depths of less than 5m. Pilots are contacted on VHF channels 10. a sharp peak 547m high.—Pilotage is compulsory and available 24 hours.5 3. Aspect.—The vessel should send its ETA 48 hours in advance. A submarine pipeline is laid from a position ashore between Binaga Point and Baitkal Point.3 mile SSW of the island.4 3.). then NE and E to the Naval Jetty. lead clear of the dangers E of Oyster Rocks. A light is shown. if proceeding to the inner anchorage.). A strong current sets SE during this season. India—West Coast—Cape Rama to Cape Comorin 19m high and fringed by reef. Wharves in Baitkal Cove can accommodate small vessels in depths up to 2. lies about 3.—A circular spoil ground.3 mile offshore. 168m high. 474m high and prominent from S and W. lies about 1.. a low.0'N.6m in the fairway.4 3. either by day or night. 12. in range bearing 036°.3m patch lies about 0. Directions.2 mile S of the cape.7 Belekeri Bay (14°42'N. with Oyster Island Light bearing 248°. Anchorage. The outer part of the channel is marked by lighted buoys.—Vessels approaching or entering Karwar Bay. The initial range is picked up between Oyster Rocks and Karwar Head. in Binge Bay.. Button Rock. about 0. then for 1. and with East Island bearing 186°. 74°15'E. 2. and range beacons in line bearing 359°. Vessels are advised to avoid anchoring in the vicinity. The SW extremity of Kurmagad Island (Kurmagagudda Island). which includes shipbuilding and repairs facilities. in a depth of about 7. about 0.6 Binge Bay (14°46'N. Approaching from N. lies about 3 miles E of Guddehalli Betta.—Kwada Guda. Cargo is handled by lighters between the pier at Belekeri and the anchorage. 3. from September to May.4 3. Anchorage.5 mile SE of Karwar Head to Kwada Point (14°43. The island forms a good breakwater and vessels have ridden out the Southwest Monsoon here. a white framework tower stands on the summit of the island. A flagstaff lies at an elevation of 72m near the NW end of the island. Regulations.4 3. Anchorage can also be obtained off the N side of Karwar Head.8 miles SW of the SW extremity of Anjadip Island. in about 6m. 3. and rocky point at the head of the bay. A prohibited anchorage area lies about 0.. 13m in a short stretch W of Round Island. Round Island. If approaching from S. Arge Cape. At night.4 3.3m. about 6.7 3. is located on the NE side of the bay.8 mile NW of Kwada Point.—During the Southwest Monsoon. leads SW of Loliem Rock. ENE of Anjadip Island.5 miles SSW of Arge Cape.5 mile. bearing 131° in range with Guddehalli Betta.) lies between Kwadar Point and Kusuldiva Gudda. steer for Port Karwar Light. with a least charted depth of 7.2m and marked close E by a buoy. A major naval base. The summits of Kurmagadgudda Island and Ramnathguda.7 mile W of Belekeri Point (14°42'N.—Anchorage can be taken off the NE side of Anjadip Island. with a least depth of 2. It hs a loading capability of 3. Vessels moored here will be sufficiently sheltered from the Southwest Monsoon to work cargo.1m. Anchorage. 52m high. unlighted buoys. with a least depth of 3.5 Range beacons N of Karwar Head lead through the dredged channel to Karwar. 3.5 miles in a WSW direction. moored bow and stern. pass on either side of Sunghiri Island (Shimishgudda Island) according to draft. in 5.8 mile. flat. lies about 1.5 miles SE. Golikodlu Peak. distant about 0.4 3. in 9. Vessels can anchor closer in with Port Karwar Light bearing 104°.4 3. This channel has maintained depths of 14m in its outer part E of Anjadip Island. 74°08'E.4 3. into which entry is prohibited.. 74°12.6'E. Arge Island. Caution. extends from a position about 0. by less than 0. sheltered from NW winds. Belekeri is a small ore-landing port on the S of the entrance to Belekeri Creek.). lies about 0. Kukra Islet.3 mile. bearing 124°. Anjadip Island (Angediva Island) (14°45'N.5 miles ENE of Karwar Bay to Honavar 3.2 mile WSW of the point. in a depth of 8m.4 3. mud and sand. with a radius of 1 mile.). Gudsar Sunv (Karwar Rock). in 11m. Anchorage can be obtained about 0. Pilotage is available on application to the Port Officer at Karwar. The E end of Mogeraguda Island in range with the W end of Anjadip Island bearing 154°. Belekeri Hill. lies about 0.2 mile SE of the SE extremity of the island. mud.000 tons per day.4 3.7m. A 4. The base is approached through a dredged channel initially heading N between Anjadip Island and Round Island..5 Mogeraguda Island and Gudsar Sunv (Karwar Rock) are described in paragraph 3.4 3. 74°15'E. and 16. can be obtained by small vessels with local knowledge. small and black. in the S approach to Karwar. The channel between Mogeragudda Island and Karwar Head is free from dangers. with a church close ENE of it.3 miles W of Belekeri Point. mud. in a depth of 11.5 Mogeragudda Island (14°48'N. Several small islets lie close N and about 0. lies about 0. the dangers E of Oyster Rocks. A shoal patch.2 mile. about 0.5 3. is conspicuous about 1. Depths—Limitations. and covered with jungle. 74°05'E. facing the WNW swell. 216m high. lies about 0. and then 12m from Round Island to the Naval Jetty.4 mile SW of the Naval Jetty.4 mile ENE of Round Island. South Breakwater connects the SE extremity of Round Island with the NW extremity of Arge Island.5 miles SE. Foul ground extends about 0. lies about 0.5 mile SW of Karwar Head.5m. 74°07'E.5 mile WNW of Mogeragudda Island. Anchorage may also be taken. A restricted area.58 Sector 3.

5 miles E. mud. The ridge is covered with brushwood and contrasts strongly with the sandy shore. is a well-defined isolated summit.8 mile offshore.5 miles NE of the entrance to the Aghnashini River. This headland appears saddle-shaped from the W. Achuvi Moti Gudda. and 0. bearing 070°.11 The coast between Honavar and the entrance to the Bhatkal River. Kudaini Hill rises to an elevation of 135m about 0. extends NE for several miles and shows in striking contrast to the high land on either side.Sector 3. there are heavy breakers. Small vessels may anchor.10 Honavar (14°17'N. and the channel is rendered tortuous by sand banks. Vessels with shallower draft can anchor.10 Honavar to Bhatkal 3. 9m high.5 miles WNW of Parvat Guddi.. marked by a light..—Anchorage for medium-draft vessels can be obtained. 675m high. lies 0. lies about 0..—Good anchorage can be obtained. a fort.5 mile N of Kusuldiva Gudda. Caution.10 3. Indravati Patch. about 3 miles farther NE.5 miles S of Kumta Point. about 1. 7m high. about 3. 3m high. lies about 0.—A dangerous wreck. marked close SE by a lighted buoy. 321m high. 49020) is an open roadstead port which enjoys some importance with a considerable export of iron ore. in about 8.) is a table-topped hill 46m high. The bar of the river is dangerous and constantly changing. 3.5 mile N of Snail Rock. A rock. local vessels call regularly. the least depth over the bar was 1. is dome-shaped and prominent from W. has two conspicuous peaks. lies about 2 miles NW of Tulsi Parwat.. 374m high and coneshaped. Anchorage can be obtained. awash.9 3. lies about 1. reaching an elevation of about 150m. A rock. with Kukra Island on the same bearing.6 miles WSW of Kukra Island. Kandani Halla.9 3. 835m high. is low and sandy with some rocky points. It is the site of an old fort. 66m high. it resembles a snail when seen from N. A rocky island. at the SW end of a range which rises near the coast N of Belekeri Creek. about 3. is conspicuous from the N and lies on the summit of a 39m hill close to the coast.8m in 1974. The Aghnashini River (Tadri River) (14°31'N.8 3. The town lies on the N side of the extensive estuary of the Sharavati River. Aspect. an islet 32m high. about 0.9 Parvat Gudi (Danson Peak) (14°32'N. Basavrajdurg Island (Baswaraj Drug) (14°19'N. A ridge. distant 1. a few miles inland several hills rise to elevations of up to 140m.). is isolated and easy to identify. about 3 miles. from mid-September to mid-June. about 7 miles E of Honavar. tiles and betel nuts.7 mile NW of Tadri River Light. 173 3. lies about 1. and shows up well at night. 3.8 mile SW of Murdeshvar at the W end of foul ground extending from the coast. with some shelter from NW winds.7 Kumta Point (Kumpta Point) (14°25'N. Hawkins Reef. Honavar Light. in about 11m. 43m high. cliffs extend about 1.7 59 Kusuldiva Gudda (14°38'N. but at HW vessels of up to 3m draft can enter. 74°16'E. a peak 532m high. Tadri River Light is shown from midSeptember to mid-June from a stone tower painted black and white at the NW entrance to the Aghnashini River. timber. 74°27'E. about 6 miles SSE. lies with its SW extremity about 1 mile NW of Murdeshvar and about 1 Pub. lies about 3. Anchorage. and is covered with trees and bushwood. behind Honavar and about 1.5 miles ENE of the river entrance. about 90m lower. between Basavrajdurg Island and the coast E. Haravalli.8 3. Aversa Hills.5 miles NE of the river entrance.1m. shown from mid-September to mid-June. is a prominent sugarloaf summit. about 10. the cliffs. is a low sandy beach fringed with coconut palms. Murdeshvar.5 miles SE of Belekeri Hill. in about 5m.) is 581m high and conspicuous.5 miles.5 miles NNE of Ravana Gundi. shown about 0. . 46m high at its base are prominent. in 9m.) is shallow..8 The Gangavali River (Gangawali River) (14°36'N. Anchorage. about 3 miles N of Kumta Point.9 3. is a rocky shoal with a depth of 4.5 miles S of the monument. A 124m wedge-shaped reddish hill lies about 2. is obscured by trees when bearing less than 035°.—A conspicuous monument lies on a hill.5 mile NE of Rajaman Drug.—Small vessels may anchor.8 3. Tulsi Parwat. Ravana Gundi.8 mile E of the river entrance.5 miles SSE. in 8m. it is subject to constant shifting and has a least depth of 2.4m.8 miles SE to the N entrance of the Gangavali River. 610m high.7 3.9 3. A promontory. is backed by several conspicuous landmarks. lies about 6. in ruins.8 miles NW of the point. with the conspicuous monument bearing 082°. 74°27'E. 74°20'E. a conspicuous black peak 521m high. 3. lies about 1.8 3. with the range beacons lying well up on a hill about 0. Rajaman Drug. 3.8 3. sand and mud.) (World Port Index No.. Kudi Gudda. The coast from the Gangavali River to Gokarn. A 126m hill. about 9 miles ENE of Basavrajdurg Island. There are no port operations during the summer months.6 mile W of Basavrajdurg Island. about 3.3 miles W of Kudaini Hill. distant 2. The coast between the Aghnashini River and Kumta Point. 74°18'E.5 miles S of the above ridge. with Kukra Island bearing 080°. India—West Coast—Cape Rama to Cape Comorin Kwada Point. 3. a low valley terminating in a creek ENE of Belekeri Point. and local knowledge is necessary to cross the bar. Handegadda.9 3. local knowledge is necessary. it is a conspicuous landmark in clear weather.. The town of Gokarn has several large temples. Dauglish Peak. At LW. a rocky headland with 2 summits 103m and 120m high. about 0. is the highest peak of a range extending ENE. about 4.) is 51m high and conspicuous. 74°24'E.2m. Anchorage. Snail Rock. about 1. with the town of Kumta about 1. lies at the N entrance to a creek. extends about 2 miles along the coast from a position about 3 miles S of Honavar.7 mile SW of the monument. S of Kumta Point. in a depth of 6. 74°23'E.7 3.8 mile NW. Spike Hill.5 miles. a 5m patch lies midway between the rocky shoal and the island.) is navigable for a short distance only. is also easy to identify. 310m high. awash.10 3.5 miles SW of the bar. is the summit of the range.5 miles NE of Kusuldiva Gudda. with shelter from NW winds. Conical Hill. Kalti Gudda.6m. lies about 0. the higher being 125m high. lies at an elevation of 91m at the SE entrance point of the river. lies about 6. Gudeangdi Temple.

respectively.60 Sector 3. bearing 055°. Shirali (Hog Island).5. Caution.14 Pub. 74°32'E. The channel over the river bar is very narrow and dangerous for ship’s boats. it is obscured by Male Gudda.12 Bhatkal to Coondapoor 3. with rocks above and below-water. about 1.2 mile NE of Pate Rock. 35m high. Caution. in 7m. 46m high. in 27m. Two conspicuous objects are a white house is close NE and a gray chimney.. about 1.5 mile NNE and SE.2m. 173 . 74°36'E. respectively.13 3. Kodachadri. in ruins. with Bhatkal Light bearing 014°. The town of Bhatkal lies on the N bank of the river. sandy. The coast is then low and sandy to Coondapoor.14 Coondapoor (Kundapur) (13°38'N.) consists of two rocky shoals. The coast N of the river entrance consists of low hills up to about 37m high. Bhatkal Light is shown from a square masonry tower with red bands on the fort. that vessels should not attempt to pass inside them.—The bar across the entrance to Coondapoor is perpetually changing. Huddi Point is a cliffy promontory. mud. sand and shell.14 3.8 miles WSW of Murdeshvar.13 3. Netrani has been reported to give good radar responses at 17 miles. Aspect. each drying 1. 74°20'E. 3. at the entrance to the Bhatkal River.8 mile W. pass W of a 3m rocky shoal which lies about 1 mile SW of Bhatkal Light .5 miles WNW of the 6m shoal.5 miles NNW of the entrance.8 miles offshore.3 mile. It is difficult to distinguish from other white lights nearby. 1.3 miles WSW.11 3.5 miles NE of the fort. and fringed with coconut trees up to 24m high. Pate Rock. an impressive sugarloaf peak 1. 7m high. A shoal patch of 7. Gangoli Shoals.). about 4. about 0. about 1.8 miles WSW of the entrance.—Foul ground. Caution. off its S end. of Bhatkal Light. best seen on the chart. Huddelgudda. a small rounded hill. 16m high. distant 1 mile.—When approaching the port of Bhatkal. is prominent about 5. 3m high. Continuous surf breaks across the entrance with W winds. is wooded and flat-topped with a conspicuous summit. Kerekund. India—West Coast—Cape Rama to Cape Comorin ward.1 miles W of Coondapoor Light. off the SE side of the island.2 mile S of the previouslymentioned 4. of the islet. A 4. Madalbare Gudda. including two 5m patches and a 4m patch which lie about 1. Baindur Head (13°52'N. lie about 3. Nancowry Rock (13°48'N. the low and sandy coast is fringed by foul ground extending up to 1. When approaching from the N. is isolated and conspicuous about 16 miles E of Baindur Head. Another wreck lies about 1. of Pate Rock.3m patch. A rock. and it is advisable to enter only with the aid of local pilots. about 9 miles W and prominent.11 3. 74°41'E. It is conspicuous from sea3. with a least depth of 2m. Dart Rock.. 4m high. Netrani (Pigeon Island) (14°01'N.2 mile SE.2m. and is constantly changing. lies almost 4 miles W of the harbor entrance. lies on a rocky point.). Single Rock.—Coondapoor Light is shown from a steel mast.13 3. Anchorage. lies about 1. a rocky islet 19m high. It is recommended.5 miles.5 miles farther NNW. is prominent about 2 miles N of Male Gudda.3 mile SSE and SE. passing about 0. Depths—Limitations. 74°33'E. consists of cliffs up to about 60m high.5 miles S of the above wreck. 3m high.4m lies 2. 525m high..8 mile SSE. is easily identified by its long flat summit.6m patch and a 4. keep the summit of Shirali bearing not less than 006°. It is steep-to except for a rock. Yademale Gudda. 1 mile S. which extends about 2 miles SE and is very noticeable from the S. When approaching from the S.13 The coast between Bhatkal and Huddi Point. with Coondapoor Light bearing 076°. about 20 miles SSE. about 6 miles SSE of Huddi Point. with some shelter from NW winds. therefore. lies about 4 miles S of Murdeshvar and on the W edge of the coastal reef.8 miles W of the harbor entrance. from September 16 to May 15. 900m high.3m unless local knowledge is available.5 miles N of the entrance to Coondapoor to a distance of about 1. Between Kerekund and Bhatkal Fort. The inner anchorage should be approached on a course of 087° from the outer anchorage. Steering for the entrance. lies about 0. in 10m. Tippu Sultan Gudda Light is shown from September 15 to May 15. of the island.. and about 1 mile WSW of the 6m patch. lies about 2 miles N.015m high.12 3. is a conspicuous saddle-shaped summit about 3 miles NE of Murdeshvar. may be found. distant 0. and a rock.). 5m high and close together. It is marked W by a red and white striped barrel buoy from October to May. 430m high. the W shoal has a depth of 3m. Small vessels may anchor. respectively. 3.5m. about 1 mile S of Kerekund. 3. The coast S of the entrance is flat. When bearing more than 090°. 843m high.8 mile S of the entrance. Anchorage may be obtained.) is an open roadstead off the common entrance of the Haladi River and the Chakranadi River.5 miles WNW of the port entrance. and is obscured by Shirali on bearings between 129° and 132°. and they should keep in depths of more than 20m between Hog Island and Coondapoor. Two White Rocks (Double White Rocks). respectively. about 9 miles W of Shirali. 1 mile E of the entrance . leads over the bar in the deepest water. in about 13. of Two White Rocks. about 6 miles ESE of Kota Gudde. lies on the extremity of the point. which dries about 1m. Anchorage can be taken. Kota Gudde. It is connected at lower levels with a long sharp ridge farther inland. lie about 0. A rock. 40m high. is 61m high and cliffy.3 miles SE. When in the vicinity of this island do not enter into depths of less than 18m. A 6m shoal lies about 2.343m high.13 mile offshore.14 3. do not proceed into depths of less than 18. and alter course for the anchorage when Bhatkal Light bears 090°. rising to a height of about 52m about 0. is a peaked island 109m high. A wreck. Two rocks. 3.—Although the area inside the above dangers has been examined and dangers found. distant about 3. respectively.. it is possible that others may exist.5 mile inland. A rock. extends for about 3. lie close W and 0. The bar across the entrance to Coondapoor had a least depth of 2. Take care to avoid other rocky patches in the approach to Bhatkal. lies at the SW edge of this foul area. and 0. A dangerous wreck lies 3. 101m high. 3m high. lies between Nancowry Rock and the coast. A 6m depth and a 7m depth lie about 1 mile NW and 1.14 3. and are very prominent when the sun shines on them. lie about 4 miles WNW of Baindur Head.9m patch lie about 0.3 miles offshore. and a rock awash lies about 0. being the W point of a table and extending some distance inland.12 Bhatkal Fort (13°58'N. with a least depth of 5.5 miles SE. with Bhatkal Light bearing 075°. and a rocky shoal close E of the island.

a peak of the Western Ghats about 18 miles farther ENE. 16m high. The open roadstead W of Malpe is afforded some protection by the Saint Mary Isles.5 miles W of the entrance to the Mulki River. Two rocks. 173 . The town of Mulki. with a church on high ground. shown from a conspicuous square tower on the summit of the island. A dangerous wreck lies approximately 1. respectively. lie about 0.16 Kap Light (13°13'N. 2m high. Black Rocks. is marked by Malpe Light. Caution.5m 9. A white house is conspicuous on the N side 3.15 3. Edible oil. Mulki Rocks. 13m high and prominent. The coast between Malpe and New Mangalore. accomodating vessels up to 33m long with a draft up to 3. 5m high.5m 9. The lighted buoys marking the bar and the channel are removed during this time period. about 5 miles S of the entrance to the Mulki River. with trees about 26m high. about 2. 13m high and conspicuous. lies about 183m SE of North Island. 74°47'E.000dwt 30. gneral cargo. is a prominent landmark about 4 miles NE of Kap Light. The port is closed during the Southwest Monsoon due to heavy swells. Entrance Rock. 105m high. Small vessels can anchor. Pub. in 6. Another dangerous wreck lies about 5 miles NW of the previously-mentioned wreck. Small vessels can anchor.5m Maximum vessel Length 90m 190m 190m 190m 190m 190m 190m Size 4.. depending on the weather conditions.2m high. a town of some importance to coastal vessels. usually from the middle of May until the middle of September. is straight and fringed with coconut trees.).—Vessels in this vicinity at night should keep in depths of not less than 24m. A rock. An aero light is occasionally shown from a very tall tower at Mangalore Airfield.7m.000dwt 30. in 6m. 74°44'E.5 miles farther NNE..5 mile NW and 0. in 9m.2 mile S of Middle Rock. 3m high. with a drying rock close NE. Caution. lies about 1 mile SSW of Kap Rock. is well-wooded. about 17.5 miles S.041m high. is well-defined and shaped like a buffalo’s hump.5 miles SSE of Kap Light. Suratkal Point Light (13°00'N. General cargo. A rock. with a least depth of 3. lie about 4 miles S of Malpe. sand and mud. and the Darya Bahadurgarh Islands.15 3. distant 0.000dwt Remarks General cargo. 15m high at its SE end. Entrance Rock.15 3. lie about 1 mile SW of Black Rocks. lies at the S end of a rocky ridge extending about 0. about 8 miles SSE of Malpe. Foul ground extends up to 0.2 mile SSE of it.).—Vessels in the vicinity of Black Rocks and Outer Rocks should not enter depths of less than about 15m by day or 22m by night. The Saint Mary Isles consist of Coconut Island. 1.). is shown from a white tall masonry tower with black bands standing on a rock near a battery in ruins. and two rocks. 75°42'E. is prominent about 1.7m. 3. 13m high. extend about 3.16 3. mud. General cargo.000dwt 30.8 mile WNW to a rock which dries 2m. General cargo and bulk cement.5 mile E of the summit of South Island.000 dwt 30.).000dwt 30. General cargo. about 0. some of which are 13m high and of black basalt.15 3.000dwt 30. and about 1 mile NE of the entrance to the Mulki River. The Darya Bahadurgah Islands consist of three islands.. and liquid ammonia. 4m high. 74°40'E.1m..15 3. Malpe has four small jetties.16 3.5m 10. Anchorage can be obtained. is shown from a 36m high white masonry tower with black bands standing on Suratkal Point. Kap Rock. 1.9m 9. lies about 1 mile SSE of Coconut Island. lies about 8. about 1 mile WNW of the light structure on North Island. Kunjar Gudda. mud and sand. Darya Bahadurgah Island.5 miles NW of Malpe. above and below-water. South Island (13°20'N. 74°42'E.2 mile WSW.5 mile.15 of the entrance about 0. Malpe (13°21'N.15 The coast between Coondapoor and Malpe. Coconut Island (13°23'N. Middle Rock. with a racon. is fringed by coconut trees and broken only by the mouth of the Sita Nadi River.Sector 3. with the light structure bearing 185°.) lies about 0. lies on the N side of the entrance to the Udiyavara River. Middle Rock.2 mile W and NW of Middle Rock.16 New Mangalore Port Facilities Berth 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Length 125m 198m 198m 198m 198m 198m 198m Depth 7. General cargo. North Island. A 4m depth lies about 3 miles SW of Kap Light..0m 10. about 0. Outer Rocks. Valkunji (Buffalo’s Hump).2 mile SE of Darya Bahadurgah Island and has a rock. of Black Rocks. Foul ground surrounds the island and extends about 0.14 Coondapoor to New Mangalore 3. 61 3.2 mile inland. 3. Passage between the islands is obstructed by numerous rocks and should not be attempted except by small craft with local knowledge. India—West Coast—Cape Rama to Cape Comorin The port is normally closed during the Southwest Monsoon. about 6 miles ESE of the point. lies about 2 miles NW of the island and a chain of rocks.5 miles NNW of the light. 1m high. lie about 4 miles WSW of Kap Light. about 26 miles SSE.5m 9.

Aspect. Draft fore and aft. a major all-weather port. Vessel name.8''N.17 3. Gross tons and nrt.0m 10. 3.com Anchorage. The port is only of importance to coastal vessels. Regulations. can be accommodated. Further information on these storm signals may be found in Pub. 74°50'E. and the import of materials for a chemical and fertilizer factory. The message should contain the following information: 1. Berth limitations are given in the accompanying table titled New Mangalore Port Facilities.000 dwt 90.—Fairway Lighted Buoy is moored about 4 miles W of the port.000 dwt 85. is situated about 5 miles NNW of the old Mangalore port.17 3. Last port of call.17 3.7m. 2.000 dwt Remarks Iron ore.2 mile S of the S entrance point of the harbor. Length overall.com Depths—Limitations.17 The port of New Mangalore.5m 14.). Range lights.5m 9. Petroleum products. Deep-draft vessels—Close NW of Fairway Lighted Buoy (position 12°54'57. mark the approach channel through the entrance. with a height of tide of 1m. Even during good weather.0m 12. Berth exposed to swell during the Southwest Monsoon.—Anchorage is recommended N of Fairway Lighted Buoy.” The port can be contacted by e-mail. Pilots board. depths of 7. 6. at the E side of the port.0''N.17 2. 7. the coast remains indistinct until about the middle of the day.—Haze settles over the land after sunrise. 49030 3.5 to 9. one of which is conspicuous. A signal station and port radio station are situated on the N entrance point of the port. as follows: 1.0 Maximum vessel Length 245m 235m 245m 245m 245m 245m 350m Size 60. A white concrete tower lies close S of the S entrance point. Oil and LPG jetty. Petroleum products and chemicals. Crude oil jetty Crude oil and petroleum products.1m 14. when the Pub. 74°44'16. as follows: 3.17 3. lie a short distance inland from the head of the harbor. 3. 74°49'E.).—Vessels should send ETA messages at least 48 hours in advance. Call sign. and seven berths contained in a basin extending N from the turning basin. India—West Coast—Cape Rama to Cape Comorin New Mangalore Port Facilities Berth 8 9 10 11 12 Virtual 14 Length 300m 330m 320m 320m 320m — 350m Depth 13. General cargo.000dwt 45.18 Mangalore Harbor lies in the backwater formed by the confluence of the Gurpur River and the Netravati River.000 dwt 85. Caution.1m is maintained within the harbor leading from the entrance to the turning basin.17 3. The port consists of a turning basin.0''E. lie close S of the channel and are best seen on the chart.17 3.17 3.) World Port Index No.17 3.17 3.. An ETD message should be sent to the harbormaster’s office at least 2 hours in advance. New Mangalore (12°55'N.0m 14. making normally conspicuous objects difficult to discern.17 Mangalore (12°51'N. Two towers. 74°45'33. There is a conspicuous water tower about 0..8''E. Vessels with a maximum draft up to 10m—About 1 mile ENE of Fairway Lighted Buoy (position 12°55'13.62 Sector 3.—Storm signals are displayed from the signal station. It has been reported (2006) that vessels with a maximum draft of 13m. 173 . Sailing Directions (Planning Guide) South Atlantic Ocean and Indian Ocean under “India—Signals. 49032 3. A Vessel Traffic Management System is in operation in the port. in depths of 12 to 13m. the General System is used.—Pilotage is compulsory for vessels over 200 grt and is available 24 hours. A depth of 15. as it is fronted by a shallow bar between low sandy spits. 3.000 dwt 50.000 dwt 35. A spoil ground is established about 1 mile S of Fairway Lighted Buoy.newmangalore-port. 5.4m and marked by lighted buoys.17 nmptchairman@sify. in line bearing about 079°. it is maintained by dredging to 15. Several shoal patches.17 3. oil and LPG jetties on the SW side of the lagoon and near the approach channel. Signals. Pilotage. the export of iron and manganese ore. 4. The berths are used for general cargo. Nationality. The port is closed from June through August during the Southwest Monsoon. New Mangalore Port Trust (NMPT) Home Page http://www.—The port is approached by a channel about 4 miles long and 240m wide. 160.) World Port Index No.

The 3. For boarding positions.890m peak of the Western Ghats.18 3. having an elevation of 153m. 75°00'E. is conspicuous in the village. between the two hill forts of Kasaragod and Chandagiri. lies about 1 mile NNW of Saint Aloysius College. 346m high.).5 miles farther SSE.18 3.3 miles ENE of Kotte Kunnu. A group of white houses close S of the harbor entrance. Small vessels may find shelter off the mouth of the creek.” Bekal.Sector 3. about 7 miles ESE of Mangalore. 3. is joined to the more elevated land by a low neck. A chimney. 3. Aspect.8 miles NW of the fort. the following peaks are conspicuous: 1. Hosdrug Fort. is the summit of a conspicuous headland separated from the low-lying mainland by a narrow creek. Dangerous wrecks lie about 1. 41m high. Storm signals are shown at Kasaragod. about 1. a squat.5 miles N of the harbor entrance. see New Mangalore (paragraph 3. 2. lies on the promontory. but the following landmarks are conspicuous: 1.—It is preferable to arrive off Mangalore during the afternoon with the sun astern. 5. with a depth of 15m.18 3. 207m high.18 3. 2. Manjeshwara.19 3. 160. about 13 miles farther ENE.20 Madai Light is shown about 2. Kotte Kunnu. Caution. The 76m high square tower of Saint Aloysius College. as the depths then decrease rapidly. and 0. is a small customs port with minimum of trade. a white. presents a fringe of coconut palms broken here and there by the mouth of a river or a prominent headland. 53 and 45m high. with moderate shelter from NW winds.18 3. Signals. lies about 15. the Brief System is used.). 4.5 miles WSW of Mangalore Light.—In the approach to Mangalore.—For ETA and message requirements. The town of Mangalore is almost entirely concealed from the offing. is conspicuous about 6 miles SSE of Bekal. Kumbla. distant 2.5 miles SSE of Mangalore. A short confused sea and a slight S set will be found here. mud. about 55 miles SSE. Kavvayi Backwater. Good radar returns have been reported from Mount Dill at 26 miles..17). A conspicuous white cross about 3. 179m high.20 3. Kuduremukha. at the SW extremity of the headland. The landmarks are difficult to distinguish during the morning haze. surmounted by the steeple of the Roman Catholic Cathedral.18 3.20 Mount Dill (Mount Delli) (12°02'N. 3. octagonal.5 miles. India—West Coast—Cape Rama to Cape Comorin bar is impassable. Pilotage. lies on the N side of the entrance to the Chandragiri River. lies about 1. 3.8 and 2. 173 . A bare hill. concrete tower with black bands lies N of the village. with the summit of Mount Dill bearing 330°. The Chandragiri River enters the sea about 8 miles SSE of Kumbla. about 8. Vessels should not approach the lighthouse closer than 1. a large village. about 18 miles NE of Mangalore. Kodinjakal (Asses Ears). 324m high.1m.5 mile N of the light structure. 259m high. during the NW winds which prevail here from February to May. lies 6. Pub. extends from about 5 miles SSE of Hasdrug Fort to Mount Dill. 37m high. Anchorage. 1m high. Anchorage. A radio tower lies near the coast about 5 miles NNW of Manjeshwara. in 7m. Mangalore to Mount Dill Mount Dill Light 3..19 The coast from Mangalore to Kotte Kunnu. primarily a mark for fishermen. SE of Mount Dill. with a tall central bastion. Regulations.19 Kasaragod (12°29'N.18 3. There is also a Coast Radio Station at Mangalore. Mount Dill Light (Kotte Kunna Light) is shown from a white triangular stone tower with red bands on the bluff point. 3. can be obtained. in depths of about 4m.18 3. respectively. a sloping mountain with a flattish summit. A shoal.5 miles WNW of the entrance to Mangalore. is formed by a rocky promontory. A group of rocks. about 6 miles SSE of Kasaragod. 75°12'E. a 1. lies 2. Kasaragod Anchorage Light. distant about 2 miles.17). a fort lies on Kotte Kunnu. 4. Kasaragod Light. about 0. Further information on these storm signals may be found in Pub. it can only be used by small craft at HW.18 63 bar of the river dries and changes frequently.3 miles NNE of the cathedral. about 9 miles SSE of Mangalore.8 mile inland. about 0.5 mile ENE of the harbor entrance. see New Mangalore (paragraph 3. with Mangalore Light bearing between 050° and 100°. is shown about 1 mile NNW of the river entrance. white. an old fort. A radio tower. in 9. attached to a house resembling a small chapel. masonry tower with black bands. or at night when the light can be seen. close within and parallel to the coast.—Anchorage may be obtained. A 41m high dome. Mudipina Padavu.3 miles NE of the fort. Passodigumphe (Barn Hill).5 miles. Mangalore Light.—Pilotage is compulsory for all vessels over 100 grt and is available during daylight hours only. at the mouth of the Shiriya River. Sailing Directions (Planning Guide) South Atlantic Ocean and Indian Ocean under “India—Signals. a bluff point 52m high.—Vessels can communicate with a signal station close to Mangalore Light. a village with an old fort. a small open port for local craft.

5 mile NW of Shorukulu. 75°22'E. is 3. A chimney. a natural breakwater of basalt. 49040). which lies on a low rocky point at the S end of the town.22 3. Angelo.5 miles NE of Tellicherry. about 0. about 7 miles SE of Cannanore. Signaling with shipping is conducted from the flagstaff on Fort St. but vessels may work cargo during the Southwest Monsoon when weather permits.3 mile SE of the fort.21 Cannanore to Tellicherry 3.8 miles ESE of the fort. about 4 miles SE. about 1 mile NNW of the fort. fringed with coconut trees. 75°29'E. 34m high and covered with tall trees. Shorukulu. 488m high. These ridges. 3. 2. about 2 miles off the river. a dangerous wreck lies 3 miles SSE from Mount Dill Light.5 miles offshore. 1. NW and SE of the river entrance. Anchorage can be taken. define the limits of the port.24 Tellicherry. India—West Coast—Cape Rama to Cape Comorin A red conical buoy is moored about 0.. an open roadstead port.8 mile NW of the fort. a military cantonment and open roadstead port.387m high.22 Pub. about 0. Boundary pillars. about 0. 1. Two boundary pillars about 1 mile WNW and 1.24 3. lies off the W extremity of Dharmapattanam Island. 2. The bar at the entrance to the river has a least depth of 1. Port limits are defined by lines drawn in a 270° direction from the above-mentioned boundary pillars to depths of 16. about 1.—A rifle range extends SSW of the flagstaff of Fort St. Mount Dill to Cannanore 3. good holding ground. and the S boundary pillar on Punuli Point. with a thriving timber trade. Angelo. Azhikal (11°55'N. The hills near Tellicherry are thickly covered with coconut palms and other trees.24 3.22 World Port Index No. 75°24'E.3 mile W of the fort.) (World Port Index No. Conspicuous objects in the approach are the Club House.3 miles NE of Green Island. 42.5 miles E of Tellicherry. about 4. a red flag is displayed about 0. the services of an unlicensed pilot can be obtained from Azhikal by telegram. flows into the sea about 7 miles SE of Mount Dill. Moplah Bay.) World Port Index No. lies on the S bank of the river.8 mile NW of Bilikulu. Azhikal Light is shown at the S side of the entrance.5 mile SE of the fort from October to May and marks the approach to the inner anchorage for small craft. concrete column with red bands 1 mile WNW of Fort St. about 0. the bight E of Cannanore. several peaks of the Kundah Mountains are conspicuous: 1. 61m high. Nattavaram (Naduwaram Peak). is encircled by two rivers. Vessels anchoring W of the E limit of the firing range (a flagstaff bearing 022°) should remain at least 1. about 17. During firing practice. together with numerous detached rocks above and belowwater. Inland. Angelo. Perali Mala (Perly Hill).3 miles NW of the fort. fringe the coast. but affords shelter to local craft. Periya Peak (Periah Peak). give sufficient shelter to the landing at Tellicherry at LW during NW winds to enable vessels to communicate with the port when all others are closed. about 1.24 Cannanore Light 1.2m.8 miles SW of the fort.1m. lies parallel to the coast. Caution.. Cannanore (11°52'N. 3. 49060 3.22 3. subordinate to the Port Officer at Calicut.22 Cannanore.—An ancient fort stands in position 11°45'N. mud. The flagstaff on the N bastion of Fort St. between Bilikulu and the shore.22 3. and is subject to seasonal change.157m high.20 A stranded wreck lies 2 miles NNW. 49050 Tellicherry (11°45'N. The port is closed to local sailing craft from the beginning of June to the end of August.. Nakudiankulu (Nukudiankulu). The port limits are defined by two lines extending SW into depths of 16. Dharmapattanam Island. sand and mud. Green Island. about 0. The Valapattanam River. a 16m high headland. Angelo. about 1 mile within the entrance. 3.—Anchorage can be obtained. North Point. good holding ground. Aspect. Passage over the bar should not be attempted without a local pilot.5m from the N boundary pillar on the rocky S extremity of Dharmapattanam Island.21 The coast from Mount Dill to Cannanore. is in charge of the Port Conservator.24 3. about 13 miles SE. 3. Aspect. is sandy and fringed with coconut palms. is open throughout the year. about 18 miles ENE of Tellicherry.64 Sector 3.5m.5m high. is shallow. in 8 to 9. lies parallel to the coast. The ruins of a redoubt are conspicuous on the summit of a bare hill.—The following are prominent or conspicuous in the approach to Cannanore: 3. in about 9m. about 13. marked on the N side of its entrance by a clump of casuarina trees.7m high. Cannanore Light is shown from a white. consists of alternate sandy beaches and cliffs. 3. Two similar but shorter ridges lie between Bilikulu and the shore. and the port flagstaff. about 9 miles SE. Tellicherry Light is shown from the NW bastion of the fort. 4. Anchorage.24 3. above and below-water. 173 .23 The coast between Cannanore and Tellicherry. Storm signals are displayed near the light. 6m high. Rocks. Bilikulu.5 mile SW of the fort.) 3. 3. 75°29'E on rising ground near the coast. a natural breakwater of basalt.

a shallow and rocky river. The coast between Kadalur Point and Calicut. Signals.). Farther inland. 114m high.). The conspicuous summit of Palkunnu. 49070) is a small settlement on the S side of the entrance to the Mahe River.3 miles N of the cape. lies almost 1 mile offshore W of Tikkotti village. 49100 3. with a tree on it. Nattavaram 1. is covered with palm trees. about 4 miles farther SSE. the nearest summit is 78m high. is conspicuous on the coast W of the town. 75°30'E. Chombaku. lies about 3. mud. The passage between this rock and Pub. 297m high. 18m high and conspicuous. lies about 3 miles SSE of Badagara.7m.5m. A large black rock. The coastal reef extends about 1. removed between May and October. Red laterite hills back the coast.3 miles NE of the point. 3.—Anchorage for large vessels in unsettled weather is well offshore.5 miles W and 1.27 3. 4m high. about 20 miles WNW of Badagara. 75°38'E. A black spherical buoy. is 171m long.. 3.) (World Port Index No.5 miles SSE of Mahe. in a depth of 12m. of the coastal reef. A casuarana tree.7 mile SE of Nilot Point (11°44'N.1m.24 65 Tellicherry to Calicut 3. A 101m hill and a 104m hill rise about 1 mile NNW and SSW.27 The port of Calicut. about 0. The coast in the vicinity is low. Kadalur Point (11°28'N. 75°32'E. 2. A light is shown on the S side of the river entrance. soft mud. Anchorage can be obtained. about 1.4m.7m. can be seen 10 miles in clear weather.388m high and Banasuram (Buffalos Hump). and fringed with palms.5 mile offshore. Some old forts and houses lie on the detached hills behind Mahe.. The port is unusable from the beginning of June to the end of August.9m. A lighted buoy. 75°44'E.26 3. swept to a depth of 2. Depths—Limitations. A flagstaff. lies about 6. The Kundah Mountains end rather abruptly S of Vavul Mala. used mainly by lighters. about 7 miles SSE of Mahe.8 to 3m alongside. 3. but in good weather a vessel can anchor.26 Sacrifice Rock (11°30'N. low but prominent.24 3. and fringed by coconut trees.338m high. 76°08'E. a pinnacle rock with a depth of 1. in 9.8 miles SSE of Quilandi.25 3. but vessels using it should keep near the rock. lies about 1. is low and rocky. also known as Kozhikode. is conspicuous about 3 miles ENE of Badagara. 75°32'E.5 miles W of Calicut Light.25 3. in 9. about 2..7m.1m.). Cargo is worked at the anchorage by lighters. close S of the village. is an open roadstead of considerable commercial importance.5 miles ESE of the village.Sector 3. respectively. 26m high. painted in black 3.3 miles WSW of Calicut Light. with a least depth of 8. and about 0. 173 . over which will be seen a large round tree. respectively.—Communication with shipping is maintained from the port flagstaff by flags of the International Code and by Morse Code from the Port and Customs Office....5 miles W of the rock. 3. about 23 miles ENE of Calicut. are the W and SW ends. is conspicuous above the dense coconut plantations on a small hill close S of the town.3 mile SE of the fort. about 1.26 Elattur Cape (11°19'N.25 3. The mouth of the Elattur River. rises about 7. Talayi Rock. lies about 2. lies nearly 0. SW of the fort. 75°46'E. mud. are conspicuous.) is an important town on the coast. with a least depth of 3. is moored on the S side of the rock.5 miles WNW of Kadalur Point.25 3. Anchorage can be taken.5m and Kadalur Reef.1m. A T-headed pier near the Port Office. having a white appearance.26 Calicut (11°15'N. an islet. 2.3 miles S from the point. Quilandi. the shoal is rocky. about 14.8 miles ESE of Kadalur Point. 75°35'E. 55m high. on the S bank of the Murat River. sandy.25 3.—Reliance Shoal.. extends about 2.6m. Trikodi Reef. lies on the coast about 2. Badagara (11°36'N. is generally low.. Anchorage. Mahe (11°42'N. a large village. Rocks extend offshore from both sides of the river entrance into depths of 3. Vavul Mala (Camels Hump) (11°25'N. is the highest and most conspicuous peak of the Kundah Mountains. Vessels passing W of this rock at night should not proceed into depths of less than 27m which are found about 2.) World Port Index No.25 Kadalur Point Light the coast is free of dangers. with depths of 1. It is visible far to seaward in clear weather. sandy.060m high. Anchorage Reef. lies about 1.25 3.).27 3. A flat-topped hill. It consists of granite and. India—West Coast—Cape Rama to Cape Comorin a pinnacle rock drying 0.25 3. about 2 miles WSW of the flagstaff.). A shoal. with a least depth of 3. A conspicuous round red hill. 64m high.5 miles NNW from a position 3. Hills gradually rise NE of the point. A water tower is conspicuous on the coast. of the flat-topped hill. several rocks lie near the islet.5 miles SSE. but the bottom near it is soft mud. and not proceed into depths of less than 13m. about 1 mile within the entrance. in 9.5 miles WSW of the light structure.5 miles from Bilikulu. Cargo is worked at the anchorage by lighters.25 The Kundah Mountains lie only about 10 miles from the coast between Tellicherry and Calicut. with coconut palms close inland.25 3. with a least depth of 1.

There are some unlicensed pilots available. 173 . 245m high.—The signal station.27 3. The lighted buoy.28 3. a 60m hill.27 3.29 Beypore (11°10'N. The extensive backwater of the Ponnani River forms a wide gap in the line of palms when viewed from WSW. Ponnani (10°47'N. lies off the entrance of the Beypore River and is considered a wharf of the port of Calicut. A rocky islet. lies about 1 mile NE of the village.28 Pub. close N of Calicut Light. with red and white bands. Depths—Limitations. moored W of Anchorage Reef.28 3. moderate-sized vessels usually anchor. about 13 miles ESE of the river entrance. a conspicuous chimney.) World Port Index No. It lies between the Western Ghats and the coast. F—Boats can enter the harbor. with a depth of 1. is moored W of the reef.—Anchorage may be obtained. 3. about 1. lies about 2 miles N of Calicut Light and forms a good landmark in the morning when approaching Calicut.5 miles SSE of Beypore. is conspicuous 0. Urakuth Mala (Dolphins Head).29 3.—Calicut Light is shown from a white masonry tower near the Port Office at the N end of town. a group of rocky shoals with a least depth of 4. vessels bound for the harbor should send their ETA 12 hours in advance. 2m high. with a least depth of 0. about 0..28 The port of Beypore (Beipur). in 7m. The Periyar River (Pallipur River). and several chimneys of a tile works. 3. as follows: portsdir@sanchamet. and terminates abruptly toward the S. The bar of the Beypore River had a depth of 3. in 11m. an open roadstead. extend about 1. New Beypore Light is shown from an octagonal masonry tower. 49m high. 3. lies about 18 miles ENE of Chetwai. an important fishing village.28 3. Anchorage. The port is closed during the Southwest Monsoon. The port can be contacted by e-mail. Calicut Reefs. 49110 3. is a good landmark for vessels approaching Beypore. K—Surf is impassable. The town of Chetwai (Chetwayi) (10°32'N. about 24 miles SSE.—Black Rocks. Ponnani Light is shown from a white.—Kota Kunnu. lies about 9 miles N of Ponnani. 45m high. Chetwai Light is shown from a 30m high circular concrete tower.5 miles SSW of Calicut Light. over 305m high in its highest part.28 3.in Anchorage. The NW summit of this range gives good radar response. which can best be seen on the chart. respectively. Landing conditions are indicated by the following flags of the International Code: 1. A black and white striped can buoy is moored about 0. and backed by red laterite hills. Aspect. is conspicuous.—Pilotage is compulsory.27 Two white boundary markers. West Hill.29 3.. 76°03'E. is low.5 miles S of Calicut Light.28 3. lie towards the SE end of a reef about 0. The pilot boards in the anchorage.. 4. a hill 477m high. marks the S and E limits of the anchorage for vessels of moderate size. A tableland.8 mile S of the river entrance. A rock.5 miles N from a position 2. The existence of the boundary pillars N and S of the backwater entrance is doubtful. The bar of the Ponnani River has a depth of not more than 2. has a depth of less than 1. about 11.5 mile SSW of Black Rocks.3 mile farther S. The entrance of the river is wooded and prominent from the S.8m. lies on the coastal reef about 3 miles N of Calicut Light. 0. lies among isolated hills in the vicinity. local knowledge is necessary. 3. M—Communication with the shore is dangerous. Signals.29 The coast between Beypore and Ponnani. 1. communicates with shipping by flags of the International Code or by Morse Code. fringed with palms.5 miles NE of the flagstaff. India—West Coast—Cape Rama to Cape Comorin Other landmarks are a flagstaff.—Anchorage may be obtained with Calicut Light bearing 078°.27 3. it is in position from October to May.) lies about 1.2 mile N of the tall chimney. N—Boats can leave the harbor. but small vessels with local knowledge can enter it at HW.8 mile S of the entrance to the Beypore River.5 miles WSW of the flagstaff. A range of hills.27 3. 2. lies on the S side of the entrance to the Ponnani River.1m. Large vessels anchor farther out. in 8. across the river and about 0. at a distance according to the vessel’s draft.5 miles N of the boundary pillar. sandy. off the entrance to the backwater. Beypore to Cochin 3. Gilham Rock.3 mile W of the reef. covered with palms. 75°48'E.5 miles within the entrance to a backwater. round.66 Sector 3. about 1.27 3. and is in charge of a Port Conservator responsible to the Port Officer at Calicut. There are three recommended anchorages. lies about 1. mud.). 58m high. 75°55'E. Periyar River Light is shown from a 3. lying 1. Anchorage can be taken by small vessels.5 mile SE of the lighthouse. about 22 miles SSE of Chetwai. The ETA should be confirmed 2 hours in advance on VHF channel 16. about 8 miles E of Beypore. Vessels should not anchor S of this bearing as the bottom is foul and rocky. on the SE entrance point of the river. Aspect.1m.6m.5m between the breakwaters in 1990. Olavattur Kunnu. The dome of the Roman Catholic Cathedral.28 and white stripes. Regulations. a busy seaport for local craft.28 3. Pilotage.—Vessels bound for the anchorage should send their ETA 48 hours and 24 hours in advance.5m. A light is shown at Tanur. on the SE side of the entrance to the Beypore River.9m and over which the sea generally breaks.28 3. Caution. about 90m high. but is available during daylight hours only. lies about 0. with a few scattered trees. about 3 miles SE of the entrance to the Beypore River.27 3. marking the N and S limits of the port.—Vessels in the vicinity of Beypore at night should not enter depths of less than 14. concrete tower with black bands. A tableland. lie on the coast about 4 miles N and 5 miles S.5 mile farther WSW. of Calicut Light.5m. about 0. with the houses on it showing among the trees.2m high. Coote Reef. is generally easy to identify from the W due to the gap in the fringing palms. 25m high.

but during the Southwest Monsoon.3 knots. Depths—Limitations. The N and S limits of the Port of Cochin extend 7.30 Port Authority of Cochin http://www. Several rivers flow into the backwater making it brackish. there is a strong set across the channel from the N part of the harbor.com 3. from 1 to 2 hours on the flood. situated 1. or backwater. and after high inland floods. 173 Three general cargo berths located on the N side of Willingdom Island.8m in 1996. varies 1. and its channels connect with other inland waters. Fertilizer berth. which brings heavy rain to the seaward side of the Western Ghats. about 8. entering the sea through numerous openings into the backwater. concrete tower with black bands. It is the main deep water harbor S of Bombay and a base for the Indian Navy. During the Southwest Monsoon. throughout the year. Both currents run for a considerable time after the predicted times of HW and LW. while the flood current enters the harbor under the surface ebb.000 dwt 60.8m and is affected by tidal influence.8m at MLHW. throughout the year. After heavy inland rains the ebb current may run continuously for many days. with the creeks and channels connecting with them and their shores.5m 172m 172m 172m 207m — 250m Pub. except for the shoal water of the bar.0m 12. and at neaps from 0. Containers can also be handled at Berth Q6 and Q7.30 Winds—Weather. on which Cochin lies. A shoal area N of the dredged channel includes a spoil ground which is awash in places.29 67 3. 49130 3. had extended considerably seaward. whether of the mainland or of islands. Salinity within the harbor has values between 1000 and 1020. short gusts of wind 50 to 55 knots are sometimes experienced. and on which the sea breaks. 3. 76°14'E. according to tidal and seasonal factors. Has a maintained depth of 8m alongside. extends for about 50 miles NNW to Ponnani. and also off the NW point of Willingdon Island.. and Ernakulam Channel are maintained by dredging to a project depth of 9m.—Cochin is outside the cyclone area. through which the deep approach channel has been dredged.30 3. In 1951. with a depth of less than 1. and from 2 to 3 hours on the ebb.9 mile W from the coast.8 knot to 1.000 dwt — 115. local authorities should be consulted for prevailing depths in the channels and alongside berths.000 dwt 35. The great estuary.30 3.8 knot to 1.30 3. Its width varies from 8 miles to a few hundred meters.—The tidal rise at Cochin is 0. and the coast had extended similarly up to 0.Sector 3.30 The port of Cochin (Kochi) is a fine natural harbor formed by the estuary of the Periyar River and its backwater. The inner harbor is able to shelter a large number of vessels with drafts up to 9. extends about 0. 3. the effect of the ebb current is not noticeable W of the outer channel buoys.8m. India—West Coast—Cape Rama to Cape Comorin white.5m 10.cochinport. On very rare occasions. Remarks Emakulam Channel Wharves (North Side) . Tides—Currents.30 3.5m by 2009. strong eddies and crosscurrents were experienced in the harbor entrance between Vypin Island and Cochin.30 Cochin (Kochi) (9°58'N. The velocity of the flood current at springs. South of the dredged channel a shoal.—The approaches to Cochin are clear of outlying shoals or banks. probably causes the constant shifting of the soft mudbanks off this part of the coast.30 3.9m at MHHW and 0.000 dwt 10.30 3.5 mile in places. Mattancheri Channel. It has a least depth of 1. the limits of this current are marked by tide rips which cause a vessel to sheer.5 miles SSE. Also known as Rajiv Gandhi Container Terminal.5m 12. the tidal current in the harbor may have a velocity of 5 knots or more. according to the season.3 knots. and about 30 miles S to Alleppey. Cochin (Kochi)—Berth Information Berth Length Maximum vessel Size Draft Length Emakulam Channel Wharves (South Side) Q5 to Q7 Q8 Q9 Q10 Venduritti Jetty Cochin Oil Terminal 503m 207m 207m 217m 350m 430m 20.3 miles N of the river entrance. as may lie within 46m of the spring tide HW mark.5 miles in a 270° direction from a position on the coast 5 miles SSE and 2 miles NNW of Cochin Light.7m — 12. 183m wide.5 to 2 knots and at neaps from about 0. with the W portion of Ernakulam Channe dredged to 12. In January and February. between the harbor entrance and the NW end of Willingdon Island. The port area includes the harbor and backwater. it was reported that the depth contours between the Periyar River and Narakal. Under monsoon conditions. The maximum velocity of the ebb current at springs. and no appreciable current is experienced off the coast in the vicinity of Cochin. is from 2 to 3 knots. Plans are to increase depths in the approach channel to 14.30 3. On the ebb current. the watershed drainage of these rivers increases greatly and.000 dwt 35.1m at all seasons.30 3.) World Port Index No. square.

30 3. 173 . Aspect.30 3. sandy.4m in length must have a minimum draft forward of 4.30 Vessels.1m — 185m 170m 180m 170m — 3. even objects otherwise conspicuous are difficult to discern. There are numerous mooring buoys on the E side of the Ernakulam Channel S of the tanker berths. which form part of the Western Ghats.220m lower than the mountains flanking it and through which the winds blow fiercely between November and February.68 Sector 3. Approximately 0. It has been reported (2001) that the mooring buoys on the SW side of Mattancheri Channel have been removed.6m) forward and 6.000 dwt Draft 9. and a maximum draft of 7m.6m and trimmed by the stern) and 4. 3. The dredged channel then divides into Mattancheri Channel and Ernakulam Channel leading W and E.1m 9.000 dwt 20. painted in red and white stripes. of Willingdon Island.14m 9.0m 9.30 3. a road and rail bridge.30 3.000 dwt 15. lies at the NW end of the Anamali Mountains.000 dwt 16. The bar at the entrance to the harbor is dangerous for ship’s boats when the ebb tide is setting strongly against the sea breezes. An anchorage for sailing vessels is situated N of the fairway. An ebb current of 3 knots has been experienced along this berth. connects the E side of the island with the mainland E.5m. once E of Fairway Lighted Buoy. Vessels berth on the ebb current on a SE heading.3m (plus or minus 0. less water than charted was found to exist outside the dredged channel on both sides.1m aft.30 3.14m Length 212m 170m Remarks Vessels berth on the ebb current on a SE heading. respectively. Tankers less than 152. with a maximum length of 265m.5m. resulting in a short choppy sea. Tankers in ballast are subject to draft restrictions.5 miles SW of Outer Signal Station. General cargo. Vessel repair. connects the SW end of Willingdon Island with the mainland W. and thickly fringed by palms. General cargo and liquid amonia. Mantacherri Channel Wharves Boat Train Pier (BTP) North Coal Berth Q1 to Q4 South Coal Berth Cochin Shipyard — 183m 670m 192m — 35. A buoy.—The coast in the vicinity of Cochin is low.9m aft. The bluff is conspicuous during the Northeast Monsoon and forms the S part of Palghat Gap. Within the harbor entrance the dredged channel is about 0.30 tankers over 213m in length are subject to a maximum draft of 8. Charted as Oil Berth.30 3. In 1985. Berth information in the harbor is given in ther accompanying table titled Cochin (Kochi)—Berth Information. Haze settles over the land after sunrise and the coast remains indistinct until midday.30 Cochin Light Pub. 1 mile E of Fairway Lighted Buoy. is moored 32 miles WNW of the entrance to Cochin Harbor. which is 1. Kollengode Bluff (Kollangod Bluff). as the ebb current sets strongly off the pier and the flood current strongly onto it.000 dwt — 10. with a lifting span. Minimum drafts for tankers of 152m and over are 4. Four general cargo berths located on the W side of Willingdom Island. close within the harbor entrance.000 dwt. about 48 miles NE of Cochin. Caution is necessary when berthing alongside Naval Jetty. A road bridge. with a navigable opening marked by lighted dolphins. A dangerous wreck and a small foul area lie near the N limit of the dredged channel.9m (plus or minus 0. The highest of the Western Ghats are about 50 miles inland.8 mile SE of the fertilizer berth is Naval Jetty.30 3.2 mile wide. India—West Coast—Cape Rama to Cape Comorin Cochin (Kochi)—Berth Information Berth North Tanker Berth South Tanker Berth Length 298m 266m Maximum vessel Size 30. but they can be distinguished only when the weather is clear.14m 9. The drydock can accommodate vessels up to 125. on the W side of the channel. a maximum beam of 39. must not attempt to enter or leave the approach channel without a pilot on board. Another spoil ground lies about 2.000 dwt 15. Additionally. its N limit is marked by two lighted buoys. 3.

The following flag signals may also be displayed: 1. Vessels can enter or leave the harbor day or night at almost any state of the tide.30 Pub. The harbor office. 173 .30 69 3. Sound on it whistle or siren the letter “F” in Morse Code together with rapid and continuous ringing of the ship’s bell.” 4. situated N and NE of Willington Island. A vessel requiring assistance in an emergency (moorings carrying away. etc. clear of the axis of the channel.6m in diameter at half mast and shall proceed at not more than half speed. A vessel must not enter harbor until the signal has been repeated by the Signal Station. 22m high.30 Anchorage. 2.30 3.30 3.” The following flags of the International Code should be displayed by vessels entering or leaving Cochin (meaning of hoist follows flags): 1. 76°13.” 3.30 3. An oil tanker should display a red ball below these flags. A succession of blasts on its whistle or siren to attract attention. hoist the signal for a pilot and await the pilot’s arrival. India—West Coast—Cape Rama to Cape Comorin Cochin Light (9°59. The outer channel was dredged to 12. lead through the harbor entrance and through the center of Ernakulam Channel abreast the tanker berths. equipped with radio.30 3. Telephone Port Fire Station. the General System is used. A vessel shifting berth within Cochin Harbor must display a black ball or shape at least 0. Vessels awaiting a berth should maintain a listening watch on VHF channel 16. The dredged entrance channel. the best anchorage.in 3. is shown from a concrete tower with red and white bands.30 3. IT. with a red and white checkered top. 9. with good communication with Cochin. 2. EM—Vessel shifting from Ernakulam Channel to Mattancheri Channel. 2.30 3. Immobilization of main engines is not permitted without written consent by the Port Authority.30 3. and Ernakulam Channel are marked by lighted buoys. ME—Vessel shifting from Mattancheri Channel to Ernakulam Channel. by day. the Port’s Fire Float.8m in 1986. 3. A conspicuous Signal Station is situated at the 37m flagstaff close W of Fort Cochin.—Pilotage is compulsory for all merchant vessels over 100 grt and is advisable for smaller vessels. When in this position. urgent medical and police assistance.3'E. The pilot vessel has a red hull with a white house.30 3. if anchoring. is stationed near the seaward end of the approach channel. A prominent storage tank. or Harbormaster. Regulations.9m in 1986. the inner stretch of the channel to was dredged 11. Mattancheri Channel. Pilotage. In this area there are several flagstaffs. Hoist.30 3.—Anchorage is available off the port of Cochin.—Vessels should send ETA messages 48 hours in advance to the harbormaster. in 14. 4. A conspicuous tower. Government pilots board vessels about 1 mile NNW of Fairway Lighted Buoy. oil leakage. In addition. Further information on these storm signals may be found in Pub.) may sound at frequent intervals: 1. Storm signals are displayed. 2.30 3. The port can be contacted by e-mail. Discharge of oily water or other rubbish is forbidden. a concrete pile beacon. except for crude oil tankers which may only enter by day. is situated 183m NNW of the W end of the road and rail bridge. N over First Substitute—Am leaving a berth in Ernakulam Channel.). The message should include the ETA (in local time) at the outer roads and the salt water draft fore and aft. Directions. Sound V (3 short and 1 long blast) to mean “I require assistance. Deep-draft vessels are advised to wait for the pilot 0.1m high. Sound W (1 short and 2 long blasts) to mean “I require medical assistance. A white house is conspicuous at the village of Kandakkadavu. When plague is prevalent in Northern India. Hoist V or W of the International Code of Signals. appropriate International Code Flag Signal (CB6. as follows: copt@ker.nic. 3.30 3.—Vessels approaching Cochin should keep in depths of not less than 11m and W of Fairway Lighted Buoy. lies on the NW end of Willingdon Island. F over First Substitute—Am about to enter harbor and berth in Ernakulam Channel. stands about 0. 3. good holding ground. with a racon. N—Am leaving a berth in Mattancheri Channel. 4. Sailing Directions (Planning Guide) 3. Signals. with Cochin Light bearing 075°.30 3. lie about 1 to 2 miles NNW of Fairway Lighted Buoy. A wooden pile beacon lies 1. amendments to the ETA should be made at least 12 hours in advance.30 3. Range lights. 160. mud.30 3. F—Am about to enter harbor and berth in Mattancheri Channel. lies 1.30 3. 3.2 mile SSE of the Signal Station. stands in the vicinity of South Coast Berth. which is conspicuous.30 South Atlantic Ocean and Indian Ocean under “India—Signals.—The Signal Station situated at the 37m flagstaff close W of Fort Cochin communicates by flags and Morse Code as necessary.5 miles WSW of the light. a radio station. vessels must obtain pratique before communicating with the shore. A vessel awaiting a pilot should. A vessel.3 miles SSW of Cochin Light. A number of Indian Naval vessels are situated at Vendurutti (Venduruthy Island) on the E side of Willingdon Island. etc. it will transmit and receive messages concerning pilotage only.30 3. This flagstaff stands at an elevation of 37m on a 20m high conspicuous tower. is about 2 miles NNW of Fairway Lighted Buoy.Sector 3.30 3.. DN—Port’s dredge proceeding to sea. about 7 miles S of the entrance to the port of Cochin. A vessel on fire and requiring assistance should continuously: 1.5 miles. with several masts.5 mile W of Fairway Lighted Buoy. Vessels should contact port control 2 hours before and30 minutes before arrival at Fairway Lighted Buoy for pilotage and berthing instructions.).30 3. DF—Port’s dredge entering harbor. Vessels may anchor in this vicinity. painted white on its seaward side.8'N.30 3. 4.30 3. Signals for vessels leaving the harbor will also be repeated by the Signal Station. During the Southwest Monsoon.5m.

and cause a large area of smooth water. but to the S the swell is quite deadened by this shifting mud bank. there is a water tower. but this anchorage depends upon the position of the mud bank which cannot be determined until after the monsoon. but sounding is essential as the mud bank shifts frequently so that the charted depths are unreliable.. Signals.31 3. and in general. 49140 3.—Pilotage is not available in this port. A tall radio mast lies about 4 miles N of Alleppey Light. during the Southwest Monsoon.32 3. Regulations. 76°25'E. distant 2 miles. Storm signals. it is advisable to make a landfall while it is still dark to ensure identifying the lighthouse. vessels of moderate size can obtain anchorage. which bubble up.31 3. a light is shown from a white. The pier has been reported to give good radar returns at 10 miles. are displayed from the signal station. the latter 37m high and prominent. through mud. roots. Vessels approaching this part of the coast at night should not proceed into depths of less than about 27m.8m at its head. Foul ground extends up to about 2 miles offshore from a position on the coast about 1 mile S of Kovilthottam to Tangasseri Point.—There is a 387m long pier. and is sometimes found up to 11 miles S of Alleppey.). It is subject to mud volcanoes. a N set.31 3.32 3. 76°32'E. From Alleppey to Pirakkad (Porakad). thickly fringed with palms. usually weak.. There is anchorage off Kottapalli (South Vazhapuram) (9°19'N. Further information on these storm signals may be found in Pub.31 Pilotage. Aspect.31 3.) World Port Index No. about 1m.31 3.32 The coast from Alleppey to Quilon.). The cause of this mud bank is said to be the greater elevation. lies 15. to N of a position 2 miles N of Alleppey. is situated W of Alleppey Light. the best anchorage is farther offshore. and trunks of trees to the surface. As the town of Alleppey is difficult to distinguish from seaward.32 Alleppey Light 3.5 miles N of Alleppey Light. about 9 miles SSE. During the Southwest Monsoon. A light is shown near Padiyamkara Tekku (Pathiyankara) (9°14'N. but local knowledge is necessary. 3. The port is an open roadstead under the superintendence of the Senior Port Conservator. 3.31 3. 3. Caution. a white square tower with red bands. bringing dead fish. about 0.) during the Southwest Monsoon. with Alleppey Light bearing 056°. is sandy. Day. between the backwater and the sea. Manakkodam Light. These areas may best be seen on the chart. masonry tower with two black bands. of the water level in the vast backwater over that of the sea. Tides—Currents. There is said to be a swell. In calm weather this bank is not perceptible. in about 9.31 3. From October to February. on the outer part of which vessels anchor. the coast between the ports is low. The position of the light is dependent on the movement of the Alleppey mud bank.” Anchorage.30 Alleppey (9°29'N.31 3. square.—During the Northeast Monsoon. using the General System. and forms mudbanks along the beaches and in the shallow waters offshore.—A signal station and flagstaff. close NW of the water tower. about 6 miles farther SSE. and densely populated. with a depth of 1. 173 . 76°23'E.—Alleppey Light is shown from a white. night communication is carried out by flashing light mounted on a pillar at an elevation of 16m and by flags of the International Code.. The mud bank develops toward the end of June after the backwater has become swollen by the rains.1m. in about 8m.70 Sector 3. Depths—Limitations. A mud bank off Pirakkad was reported in to be extending seawards. The hydraulic pressure forces out mud and vegetable matter through the several outlets during the Southwest Monsoon. Evidence has been found of a subterranean connection.31 Alleppey to Quilon 3. 76°19'E..—The mud bank off Alleppey is so stirred up by the swell as to break up the force of the waves. 3. with Alleppey Light bearing 077°. Sailing Directions (Planning Guide) At Kovilthottam (Koilthottam) (8°59'N.31 3. is sometimes experienced. fringed with palms.31 Caution.—The current at the anchorage sets S with a velocity up to 2 knots. round. This anchorage is sometimes used as a port when Alleppey is closed during the Southwest Monsoon or when its mud bank has moved elsewhere. 160.31 The port of Alleppey lies about 29 miles S of Cochin.—Two Submarine Exercise Areas are centered 25 miles W and 100 miles SW of the entrance to Cochin Harbor. sandy.3 mile E of the root of Alleppey Pier. The port is closed during the Southwest Monsoon season (May 15 to September 15). about 40 miles SSE.32 Pub. The dark green mud is fine and oily to the touch. the coast is more thickly fringed by palms. 3.—A continuous listening watch on VHF channel 16 should be maintained by all vessels visiting the port. The smoothness of the water is probably caused by the oil which the mud has been found to contain. masonry tower. This mud bank shifts position from year to year. India—West Coast—Cape Rama to Cape Comorin South Atlantic Ocean and Indian Ocean under “India— Signals.

The coast from close E of Tangasseri Point to about 3 miles NNW of it is rocky with groves of palms growing close to the HW line. and by a bridge. lies about 1 mile from the coast. with a depth of 7m and marked close N by a black and white conical buoy. two breakwaters shelter a shallow basin. lies on a hill 2 miles N of the city. in charge of a Conservator. and Tangasseri Light bearing 299°. The above buoys are in position from October to May. A large vessel may find a position about 0. A radio mast. 41m high.869m high and the highest peak of the Western Ghats. 1. appear as red cliffs above the palms fringing the coast. with a round. Good radar returns have been reported from Trivandrum at 12 miles.34 3. India—West Coast—Cape Rama to Cape Comorin Nindakara (8°56'N. Patches of red tableland.32 3.33 The port of Quilon is a roadstead lying in the bight close SE of Tangasseri Point. The bottom is foul and rocky in depths of less than about 18. with two white domes.35 Trivandrum (8°29'N. 76°43'E. can be seen from a good distance to the S and also from the roadstead at Anjengo..3 miles NW of the ruined pier. a flagstaff. 173 .. about 0. in a depth of 8m.3 mile farther SW more comfortable. The port is seasonal. a large city. steer for it on that bearing. is closed during the Southwest Monsoon from May 15 to September 14.33 3.32 3. lies about 0. Mukkunni Malai. is an open roadstead port at the entrance to Ashtamudi Backwaters. in about 12. The ruins of a pier. During the Southwest Monsoon vessels should anchor.). About 5 miles SE of Quilon a gap in the fringe of palms fronts a large backwater. painted in black and white diagonal stripes. A red tableland. A light shows at a height of 38m from a circular concrete tower at Anjengo.1m.. extending ESE..3 miles SE. of Tangasseri Point.) World Port Index No. Agastya Malai (8°37'N. 3. 252m high. 61m high.—Tangasseri Point Light (8°53'N. as the fort and other buildings are low and screened by trees. with jetties on its N side where barges load ilmenite sand. When the tile work’s prominent red 35m high chimney bears 044°°. Gamaria Rock.. A palace.33 Quilon to Kolachel 3.33 3. the Brief System is used. a white house is conspicuous close NW. Pilotage is not available.3 miles ESE of Tangasseri Point. Aspect.) is shown from a concrete tower.33 3. on the point. in about 9. Depths—Limitations.—Tangasseri Reef. 29m high. WSW of the entrance. formerly of importance but now a fishing village. between Gamaria Rock and Pallikall Shoal.). Between October and May. The entrance can be identified from seaward by a break in the palms fringing the shore.).8 miles SW of the seaward end of the N breakwater. are prominent on the coast S of the city. There is heavy surf along the steep beach fronting the bight and landing is dangerous except in native boats. extending to the LW line. lies on the coast about 1. 3. is sandy and fringed with palms. which leads between Gamaria Rock and Pallikall Shoal. of Tangasseri Point. which is prominent.8 mile off the water tower at Kovilthottam. Storm signals are displayed. there is a bungalow on a hill about 2 miles N. It is not easy to identify. respectively. The port. 76°46'E.8m. when seen from beyond about 7 miles. distant over 1 mile. about 31 miles SE. even from a short distance.9m in the fairway of the channel between the buoys and a depth of 8.33 3.33 3. marked by an obstruction light. and a church.3m. about 4 miles ESE of Trivandrum. in a depth of 21m. consisting of a white rectangular building with a dull red roof. 76°35'E.Sector 3. Care must be taken to avoid a 4.” Anchorage. lies about 20 miles ENE of Trivandrum.5 miles W and 1 mile SW of Tangasseri Point.7 mile E and 3 miles ESE. spanning the outlet. anchorage may be taken. for large vessels working cargo.2 mile SSE of the black buoy.5 mile NE of the pier.34 3. The coast between Anjengo and Trivandrum is safe to approach. 76°57'E. 76°33'E. sand and shell.. A black buoy and a red conical buoy are moored about 1 mile and 1.—Signals for vessels at anchor are displayed from the flagstaff near the light. There is a least depth of 8. may be of assistance in identifying it.33 3. 71 3. The point has been reported to be a good radar target at 17 miles.—Anchorage off Quilon is exposed to winds from the NW through W to SE. Anchorage may be taken. is situated about 5 miles NNW of the ruined pier. 49170). Anjengo (8°40'N. with a depth of 2m. extends about 1.34 Quilon (8°53'N. The red conical buoy marks the NW end of a group of dangers. can be obtained. In good weather. Lower hills lie between the Ghats and the coast. Signals. Pub.34 The coast between Quilon and Trivandrum. about 3 miles S of Kovilthottam.6m about 0. in about 9. and is little frequented during the Southwest Monsoon.7 mile ESE of Tangasseri Point. respectively. sand. with the red chimney of the tile works bearing 040°. when communication with the shore is only practicable by signal. The N pillar and the S pillar lie about 0.1m.33 3.32 3.) (World Port Index No.—Vessels approaching Quilon from the N should not approach Tangasseri Point in depths of less than 20m to avoid the foul ground W and SW of the point. Further information on these storm signals may be found in Pub. is seldom visited as its anchorage is exposed to the surf at all times. 77°15'E. operating from mid-November to midApril. 49160 3. is easily identified. A church with a white face is visible on the coast NW of the fort.4m. The W limit is defined by a line extending 180° from the point. with Tangasseri Point bearing about 000°.4m shoal about 1. Pallikall Shoal. Trivandrum Observatory.3 miles W of Padiyamkara Tekku Light. 160.32 Anchorage. about 4 miles N of Anjengo. The N and S limits of the port are defined by lines extending in a 247° direction from two boundary pillars. in not less than 15m. with a least depth of 6.34 3.32 3. Directions. lies about 1. gradually sloping summit. vessels can anchor in the inner anchorage. about 0. and the country inland is hilly and undulating. Anchorage can be taken about 1. lies near the root of the pier. 3. At the entrance. Sailing Directions (Planning Guide) South Atlantic Ocean and Indian Ocean under “India—Signals.33 3. near the SE end of the coastal reef. consisting of foul ground and shoal water. about 1 mile offshore abreast Anjengo.

. The harbor is protected by two breakwaters.—The 209m summit of the Aunipauri Hills. above and below-water. 4. there is a modern (1980) fishing harbor.3m.3 miles.—Vessels. 77°19'E. Aspect. A group of palmyra trees on high red ground. lies close SSE of Kurusukal. lies about 0. 35m high and with steep red cliffs. lies about 183m S of Kolachel Light. The village of Muttamtura lies on the point. about 1 mile N of the light structure. The Roman Catholic church about 46m NNW of the light structure. Pulleri. The flagstaff close to the light.35 Anchorage can be obtained. A light. 77°11'E.5 mile SW and NE of the islet. about 0.5 mile S of the ice factory. about 26 miles SE. 3. A light is shown from a round.3 mile SE of Kolachel Light. 3 miles NW of Karichal.3 mile offshore.37 Muttam Point (Muttum Point) (8°07'N. Kolachel Light. 77°15'E. Vilinjam Point lies about 0. with the flagstaff bearing 327°. Muttam Point has been reported to give a good radar response at 18 miles.36 3. extend about 0. 160. 49180 3. masonry tower with red bands. Landing during good weather is fairly easy as the rocks off the village form a practical breakwater to the heavy surf on the coast.—Anchorage can be obtained. lying close to the shore. 3m high. Kurusukal. the following conspicuous objects can be identified: 1. 3. shown from a white platform on a mound close to the foreshore SW of the town. is a good landmark in making the port. lies about 5.36 Kolachel is an open roadstead with anchorage in about 13m in the lee of four small islets. about 0. in about 13m. Further information on these storm signals may be found in Pub.. The port is important for the export of ilmenite sand. with the flagstaff bearing 060°. Muttam Point Light Caution. Many small fishing craft may be encountered up to 9 miles SW of Vilinjam. A low warehouse about 0. lies about 0. Vessels of 10.36 3. The coast between Trivandrum and Kolachel.35 Pub. 2. 7.2 mile offshore in the area E of the town. 0. about 90m farther ESE. respectively.5 mile farther SE. using the Brief System. sand. when in the vicinity of Enciam Islet at night. light gray with three towers at its N end. 6.” Anchorage. Depths—Limitations..36 3.000 grt have called here. with a racon. in a depth of 18. A large conspicuous building. is sandy and fringed with coconut trees. is shown on the point. 173 . 3. A small house with tiled roof. 3.36 3. with a rock awash close SE of it. 36m high.36 3. Good radar returns have been reported from the point at 19 miles. 3. of Pulleri. should not approach into depths of less than 35m.). on a bluff 0. the SE danger in the approach to Kolachel. 6m high and surmounted by a white shrine carrying a black cross.5 miles N of Kolachel. with depths of 2m. Ahnakal. A white cross close SE of the house. On closer approach. India—West Coast—Cape Rama to Cape Comorin Kolachel (8°10'N. forms a good landmark which can usually be seen above mist which may obscure the lighthouse..5 mile SE of Kovalam Point.5 mile WNW.36 3. with the flagstaff near the ruined pier bearing 077°. A white pillar with black bands. A fish factory.3 mile SSE of Kurusakal.25 mile E of the light structure. is conspicuous.5 miles SE of Kolachel. which are encountered barely 2 miles seaward of the rocks in the vicinity. from which a light is periodically shown. Small vessels can obtain anchorage.4 mile.7 mile. Enciam Islet (8°13'N.4 mile E of Kolachel Light. Sailing Directions (Planning Guide) South Atlantic Ocean and Indian Ocean under “India—Signals. white. close ESE of the white cross.—Storm signals.) is a bluff point with a conspicuous red-roofed building on it.35 Kovalam Point (Covelong Point) (8°23'N. it is safe to approach except near Enciam Islet. Vilinjam Light is shown from a white round masonry tower. in a depth of about 15m.72 Sector 3. about 4.36 3. in a depth of 21m. Patna Rock and Constance Rock.7 mile SE of the conspicuous building. Signals. with a conspicuous church on it.).000 15. lie about 183m W and 0. 5. Several rocks. 36m high. extend up to about 0. has been reported to lie near the coast about 3 miles NW of Enicam Islet. Anchorage can be taken. are displayed from a flagstaff 0.35 At Vilinjam. 1. Mooring buoys are moored about 0. above and belowwater. Rocks.) World Port Index No. 1m high. 0.35 3. 76°58'E.35 Kolachel to Cape Comorin 3. 3.3 mile S and SW of Kolachel.—The depths shoal gradually from 21m in the outer anchorage to 10m about 0.

6m high and steep-to on its W side.Sector 3.) is a minor port used primarily for ferry traffic.37 The coast extends about 14 miles ESE from Muttam Point to Cape Comorin (8°05'N. 3. India—West Coast—Cape Rama to Cape Comorin Vessels in the vicinity of Muttam Point. Wedge Bank. Kota Rock. the local inhabitants use only catamarans. at night. is the outermost danger. lies about 1. 77°35'E. Adunda Rock.3 miles SW of the point.3 miles WNW of Adunda Rock. It is difficult to identify from seaward. 173 . and foul ground extends about 0. Depths in the boat basin and alongside the pier are 2.37 3. 5m high.37 3. Vessels should not pass inside of Adunda and Kota Rocks.37 Pub. a dangerous sunken rock about 3 miles SW of Muttam Point Light.. Crocodile Rock..37 3.3m or less.2 mile NNW from it.). Kanyakumari Port (8°05'N. 73 3. lies about 1. A heavy surf prevails along this coast and ship’s boats should not attempt to land. with a least depth of 55m. the sea does not break over it in calm weather. should not approach into depths of less than 45m due to the dangers W and SW of the point. lies about 25 miles SW of Cape Comorin. 77°32'E.

4. Sri Lanka (including the Gulf of Mannar, Palk Strait, and Palk Bay) and India—East Coast—Cape Comorin to Point Calimere

Pub. 173

4.0

Additional chart coverage may be found in NGA/DLIS Catalog of Maps, Charts, and Related Products (Unlimited Distribution).

SECTOR 4 — CHART INFORMATION

75

77

SECTOR 4
SRI LANKA (INCLUDING THE GULF OF MANNAR, PALK STRAIT, AND PALK BAY) AND INDIA—EAST COAST—CAPE COMORIN TO POINT CALIMERE
Plan.—This sector describes the Gulf of Mannar, Sri Lanka (Ceylon), and then Palk Strait and Bay. The arrangement of the sector is NE from Cape Comorin along the SE coast of India, from there S, E, and N along the coasts of Sri Lanka, followed by the description of Palk Strait and Palk Bay. The sector includes the roadstead port of Tuticorin on the SE coast of India, and the important ports of Colombo, Galle, and Trincomalee of Sri Lanka.
4.0 4.0

General Remarks
4.1 The Gulf of Mannar lies between the SE coast of the Indian Peninsula and the W coast of Sri Lanka. Its S boundary lies between Cape Comorin, the S extremity of India, and Point de Galle, the SW point of Sri Lanka. The gulf is bounded N by Adam’s Bridge, a chain of islets and rocks extending from the E end of Pamban Island (9°11'N., 79°25'E.) to Mannar Island, about 16 miles ESE. The NW coast of the Gulf of Mannar is, with the exception of the mountains extending N from Cape Comorin, generally low and sandy, with the mountains lying about 55 miles inland. This level plain has an average elevation of about 50m, and gradually rises toward Cape Comorin. The W coast of Sri Lanka is low and planted with coconut trees. Inland, the foothills of the mountain district abreast Colombo begin about 20 miles from the coast. Adam’s Peak (6°48'N., 80°30'E.), 2,243m high and the highest land visible off the W coast of Sri Lanka, is an excellent mark during the Northeast Monsoon, but is seldom visible during the remainder of the year. Winds—Weather.—The coast covered by this sector is, like the rest of Sri Lanka, predominantly in a region of the monsoon. Of the four phases to be considered the Southwest Monsoon is the most important, followed by the Northeast Monsoon. Between these two monsoon are the spring and autumn transitions with their light and unsteady winds. In the Gulf of Mannar, the Northeast Monsoon is steadiest in January and has much weakened by March. The wind becomes light and variable toward the end of April, and squally showers are common. The Southwest Monsoon is usually established sometime in May and gains strength in June. From July to the end of September fresh SW winds prevail, with mainly fair weather at the end of the gulf. The wind usually moderates near the head of the gulf at night and in the early morning and freshens again in the afternoon as a result of land and sea breeze effect. In October the wind is more variable and there are heavy squalls with rain in the latter part of the month. In November, the wind is normally between WNW and NE and the weather is very unsettled with frequent heavy squalls and rain; the Northeast Monsoon usually becomes established by about the end of the month.
4.1 4.1 4.1 4.1 4.1 4.1 4.1

4.2 Hiniduma Kanda (Haycock) (6°20'N., 80°18'E.), 658m high about 19 miles N of Point de Galle, appears as a large round-topped mountain from all directions; it is conspicuous and rarely obscured. The central part of the S half of Sri Lanka is mountainous, and on a clear day its outline is visible from W. The higher peaks are generally veiled in haze, particularly during the Southwest Monsoon, but are often visible during the morning hours at other times of the year and, occasionally, all day during the month of March. The mountains terminate somewhat abruptly E at Namunakuli (6°57'N., 81°06'E.), 2,033m high. With the exception of several isolated hills rising abruptly from the E plain, the remainder of the island is practically flat. The whole island is densely covered with tropical forest and jungle with the exception of the open grassland, and in the parts which have been cleared for agriculture, or in the hills where hundreds of square miles have been cleared for the planting of coffee, tea, and rubber. The entire W and S coasts of Sri Lanka and many parts of the E coast are densely planted with coconut trees. Fresh and salt water lagoons, lying a short distance inland, exist on both the E and W coasts, and notably at the N extremity of the island, but only to a limited extent to the S. Depths in the approaches to the Gulf of Mannar are deep and clear of dangers, with the 200m curve lying 40 miles SSE of Cape Comorin and about 13.5 miles W of Colombo. Immediately within this curve, W of Colombo, there are depths of less than 55m; this steep edge forms a valuable guide when approaching the land in thick weather or at night. The coastal bank is fairly level, and off Colombo there are depths of 18.3m to within between 1 and 3.5 miles of the shore. Depths in the approaches to the S and E coasts of Sri Lanka are deep and clear outside the 200m curve, which lies from 2 to 18 miles offshore until N of Trincomalee Bay, where the 200m curve is charted about 38 miles W of Point Pedro. In Trincomalee Bay depths of over 200m lie within a few hundred meters of the shore. The 20m curve in general lies between 1 and 3 miles off the S and E coasts of Sri Lanka, except in the vicinity of Great Basses Reef, Little Basses Reef and Egeria Patch, and until N of 9°N, where the 20m curve lies about 12 miles off Point Pedro.
4.2 4.2 4.2 4.2 4.2 4.2 4.2

India—Cape Comorin to Tuticorin
4.3 Cape Comorin (8°05'N., 77°33'E.), the S extremity of India, is low and sandy, with a small white pagoda on its extremity. This pagoda is surrounded by a high wall, above which the top of the pagoda may be seen. A bungalow lies NW of the pagoda. A conspicuous memorial, 37m high, lies close W of the cape. The coast close W of the pagoda is barren and sandy, but is wooded NE of it.

Pub. 173

78

Sector 4. Sri Lanka and India—East Coast—Cape Comorin to Point Calimere
Anchorage.—Good anchorage can be obtained during the Northeast Monsoon, in 11m, about 1 mile offshore between Manappad Point and the town of Periya Talai, about 6 miles WSW of the point. From June through August, when the Southwest Monsoon is strong, heavy seas roll in on this part of the coast, and vessels should then anchor off Alantalai or Punnakayal. The coast between Manappad Point and Tuticorin (8°28'N., 78°10'E.) is low, sandy, and fringed with coconut trees. Between Manappad Point and the village of Alantalai (Alendal), about 5.5 miles NNE, an area of foul rocky ground extends about 2.8 miles offshore. There are heavy breakers over this area during the Northeast Monsoon; these breakers extend 1 mile SE of Manappad Point. Alendal Shoals, with depths of 3.7m, extend to about 4 miles ESE of Alantalai. Anchorage.—Anchorage by small vessels can be taken off Alantalai, in 7.3m, mud, with the church bearing 292°, distant 1.8 miles. Protection from SW winds is afforded by the coastal reef to the S.
4.4 4.4 4.4 4.4 4.4

Cape Comorin Light is shown from a square white tower, 34m high, and painted in red bands, about 0.3 mile NW of the cape. A church, 54m high, lies in a village about 0.5 mile N of the cape. Good radar returns have been reported from Cape Comorin at 23 miles. Foul ground extends about 0.5 mile S and SE from the cape. An area of foul ground lies 1.5 miles offshore, about 6 miles W of Cape Comorin. The land rises gradually N of Cape Comorin so that from a distance the cape appears as a sandy promontory. A mountain, 370m high, about 4 miles NW of the cape, appears as a pointed cone except from E or S. A range, about 9 miles farther N, with heights up to 1,041m, resembles a camel’s hump. Mahendragiri, 1,654m high, lies about 19 miles N of the cape. These high peaks of the Western Ghats may be mistaken at a great distance for the 370m mountain nearer to the cape. Tides—Currents.—The tidal currents off Cape Comorin set E during the flood and W during the ebb, but their direction and strength are much affected by the ocean currents. The coast between Cape Comorin and Manappad Point, about 35.5 miles ENE, is somewhat higher than the remainder of the NW coast of the Gulf of Mannar, with undulating sand hills up to 60m high. The background consists of reddish soil and rises gradually to the foot of the Southern Ghats a few miles inland. Many villages and whitewashed churches lie along this coast, but landing in a ship’s boat is always difficult and dangerous. An obelisk, 8m high, lies on the coast about 2 miles N of Cape Comorin, and serves to mark the position of a stranded wreck about 0.5 mile ESE. Caution.—When approaching Cape Comorin from the NW during the Northeast Monsoon, a vessel sheltered by the coast as far as Muttam Point, about 14 miles W of the cape, may suddenly pass from a calm into the strength of the monsoon, even if already well offshore. A dangerous obstruction was reported (2002) to lie about 8 miles WSW of Comorin Point.
4.3 4.3 4.3 4.3 4.3 4.3 4.3 4.3 4.3 4.3

4.4

4.4

4.4 East Cape (8°12'N., 77°47'E.) is prominent, and the coastal reef, with depths of 5.5m, extends about 1 mile offshore near the cape. Anchorage.—Shelter from W winds can be found in the bight between Cape Comorin and East Cape, but during the Southwest Monsoon landing by ship’s boats should not be attempted as swells roll into the bight. Anchorage for small vessels can be obtained, in 7.3m, in the bight N of East Cape, partially protected from W winds and swell by the coast SW.

4.5 Tiruchendur Point (8°30'N., 78°08'E.) is a low, rocky bluff headland, with a prominent dark-colored temple, 54m high, at its extremity. This pagoda is a useful mark and can be seen for a distance of about 15 miles. A conspicuous chimney, 28m high, painted in red and white bands and emitting a flame, lies about 5 miles NNW of the point. In 1976, a depth of 14m was reported 9.3 miles ESE of the point. From Tiruchendur Point to abreast the fishing village of Punnaikkayal, about 8 miles N, the coastal reef extends about 2.3 miles offshore. In heavy weather, the sea breaks on this reef in depths of 4.6 to 5.5m; usually it breaks farther inshore in depths of 3.7m. Punnaikkayal, about 1 mile inland, can be identified by the ruins of a church and by a group of palmyra trees on the beach. A 4.6m patch lies about 3 miles E of the village. Anchorage.—Anchorage for small vessels, in 7.3m, can be found off Punnaikkayal, about 1.5 miles offshore, with the clump of trees bearing 258° remaining clear of the dangerous wreck N of the anchorage. The coastal reef to the S provides shelter from S winds, but local knowledge is necessary.
4.5 4.5 4.5

Tuticorin (8°48'N., 78°10'E.)
World Port Index No. 49320 4.6 Tuticorin, also known as Tuttukuddi, is the largest commercial town on the W side of the Gulf of Mannar. The port is an open roadstead, well-protected by the land to the W from the Southwest Monsoon; it is available in all seasons. The all-weather harbor of New Tuticorin, about 0.5 mile S of Tuticorin, handles the majority of cargo for the port. The port is protected on its N side by North Breakwater, which is 2.3 miles long, and on its S side by South Breakwater and Eastern Breakwater. The rocky sea bottom, making dredging closer inshore impossible, necessitates these long breakwaters. Natural depths of 11m become available only at a distance of approximately 2 miles from shore. The entrance to the harbor lies 3 miles SE of Pandyan Tivu Light.
4.6

4.4

4.4

Manappad Point (8°22'N., 78°04'E.) is a high sandy promontory with a rock base. A light is shown from a white, round concrete tower with red diagonal stripes. The village of Manappad lies 0.8 mile W of the point. Manappad Outer Shoal, with a least depth of 7.3m, lies about 8 miles SE of Manappad Point. A 13.4m shoal, reported in 1976, lies about 6 miles farther E. Other shoals lie WNW and WSW. Vessels should avoid passing through this area, and in thick weather should not get into depths less than 35m.

Pub. 173

Sector 4. Sri Lanka and India—East Coast—Cape Comorin to Point Calimere

79

South Wharf—Berth Information Berth No. 2 3 4 Depth 9.3m 10.7m 10.7m Remarks Cement. Maximum vessel length of 168m. Salt. Maximum vessel length of 192m. Fertilizer. Maximum length of 192m. vessel

There are four berths situated on South Breakwater. Berth 5 and Berth 6 handle bulk cargo vessels up to 168m in length and 9.3m draft. Berth 7 and Berth 8, which handle container and dry bulk vessels up to 35 ,000 dwt with a maximum length of 275m in length, have an alongside depth of 10.7m. The turning basin, which is just inside the breakwaters has a depth of 11.9m and is 500m in diameter. A drying reef extends up to 0.5 mile E of Pandyan Tivu. Orripar, a rock shoal with a least depth of 0.9m, lies about 0.3 mile N of Pandyan Tivu.
4.6 4.6 4.6 4.6

Tuticorin Light
4.6

Tuticorin also has a passenger terminal for ferry services between the port and Colombo. Port Authority of Tuticorin http://www.tuticorinport.com

4.6

4.6

4.6

4.6

4.6

4.6

4.6

4.6

Tides—Currents.—The tidal rise at Tuticorin is 1m at MHWS and 0.7m at near HWN. The currents along the coast, outside the islands near Tuticorin, generally set with the wind, varying in strength from 1 to 2 knots. They are weak and variable at the change of the monsoons. When there is a lull in the monsoon, there is a tendency for current to set into, instead of across, the Gulf of Mannar. The tidal currents at Tuticorin set in a N direction with the flood tide and in a S direction with the ebb. Depths—Limitations.—The approach channel is 2400m in length, 183m wide, and a depth of 12.6m. Coal Jetty I and II on North Breakwater accommodates vessels up to 50,000 dwt, with a maximum length of 235m and a maximum draft of 10.7m. The oil jetty, situated seaward of the coal jetty, can accommodate vessels with a maximum length of 228m and a maximum draft of 10.7m. There are four berths on the South Wharf, which lies on the inner side of Eastern Breakwater. Berth information is given in the accompanying table. South Wharf—Berth Information Berth No. 1 Depth 9.3m Remarks General cargo. Maximum vessel length of 168m.

4.6

4.6

4.6

Kariapar, a rocky pinnacle with a depth of 1.5m, lies about 0.8 mile NE of the NE extremity of Pandyan Tivu. Rocky pinnacles, each with a depth of 1.5m, lie about 0.2 mile E and 0.5 mile ENE, respectively, of Kariapar. Van Tivu, about 2.8 miles NNE of Pandyan Tivy, lies on a reef which extends about 0.5 mile NE and 0.4 mile SE from it. A beacon, 10m high, lies on the S extremity of Van Tivu. A boat channel, about 137m wide, leads to the piers at Tuticorin from a position about 1.8 miles NE of the N end of Pandyan Tivu. In 1974, there was a least depth of 3.7m in the channel. The least depth alongside the piers and wharves at Tuticorin is 3.7m. Aspect.—Vallanad (8°43'N., 77°54'E.), a conspicuous red hill, 314m high, about 17 miles WSW of Tuticorin, may be seen before Pandyan Tivu Light is visible. Pandyan Tivu Light is shown from the N end of Pandyan Tivy; a racon is situated at the light. A beacon, consisting of a white masonry obelisk, 10m high, lies near the root of the S breakwater. Two water towers, with heights of 29 and 22m, are conspicuous about 0.3 mile and 1.3 miles W, respectively, of the above light. Range lights, in line bearing 312°, lead into New Tuticorin; the front light is shown from a metal framework tower lying about midway along the N breakwater while the rear light is shown from a similar tower 1 mile S of Pandyan Tivu Light. A light is shown from the head of the N breakwater. Fairway Lighted Buoy is moored 1 mile SE of the harbor entrance. The channel leading NW to the entrance of the new harbor is marked by lighted buoys. The following objects in Tuticorin are conspicuous and easily identified: 1. The yellow spire of Sacred Heart Cathedral, about 0.2 mile NW of the pierhead light at Tuticorin. 2. A chimney, 45m high, and a water tower, about 0.2 mile ENE of the cathedral. 3. The gray spire of the Roman Catholic Church, about 0.3 mile S of the cathedral. Pub. 173

4.6

4.6

80

Sector 4. Sri Lanka and India—East Coast—Cape Comorin to Point Calimere India—Tuticorin to Valinokkam Point
4.7 The town of Pattanamarudur (8°55'N., 78°11'E.), with some large trees visible up to 10 miles offshore, lies at the head of this bight, about 7 miles N of Tuticorin. The bight is filled by a flat, with depths of less than 5.5m, extending up to about 4.5 miles offshore. Kariya Shuli and Vilangu Shuli, two low-lying sandy islets, lie on this flat. Between the Vaippar River and Vembar, about 7 miles NE, shoal water, with depths under 5.5m, extends up to 3.5 miles offshore. Two shoals, with least depths of 4.6 and 2.7m, lie 4.5 miles SE and 4 miles S, respectively, of Vembar.
4.7

Pilotage.—Pilotage for Tuticorin and New Tuticorin is compulsory; it is available 24 hours. Pilots board, as follows: 1. Vessels with a draft of less than 9m—0.6 mile SE of Fairway Lighted Buoy. 2. Vessels with a draft of 9m and over—1.5 miles ESE of the Fairway Lighted Buoy. Pilots should be requested through the ship’s agent 72 hours in advance. Regulations.—The vessel’s ETA should also be sent, via the agent, 72 hours and 24 hours in advance and confirmed or amended no less than 6 hours in advance. The ETA messages should contain the following information: 1. Vessel’s name, nationality, and call sign. 2. Length, draft, and gross tonnage. 3. Last port of call and cargo. 4. Port of origina/destination of cargo. 5. Last port of call/next port of call. Vessels must contact the signal station 1 hour prior to arrival and upon arrival on VHF channel 12 or 16. Signals.—A signal station, with a flagstaff 29m high, lies on the N end of Pandiyan Tivu. This station, manned day and night, is connected to the mainland by telephone. Communication is by International Code of Signals. Storm signals are displayed from the signal station; the General System is used. Further information on these storm signals may be found in Pub. 160, Sailing Directions (Planning Guide) South Atlantic Ocean and Indian Ocean under “India—Signals.” The port can be contacted by e-mail, as follows:
4.6 4.6 4.6 4.6 4.6 4.6 4.6 4.6

Between Vembar and Valinokkam Point, about 18 miles ENE, the coast is low, sandy, and covered with palm trees. Detached shallow flats, on some of which are islands, lie from 1 to 5 miles offshore along this coast. Caution.—Vessels, other than small coasting vessels, should not approach the coast between Tuticorin and Valinokkam Point, about 37 miles NE, closer than 6 or 7 miles due to the many off-lying shoals. The coastline forms a bight between Tuticorin and the entrance of the Vaippar River, about 13 miles NNE.
4.7 4.7

India—Valinokkam Point to Pamban Pass
4.8 The coast between Valinokkam Point and Ramen Point, about 32 miles ENE, is fronted by a chain of islands and shoals extending up to 6 miles offshore. Depths outside this chain of islands and shoals are regular, but in places overfalls occur. An anchorage is located 2.5 miles NE of Valinokkam Point. A dangerous rock lies about 1 mile WSW of the anchorage. Large vessels should not navigate in depths less than 22m off this stretch of coast as the area is imperfectly surveyed and several relatively shoal patches are charted. They should not sight any of the islands of which the chain is composed. Kilakkarai Passage, the shallow passage between the chain and the coast, can only be used by small vessels; local knowledge is necessary due to the numerous shoals, with depths of less than 1.8m, and the narrow, undefined channels between them. The passage affords a smooth passage for small coastal vessels for half the distance between Tuticorin and Pamban.
4.8 4.8 4.8

tutport@sancharnet.in Anchorage.—There are six recommended anchorages, with positions from East Breakwater Head Light, as follows: 1. Vessels less than 100m in length, 1.25 miles ENE, in depths up to 9.9m. 2. Vessels over 100m in length, 2.25 miles E, in depths up to 14.2m. 3. Tankers can anchor, in depths up to 15.9m, 3.5 miles ENE. 4. Deep water anchorage is 3.25 miles ENE, with depths from 14.2 to 15.5m. 5. The explosive anchorage is 0.75 mile E, in depths of 10m. 6. General anchorage can be taken, in depths up to 12m, 2.25 miles SE. During the Northeast Monsoon, vessels should have a good scope of anchor chain and a second anchor always ready as there are many dangers to leeward. During the Southwest Monsoon, from about mid-May to mid-August, the wind, though sometimes violent, is invariably offshore, and the sea is calm or slight. Caution.—Vessels approaching the anchorage should make sure of their position, as the coast is low and the shoals extend some distance from it. Vessels making the anchorage at night should approach to seaward of all off-lying dangers. Several wrecks and foul ground lie between 1.5 and 2.3 miles E and ESE of Pandiyan Tivu Light.
4.6 4.6 4.6 4.6 4.6

Valinokkam Point (9°09'N., 78°39'E.) is marked by a beacon, 6m high. A submerged rock is marked by a beacon about 1.5 miles NE. These beacons are useful marks for vessels making the W entrance of Kilakarrai Passage, between Valinokkam Point and Anaipar Tivu (Anapipar Tivu), about 2 miles E. The passage then leads S of a submerged rock, marked by a beacon, about 4 miles ENE of Valinokkam Point, and then to the anchorage off Kilakarrai. A light is shown from a white hexagonal concrete tower with red bands, 30m high, at Kilakkarai. Pilotage.—Pilots for Kilakarrai Passage and for Pamban Pass are stationed at Kilakarrai (9°14'N., 78°47'E.). Anchorage.—Anchorage can be taken off Kilakarrai by small vessels; local knowledge is necessary. Anchorage, somewhat sheltered from the Southwest Monsoon, can also be taken off Muttupetai Betel (9°16'N., 78°55'E.).
4.8 4.8 4.8 4.8

Pub. 173

about 7 miles SE of Kundagal Point. along the W edge.9 4. 4. Kundagal Channel leads into Kundagal Gut. but its S edge is indented and the sea breaks on it.10 4.10 4. but the boulders are sufficiently separated to allow a free passage to the water. these are as large as can safely transit the channel. Vessels over 4. described in paragraph 4.8 miles WNW of Mansfield Patch. then NW into Sand Bank Channel. where it joins with the flood current through Puma Channel.8 to 7m.. lies about 3 miles E of Manauli Tivu. in an emergency it can be opened immediately.2 mile W of Pamban Island.8m high.). A rocky barrier extends in a straight line between the W coast of Pamban Island and Ramen Point. April. The combined currents then set N. The bridge is under the control of the Port Conservator at Pamban. appearing as a large square tower viewed from NE or SW and as a narrow pinnacle from SE or NW. 2. and on the N side of Pamban Pass. lies between Manauli Reef and Pulli Shoal.6m until their position is accurately determined.) is the navigable channel.10 4. Signals.2m and over which the sea breaks. lies nearly 1 mile ESE of Kurisadi Tivu. leading to Pamban Pass. Beacons mark the S and NW sides of Pulli Reef. This flag displayed from the N yardarm 4. Tides—Currents. The tidal current sets W through Kundagal Channel on the flood. low and covered with scrub. with a conspicuous white beacon close E. Puma Channel. is the N and shallowest of a group of detached patches. Pumurichan Tivu.9 4. in Kundagal Channel. 61m wide. Directions. and 0. making passage of the pass difficult. with its E edge about 4 miles SW of Kundagal Point.9m..11. lies about 2 miles from the E end of the Reef.6m draft should not approach within depths of 14. to look out for vessels approaching Pamban. lies about 0.9 4. A conspicuous triangular white beacon. partly artificial.9 81 indicates that vessels from N may pass through. lies about 2. Depths—Limitations.—There is anchorage. about 5 miles W of Pamban Light. 18m high.—The tidal rise at Pamban Pass is 0. 4. through the banks which occupy the space between the W end of Pamban Island and the mainland. the SW extremity of Pamban Island. the sea breaks on Batt Patch in a fresh breeze. 79°13'E. in a depth of about 7m. lying in a large enclosure. and from the S yardarm indicates that vessels from the S have priority. Pilots are stationed at Kundagal (Kundugal) Point (9°15'N. Pamban Light. These currents often attain velocities of 6 knots. The pass is used by some coastal vessels of from 200 to 800 grt and about 61m in length. Ramen Point is the E extremity of a narrow tongue of land projecting E from the coast. between Kundagal Point and the N side of Kurisadi Tivu.9 4. Anchorage. The extensive coral reef dries in places. Manauli Tivu (Manilla Tivu).3 miles W. and Mannar Island. displayed from the port offices flagstaff at Pamban.8m. It is of great advantage to coastal craft trading between ports on the W coast of India and ports of the Bay of Bengal.—In 1979. There are no official signals for vessels needing a pilot.Sector 4. and then W along the N edge of Pulli Reef.10 On the W side of Pamban Pass the barrier is named The Great Dam.5m high with a black band. lies in the middle of Kurisadi Tivu.10 4.9 4. Pilotage.10 4.10 4. mud. with Pamban Island Light bearing between 122° and 134°. N of Pulli Shoal. 79°19'E.9 4. and is easy to navigate. Pulli Shoal. both described in paragraph 4. has three islands on it.9 Pub. 44m high.10 4. and by the N current during the Southwest Monsoon. Batt Patch. about 1. but they are weak unless influenced by strong S winds.9 The N side of the Gulf of Mannar is formed by Pamban Island and Adam’s Bridge. who requires 30 minutes notice to open the bridge.). with a least depth of 5. about 1 mile NW. 79°12'E. During the Southwest Monsoon.—Anchorage can be taken 1 mile NW of Pamban Island Light. a coral reef. buoys. through the barrier and crossed by a rolling lift-bridge. Pamban Pass—Approaches 4.. with a least depth of 4.1m. on its SW side. Manauli Reef. on the SW edge of which the sea breaks heavily. lies about 0.—Pilotage is compulsory for merchant vessels. It consists of large masses of flat-surfaced rocks. with a least depth of 1. Kurisadi Beacon No. it was reported that the maximum draft for vessels using the pass was limited to 2. Shingle Island. its N edge is well defined at low water.10 4. Tidal currents are only noticeable at the change of the monsoon in March. Pumurichan.2 mile NW of Kurisadi Beacon No. indicates the bridge is fully open. Pulli Reef. farther SE.—Flag P of the International Code of Signals. haze frequently overhangs and obscures the islands.9 4.—Vessels approaching Pamban Pass from the S should use great care as the off-lying islands are low. but less conspicuous. 4. The E end of the reef is marked by beacons. 173 . has a conspicuous beacon. 9. which carries the South India Railway is built on this barrier. 7m high.5m at MHWN. The first landmarks identifiable from seaward are Rameswaram Temple (9°17'N.9 4. Sri Lanka and India—East Coast—Cape Comorin to Point Calimere The Gulf of Mannar—North Side 4. A cutting. on a sandhill on the NW point of Pamban Island. a coconut plantation lies about 183m farther W. which were formerly portions of a causeway that extended from Pamban Island to the mainland.12. The N face of the dam is steep-to. in 5.). Licensed pilots at Pamban are under the orders of the Pamban Port Conservator.. but local craft usually display a red or white flag. Pamban Viaduct. a white tower. 50m high. 2.9 4. and Kurisadi Tivu (Kursadi Tivu). A temple in ruins lies about 183m W of the point. a red square water tower on a framework structure. 10m high. then NNE through The Basin to Pamban Pass.9 4. on the N edge of Pulli Reef. The island lies on Kallaru Reef. lies on the E end of Shingle Island. 1. Anchorage.7m at MHWS.10 Mansfield Patch (9°10'N. and October. Mundel Point at the W end of Pamban Island. good holding ground. Kurisadi Beacon No.10 4. and at LW presents a wall-like appearance. At other times they are masked by the S current during the Northeast Monsoon. consists of coral and dries in places. The pass is well-marked with beacons. and there are no hills or conspicuous landmarks. Gandhamana Temple. Pamban Pass (9°17'N. 79°18'E.

1m. When the beacon on the SW side of Pumurichan bears 060°. Keep close to beacons marking the SW side of the latter channel. and the beacon close E of Manauli Tivu. in about 6. The drydock at Mandapam is 81m long and 15m wide.12 4. Both reefs have depths of less than 1. Cheval Bank. 79°18'E. which is marked by beacons. Pumurichan. 29m high.5 miles farther NW. are pearl banks extending up to 10 miles offshore and with depths of less than 11m. in line bearing 338° with a beacon on a low hill NNW. on the W side. It is composed mostly of shifting sandbanks. consisting of a white obelisk. a red conical buoy at the junction of Sand Bank Channel and The Basin. marked by beacons. 4. In the bight between the mouth of the Kal Aru and Adam’s Bridge. demands navigation by eye.. A buoy moored 0. 79°50'E. and is visible up to 15 miles seaward when the light is favorable. and SW of Elbow Buoy.). depths increase sharply to over 183m about 12 miles SW of Adam’s Bridge.6 mile W of Kundugal Point.11 4. is a railroad terminal.13 4. moored 0. At the W end. 1 and Kurisadi Beacon No.12 4. Arripu Reef extends from close NW of the above reef to about 4 miles farther NW.5 miles off the W part of the island.5 mile SW of Elbow Buoy marks a shoal ground of less than 1m on the W side of the deeper water at the intersection of Sand Bank Channel and The Basin.5 mile E of Mandapam South Beacon. A beacon. about 0. steer for Kundagal Gut.3 mile NE of Kundagal Point bears 286°.). Anchorage. Shoal water extends up to 5 miles from the ridge. passing S of Kundagal Point. About 1. should pass through Puma Channel as described and. local knowledge is necessary from this point.10 4.11 Pamban Island (9°17'N. which is the better and more direct approach. Puma Channel. with the railway bridge between Mannar Island and Sri Lanka bearing 099°. from 2 to 3 miles W of the above beacon.10 4.5 miles N of the mouth of the Kal Aru. leads into Puma Channel. bearing 130°. leaving Cana Paru Reef about 0. Continue W and bring Kurisadi Beacon No.. only available to those with local knowledge. mud. Adam’s Bridge is a narrow ridge of sand and rocks. between the two reefs there is a 0. The island is wooded and has low sand hills on its SW side for a distance of about 5 miles from its SE end. is well-marked on its S and E sides by breaking seas. a white masonry tower about 7. 79°09'E.5 miles N of the tower is the S of several mouths of the Aruvi Aru. with intricate shallow channels between them. after having passed the outlying dangers.8m. 79°55'E.11 4. then steer along the N edge of Pulli Reef and into the channel N of Pulli Reef. 4.4 mile E of Shingle Island. close SE of Dhanushkodi.5 mile further WNW. Chuttram. was reported (1958) on the bank.7m in the fairway. the SW approach. Mukkundaraya Chattram.13 4.13 4.12 4. a small but conspicuous building lies near the point. Manauli Reef. astern.13 4. with depths of less than 11m. Tides—Currents.) is low. with depths under 11m. where a broad peninsula extends about 3 miles N. taking care to avoid the shoals E. Silavatturai Reef lies about 4 miles SW of Doric Beacon. with depths of 4.—Small vessels can anchor.. but abates towards the W and towards the Indian coast. and well-planted with coconut trees towards its W end.11 Mannar Island 4. Sri Lanka—West Coast—Mannar Island to Kudremalai Point 4. a bushy dune about 2. is conspicuous seaward in favorable light.5m. During the Northeast Monsoon. vessels should steer NE through Puma East Channel. Farther seaward. there are coconut and other palms near the villages. and conspicuous when bearing less than 050°. A confused sea is generally encountered near Mannar Island. dangerous to navigation. lies about 11 miles W of the mouth of the Kal Aru. mostly dry. good anchorage can be obtained by vessels drawing not more than 4.) is separated from Sri Lanka by a boat channel which is crossed by a conspicuous railway bridge and a road bridge.6 to 6.3m. with the sill 2m below chart datum.3 miles from Mandapam South Beacon.10 4. should.12 4.5 mile S of Moderegam Point. and Shingle Island. 79°56'E.12 Mannar Island (9°05'N. Sri Lanka and India—East Coast—Cape Comorin to Point Calimere 16 miles ESE. Vankalai Reef.11 Pub. about 4. about 5 miles. a strong current sets N over Adam’s Bridge. A disused structure. Anchorage. and a buoy moored 0. lies about 0. sandy. When the beacon about 0. in 5. about 30 miles NW. 2 in line. Vessels should approach this anchorage passing N of Cheval Bank.13 4.10 Mandapam South Beacon (9°17'N.13 4.10 4. dries at its SE end..) is the SE extremity of Pamban Island.9m patch. about 5 miles NW of Arippu Reef. is easily identified. which connects Pamban Island with Mannar Island.).—Anchorage can be obtained. extends about 12 miles offshore between the mouth of the Kal Aru and Moderegam Point (8°36'N. lies on the W end of Mannar Island. this range leads through Sand Bank Channel passing close SW both of a buoy. a narrow channel leading NNE.11 4. A beacon marks the N end of Arippu Reef.—During the Southwest Monsoon. 28m high. The vessels bound for the drydock at Mandapam. consisting of a conspicuous black steel framework tower. Numerous rocks nearly awash lie about 1 to 5 miles S of Doric Beacon.10 4. Shoal water. 4. about 2 miles NW of Lands End. lies within a clump of palm trees about 24m high and is easily identified. with a least depth of 4.11 4.82 Sector 4. A NNE course through The Basin leads to the S end of Pamban Pass. the red-roofed railway buildings are conspicuous.13 Pamban Island 4.13 Doric Beacon (8°47'N. Dhanushkodi.. A submerged obstruction.. and finally steering into Sand Bank Channel and following the directions given above. about 1.3 mile to port. Vessels approaching Kundagal Channel. 173 .6m. A white obelisk lies on the N entrance point of the Kal Aru. steer to pass about 0. 79°26'E. Lands End (9°10'N. continue on the 338° range line until 1.

Great caution should be exercised if obliged to navigate in depths of less than 5. The coast. Northeast Breakwater—extending W from Mutwal Point. A white tower. Caution. A church with a red roof and low twin towers.16 4.3 mile ENE of Mutwal Point.). Dutch Bay. Galbokka Point is a black rocky knoll connected by a short sandy isthmus to the land at the S end of Colombo Harbor. above and below-water. lies NE of the point.5 miles N of Chilaw Point and about 0. The S end of the harbor is connected with Beira Lake by a canal with locks.8 mile NE of Mutwal Point. the island is breached about 2 miles from its S end. 2. Kalapu Gala. about 45 miles S. consisting of a black tripod with a diamond-shaped topmark. lies on the highest of these mounds.14 4. lies with its S end about 2 miles NNW of Negombo Point.16 Colombo (6°57'N. The area between Karaitivu and Cheval Bank has not been completely examined.17 Colombo. Sri Lanka and India—East Coast—Cape Comorin to Point Calimere Caution.8 miles NW of Chilaw Point.5 miles WSW of the point. A trawler harbor.16 4.) has been reported to give good radar returns at 22 miles.16 Sri Lanka—West Coast—Kudremalai Point to Negombo Point 4. A red can buoy is moored about 3. lies about 14.16 4. a breakwater shelters each harbor from W. A beacon. 4. is almost featureless except for a break in its fringe of coconut trees. is formed by the seaward side of a narrow peninsula. marking the entrance to Maha Oya. A narrow reef. known as Kudremalai Tower. Chilaw Point (7°36'N.5 miles W of Kudremalai Point.15 4. 8m high and painted white. is shallow and offers anchorage to small vessels.17 4. 79°51'E.5m. E of Karaitivu. which dries. lies between Galbokka Point (6°56'N.—A 14. known as Aruakalu Tower. the canal is dredged to a depth of 3m. about 0. with a least charted depth of 2. in 11m.1m. 173 . lies about 2. the reef lies parallel to the coast and about 0.15 The coast between Dutch Bay and Chilaw Point. The sea breaks over the reef during the Southwest Monsoon.16 4. Vessels passing the peninsula should keep 7 miles offshore and in depths over 37m to avoid the above-mentioned shoal.3 miles WSW of Mampuri and about 3. 79°50'E.15 4. are conspicuous. A 3.)..).5m for a distance of about 10 miles N of Moderegam Point due to several uncharted coral heads with depths of less than 0. stands on the point. is conspicuous about 5. but local knowledge is necessary. Anchorage. The twin towers of a church in Negombo. The coast from Chilaw Point to Negombo Point.16 Negombo Point (7°12'N.14 4. the principal port of Sri Lanka.14 4. as follows: 1. 49240 4.13 4.1m.) World Port Index No.5 mile offshore. at the N end of Colombo Harbor..5 miles offshore. together with a school house about 183m NNW. about 4 miles N of Negombo Point. 79°48'E.17 Sri Lanka Ports Authority Home Page http://www. except during the Southwest Monsoon. about 2 miles W of Kudremalai Tower.15 4. because of the extensive shoal banks lying off the coast.—It is not advisable to close the coast of Sri Lanka when N of Karaitivu (8°32'N.16 4. about 2 miles NNE. 79°48'E.7m.5 miles S of the point. lies about 3. with a fishing harbor close E.. with three long sand mounds S of it. extends about 4 miles N from about 0.14 Mutwal Point (6°58'N. A shallow flat of rock and sand extends about 7 miles SW from the coast abreast Mampuri (7°59'N.8m.—Anchorage for small vessels can be obtained.5 miles NE of Kalpitya (8°14'N. 79°45'E. 3. 4.14 4. E of the point. A reef.14 Kudremalai Point (8°32'N.) can be identified by a sand hill and a round hummock nearby. with local knowledge..slpa. in a depth of 5.15 4. Northwest Breakwater—a detached breakwater. Vessels making this anchorage from the S should keep 4 or 5 miles offshore and close to the land near the point. 79°52'E.) is steep and rocky. this shoal is particularly dangerous as depths over 183m are about 1. is sandy and thickly fringed with coconut trees. 68.13 83 Sri Lanka—West Coast—Negombo Point to Colombo 4. Portugal Bay. Anchorage. and even in calm weather rollers occur. for about 5 miles N of the river entrance. 4. about 24 miles S.5 miles W of it.15 4. Small vessels. long and narrow. a narrow rocky reef.3m can obtain good anchorage. entered S of Karaitivu.5m high.. is shallow. in about 6.. There is a foul area on the inner side of the Northwest Breakwater.. in a charted depth of about 6. 4.5 miles S of Negombo Point. lies on the summit of a 79m hill about 4.3 miles N of the entrance to the Kelani Ganga. A white masonry tower. further shoaling has been reported.Sector 4. lies with its N end about 5.. Bar Reef.—Vessels with a draft not exceeding 4.6m in the area.15 4. 79°51'E. The entrance to the Kelani Ganga lies about 0. 4. about 1.5 mile offshore. a dangerous wreck lies at the SE of the reef. 4. with several rocky heads with depths of less than 1. A beacon. Karaitivu (Kara Tivu).5 mile offshore. Anchorage.).) and Mutwal Point. 38m high. 79°46'E.5 miles WSW of Negombo Point.7m shoal lies on this flat about 4.lk Pub. lies about 3 miles W of the entrance to Dutch Bay.15 4. Southwest Breakwater (Queen Elizabeth Quay)—extending NNE from the shore at the S end of the harbor. The harbor is artificially formed by three breakwaters.. 79°47'E.—Anchorage can be taken about 1 mile W of this reef.2m shoal extends over 3 miles N from a position about 8. can anchor E of the reef.

17 4.—The Southwest Monsoon brings heavy rain and winds which occasionally reach gale force. A scend of up to 1m can be experienced in the harbor. making cargo handling difficult. Tides—Currents.5 knot.5m 7.0m 13. between Northwest Breakwater and Northeast Breakwater.1m Break bulk Vehicles and break bulk Vehicles and break bulk Containers Containers Containers Containers Containers Containers Containers Break bulk and dry bulk Break bulk and dry bulk Break bulk and dry bulk Break bulk and dry bulk Break bulk and dry bulk Guide Pier (See Note) Break bulk and dry bulk Break bulk and dry bulk Containers and break bulk Containers Remarks Samagi Jetty Unity Container Terminal Jaya Container Terminal Bandaranaika Quay Pub.17 Colombo—Berth Information Berth Berth 1 Berth 2 CT1-2 Berth 1-2 Length 150m 188m 365m 340m 234m Berth GP1 Berth GP2 Berth JCT 1 Berth JCT 2 Berth JCT 3 Berth JCT 4 North South Feeder Berth Berth BQ 1 Berth BQ 2 Berth BQ 2A Berth BQ 3 Berth BQ 4 196m 167m 300m 332m 330m 330m 172m 180m 200m 163m 181m 125m 194m 194m Draft Prince Vijaya Quay 9.2m 9.84 Sector 4.17 4.1 mile N of the head of Northeast Breakwater.17 Winds—Weather.17 4.0m 13. has a dredged depth of 16m.17 The current off Colombo is variable.—The W entrance.0m 9.7m 9. resulting in an E set off the W entrance. subject to the depth limitation for the N entrance.1m 9. its velocity seldom exceeds 0. Depths—Limitations.6m under their bottoms. except by special permission of the port authorities.17 4. There is a disturbed swell across this entrance during the Southwest Monsoon. has a dredged depth of 13m in its approaches.17 4.8m 8.9m 9. Berth information is given in the accompanying table titled Colombo—Berth Information.17 4.3-9.7m at MHWS.17 4.5m 14. An 8.17 4. about 0.5 knots during the Northeast Monsoon. Vessels are not permitted to navigate the harbor. Dredging is carried out periodically to maintain the dredged depths. There are four drydocks located S and E of Guide Pier. During this time a moderate swell runs in the harbor. the approach.5m at MHWN.5m 9.5m 12. 4. Vessels may enter and leave the harbor by whichever entrance is more convenient. has been dredged to a depth of 16m.6m 9. this has also been reported during the Southwest Monsoon.0m 9. marked by lighted buoys and a directional light.6m rock lies close outside this entrance.0-9.—The tidal rise at Colombo is 0. Near shoal water the current sets N at a velocity of 1. between Southwest Breakwater and Northwest Breakwater.0m 9. Sri Lanka and India—East Coast—Cape Comorin to Point Calimere The N entrance.0m South Pier 9. and 0. 173 . 4. Limiting dimensions are given in the accompanying table titled Colombo—Drydock Information.5m 9.5m 7.0-11. 4. or to lie at moorings with less than 0.

2 Drydock No.000m3 and 10.—The entrance to the drydocks is located at the end of this pier. painted in black and white checkers. the Clock Tower.17 4. with a dome.2 miles centered on the SPM. St. about 91m within Galbokka Point. 15m high.8'E. and known as The Fort.5 miles NE of Galbokka Point.0m 15. are among the several prominent buildings in The Fort. All vessels not using the terminals are required to keep clear.5 miles NW of the LNG terminal and is surrounded by a restricted area with a radius of about 0.).. All shipping. 4 * At the entrance ** At MHWS 4. Colombo Light (6°56'N. is a circular stone tower. Two steel framework radio masts. Aspect. can be accommodated.9m Length 213m 107m 122m 263m Capacity 30. in the NE part of the harbor. and the offices of the Bank of Ceylon. The Town Hall. Kerawalapitiya Terminal (7°00. vessels berthed to it have to be moved clear when vessels are entering or leaving the drydocks. which is con- 4. Another SBM for oil tankers is located about 1. A submarine pipeline is laid in an ESE direction from the buoy to the root of the Northeast Breakwater.9'N. a tanker SPM buoy. are advised to keep clear of the area covering a radius of 1.4 mile.17 Breadth * 26. A flour mill.17 4. with a white dome. at the S end of the harbor. Galle Face Hotel. about 1.000m.0m 15.5 miles ESE of Galbokka Point.17 4. but in exceptionally clear weather. Adam’s Peak and the other mountains of Sri Lanka may be visible from a great distance.Sector 4. is also conspicuous about 1 mile farther E.0m Note. at the NE corner of the harbor.5'E.1m 4.—The land in the vicinity of Colombo is low and will not be seen from any great distance. 3 Drydock No. with a tall spire.) is an offshore LNG terminal consisting of a CBM and four mooring buoys. with twin towers. other than tankers using the SPM buoy. Sri Lanka and India—East Coast—Cape Comorin to Point Calimere 85 Colombo—Berth Information Berth Berth CB 1 Berth CB 2 Berth SAGT 1 Berth SAGT 2 Berth SAGT 3 Berths 4-6 Length 99m 94m 340m 310m 290m 244m Draft 6.000 dwt 9. a large red building. The terminal is surrounded by a restricted area with a radius of 1. about 1 mile S of the latter point. James Church.7m 6. A tall red brick chimney.3 miles E of Galbokka Point. 79°46.17 Colombo Marine Terminal (6°58. All Saints’ Church.4m Remarks Coastal vessels Coastal vessels General cargo and passengers General cargo General cargo Containers and ro-ro Bulk liquids. 79°50'E.5 miles NW of Colombo Light.000 dwt 100. on the W side of The Fort. 93m high and showing red obstruction lights. 3. 65m high and marked by red obstruction lights.0m Depth over sill ** 9. and a lengths of 90 to 165m.0m 10. 79°49. 4. 1 Drydock No.17 4. Vessels with a maximum draft of 19m can be accommodated. with three small round turrets. On nearer approach to the harbor. Vessels up to 20.000 dwt 4. lie about 2. the buildings in that part of the town. will first be seen at a distance of about 12 miles. Passage through this area is prohibited. 173 . is situated 4. the following landmarks may be identified: 1.000 dwt.). about 1.0m 44.. respectively. Colombo—Drydock Information Drydock Drydock No. with a maximum draft of 7m. A conspicuous white monument on four yellow curved legs lies at an elevation of 82m about 0. Lucia’s Cathedral. Hotel Taprobane. Inner side of Northwest Breakwater South Asian Gateway Terminal Dolphin Berth 14. and St.17 spicuous. Pub.7'N.7m 5. 2. Approaching from the W.5m 8.5m 16. Good radar returns have been reported from Colombo Light and Colombo breakwaters at 20 and 18 miles.0m 16.. is conspicuous on the coast.000 dwt 8.6m 15. close W of the drydock.17 4.3 NNW of Galbokka Point.

Sri Lanka and India—East Coast—Cape Comorin to Point Calimere 3. In 1980. 29m high. lies about 183m offshore. awash in some places and with the appearance of a barrier reef.17 4. At night: a.17 4. The port signal station and pilot station are sited together. From these anchorages. are to be hung from the vessel’s rail. Pub. vessels should.17 4. 173 . 12 miles offshore. Pilots are available 24 hours. but the pilot station maintains a 24-hour watch. or the port fire brigade. The signal station maintains a day watch. after they have been moored to the satisfaction of the port authorities. a large white building. b. The land rises behind the hotel. show up prominently at the edge of the beach in the afternoon light. Flags UM Four red lights vertically disposed. Hoisted at the pilot station flagstaff when weather conditions are such as to prevent the pilot boarding vessels outside the harbor. vessels should contact the pilot station on VHF channel 16 for further instructions. Vessels are cautioned. about 6.—The signals in use in Colombo Harbor are shown in the accompanying table.) can be identified by a hotel which is radar conspicuous.17 4. Vessels waiting to enter should remain under way as convenient. The above signals will be observed by either the pilot station.17 South of Galbokka Point to Mount Lavinia. Signals.86 Sector 4. or other craft should make the following signals: 1. pick up the pilot 2 miles NW of Southwest Breakwater Light. the flags are from the International Code of Signals. the lee door should be opened and the ladder hung from there. In the event of weather conditions being such as to prevent the vessel being boarded by a pilot outside the harbor.17 4. although it is unusual for a pilot to board between 0000 and 0400. are responsible for tending their own lines.17 4. Along this stretch. 2. unless they have been previously intercepted by the pilot launch.5 miles S. Hoist International Code Flag O. showing the customary signals. will come alongside vessels in this position. Any vessel observing that a person has fallen overboard from any ship. Sound short blasts on the siren or whistle. with the lower ends free.4m draft) were being diverted to Galle.17 4.17 4. 4. well clear of both entrances. a motorboat will then be dispatched to the scene. If at any time assistance is required from the port authorities. The following provisions should be made to assist the pilot in boarding: 1.17 4.—Pilotage is compulsory for all merchant vessels except those exempted by the port authorities.17 4. be given the option of proceeding into harbor and picking up the pilot inside. The pilot station is located on the spur of Southwest Breakwater. not to approach the port within the 1 mile limit. with later corrections to the ETA if necessary. 4. a bright light to be shown midway between the rail and the water to indicate the position of the ladder and the manropes.17 4. Flash the letter O in Morse Code in the direction of the pilot station. To facilitate embarkation of the pilot. a narrow ridge of rocks. 4. forming a dark background. A boat rope is not required. and visible in favorable light. Regulations. Night Meaning Hoisted at the pilot station flagstaff when vessels are required to run out extra mooring lines to the buoys and to prepare a second anchor for letting go. A pilot motor launch. the harbor police.—Vessels in Colombo Harbor. with their stone-covered louvered exteriors.17 4. Vessels approaching this position should be on a SE course. In vessels of high freeboard fitted with gangway doors. Sound short blasts on the siren or whistle. lying on a rocky point on the shore. the appropriate signals will be displayed at the pilot station.. Wellawatt. A pilot ladder on the lee side. By day: a. The vessel may. Bambalapitiya.17 4.17 4. A vessel wishing to take a pilot should make one of the signals prescribed by the International Code of Signals and indicate the name and draft as soon as the vessel arrives within visual signaling distance of the port. even though berths were available in Colombo Harbor. and Dehiwala.17 4. boat. rendering it the most conspicuous object on this part of the coast. lighter. at the discretion of the port authorities. unless boarded by a pilot or previously ordered to do so. Requests for pilots. 2. In normal circumstances the pilot will leave an outbound vessel as it passes the pilot station. stating the vessel’s ETA. the railway stations at Kollupitiya. Pilotage. 79°52'E. it was reported that all vessels that can be accommodated in Galle Harbor (under 122m in length and 6. stating its ETD and confirming the departure time 30 minutes prior to departure. the signal should be made for a pilot. the vessel being instructed by signal whether to run in or stand off. b.17 4. The option to enter is not given at night under normal circumstances. Two manropes of at least 3 inch line. Mount Lavinia (6°50'N. and haul it up and down to attract attention.17 4. should be made 24 hours in advance.17 4. By night. A vessel intending to leave the harbor should contact Colombo Pilot on VHF channel 16.17 Colombo Port Signals Day Red ball Fixed red light.

best seen on the chart. 159m high. or having had within 10 days prior to arrival.5 miles.5 miles E of Kalutara. four lights vertically disposed. about 3. Firing practice areas are centered 24 miles SW and 34 miles WNW of Colombo Harbor. the vessel may have to anchor in the roadstead or other place as directed by the port authorities. is established and passage through this area is prohibited around the outfall pipeline extending 1 mile NW from the N end of the port area. 4. is a small range about 2 miles long. with depths of less than 1. Galua. Near its S end is a conspicuous flat-topped hill.8m. A temple. The white dome of the temple is floodlit.19 Kalutara (6°35'N. 0. is formed by a straight sandy beach with dense groves of coconut palms. Immanuel Church.5 mile NW of Galbokka Point. Approaching from the W.). 79°52'E. 4.4m at Galawala. A narrow bank. red. When a large red flag is displayed on a floating crane engaged on new construction work. 4.).5m. are conspicuous. Red. Meaning Vessel is on fire.17 Night Three red lights vertically disposed.. Caution. red and green alternately. as there are no conspicuous landmarks N. in Kalutara. Weragala Kanda (Weragoda Kanda).Sector 4. Vessels coming from the N or S. 4. 2m apart.18 The coast between Mount Lavinia (6°50'N. then proceed as previously directed..17 4. and the N of low hills behind the coast between Kalutara and Beruwala Point. lies on the S bank of the Kalu Ganga.17 4. The police are required. lies about 3.17 4. with a depth of 3. a red flag over a green flag.5 mile SE of it.17 4.3 and 1. also known as Drunken Sailor Rock.18 4. Kaluwatte Gala (6°39'N. where there is a white shrine. lies about 0. 79°58'E. should keep in depths over 37m until Colombo Light bears 090°. Moratuwa.6 mile farther SE. with a depth of 5m.2m. Uan Gala.18 4. Vessels approaching Colombo from the N are advised to keep to seaward of Ona Gala (7°00'N.5m high and roundtopped. with its S end about 3. with a conspicuous white dome. or disturbance affecting the crane. 4.5 miles offshore. Sri Lanka and India—East Coast—Cape Comorin to Point Calimere 87 Colombo Port Signals Day Flags IT Flag G Flags POL Flag W 4. nearly 0. near its N end. vessels are cautioned against being set to the NE onto Ona Gala. lagoons. The appropriate quarantine signal is to be displayed by all vessels arriving in the harbor and no person except the pilot is to be allowed to board or leave the vessel until pratique is given. has a least depth of 1. steer to bring Colombo Light bearing about 090° until the vessel’s position is accurately determined. Vessels in quarantine must display the necessary signals. 107m high. and conspicuous. also steep-to. 173 . straddles the Kalu Ganga near its mouth.). Attention can be called to this signal by a continuous sounding with any fog signaling apparatus. white and red lights vertically disposed. has a lone round-topped banyan tree about 1 mile S of it.19 Pub. a fixed green light is shown at its top.1m and steep-to. Directions. Bombuwala Hill. also known as Tartar Rock.6m. with a depth of 5. Kelani Gala.. This hill is isolated and wooded except at its summit.2 mile W of the W rocky head. A restricted area. about 0. by night.5m. lies with its S end about 1. and white lights vertically disposed.17 4.18 4. runs parallel to the coast and about 0.17 4.17 4. a narrow ridge. rising to a uniform height of 26m behind it. Pala Gala..3 miles N of Galbokka Point.). lies about 2. all vessels passing or in the vicinity are to proceed at such a speed that they cause no wash or any kind. The shoal consists of two rocky heads over which the sea breaks during the Southwest Monsoon. The port surgeon is required. Nilkete Rock. It is steep-to and never breaks. From a distance of about 4 miles offshore there are no conspicuous landmarks along this stretch of coast. a fair-sized town. with a depth of 9. the railroad stations and the steel bridges which span the entrances of rivers. S of Gono Gala.18 Gono Gala (6°42'N. any infectious disease are placed in quarantine for a period decided by the port health officials.—When making Colombo from the W. is conical. Vessels having.19 4. a small town about 4 miles SSE of Moratuwa. 79°53'E. In such a case. described with Colombo Harbor in paragraph 4. by day.5 miles SSE of Mount Lavinia. an important town. for a distance of a 2 miles S of Mount Lavinia.—Ona Gala. Vessels discharging dangerous petroleum are surrounded. lie about 1. has a least depth of 6.17 4. White. and lakes are usually visible from seaward.4 mile SW of Golbakka Point. hoisted where best seen.17 4.8m. respectively. by a rope boom floated on red wooden buoys and displaying the following signals. Panadura. a narrow bank with a least depth of 16. The coastal railroad runs along the coast. A red conical buoy is moored about 0. about 23 miles S.5 mile off it. 79°50'E. The hinterland is densely wooded and there are numerous towns and villages.. A pilot is required. about 4 miles SSE of Kalutara. Two red lights vertically disposed. and Po Gala. is the outer of two rocks lying about 1 mile WSW of Panadura Station. then a course clear of dangers can be laid for the harbor.17. with a red square tower and a large gray water tower. During the Southwest Monsoon.18 4.17 4. Sri Lanka—West Coast—Colombo to Beruwala Point 4. 79°53'E.17 marked by a lighted buoy moored about 0.). and Beruwala Point.17 4. it is better for a vessel to be S than N of the port. is a pinnacle rock with a depth of 5.8 mile NNW of the N entrance. at a distance of not less than 30m.8 miles WNW of Galboka Point.

2m lie about 1 mile offshore for a distance of about 1.. is a low.—It is not advisable to anchor off Beruwala Point in depths less than 11m because of the off-lying dangers and the swell that is usually experienced.). forms the W side of a small bay.5 mile W of the point. Kaikawalagala Point is a low rocky headland. Pub. 80°18'E.). 0. lies about 0. 80°24'E. WNW of Beruwala Point. 4. about 12.8 mile of Kaikawalagala Point.1m. The rock should be given a wide berth. about 8m high.21 4.22 Akurala Point (6°12'N. which always breaks. Foul ground extends W and N of the point. A small rock.9 to 8. both dangers are steep-to and soundings give no warning of approach to them. as the bottom is irregular for about 0. about 0... Handram Gala. Babungala Point (Sabungala Point). a large boulder. lies 1.21 4.) has been reported to give good radar returns at 14 miles.9m. with a ridge extending E. 79°58'E. 173 .7 mile SSW of Beruwala Point. A ridge. parallel to the coast. about 2 miles SSE of Godagala Point.21 4. Yakada Gala. S for about 2 miles.20 4..5 mile and 1 mile. About 0. gives good radar image up to 35 miles.5 miles SSE of Godagala Point. lies about 0. is the outermost rocky islet off Beruwala Point. Delmar (Galgoda). the coastal belt of coconut trees is broken by a wide gap.6m high.4m high.19 4. about 2.1m high. lies about 0. lies 1.5 miles W of Kalutara. lies on the coast. Debaha Rock. about 1 mile W of Akurala Point.21 4.) is conspicuous. a boulder with depths of 2. Arangala Point. on its seaward side. although at this distance there are few landmarks from which to fix position.) and Galle Harbor. about 2. This anchorage should be approached by passing between Uheliya Reef and Pittaniya Rock. Foul ground extends up to 1 mile offshore between Akurala Point and Telwatta Point.21 4. 2 miles NNW. 80°03'E. though its summit is poorly defined. is isolated and fairly conspicuous.5 mile farther S.. If visible. Balapitiya Point. The most prominent landmarks lying near the coast are the monument on Galboda Kanda (6°24'N. 53m high.1m. 2. awash and steepto. with other dangers S and SE of it. forms a valuable mark when E of Waal Islet.4 mile W of Telwatta Point. a black bare rock. Prompt Rock. is surmounted by a temple and monument. with a rocky promontory at its N end. with a depth of 2. It is conspicuous from seaward and visible 10 miles in clear weather.22 4.5 miles NW of the point.4 mile S of Tria Gala. Pallaipara Rock.8 miles S of Ahungala Point. a rock.21 4.5 mile N. about 9m high. A ridge. 1. about 29 miles SSE. a 37m hill with a single tree on its summit. Pittaniya Rock. lies about 1 mile NW of Maggona Point. is dark-colored and consists of five heads. respectively. Galboda Kanda.5 mile E of the point.5 mile WSW of Godagala Point. Dodampara Rocks.7m high.5 miles offshore. lie about 0. local knowledge is necessary. is covered with tall coconut palms. Barberyn Light is shown from a white tower on the summit of Welmadura Island. can be seen through the gap.88 Sector 4. Maggona Point. in a depth of about 10m. 33m high.) is a dark-colored rocky headland.19 4. Hiniduma Kanda (6°20'N.4m high.21 Between the entrance of Bentota Ganga (6°26'N.2m high.7m.. with a temple and white monument on its summit. lie about 3 miles and 2. Tria Gala. clearly visible from seaward. and covered with coconut palms.. flat. about 0. it is obscured by trees from some directions. nearly 1 mile N of the point. at the outer end of foul ground. Depths of 5.. about 0.21 4.8 miles farther E. and its highest part is a rocky cliff. A 6. vessels should remain in depths over 37m. 14m high.5 mile WNW of the point. an islet which when seen from the W appears as a tuft rising over the 4. cliffy. it was reported that the coast between Beruwala Point and Balapitiya Point. Sri Lanka and India—East Coast—Cape Comorin to Point Calimere extreme point of low land E of Galle.20 4. 1.9m high.21 4.5 mile N of the point. respectively.4 mile W of it. Ahungalla Point (6°19'N. extends from about 1 mile W of the point. is 71m high and flat-topped with a single tree on its summit. about 0. with a depth of 5. A small hill. Foul ground extends 0. is a reddish point. is a flat-topped hill. Yakinigeduwa (Katakurundu) (5°58'N. are part of a group of rocks and reefs lying within 0.5m high and steep-to. with a depth of 5. 80°01'E. Anchorage. Deba Gala.4m. S of Pittaniya Rock. Good radar returns have been reported from Barberyn Light and Beruwala Point at 15 and 17 miles. Pelagas Kanda. lies about 2. which is about 0. lies close S of the point. Duwemodera Hill.4m shoal lies about 1. 4. and extends about 1 mile S of the rock.3 miles WSW of the temple at Kalutara. with depths of 6.19 Uheliya Reef. about 1 mile E of Arangala Point.5 miles S of the point. with depths of 7.21 4.) is 43m high. Kola Islet. However.21 4.). with a few palm trees on it. Welmaduwa Island.20 4.). covered with coconut trees. is fairly conspicuous. about 5 miles S of Kalutara. about 0. the sea always breaks over one of the heads. and has the ruins of a temple on it. about 3 miles SSE. at the outer end of an area of shoals and uneven ground. lies about 1 mile offshore. double point.7 miles.20 4.22 4. 80°23'E. and Hindelnattu (6°07'N. also forms a valuable mark. The latter point consists of several large rocks.8 mile offshore between Akurala Point and Patingala Point. or about 6 miles from the coast. two small rocks..4 to 9. Anchorage. lies about 0..20 Sri Lanka—West Coast—Beruwala Point to Galle Harbor 4. is a small rocky headland. and Modara Muduwa Rock. with a depth of 8. Godagala Point (6°25'N.7m. 4. 10. respectively.—Small vessels may anchor off Kalutara.20 Beruwala Point (6°28'N. 80°00'E. about 1.8 miles NW of Tria Gala. and Madda Gala. 79°59'E. The above dangers are the outermost of numerous dangers lying W and NW of Beruwala Point. about 9. with a least depth of 6. which is not very conspicuous. 80°06'E.8 mile SSE of Babungala Point. about 1. Vessels navigating along the coast should give the island a berth of 4 miles. 13 miles SSE.19 4. 80°02'E.5 miles ENE of Point de Galle. 2. 47m high.5m. Passi Rock.2m.21 4. a rest house lying among some trees on the coast. is about 12m high and rocky. about 0.) in the afternoon and Waal Islet (6°08'N.3 to 9.

A road bridge crosses the entrance of a lake about midway between the two buildings. but the W side of the peninsula is clear and covered by grass.). with pillared verandahs. During the months of May and June. accompanied by swells up to 4. Pedruana Gala. lies about 1. Caution. and covered with coconut trees. but none are particularly conspicuous. and backed by low hills rising to elevations of 45 to 70m about 0. 80°15'E. 4. has a least depth of 2.3 mile.4 mile W from the point. a channel draft limitation of 5. Central Channel has depths of 12. marked by breakers during both monsoons. it is joined to the mainland by a low flat isthmus.. the current sets E along the coast. very disturbed conditions.23 Bataina Gala (6°02'N. 14m high. During the Southwest Monsoon.4m.3 mile SW of Watering Point. A dangerous wreck lies on the E side of Ala Gala.9m maintained areas N and W of Gibbet Island no longer exist.24 4.. and lies near the W end of a bank with depths of less than 18.. about 0.24 4. between 0.22 4. flat.5 mile inland. three shoal patches.6 to 9. about 2 miles SW of Bataina Gala. about 1 mile ESE.1m. Middle Kadda Rock has a least depth of 4.7 to 8.9m.1m. and during the Northeast Monsoon in the opposite direction. pending further dredging. about 3 miles NW of Point Galle. about 1.24 4. Winds—Weather. a long two-story building. 2m high. and a depth of 11m in its narrowest part. and forming the W side of the harbor. two rocks close together. A government hospital. with a stranded wreck close E of it. at the S entrance of the Gin Ganga. a rocky projection.4m at MHWN. 5. Sri Lanka and India—East Coast—Cape Comorin to Point Calimere Hikkaduwa Point (6°08'N.—Eastern Channel is entered between Unawatuna Point (6°00'N.) and Alut Ground.8m and 8. An artificial harbor enclosed by two breakwaters is situated N of Gibbet Island (6°02'N. continues seaward to form a rocky point and has a clump of coconut trees near its shoreward end which serves to identify it. Within or on the edge of foul ground fronting this coast are several rocks above-water. the outer islet. A rocky spit. a bank with a least depth of 33m and frequented by fishermen.4 mile E of Point de Galle.. The N section of this harbor is a fishing port providing a pier where vessels with drafts to 3m can berth.6m in the inner part of the channel.24 4.5 miles W of Dodanduwa Point. Depths of 3.5m in its outer part. Alu Gala. the inner rock is 1.2 to 14.5 miles SE.Sector 4.5 miles SW of Dodanduwa Point. Kadda Rocks. and should be given a berth of at least 0. in 1984 it was dredged to a depth of 8. extends 183m SW from the root of the breakwater which extends WNW from Gibbet Island. 4. about 2. with depths from 2.2m.9 high and steep-to. Galu Gala..24 4. The coastline is thickly planted with coconut trees and the hillsides are densely wooded. about 7. Point de Galle is the S extremity of a peninsula projecting about 0.22 4.3 miles SE of Hikkaduwa Point. may be experienced in the harbor. Dredging of the channel to the harbor N of Gibbett Island to a depth of 9.5m in the outer part of the channel and least depths of 2. painted white. winds from the E and NE predominate from December to March.24 Pub.3 miles W of Point de Galle. There are coconut palms and other trees among the houses. lie along the W side of the central channel.5 mile S from the adjoining coast.3 miles NW of Point de Galle. is formed of a brown sandy beach with rocky projections at intervals. lies about 3 miles SW of Point de Galle in the approach to Galle Harbor.8m. and 0.23 4.6m may exist in these formerly maintained areas.24 4. The town of Galle is built on the S part of the peninsula and is surrounded by fortifications.8m. lies about 0.3m. on a shoal about 1. 9m high.5m was in force.23 The harbor is approached through Western Channel.4m.24 4.8 to 16.1m.24 4. is a rocky bluff. 4. 80°13'E.).7m about 0.22 4. 173 .3m patch was reported (1944) to lie about 13.8m for about 30m from the outer end.).—Winds from the W and NW predominate from April to November. Closenburg Pier. The climate in Galle is hot and humid in March and April before the Southwest Monsoon breaks. Central Channel. Further caution is necessary as it has been reported (2005) that there are least depths of 12. 80°06'E. is a large group of flat-topped rocks lying on the outer edge of the foul ground extending about 0. the sea breaks heavily over the entire length of these rocks.5m high. which fronts the N side of Gibbet Island. The Public Works Department bungalow. the swept depth decreases N of Gibbet Island to 6.—An 18. Tides—Currents. is a rock with a depth of less than 1. painted light buff. and Eastern Channel. with a depth of less than 1. about 1. The coast between Dodanduwa and Point de Galle.5 miles farther W.3m high. is conspicuous on the coast about 1. Waal Islet.22 4. but during the Northeast Monsoon the water over them is seldom disturbed.7m was completed in 1984. a rocky patch with a depth of 8.5m to 5m. 80°09'E. 49250 4.—Tides the tidal rise at Galle is 0. is 0.2 mile W of the head of this breakwater there are depths of 6. Outer Kadda Rock has a least depth of 3. is 427m long and can accommodate vessels with a draft of 7. Ala Gala.6m at MHWS. The piers on the NE side of Galle each have a depth of 1. sometimes lasting for 3 days.) World Port Index No. has depths of less than 1.22 89 4. 4.24 Galle Harbor (6°01'N. Inner Kadda Rock.) is low. Western Channel is unmarked and used by local craft only. The S part of this channel had been swept to a depth of 9.2m.3 miles S of Hikkaduwa Point Dodanduwa.23 4.24 4.4 mile S of Bataina Gala. 80°10'E. Manda Gala.6 to 8.22 4. The charted 9.24 Galle Harbor is entered between Point de Galle and Watering Point.7 mile farther WNW on the top of Nindan Godella. about 0. is steep-to.8m.7m. Hikkaduwa Gala is a rock.24 4.. The islet is fairly conspicuous from seaward. Western Channel has been reported (2005) to have least depths of 2. Depths—Limitations.24 4. In 1980.8 mile SSE of Point de Galle. is a low point terminating in two islets. During the Southwest Monsoon. 80°14'E.8m high.8m. among which a rest house is almost hidden. Mada Gala (6°02'N. with a least charted depth of 11.6 and 0. Goda Gala. lie about 0.

a 4. with a least depth of 9.3 mile WNW of Watering Point. a 3. surmounted by a staff and cage. on the SW side of Eastern Channel and also on the E side of Central Channel.2 mile E of Point de Galle Light. lies about 183m E of the fortifications on the E side of the town abreast Sailor’s Bastion. The only ones likely to be recognized are Residency Hill (6°02'N. Under no circumstances should implicit reliance be placed on the buoys being in their charted positions. about 0. a square stone structure with an elevation of 43m The Roman Catholic Chapel.8m. the sea breaks over it during the Southwest Monsoon. Imbu Ranne Gala. lies on the E side of the channel.24 4.2.24 4. respectively. about 0. a large wooded hill.24 4. Outer Katta. A dangerous wreck lies 2. 15m high. It is marked on its NW side by a buoy. a 0.24 4. A red and white checkered buoy.1.24 4. on which the sea breaks during the Southwest Monsoon.5 mile SSE of Point de Galle Light.5 mile SE of Point de Galle Light. Diya Mudawa.1m.24 4.24 4. 3. lies on the W side of Central Channel.) is shown from a round tower on Utrecht Bastion. Good radar returns have been reported from Point de Galle and Point de Galle Light. but becomes more hilly N. lies on the NE side of the channel. a black and white checkered buoy is moored SE of the rock. it is marked NE by a black and white checkered buoy. It is marked on its S side by a black and white checkered buoy. 90m high and flat-topped. A red conical buoy is moored close SW of it. and marks the W side of the entrance to Central Channel.24 4. at the SE extremity of the peninsula. is a black and white tower. appearing as a sharp regular cone flanked by lesser peaks appearing as though on the shoulders of its slopes. 62m high. previously described in paragraph 4. lies close NW of Gal Pare. about 16 miles farther NNE.1 mile E of Belikatu Wawa. Gal Pare.24 4. consisting of several heads with a least depth of 7. a large white two-story building with two small domes and some low minarets at the SE corner of the peninsula. The chapel lies on a hill and has an elevation of 41m. It is marked W by a buoy.8m patch.24 4.8 mile WNW of Point de Galle. lies about 183m SSW of this head. with a least depth of 7. All Saint’s Church. 173 .. lies on the E side of the channel. certain buoys are lighted as required by the port authorities.4m about 0. about 0.9m patch on which the sea breaks during the Southwest Monsoon. at 19 and 18 miles.24 4. lies about 0. 4. about 2 miles farther N. lies on the W side of the channel. about 0. with a square tower.24 4.1m patch.8m. may be seen a little to the E of Hiniduma Kanda. sloping down to the sea to form the E side of Galle Harbor. Among these hills is Kurundu Kanda.24 4.24 Photo Courtesy of Sri Lanka Maritime Achaeological Unit Point de Galle Light 4.5 mile ENE of Point de Galle Light.6m. about 0. The clock tower.24 4. Bloomfield Rock. consisting of several heads.8 mile SSE of Point de Galle Light. is moored nearly 1 mile S of Point de Galle Light. is a large conspicuous building. about 1. Point de Galle Light and Edwards Pillar form good landmarks. When vessels are leaving the harbor at night. Polkote Gala. 75m high. Approaching Galle. has a least depth of 6.5 miles farther E.—Inland. about 3. Sri Lanka and India—East Coast—Cape Comorin to Point Calimere 2. a rock patch with a least depth of 0. Adam’s Peak. If this buoy is not in position a signal to that effect is made from the signal station. Welihukka.24 4. On clear mornings in the early months of the year.2 mile NW of Imbu Ranne Gala. Matte Mada.24 4. Belikatu Wawa. a shoal with three heads and a least depth of 2. an 6. 80°13'E. Central Channel and Eastern Channel are buoyed.24 To the N of the town are extensive low wooded hills.9m. Point de Galle Light is shown on Utrecht Bastion at the SE extremity of the peninsula.5 miles W of Point de Galle Light on the E side of Ala Gala. Aspect. and Hirimbure Kanda. about 0.24 4.5 miles NNE of Point de Galle and Hiniduma Kanda (Haycock). previously described in paragraph 4. The following landmarks are on the W side of the harbor within the town of Galle: 1. Secundra Rock.4m over a head about 0. lies on the SW side of Eastern Channel. the country is generally flat. lying on the summit of Rumassala Kanda.9m shoal.).. about 0.7m.5 mile WSW of Watering Point. with a depth of 6. Galle Tower (Edwards Pillar). painted white with two towers on its front facing the sea and a dome behind. surmounted by a red four-sided pointed roof and a large weather vane in the middle of the town. 76m high. Pub. The mosque. Point de Galle Light (6°01'N. Sealark Rock. 80°13'E. Katta Gala has a least depth of 2.90 Sector 4.24 4.24 4.

lies with Pointe de Galle Light bearing 012°.) and Eriminia Gala Point.24 4. in no circumstances may cases of infectious disease be landed without the consent of the Government Health Officer. board them until permission is obtained from the health authorities.—Vessels approaching Galle Harbor from the NW should keep Point de Galle Light bearing less than 078°. During the Northeast Monsoon. In 1977.8 mile SE. The regulations governing vessels having plague. sloping gradually to Hindelunattu. the coast consists of an irregular sandy beach backed by a thick belt of coconut trees through which runs the railroad between Galle and Matara (5°56'N. but should anchor at the outer anchorage until daylight. one of which will accommodate a vessel 145m in length and 7. with tufted tops. on which the sea always breaks. extends about 0. The stern moorings are laid by the pilot. and W of the Outer and Inner Katta Buoys.24 4. Trees on the islet are 39m high. A pilot ladder on the lee side.Sector 4.2 mile E of the outermost buoy and follow the recommended track indicated on the chart. and two manropes of at least 3-inch rope with the ends free. Steer on this range until Central Channel is reached. The railway station at Talpe lies about 0.24 91 4..5 miles ESE of Talpe and fairly prominent. in a depth of 18.). the best berth.9m in length and 6. Directions.24 4. are the same as those for Colombo. There is also good anchorage during the Northeast Monsoon for vessels up to 152. keeping E of Capera Buoy and the similar buoy 183m N of it.5 miles ESE.25 4.1m patch.6m draft.24 4. Vessels are required to be ready to veer chain when required to do so by the port authorities. cholera. Vessels are not taken into the harbor at night. and with Kota Gala.24 4. vessels should await the arrival of the pilot close to the buoy at the W entrance of Central Channel. or yellow fever on board. Kotavanni. a solitary black rock. The pilot boards 1 mile S of Point de Galle Light. Colombo. course may be shaped as required.24 4. 4.2 mile SE 4. using both power anchors.9m high. Vessels approaching from seaward should keep the above light bearing 012°. lies about 0. about 0. who is in charge of the port and is also pilot at Galle.24 4. there are six anchorage berths.24 Vessels should anchor well clear of Central Channel and Eastern Channel and their approaches. Yakinigeduwa (Katukurundu) (5°58'N. there were two inner anchor berths for use by vessels with a draft between 7. This mountain forms a good landmark all around the S and SW coasts. 93m high. The usual signal for a pilot should be displayed by vessels approaching the port.3m. bearing 094°. a black rock close SE of Unawatuna Point.24 4.24 4. then follow the directions for that channel. with some above-water heads. Before the anchorage is reached speed should be reduced to the minimum consistent with retaining command of the vessel. in line with the Roman Catholic Chapel bearing 322°. 173 . 80°33'E.4 mile offshore. During the Southwest Monsoon. with their bows S and port anchors to the E. Sri Lanka—West Coast—Galle Harbor to Weligama Bay 4. 0. and the summit of a shoulder extending SW is also prominent.24 4.—Vessels without qualified medical officers may not have communication with the shore. During the Northeast Monsoon.24 4. about 1 mile ESE of Unawatuna Point. 80°23'E.25 Pub. sand.5 mile ENE of Unawatuna Point. The pilot can be contacted by VHF. with a pointed top.2 mile N of Utrecht Bastion. The depths are irregular outside the breakers. A large white house is conspicuous about 0. Then bring the N end of Kachcheri.24 4. recedes to form a small sandy bay. 15m high. about 3. about 8 miles NNE of the lake. helps to identify the outlet of the Koggala Lake. The bottom at the anchorage is sand and mud.1m draft. nor may any person. Malagoda Kanda.25 4.2 mile.25 4. Between Ereminia Gala Point and Yakinigeduwa (Katukunrund Islet).24 4. and must have their main engines ready to use at short notice. the land begins to rise.9 and 7m in the Northeast Monsoon. in line bearing 101° with Ereminia Gala Point.6 and 6. about 7.). Debaha Rock.8 mile SE of the lake outlet. extending up to 0. Regulations. When Point de Galle Light is abeam.25 The coast between Unawatuna Point (6°00'N. lies about 1.—Pilotage is compulsory for all vessels unless exempted by the authority of the Master Attendant. are required to be provided.25 4.. which leads to the outer anchorage. 410m high.8 mile E of Ereminia Gala Point. which will lead clear of the dangers W of the point. Vessels can be taken out of the harbor at night in good weather. distant 0. a large black rock. it is conspicuous with its large rounded summit and a small pointed shoulder on its NE flank.24 4. is joined to the mainland by a causeway. with Watering Point bearing 162°. with Point de Galle Light bearing 335°. Vessels moor head and stern. and Ereminia Galla Point. Sri Lanka and India—East Coast—Cape Comorin to Point Calimere Pilotage. a conical hill.4m in length and 9. about 0.4m in the Southwest Monsoon. A rocky reef. one of which will accommodate a vessel up to 121. The latter is provided with a pilot launch painted white with “Galle Pilot” painted in black letters on the bow. Vessels should send their ETA 24 hours in advance. and between 7.8m. but there are apparently no off-lying dangers except for a 9. except the pilot. 80°15'E. about 3 miles WNW of Yakinigeduwa. good holding ground.3 miles N of Talpe.4 mile farther E. 6. and a mooring boat. but is not available at night. vessels usually anchor in the outer anchorages. some being laid as required and others kept ready with ends secured to small white conical buoys. with a depth of 1. in 28m. A vessel entering by Eastern Channel should take care to avoid the dangers and foul ground extending from Unawatuna Point to Goda Gala (Bellows Reef). and the signals required for all vessels arriving off the port. About 2 miles N of Koggala Lake. over which the sea always breaks.4m draft. a conspicuous tree is on its summit. Anchorage. an islet.24 4. with steep. The message should be passed through Colombo Port Radio and the local agents. Vessels entering Central Channel should pass about 0.24 4.—During the Southwest Monsoon. cliffy sides. in the inner anchorages there are eight anchorage berths. The shore is fronted by reefs and foul ground.1m high. a conspicuous buff-colored building about 0. represented at Galle by the Assistant Master Attendant.. a rocky patch. about 1 mile ESE.

is encumbered with numerous islets and dangers. 4. Vessels should ordinarily keep in depths over 37m. lies about 0. about 1 mile E of Atalahua Point. is densely wooded with coconut palms and appears moderately high. about 30 miles NNE of the bay. is rocky and elevated. Karamas Rock..—Anchorage can be taken.5 miles SE of Mirissa Point.8m high. in 9.3 miles NE of Rassamunai Point and about 0. enter on the same range and pass E and N of Karamas Rock. with a gap in the hills inland.1m high. about 6 miles farther NNW.26 4. The shore between Wera Point and the S entrance of Polatu Ganga is mainly composed of moderately high. 4. until within 0. with a dagoba. with a depth of 8. is connected to Pub. Gongola.26 4. a low point. 80°26'E.5 mile N of Mirissa Point.7m. shoal rocky ground with a least depth of 6.6m.4 mile E of Kada Rock. with a depth of 5m.) World Port Index No.9m.2 mile E of Pares Shoal.6m high. Good radar returns have been reported from the point at 16 miles. Gan Island.25 Weligama Bay (5°57'N. with a depth of 4. an islet 22m high and covered with coconut palms. the sea always breaks on the foul ground extending up to 0. lie about 0.8 miles ENE.26 4.3m. Moolkalle Point.3 to 0. near the middle of the entrance to the bay. The sea always breaks on the reef fringing the point.4 mile farther E.386m high.). rocky and covered with scrub.5 miles E.26 4. Galgodiyana in line bearing 074° with Brown’s Hill. lies close E. about 0. about 0.5 mile W and 0. 49260 4.27 4. projects from the coast about 0. a sandy bight lies between Mirissa Point and Wera Point. 1. about 1.—Currents are irregular within 2 miles of this coast and W of Dondra Head.26 4. Talarambee Point.26 Weligama Bay to Dondra Head 4. and Ruwana Rock bearing 294°. Prinz Heinrich Patch.26 Weligama Bay. Vessels from the E should pass S of Prinz Heinrich Patch.5 mile E of Kola Point. 4. and is visible over the coconut palms.2 mile farther SE. This course leads between Kada Rock and Diyumba Alut Rock. Parei Duwa (Pigeon Island). is rocky and has a dagoba on it. The bottom is rocky and uneven in depths of less 9. leads W of Prinz Heinrich Patch. and Kada Rock. sand and rock. about 1 mile NNW of Mirissa Point. extends about 183m offshore from Veragalle Point (5°56'N. with a depth of 4. the S entrance point of Polatu Ganga.27 4. 0.4 mile N of Kada Rock. 21 to 30m high. lie about 0. off the village of Mirissa.26 4.. 80°27'E. Puhamodal Rock.5m high.5m high. Although no reliable information has been obtained it is probable that the anchorage SE of Ruwana Rock can be used during the Southwest Monsoon. with a least depth of 7. lies near the middle of the bay. Kalcotta Rocks.27 A rocky ledge.7m and steep-to.27 4.1m off this stretch of coast. Palapana Gala. The W and N shores of the bay to the entrance of Polatu Ganga is a sandy beach backed by coconut palms. lies about 0.26 4. 27m high and cliffy. The coast between Yakinigeduwa and Rassamunai Point. Proceed into Weligama Bay with Parei Duwa (Pigeon Island) in line bearing 352°. lie about 0.26 4. somewhat scattered.27 4.2 mile S of Atalahua Point.27 The coast between Mirissa Point and Galgodiya (Chula Lanka). 173 .27 4. 36.7m.5m or less. The village of Mirissa lies at the head of this bight. Rassamunai Point consists of red cliffs extending about 0. SE of Ruwana Rock.3 mile W of Mirissa Point. red cliffs.. 4. Sri Lanka and India—East Coast—Cape Comorin to Point Calimere Ruwana Rock. 80°32'E. The land at the head of the bay is very low and not visible from the bay.5m high. 0. The town of Weligama. lies about 0. lies about 0.26 from the islet. about 1 mile farther E. about 1. consists of a sandy beach backed by coconut palms. it contrasts with its surroundings as it is covered with low scrubs instead of coconut palms. between Mirissa Point and Kola Point. Several dagobas (shrines) on this coast show up well when light conditions are favorable. with a least depth of 2. Tanana Rocks.9m. Mirissa Point forms the W end of a fairly high peninsula partly covered with coconut palms. and pass about 1. Directions. lies about 0.—Vessels approaching from the W should pass about 0.26 4. Pares Shoal.). There is often an indraft into Matara Bay. 1.7 mile ESE. three heads. a SW swell may break on any shoal patch with a depth of 5. awash. about 5 miles E. about 2. entered between Rassamunai Point and Mirissa Point.28 Galgodiyana (Chula Lanka) (5°56'N. there are no palm trees on it. 12.27 4. leads S of the patch.26 4.2 mile off the head of the bay.26 4.3 mile N of it. Prompt Shoal.5 miles ESE.9 to 1.26 4. If proceeding to the anchorage SE of Ruwana Rock. Sealark Rock. On the E side of the entrance.8 mile S of Rassamunai Point to avoid Yala Rock.5 mile of Rassamunai Point where the land rises to terminate in red cliffs which form a prominent mark. A prominent reddish cliff. is 16.92 Sector 4.2 mile S of Talarambee Point.1 to 11m. Yala Rock.6 mile W of the islet. with a depth of 6.5 mile SW of Rassamunai Point. lies about 0. Diyumba Alut Rock. with a least depth of 2. lies on the NW side of the bay.4 mile S of Mirissa Point. and about 0. bearing 039°. 4.2 mile farther NNW.8 mile NE. about 0.26 4. a rocky head. 1.5 miles S of Veragalle Point. lies about 0.3m.5 miles SE of Mirissa Point. showing above the tree tops close behind it. Diyumba Rocks. with a depth of 5m and on which the sea occasionally breaks.4 mile W of Parei Duwa. is not easily distinguished from the shore W because of the coconut palms on it. On the E shore of the bay. is visible in clear weather above the intervening hills. lies about 0. with a least depth of 2.2 mile offshore. lies about 0. or in similar depths in the SE part of the bay.5m.5 mile ESE of Rassamunai Point. Mirissa Point in line bearing 347° with Hindelunattu.26 4. which lies about 1. Anchorage. 3m high at its highest point. but hilly country about 3 miles inland starts to rise to Hindelunattu.6 mile NE off Rassamunai Point. A good berth off the village of Mirissa is with the red cliff on Kada Point. Tides—Currents. Course may be altered ENE for the anchorage off Mirissa when clear of Diyumba Alut Rock. lies about 1. about 0.26 4.26 4. about 0.

the highest 37m high. Steer on this range and anchor. Two radio masts. and Kadul Rock. 52m high and identified by a red triangular patch on its SW slope.30 Sri Lanka—South Coast—Dondra Head to Hambantota Point 4. in 18. 4. near the E point of Dondra Head. 12. with a clump of coconut trees. lies immediately N of Mahawelli Point. with the small white dagoba. and backed by coconut palms as far as Kalametiya Point. consists of rocky cliffs which are about 30m high in one part.3 mile S of the islet. although it is connected to the mainland.30 4. A white dagoba lies 1 mile N of the point.3 miles NNW of Nilewelli Point. when seen from the E or W.2 mile E of the point. 4.6m high. The town is not easily seen from seaward. 0. but shows up less to vessels farther offshore. 80°36'E.30 4.5m high. nearly awash and always breaking. with Gandura Point bearing 248°.4 mile E of Kalametiya Point. about 0. S.5 mile farther NE. 0.30 4.) and Rekawa Point. in about 11m. Rocky reef. Madumora Reef.3 mile S of the rocks. just below-water.30 4. is a town of considerable size and importance.2m. The headland appears as an islet. lie about 1 mile farther E. 15m high.28 4. lies about 0. about 4 miles ENE. bearing 265°. nearly 9 miles ENE. about 0. 4. marked by red obstruction lights. because of the other hills behind it. has a somewhat elevated appearance due to the low-lying parts being covered with coconut palms. moderately high and rocky. The W part. Middle Rock. the coast becomes generally rocky. terminates in a large boulder. about 2.28 4.6m. it appears as an islet. Walakanda (Waulugala). two of which are about 2m high. lies about 1 mile ESE of Tangalle Point. about 12 miles ENE. about 6 miles NE. about 34 miles ENE. Sri Lanka and India—East Coast—Cape Comorin to Point Calimere the coast by a causeway in bad repair. Several rocks. Brown’s Hill.29 4. fairly high. just E of the clock tower. An IMO-adopted traffic scheme has been established off Dondra Head.28 93 4. lies about 0. The approach to the anchorage is made between Mahawelli and Middle Rocks. Anchorage can be obtained in the bay.). The coast between Dondra Head and Gandura Point. lie close E of Middle Rock. barren. with a depth of 8. The coast between Dondra Head and Hambantota Point.29 4. rises behind the red cliffs. The point is connected to the mainland by a narrow strip of sand over which the surf washes in a moderate swell. a rocky point about 1. there are no dangers outside a distance of 1. and nearly bare of trees. about 1 mile NE.).30 4. Mahawelli Rock. forms a good mark for vessels coasting. and E of Watta Rock. with an old conspicuous white fort. sand in the W part of Gandura Bay. 80°56'E. it again becomes low. from which a chain of rocky islets extends SE to Watta Rock. lies on Tangalle Point. between Dondra Head and Nilewelli Point. Tangalle Rock.6 mile.—There is good anchorage.5 mile SW. and a least depth of 2.7m. is entirely open S and mostly foul. rocky and barren.30 4. 169m high.8m over its N edge. 80°54'E. The latter point is the E extremity of a steep and rocky peninsula. Sleet Rock. in about 16m.31 Kahandawa Rocks (6°03'N. A rocky head.7m..8m high.3 to 9. Anchorage.5 miles NE of Nilewelli Point. lies about 0. and sandy. fronts most of the shore of the bay. about 8 miles ENE. Dondra Head Light is shown from a white octagonal tower. Etawa Reef. about 1. about 3.. has depths of less than 1. with a least depth of 3.2m high. but the clock tower shows up well in favorable light between the bearings of 347° and 302°.). with Tangalle Rock bearing between 167° and 149° 4. in 9. about 0. An islet. about 3. Kalametiya Point (6°04'N. a rocky point with boulders. awash and steep-to on its S and E sides. consisting of four distinct heads.4 mile NE of Nilewelli Point.5 miles farther ESE..31 Pub.29 Dondra Head (5°55'N.29 4. can be taken. sandy. 4.30 Tangalle Bay (Tangalla Bay) lies between Tangalle Point (6°01'N.8 mile SE of Galgodiyana..1 to 11m.5 mile NE of the light. Then to Hambantota Point. Good radar returns have been reported from Tangalle Point at 9 miles. lies about 0. with local knowledge. sand. with an elevation of 13. awash.3 to 1. is low with a grove of tall coconut trees at its W extremity.31 4.30 Nilewelli Point (5°57'N. lies between 0. a barren islet. respectively. lies about 0. and indented by bays. it is low.2 mile NNW. and is interrupted by only a few cliffy points.7m near its S edge. Matara. lie within 0. lies about 0.8 mile S of Kahandawa Point. Mahawelli Bay. sand. lie about 0. 49m high. on it. pass 0. From Nilewelli Point to Tangalla Point. Nilewelli Bay lies between Nilewelli Point and the S extremity of a rocky peninsula.3m. close N of Mahawelli Rock. Two detached above-water rocks lie off the S extremity of the peninsula. a hill with a bare summit.1m.) is rocky and steep-to. Rocky patches.4 mile NE and 0. Bambri Rocks. with a depth of 3. To enter Tangalle Bay.5 and 1 mile E of Kottagoda Point.5 mile E of Tangalle Rock. moderately high. Anchorage. with depths of 7. are situated about 8 miles NNW of Tangalle. 1. formed by the curving coastline between Galgodiyana and Dondra Head. Unaeria Rocks.28 4.3 miles E. on the NW side of the bay. lies about 0.29 4.8 miles ENE.6m. 80°43'E. The anchorage is not protected from the swell. A white pyramidal beacon. the S extremity of Sri Lanka.Sector 4. then steer about 021° until the coconut trees on the S bank of Kirama Oya (Kunkalle Ganga) are in line. about 0.29 4.30 4. is generally low and has sandy and rocky stretches.30 4.).29 4.5 mile NW of the fort. Matara Bay. To the E of the latter point. 173 . Gandura Bay lies between the latter point and Kottagoda Point (5°57'N. Some conspicuous red cliffs.5 mile farther ENE. Ma Rock. ranking next to Galle in the Southern Provinces. of which a small pinnacle just shows. Dondra Head has been reported to give good radar responses at 19 miles. 7m high and prominent due to the light color of its upper part. has a depth of 10m and is the outermost danger in the E part of the bay. 80°38'E. 80°48'E. with a depth of 4. Kalametiya Rock.. is connected to the shore by a causeway on which the sea generally breaks. The town of Tangalle (Tangalla). 24m high. lie about 0.3 miles offshore..

has a white dagoba within the point and a reef awash close E. foul ground extends 1 mile W of the rock.8 miles E of Rattan Point. 81°19'E.3 miles NW. in 10m. about 0.33 The coast between Hambantota and Illukatiya Point. The usual and recommended route for vessels proceeding along this coast is outside of Great Basses Reef (6°11'N. Rattan Point has been reported to give good radar responses at 18 miles.6m high. with a depth of 6. about 4 miles NE of Rocky Knob. lies about 0. A bare rocky ledge extends about 137m SE of the point. Between Dorava Point and Butawa Point.34 4. with points from 15 to 50m high. Kirindi Point. about 2. 98m high. Sri Lanka and India—East Coast—Cape Comorin to Point Calimere Katagarama Peak (6°23'N.3 mile W of the point. rocky. The village of Bundala is near this grove.9m over the outer one. a town and port. A large white martello tower and some houses lie on the promontory.34 4. 4. rather than E of the point where there appears to be much rock. In clear weather the mountain district of Sri Lanka will be seen in the background. Dorava Point (6°12'N.5 mile S of the point.3 miles ENE of Hambantota. S of Kirindi Point.. may be identified by a small grove of coconut palms lying behind it..33 4. 39m high. below and above-water. and is somewhat similar to it. from which it is separated by two sandy bights. over which the sea breaks heavily. Dorava Rock.). Swell Rock.31 4. is the summit of a range. about 5 miles ENE..31 4. 4. it is steep-to and the sea does not always break on it.3 miles NE of Dorava Point.33 4. in about 11m.31 4.32 4. is a remarkable pillar of rock protruding from a rocky ridge. is bare.34 Patirajja Point (6°10'N. described in paragraph 4.4 mile offshore between the points.8m. sand hills and rocky formations of moderate height lie close behind the coast. lies 0. Care should be taken in passing Little Basses Reef. Hambantota Point is the SE extremity of a rocky promontory with red sandy soil.).31 4. 0. with a depth of 6. is a continuous stretch of sand on which a heavy surf breaks. lies about 1.3 miles farther ENE. 81°08'E.31 4.5 miles NE of Kirindi Point.—The best berth in the bay.. there are several rocky patches. 15m high and rocky.) is the extremity of a sandy elevation.34 4.34 Sri Lanka—South Coast—Hambantota to Butawa Point 4. can be obtained off almost any part of this stretch of coast. with a least depth of 5. 80°03'E. a group of boulders. lies about 2 miles ESE of Godawaye Point and 1 mile offshore. 18m high. lies about 91m SE of it. 81°14'E. 81°29'E. Anchorage.31 4. 81°22'E.31 4. the highest part of the ledge.31 4. however. behind it. lies about 0.8 mile NE of Ulandhe Point. The latter summit is used as a range mark for the passage inside Little Basses Ridge. Ulandhe Point. 4. and 0.31 4. about 1. extends about 0.34 4. from 0. lies 1 mile SW of Ulandhe Point. 1. Open anchorage. 59m high. about 1. and easily identified. Rocky Knob. where depths of less than 18. about 7 miles SE of Katagarama Peak. 0. lies 0. the sea is less disturbed off the E part of the coast. at its outer end. 18m high.35 Palatupana Point (6°14'N. 162m high. which leads just E of Dorava Rock.—Open anchorage can be obtained.6m high. A rocky ledge.) and Little Basses Reef to the NE. A bare sandhill lies about 0. Urani Point. There is seldom much protection from swell in this bay as even with winds the swell sets onto the coast.2 mile W of Hambantota Point. The mouth of the Walawe Ganga. over a bottom of sand and rock.34 4. 425m high. A bushy summit. and a summit.32 4. Mutugala Point lies about 2 miles ENE of Palatupana Point. 34m high. about 6. Nehindi Rock. a rocky formation. lies about 0. Vessels approaching the anchorage should keep Kataragama Peak well open E of Kirindi Knob.. sand and rock. Good radar returns have been reported from the peak at 37 miles. Rocks extend nearly 0.) (World Port Index No. Hambantota Light was formerly shown from a square white tower on the summit of the promontory. Ibha Rock. extend about 0.32 4.31 4.34 4. is reddish in color and terminates in a rocky ledge. about 0. 42 miles ENE..3 mile ESE of Kirindi Point. lie about 1. with local knowledge.33 4. respectively. with a depth of less than 1. From the W.8 miles ENE of Kalametiya Point. passing about 2 miles SE of the lighthouses marking the reefs upon these ridges.8 mile SSE of Godawaye Point. Since 1977. with Korha Rock.5 mile S of Dorava Point.33 Anchorage.4m high. and a rock. appearing as a conical summit.5 miles NE. Good radar returns have been reported from Hambantota Point at 19 miles. The point is fronted by patches of rocky reef. The village of Kirindi lies close to the beach N of the point.94 Sector 4. a disused light stands on its summit..). lies on the W side of the bay formed between Hambantota Point and Pitawatan Point. about 3.3m extend to about 3 miles ENE of the lighthouse at the E end of this reef. is a very prominent mass of bare rock. Kirindi Knob. 6.9m and upon which the sea breaks in a moderate swell. at its extremity. Akasachetiya.5m. 49270). Anchorage. 4.37. it may be seen over the land inside Dorava Point.). 4. can be obtained. but none of the bights afford shelter during either monsoon. awash and steep-to. 173 .8 mile NNW.3 miles NE. is sandy and barren.35 Pub. Godawaye Point (6°06'N. bearing about 359°. is 4m high.5 mile ENE of Watta Rock.32 4.2 mile W of Hambantota Point.34 4.8m high. Lansiya Rock. in about 15. but flat-topped from E or SE. and another. is usually a small opening in the sandy beach. During the Southwest Monsoon.3 mile W of the point. the light has been extinguished.4 mile NE of Hambantota Point. about 2. such palms are rare in this area. The land between and behind the points is low. Rattan Point is similar to and about 0. about 11. of Mutugala Point. and is the outermost off the point. Shoal patches. is steep with red cliffs. it is sharp-topped when viewed from SW. 4.32 Hambantota (6°07'N.3 to 0.8m. The coast between Godawaye Point and Hambantota Point. if the wind is well to W.34 4. Close to the beach. 81°20'E.8 mile SE of Dorava Point. with hills here and there which usually rise abruptly.

).35 4.5 to 9. from about 1 mile NE of Pillanawa Point to Uda Point.8 miles NE. one above the base and the other close under the lantern. Shoal water.8 mile offshore between Butawa Point and Patanagala Point. on which the sea often breaks.2 mile long.37 Little Basses Reef (6°24'N..36 4.2 mile offshore for about 1 mile on either side of the point. with a least depth of 5. 0.6m and steep-to. The ridge is in most parts very narrow and steep-to.35 4. 5m high. Daedalus Rock. especially in its SW part. The outermost danger is a rock.5 miles within the NE end of Little Basses Ridge. lies about 0. Shoal and uneven depths extend up to 0.2m. appears as an island from a distance. Pahala Point.36 4.36 4.000 grt vessel. which is about 0.9m. with two peaks of nearly equal elevation and joined by a ridge slightly lower. The wreck of a 7. a bare.36 4. The sandy coast between Amaduwa Point and Butawa Point. 81°29'E. with depths of less than 18. about 0.36 Butawa Point (6°19'N.36 4.8m high and steep-to on its SW and SE sides. forms several bights with rocks lying from 0.6m high. 81°17'E.35 4. 81°29'E. stranded and broken in two. 95 4.35 Great Basses Reef Light is shown from the NE and highest part of Great Basses Reef. rocky ledges and sunken reefs extend about 0. The coast. the 200m curve lying about 1 mile SE of the reef.. The W peak is 50m high. Sri Lanka and India—East Coast—Cape Comorin to Point Calimere Amaduwa Point. lie about 0. The Sunday Times (Sri Lanka) Great Basses Reef Light 4. 173 . with depths of not more than 9. Patanagala Point is the extremity of a bare rocky hill. the outer part with a least depth of 5m. close together. with a black band.1m extending about 0. about 4 miles NE of Pahala Point.3 mile offshore.1 mile S of Amaduwa Point.35 Photo Courtesy of Udena Atygalle. extends from its SW end about 1 mile SE of Butawa Point (6°19'N. with a least depth of 6. The coast between the two points is principally composed of sand hills. Two of these rocks. rocky shoal.5 mile farther offshore.5 miles NE of Amaduwa Point. Good radar returns have been reported from the light structure at 16 miles.6m high. 4.35 4.8 mile SSE of Patanagala Point. This sandhill. An extensive bank lies S of the W half of Little Basses Ridge. lies about 0. for about 17 miles ENE. terminating in two rocky points about 0. 81°29'E.). and vessels should not approach within that distance of the light in either an ENE or WSW direction. Transit Hill. about 3.3m.4 mile WNW of Patangala Point. about 2 miles NE. with a conical top.6m high. 81°42'E..) lies about 1. A sand hill. The approach to the reef is steep on its S and SE sides. lies about 0.).2 mile offshore.2 mile offshore. the higher one 4. are above-water. on Little Basses Reef.5m. 38m high. from a white granite tower. about 3 miles ENE of Pahala Point. A rock.35 4.36 4. Two rocky heads extend about 0.5 mile from the coast. lies about 0. extends about 0. midway between the points. lies about 1 mile offshore..4 mile SE of Butawa Rock. 33m high. except within 2 miles of the lighthouse. Kumbukkan Oya is fronted at its mouth by patches of sunken reef extending about 0.8m has been found on Great Basses Ridge.5 miles NE of Great Basses Light. and has a least depth of 10m about 3. has a least depth of 3. the NE point is Pillanawa Point.1m. Little Basses Light is shown from a white granite tower. Great Basses Reef (6°11'N.37 4. the tower is surrounded by two galleries. The tower has a domed roof. extends about 0.2 mile SE of Butawa Point. Butawa Rock.37 4.36 4. backed by low land. Lewin Rock. Great Basses Ridge. has a depth of 9. Little Basses Ridge. and is surrounded by two galleries under the lantern. and shoal water extends about 0. about 2. 81°34'E.8 miles ENE from a position about 3 miles S of Urani Point (6°11'N.8 miles SE of Pillinawa Point (6°22'N. is closely backed by sand hills of moderate height.36 4. Illukatiya Point (6°30'N. rocky elevation.3 miles NE of Uda Point.) is rounded and moderately high. 4. about 2 miles from its E end. Good radar returns have been reported from the light structure at 17 miles.1 to 0. Ship Rock.) lies on the ridge. a steep-to and narrow rocky ridge. partly covered with scrub..36 4.36 4. and there are many rocky heads..5 mile S. its outer part awash. Pub. with depths of 5. lies about 4 miles NE of Patanagala Point. extends 13.1m and lies in the middle of a narrow.2 mile offshore. Elephant Rock. and is about 0. 42m high. about 0. The coast for about 2 miles SW of Pillanawa Point should not be approached within 0.8 mile SSE of Lewin Rock.5 miles WSW of Little Basses Reef. is the S entrance point of Kumbukkan Oya.4 mile ESE of the point.5 miles NE of Mutugala Point. is the extremity of a sand hill slope. 38m high.3 miles farther NE.36 4.8 mile apart. and appears to be a boulder resting on a narrow ledge. 1.37 Sri Lanka—South Coast—Butawa Point to Illukatiya Point 4.. is low and rocky at its extremity. about 3.3 mile S of the SW rocky head. lies about 0.36 4. poorly defined. A rocky reef. and somewhat resembling a haycock. 81°44'E. No depth of less than 12.). about 5. about 1. lies about 3. Chiddle Rock. with a depth of 9.8 mile.Sector 4. partly covered by scrub. about 3. parts of the reef.

) lies close N of a long.37 4. 26m high.5 miles NE of Little Basses Light.38 4.38 4. Mayagala. from there to Batticaloa Roads. a white martello tower. except N of Arugam Bay (6°50'N. appears clear of the summit. If wishing to communicate with the lighthouse. Komari Ridge (Komariya Ridge) lies with its N end about 1. 159m high. and the top of the precipice. lies about 3 miles WSW of the point. they are usually weak but can be strong when setting SW.) to Sangamankanda Point. which is isolated. it should be approached between the bearings of 134° and 109°. The depths off this coast are fairly regular.37 4. 86m high. as follows: 1.37 4. 173 .39 4. 8.37 4. a sandy jungle-covered ridge. Caution.3 miles farther NNE. Bolt Point. from a white concrete tower on a brown base. 5.39 4. The hill. about 13 miles W of Illukatiya Point.6m. about 5 miles NNE of Kongola. sandy stretch of coast line. and the land behind the coast is low and flat. Tides—Currents. Sangaman Kanda. can be seen outside a distance of 4 miles off the coast. but are variable and weak at times. is a scrub-covered rock.. has two summits.1m high. vessels should not approach within 1. 6. the coast is cultivated in many places with coconut palms. the higher of which is 306m high. lies about 1. Chimney Hill. Panawa. the approach to the reef should be avoided on all other bearings.5m. Sri Lanka and India—East Coast—Cape Comorin to Point Calimere ly in greater depths. Sangamankanda Light is shown at an elevation of 7. heavy breakers may be caused by winds and currents. October—The currents set NNE at 5 knots. but may be less. Mandagala. seen from the SE. where depths do not exceed 5.38 4. 6.—An area of shoal ground lies NNW of Little Basses Reef.39 4. vessels bound NE should avoid the SE coast of Sri Lanka. Atlas Rock.39 4. 4. with a depth of 5. March—The currents generally set SSW. 81°52'E. about 11 miles NW of Mandagala. In January. Dematagala. 3. which extends over low. about 2. 4.3 miles SE of Sangamankanda Point. It is a good landmark.38 4. 81°42'E. It is composed of sand and coral.38 4. and has a least depth of 5m. 4. is conspicuous. appearing as a truncated cone. and darker than its surroundings. 194m high. appears as a flat-topped islet.5m.5m.39 Sangamankanda Point (7°01'N. about 45 miles farther NNW. 81°50'E. appears as a single peak. rocky point. and September—The currents set NNE at 1 to 3 knots. May—The currents set NE at 1 to 3 knots.8 miles farther N. This hill. about 6 miles farther E. February—The currents usually set SSW at 2 knots. gradually decreasing toward the land.37 4. with a least depth of 12.—Tides and currents on Little Basses Reef are. Asses Ears.8m. lies with its NE extremity about 5. and has two summits. The bottom has been seen clearly in 16. changing about the middle of the month to SSW. about 2.96 Sector 4. its summit has a light-colored precipice facing E. Good radar returns have been reported from the point at 17 miles.) lies nearer the coast. The point. June.38 The coast between Illukatiya Point and Sangamankanda Point. 2. It is inadvisable for other than vessels of light draft to attempt to cross any part of the ridge. about 2 miles ENE of Mayagala.5 miles E of Sangamankanda Point. December—The currents set SSW at 5 knots. lies about 8 miles W of the entrance to Arugam Bay. has a remarkable cone-shaped appearance when seen from the E. January—The currents set SSW at 2 to 2. at the point. Nilagalahela. from N or S. Pub. The sea may break on any part of Little Basses Ridge with a moderate swell. terminates in a scrubcovered.—Winds from the W and SW prevail from April to November. 7. are easily recognized. flat ground to isolated hills inland.37 4. August. surmounted by a vertical rock resembling a chimney. such vessels should cross between 2 to 6 miles SW of Little Basses Light. but occasionally set SW.. and probab4.. about 33 miles NNE.37 Sri Lanka—East Coast—Illukatiya Point to Batticaloa Roads 4.5 knots. and a stretch of bare sand lies S of the point. is nearly all sandy and backed by jungle. The bottom is very uneven for about 3 miles seaward of the ridge. 28m high.5 miles of the reef with the lighthouse bearing between 148° and 185°. Kongola (6°34'N. and Kudumbegala. Egeria Patch. 221m high. July. The Sunday Times (Sri Lanka) Little Basses Reef Light Winds—Weather. as it is the highest in the vicinity. Depths beyond the E end of Little Basses Ridge are irregular and overfalls occur. lies near the point. from the E. April—The currents are variable.38 Photo Courtesy of Udena Atygalle. is unusual. a narrow ridge of coral and sand. the sea is rough. steep on its S side. the passage up and down the coast is easy. In March.

3 mile NNW of the shoal.4m. lies about 20 miles W of Sangamankanda Point. respectively. resembling a tower. 4. but from the NE it has no well-defined summit. may blow down from the hills.41 4.40 4. 125m high. and only seen between bearings of 247° and 292°. It is usually the first landmark coming from the N. when it appears as a low wedge-shaped hill with a small peak.39 4. 655m high. It is most prevalent during June and July.40 4. about 16 miles NNW. Gunner’s Quoin. is unmistakable.7m. Surveyor Rock. W or SW winds prevail from February to November. a railroad bridge crosses the lake in the vicinity.39 4.. 81°52'E. in 13. Anchorage.3m until Batticaloa Light bears 199°.5m patch lies about 0.41 The coast between Batticaloa Light and Clarke Point. conspicuous from all directions. usually W or SW. about 13 miles farther N. the latter wooded and wedge-shaped.41 4.8 miles NNE and 5.) World Port Index No. on its summit. best seen from E or S and very prominent. stands about 1. and is the outermost danger.2 mile ESE of Khandalla Bank. The Northeast Monsoon sets in towards the end of November.5 miles ENE of Batticaloa Light. a hot. is 56m high. it is safe to navigate off this coast by remaining in depths of not less than 37m. except for a few rocky patches within 1 mile of the coast. it is a very prominent. with a least depth of 1.—Batticaloa Light (7°45'N.4m. This is a convenient berth for communicating with the shore..). a white tower. a vessel should not enter into depths of less than 18. 28m high.40 4. about 15 miles W of Baron’s Cap. A conspicuous lattice tower.41 4. 558m high at its NW point. is hog-backed... it is a remarkable towerlike mountain.) is shown from a white tower.41 4. lies about 1.—A good berth for a large vessel.41 4. especially from about due E. a long and rounded mountain. Westminster Abbey.40 4. rising steeply from S and sloping N.3 miles farther WNW. Small Quoin.40 4. and readily identified from great distances in clear weather.40 Sri Lanka—East Coast—Batticaloa Roads to Trincomalee 4.—At Batticaloa. Khandalla Bank. is a sugarloaf hill. A cluster of red roofs is conspicuous about 10 miles N of Sangamankanda Point.41 4. about 17 miles W of Batticaloa Light. 49280 4.036m high. and a good mark. marked by red obstruction lights.Sector 4. lies about 183m SSE of the shoal. are visible about 45 and 31 miles. with a conspicuous rock. Kunchan Kallu. is covered with numerous coconut palms and backed by several conspicuous hills. During the Southwest Monsoon. 2. lies with Batticaloa Light bearing 151°. WSW of Sangamankanda Point. 4. outside this curve the depths increase suddenly and heavy overfalls occur even in good weather. 345m high. several mountains form landmarks. A light-draft vessel may approach the anchorage ESE of Khandalla Bank.40 4. respectively. Konduruhela (Kumburahela). Winds—Weather. The town of Batticaloa lies about 3 miles S of the lake entrance. with Batticaloa Light bearing 176°. the depths increase suddenly and overfalls occur.40 4. the wind is usually light and variable. the coast is low and covered with jungle.39 4. is 158m and from the SE slopes to a single rounded summit. usually from NE to SE. are prevalent. Numerous other dangers lie between Beacon Rock and Batticaloa Light. The depths off the coast between Sangamankanda Point and Batticaloa Roads are regular. From there to Foul Point. Sri Lanka and India—East Coast—Cape Comorin to Point Calimere In the vicinity of Sangamankanda Point. with a least depth of 5. on the W side of the entrance to Batticalao Lake. 736m high.5 miles W of the same point. instead of the usual sea breeze from E. lies about 10.39 Aspect. about 1.5 miles SSE of the light. Namunakuli. a sharp peak.39 4. off the entrance of Batticaloa Lake affords good anchorage during the Southwest Monsoon.100m high. 173 .9m.40 4. lies about 2 miles ENE of the conspicuous white tower. lies 12. along this coast. lie about 1. 7 miles WNW of Clarke Point.8m.39 Batticaloa Roads (7°46'N. is also conspicuous.40 Batticaloa Roads.41 4. with a least depth of 2. when winds from these directions are recorded in the afternoon. an open roadstead. During the night and morning at Batticaloa. Kirimechiodai Malai (Grimechiodai Malai). on an average of 7 days per month. A 5. particularly during the Southwest Monsoon. lies about 22 miles WNW of Sangamankanda Point and has a sharp peak. with a least depth of 6. Barons Cap.. with a least depth of 3. but is dangerous during the Northeast Monsoon. Wadinagala. with a least depth of 6. Caution. about 4. isolated sugarloaf peak. The 200m curve lies between 4 and 10 miles offshore.40 Pub.40 4. 210m high.). sea breezes. Thomson Hill is about 10 miles NW of Sangamankanda Point. in 12m. lies about 1 mile NE of the same light. and Maragal Kanda. about 35 miles NNW. 244m high.—Approaching from the S. about 7 miles N of Tower Hill. 81°30'E. 81°41'E. Beacon Rock. Depressions from the Bay of Bengal may affect Batticaloa at the close of the Southwest Monsoon. of Thomson Hill. Sharp Hill and Bennington Hill.). In the afternoon. 81°41'E. In thick weather.39 4. distant 1 mile. is well-named and shows up well among the surrounding hills. with Batticaloa Light bearing not less than 180°.2m.40 4.41 4. lies nearly 1 mile N of Batticaloa Light. A small vessel may anchor.39 4. lies about 183m SW of Surveyor Rock. Tower Hill (7°43'N. Beyond the 200m curve. and the hills inland are few and unimportant.40 4. even in good weather. 4. 81°24'E. 97 4. but from NE its top appears broader and merges with the hills farther S.39 4. and in the transitional periods between the monsoons.7m. from the SE it appears wedge-shaped and moderately steep-to S. about 0. Alphee Shoal (7°25'N.40 4. Friar’s Hood (7°26'N.5 miles WNW of Clarke Point. is a large wedge-shaped mountain. Brennus Shoal. it is conspicuous when clear of other hills. dry wind. In clear weather. and Tower Rock.5 miles NW.

covered with coconut trees. 13m high.1m high. Beacon Rock. Tides—Currents. 81°26'E. Norway Islet. 4. Alligator Rock.41 Baker Rocks lie on reefs extending about 1. lies on the beach about 3 miles N of the lagoon entrance and shows up well during the forenoon. a small rocky islet. to sea level in a rocky point at the SE corner. 21m high.3 knots.3 mile offshore. Heming Rocks extend about 1. except on its E side.8 mile NNW of Tree Rock.2 mile SW of Norway Islet.1m high and about 1 mile offshore. Tambalagam Bay. on the summit of the island. It has low sandy shores. with bastions at each angle. 4. Brown Shoal. lies about 1. 173 . about 4 miles W. lies close off the N end of Flagstaff Point. 2. the highest of which is 3m high. May to July—generally inappreciable.5 miles NNW of Clarke Point. The entrance of Trincomalee Harbor lies on the NW side of the bay. Dutch Point. the highest rock is 6. 81°19'E.43 Trincomalee Bay—Southeast Side 4.). is the SW end of Fort Frederick.1m at Flagstaff Point. 81°13'E. and close off a reef extending NW of the point. 15m high. Virgel Rocks (Virugel Rocks). The white dome of the Roman Catholic Church. about 5. lies close N of Clarke Point.42 4. A beacon.2m. October to February—usually S at 0. an extension of about 91m has been recorded after heavy rains. but irregular currents set strongly N and sometimes S.). 2.)..) is fronted by rocks. about 2.3m and steep-to. is low and fringed by rocks and foul ground. Coral Point.. lies about 1. 3.42 Kadeawella Point (Muricaadi Munai) (8°12'N. and the flatland.5 miles farther NNW. the NW entrance point of Trincomalee Bay. with some trees on it. about 0. on which the S part of Trincomalee is built. is the N end of Fort Frederick. September—Same as for May to July.3 knots.42 4. has low shores.43 4. lies about 1 mile NNW of Kevuliya (Foul Point). 19m high.2 mile from the N point. with a sunken rock close NE. The island is surrounded by rocks and shoals to a distance of 0. Several islets lie off the entrance. the island appears conical from the N. 81°19'E. Elephant Rock. Round Island (8°30'N.5 to 1. 4. with a least depth of 9.7 mile S. consists of bare rock with a well-defined summit.9m high. about 2. a large white building near the sea. 7m high and light-colored.44 4.8 miles farther W.) lies in the W part of Trincomalee Bay.8 miles N of Ship Rock. is conspicuous. lies about 0. the current sets as follows: 1. entered between Norway Point and Marble Point.45 4. with perpendicular sides and a flat top. abreast a conspicuous rock on the coast. about 1 mile S of Round Island. 81°13'E. 0. as is the Irrigation Office. is 9. an open grassy space between the fort and the town of Trincomalee. Munayai Paru.5 to 1.44 4. about 6 miles NNW of White Rock. lies about 5 miles NNW of Kadeawella Point and about 0. which gradually diminish in height from 9. Koddiyar Bay occupies the S portion of Trincomalee Bay.5 miles NW. Koddiyar Sands fronts the shore for about 1 mile E and 2 miles W of the mouth of the Koddiyar Aru.3 miles NE of Vandeloos Point (7°55'N. a rock. lies about 1.4m high. Tree Rock. It is a bold promontory with black vertical cliffs on its E side.) and Flagstaff Point. 4. 10m high.42 4.5 miles N of Kadeawella Point and about 1 mile offshore. 4. about 4. The Maidan. stretches back to Trincomalee Harbor.41 4. The Naval Com4.6m high. Niger Rock lies about 0. shoal depths extend farther seaward off the mouths of the Koddiyar Aru and the river about 1.1m high and wooded. 34m high to the tops of the trees. the highest islet. lies about 0. A 4.44 4. a coral patch with large boulders.43 4. 13m high. a patch with a least depth of 1. The N part of Dutch Bay is shoal and rocky. 7.5 miles WSW of Kevuliya (Foul Point). is low and fronted by a shoal bank. showing above the trees. Panditiva Munai.45 Flagstaff Point (8°35'N.5 mile E of Tree Rock.5 to 3 knots. about 4.42 4.3m high. detached rock.). Koddiyar Bay.5 mile NW of Elizabeth Island.98 Sector 4. 0. in the approach to Trincomalee Harbor. 51m high. which is entered between Kevuliya (Foul Point) (8°32'N. is low.5 miles NE from White Rock. Challitivu Island. lies about 0.44 4. with a tree on it.. is sharp and rocky. extends from the NW corner of Koddiyar Bay. has a cliffy and rocky sea face.44 4.45 Pub.3 mile WSW of Norway Point.5 miles W of Kevuliya (Foul Point). Dutch Bay lies between Fort Frederick and Dutch Point. 18. lies about 1. March and April—usually N at 0. with a small above-water rock close off it. The entrance of a lagoon lies about 2. The summit. consist of two sunken rocks and a rock.44 The coast between Kevuliya (Foul Point) and Norway Point.42 4. where there is a fortification wall. Northesk Rocks. about 2. Depths in Trincomalee Bay.3 miles NW of the W entrance of the Koddiyar Aru. with a building and a radio mast marked by a red obstruction light on it.. The white gateway of the fort.42 Approaches to Trincomalee Harbor 4.1m. on the S front. 5.43 Trincomalee Harbor is approached through Trincomalee Bay.8 miles NW of Coral Point.42 4. Clarke Point.5 mile NW of Dutch Point.5 miles WSW. 9. 81°35'E.41 4. 81°15'E. is about 0.45 4.5 miles E of Ship Rock. is very conspicuous from S. about 8. Sri Lanka and India—East Coast—Cape Comorin to Point Calimere light is shown from a white round tower. August—usually N at 0. is conspicuous about 0.42 4. The promontory gives a wedge-shaped appearance from the N or S as the top of the headland slopes with the cliffs. lies about 91m offshore.42 Trincomalee Bay—Northwest Side Kevuliya (Foul Point) (8°32'N. 0. with several rivers emptying into it.42 4. are deep. with a least depth of 4. Elizabeth Island (8°30'N.3 miles farther NNW. a shallow lagoon. and Prai Malai.. is surrounded by coral reef. lies near the summit of the island.6m high. and the outermost is 2.. about 5.4m high. on the S front. When the rivers are in flood..2 mile. Ship Rock.—Near Trincomalee.9m high. 4. White Rock. A large. and forms the SE entrance point of Trincomalee Bay.44 4.

Grommet Rock.3 mile NE of Elephant Point.47 4.—During the height of the Southwest Monsoon. Elephant Point. where it is steep-to. terminating S in a low. a rocky ridge. is rocky with a rounded base.47 4. respectively. wooded points. 33 and 30m high. is now under development. in 12m. Clappenburg Point. 3m high. rocky ridge. the remainder of the ridge is more sparsely wooded. is 36m high to the tops of the trees.5m. Hoods Tower lies near the summit of a 77m hill.3m patch. it also encloses several islands and islets. and is covered with jungle. the summit consisting of a large square-topped and flatfronted boulder. marked by a buoy.9m high.4m high. about 0.9m high.3 mile WSW of Clappenburg Point. Clappenburg Hill.45 99 4. as there is an excellent lee for landing anywhere along the shore.Sector 4.8 mile WSW of Round Island.48 Trincomalee Bay—West Side 4. out of Koddiyar Bay. as a commercial port. and surmounted by a disc topmark.5 mile S of Clappenburg Point.47 Marble Point (8°31'N. are long vertical streaks and spaces of red earth.47 4. lies about 1. about 0..000 dwt. entered between Clappenburg Point (8°32'N. Bulk cement and gypsum.45 4.). with a rock awash at its outer end.2 mile SSE of Chapel Point.7m.. The hill forms the NE end of Elephant Ridge. 103m high. 173 . The rocks forming the point diminish in height gradually.3 mile S of Dutch Point. It is the E extremity of a narrow cockscomb ridge. lies with Dutch Point bearing 174°. lies about 183m W of the SW end of Elephant Island.0m 5. which was formerly a naval base.). a wooded and fairly-conspicuous peak. lie about 0. A current has been experienced off Norway Point. A conspicuous masonry beacon.3 mile NE in a series of remarkable knife-edged rocks. and between the trees.46 Chapel Point (8°33'N. Pub. 49290 4. Dutch Bay will be found to be a more convenient anchorage for boat work than Trincomalee Harbor.5 mile. a white flat-topped two-story structure. and extends about 0.5 knots.47 4. extends about 0. spanned by a narrow causeway. is 0. lies about 0.. extending about 0. with a least depth of 3. Anchorage. with a least depth of 1.) and Elephant Point. about 0. 4. about 1 mile WSW of Clappenburg Point.3m patch. awash.2 mile NE of Grommet Rock. White Top Rock. appears from the E as a small round hill. Refined petroleum products. 81°13'E. The shores of the harbor are indented by picturesque bays and coves separated by hilly. to include improved alongside berthing. Trincomalee—Berth Information Facility Prima Outer Jetty Prima Inner Jetty Tokyo Cement Jetty Oil Bunkering Jetty Pier length 226m 122m 155m 200m Maximum vessel Draft 13. a 2. with a pillared veranda and lying among trees.4 mile ESE of Elephant Point. painted in black and white bands. about 0. and small shrubs grow along the crest. The part E of the gap is known as Clappenburg Island. about 0. Maximum air draft of 17. Depth alongside is 8. About 0.5 mile WSW and forming a straight bare cliff on its S side. about 0. a current. A 2. behind which the land rises steeply to Chapel Hill..46 4.5 mile NE of Chapel Point. the W entrance point of Trincomalee Harbor. apparently tidal. 30m high. sometimes attaining a velocity of 1.5m.7m Length 229m 122m 156m 200m Remarks Bulk grain. the ridge has two summits. but during the Southwest Monsoon the sea usually breaks over it. is the NE end of Ostenburg Ridge.6m 9. 105m high and covered with dense jungle. 79m high.47 4. Tides—Currents.9m 8.—Near Round Island. These steep-to dangers are seldom marked by breakers or show in any way. 2. distant about 0.) World Port Index No. is low and can be easily recognized by the low bastion of an old fort at its extremity.47 4. Rocky Point. and as a rule. Bagged flour. nearly 1 mile S of Rocky Point. 4.2 mile NE of Diamond Hill. SE of Clappenburg Point. The rock is often not visible on a calm day. 4.47 Trincomalee Harbor (8°33'N. lies about 0. The best anchorage.3 miles N of Marble Point.2 mile NE from the rock. and Nade Munai Paar.5 mile. but the higher portion is bare rock. 81°15'E. The harbor. The point is narrow and cliffy. no swell. lies close offshore about 0. and end in a shoal ridge about 91m outside the outermost rock.3 and 0. Chapel Island. Diamond Hill. Elephant Rock. runs ESE and WSW. setting NE at a velocity of 2 knots.46 Chapel Rock. is the only entirely sheltered natural harbor in the South Asian subcontinent. Elephant Island. lies on Clappenburg Point. Maximum beam of 34m.3 miles SW of Chapel Point. is flat in its N part with trees and bushes. Minden Rock. 81°13'E. 7m high. the cliffs are broken to the waterline by a precipitous gap.46 4. among these rocks is a rocky pillar that very conspicuous from the N or S. rises about 0. about 1. 4.47 4.5 mile NNW of Marble Point. The W part of the island is a narrow rocky point terminating in a small cone. 81°13'E. named Kari Malai Utu Malai. Sri Lanka and India—East Coast—Cape Comorin to Point Calimere missioner’s House.46 4.46 4.2m. Can accommodate vessels up to 15. about 0. is conspicuous about 137m farther N. rises to a double summit.48 Trincomalee Harbor.

48 4.3 miles within the harbor entrance. York Shoal. Ostenburg Point.3'E. with a least depth of 0.3'E. Can accommodate vessels up to 40. at velocities varying from 0. The W shoal.48 4. 1.. in the SW part of the harbor. close N of York Shoal. 70m high. A small 12.—The W side of Trincomalee Harbor is indented by four principal bays.48 4.48 4. with a mooring buoy at each end. A radio mast is situated about 0.48 4. the N entrance point of Malay Cove.48 4.).8m.).48 Dockyard Shoal.3m. lies about 0.48 4.6m.48 4.48 4.48 4. about 183m apart.4'N.2 mile WSW of Round Point.1 mile N and 0.7m over the E shoal. lies close E of Great Sober Island. but with a greater velocity near the shore. the mill is fronted by Prima Jetty. During the Northeast Monsoon. a shoal with a least depth of 4. the E extremity of Small Sober Island. located on the NW side of Cod Bay. occur. Eagle Point. the current sets SE at a velocity of 1 knot.48 4. The dry season is from May to September.5 mile N of Ostenburg Point (8°32.. about 0.3 mile SW of Middle Point. 0. A wind sometimes develops in the harbor causing small breaking waves which may endanger boats. Winds—Weather.5m at MHWN.).2 mile N of Eagle Point. rising to a height of 48m. 173 . lies about 1 mile NW of Eagle Point. Depth alongside is 13m. during the Southwest Monsoon.48 4. Little is known of the current inside Trincomalee Harbor during the Southwest Monsoon. Round Point Shoals consists of two shoal patches. A conspicuous flour mill and silos. A ruined causeway joins the NW part of Great Sober Island to a boulder-strewn spit extending NE from the coast. the W entrance point of the harbor. about 1. Round Point. has a least depth of 4. Vessels of almost any size can obtain anchorage in the harbor. on which Mount Challenger lies. 81°12'E.48 4. the wooded summit of the island. stand 0. Great Sober Island (Pambuttivu). Elephant Ridge Pub. 81°13. a T-headed pier.48 4. Aspect. Sri Lanka and India—East Coast—Cape Comorin to Point Calimere Trincomalee—Berth Information Facility New Pier Pier length 253m Maximum vessel Draft — Length — Remarks Containers and general cargo. marked by red obstruction lights. On the S side.4 mile WSW of the point. Elephant Point.6m. Prima Jetty. Clappenburg Bay lies on the N side of Clappenburg Island.48 4.2 mile ENE of Clappenburg Point. previously described in paragraph 4. but violent. is the E entrance point of Trincomalee Harbor. wind and rain storms of short duration. lies at the SW extremity of Ostenburg Ridge. about 0. Tides—Currents. extends SE from the NW side of China Bay.7m at MHWS.5 mile S of Round Point.—The tidal rise at Trincomalee is 0. the water flows inward at half the velocity of the outgoing surface current.48 4.8m patch.—The climate of Trincomalee is generally healthy.48 4. is situated in Malay Cove close SW of Round Point. A lighted buoy is moored NE of the beacon. During November and December.6m.5'N. Orlando Cove lies N of Little Sober Island. and probably at lesser depths.46. Small Sober Island.5 to 1 knot in mid-channel.. which is marked E and NW by buoys. existance doubtful. at the head of the harbor. about 0. there is a heavy swell on the outer beaches. the months with the greatest average rainfall. a T-headed jetty.2 mile WNW. marked NW by a buoy. Ostenburg Light is shown from a lantern on the SW corner of a wall of a conspicuous building. 35m high. lies in the entrance of Malay Cove.48 4. located about 0. and the SW extremity of Elephant Ridge.48 4. There is a least depth of 3. 81°12.—Although there are a number of piers in various parts of the harbor. is dominated by Gravel Hill. New Pier. Further information on the berthing facilities in Trincomalee can be found in the table titled Trincomalee—Berth Information.48 4. on the E side of Great Sober Island. are in ruins.4 mile WSW of York Island and its marked S by a buoy. although there is a tendency for showers in nthe afternoon and evening. lies about 0. Cod Bay.1m. used by bulk carriers to supply the mill. about 0. 3. the surface water is practically always running out of the harbor. is entered between Middle Point (8°34'N. After passing Elephant Point.48 4. Sister Shoal.48 4. Pandi Aricha Munai Paar (8°32'N. Clappenburg Wharf lies at the head of the bay. There are considerable depths extending about 1.48 4. A 3.48 4. the large majority of cargo is transferred by lighters. Railway Spit Buoy is moored close E of two shoal patches about 0.000 dwt. 1 (Oil Bunkering Jetty) lies on the S side of China Bay about 0. lying about 0. Buoys are situated close NW of the inner head and close SW of the outer head. and 0. to which it is connected by a ruined causeway. 2 and Oiling Berth No. has a least depth of 4. respectively of Round Point (8°33. China Bay lies N of Malay Cove and is separated from it by a promontory terminating in Round Point. A conveyor extends NW to the shore.48 4. lies about 0. consisting of two rocky heads with depths of less than 1. 4.2 mile W of Oiling Berth No.48 4.48 4.7m shoal patch and a foul area lie SW of Sister Shoal and are best seen on the chart.8 mile E of the light. Oiling Berth No. then gradually shoaling with a fair degree of regularity into the various bays and coves.3 mile NNW of Dockyard Shoal. is a detached dolphin jetty. Depths—Limitations.2 mile W of Round Point.2 mile NW. which also contain several coves. Koroela Rock..137m N of Ostenburg Point. lies about 0. is marked close S by a beacon. Oiling Berth No. At a depth of 18. 81°13'E.5 mile NW of Elephant Point.100 Sector 4. Tokyo Cement Jetty.) and Cod Point.

Vessels embarking a pilot should preferably lower an accommodation ladder.7 miles NW. Approaching from the N at night. Back Bay Light is shown during the Southwest Monsoon from a house about 0. Anchorage. about 3 miles NNW.48 4. is 9m high to the tops of the trees and is connected to the coast by a causeway. and passing through the red sector of Round Island Light. 81°15'E.48 4.5 mile NW of Round Island. in the SE portion of Town Bay. backed by a low shore fringed with coconut palms.49 4.3 mile NNE from the beach. The most sheltered anchorage in the harbor is in Orlando Cove. Bazaar Rock. farther inland is a low range of wooded hills.—Approaching from the S.2 mile N of Round Island. about 0.—The following signals. vertically displayed. but it is dangerous during the Northeast 4.—Pilotage is compulsory and is available during daylight hours only. wooded. Firing practice areas are centered 17 miles NE and 23 miles ESE of Trincomalee Harbor. extends from Ostenburg Point NE to Pepperpot Jetty.48 4. one of these is 0.48 4. about 1.48 4. Signals. Powder Island. vessels may be brought in at the discretion of the Deputy Master Attendant. or three green lights. is largely used by local craft trading with Trincomalee during the Southwest Monsoon. Keeping in the white sector. do not bring Foul Island Light to bear less than 193° until Round Island Light bears 247° on this bearing the sector changes from red to white.48 4.2 mile NE.—A good anchorage can be found in almost any part of Trincomalee Harbor during fair weather. about 3 miles NNW. The W shore of the bay. There are a number of houses on the point. and grassy slopes above. The pilots board 0. in 28m.49 Pub. when course should be altered 4. Sri Lanka and India—East Coast—Cape Comorin to Point Calimere and Ostenburg Ridge. alter course to 348° keeping the same light astern in the white sector. entered between Flagstaff Point(8°35'N.48 4. the land behind being slightly elevated. Vessels can communicate with the pilot station via VHF.5 mile NW of the point. and NW of Round Island. wooded. The highest rock is 2. Anchorage in the approaches to the port is only permitted to vessels awaiting a pilot. if arriving between 1800 and 2100.48 4. keep Foul Point Light bearing 179° until Round Island Light bears 236°. formed by the NW side of Fort Frederick.49 4. is the summit of the ridge. Orrs Hill. extending about 0.48 4.49 4.48 4. Powder Spit Buoy marks the W end of shoal water surrounding Powder Rocks.8 mile WSW of Flagstaff Point. with some mangrove bushes on it. The vessel’s ETA. or red and white lights. should be sent through Colombo at least 24 hours in advance. Then head for the beacon on that bearing until Round Island Light bears 168°. keep Foul Point Light bearing 179° until Round Island Light bears 236°. At night.48 101 NNW into the harbor. approaching from S.2 mile N of Round Island.49 Back Bay. by day. Approaching from the N. steer for Round Island Light on the same bearing until Foul Point Light bears E. or white light under stern light. The pilots board 0. Red Bluff consists of two patches of bare earthy cliffs. Coral reef extends about 183m offshore SW of the point.48 4.48 4. pratique for vessels arriving from another port in Sri Lanka is automatic.—There is a naval signal station near Ostenburg Point.6m high. 25m high. Directions.48 4. Caution. steer for the same light until Foul Point Light bears E. Keeping in the white sector. between Fort Frederick and Red Bluff. steering 314° until Round Island bears 235°. Two of these rocks are always above-water. separating the two bays. steer for it on that bearing until the beacon on Clappenburg Point bears 295°. surrounded by foul ground. Pilotage. parallel to each other. lies on the outer part of a reef. with the NE point of Great Sober Island bearing 316°. A white cylindrical beacon stands on the point. partially obscured by trees. and fronted by coconut trees. keeping Foul Point Light bearing 090° astern.1 mile SW of Plaintain Point.then proceed as directed above.48 4. Plantain Point is the SW end of a narrow wooded peninsula. Vessels awaiting a pilot should anchor 0. is formed by a smooth sweep of sand.48 4. at night—The vessel is infected. vertically disposed. at night—The vessel has not yet received pratique. best seen on the chart. Flag Q by day. a group of low black rocks. Vessels may enter during daylight hours only.6m high. Elizabeth Point is low and not easily distinguished.48 4. Then alter course to W. but vessels may find sheltered and convenient anchorage in Dutch Bay.48 4. House flag under the ensign at the stern. if this is not practicable they should let down a pilot ladder and two stout man ropes. then proceed as directed above. 0. keeping the same light bearing 168° astern. An entry prohibited area. lie about 0. pass 2 miles E of Foul Point.—All anchorages and landings in the approaches to Trincomalee and those within the harbor are subject to security clearance from the Sri Lanka Navy and prior notification to the pilot station before use. The Port Health Officer boards vessels after arrival at the anchorage. Anchorage may be taken anywhere in Back Bay during the Southwest Monsoon. 3. about 1 mile W of Flagstaff Point. 2.) and Elizabeth Point. are required from all vessels arriving off the port: 1. Yard Cove is entered W of Plaintain Point.5 mile SW of Powder Island.5 mile E of Elizabeth Point.49 4. Powder Rocks.48 Sri Lanka—East Coast—Trincomalee to Point Pedro 4. bearing 168°. On entering the white sector of Round Island Light.48 4. together with a dangerous cargo declaration. Lively Rocks lie at the E end of a shoal spit extending about 0. has a rocky shore with steep. with a lookout tower about 0.48 4.Sector 4. A shoal spit extends about 0.49 4. 14m high and covered with jungle. Orlando Cove. consisting of flags from the International Code of Signals. Regulations. steer for it on that bearing until the beacon on Clappenburg Point bears 295°. at night—Restricted pratique has been granted. Town Bay and Powder Bay lie in the area between Ostenburg Point and Plantain Point. two straight-topped hills. The SE side of the bay. form the S part of the E shore of Trincomalee Harbor..7m high. 4. Signal QQQ by day. The sea nearly always breaks on another of these rocks. 173 .48 4.

and a 3m depth lie about 1. Malai Porru Putta Paar. about 6 miles ESE of Point Pedro.3m.51 4.8 miles NE and 2. a conspicuous tree lies on the NW side of the gap. and farther NW along the coast. 80°29'E. Fairlie Rocks.7 mile SSE of the island. Anchorage.) is shown from a metal framework obelisk with a dome top. has a church which is conspicuous between the bearings of 180° and 200°. lies with Flagstaff Point bearing 137°.49 Nilaveli Hill. Caution. There are several other Hindu shrines at Manalkadu and Katkovalam. vessels should not approach the coast between Elizabeth Point and Pigeon Island in depths of less than 46m.—A number of rocks and shoals. the top of the obelisk has a height of 22.51 4.6 mile.3m patch. in depths of 18.49 4. The E extremities of Fort Frederick and Chapel Island.49 4. lies about 1.8m. 80°54'E. 4. extend about 7 miles N from a position 4 miles SSE of Mullaittivu Light. is visible at intervals between the trees. The coast between Katkovalam and Point Pedro is lined with casuarina trees and palms. lead E of this danger. with a shoal area extending E. respectively. mud. a gap appears distinctive between the bearings of 200° and 248°.51 4. Another very distinctive gap in the coast. is marked by Point Pedro Light.8m high. in 14m. painted in black and white bands. are the two shallowest heads. with depths of less than 1.4 to 14. N of the cliffs.. stands about 1. at Kudarappu. 19.52 Pub. Another tower stands about 2. 55m high and shaped like a sugarloaf. Saint Mary’s Church.3 miles NE of Andamban Malai. Caution.5 miles farther SE.5 miles NW of Mullaittivu.51 4. awash. The most convenient berth. with a conspicuous tree SE.3 miles N.5m high. about 21m high.51 4. 80°15'E. a low rocky headland. shown from a white masonry tower. 1. about 17 miles NW. From abreast Point Pedro. lies about 5 miles WNW of Ava Point. vessels may obtain sheltered anchorage up to 2 miles offshore S of Koduwakattu Malai. lies about 3.3 miles farther SSE. Saint Anthony’s Church lies 4. distant about 0. lie off this section of coast. Mullaittivu Light (9°16'N.51 4. Pigeon Island. 4. Mullaittivu Shoals. Flat Rock. It is fringed by reefs with two rocks 4.3 to 28m. rocks.50 Monsoon. 65m high. 81°05'E.49 4.) has conspicuous cliffs. lies about 2 miles WNW of the point.4m high. lies about 1 mile SE of Shoulder Point. with a least depth of 1. Some very conspicuous sand dunes lie near the coast about 4.51 4. These shoals also extend about 3 miles E of Mullaittivu Light. Shoals extend E. a white obelisk. about 1 mile NE and 3.2m. surmounted by a white diamond. About 8 miles farther NW.—During the Southwest Monsoon.).51 4. Koduwakattu Malai (8°52'N. with a depth of 2.. a sharp finger-like peak.102 Sector 4. consists of long. a concrete beacon. but are conspicuous at times. A group of rocks. Pedro Channel. about 8 miles NW of Chundikkulam. NNW of the sand dunes. and several miles NW. Diomede Rock. a rounded hill 116m high.52 4. about 3. in line bearing 179°. 32m high. the passage between Pedro Shoal and the coast. it stretches about 23 miles SE.1m. Good radar returns have been reported from the point at 17 miles. Foul ground extends about 1. and uncharted dangers may lie within the 20m curve.. Pinnacle Rock. 173 . Chundikkulam. about 2.50 4. with a red roof..—Vessels should not approach the coast within 2 miles between Shoulder Point and Mullaittivu Shoals..50 4.) is the N of two rocky headlands separated by a sandy bay. respectively. sand. Stork Shoal.3 miles NNW of Saint Mary’s Church. 4. and Ethiopia Shoal.3 miles ENE from Ava Point. has several gaps SE which are not always visible. A Hindu shrine.5 miles NW of the above gap. Black Point (9°06'N.1m high A light is shown from the point.1m high.6m. about 4 miles farther NW. with a least depth of 4.5 to 18. visible from seaward and close to a red-roofed church.5 miles farther N. one of which is 6. is conspicuous about 1. lies roughly parallel with the coast and from 3 to as much as 8 miles offshore. and which was not examined in 1945.8m. Sri Lanka and India—East Coast—Cape Comorin to Point Calimere 9. The shore is generally wooded and backed by low hills. lie between 1 and 2 miles NNE and NNW of the lighthouse. This dangerous shoal is steep-to and the sea does not break over it. 15m high. The coast between Elizabeth Point and Koduwakattu Malai. and for about 1 mile offshore between Ava Point and Koduwakattu Malai.49 4. about 2. During the Northeast Monsoon the sea breaks heavily on the N side of Mullaittivu Shoals. is also conspicuous. and a rocky islet lies about 0. Pedro Channel South Obelisk.51 A conspicuous hillock lies about 4. lies about 1 mile SSE of Flat Rock.5 miles farther NW. 30m high and rocky. the NE point of Sri Lanka.3m. 80°49'E. 6. Pinnacle Rock.5 mile offshore E of Nilaweli Hill. 4. has depths of 11. in 16.5 and 6. radio masts are conspicuous about 1.3 miles ENE. is conspicuous about 2 miles NW of Kaddaikadu.1m patch and an 11. A dangerous reef.51 Kaddaikadu (9°34'N.5 miles NW of Saint Mary’s Church.5 and 5 miles. there are no reported off-lying dangers with the possible exception of a 9. close N. awash.49 4. is conspicuous about 3 miles NNW of Elizabeth Point.49 4. in the village of Mullaittivu. Shoulder Point.52 Point Pedro (9°50'N.50 4. with depths of less than 9. Vessels passing Mullaittivu Shoals should not approach within depths of 37m.). The entrance to a lagoon. lies about 1 mile NE of Elizabeth Point.5 miles NW of the sand dunes. about 10 miles farther NW.8 mile S of the point. sandy beaches fronting several lagoons.50 Andamban Malai. about 7 miles NNW. Point Pedro Shoal.5 miles offshore between Elizabeth Point and Ava Point. 4. 61m high.—At night or in thick weather. of Shoulder Point. Caution. Pedro Channel Middle Beacon. Manalkadu Church was reported to be distinctive between the bearings of 188° and 270°. is conspicuous about 0. 4.49 4.50 4. 36m high. lies about 5 miles NW of Ava Point. Reefs and foul ground extend over 1. of Nilaweli Hill.5 miles NW of the obelisk. lies about 6 miles NW of Koduwakattu Malai.50 4.1m.3m. on which the sea breaks. with depth of less than 4.50 4.51 4. respectively.50 4. extend 0. lies about 2 miles ESE of Ava Point. A framework tower.

5m draft.52 4. Directions.53 4. Tides—Currents. 80°03'E. Anchorage. a red sand-haze forms over the land between Mullaittivu and Point Pedro. Middle Channel. A least depth of 10. The obelisk will then be visible from the N until the high trees and light structure at Point Pedro are made out. The three principal entrance channels are South Channel. a town and port open from mid-February to mid-October.1m patch about 4 miles SSE of the point.3 mile.6m in the center of the channel. Middle Banks consist of numerous shoals.7m at MHWS.5m.3m.. and April the tidal currents are more regular.3m. During February. in a calm.—A vessel passing outside of Pedro Point Shoal should not approach land inside depths of 37m by day. then to Tondaimanar.53 4. the currents reach a velocity of nearly 1 knot in Delft Channel and about 0. a depth of 5.. After clearing the latter shoal. and North Channel are generally used by local vessels. lies between South Banks and the shoal water extending NW from Karaitivu (9°44'N. the tidal currents follow the direction of the coast.6m high. the lagoon entrance close W serves as a leading mark for East Channel. There is a custom house with a red roof and several bungalows in the vicinity. which extends about 21 miles WSW from Point Pedro (9°50'N. and fringed by a narrow reef extending up to 183m offshore.5 miles NW of Point Pedro. 4. setting SW and SE during the falling tide at Trincomalee.1m. A vessel proceeding through Pedro Channel should pass Mullaittivu Shoals in a depth of not less than 37m. but local knowledge is necessary to ensure safe navigation in this depth..8 mile W of Point Pedro. being irrigated from numerous wells. and they vary the strength of the current in the vicinity of Middle Banks. between the shore bank fringing Point Calimere and a 4. Large vessels use Pedro Channel and West Channel. a current setting out of the strait is usually found. When a N current is running outside Palk Strait.5 miles farther WSW. 79°57'E. Other dangerous wrecks in Palk Bay and Palk Strait are best seen on the chart. The strait is occupied largely by banks. with a least depth of 2. lies about 0. alter course NW keeping about 1. 79°52'E.53 4. 49300) is the chief port of call on the N coast of Sri Pub.53 4.54 4. and North Channel. it is presumed that the reverse takes place. lined with tall palms.53 4.5m. Vessels should not approach within 0. with a least depth of 10. the coast is stony. Depths of 7. The coast from Point Pedro to Palmyra Point.52 4. 4. Currents generally set with the wind.). about 18 miles SSW. 4.5m was reported (1973) to lie in approximate position 10°01'N. Depths—Limitations. except in May and October when they are variable. 173 .54 The S shore of Palk Strait is formed by the N coast of the Jaffna Peninsula. A stranded wreck lies in Middle Channel SE of Middle Banks. is lined with palmyra and coconut palms from 21 to 27m high. with a least depth of 4. The tidal currents in Palk Strait and Palk Bay are irregular. or inside depths of 46m at night. At springs. about 5. lying N of South Banks. lies between South Banks and Point Pedro Shoal. and by numerous shoals with less depths over then. consisting of East Channel and West Channel. Between Tondaimanar and Kankesanturai.53 4. Close inshore.. tidal currents are felt. 7.3 to 9.1m extend E of these banks to join Point Pedro Shoal.52 4.—During SW winds. the haze may reduce coastal visibility to about 3 miles. 80°03'E. and there will be no difficulty in avoiding Ethiopia Shoal.5m was reported (1973) about 16.53 4.9m over a width of about 1. Caution.) and Point Pedro. In the middle of Palk Bay. with some cliffs and sandhills visible from seaward.7m could be carried (1944) through West Channel over a width of 0.53 4.Sector 4. has a least depth of 5.55 Kankesanturai (9°49'N.53 Palk Strait (10°00'N. 80°00'E.) (World Port Index No. Tandaimanar is marked by a cliff.52 4. The channel. During February. elsewhere the least depth in this channel is 5. except in the prohibited anchorage area near Point Pedro. and should not approach the coast NW of these shoals inside depths of 18. From West Channel to Delft Island. is about 4 miles wide.. The best time to make the obelisk is during the forenoon. about 6.8 knot in the West Channel.5 miles off the coast.5m.53 Palk Strait—South Side (Sri Lanka) 4.). Sri Lanka and India—East Coast—Cape Comorin to Point Calimere Point Pedro. the current sets leeward in either monsoon. They set W during the rising tide and E during the falling tide at Trincomalee.52 4. 4. there is no current in the entrance of Palk Bay. between Middle Banks and Point Calimere to the N.53 4. When a S current is running. until Pedro Channel South Obelisk bears 280°. North Channel. March. The banks include Eight Foot Bank. 79°53'E.5 miles S of Point Calimere (10°18'N.53 4. N of Point Pedro.53 4.1m in the fairway. lies between the N coast of Sri Lanka and the E coast of India.—South Banks (9°57'N. South Channel..8 miles.). March.) consist of a number of shoals with depths of less than 5.The Jaffna Peninsula is most fertile.5 hours at high and low water in the bay.5 to 9.—It has been reported (1993) that vessels may not use Palk Strait and the E territorial waters of Sri Lanka without prior permission of the Sri Lankan Naval Command. The coast should then be approached on this bearing. This coast is generally low and sandy. between South Banks and Middle Banks.—Good anchorage can be obtained in any part of Pedro Channel.. with a least depth of 7. the N extremity of Sri Lanka. with depths of less than 5.—The tidal rise in Palk Strait (Point Pedro) is 0.3m. and 0.52 103 Palk Strait 4. with depths of from 5. forming the N entrance to Palk Bay. South Channel consists of E Channel and West Channel. Middle Channel. It is backed by salt water lagoons and stony plains. This course leads N of the shoals extending NW from Mullaittivu and S of the SE end of Point Pedro Shoal. and fringed with a reef. and April. East Channel.53 4.5m at MHWN. Caution. as discolored water and shallower depths than charted have been reported in this vicinity. It has been reported (2002) that a small dolphin jetty at Point Pedro can work lighters of up to 2. 80°15'E. changing every 6.5 mile of this coast. so as to arrive at the S end of the channel about noon. A depth of 5. between Pigeon Inland (8°43'N. being influenced by the prevailing winds.54 4.).5 miles W.53 4. 81°12'E.

when the lagoon entrance close W of the village can be distinguished.56 4. 79°53'E. a racon transmits from the tower. extends about 1. due to the large blocks of wood and strong moorings attached to them. and on the W by the coast of India.57 Palk Bay (9°30'N. and within it are several islands. but on its E side depths of 9. the sand hill has some palms on it and is conspicuous from NW. inside of which local craft find shelter in bad weather. At the E entrance to West Channel.5m. A detached 5. 29. 173 . lighterage operations are only conducted from March to October during the Southwest Monsoon. for vessels during the Southwest Monsoon. extends up to 2 miles offshore in places off the NW end of the Jaffna Peninsula. A 3.55 4..56 4. Anchorage for vessels waiting to berth can be obtained about 0. The bay has general depths of 11 to 12..) and a low point.7 to 5. anchor off the beach during good weather.) bearing about 207°. covered with mangrove bushes.56 4.5 mile NW of the breakwater head.55 4. with a least depth of 4. should not get into depths of less than 14.1m and less extend up to 15 miles from the coast of Sri Lanka.5m and less.. with depths of less than 5. is bounded on the E by the coast of Sri Lanka. Shaullavanaigenpatam. 4.104 Sector 4.8m. and with the column at Shallavanaigapatam bearing 281°. and flooded during heavy rains and high spring tides. rocks. the continuation S of Palk Strait. a course of 281° should be made good through West Channel.).6m until Point Calimere can be distinguished.8 miles NW of the conspicuous sand hill W of Matakal.55 Vessels of 20.55 4. A spit of hard sand.). A light is shown from a round masonry tower. Atirampattinam (Adirampatnam) is a port of refuge for local craft between May and September. is bordered by palmyra and coconut palms. which projects from the coast close S of the entrance to the Vellar River. The coast between Kankesanturai and the NW extremity of the Jaffna Peninsula. The NW part of the bay has not been fully surveyed. berth between two mooring buoys at the harbor entrance until the quay has been completed.56 4.5m. on the S by Mannar Island. Vessels intending to enter through South Channel should make for a position about 12. The least depth in the fairway of West Channel is 10.3m high. A light is shown from a white masonry tower. and shoals. A pilot will board at the anchorage.2 mile W from the breakwater near its NW end. 4.55 4.5 miles.5 miles ESE of the port. With S or SE winds.3m. soft mud.1m extend up to 7 miles from the coast.55 4.56 4. It has a considerable local trade.1m. A bank. 4. extends 13 miles ESE from the low point close S of the entrance to the Vellar River. fronts the W side of Karaitivu.5 miles N of Tondaimanar (9°49'N. with depths of less than 5.—Many fish traps are laid off the N coast of Sri Lanka and constitute a danger to powered vessels.56 The N shore of Palk Strait consists of the low-lying coast between Point Calimere (10°17'N. about 61m high. on the NE point of the island. principally with Sri Lanka.55 4. 79°30'E.2m coral patch lies near the outer edge of this bank. it should be steered for bearing 185° until depths increase to 11m. on Kovilan Point. has a sandhill. Vessels intending to enter Palk Strait through North Channel should sound continuously. and with Kovilan Point bearing between 125° and 075°.8 miles WNW of Kovilan Point. is conspicuous about 1 mile WSW of Kankesanturai. the coast consists of mud flats.2m high. about 4. Large vessels should use Pedro Channel and West Channel. A conspicuous sand hill lies about 1 mile W of Matakal. nearly 1. lie N and NW of this flat.). 4. about 29 miles W. Sri Lanka and India—East Coast—Cape Comorin to Point Calimere Between Point Calimere and Atirampattinam. which may be used as lighters.8m. by keeping in the middle of the fairway to avoid the bank off Matakal and the shoals extending NW of Karaitivu. 18.56 4.1m high. lies about 5. and Pamban Island.5 mile NW from the shore 0. Adam’s Bridge. A drying sand bank.56 4. There are two stone bastions on the beach and a small pier. has a a high column which is conspicuous and visible 15 miles. especially at night. of the cement works.56 4. Karaitivu (9°44'N. with a draft of 7. Palk Bay 4. with depths of 5.8m.5m. Anchorage may be obtained..2m on the SW side of the breakwater near its root. There is a berth for coastal vessels drawing up to 4. with Kovilan Light bearing about 158° and the obelisk on the N end of Analativu (9°41'N. near the W bastion. A heavy swell generally runs over the spit and it should not be approached from the E within a depth of 11m.55 4. exercising great care. a village about 5 miles WSW of Kankesanturai. 22. but during the Northeast Monsoon it is considered good. and if coming from the SE. with depths of 3.5 miles NE of the point. keeping in depths of 11 to 12. 79°53'E.56 4. On the S side of the bay depths of less than 9. and there is a custom house. 6. about 2.56 Lanka. a quay for vessels discharging coal and gypsum for the cement works was under construction in 1983 on the S side of the spur. There are two radio masts at Jaffna Airport. a heavy swell sets on this coast making the anchorage unsafe. with the white tall mast at Atirampattinam bearing 000°.5m high.56 Pub.55 4. It has considerable trade with ports in S India. off the NW end of the Jaffna Peninsula. 80°08'E.57 Palk Strait—North Side (India) 4. A spur extends 0. Smaller vessels may anchor closer to the town.55 4.56 4. 79°47'E.5 mile W of Western Bastion. Point Calimere Light is shown from a concrete tower.1m. Vessels not supplying the cement works anchor off the beach near Western Bastion in good weather.. about 39 miles WSW. A chimney. in about 5.000 dwt. Cargo boats. Caution. the outermost of these shoals. extending up to 3 miles offshore. Several shoals. Then alter course W towards the entrance to West Channel. the NW extremity of Karaitivu. and fringed by coral reef. A flat.5m patch lies about 1 mile SE of the outer end of the spit. about 6 miles SW of Atirampattinam. A breakwater extends about 0.55 4. close within the point. about 9 miles WSW.

Punkudutivu.58 A flat. Mandaitivu. separated from Velanai by a narrow channel.7 to 5. A rocky shoal. Tall palm trees are on the W and NE parts of the island.59 4. due to a shallow salt water lake which occupies the middle of the island. Neduntivu Shoal. the pier support a double railway track. marks the NW extremity of Delft Island. about 3 miles W. near the W end of Mannar Island. but there are some coconut palms on its S end. about 2. 79°51'E.. the Southwest Monsoon blows from the middle of May to October. 79°41'E. and has depths of 3m at its head.59 4.9 to 5.) is a small port on the N end of Velanai.5 miles NNW from the NE extremity of Delft Island. about 4 miles NW of Kalmunai Point. Jaffna Lagoon.59 4. 21. Sri Lanka and India—East Coast—Cape Comorin to Point Calimere Caution. 4. 79°25'E.58 4. is planted with some coconut palms. lies on the W side of the channel. also has tall trees on it.3m. Small local vessels anchor.1m high and surmounted by a white disc. A white iron framework beacon. A conspicuous white framework beacon. separated by a canoe passage. 7.59 4. lies on the N shore of Jaffna Lagoon.) and Mandaitivu.1m high and surmounted by a white disc. On the E side of the channel. about 2 miles NW of Lands End. a narrow detached shoal ridge of sand and coral. the pier carries a double railway track. the W island.1m high. 173 .58 4. lies about 0. is low and covered with tall trees.5 miles SW of Eluvativu. A beacon. during strong NE winds. near the middle of the S side the channel separating Velanai and Karaitivu. with trees about 6.6m high.4m on each side of the pier head.59 4.5 to 3 miles NW of Fort Hammenhiel.1m can be carried over the N end of the shoal bank which extends NNE from Delft Island. has a village lying among palms in its N part. The Northeast Monsoon prevails at Jaffna from the end of November to February. is 12m high and covered with scrub. Kachchaitivu (Kachchtivu) (9°23'N. A pier. the island appears as two islands. 4. Mannar Island has been previously described in paragraph 4. 1.59 4.58 4.5 mile to 2. is marshy in its N end. The pier is 219m long.5m.58 4.58 Kayts (9°42'N.11. The fairway of Delft Channel has a least depth of 9.57 Palk Bay—East Side (Sri Lanka) 4. 4. with the N point of Eluvativu bearing 135°.) is separated from Nayinativu by Delft Channel. Mannar Island Light is shown from a conspicuous white concrete tower at the root of the pier. Dhanushkodi (9°11'N.60 Talaimannar (9°06'N.8 miles ESE of Delft Island. a white obelisk. 80°01'E. a depth of 9. is a sandy islet. NE of Punkudutivu.59 4. 79°43'E.5 miles WSW of the S end of Karaitivu. Palaitivu. The port is open throughout the year. was previously described in paragraph 4. 4. There is regular ferry service between Talaimannar and Dhanushkodi.6 mile off and nearly parallel with the W side of Nayinativu. divided by loose stone walls. Nayinativu. is covered with tall trees. Fort Hammenhiel.). about 9. lies about 0.59 4.). A light is shown from Jaffna Obelisk. is connected to the railway system of Sri Lanka. a tower.59 4. in about 3.59 4.1m over a width of about 1.59 4.3 mile SW of the SW extremity of Karaitivu.. a white concrete tower about 2 miles NW of Kalmunai Point. 16. while the S part is grassland. sand.58 4. is conspicuous at its N end. When seen from some distance N. separated from Nayinativu by a channel about 1 mile wide. about 1.—Dangerous wrecks and other hazards to navigation in Palk Strait are best seen on the chart. 4. A radio mast.). stands near the NE end of the island.58 4.. about 2.6m. with depths of less than 5. stands on the SW side of the island. and discharge part of their cargo before entering port.. lies about 4 miles NW of Palaitivu. 79°53'E. Analativu.5 miles between the 10m curve lines off Nayinativu and the NE extremity of Delft Island. 8 miles ENE of Kakerativu.6m high and covered with scrub. is mostly covered with coarse grass and scrub. but is most frequented during the Southwest Monsoon. is connected to the railway system of India.2m. near the SW end of the island.60 4. about 19 miles WNW.60 4. and enclose a large basin with depths of 2.Sector 4. stands near the NE end of the island. A light for the use of fishermen is shown from the NE extremity of the island. 79°59'E. The prevailing winds are SE during March and the first half of April.1m.1m high. A light is shown from a structure on the fort. Anchorage may be obtained. several islands and shoals lie on this flat. extends about 10 miles W of the W end of Jaffna Peninsula.) and Irnativu South are two low.55.59 Delft Island (9°31'N. stands on Kalmunai Point. A white tower.5m. Kakerativu (Kakeraitivu).8m high. Eluvativu. distant 1 mile. for use by vessels of the ferry service between Dhanushkodi and Talaimannar.7m.60 4.. there is a conspicuous small temple. with depths of 4.). the principal town of the Jaffna Peninsula. in 7. 7. with a least depth of 3. about 10 miles SW of Delft Island. is the largest island of the group. A white tower. marks the SE extremity of the island.3 to 3.).58 4.5 miles S of Analativu. shallow expanse of water.2m. 80°03'E. the northernmost of the islands.6m high.59 Pub. Irnativu North (9°17'N. Pamban Island and Adam’s Bridge have been previously described in paragraph 4. Karaitivu (9°44'N. Irnativu North. up to 6. with the S end of the high palms bearing 067°. may be obtained off the W side of Delft Island. a large.5m. with a least depth of 1.59 Palk Bay—South Side 4.58 4. 16. Jaffna (9°39'N.. is entered between Kalmunai Point (9°36'N. with an elevation of 16. from 1. A pier extends about 264m N of the coast at Talaimannar.3m high and marked by a red obstruction light. with a red roof.3 miles NW of Jaffna Obelisk.12. Punkudutivu Light is shown from a conspicuous stone building near the SE end of the island.. extends from the NE coast of Pamban Island abreast the town. 79°25'E. 105 4..59 4. stands in Jaffna.. 26. Temporary anchorage.60 4. and extends from 0. Velanai. the quarantine station. with depths of 3. coral islands. consisting of a white brick tower with an elevation of 14.

5m extend about 2.61 4.5 miles SW of the above low point. lies close N of the light. A light stands about 4.) to Devipattanam.61 4. The channel N of the rolling lift-bridge over Pamban Pass is marked by buoys and beacons. Depths of less than 5. 79°13'E. about 5 miles ESE of Tondi. about 17.61 4. Pamban Light is shown from a conspicuous white tower on a sandhill on the NW point of Pamban Island. is generally low and level.3 and 0. stiff mud. mud. Vella Pertumuni Reef extends about 3 miles W of Kathu Vallimuni Reef. but this position is exposed to all but offshore winds. in 6m. and lies parallel with the coast for about 1.5 mile W of Pamban Island Light.3 miles.. Anchorage may obtained. about 0.5m high. consisting of scattered coral heads. 17. South and SW winds prevail from April to October.5 mile NE from the broad peninsula extending N from Pamban Island. about 40 miles SW. Depths of 5. lies close N of the W extremity of Pamban Island..62 The W shore of Palk Bay between the low point S of the Vellar River (10°04'N. Depths of less than 9. Tondi (9°45'N. There are several heads. NE Beacon.61 Kanthe Thuki Reef. A detached 6.61 4.3 mile NW of Kanthe Thuki Reef.5m high and white. There is a well and a small shrine on the NE side of the island.8 miles W of Ramen Point. Pamban Pass was previously described in paragraph 4.60 4.62 4.61 Palk Bay—West Side (India) 4.7m. at the E end of the reef. administered by a conservator. mud.61 4. which dry 0. is a small port for local coasting craft.7m high. mark the port limits. A water tower. and about 0. painted in black and white checkers.9.106 Sector 4. 4. 5. from which it is separated by a boat channel.) and Devipattana. 4.5 miles NE of Tondi.) (World Port Index No. 79°11'E. 49330). The town of Attangarai lies on the NW side of the entrance of a river.).. in 10m. mud.62 Pub. Small vessels anchor nearer the town. 4.5 miles NE of the river entrance. about 5 miles farther SW. with Pamban Island Light bearing between 122° and 134°. Outer Fairway Buoy.6m. distant 1 mile.9m patch lies about 7. 79°01'E. Good anchorage may be obtained.61 4. about midway along this stretch of coast. Pasipattanam Mosque stands on the coast. extends up to 0. is moored in the N approach to Pamban Pass. in about 4. consisting of a red square tank on a framework structure. with Pamban Island Light bearing 135°. in 6. Two white masonry beacons.5m and less extend from 3 to 5 miles off this coast. 4.. A boat channel between this reef and the coast is used by pilots when boarding vessels during the Northeast Monsoon. about 21 miles NW. 79°14'E. good holding ground.7 mile WNW of Pamban Island Light.61 4.61 Pamban (9°17'N. Kathu Vallimuni Reef.61 4. Anchorage may be obtained.1m extend 1 mile SE of the island. 4. lies between 0. Sri Lanka and India—East Coast—Cape Comorin to Point Calimere The coast from Ramen Point (9°17'N. composed of partly drying coral heads.5 mile offshore.9m. Cargo is handled by lighters to and from the beach. distant about 3.62 4. is conspicuous about 3 miles W of Ramen Point. 173 . is generally low and level.61 4.

SECTOR 5 — CHART INFORMATION Pub. 173 . and Related Products (Unlimited Distribution). Charts. The Laccadive Islands and the Maldive Islands 5.0 Additional chart coverage may be found in NGA/DLIS Catalog of Maps.107 5.

except for its SE point. which are large enough to admit light craft into the natural harbor.2 mile N and 0.).7m. with the NE extremity of the islet bearing 335°. and free from dangers.3 5.3m. and Amini..1m at HW and 1. which generally enclose a regularly formed lagoon.2 Cherbaniani Reef (12°20'N. the lagoons remain calm in the worst weather. A coral reef stretches around the S and W sides of the island. consists of Agatti. Anchorage can be taken. 72°30'E.3 5. Caution. This N shoal area should be avoided as it may be shallower and is encumbered with coral reefs which can be plainly seen by a vessel passing over them. on the N side of Nine Degree Channel. in 11 to 18. 173 .3 5. 5.3m.1 5. and about 0. has a depth of 2. especially toward the S end. and that there was no safe anchorage off Bitra. about 24 miles SE of Byramgore Reef.2 Bitra Par. is an atoll which encloses a lagoon.9m.. Bitra. The NW. The N group..).3 to 0. which dries from 0.5 mile from its W side. Some boat passages apparently lead into the lagoon.2 Chetlat Island (11°41'N. lies at the S end of the reef. distant about 0. Tidal currents at springs set strongly in and out of the lagoon. but the greater part of the reef is only visible towards LW.4 mile offshore. 5. 5.3 Pub. but it increases in width on its E and S sides.0 Plan. Byramgore Reef is below-water. The Laccadive Islands 5.109 SECTOR 5 THE LACCADIVE ISLANDS AND THE MALDIVE ISLANDS 5. Pitti Islet. in 19. The coral rocks forming the reef are discernible at LW. Androth.. 5. consists of Chetlat. 5. very deep. marked by yellow lights. separated approximately by the parallel of 11°N. and great caution should be taken in thick weather. are higher than the body of these shoals.3 5. are located throughout the islands. in 16.6 mile WNW from the N end of the island. is about 0. but it is encumbered with coral reefs. respectively.1 5. The receding tide leaves the outer edges of the reef nearly dry and the tide runs out of the lagoon through breaks in the edges. Suheli Par.5 mile long in a NW-SE direction and about 183m wide. with depths of 7. As these islets and islands are low. The best landing place is on the S side of the island. they should be avoided. on the S side of Nine Degree Channel.1 The Laccadive Islands (10°00'N. The islands are divided into two groups. with the SW end of the barrier reef bearing about 338°. drying and awash. is about 2 miles wide and is indicated by overfalls.). A sand cay. Each of these islands lies on extensive coral shoals and no parts of these formations are more than about 4m high.5 to 18. The barrier reef. and with the SW and SE points of Chetlat Island bearing 011° and 045°.2m. Shoal water extends about 0. close S of Tree Islet. Shoal depths lie all around this reef.—Fish aggregating devices. There is a jetty on the NW side of the island. about 31 miles ENE of Bitra. A light is shown from a white framework tower on Bitra Islet. consist of a group of coral atolls lying between 115 and 215 miles off the SW coast of India.3 The Laccadive Islands—North Group 5. boats can enter the lagoon through this opening.1 5. but the shoal area on the N side. The arrangement of the sector is from N to S.3 Tree Islet (11°36'N.5m in length.1 Byramgore Reef (11°55'N. 71°45'E. The S group. 72°11'E.5 to 7. with coconut trees only 18 to 24m high and not discernible for any great distance. There are.—This sector describes the islands.3m. extending about 0. with an islet and some sand banks on its N and E sides. 71°55'E. it is advisable to use a local boat.) is separated from Cherbaniani Reef to NNE by a channel about 17 miles wide. is narrow on its W and N sides. known as the Cannanore Islands. atolls. is wooded and inhabited.4 mile SSW from the S extremity of the island. The outer edges. Due to the great depths in the vicinity of the islands soundings give no warning of their proximity. Depths within the lagoon are from 5.3 to 14. An opening in the reef. Kiltan.3 5.2 5. the best anchorage.).. near the SE point. about 0. N and S. in good weather. at the N end of the atoll. some wide and deep channels between them.4 mile W from the coral reef. where there is a depth of 2. on this bank during the Northeast Monsoon. 72°42'E. N. Minicoy lies about 110 miles S of other islands of the S group and is of special importance due to its location in the principal navigational route of the Indian Ocean.6m. Anchorage may be obtained. and reefs which make up the Laccadive Islands and the Maldive Islands. on the shoal areas extending N from the N end and SSW from the S end of the island. and Minicoy (8°18'N. abreast the opening S of Tree Islet. several detached shoals and banks lie off the islands. When landing on the island. Mariners should keep at least 500m off these devices. meaning the hundred thousand islands. and Kalpeni.2 5.. care is necessary when making the anchorage.1 5. Cardamum. Kavaratti. and E sides NEof Cherbaniani Reef are steep-to. however.2 5. known as the Amindivi Islands.6 mile. A vessel reported this anchorage was unsafe for a vessel 91. which dries.2m at LW. 5. lies about 0. Anchorage can be obtained. 73°02'E.) is the northernmost dangerous reef of the Laccadive Islands. During the Northeast Monsoon. but a bank extends about 1 mile offshore from its W and S sides.

72°25'E.). Kiltan Island was reported to be a good radar target at 13 miles.3 mile from the N end and about 0.8 mile from its W side. with its SW point about 21 miles NNE of Sesostris Bank. 5.6 Cardamum Island (Kardamum Island). A reef fringes the W side of the island extending about 0. with depths of 1.3 to 29m. depths increase rapidly. Anchorage. in a depth of about 15m. is covered with coconut palms. It extends about 0.5 5. about 11 miles W of Basses de Pedro. outside the 20m depth contour.4 mile W.—Anchorage can be obtained off Kiltan Island in fair weather. Kiltan North Light is shown from a white. In 1974. about 18 miles SW of Kiltan Island. These areas should be avoided. A raised stone platform. Depths from 18. off the NE side of the reef.7 5. about 0. 72°44'E.7 Pub. respectively. making the edge of the reef difficult to distinguish.. boats approach the steps through a channel marked by pillars.. In calm weather. The best position.3 to 22m. about 0.).2 to 0. A depth of 24m was reported (1963) to lie about 13 miles ENE of the S end of Cora Divh.4 5.2 mile from the S end of the island. The island has a post office and a hospital. abreast the boat entrances on the SW side of Peremul Par. about 60 miles ESE of Kiltan Island. distant about 0.7 5. extends about 0.6 mile S. steep-to.8 mile from its SW and N sides towards the middle of the island. at HW.4 5. A stone pillar lies behind the platform. with the sand cay bearing 213°.8 to 11m between them.6 5.5 5.7 5. distant 1.4m near its SE edge.4 5. both marked on each side by a stone post.1 miles. Amini Island Light is shown on the S point of the island.110 Sector 5.5 5. The drying coral reef.5m and a least depth of 10. extends nearly parallel with the island.6 mile. round concrete tower at the NW corner of the island. about 0. much of the reef does not break. with a smooth sea..1m. Anchorage can also be obtained.4 mile offshore.4 mile wide. forms the E side of a coral atoll. the S end of which lies about 63 miles NNW of Kiltan Island. with general depths of 12.2 to 0.).8m. Cora Divh. shoal water extends about 0.4 5.4 to 73m. the bank was reported to lie from 4 to 5 miles SE of its charted position.7 5.4 to 55m. and surrounds both the N and S ends of the island. 73°00'E. A boat passage leads through the N end of the reef to a shallow lagoon where there is a jetty on the W side of the island. 173 . with steps leading to the beach. and about 0.3 mile NW of the NW end of the island.2 mile from the reef.1m. a shoal.). Peremul Par. The recommended anchorage is with the S point of the island bearing 137°. Anchorage in good weather can be obtained off the reef S of Kadmat. The remainder of the lagoon is encumbered with drying coral reefs. the most important of the Amindivi Islands. in depths of 8m to 20m. is a narrow drying reef enclosing a lagoon. and broken shells.5 mile from the beach. where a steep-to sandy beach breaks the fringing foul ground. A dangerous submerged wreck lies about 0.2 mile farther W. 5.7 5. sand. about 37 miles W of Amini Island. The village is in the middle of the W side of the Island. a vessel approached its anchorage. some unexamined. Several good boat entrances are on the E side of the island. 72°00'E.3 mile offshore. which encloses a shallow lagoon. Caution.5 mile from the reef. Inside the reef. lies with the light structure bearing 129°.3 mile N of the N end of the island.3m. lie between 16 and 21 miles ENE of Elicalpeni Bank. decayed coral.6 Kiltan Island 5.8 to 16. The ends of the island are covered with a low growth of scrub. Rocks and foul ground border the rest of the island.4 5. The Laccadive Islands and the Maldive Islands Cardamum Island and Amini Island 5. has depths of 16. There are two narrow boat passages through the reef. in 31m.). 74°03'E. Anchorage can be obtained off the W side of Amini. if the swell is not heavy. and a depth of 20.5 5.4 Kiltan Island (11°29'N. Each gap is marked by buoys. distant about 0. Anchorage can be obtained. one passage is at the N end of the atoll and the other 3 miles SSW of the N end. but depths of less than 10m project 0. painted in red and white checkers.7 Amini Island (Ameni Island) (11°07'N. is about 4 miles in extent. in 18. Sesostris Bank (13°08'N. has depths of 20m to 77m and is steep-to.1m. situated at the S end of the island. and composed of sand. existence doubtful. in 9.5 5. in about 9. about 0. 5. Small vessels with local knowledge can anchor. about 20 miles ESE of Chetlat Island.6 5. in 18. Anchorage can also be obtained off the S end of the island. near the boat passage.5 mile apart and of a light greenish-brown color. and about 0.1 to 11m. vessels should anchor a little closer inshore. shoal water extends about 0. with depths of less than 1.—Two patches of discolored water. a gap in the reef. in a depth of 9. During S winds. The bank is large. there is a good landing at the middle of the E side of the island. were reported (1919) about 45 miles NNE of Kiltan Island. of Elicalpeni Bank. and decayed coral. in depths of 7 to 15m. is fringed by a reef from about 0.6 5. is in front of the village. Kiltan South Light is shown from a round stone tower. There is a village in the middle of the island.7 5. In 1948.4 5.5 Basses de Pedro (13°05'N. and anchored on that bearing. 5. with the steps in front of the village bearing 107°. particularly when the Southwest Monsoon is strong enough to raise a considerable sea.. Fronting the platform is a narrow passage across the reef which should be navigated with caution. shells. about 27m high. and from 0. about 0. The channel between Amini Island and Cardamum Island is safe and deep. is sometimes smoother. Elicalpeni Bank (11°15'N.5 mile S from the S tip of the reefs surrounding Cardamum Island. two boat entrances are on the W side of the island.4 5. the water on the bank is not discolored. about 0.5 mile.8 miles S of the S end of the island. has depths of 27. local knowledge is necessary. Depths of 49m (in 1949) and 35m (in 1971) were reported about 5 miles NNW and 47 miles N. was reported (1964) to lie 20 miles E of the bank..

.—Anchorage may be obtained.5 miles.7m.8 5.9 5. 72°16'E. there is an entrance to the lagoon about 0. 5.5 miles. in a depth of about 10m. The Laccadive Islands and the Maldive Islands The Laccadive Islands—South Group 5. These two islets are nearly encircled by a steep-to reef which.8 5.). and has a greatest width of about 10 miles.9 Agatti Island (10°51'N. on a shoal about 0.5 mile offshore. coral. with Kalputhi Islet (Kalputi Islet) close SSW.3 to 12.).7 mile long in a N-S direction and 0. but local knowledge is necessary.10 5. a reef lies about 0. distant 1.). 111 5. Piti Sand Bank. about 66 miles W of Androth Island.5 mile S of Kalputhi Islet and the same distance N of the N end of Agatti Island.1m high. A depth of 12. The reef.1 miles N of the N coast of the island.4m. is situated on the SE point of the island.11 Suheli Par (10°05'N. on the islet.3 mile within the E side of the reef. lying about 1 mile N and S of Bingaram. Shoals. is shown from a white.8 The island is surrounded by a coral reef. is densely planted with coconut palms. 33m high with black bands. coarse sand and broken shells. which extends about 0. with a racon. 5.6 mile SSW and 0.8 5. of the NW end of the island. with depths of 5m and 5. a bank of sand. nearly parallel to the beach. with charted depths of 10 to 37m.9 5.Sector 5. lighted buoys mark the channel between the reef and shoal water fringing the island.—Anchorage. coral. off the entrance to the reef surrounding Agatti Island. to set SE with the flood and NW with the ebb. consists of a drying barrier reef enclosing a lagoon. an islet in the N part of the atoll. and then W for 3. The Parali Islets. but there is little shelter.9 5. It is the residence of the Tehsilder. can be obtained. with depths of 10. lie on the NE corner of the reef and are almost connected to the E end of Tinnakara.9 5.. trends ESE for 4.9 5. off the E end of the island where the bottom appears to be smoother.8 5. within the entrance.3m. with a least depth of 10.5 miles NW of Bingaram.—Elikalpeni Bank.. Anchorage can also be obtained.. this area is apparently free from dangers. boats may enter the lagoon through a passage with the clump of palms on Agatti Island bearing 142°. much of the lagoon within the reef dries.9m. vessels can anchor. the most fertile of the Laccadive Islands.). is a low islet. Anchorage. with the N point of Bingaram Islet bearing 078°. anywhere off the N side of the island.. A black rock is on the E side and there were several stone cairns. 72°39'E. respectively. Anchorage.9m. then SW for 3 miles. Other unexamined depths of as little as 18. in 7. on the NW corner of the island. The N and NE sides are sandy. near its N end. from a position 2. lies towards the S end of an unnamed atoll. North Islet (Valiyakara Islet) and South Islet (Cheriyakara Islet). 72°12'E. The area between the W extremities of the encircling reef is shallow. lie in the lagoon. A light. who administers the Laccadive Islands. The recommended anchorage is with the NE extremity of Agatti Island bearing 215°.5 to 18. the Administrator for the Laccadive Islands resides on the island.—Tidal currents near Kavaratti Island were observed. During the Northeast Monsoon.10 5. but it is not recommended.10 5. with a least depth of 0. in 16. 5. The S side of this reef is steep-to.10 5. coral. Kavaratti Island Light. and was densely covered with palms. it is 0. three small sand cays. in 10m.5 miles ENE of Bingaram. about 0.9 Pitti Islet (Piti Sand (10°46'N.5 to 1 knot. with depths from 10. A lighted beacon marks the W side of the entrance.7 mile N of a flagstaff on the shore close N of a red-roofed mosque at the W end of the village. lies about 33 miles NE of Androth Island. lie up to 1.8 Bingaram. 5. and encloses a shallow lagoon.3m lie about 20 miles ENE of Elikalpeni Bank. Several isolated shoals.5 mile wide at its widest part. On the NW side of the island. but both are uninhabited and have no good water. The bank has not been fully examined and depths may be less than charted. sand and coral. Tinnakara.6 mile offshore. A light is occasionally shown from the N end of Agatti Island. both uninhabited. distant 3. about 28m high. which lies about 0.8 mile wide. Pub. in depths of 10m to 15m. but from the N side a coral bank projects about 6 miles N. the SW atoll of the Laccadive Islands. sand and coral.1m. in 9. The coral reef surrounding Agatti Island and Kalputhi Islet extends about 2 miles offshore on the W side and encloses a shallow lagoon. in 1964. through which there is a small channel for boats on the N side. There is a small hospital and a leper colony on the island.5m is located about 6 miles ENE of Androth. Anchorage can be taken.8m.8 Androth Island (10°49'N. Landing is on the NW side of Agatti Island on a steep-to beach. There is a boat entrance at the N end of the lagoon. square masonry structure. is low. 10m high.5 miles. Good anchorage can be obtained W of this entrance. steep-to except at its S end. lies 1. in an area 2 miles wide between the N end of Agatti Island and the reef encircling Bingaram.2 mile of its edge.). Tides—Currents.9 5.10 Kavaratti Island (10°34'N. 72°33'E.5 and 11m. during the Northeast Monsoon and in fair weather. with numerous coral heads with depths of less than 1m. about 0. about 6. There are two jetties are situated on the N part of the NW side of the island. lie about 0. Good anchorage can be obtained. another islet 1 mile long. about 21 miles W of Pitti Islet.7 mile S from the island.9 5. in a depth of 13. but ships should proceed with caution. A clump of palm lies about 1 mile from the S end of Agatti Island.3 to 22m. Good anchorage can be taken. local knowledge is necessary. 73°41'E. on the E point of the island. On the W side of the atoll.7 mile wide.9 5.9 5. about 61 miles WSW of Androth Island. The reef was reported to extend 2 miles SW in 1980. 5.3 to 22m.4 to 31m. about 0. extends about 3 miles S and 24 miles NNE from the islet.5 miles.8 5. The village lies about 1 mile from the W end of the island. a round white concrete tower with black bands and a racon. 173 . in October. Depths of less than 10m extend 0. at a velocity of 0.4 mile W. in 18. and a light is shown from a white concrete tower. Caution. in 18. has depths of 183m within 0. lies 6 miles NE of the N point of Agatti Island. Landing can be effected on Bingaram and Tinnakara. The N part of the island is more heavily populated.5 mile offshore on the SW coast of the island.

and unpredictable strong S sets are encountered at times.3 miles N of Wiringili. wooden framework tower on North Islet. 5. The town of Minicoy lies near the center of the island. with a depth of 6. and rock. The top of the light structure is obscured by trees on certain bearings and within distances of less than 6 miles. 73°03'E. sand. was densely planted with coconut palms.11 5. about 0.13 Minicoy Island (8°17'N. sand and coral. Anchorage. it was reported that the reef projected 4 miles WSW from the light.12 5.13 5. about 2. on the SE end of South Islet.8 miles N of the S extremity of Kalpeni Island. instead of passing S of it where the light is a useful guide.9m high.13 5.).112 Sector 5. Good anchorage was found (1948). about 18.) lies between Minicoy Island to the S and Suheli Par about 113 miles NNW. The currents in this channel are much the same as those in the N end of the Maldive Islands. in 12m. A narrow boat channel leads through the reef into the lagoon. 3m high. which are navigable by small vessels with a draft not exceeding 1.13 5. coral.6m about 1. 73°17'E. There is a dense cover of coconut palms.12 5. the S and larger island. passing about 4 miles S of the light structure.6m high.5 mile NE of Kodi Point.8 to 3. the SE atoll of the Laccadive Islands. has a least depth of 217m. between Minicoy Island and Ihavandiffulu Atoll.. Anchorage. It was reported that a racon was established on the light and a conspicuous red and white pylon stood close S of it.13 5. Kalpeni Island.).12 5. but local knowledge is necessary. high in 1967. with red bands.5 miles SSW of Kodi Point. It was also reported that the shape of the island becomes identifiable on radar at 15 miles. with depths of 1. In 1979. and the barrier reef extends about 183m farther NE. 0.. on the E side of Minicoy Island. that the reef extended 3 to 3. In bad weather. The barrier reef is steep-to and the sea breaks heavily on it. especially at night. as the current sets S from the end of September to the end of the year. Investigator Bank (8°32'N. 73°00'E.).).. Local boats meet ships and may be summoned through the lighthouse keeper who can communicate with vessels using the International Code of Signals.13 5. Landing can sometimes be made on the E side of Kalpeni Island. and Kalpeni Island to the N. is a dangerous one as the island is over 4 miles long in N-S direction. occasionally they set N with S winds.8m.5 miles SW from the light.). It is very deep and free from dangers. and there is the added advantage of sighting Minicoy Island Light.13 5. as the bottom rises steeply toward the reef. forming the SE side of an atoll. Kodi Point.15 Eight Degree Channel (7°40'N. it dries 0. about 0.7m. in 9m. 5.12 5.—A vessel anchored (1950) in 12.8m. off the S side of Kalpeni Island.5 mile NW of the point. It consists of two narrow.. 72°54'E. 5. lies about 39 miles S of Androth Island. 40m high.1m.4 mile ESE of Roebera Point. is also covered in palm trees. Roebera Point forms the SW extremity of Minicoy Island. lies nearly 0. The Laccadive Islands and the Maldive Islands The lagoon is encumbered with numerous shoals and dangers. but in the Northeast Monsoon they at times set NW. at the NE end of the atoll. extend from Turakuna (7°06'N. the N atoll of the Maldive Islands.13 Pub. Ships may drift safely under power in fairly calm water close offshore E of the island during the Southwest Monsoon. 5.4 mile offshore. Wiringili Islet (Small Pox Islet) lies on the barrier reef about 0. is free from known dangers. A steep-to bank.. Eight Degree Channel 5.). A bungalow and a mosque. Two openings are on the NW side of the barrier reef.11 5. NE of Minicoy Island. Anchorage has been reported 0.7 mile N of Cheriyan Island. lies about 183m NE of the point. may be identified by a single conspicuous palm.13 5. although it lies about 110 miles SSW from the nearest of these. It was reported in 1980 and in 1982. low islands lying on the E side of a reef which encloses a lagoon. about 70 miles S. is included with the Laccadive Islands for administration. but can only be used by small vessels with local knowledge.—Minicoy Island should be approached from the S.4 mile S from the S end of the island.15 5. Good radar returns have been reported from Kalpeni Island at 20 miles. The practice of passing a few miles N of the island. Vessels have been wrecked on Minicoy Island due apparently to shaping a course to pass a few miles N of Minicoy Island Light (in some cases after sighting the light from E). 73°00'E. 173 .16 The Maldive Islands (3°30'N. 73°00'E.11 5. and the SW part dries.13 The Maldive Islands 5. is the principal opening into the lagoon. Good radar returns have been reported from Minicoy Island at 18 miles. at the NE extremity of the island. a chain of atolls. a rock.14 Nine Degree Channel (9°00'N. with depths over 914m in the vicinity. Minicoy Island Light is shown from a white tower on the SW end of the island..13 5.11 Suheli Par Light is shown from a white metal column. lying 1. Cheriyam Island (Cheria Island). 73°39'E.13 5. sand. Good radar returns have been reported from Suheli Par at 16 miles. the N island 5. The W side of the barrier reef dries in places.12 Nine Degree Channel 5. landfall in morning twilight is considered safe. with depths between 10 and 20m. are reported to stand nearby.13 5. It is recommended to keep nearer to Minicoy Island than to the Maldive Islands.14 Minicoy Island 5. Caution..—The island offers no suitable anchorage. A shoal. about 30m. 5. the N island.11 5. The island lies about 70 miles N of Ihavandiffulu Atoll.12 Kalpeni (10°06'N. Kalpeni Light is shown from a round stone tower. Saleh Magu Channel.13 5. with the N end of North Islet bearing 163° and the S end of South Islet bearing 201°. A light is shown from a white. extends about 0.

Matari. there are two openings for fishing boats. was used as a cemetery and had a flagstaff and small temple on it.—Currents at Ihavandiffulu Atoll are only experienced occasionally and are probably influenced entirely by local weather conditions. The reef on the inner side of the island is separated from the shore. respectively.). lies about 0. formed between the island and the seaward side of the reef.17 5. the N island of Ihavandiffulu Atoll.18 5. with a coral and sand bottom.18 5. There are numerous deep openings through the barrier reefs. near the NW point of Ihavandiffulu Atoll. about 5 miles SE of Ulegama. and Gumati. they are not readily seen if the sky is overcast.16 5. The Laccadive Islands and the Maldive Islands of the Ihavandiffulu Atoll to about 40 miles S of the Equator. lies at the SE end of a section of the barrier reef which extends about 9 miles NW. Good radar returns have been reported from Turakuna at 15 miles.. such channels should be avoided by low-powered vessels as currents set strongly through them. elsewhere it was well-wooded. There is a boat passage. Ulegama. then 3 miles NE. 5. By night. a vessel should pass through only the four larger channels between the atolls. A narrow reef fringes the seaward side of the island. a small sandbank.18 5.. Hauwandu. On the inhabited islands. was inhabited in 1970 with a small village on its N side. with the sun well up. was sometimes observed (December. The coral islands on the atolls. By day and with the sun in a favorable position. The islet of Gallandu lies about 3. lies close N of Digufuri Reef and about 3 miles W of Gallandu. lies about 0. General depths of 37 to 55m are in the E half and 18.17 5.. Numerous shoals are in the lagoon.19 Wagaru (7°06'N. Extra care should be taken at periods of spring tides when strong rips and eddies in the reef entrances make for difficulty in seeing submerged hazards. one of the few islands within the lagoon. most of the islands being heavily wooded with palms. The main occupations are fishing and the cultivation of coconuts. setting E or W according to the season. forming a lagoon. most of which lie on the circumference of the barrier reef.16 5. 72°57'E. and the breakers at the edges of reefs detected at about 2 miles.17 5.). 173 . 1934). through the otherwise unbroken reef surrounding the island.16 5.Sector 5. can easily be seen as pale green against the dark deeper water. with a least depth of 5. Dates of recent definite information have been included in the text. Between Muladu and Ulegama lie three small thicklywooded uninhabited islets known from NW to SE. Beramundu. These shoals. 72°52'E. On its S side.8 mile NW of Hatefuri.16 5. marked variations in direction have been reported. the current generally sets N or W.18 5..8 mile W of Ihavandu.18 Turakuna (7°07'N. as Murdu. has an islet at its E end. Umbala. respectively. The islet of Kandufuri (Kankolufuri) lies on the above stretch of reef.18 5.). with palms on it. about 0. Pub. has a fishing village on its NE side.16 5. 1933) about 50 miles E of the atoll. Digufuri Reef (Digfurhi Reef) (6°56'N. and thickly wooded. may be detected by radar at ranges over 20 miles. A current of 2 knots setting N was experienced (December.3 miles SE of Turakuna. along the meridian of 73°E. and is the principal island of the atoll. about 4 miles farther NW. In the middle of the lagoon there was an occasional set to NW. North Rock.16 5. level. Ihavandiffulu Atoll 5. 72°54'E. There appears to be no regular tidal currents. Good radar returns have been reported from the islet at 15 miles. which are difficult to identify beyond a distance of 3 or 4 miles. Umbala and Hatefuri were inhabited in 1970. but practically no current in this position was experienced about a month later. Within 1 or 2 miles. even the less readily navigable channels can be negotiated without undue difficulty. 5. while the arrangement of individual islands may be obtained at about 15 miles. the openings will be distinctly seen when the sun is high and behind the observer. about 0. boat channels leading over the reefs to the villages are marked by distinctive stakes. of the eight islands and islets on this stretch of reef. near the N end of the atoll. and even these should be avoided unless the vessel has an accurate fix before entering. and consists of about 24 islands.16 5. about 1. N of Gallandu. abreast the village.17 5. and there is a landing on the S side. 1933 and January.17 5. as little recent information can be obtained from places so seldom visited. at the S end of Ihavandiffulu Atoll. Sunken reefs lie about 1 and 2 miles. 72°54'E. surrounded by coconut palms and breadfruit trees.18 5. is administered with Tiladummati Atoll. it is surrounded by a reef except on its SE side. Between the different atolls of the Maldive Islands there are several good deep channels. and to W between Uleguma and Murdu. Good radar returns have been reported from Ulegama at 15 miles. the N atoll of the Maldive Islands. The village lies near the center of the island. Ihavandu. its natural harbor. During December and January in the offing.18 5.2m.16 5.18 5.18 5. but it is irregular. has a small village on its W side. is low and wellwooded. The maximum velocity was about 1 knot. Some of these are intricate and demand local knowledge. with a large village. 5. provides good anchorage for numerous fishing craft. Much of the detailed information in this sector is very old. a beacon lies on this reef nearly 1 mile SE of the N end of the island. Hatefuri. Muladu.3 to 37m in the W half of the lagoon. landing can be effected through a gap in the encircling reef. Tides—Currents.5 miles SSW of Muladu. when the reefs appear as one continuous line.). is low. The island is densely populated. particularly in the W half. as all the underwater dangers are generally visible for some distance from the masthead. about 4 miles ENE of Kandufuri. lies about 1 mile W of Wagaru.17 Ihavandiffulu Atoll (7°02'N.18 5. although very low. Seven of the islands were inhabited in 1970.5 mile NNW of Hauwandu.17 A set to NW between Uleguma and Wagaru.16 113 5. Within the atolls good anchorage can be obtained in very smooth water of moderate depth.8 mile ENE of the islet.

a large coral patch with a least depth of 6.19 5.5 miles N. there are numerous shoals and rocky patches in the lagoon. lie about 3. through North Western Entrance. The boat channel to the small harbor (1942) was wider and deeper than those usually found in these islands.19 Anchorage. forms the NW extremity of the atoll.23 5. An unnamed lagoon reef. Warifuri Faro is a large lagoon with the islet of Warifuri at its S end. 5. The barrier reef extends from Baura to the island of Mavaidu. The islets of Dedu and Warifuri are inhabited. in the SW part of the lagoon. respectively.8 miles S. When the S end of Muladu bears 070°. 5.). lie. as well as ten others within the lagoon.23 Kelai (6°58'N.19 5. Caution. Some rocky patches lie S and SE of Muradu. the islet of Dedu. in some cases. a lagoon reef.3 miles SSW of Uleguma.6m.—Vessels approaching from N enter through North Rock Passage.—Collingrufuri.3 miles NW of Muradu. W of Muladu and Gumati in the E part of the lagoon. lies W of Ulegama.. If using this entrance.20 5. Nuriwari. between Turakana and Ulegama. The passages through the barrier reef on the W side are navigable but should be avoided.8 miles SE. 5. North Rock Passage may be entered in depths of not less than 18. Gafuri lies on the W side of a detached reef with an unnamed lagoon reef close W. between the S end of Ihavandiffulu Atoll and the NW end of Tiladummati Atoll. and 2. Anchorages are also available S of Turakuma and Wagaru. Endeavour Shoal. North Eastern Entrance has a least depth of 35m midway between the islands.19 5. some features charted as reefs are. in 46 to 55m. but there are shallower depths close within the lagoon in the Northern Entrance. respectively. about 5 miles ESE. there is a shoal patch midway between the flanking islands and a second patch farther SSW. Tides—Currents. the islands of Hanimadu.23 5. In addition.3 miles NNE. the first two inhabited in 1970. 173 . lies about 3.19 5.22 Maduni Faro (6°51'N. From N to S. The islands in the NE part of the atoll are the largest. steer for the N end of Hauwandu bearing 250°.22 Gallandu Channel 5. and then to the anchorage off that island. between Wagaru and North Rock. Passages on each side of the channel lead into the lagoons. about 20 miles SSW.21 5. 72°57'E. Safe passages leading into the lagoon are on the E side of the atoll. The islets of Marandu.19 5. Good anchorage during the Northeast Monsoon may be obtained.23 5. In East Entrance.19 5.3m by keeping towards Wagaru. There are fewer islets but more reefs on the W side of the atoll than on the E side.21 5.20 Gallandu Channel (6°54'N. in 28 to 37m. and Warifuri Faro lie about 2. and Komangdu form the E side of the atoll. in 33 to 37m. the other entrances have depths of not less than 20.8 mile W of it.— Aerial photographs show the shapes and size of islands to differ substantially from surveys originally dated from 1940. three islands surrounded by rocky heads. between Wagaru and Turakana.114 Sector 5. dry at HW and wooded. the islet of Noradu lies between the latter two islets. Muradu (6°33'N. Ormonde Rock.. Naguri. and Manafur. Medufuri. the latest maps prepared from aerial photography (1968) show that this island has joined the islet charted 0. was inhabited in 1970.. This is probably the best anchorage during the Southwest Monsoon. 73°00'E. and 6 miles. In addition. The islet of Tinadu lies about 3 miles WSW of Kelai. Kuludu Faro. Noliwang Faro.1m in the fairway midway between the islands. and have wide openings into the atoll on each side of them. 72°54'E. Vessels approaching from E use North Eastern Entrance between Ulegama and Murdu. A lighted beacon lies on the N side of Warifuri Faro. under suitable conditions all can be easily seen from aloft.23 5.23 5. 5. bring the NE end of Medfuri to bear 287° and enter the lagoon on this heading. or through Northern Entrance.. Caution.) consists of about 40 islands and islets. Kuludu Faro has a large village fronted by a sandy beach and lagoon. at the NE extremity of the atoll. Tukandu.19 5. 1. All the islands on this side of the atoll were inhabited in 1970.1m. about 3.). about 1.23 Pub. and between it and Baura. foul ground. 5. The edges of the reefs on each side of the passage can be seen from aloft at a good distance. most lie farther apart and are larger than those in the Maldives farther S. but a heavy swell might reach it through Southwestern Entrance. Directions.). NE of Gafuri. and shoal water. lies about 7 miles N of Muradu.19 5.—The best anchorage. Two drying rocks lie on a rocky shoal close N of Medufuri. about 2.5. but the vessel must be conned from aloft. which is enclosed by a coral reef on its W side. is very deep and free from dangers in the fairway.) lies on a circular reef near the W edge of the atoll.21 Tiladummati Atoll (6°45'N. respectively. particularly toward the NW and SW sides. an island with a circular lagoon reef. with a least depth of 4. 72°57'E. of Ihavandu. and Miledu. A lighted beacon lies at the NW point of a reef. There is a good anchorage E of the reef between Hauwandu and Umbala.19 5. 3 miles SSW. on the barrier reef between the N end of Maduni Faro and the islet of Gafuri.. The Laccadive Islands and the Maldive Islands Tiladummati Atoll 5. The island of Filadu has an opening between it and Kelai.—Tidal currents set ENE through the channel with the flood tide and WSW with the ebb.19 5. Good radar returns have been reported from Kelai at 14 miles. or East Entrance between Muladu and Gallandu. where anchorage may be obtained. 1 mile W.3 and 3 miles N. but the latter is encumbered by several rocky patches in the fairway.19 5. 73°13'E. two large reefs lie between these islands. lies about 2 miles SW of Ulegama. 4. sand and coral.

Fehingili (5°33'N.24 5.25 5. an island of the same name occupies the S part of this reef on the seaward side. about 4 miles SSE of Fehingili. The island of Numara (6°26'N. about 16 miles NNW.5 miles S and 6 miles ESE to Kuludu (Kendikolu). especially in the N part. Ma Faro (Mafarru). 72°36'E. The islet.25 5. The depths in the lagoon are moderate and the bottom is sandy. when the main village was near the middle of the N side of the island.). The principal occupations are sail weaving and coir making. about 1 mile NW. was densely populated in 1970.26 Makunudu Atoll (6°20'N. Depths in the lagoon are moderate. a reef enclosing a lagoon. about 9 miles ESE. there are many drying and submerged coral heads with depths of 1. Kandudu (Kharndudu) (5°39'N. which extends the whole length of the N side of the island. Makunudu Atoll 5. the latest maps show the islets to lie N and S of each other. a reef.5 to 2 knots at springs. The island of Kumandu was inhabited in 1970.25 Manadu (5°47'N. attaining a velocity of 1. Faro Doru (Defarudorhi).25 5. 0. The latter three islands were inhabited in 1970. 5. From the S end of Furnadu. over 40 of these were populated in 1970.5 miles SE of Kuludu. about 2 miles W of Karema. The island of Makandudu lies about 2 miles NW of the reef.. a small islet. with the islet of Nu close NNW. A boat channel passes through the reef.. Miladummadulu Atoll contains about 100 islands and islets lying principally on the E side.24 Fadiffolu Atoll 5. is a large reef encircling a deep but reef-encumbered lagoon.7m.) consists of about 30 islets. 73°03'E.. but about 0.24 5.24 5. the barrier reef extends about 8. lies on a reef. A very wide opening into the lagoon lies between Numara and Fivaku.. 173 .27 5. skirting the beach. and Fadu on this SW face of the atoll were inhabited in 1970.). There is an opening into the lagoon.23 Miladummadulu Atoll 5. The S and W sides of the atoll have only the surf and an islet at its NW extremity to indicate their outline. about 6 miles NNW of Kumandu. 73°16'E.. the bottom is sand. only four of which were inhabited in 1970..24 5. The islands of Nalandu and Milandu lie farther N.25 Pub. 5.Sector 5. including coconut palms.8 to 3. breadfruit.5 mile N of Nawadu. Tree Sand Bank.) lies on the same submarine plateau as Tiladummati Atoll and is the continuation S of it. The islet of Karema lies about 5 miles SW of Edu Faro. There are deep wide openings into the lagoon between all these islands and also between Makandudu and Farukolu. from 18 to 28m wide. with Furnadu on the S part of the reef. extends about 2. The NW part of the barrier reef consists almost entirely of reef. Goadu (6°25'N. 73°29'E.24 5. Close N of Kumandu. Tides—Currents. and almost all are wooded. two small islets lie on the E side of a detached reef.27 Fadiffolu Atoll (5°25'N. about 5 miles NNE of Naguri. 115 5.—Tidal currents at Miladummadulu Atoll set ENE with the flood and WSW with the ebb. 73°08'E.). lies about 5 miles SSW of Ma Faro. and fringed by large boulders of coral rock. the largest island of the atoll and inhabited in 1970. and Maduni Faro.25 5. about 4 miles wide. 5.8 mile within the opening. Inside the reef is a deep channel. but the vessel must be conned from aloft. the barrier reef extends 12 miles NW to Mavila (Malwillarwarru). inhabited in 1970.8m.25 5. between Rufuri. The passage into the lagoon S of Kuludu is wide and safe. with palms predominating. the latter islet and the islets of Rafuri. about 1 mile S lies another detached sandbank.. Didu. Edu Faro (Eddufarru).5 miles into the lagoon and has an islet near its center.25 5. the passage is narrow. was wooded in 1970. banyan. are several lagoon reefs and islets. lie within the main lagoon and were inhabited in 1970.. Watedu. The lagoon can be navigated in daylight with ease as there are few dangers. with clay in places. and is administered as part of Tiladummati Atoll.8m deep. Tides—Currents. The barrier reef then extends about 13 miles SSE from Fivaku to the S end of a detached reef on which lies the island of Farukolu. The tidal currents are greatly influenced by the prevailing monsoon currents. 72°55'E. Ten other islets within 9 miles of Manadu.26 5. about 0. Many of the islets on this stretch were inhabited in 1970. It was reported that landing can be made anywhere along the SE side of Kandute.24 5. an islet on the E side of the atoll. where the fringing reef has depths of 1.2 to 1.24 5. lies about 4. from about 1 mile SE of the island to about 3 miles farther SE. The island is profusely covered in vegetation.—Tidal currents set strongly through the openings into the lagoon. once known as Malcom Atoll. some reefs lie in the fairway. with a rocky shoal close NW.). about 1.) and Kandute. 73°30'E. about 9 miles wide. banks of sand and coral lie along the seaward side of a large lagoon reef.24 Between Mavila and Kumandu. about 6 miles SSW of Makundu. was populated in 1970.25 5. The Laccadive Islands and the Maldive Islands Nawadu. close within the lagoon between Ma Faro and Edu Faro.25 5.8 mile W. lies in the center of an opening into the lagoon.27 5. There is an opening into the lagoon between Fehingili and Kuredu. and almond. The N boundary of this atoll approximately follows the parallel of 6°29'N. Furifaro. Good anchorage may be obtained on the N or S side of Manadu according to the season. Fivaku was inhabited in 1970. From Kandudu. lies at the NE corner of Miladummadulu Atoll. there are moderate depths in the entrance. Two openings on the E face of the lagoon can only be used by boats. it is separated from the NW side of Miladummadulu Atoll by a deep channel. 73°24'E. the main village was in the center of each island.23 5.24 Miladummadulu Atoll (6°10'N.) is the N islet of the atoll. lies on the barrier reef at the S extremity of Miladummadulu Atoll. 5. at the NW corner of the atoll.25 5. 2 miles N of the W extremity of Tree Sand Bank. A lighted beacon lies on the N side of the reef. were inhabited in 1970. and also within the lagoon. enclosing separate lagoons.

extends about 25 miles NNE. 5.29 5. about 1 mile and 3 miles. some prominent and others in the background.116 Sector 5. There are numerous openings into the main lagoon on the N and E sides of the atoll. lies in the opening. and Boduffnur. can be obtained in the lagoon.29 5.31 5.) lies at the S end of the NW side of the atoll.30 5. some with small unnamed islets.29 5. 72°54'E. is considered as part of the latter atoll for administrative purposes.31 5. several islets are on this section of reef. From Difuri. The latter islet and Faidu.29 5. at its SW extremity.) and Mamanago Faro. with the islets of Iwafuri and Fahris on its S side.) consists of North Malosmadulu Atoll and South Malosmadulu Atoll. The lagoon is fringed with dangers. lies on the reef about 2 miles SSW of Fallwaru.. about 2.8 miles farther W. is the largest islet.27 5. lies at the E entrance of the channel. From Kanifuri.29 5. Kumadu lies 1 mile E of Sudaroa. when both were wooded.) consists of two islands on a detached reef. especially since the central part of the lagoon is unsafe for navigation. Malosmadulu Atoll 5. 72°55'E.27 The barrier reef. about 3. extends about 7 miles ESE to Difuri (Divepure). about 0. The islet of Fehenfuri. Fendu was reported inhabited in 1970. and was inhabited in 1970. at the NE end of the atoll. is deep and free from known dangers. their W sides being composed of a series of lagoon reefs. lies on the reef about 3 miles W of Furudu.27 5. and three similar lagoon reefs farther N. about 2 miles W of Dehu. Anchorage. lies at the N of the atoll. Maregiri (5°31'N.31 5.—Maduni Faro (5°53'N. Goidu. These reefs lack above-water features and are therefore difficult to identify. inhabited in 1970. about 7 miles SW. about 4. separating North Malosmadulu Atoll and South Malosmadulu Atoll.8 miles wide.30 5. The islet of Mafuri lies about 1. Anchorage.27 5. 72°49'E.27 5. the barrier reef. about 4 miles SSE of Inafuri. From Lowalfuri. about 3 miles S.31 Horsburgh Atoll (Goidu Atoll) (4°52'N.3 miles NE.27 5.). The villages on the N sides of these islands are visible from seaward..8m.31 5.30 5.5 miles NE.30 Horsburgh Atoll 5. It has been reported (1994) that the shape of the island changes over time. an unbroken line of barrier reef curves SW to Aligau. There are several channels into the lagoon between islets in this section of the atoll. Dukandu. About 5 per cent of the above islands and islets were inhabited in 1970.29 5. a group of islets.29 5. respectively. The Laccadive Islands and the Maldive Islands The SW face of the atoll is formed by Mamanago Faro. which are separated by Moresby Channel. at the NE end of the atoll. at the NW extremity of the atoll. Some rocks lie about 3 miles NNW of Wadu.. about 6 miles farther E. the channels between them are therefore better avoided. mud. a lagoon reef. the most densely populated of the atoll in 1970. an islet. by an opening into the lagoon. Etingili is the NW island and Alifuri is the SE island.29 5. 5.31 Inafuri (Furhi). sand. enclosing several islets. close W of Hitadu. 5. Horsburgh Atoll was reported (1987) to lie approximately 2 miles SE of its charted position. the sea breaks with violence upon this unbroken stretch of barrier reef. an island. Sudaroa.27 5. lies on the S side of the barrier reef.. several islets and detached reefs lie some distance SE of the enclosing reef.—Anchorage. Wadu. at the S extremity of the atoll. extends about 7 miles NW to Dehu. but the center of the lagoon is clear.. reported (1994) difficult to identify. Navigation in the central part of the atoll is impracticable due to the numerous coral heads. During the Northeast Monsoon. Moresby Channel. forms the W extremity of the atoll. 73°00'E.3 miles W of Fehenfuri. The islet of Naifaro. three islets lie on this section of the barrier reef. These two atolls are similar in character.31 Pub. A rock shoal. about 1. 72°55'E. This is a feature common to the N atolls of the Maldive Islands.30 South Malosmadulu Atoll. The W entrance to this channel has no wooded islet near it and is difficult to identify.. From the opening between Hanikandu Faro and Medu Faro. lies about 3 miles ESE of Maduni Faro.—Anchorage can be obtained off the N side of Hitadu. about 1. Kanifuri (Kanifurhi). The channel between the Powell Islands and Maduni Faro. The E side of North Malosmadulu Atoll consists of about 20 islands and islets separated by good passages leading into the lagoon.30 5. consisting of a series of lagoon reefs. about 6 miles S of South Malosmadulu Atoll. 5. Fehendu and Furudu.5 miles NNW. were inhabited in 1970. it is free of known dangers in the middle of the fairway. has depths over 183m and is free from known dangers. and clay. with a depth of 12.—Hanikandu Faro (5°17'N. The Powell Islands (5°58'N. There is a wide opening into the lagoon between Olugeri. From this islet the barrier reef. 5. the barrier reef extends about 7 miles NNE to Fallwaru (Faileweru). with several islets on it. 5. A wide opening into the lagoon lies between Maduni Faro and Wadu. the latter island was inhabited in 1970. Islets and reefs on the S side of the channel extend E from Hanikandu Faro. Several good channels lead into the lagoon between the islets on the barrier reef. lies in the middle of the inner end of the opening. 173 . 15m high and bushy. The S side of the atoll is formed by reefs lying between Berriam Faro (5°26'N.8 mile S. a deep channel leads E to the NE side of the atoll. the islet of Madewaru lies near the middle of the opening.—There is good anchorage in the channel between Wadu and Maduni Faro or farther S in the lagoon. is separated from Kari Faro. about 1 mile NW. Between Fallwaru and Hurawali.28 Malosmadulu Atoll (5°30'N. good holding ground of sand. The N part of South Malosmadulu Atoll is triangular in shape.). 72°51'E. with depths of 37 to 44m. in 27 to 42m. Kari Faro is a reef enclosing a lagoon.. were inhabited in 1970.29 North Malosmadulu Atoll. at the S end of a large lagoon reef. with palm trees predominant. Anchorage. W of Goidu. coral rock and sand banks appear at low water along this stretch.). There is a wide opening into the atoll between Aligau and Lowalfuri. 72°55'E.

—Kardiva was reported (1974) to lie about 2. During this season. a chain of islands lies upon the reef which is sharply marked by change of water color or.3m. as the channel through this opening is known. There is a township on its N side. 5. Difuri. its entrance is marked by drying rocks. during the Southwest Monsoon the ebb current is weak or absent and the flood current is strong. 14 to 20m high in 1974. and in 1974. The E part of Fehendu. contains about 50 islets and islands. Tides—Currents.).—The N side of the E entrance of Kardiva is welldefined by Olivelifur (5°17'N. A clump of trees lies on the reef about 1 mile WSW of this islet. lies between Lankanfinolhu and Kaduoiygiri. about 0.. 72°58'E. especially in the S part of the atoll. from which it is separated by a deep channel. 173 . Shoals within the lagoon are easily discernible in favorable conditions of sun and sea. marks the NW point of Male Atoll. There are depths of over 50m in this N side of this channel about 0. lies about 3 miles ESE of Olahali.35 5. Landing can only be made on Kardiva by entering the lagoon. a small wooded islet. by the stump remains of a pile beacon.32 5. by breakers upon it. with a least depth of 18. The W entrance of Kardiva Channel is not easily identified as the wooded islets on Ari and Horsburgh Atolls lie several miles within the salient points of their barrier reef.—Vessels should not attempt to enter the lagoon except through the Dorukandu.—During the Northeast Monsoon.). 5.).32 During the Northeast Monsoon. 73°34'E. Toddu (4°26'N.31 117 E end of the reef..3 mile E of Mafuri.32 5.3m patch lies near the edge of the Dorukandu. with a low islet about midway between. was inhabited in 1974 and thickly wooded. The entrance to the lagoon lies about 0.—The tidal current sets ENE through Kardiva Channel with the flood and WSW with the ebb. 73°27'E. Helengili. Kagi.5 miles SE of Kagi. 5. Gaha Faro Reef. 5. and Male Atol and Ari Atoll to SE.35 5. causing strong eddies and turbulence where it meets tidal currents from the lagoon. Tides—Currents.36 Imma (4°18'N.). can be sighted at a considerable distance. South Malosmadulu Atol. the best and widest opening in the barrier reef.).. bearing 052°. close S. Olahali (4°41'N. Mirufuri was inhabited in 1974 and wooded with coconut palms. in the form of a small atoll.31 5.3 miles SSE of its charted position. 1. Depths in the opening E of the Dorukandu are shoal and irregular.35 5. The Laccadive Islands and the Maldive Islands The only opening into the lagoon lies between Mafuri and Fehenfuri.36 Pub.). Several islets. Similarly. in the lagoon. an island off the N end of Ari Atoll. inhabited in 1970. are developed as tourist villages. the N opening was narrow and appeared to have a least depth of 20m.).8 miles SW. 73°26'E. 73°36'E.5 miles N of Male Atoll. about 4 miles E. 5. a vessel may pass through in favorable conditions and keeping a good lookout. a 2 to 3 knot western current sweeps through the channel between Male Atoll and Gaha Faro Reef. free from dangers in the fairway. about 1.35 5. 73°30'E.35 Male Atoll (4°25'N. one on the NW side and another on the N side.31 5. has no landmarks on its N and S sides. deep and free from dangers in the fairway.35 5. about 3 miles W of Mirufuri. lie on the same reef. and forms a good landmark in the approach from W. formerly known as Karidu.35 5. lies between Fadiffolu Atol.35 5.8 mile W from the reef on which Fehenfuri lies. The depths within the lagoon are from 40 to 50m.5 mile NW of the NE point of the island. Two very small openings lead into the lagoon. a 4.32 Kardiva Channel (5°00'N.. in 1974. Asdu. in swell conditions. the bottom is of coarse sand except over coral reefs.35 5. while the S channel was broader. except at the lagoon entrance. lies about 1.33 Gaa Faro Reef 5. and 1. and Horsburgh Atoll to NW. A good unobstructed channel through the reef lies N of this islet. lies on the barrier reef about 4. The Dorukandu. its SE side is steep-to. was covered with coconut palms in 1974. it is advisable to pass through the N reef at about slack water. lies on the S side of a reef 4 miles SW of Helengili. was inhabited in 1970. Kardiva. on the S side of the entrance to Kardiva. the tidal current is inappreciable during the flood. a low bush-covered islet. the principal atoll of the Maldive Islands.35 5. but the ebb is reinforced by the surface current generated by the monsoon. an islet at the 5. Bodu Kalhi (Kadvoigiri Passage).. 73°29'E.32 5. a long low wooded islet.34 Gaa Faro Reef (4°44'N. Between Helengili and Mirufuri (4°27'N.32 5.). is a good landmark from the E. 73°30'E..5 miles within the lagoon. Gaa Faro (Gafaru) (4°44'N. was thickly covered with coconut palms.Sector 5.33 Kardiva (4°58'N... 5. Caution. 73°26'E. Lighted Beacon No. with a least depth of 40m. Between Difuri and Male. Caution. Openings through the reef lie on each side of the islet. A reef on the N side encloses a lagoon where local craft are moored. However. 73°42'E. at a velocity of 2 knots. and Lankanfinolhu (Lankanfushifinolhu). a gray framework tower on a concrete base.).6 mile S of Lankan5.).34 Male Atoll 5. at the SE end of Fadiffolu Atoll. the S side of the NW opening. The channel is about 183m wide. an island 1. leads from SW towards the opening. it was reported. Aspect. lies on the W side between the barrier reef and the shoal water extending nearly 0. in 1974.8 miles SW.. A major channel into the main lagoon lies close E of the islet. Abovewater rocks mark the E side of the N opening and apparently. having two conspicuous palm trees on the N side of the reef upon which it lies.35 Kardiva Channel 5.. about 19 miles farther SSW. 20 miles SW. that there appeared to be a least depth of 50m in the center of the channel and that the reef edges could be clearly seen. there are several deep channels without landmarks to identify them. as there is generally a heavy surf around the island and reef.

reclamation work was in progress (1994) on the NW side of the island. N of it. has a least depth of 7m. Within the lagoon are depths to 9m.5 miles NNW.5m channel. Lights are shown from beacons. when a strong E set was experienced to the anchorage.6 mile E of Funadhoo. E of the 1. 49200 5.. At the same time the flow was weak and variable E of Funadhoo. the lagoon has been deepened finolhu. gives access to small piers on the W side of Hulule.36 5. Red obstruction lights are shown from the radio masts at the SE end of Male.8 to 3m. where it sets strongly across the N face of the breakwater. 5.37 5. with numerous shoal patches S of it. No observations have been made during the change in the monsoons when the currents could be weak and variable at times.37 5. in the middle of the breakwater and 0. with three large and about six smaller tanks.3 mile N of the E end of Male.37 5.37 5. Dhoonidhoo. it seems likely that the water movement there is far more influenced by the monsoon currents than the tidal currents.3 miles N of Viligili.37 5. the currents from Vaadhoo Kandu (Wadu Channel) set across.37 It was reported (1972) that this flow commenced 1.4m shoals lying about 0.37 5. and ran until 1.37 5.37 Pub. It is surrounded by steep-to foul ground extending up to 0. is the capital of the Republic of Maldives and is the seat of office of the President whose residence is on Aarah (Aramh). stands on the island. extending from 23m to 0. a white building with a red roof. an airstrip runs the full length of the island and joins it to an islet close S.2 mile from the S coast. a wooded islet about 3.5m shoal in the middle. 5. about 1.3 mile offshore. is 17m wide. awash. The harbor is used by inter-island trading boats.37 5. with 11m and 15. appears to contain deep water. with the flood current tending to oppose the current. a low wooded islet used as a tourist village. and is surrounded by a reef which dries in places. Tidal currents in this channel are strong and tide rips form near the shoals.5 mile SE of Kaduoiygiri.3 miles N into the channel from Furanafushi (Furena). A stone jetty extends from the W end of the island. In the channel E of Male. A small tank farm. The light on the islet is reported to be a good landmark. The channel between Viligili and Male has a 5. bears some tall coconut palms. then slack water between Funadhoo and Dunidu. but a bank with depths of 21 to 28m extends 1. Breakwaters extend from the islet. 73°30'E.37 Male (4°10'N. stands about 0.4 mile. A tower. entered at the SW corner of the fringing reef. The main passage. An lagoon lies off the W side of Furanafushi.3 miles W of Lankanfinolhu. setting a vessel towards the reef fringing the E side of Male.25 mile N of the airport control tower. The harbor facilities are on the N side of the island. an approach by night was not recommended (1987). Tides—Currents. is a conspicuous landmark. 73°38'E.5 hours before HW. The E. Six passages lead through the breakwater into the harbor.37 5.—Male is identified from N and NE by a white mosque and minaret. which is connected to the land at each end.2m entrance channel.37 5. The inner harbor is used by small local craft and has depths of 1. the NE point of the island. Feydhoo. The airport control tower. particularly on its N side. A channel. Four hours after LW.) was reported (1994) to be developing a port. lies 1 mile W of Male. Funadhoo (Funidu) lies about 0. It was reported (1972) that an E set existed until within the line joining Male and Hulule. The N side of the island is protected by a breakwater. Strong sets have also been reported during the Northeast Monsoon in Male Harbor. 173 .37 5. with a depth of 1. attaining a maximum velocity of 2. respectively. Breakwaters extend N and S from the entrance to the 1.37 5. and deep-draft vessels at anchor. a bare sandy islet. a component of the current enters the lagoon through the channel S of Giravaru. a component of the current sets NW through this channel. The Custom House lies on the main quay facing the main passage through the breakwater. The Laccadive Islands and the Maldive Islands Aspect. lies 2. Tulusdu (Thulusdhoo) (4°22'N. A reef lies 0. Due to the probability of strong and unpredictable currents. navigation of the channel is not recommended. Viligili (Wilingili). from which a light is shown.15 mile from the SW extremity of Male. The flow turns W between Male and Funadoo. it seems likely that the tidal currents are only strong enough to increase or decrease the resulting flow and rarely strong enough to reverse its direction.37 5. 5. with a bottom of sand and coral heads. During the Northeast Monsoon.2m high and 4m wide.2 mile and 0. The island is thickly wooded with many modern houses..5 mile WNW of Kaduoiygiri.37 5. a moderate NE flow was experienced in the lagoon. When the currents are flowing strongly. cargo lighters.—From the few observations made in the vicinity of Male.) World Port Index No.37 Male.37 5.8 mile NW of Funadhoo.118 Sector 5. A large silver tankstands on the E central part of the island. lies at the center of Arah. at the S end of Male Atoll. This lagoon provides good anchorage for small craft. A shoal area. and then S into Vaadhoo Kandu (Wadu Channel) . painted in black and white bands. two large yellow mooring buoys were laid close WNW of the entrance. and radio masts at its SE corner. marked by red obstruction lights. a breakwater extends about 25m N on the N side of the island. surrounded by a steep-to reef which dries in places.36 5. Galu Falhu. lying on each side of each of the passages passages.37 5. about 1.2m and subject to silting. about 0. lies about 0. and W coasts of Male are fringed by an unbroken reef. a circular reef about 1 mile SE of Feydhoo.5 hours before LW. flowing out principally through the channel W of Male and between Male and Funadhoo. During the Southwest Monsoon. It is almost entirely built up with a network of earth roads. A radio mast. Airport buildings and a small village lie along the central part of the W side of Hulule.37 5.5 mile WNW of Sawmill Point. an island about 0. but strong sets may always be encountered. with another into a shallow pool at the W end. a wooded islet. South West Harbor is protected by a rough breakwater of heaped coral extending 0. The airport is undergoing construction.5 to 3 knots at about HW N of Male breakwater. S. Hulule.

5 mile ENE and another islet..net. several low bush-covered islets. Surrounding atolls cannot trade with foreign vessels due to customs regulations. The ETA message should contain the following information: 1. leads through the barrier reef. lies on the barrier reef 6 miles SSW of Hembadu.37 5. and vessels arriving from E. Vessels must report their ETA 24 hours in advance.5 miles WSW.—Approval is required from harbor control for any work that could immobilize a vessel for 2 hours or more. Small vessels.38 5. When Male is identified and approached. covered in trees and scrub in 1970. 73°24'E.. Maps based on 1968 aerial photography indicate that other openings between Giravaru and Akirifuri have dangers within the channels or close within the atoll abreast them. Then steer S to pass W of Vihamanaafushi.37 Regulations. Viligili (Mathidhahuraa) lies 0. LOA and maximum draft. giving effective warning of the reef lying about 0.37 5. the latest maps (1970). a sandbank.37 5.5 mile NW of Kaduoiygiri. Gaadhoo Koa (Male Passage) is approached with the E side of Dhoonidhu bearing 337°. about 0. In 1974. Steer to pass about 0. easily discernible channel. sailing vessels. it was reported that because of the extended runway S on Hulule Island.37 119 5. Deadweight tons.37 5. Call sign.37 5. A low islet. with a stern anchor laid out to E. there is a small but safe opening on each side of this islet and another 1 mile ENE of it. The outline of the reefs is very distinct. Anchorage. maintaining a midchannel course. lies about 1.37 5.). reported observing a current setting NNE at 3. about 17 miles N of Giravaru and 2 miles within the lagoon. when a strong S to SW set of 4 knots was encountered with numerous eddies between Smallmill Point and Wild Point. 2.38 Akirifuri (4°38'N.38 5. with a least depth of 3.37 5. Pass close N clear of Toddu and then steer SE for Vaadhoo Kandu (Wadu Channel). less deep channel lies NW of Giravaru. If approaching Male from W. and open NE of Funadhoo until the S end of Hulule runway bears 085°. at the approach on course 345°.37 5. 5. The Laccadive Islands and the Maldive Islands and its entrance widened with a jetty built. Caution is necessary as strong cross sets of up to 6 knots caused by the season monssons occur across the mouth of the channel.37 5.4 mile wide between the reefs extending SE of Male and S of Hulule airstrip. Last port of call and next port of call. 5. Details of dangerous cargo for discharging or in transit. 8. Vessel’s name.38 5. Port of registry and number.38 Pub.000 dwt were reported using the port. Cargo for the Maldives or in transit. A vessel. 14. 72°57'E. Then steer through the middle of the channel between Funadhoo and Hulule. 11. To remain in midchannel and to counteract the set and drift. In 1983.37 5. enter Kaashidoo Channel (Kaashidoo) between Thoddoo (Thuddu) (4°26'N. 12. Pilotage. Vessels up to 2. Directions.—Vessels anchor in the designated anchorage areas best seen on the chart. Between Giravaru and Akirifuri. thereafter. 3. 4. indicate dangers in the entrance to the W of those charted near Hembadu. and nrt. follow the directions as mentioned above. A vessel can secure to an anchor set in the coral of this reef. A wider. 9. 10. is the recommended channel. Pilotage for departing vessels is available 24 hours. a more appropriate approach through Male Passage should be made from farther SE. about 0. Low-powered vessels. A survey vessel observed similar indications of such dangers in 1974.) is low and covered with bushes. S of Giravaru. about 7m high. during the Southwest Monsoon. where it broadens out into the lagoon. about 26 miles N. an islet covered in scrub and with a few coconut palms. a similar islet lies 1 mile S of Giravaru.38 5.37 5. Warehouses were also under construction. Two anchors on the SE side of Dhoonidhu can be used in the same way. 7.6 mile S of Lankanfinolhu. with some palms and covered with bush.. 6. 173 .7 mile NW of Giravaru. as follows: 5. 73°32'E. a wooded islet 3 miles N of Male. Air draft.37 maldport@dhivenet.37 5. All trade must be made through Male.38 Giravaru (4°12'N. lies in the channel. A good. The largest opening is abreast Hembadu. Master’s name and nationality. the channel close E of Male. Pilots board in position 4°10'N. 13. 5. The port can be contacted by e-mail. can moor on the E side of the circular reef about 0. Several openings into the lagoon lie along this stretch of coast. and then W of Dhoonidhu to the anchorage.5 knots until the S tip of the runway was abeam to starboard. 5. lies on the SW side of Male Atoll. a heavilywooded islet. similarly wooded. may use the opening in the reef 6 miles NNE of Male. Type of vessel. Agent’s name. Vessels sailing from Male should request a pilot from the agent 3 hours prior to sailing.—Pilotage is compulsory for all vessels over 100 grt and is available daily from 0630 to 2300 Saturday through Thursday. 25 miles N of it. based on aerial photography. adjusting as necessary to the anchorage.Sector 5. a small bare islet lay at the extremity of the reef extending 1 mile W of Giravaru.—Gaadhoo Koa (Male Passage). lies about 2 miles farther SSE. with a least depth of 48m in its center. grt. ETA at Male. The fairway is about 0.37 required round the N side of Funadhoo to approach the anchorage. The W channel between Male and Viligili is not recommended. Vessels must get written approval from the Port Authority for any hot work to be done in port. lie on the W fringing reef.) and Goidhoo Atoll (Horsburgh Atoll). and as 5. then N and W of the reef lying 0.5 mile within the outer edge of the barrier reef. a shoal patch.4m. 73°24'E. and from 0630 to 1030 and 1430 to 2300 on Friday. a course of 008° was steered. Owner’s name.2 mile outside them.mv 5.8 mile NW of Dhoonidhu.

72°51'E. about 2. had trees 14m high in 1963. lies at the SW end of the atoll. The island may be sighted from a considerable distance.44 .5 miles SW of Hurus (Eboodhoofinolho).40 South Male Atoll (4°00'N. therefore restricting passage to the S. Hembunda (Eboodhoo) is an uninhabited islet about 1. between the island and the reef. 5. Caution. of which five were inhabited in 1970.43 Rasdu Atoll (Rasdhoo Atoll) (4°16'N.8 miles S of Toroka. In 1987.. both inhabited in 1970. 72°45'E. a large reef with a lagoon within.43 5.5m.. is connected with the NE part of Ari Atoll by a submarine plateau with depths of 183 to 274m.). A sandbank lying about 1 mile E of Ukulhas was reported (1987) a good radar target. Safe passages are on one or both sides of all these islets.44 5. there appears to 5.5 miles ESE.42 Ari Atoll (3°55'N. The Laccadive Islands and the Maldive Islands There are many good passages into the lagoon on all faces of the encircling reef. 73°00'E. except for the four or five islets on the SE part of the atoll. there are a few openings with several islets and sand banks on the E side of South Male Atoll. others dry.44 Ukulahu (Ukulhas) (4°13'N. was inhabited in 1970. it should therefore be used with caution. was inhabited in 1970 and partially wooded. An islet about 1 mile N of Ukulahi had almost disappeared in 1970. A red obstruction light was reported (1987) shown from a radio mast on Bathala (Butala). Pub. There are some sandbanks on the reef between Wadu and Huras. at the NE end of the atoll. The coral heads may be avoided on a clear day with a good lookout aloft. lying about 3. a sand bank lies on the S side of this opening. had a landing place about the center of the S side abreast a village.42 5.. which may be avoided in favorable light with a good lookout at the masthead. Waddu Channel 5. was visible from a distance of 12 miles. A good passage.40 5.). a good channel lies W of the islet. In 1987. The channel between Rasdu Atoll and Toddu was reported (1963) to be about 1. 72°50'E. 73°27'E. Gaha Faro (4°16'N. some with depths of 3. Almost all the islets are wooded. a chain of small reefs extends about 6.43 5.43 5. Mafuri and Guradu. attains a velocity of 4 knots. and the E side of a detached reef NW and on which Rocky Islet lies. an island about 12. has good openings in the reef on each side. A shoal depth of 5m is reported to lie SE of Hembuda. an islet remarkable for a bushy sandbank extending from its W side. 0.3 miles wider than charted. of which 22 were inhabited in 1970. These also show the reef to extend about 0.. farther SSW.. Rasdu (4°16'N. respectively. is very deep and free from dangers.40 5. and Kuramati was thickly wooded with some very tall trees. about 3 and 5.) consists of many islands and islets. The widest of several openings in the W side of the atoll lies about 4 miles N of Warigili.) and Kuramati.. except the S face. 73°00'E. 5.43 5. and this is confirmed by the latest maps (1970) based on aerial photography. this islet was reported to be nearly submerged at HW. with a depth of 20m in the fairway.43 5. and has a least depth of 14. but is encumbered with coral reefs. about 4. The principal occupations are catching turtles and weaving sails.39 Waddu Channel (4°09'N. where there is only one break. The channel between Ari Atoll and South Male Atoll is deep and sheltered from the ocean swell. Midu.40 5. according to the latest maps (1970) prepared from aerial photography. in the middle of the N side of the atoll.5 mile wide with a least depth of 37m..39 5. The influence of spring tides is felt in the lagoon.5 miles S of Toroka.41 5. Weligandu.41 Ari Atoll 5.40 5.. but some are on the W side. It was reported (1934) to be larger than charted. may be much smaller than charted or may have disappeared. A good channel. forms the N side of the W side of the atoll. lies about 8 miles N of the above opening.5 miles NE of the N end of Ari Atoll.42 5. The other opening into the lagoon lies about 1 mile N of Weligandu.5 miles NNE of Rasdu. causing severe tide rips. about 2. the opening between them can be used only by vessels if local knowledge is available.). Most of the islets lie along the E side. the flood setting E and the ebb W. but it is encumbered with coral reefs. The atoll lagoon is much encumbered with coral reefs. Rasdhoo was reported visible from a distance of 20 miles. leaving lagoons within. The lagoon is deep. were inhabited in 1970. Rasdu had trees 24m high.42 South Male Atoll 5.41 Guru (Gulhi) (3°59'N.—Caution is necessary in the vicinity of the N end of Ari Atoll.). the tidal current accelerated by the prevailing current. lies about 1 mile S of Huras. Warigili.43 5. 173 5. 5. Rocky Islet. Rasdu Atoll 5. Toddu (4°26'N.). The lagoon is deep. a similar but smaller reef lies about 2.) comprises about 25 islets.). with many palm trees. setting W during the Northeast Monsoon and E during the Southwest Monsoon. 73°25'E.5 miles.5 miles S of Toddu. about 15.73°27'E. about 5. Wadu (4°07'N. From an islet about 1 mile E of Ukulahu. because of the changes reported.).120 Sector 5..5 miles E. The tidal currents in the channel are very strong. between the S end of Male Atoll and the N end of South Male Atoll. This channel was reported (1917) to be narrower than charted and this is confirmed by the latest maps (1970) based on air photography.3 mile S. this channel lies between the W end of the reef forming the S side of the atoll.7 to 5.6 mile farther W than charted. In 1963. Between the S side of this opening and the SE extremity of the atoll. 72°57'E.5 miles SSE to Toroka (Beyrumadivaru). the N islet on the E side of the atoll. 73°30'E. During the monsoons. are islets on the S side of the atoll. It forms part of Ari Atoll for administrative purposes. Observations in 1940 revealed depths of 16 and 23m in place of much greater depths in the original survey and thus the probability that the above reefs are joining by a ridge of fast growing coral..6m in the fairway.42 5.43 5.

An islet lies on each side of the opening. 4 miles farther N.44 5.5 miles S of Midu. 73°30'E. which lies close within the E side of the lagoon. were all inhabited in 1970.) and Ariyaddu. is composed of large reefs enclosing lagoons. narrow and without landmarks. about 2 miles wide. is well-wooded. has eight coconut palms. it was reported that patches with minimum depth of 6m existed and the area was breaking heavy seas.. in a general N-S direction. Passages. The latest maps (1970).45 5. with a conspicuous clump of trees at its center. there are other openings. is deep and free from dangers. and Kurafuri and Didu. All the islets lie on the barrier reef. about 2 miles farther S.5 miles N of Mamigili. except Mulaku. There are several safe but narrow openings along the N and NE sides of the atoll.48 5. 73°30'E. with Felidu and Keadu farther SSE. but all are safe if a good lookout is kept.).). 72°44'E. on the SE side of the atoll. which are very strong during spring tides.5 miles S. an islet. In 1987.45 another opening has a submerged rock in mid-channel. Gunawari. The channels into the lagoon on either side of Ariyaddu.47 5. Off Wataru Reef. Pub. but there are no landmarks to help locate them. about 4 miles SW of Fulidu. There are many coral reefs in the lagoon. The opening 1. According to the latest maps. 5.45 5. The tidal currents are periodically retarded or accelerated by the current.47 Fulidu Channel and Ariyaddu Channel 5. confirm an earlier report that the reef between Gunawari and Fulidu has extended about 1 mile NW. 12 miles farther N. Mahiadu. as are the openings 2 and 3 miles farther N. leading into the lagoon..5 mile E. were inhabited in 1970. A strong current sets through the channel S of Midu. Ariyaddu Channel (3°25'N. farther SW. The three islets were inhabited in 1970..46 5. 73°25'E. Matiwari (4°12'N.49 5. and was inhabited in 1970. about 6.47 5.5 miles SSE of Alimata..44 121 5.46 Fulidu Channel (3°45'N. Tides—Currents. about 3. the W islet may have disappeared. 15 miles NNW of Mamigili. was inhabited in 1970. based on aerial photography. about 3 miles S. Between Keadu and Foteo.—The latest maps confirm earlier reports that the NE edge of the reef N of Foteo extends about 1 mile farther NE than charted. This part of the barrier reef as well as the whole S face of the atoll may be considered one continuous reef. Mandu. was inhabited in 1970 and had breakwaters on its N and S sides. 73°28'E. A small reef lies about 1. about 1. Several openings in the NW side of the atoll are not easily seen.50 . 72°50'E.48 Wataru Channel 5. the N channel was not recommended.46 5. there are nine openings in the barrier reef.49 Wataru Channel (3°15'N.8 miles ESE. 5. and E with the ebb. they also show the reef to be about 1 mile longer in an E-W direction than charted. the S islet of the atoll. Fulidu (3°41'N. Rakidu.) consists of several islets.44 5.. There is a channel 1 mile E of Digeri (3°38'N. The principal occupation is net weaving. heavy W swells are experienced.47 Mulaku Atoll 5. Wataru Reef is a small atoll with a small opening at its S end. 2 lies on the reef at the W point of the atoll. set E through Fulidu Channel and Ariyaddu Channel with the flood. 4 miles N of Himendu. The passage N of Digura is the widest and has a 3. lie at the S extremity of the atoll and were inhabited in 1970. 73°24'E.Sector 5. 5.47 Felidu Atoll (3°30'N. The W side of the atoll. seven of which were inhabited in 1970. are free from dangers.48 Rakidu (3°19'N. is also deep and free from dangers.. Aumedu. the largest islet. 72°53'E. All the rest of the passages on the W side are deep and safe.45 5..) consists of several islets. Digura (3°33'N. The S channel is wider and both channels are deep.). between Felidu Atoll and Mulaku Atoll.). an islet at the N point of the atoll. The passages between are mostly wide and deep.—Tidal currents. and on each side of Alimata. both are free from dangers in the fairways. An opening in the reef about 7. Lighted Beacon No.45 Mamigili (3°30'N. 173 5. The openings between these islets and the reefs between are narrow and a heavy swell sets on them during the Northeast Monsoon. 5. The currents and tidal currents are strong. Two miles further ESE 5. Good anchorage was obtained in 1942 about 2 miles E of Matiwari. Numerous passages lead into the E side of the lagoon and are about 1 mile apart. the E islet had palms on it in 1970. Himendu.5 miles WNW of Mamigili is narrow. at the E extremity of the atoll.47 5. are three islets at the head of the bight on the NE side of Felidu Atoll. has two conspicuous palms showing over dense scrub..) and an unnamed islet. Some are narrow. the S islet of Felidu Atoll. 5. ten of which were inhabited in 1970.50 Mulaku Atoll (3°00'N.. about 7 miles S. Felidu is the island of the Chief of the Atoll. 72°55'E. 73°29'E. which has a sandy bottom. which can only be used by boats. were inhabited in 1970. was inhabited in 1970 and had breakwaters on its N side. marks the N side of Wataru Channel. on each side of Rakidu..49 Felidu Atoll 5. Foteo was inhabited in 1970 and has some tall trees on it.). 5. and Feridu. lie N and S of the reef on which Mandu lies.5 miles E of Fulidu has a least charted depth of 9.). 73°27'E. In 1987.48 5.47 5. The Laccadive Islands and the Maldive Islands be another at the W end. between the S end of South Male Atoll and the N end of Felidu Atoll. From the W channel at Rakidu to the W point of the atoll. about 0.. Malos. between the S end of Ari Atoll and the N end of Nilandu Atoll. Caution. about 9. is divided into two channels at its W end by Wataru Reef. about 8 miles S. about 1 mile ESE. Tinadu. though narrow.7m patch on its S side. There is a very narrow and deep channel. the currents and tidal current are strong.1m in the fairways.45 5. The E channel has a least depth of 51m and the W channel a least depth of 48m in the fairway.).

this opening is better defined than the opening S of Huludali. but there were a few palms on it in 1970.2 mile wide between the edges of the reef.3m. Rimbudu was inhabited in 1970. about 1..8 mile wide between the reefs. Mulaku lies close NW of the opening.. has a least depth of 37m in the fairway.52 North Nilandu Atoll (3°31'N.50 5.5 and 10.) has many islets on the barrier reef on the E side of the atoll. is about 0. and Daumbuda were inhabited in 1970. The S opening.53 5..8m in the fairway. Hekara.53 Nilandu Atoll 5.8 mile E of Madali. 5. 72°54'E. An opening.8 mile ESE. On the N side of this passage is a circular reef. with 14 safe openings into the lagoon. 5. which has a charted depth of 5. There are several islets in the lagoon. lies on the E side of Ari Faro. the S island of the atoll.). at the S extremity of the atoll.52 5. the N islet on the E side of the atoll. were inhabited in 1970. There are three openings on the barrier reef between Madali and Furi.50 5.50 5. with a least depth of 5.122 Sector 5. E of the island. lies about 1. about 0.50 5. The islets on the SE side of the atoll are closely grouped. The NW side of the atoll is unsafe to approach. extends to Kandimas. N of which is a deep narrow passage.5 miles wide.5 miles.53 South Nilandu Atoll (2°50'N. A narrow opening on the reef. was inhabited in 1970.. is about 1. Furi (3°01'N. was inhabited in 1970 and had a boat harbor on its NW side. as some islets inside the lagoon have trees on them visible from a distance.53 5.8 miles farther SW and NE of Maimbudu.54 5.52 5.). deep passage lies at the N end of the reef extending 4 miles NNW from Nilandu.53 5.50 5.). 5. with a least depth of 9. 73°21'E. these reefs are steep-to and easily discernible. Between the NW extremity of the atoll and Digaru. about 0. but there are coral reefs just within the entrance. about 2. Some of these openings are small. between Feartu and Mawafuri.. the reef extends N for 24 miles. The nearest entrance to the lagoon lies 2 miles W of Kolufuri. and a broad deep opening. was uninhabited in 1970. between Mulaka and Nilandu Atolls to N. inhabited in 1970. Tuvaru. around the E boundary of the atoll to its S point. and has a least depth of 35m in the fairway.5m.50 The reefs on the S and E sides of the atoll were reported (1920) to be extending seaward.1m Raimandu. Landing can only be made on the W side of the islets. a village lies on the N side of the island. From the latter opening. Huludali. with a depth 5. E of Nilandu. about 8. Hemiti..). There are some shoals in the opening about 6 miles SSE of Farna. 72°54'E.. and Kolumadulu Atoll to S.3 miles W of Ari Faro. Anchorage NE of Rimbudu is more comfortable in a SW swell than that S of the island.7m wide. 72°59'E. The islands of both atolls are mostly covered by vegetation with many coconut palms. respectively. 72°56'E.52 5. The opening is narrowed to about 0. about 1 mile SW. is deep and free from dangers.53 5. between Kandimas and Wani.. has a least depth of 12. was inabited in 1970 and has openings N and S of it. with six other openings and about 20 islets upon it. some of which dry. lies N of Hemiti and is bounded by the edge of the reef projecting 1. Biladu (3°09'N. about 7 miles N of Kureli.) has few islets on the barrier reef.5m in places. which is deep but encumbered with drying coral reefs. but none has a depth of less than 18. about 2 miles ENE of Nilandu. respectively. 5.3 miles NW.54 Kuda Huvadu (2°41'N. close S of the islet. There is a deep channel through the opening. 72°54'E.51 Nilandu Atoll consists of North Nilandu Atoll and South Nilandu Atoll.53 5..).). Maguda (the chief’s island). Most of the many islets in the lagoon are in the N part and about 3 miles within the lagoon. there are three narrow openings without nearby islets to identify them.55 Kudahuvadu Channel (2°40'N. about 12. Dures and Rimbudu lie within the lagoon. the latest maps prepared from aerial photography confirm this. 5. 73°15'E. they are called the Jeweller’s Islands because the inhabitants were at one time the chief jewellers of the Maldive Islands. with a reef in the middle.5 miles N of the islet and the reef N.. but few on the W side.52 5. about 3 and 4 miles. about 2 miles within the lagoon.5m in the fairway. but the entrance is intricate.54 5.52 5. The S opening into the lagoon. was inhabited in 1970. inhabited in 1970. Pub. but they lie too far within to provide safe navigational marks.5 miles NE.6 mile by the reefs extending from both islets. This channel is free from dangers.54 5. has a least charted depth of 27m. From Kureli (2°47'N. is 1 mile wide with depths of 12. The islet of Ari Faro (3°20'N. Another opening. about 12 miles NNW of Kuda Huvadu. An opening in the barrier reef lies between the islets of Vevaru and Muli. forms a good channel with depths 55m. 72°59'E. Digaru and Maduwari. An opening. The latter island is much smaller than charted due to erosion by the sea.8 to 37m in the fairway. all have moderate depths except the narrow passage S of Farna (3°19'N. An opening. with depths of 27 to 37m. 72°56'E. between Huludali and Madali. From the latter opening the reef. Close SE of the latter two islets are channels about 45. There is an opening close SE of Furi. about 16 miles S. was inhabited in 1970 and is the atoll chief’s island.54 Kudahuvadu Channel 5. It is about 15 miles wide at its E entrance and about 9.). 73°01'E. A reef extends about 0.52 5. The lagoon is deep but encumbered with large and small coral reefs. separated by a deep channel 3. The latter islet was inhabited in 1970. The Laccadive Islands and the Maldive Islands of 24m. lies about 1 mile SSW of the NE point of the atoll. but there are no other islets on this part of the reef. about 11 miles ESE. The atoll has many openings in the barrier reef but is inaccessible on its SW side.5 miles wide at its W entrance. SSW of Raimandu. there are openings from 1 to 4 miles apart. 5. A wide.50 5. 173 . The N opening. Daumbuda. about 12 miles NNW of Nilandu. The opening. lies on the reef bordering the E side of the opening.) marks the N end of the atoll.52 Nilandu (3°05'N.5 miles wide with a least depth of 16. is the W islet of the atoll and was inhabited in 1970. NE of Madali.

56 5. deep channel lies about 1 mile farther W and close E of Veimandu. with depths of 14.). on the W side of the S opening. there are islets on its E. the barrier reef extends about 12. Guradu..58 5.—Tidal currents in this channel have a velocity of about 2 knots at springs.59 5. The S opening into the lagoon lies between the reef extending 0.5 mile SW of Gadu and the reef close E of Hitadu. and the only one on the W side. Of the several islets on this section of reef.5 miles SSW of Isdu. four of which are suitable for large vessels.55 Kolumadulu Atoll 5. Between Guradu and Timarafuri. and has a least charted depth of 9. Olugeri lies about 6 miles ESE of Karagandu.6m..59 Hitadu (1°48'N. 73°08'E.Sector 5. The lagoon is encumbered by many coral reefs.2 mile wide. A broad. Buruni. 73°25'E. Gang and Funadu were reported (1970) to lie about 2 miles NW of their charted positions. sheltered from W winds.. Kandufuri was reported to be a good radar target at 15 miles. partly abovewater.56 5. A good channel. lies between Hirilandu and Kandudu. In 1984. The channel close W of Timafuri has a least charted depth of 68m and is free from dangers. a light was reported on the W end of Hitadu Island. the N passage is shallow. 5.56 5. are inhabited. but it is inadvisable to proceed through it at night. according to the prevailing wind. about 3 miles WSW.57 5.. it has a least depth of 11m and care must be taken to avoid rocks on its E side. has a least charted depth of 29m. on the E side of Hirilandu or the E side of Kandudu. with off-lying rocks. about 1 mile farther W. Several coral reefs lie in the fairway W of the three islets. The E passage has a least depth of 55m and the W passage has a least charted depth of 27m. Tides—Currents. 5. about 13 miles SW. Tides—Currents.). lies about 0. but the S passage is about 0. about 16 miles SE.59 5. 5. 5. The lagoon is encumbered with numerous drying coral reefs. Passages lie N and S of Mabadu. Landing was easily made on a sandy beach after passing over the reef which extends about 183m offshore. but these can be seen by a lookout at the masthead on a clear day with the sun behind. the two islands appear as one.5 knots. about 2 miles NE. in 31 to 37m. Vessels may best avoid the reef by keeping well to the S or N sides of the opening. about 2. with Kunahandu.58 5. Baresdu. has a channel close E with a depth of 12.56 5. but care must be taken to anchor clear of coral patches. S. From the latter opening. The inhabited islet of Mabadu lies about 5. 173 . Anchorage.5 miles N of Mavaru.3 miles WSW and close E.8 to 3.59 Pub. while maintaining a sharp lookout for the reefs extending N from Hirilandu and S from Kandudu. and W sides. The E entrance on the N side of the atoll lies close E of Olugeri. was populated in 1970. was experienced in Veimandu Channel in October.56 5.56 5.58 5. and care must be taken if using the W passage. and consequently are more uncertain in direction and their velocities are greater.) has openings in the reef about 1. The entrance is constructed by a reef. 73°00'E.5 miles E and close W of Koragandu. lies close SW of Diyagili. with an islet about 1 mile E. 1960. 123 5. The latter island. there is a tide rip across the entrance. and Funadu are inhabited. 73°25'E.6m.58 5.55 Anchorage. numerous islets lie on this reef. the S side of the entrance is not so wellmarked. It was reported (1963) that Isdu lies about 3 miles NNW of its charted position. both openings are deep. 73°20'E. A current of 1.56 5.5 miles SW.. but a large coral patch. about 0. Kandufuri (2°32'N. in 44m. about 2.8 mile within the entrance.) has several openings in its barrier reef. Diyagili and Mudifuri. at the N extremity of the atoll. is not recommended.56 5. about 2 miles N.7 mile between the reefs and with a least depth of 14.57 Haddummati Atoll 5.. and had many coconut trees. about 8 miles E of Kandufuri.56 5. Gang. at the E opening of the S entrance to the lagoon. The few islets on the N side of the atoll were wooded in 1970.—Currents in Kudahuvadu Channel are more obstructed than those in the channels farther S because of the nearby atolls. is the principal island.—Convenient anchorage has been reported.56 Kolumadulu Atoll (2°23'N. can be found. lies 1 mile SW of Diyagili. From close N of Wilifuri. but this velocity may be accelerated or retarted by the prevailing current.). The most convenient entrance from the W. about 8 miles W. 5. The channel.5 miles SSW to close W of Gadu. The opening is divided into two passages by three reef-fringed islets lying just within and on the W side of the entrance. There are three openings between Timafuri and Veimandu. about 0. is deep and free from dangers. Mandu. on which there is a village.1m. between Kolumandulu Atoll and Haddummati Atoll.58 5. the reef extends about 12 miles S to Diyagili and has no openings.8 mile E of Mavaru.58 Haddummati Atoll (1°55'N. the latter two islets are inhabited.57 Veimandu Channel (2°10'N. The barrier reef then extends from Veimandu to Naraka. close W. had several villages on it. in the middle of the opening. but care must be taken to avoid reefs about 1 mile S of the opening.8m. 73°35'E.56 5. The Laccadive Islands and the Maldive Islands The W entrance of the channel is well-defined on its N side by Kuda Huvada. there are no openings in the barrier reef.—There is anchorage. Wilifuri. at the W extremity of the atoll.56 5. The barrier reef extends from close E of Hitadu for about 12 miles NW to about 1.56 5. N of Hitadu. but very few on its N side. is the atoll chief’s island. Another opening. Good anchorage. Isdu (2°07'N.) has six openings in the barrier reef surrounding it. at the NE end of the atoll.56 5. Tidal currents set E through the channel with the flood and W with the ebb.55 Veimandu Channel 5. and then about 5 miles NNW to Hirilandu. Funadu was reported to be a good radar target at 18 miles. setting in 070° direction.

densely inhabited in 1970. the barrier reef extends about 11 miles SSE and is impassable.3 mile wide and fringed by reef. lies at the S end of the impassable reef. about 2 miles NNW of the SW end of Gan. sheltered anchorage can be found on the W side of Nilandu (0°38'N.6m in the fairway. and Kuri.5 miles S. about 21 miles NNE..5 knots. Good anchorage can be obtained about 0. the barrier reef extends about 5. inhabited in 1970. During the Northeast Monsoon period (December to March). with a few islets about 2 miles within.).) and Kubura. Currents setting E.. about 0. Kandudu Channel. Between Havaru Tinadu and Mafuri.8 mile wide. lies between the two islets. 73°22'E. because none of the low-lying islets N of it are wooded. Hondedu (0°27'N. a careful lookout is necessary. The Laccadive Islands and the Maldive Islands be taken to avoid a reef extending 1. with depths of 12.60 One and Half Degree Channel (1°30'N. Diaddu. It is about 0. about 52 miles S.5 miles E of Mafuri.62 5. were about 3 miles E of their charted positions. A detached shoal. inhabited in 1970. but care must 5. between Haddummati Atoll and Suvadiva Atoll. but not all are inhabited.5 miles SW. have been experienced in October and November.. has a least depth of 12. Elephantiasis is said to be common and cases of leucodermia have been reported. Hura Mula. Wiringili (0°45'N.61 5. Vessels with local knowledge can enter the lagoon on either side of the reef on which Nilandu lies. within the lagoon and about 3. Wadu. 73°23'E. and from the offing appear as one.62 5. Kondai. This reef contains several islets and extends about 4.62 5. 73°05'E.62 5.3 miles SSW of it. Mawaru. lies on the W end of the S coral reef of the atoll. is the site of ancient mosques and burial places. The N passage is about 0. 5. The channel between Rasfanu. about 5. a set W of nearly 4 knots was reported in 1972.5 miles WSW of Wadu. From Fiori.5 mile NW of Gadu and also off Gan.5 mile farther S.). about 0. The boat channel is not marked and only boats of shallow draft can land here at LW. about 1 mile WSW.3 mile wide with a least depth of 24m.5 miles wide. 5. is deep and free from dangers.. and also Low Bushy Island off the W end of this reef. inhabited in 1970 and the largest island of the atoll.. and is less obstructed by coral reefs. The lagoon has greater depths than the other atolls of the Maldive Islands. was densely inhabited in 1970.63 Pub...62 5. was reported (1963) to lie about 21 miles N of the N of Suvadiva Atoll. Anchorage can also be found on the W side of Kondai about 10 miles SE. There are passages N and S of Kudu. 73°20'E. Fiori (0°14'N. between the W side of the entrance to Gan Channel and Wadu. Of the islets.61 5. care must be taken to avoid a coral reef that lies in the middle of the N channel. An islet. was uninhabited in 1970 and very unhealthy. affords good anchorage.62 Gan (0°17'N.—During the Northeast Monsoon. and then about 10 miles NNW to Madaveli.).5m.61 5. W of Gan. 5. the reef extends about 7 miles NW to Nadale. It lacks palm trees but is marked by tall luxuriant trees. the lagoon is encumbered with islands and reefs all plainly visible from aloft in favorable light. 73°30'E. and are the first islets to be seen when approaching from NE. From its N point on the E side. inhabited in 1970. about 6 miles W of Wadu.). has a least depth of 37m and leads N. with a least depth of 55m in the fairway. 6 miles W of Gan. The atoll is the center of the Maldivian mat industry. about 7 miles WSW. Landing is at the village near the middle of the E side of the islet.. between Madaveli and Kandudu.) is one of the largest of the Maldive Islands. 5.62 One and Half Degree Channel 5. about 4.8 to 14. Its fringing reef extends about 1 mile N of the islet.). is wellwooded. It is densely populated and reported to be the seat of government of the atoll. A narrow passage SW of Gadu has a least depth of 3. the barrier reef recedes to form a bight.60 5. Dandu. is the more convenient and principal entrance into the lagoon. but as there are no islets on this portion of the barrier reef to provide landmarks. and also one of the unhealthiest of the atolls. the principal islet on the NW side of the atoll. There are several safe passages.).61 5.62 5. Kudu lies about 0. From the NE end of Huluwarolu.63 5.61 5.60 Suvadiva Atoll 5. 73°15'E. From SW or W. There are numerous openings into the lagoon on the NW side. Mametu. and just within its SW end is an islet called Gadu. about 23 miles SSE. but no useful landmarks.8m in the fairway. Havaru Tinadu. Anchorage. 72°57'E. A deep channel. lies about 1 mile W of Matoda. can be passed on either side. lies between Kandu Huludu and Huluwarolu.62 5. Gan Channel. this islet may appear as the N point of the atoll.61 5. Nilandu.124 Sector 5. but local knowledge is necessary. It was reported (1963) that the islands between Diaddu (0°29'N. this portion of reef is so densely encumbered with small islets as to appear as a single large island from some directions. Many islets are on the barrier reef and within the lagoon. about 1 mile N. local knowledge is necessary. very low.61 5.2 mile wide with a least depth of 22m. Hibadu. consists of two islets. A passage. the barrier reef extends about 2.61 5.62 5. is about 1. Several islets are on this part of the reef.63 5. with velocities up to 3. 173 . Between Kudu and Kandu Huludu..8 miles farther W. there are a number of openings in the reef and numerous islets lying on it. isolation of such cases is strictly enforced by the government.5 mile wide.5 miles from the above N point. with a least depth of 11m.63 Mafuri (0°50'N.63 5. in 49 to 64m. Matoda. Inside the entrance of this channel. and the S passage is about 0. and Kandu Huludu were inhabited in 1970. The N of the atoll is bounded by detached reefs. about 1. as the rushes from which the mats are made are found in great quantities. close W of the latter reef. lies about 1 mile W of Gadu. with a depth of 15. Several channels are in the barrier reef.61 Suvadiva Atoll (Huvadu Atoll) (0°30'N. a vessel might pass through one of these openings in an emergency with a good lookout at the masthead and with favorable light conditions. 73°23'E.61 5. with radio communication with Male.3 miles ESE from Matoda. The channel into the lagoon. however. S of Madaveli.). 73°08'E. on its E side during the Southwest Monsoon.6m in the fairway. about 4 miles N of Madaveli. and swampy in parts.

Landing on the W side is dangerous and should not be attempted. and E sides.5 miles S from the S end of Meedhoo. 173 . but observations are scanty and marked variations no doubt occur. lies NE of Viligili. April. another opening.—Tidal currents in the vicinity of Fua Mulaku set W on the ebb and E on the flood. respectively.67 5.65 5.3 mile E of the NW end of the island. have been reported in Equatorial Channel.66 5.) is the name generally applied to the channel between Suvadiva Atoll and Addu Atoll. The barrier reef.2 mile and about 1 mile S. in 11 to 12. Fua Mulaku is steep-to on its W.). the NE islet of the atoll. Anchorage. The ebb current sets out through both channels.2m wide. a vessel reported (1965) that the countercurrent was running at 1 knot or less.66 5. a narrow isthmus. on the S end of the shelving bank. The tidal rise at Addu Atoll is 1.3m. In September. Tides—Currents. extends about 1. Gan Channel (Gan Kandu). which are covered with scrub. Winds from E are rare and usually light. and N by December.66 Addu Atoll (0°39'S. 5. Wind speeds are generally below 15 knots. in 18.66 5. the S atoll of the Maldive Islands. 73°10'E.64 Fua Mulaku Island 5. of the Equator.). which dries. 135m long and 13.. The island was uninhabited in 1973. composed of hard sand. The current sets strongly across the entrance to Gan Channel (Gan Kandu). extends about 2. on which the sea breaks heavily up to 0. in Kudu Kandu Channel (Kuda Kandu).66 5. thus the current through Gan Channel (Gan Kandu) is continuously out of the lagoon. the island was reported to lie about 3 miles WNW of its charted position. of the S end of Heratera.—Meedhoo (Hulhumeedhoo) (0°35'S.5 mile seaward of the islands.66 5.8m at MHWN.2m at MHWS and 0. On the S side of the atoll. 5. There is a channel 15. The tidal current in Man Kandu Channel is reported to attain a velocity of 5 knots. with a depth of 2.4 miles SW of Mulikadu. distant 1 mile.. Tides—Currents.3m on both sides of the jetty.). Winds from NNE predominate in January and February. 1976. The island was lent in 1960 to the British Government as a staging post for the Royal Air Force.—Anchorage can be obtained during moderate weather.5 miles more in a NW-SE direction than shown on the chart. Tides—Currents.5 knots. backing to W in March. 73°15'E. which lie about 12 miles N and 16 miles S. thickly wooded (1973) in its N part. an opening into the lagoon. is situated about 0.7m at the seaward end of the jetty. Four deep channels lead through the barrier reef into the lagoon. N. The islands and islets on the W side are more densely wooded than those on the E side. the predominant direction veers to become W in October and November. with Mafuri bearing 267°.—A concrete pier.67 5. 5.—Strong E and W sets. seems to prevail.66 5. Heratera. Approaching Addu Atoll from W in approximate latitude 0°45'S. the island was reported to extend 1. This bank. Observations suggest the current increases in strength within 50 miles from the atoll. 73°26'E.66 5.67 Addu Atoll (Addoo Atoll) 5. except near the village Meedhoo at its NW end and near the village of Huludu at its S end.. the current sets in with the flood and out with the ebb.68 Gan (0°41'S. respectively. with greatest mean speeds in May and October.8m.66 5. When E of meridian 72°E. In 1968. The barrier reef extends about 0. about 46 miles S. Depths—Limitations. The predominant direction of the current appears to be E or NE throughout the year. On the N side of the atoll. 5. which has general depths of 18. The Laccadive Islands and the Maldive Islands Anchorage may be obtained in the NW part of the lagoon.8 mile SW of Mulikadu. lies about 1 mile W of the SW end of Viligili.65 Fua Mulaku Island (0°17'S.3 to 75m. lies SW of Viligili. the current increased setting ENE at an estimated 3 knots and possibly increasing to 5 knots when about 30 miles W of Gan. an island with its N end about 1. Viligili. but in Man Kandu Channel (Maa Kandu) it sets continuously out of the lagoon.67 East side.4m wide. with small coral rock is steep-to. with a velocity up to about 4 knots. 5. at the S end of Addu Atoll. 78°10'E.8 mile offshore. is fertile and consists of many islands and islets lying on a barrier reef enclosing a lagoon which provides good anchorage. 73°14'E.66 5. The British presence on the island ceased on March 31. 125 5.65 Occasional gusts exceeding 40 knots occur at any time of year in association with rain showers from SW or NW. There are no known dangers between Suvadiva Atoll and Addu Atoll. but the name should be more properly applied to the channel between the S point of Suvadiva Atoll and Fua Mulaku.68 Pub.63 Equatorial Channel 5. Wilingili Channel (Viligili Kandu).) is wooded and inhabited.66 5. and May and to S in July and August. Good radar returns have been reported from Addu Atoll at 11 miles Winds—Weather. usually in an E direction. is thickly wooded (1973). but a shelving bank.64 Equatorial Channel (0°00'. a coconut palm stands near the E side of Mulikadu.5 miles SSE from the S end of the island.. The NE part of the island is covered with scrub and is heavily wooded.66 5. extends about 0. but is sometimes visited by fishermen. There is a least depth of 2. Kaluhera and Mulikadu lie about 0. but are little felt except in retarding or accelerating the current. recent air photography (1969) confirmed an extension in these directions of 1 mile. A landing place on the E side of the islands can be recognized by a collection of boat sheds.65 5. 5.Sector 5. but after a spell of E winds a set to the SW is experienced. lies on a detached reef.65 5.—Addu Atoll and Equatorial Channel lie in the N fringe of the Equatorial Countercurrent. with velocities up to 5.66 5.the flood current sets strongly into the lagoon through Wilingili Channel (Viligili Kandu) and out of the lagoon through Gan Channel (Gan Kandu).—Wind direction has a seasonal pattern not conforming to that of the monsoon. but in its S part the easterly counter equatorial current. In 1963.

is laid between the NW end of Gan and Hithadhoo. and fitted with reflector devices.—From Koattey (Demon Point). are to be preferred to the N channels. a daylight approach is recommended. has a least depth of 12. the N channels. Medu Gaa and Arivara are two coral heads which dry. fitted with crosstrees. Hulhuvaa Galaal. Aa Galaa. Care should be taken to avoid a 12. has a least depth of 24m in the fairway. extends to about 1 mile W of the NW extremity of Meedhoo. Kudu Kandu Channel is longer and narrower than Man Kandu Channel. Ships up to 12. In the same area is a lattice tower.8 mile farther E. is situated on the N part of the island. Anchorage. Kandu Huraa (Bushy Islet).72 5.72 Entrance channels. with a least depth of 4. 5.2 mile S of Medu Gaa.2m in the fairway.—A submarine cable. with elevations of 40m.68 5. 5. Two radio masts. from 0. with depths of 16. Dhebai Halaa.68 5. on the W side of the lagoon.2 mile ESE of the concrete pier. close NW of Gan. the outer edge of the barrier reef trends SE and E for about 3.5°. except in the SW corner.68 5. the E cay.5 miles to the W entrance point of Kudu Kandu Channel. There is very little swell here. Vessels are warned not to anchor within 0. with an elevation of 30m. Two blue square towers.126 Sector 5.68 5. are not easy to distinguish from N. respectively.4 to 0.3 miles N of the radome. Close S of the masts is a radome. the S channels.—Gan Channel and Wilingili Channel.70 North side. Anchorage. the barrier reef extends about 5. in about 40m.—Anchorage can be taken. with numerous unlit radio masts. but farther inside the lagoon it may be moderate to heavy. the lights are in line 098. the upper rectangular and the lower crescent-shaped. on this reef. the NE part has not been thoroughly examined. lies close NW of Feydhoo and is connected to it by a causeway.69 5. is separated from Kudu Kandu Channel by two sandy cays. where it is less than 0. they are conspicuous from N and E. Hankada.). but obscured from the NW.—The island is very fertile. Anchorage off Gan was previously described in paragraph 5. which are encumbered with coral reefs. good holding ground of coral and sand.—The lighted buoys and buoys in the channels and the lagoon should not be relied upon.3m and is entered on a NW course. about 0. is connected to it by a causeway and also to Abuhera farther NW.4 mile wide between the reefs.68 5. Wilingili Channel.8 mile farther NW. exhibiting red obstruction lights at an elevation of 73m.69 West side. some of which are marked by red obstruction lights.69 5. lie near the S point of Hithadhoo.5 mile of this cable. Man Kandu Channel.71 5. Mahira Island. are situated on the S side of the island. lie about 0.71 5. about 0. 5. lying in the middle of the lagoon. with several islands on it. Tankers using the oil pier anchor off and secure the stern to moorings buoys off the head of the pier. Gan Channel is about 0. extends 134m to the edge of the barrier reef. has a prominent group of trees on it. Pub. Man Kandu Channel.3m in the fairway. The latter island is thickly wooded N of its junction with Abuherra. Caution. about 3 and 3. Abuhera is connected by a narrow isthmus to Hithadhoo. The Laccadive Islands and the Maldive Islands From the E entrance point of Man Kandu Channel. A large village.71 Lagoon.2m shoal at the lagoon end of the channel close off the reef on the SW side and Medagala Reef with the shoal S.71 5. Maradhoo. the N extremity of Hithadhoo. but the S part is covered with scrub.—Anchorage. 73°05'E.71 5. to which it is connected by a ruined causeway.5 mile NW.68 5. Pilotage. lies about 1.a drying coral shoal. A black lattice tower. but have no navigational significance for ships. lies about 1 mile N of Aa Galaa.9m. Swell may be experienced in the lagoon throughout the year.5 miles.2 mile W of the water towers. and vessels should not approach these areas too closely. N of the NW extremity of Gan.71 5.71 5. lie on the N side of the island about 0. The fringing reef extends much farther in the NE and NW parts of the lagoon.72 5. Numerous radio masts. Feydhoo.68 5.2 mile wide between the shoal ground extending from the reefs on either side. with a least depth of 8.69 5. and is unlit.—The barrier reef. with elevations of 9m. A similar tower and several radio masts. A conspicuous clump of casuarina trees stands at the SE end of the island.000 grt anchor regularly in this area.69 5. but most often and most severely with W or S winds.5 mile ENE of the jetties on the N side of Gan. which carries high voltage. about 0. Koattey (Demon Point) (0°35'S.5 to 18. about 0.68. during E winds. 173 . The N shore is lined with buildings associated with the airfield on the island. the NW and largest island of Addu Atoll. thickly wooded in its SE part. lies about 3. conspicuous to seaward from S and W. Kudu Kandu Channel. These are the most convenient anchorages for communication with the inhabitants.2 mile off Gan and Fedu.72 5. with elevations of about 36m.72 Man Kandu Channel and Kudu Kandu Channel. about 0. Ships formerly anchored farther WNW.69 5.5m.5 miles NW of Gan.70 5. Aspect. and in W or S winds off the NE side of the SW islands. Caution.—The reef fringing the islands extends about 0.1 mile wide between the fringing reefs.5 miles ENE to the NE extremity of Meedhoo. has a least depth of 18. as they are broader and less intricate. about 183m NW of Maradhoo. local knowledge is necessary. 5. with many palm and casuarina trees on its NW side..3 miles NW of the NW extremity of Gan. Aircraft runway lights at each end of the runway at Gan are switched on when it is in use. lies close NE of this tower. 5. can be taken off the W side of the E islands. extends about 7. the tower and some of the masts are marked by red obstruction lights. lies about 0.68 5. when refueling alongside a tanker or loading and discharging a ship may be difficult. with three mosques.—No licensed pilot is available.72 5.5 mile into the lagoon. but this area is now fouled by a submarine cable. An oil pier. extending 0. is thickly wooded.4 mile wide. all with an elevation of 29m.

India—East Coast—Point Calimere to Balisahi Point 6. 173 . and Related Products (Unlimited Distribution).127 6.0 Additional chart coverage may be found in NGA/DLIS Catalog of Maps. Charts. SECTOR 6 — CHART INFORMATION Pub.

A survey party found currents with velocities of 1 to 2 knots outside the 45m curve.1 6. Chennai (Madras) and Vishakhapatnam are the main harbors. Tides—Currents. although rare. Along the E coast of India.2 Pub.—The direct effect of the Northeast Monsoon and the Southwest Monsoon winds on the surface waters of the Bay of Bengal is the development of seasonal currents in opposite directions.1 6. is known as the Orissa Coast. less current between the 35 and 18m curves.1 The E coast of India.1 6. Winds—Weather. The low sandy coast fronting the W side of the Bay of Bengal is exposed to a very heavy surf. experienced close offshore and they vary the strength of the current in the neighborhood of Middle Banks in Palk Strait. Several 18. there are no charted or known dangers seaward of the 35m curve. about 360 miles NE.. about 12. there are no indentations of any appreciable size. The following conspicuous objects lie in the vicinity of the point: 1. Cyclonic storms. 6.2 Point Calimere (10°18'N.. When the current was setting to the N in the offing. lying at its greatest distance off the E of Point Calimere.1 6.) is the southernmost extremity of the Coromandel Coast and the NW entrance point of Palk Strait. and as far N as the Gundlakamma River. on the W side of the bay. That part of the coast between Cocanada and Balisahi Point. the coast is low and barren in places and relatively high and densely wooded in other places.—This sector describes the E coast of India. from Point Calimere to Balisahi Point. lies parallel to the coast about 4 to 5 miles offshore. Close to the shore.).8 miles SE of Nagapattinam Light. The rainy season commences toward the end of June and ends in the latter part of November. and includes the Coromandel Coast and the Orissa coast within its limits.0 Plan. sometimes occur near the middle of November or the beginning of April.129 SECTOR 6 INDIA—EAST COAST—POINT CALIMERE TO BALISAHI POINT 6. it is not unusual to experience currents setting with velocities of 2 to 3 knots.1 Point Calimere Light Depths—Limitations. The harbors at Chennai and Vishakhapatnam are the only large ports providing shelter and berthing facilities for all classes of vessels.—Between Point Calimere and Madras. The 120m curve lies about 2 to 16 miles offshore.1 6. An 8. 173 . Point Calimere Light. During bad weather small craft shelter inside this bank.—Changes in the monsoons are usually accompanied by bad weather. With the exception of Cocanada and False Bays. The coast S of Chennai appears to have been encroached upon by the sea to a considerable extent. Between Pondicherry and Chennai. 79°52'E. These pagodas are shaped like oblong haystacks and are in range 270°. 86°24'E. Similar hills lie in the vicinity of Nellore. scattered hills rise to heights of 46 to 198m. there is little or no shelter provided for vessels other than small craft.5 miles ENE of Point Calimere. Kodiyakkarai Bungalows.1 6. a similar current setting to the S may be experienced.5 to 17.2 6.1 Between Godavari Point and Shortt Island. at distances of 2 to 16 miles inland. Two dark-colored pagodas about 5 miles N of the point and 1 mile inland. a set out of Palk Strait was usually found. and from September through December.5 miles NE of Pondicherry Light. from Point Calimere N to Cocanada. General Remarks 6. The depth curves generally parallel the coast with the 200m curves lying about 15 to 25 miles offshore between Godavari Point and the mouth of the Devi River (19°59'N. 3.2 6. The N end of this shoal lies about 6.2 6. Point Calimere to Chennai (Madras) 6. and little or no current inside the latter curve. As a result. Depths over this shoal range from 6.3m patches lie outside the 18m curve. The descriptive sequence is from S to N as far as Cocanada and then NE to Balisahi Point. the current was occasionally reversed. 2. Nagapattinam Shoal. 6. about 3 miles WSW of the point. a strong current sets to the N.5m. From February through May. A drying sand bank extends about 2 miles NE of the same point. about 364 miles NE.1 to 8. and presumably the reverse takes place when the current sets to the S.7m detached shoal lies about 7. is about 500 miles long and is known as the Coromandel Coast.2 6. Tidal currents are 6. about 5 miles long and composed of hard sand and stones.

173 .4 6. is low and fringed by trees. about 6 miles offshore. but the anchorage is considered dangerous during the Northeast Monsoon. during the Northeast Monsoon it is inadvisable to anchor in depths of less than 9.2m.) (World Port Index No.3 Nagapattinam (Negapatam) (10°46'N. the holding ground of mud and sand is good. The two dark-colored pagodas.4 6. with the lighthouse bearing between 290° and 260°.) (World Port Index No.2 6. The river channel leading to the river quays has a dredged depth of 2. with each subsequent letter indicating a 5° increase to Flag Q.4 6. are the only distinguishable landmarks between Point Calimere and Nagapattinam. in a depth of 7. November. and the Morse Code by night. which indicates a bearing of 290°.3 6.8 mile E of the port.3 Winds—Weather. Flags of the International Code of Signals are displayed from the station to assist vessels in anchoring on the most suitable bearing from the lighthouse.) lies at the mouth of the Vettar River. The lighthouse and the dome of the church at Karikal are conspicuous from the offing. Signals.4 Pub.4m.3 miles N of Nagapattinam.2 The coast between Point Calimere and Nagapattinam. Aspect.3 Nagapattinam Light Vessels usually anchor according to drafts and the state of the weather.3 6. About 114 of these lighters are available. Flag K indicates a bearing of 260°.2m.4 6. 49370). the principal port of the Thanjavur District.3 6. and December.—The 10m curve lies about 2 miles off the port. 6. 49350). about 5 mile S of Nagapattinam. The bar. It is dangerous to cross the bar in October.4m at HWS and is marked by breakers. Depths off the port shoal gradually from the 18m curve.3 6.3 miles N of Nagapattinam.1m about 0. the currents off Nagapattinam set with the wind and vary with its direction and force. 79°51'E. in depths of 9. Anchorage can be taken. in depths of 6. Nagapattinam Home Page http://www. 46m high. Sand ridges. Vessels anchor in the open roadstead off the river mouth and use local boats to handle cargo. Karikal (10°55'N. can be seen before the adjacent coast becomes visible. During the Southwest Monsoon. Tides—Currents. The sea breaks over the bar in nearly all weathers and crossing can be dangerous for boats unless carefully handled. Regulations. Further information on these storm signals may be found in Pub.4 to 8. Boats are not permitted to cross the bar after dark.3 6.—Vessels should send their ETA to their local agent 48 hours in advance. each with a capacity of 40 tons. 6.8m. about 1.2m over the bar which crosses the mouth of the Uppanar River. the tall church spire to the NW and two chimneys at the railway workshop to the SW. These lighters unload and load at the river’s quays at HW.htm 6.3 6. flow into the sea between Nagore and Karikal. The port is closed to shipping at this time.. has a depth of 2. the predominant wind is from the NE at a force of 6 to 7. Nagapattinam has been reported to be a good radar target up to 17 miles. obstructed by bars at their mouths. about 1 mile within the entrance. also fringe the coast.. are conspicuous from the offing. 3 to 10m high. a small town about 6 miles N of Nagore.3 6.. Upon closer approach.4 6. India—East Coast —Point Calimere to Balisahi Point 6.—During the Northeast Monsoon. about 3. Nagapattinam Light. 79°50'E. The tides off the port are semidiurnal. The river mouth is obstructed by a bar with a least depth of 1. about 3. In heavy weather. to a depth of 9.com/minorports/nagapatti. All cargo is handled at the anchorage by lighters.4 Nagore (10°50'N. Vessels anchor in the roadstead off the port to work cargo. Sailing Directions (Planning Guide) South Atlantic Ocean and Indian Ocean under “India—Signals. the depths shoal gradually toward the shore. is located 0.” Anchorage. The holding ground is good.130 Sector 6. There is a least depth of 1. lies on the N bank of the Arasalar River. Storm signals are displayed from the lighthouse in accordance with the Indian Extended System.2m to cross the bar and enter the river.1m. lies at the mouth of the Uppanar River.1 mile NNE of the old lighthouse. a short broken sea is encountered. 160. about 28 miles to the N.—In general.3 6.1 to 11m. Anchorage can be taken about 1 mile E of Nagore. and the church at Velanganni. mud and sand.—The anchorage off Nagapattinam is open to all but W winds.3 6. The coast up to 9 miles N of Nagapattinam remains very flat and low.—A signal station which vessels at anchor can communicate with using the International Code of Signals by day.—A minaret at Nagore. 79°51'E. This is reported to be 6.3 miles E of the lighthouse. previously described above. 6. Vessels of moderate draft can take good anchorage. with Karikal Light bearing 264°.indiaport. These rivers can be navigated by flat-bottomed boats only after heavy rains. Two rivers. which obstructs the river mouth. the wind is W a force 6. Cargo lighters must have a draft of less than 1. The high minaret at Nagore is a good mark for vessels coming from the S. Depths—Limitations.

Anchorage can be taken about 1 mile offshore. with the flagstaff bearing between 270° and 247°.4 6. lies in position 11°04'N. and have been reported to be good radar targets up to 20 miles. sand and mud.5 miles offshore.5 6. the new town lies on the Gadilam River. Pub.5'N. 79°46'E. 79°53'E. best seen on the chart.8 mile N of the flagstaff. All cargo is handled by native craft at the anchorage. a town about 3 miles NW of Coleroon Point.8 mile S of the lighthouse. Tirumullaivasal. A flagstaff. and can be seen over the tops of the trees when approaching from the S. India—East Coast —Point Calimere to Balisahi Point the best anchorage along this coast. 6. about 50 miles to the N. visible from seaward. 79°56.3 miles N of Tranquebar. about 7 miles N of Tranquebar. 79°51.6 Tirumullaivasal (11°15'N.. 79°52. anchorage can be taken closer to shore according to draft. An old fort and several white houses. to the 5m curve about 0.6 6. 79°50. 11°04.2m. The Coleroon River Bridge has been reported to be a good radar target up to 24 miles.3 miles W by a submarine pipeline.5 miles N of Tirumullaivasal.4 131 The coast between Karikal and Cuddalore. Caution.m curve about 3. can be seen over the trees when abeam of the Coleroon River. Vessels working cargo should anchor in suitable depths with the lighthouse bearing 285°.5 Tranquebar (11°01'N. A shoal.5 miles E of the port. stands 0.4'N.6 6. A conspicuous chimney with a height of 98m stands 1. 18m high. lies on the N bank of a river used only by native boats. one N and one S of the town. b. This flagstaff is the only landmark visible on this part of the coast. Caution. lies about 10 miles SW of the mouth of the Coleroon River. Coleroon Point is the N end of a long sandy spit which extends N between the two mouths.8 6.8 6.5 6. During fine weather in the other months. Two pagodas lie in the village of Kaveripatnam. A grove of trees lies on the S side of the town. the few sand hills which are visible appear as islets.4'N. The old town. Depths off the port shoal gradually from the 18. serve as landmarks. are conspicuous landmarks. lies on the N bank of the Vellar River about 1 mile within the mouth. Vessels should not shoal to a depth of less 6. A white flagstaff on the N bank of the river entrance and the two white boundary markers. mud.5 6.2'E. 11°05. is low and marked by scattered trees.. than 27. Caution.5 6. The harbor limits are defined by the following coordinates: a.8 Cuddalore (11°43'N. a small town about 6. lies close N of the low customhouse building.5'E. in a depth of 16.. with the fort bearing 281°.5 miles N of Karikal.—A dangerous wreck lies about 2.3 to 0. The port of Tranquebar has been closed to commercial shipping. 31m high and conspicuous. This point has been reported to be a good radar target up to 19 miles. 6. in depths of 9. The coast between Porto Novo and Cuddalore.6 6.5'E (shore). 6.).0'E. marked by range beacons. from the middle of October until nearly the end of December. Vessels occasionally anchor off the towns of Tranquebar. Cuddalore Light is exhibited from a white round concrete tower 0.5 6. although about 7 miles inland. The four pagodas.9m. a small town about 6. c.5 miles N of Kaveripatnam. Cuddalore has been reported to be a good radar target up to 21 miles.1 to 11m. This channel has a least depth of 1.5'E.6 6.—It has been reported (2007) that new berthing facilities and mooring dolphins are under construction. 49410) port area comprises the open anchorage off the town and the backwater formed by the confluence of the estuaries of the Gadilam River and the Uppanar River. 11°03. is low with but few distinguishing features. lies on the Uppanar Backwater.75 miles ESE off Kaveripatnam. about 1 mile N of the old town. 79°51.—An oil field development area.6 mile NNE of the lighthouse.'5N.7 Anchorage should be taken.5'E (shore). e. The Coleroon River discharges into the sea through two mouths about 10 and 13. 79°51'E. 0. It is connected to the shore 1. 6.3'N. 79°46'E.5 miles long and lying parallel to the coast.2 mile W of the mouth of the Uppanar River. especially the buildings to the E. 173 6. about 3 miles offshore. both of which are subject to heavy flooding in the rainy season. with a safety zone with a radius of 500m surrounding it. 6.8 6.3'N.). 11°04.4m by day or within a distance of 4 miles by night along this section of coast. about 13 miles to the N. A shoal. and Porto Novo. Anchorage can be taken. A shifting boat channel.8 . Tirukkadaiyur Port lies 3.7 Porto Novo (11°30'N.0'E.5m. A white flagstaff. 11°03. was reported to lie about 7 miles N of Tirumullaivasal and 1.4'N.7 6.Sector 6.2 miles inland in position 11°04. 11°05. in depths of 10 to 11. From the offing.5 mile offshore. f. which shows up well from the N. about 1. was reported to extend about 2 miles offshore between the S mouth of the Coleroon River and a position NE of Coleroon Point.5 6.6 6. 79°52. An SPM.7 Porto Novo Light 6. 79°51'E. d. 30m high.).. A light is shown from a white tower with red bands. crosses the bar at the entrance of the Uppanar River 0. North of this village the coast commences to rise slightly. 79°56.6 6.5 6.) (World Port Index No. over which the sea breaks heavily during the Northeast Monsoon. lies on the N bank of the Kaveri River near the entrance.

by which vessels can communicate by Morse code. vessels are advised to anchor N of the river entrance and S of the entrance during the Southwest Monsoon.9 6. 56m high. the capital and seat of government of the Union Territory of Pondicherry.9 6. Flag M indicates a strong ebb current. Regulations. about 1 mile offshore. about 1 mile WNW of the light. are available for cargo handling. a choppy sea is raised by the SE wind in the afternoon.. The land. which lie 3 to 5 miles NW and N of the town.9 6.—Depths surrounding the port range from the 20m curve. 2.—Local quarantine and port regulations are in force in Pondicherry. Winds—Weather. which usually prevails from October through January. Sailing Directions (Planning Guide) South Atlantic Ocean and Indian Ocean under “India—Signals.9'N.8 6. the General System is used. Two square towers and cupola of the cathedral about 1 mile NNE.—A signal station lies at the inner end of the new pier at the S end of the town. 1 mile NNE of the light.5 miles E of the S breakwater.8 Pondicherry Light The following landmarks are conspicuous from the offing: 1. 3.132 Sector 6. About 50 small lighters.8 6. flag S indicates a strong flood current.9 6.2m wide across the 6. Storm and weather signals are displayed from the signal station.9 Pub.2 mile from the shore.).” When surf conditions require the closing of the channel across the bar.9'E. is 45 to 73m high and helps to identify the locality. An anchor boat will indicate the approximate position where vessels may anchor clear of the two dangerous wrecks shown on the chart. Pondicherry Light (11°54. with the lighthouse bearing between 295° and 310°. India—East Coast —Point Calimere to Balisahi Point outer face.9 6. with a capacity of 2. During the rest of the year the prevailing wind is from the W in the morning.9 Pondicherry (Pondicherri) (11°56'N. Depths—Limitations. 160. 173 . 6.—The low sandy shore S of the town is marked by trees.—During the Northeast Monsoon. Pondicherry has been reported to be a good radar target up to 18 miles. Vessels can communicate with the station by using the International Code of Signals by day and Morse code at night. is shown from a white tower with black bands.5 mile NNE of the light. from 3 to 5 miles NW and N of the town. Pondicherry Hills. from 15 to 45 tons. The new pier is located about 0.4 mile WSW of the port flagstaff. A copy of these regulations can be obtained from the local port authorities. lies about 13 miles N of Cuddalore. 4.5 tons each.3 mile from the shore. All cargo is handled by lighters at the anchorage off the town.5 miles E of the port. An anchorage for vessels carrying dangerous cargo is situated 2. A signal station.9 6.8 6. to about the 5m curve. The pier is about 287m long and 15. Storm signals are displayed in accordance with the Indian Extended System.. A ruined iron pier projects E about 0. 49430). Pilotage.) (World Port Index No. 79°50'E.7 mile S of Pondicherry Light.—Pilotage is not available. About 350 lighters. Signals.8 6. All cargo is handled by boats and lighters at the anchorage. Cargo is handled by lighters between the anchorage and this pier. are available for daylight use only. which lies about 2.9 Cuddalore Light Vessels should send their ETA 72 hours in advance. which lies about 0. Further information on these storm signals may be found in Pub. hampering cargo operations.9 6. with a racon. Anchorage can be taken. 79°49. 6. lies close S of the lighthouse. Aspect.8 6.9 6. During the Northeast Monsoon. have been reported to be good radar targets up to 24 miles. A conspicuous TV tower lying 0. The port flagstaff about 0. in a depth of 11m. rough seas are raised.9 6. flag K of the International Code of Signals is displayed.8 6. Further information on 6. A red chimney.

1 to 11m.1 to 11m. marked by some tall coconut trees on the N side of its entrance. and contains ample berthing facilities for all classes of vessels. The point has been reported to be a good radar target up to 13 miles. 80°10'E. it is advisable to anchor about 1 mile farther offshore. At this anchorage the powerhouse chimney and Rodiar Chimney are in line.11 Ottivakam Hill (12°48'N. is clear of dangers.. a rocky ledge with a depth of 7. using a good scope of chain.5°.10 6. Several other conspicuous peaks lie in the vicinity. lies about 7 miles NW of Covelong Point and is a fair landmark. high and double peaked. 80°45'E. which extend about 0. in depths of 9.9m at its outer edge. The Pub.10 6. A Submarine Exercise Area lies with its center about 20 miles ENE of Covelong Point.8 mile off the coast at Pondicherry.)..11 Chennai (Madras) (13°06'N.10 6.9 133 6. 80°07'E.—Cyclones at Chennai usually commence with the wind between NNW and NNE. A brick fort.” Anchorage. the most conspicuous hills on this part of the coast.10 Mahabalipur Light 6.6m. Thomas Mount. a small projection with a village on it. lie about 3 miles N of the Palar River. 6. Caution. about 0.). lies about 11 miles NNE of Mahabalipur Light.9 6.. Mahabalipur. The harbor area. lies 8 miles W of Covelong Point at the S end of a low range of hills which extend along this coast for 7 miles. A dark prominent grove of trees lies close N of the fort. is crowned by some conspicuous white buildings.—During good weather. The holding ground is not very good. lies about 6 miles NNE of Sadras Fort. 80°15'E. a rocky point with several pagodas on it. 80°12'E.12 Chennai (Madras). extends about 0. A shoal spit. a group of shoal patches with a least depth of 4. A light stands on a conspicuous rock about 0. 6. Care should be taken to avoid the rocks. when bad weather may be expected..) World Port Index No. in ruins. bearing 276. lies 1. Sadras.11 6.10 6.5 mile E of the head of the new pier. in ruins.in 6. A good lookout should be maintained in the vicinity. anchorage can be taken.12 6.. sharp and conspicuous. about 18 miles to the N. Open anchorage can be taken.11 6.chennaiport. 80°01'E.gov. about 1 mile E of the village on Covelong Point. in a depth of 12.11 Winds—Weather. Panchapandavar Malai (Pallavaram) Hills.5 miles NNE of Mahabalipur Light. lies on the N entrance point of Kaliveli Lagoon about 22 miles NNE of Pondicherry. marked by breakers.11 6. From October to December.11 Covelong Point (12°47'N.. fronts the center of the city.—About 30 miles ESE of Covelong Point lies a firing practice area centered at position 12°41'N. St. 173 . Perumbakam Hill. Allamparwa Fort (12°16'N. which rise to heights of 73 to 198m. extends about 1 mile E from the entrance. The lighthouse has been reported to be a good radar target up to 16 miles. 152m high. Finger Peak. A conspicuous temple lies on Finger Peak. 80°18'E.). lies on the coast abreast of the village and is visible from seaward.8 mile E from Mahabalipur. The Sadras Hills. 6. lie about 7 to 10 miles WNW of the entrance of the Palar River.5 mile within the extremity of the point. awash.). 80°15'E. is the principal harbor on the Coromandel Coast and the third largest port in India. The highest peak rises to an elevation of 215m. 6. Anchorage can also be taken.8m.10 The coast between Pondicherry and Chennai.. a small village abreast hidden by trees. in depths of 9.5 miles offshore about 4. The Palar River (12°28'N. 167m high. which is entirely artificial. the capital and seat of government of Chennai State. about 76 miles NNE. Tripalur Reef (12°37'N. is obstructed by a bar. The low coast between Covelong Point and Chennai. lie about 10 miles N of Ottivakam Hill. the wind direction changing to the E or W according to whether the port is in the right-hand or left-hand semicircle of the storm. 49450 6.3 mile NE from the point.10 6.). India—East Coast —Point Calimere to Balisahi Point these storm signals may be found in Pub.3 miles ESE of this peak.). 160. Some hills. Rockingham Patches (12°41'N. lies up to 1. 80m high and flat-topped.10 6. lie NW of the fort about 6 to 16 miles island. Chennai Port Trust http://www.Sector 6. about 3 miles farther NE. about 0. is low and backed in several places by hills which are conspicuous for some distance seaward. A temple lies on the highest peak and is prominent. Sailing Directions (Planning Guide) South Atlantic Ocean and Indian Ocean under “India—Signals.

3m 146.0m 12.5m 11.12 6. is located on the W side of Bharathi Dock close NW of North Pier.0m 12.5m. this inequality may increase or diminish the rise by as much as 0.12 6. breakbulk. breakbulk.0m 11.14m 9. Jawahar Dock.4m and marked by lighted beacons at each side of the entrance.4m 11.0m 10. Dr.2m.5 mile off the channel entry unless a pilot is on board. In 1986. The protecting breakwater N of the spur is known as the sheltering arm. and general cargo Bulk. a light stands at the head of the arm.0m 12.5 to 12. It has been reported (2006) that the depth in the dock has been increased to 11. breakbulk. 5 Pub.2m. is protected by the North Breakwater and East Breakwater. India—East Coast —Point Calimere to Balisahi Point 18m.4m Length 164. marked by the IALA Maritime Buoyage System (Region A). Depths—Limitations. 6. The climate of Chennai is considered quite hot.12 6. there are occasional squalls from the NW. The S end of the dock is used by LASH barges. October. and November. lying immediately inside the harbor entrance with a maintained depth of Chennai (Madras)—Berth Information Berth Length Maximum vessel Draft 8. Rainfall is almost entirely confined to the period from November to January during the Northeast Monsoon.12 6. 0. located in the NW corner of the dock.3 mile in diameter.12 6. and general cargo Located on East Quay Located on East Quay Remarks .3m 146. is an iron ore berth. 2 Berth No.66m 10. breakbulk. Dock 2.4m 11.12 Weather reports are broadcast by the radio station at Chennai. it is 122m wide with a depth of 9. and general cargo Bulk.50m 9. The entrance lies between North Pier and a spur projecting from East Quay. a light stands near the head of East Breakwater. usually in the early part of the night. is dredged and maintained at a depth of 19.0m 10. on the E side of Barathi Dock.12 6.0m 12. 173 218m 218m 218m 218m 218m 193m 193m 193m 193m 193m Bulk and breakbulk cargo Bulk and breakbulk cargo. Vessels are to keep at least 0.0m 10. with a draft of 16. with alongside charted depths of 11.8m — — 152.12 6.6m.12 6. forming the Inner Harbor is protected by East Quay. 6. 1 Berth No.3m. Bharathi Dock.8m Jawahar Dock Berth No.3m 219. entered along the mid-section of South Quay of the inner harbor. has an overall length of 655m. the N part of the harbor. phosphoric acid. The S part of the harbor. 4 Berth No. Berthing information is given in the accompanying table titled Chennai (Madras)—Berth Information. Vessels may encounter a strong S current when making the approach to the harbor.3m 146. it was reported the port could accommodate vesels up to 274m length. and molasses Bulk and breakbulk cargo Bulk and breakbulk cargo. A fully mechanized container terminal. Tides—Currents.12 6. and there is a swinging basin.12 6. The harbor entrance is maintained to a depth of 18. phosphoric acid. In April and May. and general cargo Bulk.12 Chennai coast is normally frequented by cyclones during May.4m 153.5m.134 Sector 6.9m 157.5m 146. 3 Berth No. breakbulk. Dock 1 and Dock 3. and molasses Bulk and breakbulk cargo Dr. It has been reported (2006) that the alongside depths are being increased to 15m. and general cargo Bulk. the mean temperature is about 25°C.—The tides at Chennai are semidiurnal and subject to a diurnal inequality which may advance or retard the times of HW and LW. and general cargo General cargo General cargo Bulk. breakbulk. are oil berths. Even in the cooler months of December and January.50m 9. Ambedkar Dock (Inner Harbor) North Quay West Quay 1 West Quay 2 West Quay 3 West Quay 4 Center Quay South Quay 1 South Quay 2 South Quay 3 Naval Berth North Naval Berth South Mooring 3 198m 170m 170m 170m 170m 170m 246m 179m 181m 60m 140m — Passengers and general cargo Bulk. Ambedkar Dock (Inner Harbor) contains 12 berths alongside the quays and one fixed mooring.—The approach channel.0m 9.3m 146.

on the E with Jawahar Dock. The Court House has been reported to be a good radar target up to 22 miles. India—East Coast —Point Calimere to Balisahi Point 135 Chennai (Madras)—Berth Information Berth Berth No.—In the vicinity of Chennai.8m 177. Foul areas are centered 2 miles N and 2 miles ESE from the harbor entrance.3 miles NNE of the Fort St. 3. as follows: 1. 2. 5. the approach channel entrance lies about 3. Regulations. George.9 to 1. A strong reliable pilot ladder. on the W with the boat basin having a yacht club. bilge water.5 miles NW of the Court House. about 0.000 dwt 6. Chennai Breakwater has been reported to be a good radar target up to 8 miles.12 6. equipped with manropes. and when entering. Only one vessel at a time may enter or leave the harbor. George.12 6.12 6. George. must be provided. with its 52m high flagstaff about 0. The harbor is protected from the N and NE by North Breakwater and East Breakwater. George flagstaff. almost 3 miles S of Fort St. 80°22'E.4m 13.12 Chennai Fishing Harbor is located 1 mile N of Bharathi Dock and is sheltered by two extensive breakwaters which provides berths for up to 500 fishing vessels. a sharp watch should be kept for signals from the Port Signal Station. standing at the month of the Adyar River. Pub.12 Vessels bound for the Chemical Pipeline Terminal board the pilot in the waiting area centered on position 13°13'N.12 6.0m 13.3m Remarks Bulk and breakbulk cargo and fertilizer Oil berth for vessels up to 100. Vessels less than 230m long await the pilot in Waiting Area No. The surf N and S of the harbor generally breaks about 122m from the beach in fine weather and about 183m in squally weather. otherwise the pilot will not board.4 mile SSW from a position 2. Two high radio masts close N of Fort St. 3.8m — 274. which extends about 2 miles NE from the same flagstaff. The main tower of the Court House standing about 1. During gales from the E. The inner harbor extends farther S and connects into two separate basins. Masters of vessels are cautioned to leave ample room for the pilot to maneuver the vessel for entering the harbor. The following landmarks are conspicuous from the offing: 1.Sector 6.7m high.3m 274. Depths off the harbor shoal gradually from the 20m curve. 2 Container Berth No. Ships’ agents normally pass berthing messages to vessels through the Port Signal Station and only in case of failure do they contact vessels by radio.—Copies of the port regulations for the Port of Chennai are available to entering vessels.5 to 2 miles offshore.3m 274. No merchant vessel is allowed to enter or leave Chennai Harbor without a pilot on board. 173 . The 40m high University Clock Tower.3 mile E of the breakwaters.5 miles ENE of the light. 2. A light shows from the New Outer Arm. When approaching the harbor or the anchorage. Chennai Harbor is formed by two breakwaters.5 mile SE.8m high. the low sandy shore is marked by casuarina and palm trees N and S of the city. A white-domed building. 23m high. 7. Instructions and regulations which masters should be congnizant of before arrival are. unless prior permission has been given in writing by the Conservator of the port.12 Length 218m 200m 200m 200m 285m 339m 222m 304m Maximum vessel Draft 11.8m 177. contained within is the inner harbor in the S.12 6.12 6. 6. All ocean-going vessels entering or leaving the port between sunrise and sunset must fly their national flag. The spire of San Thome Cathedral. Aspect. 1.12 6. George.000 dwt Iron ore berth for vessels up to 150. with an offshore wind. George. about 1. A building.4m 14. to a depth of 11m less than 0. each vessel must show her number.4m 13. about 1. and during a gale from 3 to 3. and trash shall not be pumped or thrown overboard within the limits of the port. breakers were observed about 244m offshore.15m 16. Vessels are taken in or out of the harbor at any time of the day or night. then 0.5 miles SW of Fort St.6m 16. 4.5 mile S of the Court House. During normal weather the surf wave is about 0.4m 13.3 miles SW of the outer harbor entrance. about 1 mile NE of the harbor entrance. Ballast. Three high cooling towers about 1.12 6. 2. which extend about 0.8 mile S of Fort St. From the E and SE of the entrance.12 6.12 6. about 1. 8.000 dwt Oil berth for vessels up to 140. 1 Container Berth No. the surf is often very high and in the form of a heavy roller.15m Length 193m Bharathi Dock 177.12 6. Vessels 230m long and over board the pilot in Waiting Area No. 49m high. 3 Container Berth No. it is protected by East Quay and New Outer Arm. 4 Bharathi Dock 1 Bharathi Dock 2 Bharathi Dock 3 6. Fort St. 57m high. 6.—Pilotage is compulsory for vessels over 200 grt. 6 Container Berth No.5 miles further NE. Pilotage. Movements in and out of Jawahar Dock are restricted to the hours between 0600 and 2200 daily.

” During the prevalence of suspicious or threatening weather.080m long while South Breakwater is 1. those of more than 230m in length should embark the pilot in Waiting Area No.12 6. 6. Not to be absent from the vessel between sunset and sunrise. Vessels unable to enter the harbor during periods when cyclones may be expected should anchor well offshore and be ready to put to sea before the wind shifts to the NE. or upon the warning signal being displayed. Signals. and within Pilot Boarding Area No. Such vessels are required to display a red flag by day and a red light at night. Sailing Directions (Planning Guide) South Atlantic Ocean and Indian Ocean under “India—Signals. The harbor basin is dredged to a depth of 15m and consists of two 280m long coal berths.8 mile SE of the harbor entrance. Storm and weather signals are displayed at the signal station on North Quay in accordance with the Extended System. At night.in Anchorage.12 6. 4. located about 1 mile E of the harbor entrance.12 6.12 6.12 6. 80°19'E. petroleum. nor will they be allowed to discharge the cargo at the explosives anchorage. To proceed to sea without waiting for instructions should it be deemed it prudent to do so. not more than 12 hours or less than 4 hours prior to arrival. It is planned that the port will eventually handle LNG.12 6. George flagstaff. lies about 0.. 160. The port has two breakwaters. Customs officials board a vessel at its berth or mooring inside the harbor. with allowances made for swinging room.12 6. 3. 6. Vessels should send their ETA 48 hours in advance. India—East Coast —Point Calimere to Balisahi Point Masters of vessels must use their own discretion whether to proceed to sea or remain in the harbor in cyclonic weather. 7. It has been reported that at a distance of 2 or 3 miles from the harbor. Vessels arriving with explosives on board are not permitted to enter the enclosed harbor. North Breakwater is 3.12 6.5m. Vessels of less than 230m in length should embark the pilot in Waiting Area No. Caution.136 Sector 6.12 6. where the explosives are discharged into lighters.net. Neither of these signals should be displayed until the pilot is aboard. A dangerous wreck.vsnl. A second anchor should be ready to let go and all anchors should be buoyed. fertilizer. Otherwise. containers. Vessels carrying explosives in transit are not permitted to enter the harbor. The first phase of Ennore consists of two coal berths.12 6.12 6.—The Port Signal Station is located on the Harbor Office on the seaward end of the Transit Shed and Passenger Terminal on North Pier. They are moored at the explosives anchorage E of the harbor entrance.12 6. The entrance channel.12 6. 6. Vessels remaining outside the harbor. When the danger signal is displayed. vessels should not anchor.12 6. International Code of Signals Flags and Morse code are employed. The roadstead fronting the harbor area is subject to a heavy surf. It is marked by a lighted buoy lying 0.12 6. chemicals.13 Ennore (Ennur) (13°18'N. until the pilot assumes control. No further instructions on that point will be furnished by port authorities. with masts exposed. with explosives on board as cargo. 2. the master of every vessel anchored within the limits of the roadstead is required: 1. Ennore is a 24-hour port. well clear of the entrance of the harbor.—Chennai Roadstead is open to all except offshore winds. 1 or Pilot Boarding Area No. A submarine cable extends offshore from a position approximately 1 mile S of the Fort St. and iron ore.) is a port located about 7 miles N of Chennai. as follows: mmschpt@md3.080m long. located 3. Vessels about to leave should display the International Code flag N at the fore. are required to take positions.13 Pub. without prior approval from Port Control. the signal tower can easily be mistaken for one of the breakwater light structures. Vessels carrying explosives must anchor in the explosives anchorage located about 1 mile E of the harbor entrance. There is usually a swell from seaward which causes vessels to labor or roll considerably. 2. but within the roadstead or port limits. Preference for mooring berths will be given to vessels with bulk cargo and to those vessels which have broken their cargo. Further information on these storm signals may be found in Pub. pratique is granted by the Port Health Officer upon arrival. One berth can ac6. remain clear of the outer end of the sheltering arm and allow sufficient sea room for the outbound vessel. Vessels which are not awaiting berth on arrival are not to anchor N of latitude 13°06'N. especially in the vicinity of the pilot boarding area. 6.12 6. 2. is dredged to a depth of 16m.12 6. The port can be contacted by e-mail.12 6.2 mile E. about 3. in depths of less than 16.12 Vessels may obtain radio pratique upon request. displayed at the Port Signal Station. indicates a vessel in the harbor is getting underway and will be leaving the harbor. to take such measures for securing the safety of the vessel as may be considered necessary. Vessels approaching the harbor should.12 4. vessels about to enter should display International Code pennant 4 at the fore. To keep the vessel prepared in every respect to proceed to sea on short notice.750m long and 250m wide. A black ball. 5. must give immediate notice thereof to the pilot or harbormaster. The master of any vessel arriving at Chennai Roadstead.3 miles ENE of the harbor entrance.—Vessels are advised to be on the lookout for pirates attempting to board at night. 173 . 1. The maximum quantity of explosives which can be handled is 125 tons. Vessels remaining at anchor or anchoring too far in during such times may find it impossible to get away and are likely to be driven ashore. An Examination Anchorage area is shown on the chart.

India—East Coast —Point Calimere to Balisahi Point 137 Ennore Port Limited Ennore commodate vessels up to 65. c.). the other berth can accommodate vessels up to 77. grt.3'E. Draft forward and aft. Local agent.1 mile S of Fairway Lighted Buoy (13°12.14 Pub.). 5.14 6. about 2. with depths of 10 to 11m. Cargo grade and quantity on board.1m.9 to 8.14 Mutapolli Bank (15°26'N. 80°22. b. Any changes of more than 2 hours should be immediately reported. and beam. 6.8 miles SW and three detached shoals.). lies about 2.14 Chennai (Madras) to Machilipatnam 6.2 to 11m.3 to 9.gov.).8'N. detached shoal.14 6.13 6. lies close N of the N end of Armagon Shoal. with depths of 6. Ennur Shoal (13°17'N. extends 2.5 miles NE from a position on the coast about 10. 3..4 to 11m. the current along this part of the coast.9m. lie within 5. 80°22. The pilot boards in the following positions: a. Currents. but at times reverses itself.3 miles offshore abreast of Tummalapenta (14°54'N. 80°23'E.5 miles NE of Point Pudi. lie within 3.5 miles NNE from the N end of Ennur Shoal.. 6. with depths of 0.14 The coast between Chennai and Machilipatnam. weak tidal currents are experienced inshore only at spring tides.com Pulicat Shoals (13°22'N. usually sets with the prevailing wind. 80°23'E. A narrow.5 miles NNE of Chennai Harbor.14 6. Several detached patches. In Nizampatam Bay.ennoreport. 4. The sea sometimes breaks over the shallowest part of Armagon Shoal.14 6. which includes Armagon Shoal.3 miles NE of this bank. nrt.14 6. 173 . In the vicinity of Pulicat Shoals.1m. with depths ranging from 3 to 9. as follows: marine@ennoreportltd...8 miles N and NNW of the N end of Pulicat Shoals. and marked by a number of small towns. about 240 miles N and NE. ETA at Fairway Lighted Buoy (in local time). is low. Vessel’s name.). In the approach to Blackwood Harbor.4'E. 0. with a least depth of 4.0'E. having its greatest velocity near the 185m curve about 8 miles offshore.—The currents N of Chennai vary considerably in velocity and direction and sometimes set toward the land. loa. dwt. The current off False Divi Point sets parallel to the coast with the prevailing monsoon.Sector 6. Vessels should report their ETA 48 hours. call sign.5m. a chain of hard. with depths of 8. extends about 7. The ETA message should contain the following information: 1. In the Waiting Area for Ennore minor port (13°13. Great caution is necessary. 80°18'E. 2.)..). with depths of 10 to 11m.13 Pilotage is compulsory. Two detached shoals. 80°04'E.000 dwt. extends about 15 miles N from a position 1.13 6. 80°23.14 6.9'N. In the Waiting Area (13°14.1 to 11m.13 6.5 miles long. The depths are very irregular in the vicinity of this shoal and up to 7 miles N of it. A shoal. Armagon Shoal (13°54'N.0'N. sandy patches with depths ranging from 4. 24 hours. lies centered about 11 miles E of Kottapatnam. 80°21'E. Ennore Home Page http://www. Overfalls usually mark this bank.. The port can be contacted by e-mail.. the current is weak and sets parallel to the coast.in 6. and 3 hours in advance. sandy. These shoals were reported to be extending to the E. lie within 11..000 dwt. 6.). with depths of 9.

15 6. the chief town of the district. lies 0.5m patch lies 1. 80°12'E. but this anchorage is only safe during good weather.16 6. anchorage can be taken with the disused lighthouse bearing 259°. in depths of 10. the N end of a mountain range which parallels the coast.1 to 11m.16 6. The coast between Chennai and Ennur. sand and mud.2 to 4. about 13 miles NW of the disused lighthouse. is marked by casuarina plantations for about 11 miles N of Pulicat Lake. in depths of 9.15 6. 35m high. Coasting vessels usually anchor about 2 miles seaward of the river entrance. which extends N from Point Pudi. The Nagari Hills (13°34'N. Gudali Hill should then be steered for on this heading. The pagoda is sometimes visible between the bearings of 248° and 293°.5 miles NNE of the same light. but is not very prominent. a sharp peak 858m high with its upper part crooked. anchorage can be taken off the mouth of the Penner River.16 6.) lie about 30 to 45 miles inland abreast Pulicat and the coast to the N. A beacon lies about 13 miles NNW of Pulicat Light but is not conspicuous from seaward.15 6.8m. Anchorage can be taken. Caution.14 6. 160.16 Krishnapatnam (14°17'N.5 knots. A beacon lies on the shore about 13 miles NNW of the disused lighthouse. the current off Divi Point has been found to set E at a rate of 1. A conspicuous clump of coconut trees.. 80°01'E. A tall conspicuous monument lies close N of the lighthouse near the beach. Storm signals are shown.. about 1. formerly known as Blackwood Harbor. The hill is conspicuous except from positions near the outer part of Armagon Shoal. lies about 45 miles W of Pulicat Light.5 miles NE from the coast.—It has been reported (2007) that three new berths and a breakwater are under construction and that dredging to a depth of 13. an ore-loading port. a spit with depths of 3.).. A white pagoda lies on a high hill about 6 miles W of Nellore. During the Southwest Monsoon. Cargo is handled by lighters in the roadstead fronting the river. Anchorage can be taken. a low sandy point. good holding ground.5 miles.). with Pulicat Light bearing 270°.—Care should be taken when navigating along this section of coast between Chennai and Machilipatnam because the land is often obscured by haze. then abruptly changes to sand hills for 5 miles and becomes low and sandy as far N as the Penner River..15 6.1m.15 6.7m high. lies near the mouth of the Upputeru River about 28 miles NNW of Point Pudi.).8 miles. in depths of 11.5 miles S of the NE extremity of Shallinger Shoal. 80°08'E.2m is being undertaken. lies on the beach at Isakapalli Village about 10 miles NNW of the mouth of the Penner River. lies on the S bank of the river about 15 miles inland. Further information on these storm signals may be found in Pub. distant 2. 6. 79°56'E. The town of Pulicat lies on an island at the S end of Pulicat Lake and is visible from the offing. A prominent water tower.).). is marked by clumps of palm trees.16 Pulicat Light 6. A detached 5.6m.15 During March. is flat and 90m high with a pagoda near its center. or Gudali Hill bears 259°. Vessels approaching the anchorage should not shoal to a depth of less than 30m until the disused lighthouse bears 207°. During fine weather with offshore winds.16 6. Armagon Shoal.15 Casuarina plantations line the coast up to 3 miles N of the mouth of the Upputeru River. Nishanbotu (14°42'N.138 Sector 6.15 6. about 13 miles farther N. The Penner River Entrance (14°35'N. 6. with the disused lighthouse at Armagon bearing between 282° and 290°. India—East Coast —Point Calimere to Balisahi Point Armagon Light is shown from a white round concrete tower with red bands. Gudali Hill (14°01'N. Shallinger Shoal (14°23'N.8 miles to the N. visible above the trees. passing N of Armagon Shoal in depths of 11m. 10. 24m high.16 6.” Caution.1 to 12. 79°37'E. 173 . A factory and a conspicuous water tower lie 7.5 mile NE of the above-water tower. extends about 2. about 22 miles NNW.15 6. the Brief System is used. Nagari Nose. This peak is visible only in clear weather. 6. about 9.14. 7.15 The coast between Ennur and Pulicat.14 6. about 10.8m. lying near the coast 7 miles NNW of Point Pudi.16 Pub. 80°11'E. A conspicuous white temple. An anchorage. lies between Armagon Shoal and the coast to the W.5 miles N of the mouth of the Upputeru River. 80°15'E. lies 10 miles WSW of Isakapalli. Sailing Directions (Planning Guide) South Atlantic Ocean and Indian Ocean under “India—Signals.5 miles offshore. lies on a sand hill about 1 mile S of Point Pudi.. lies about 6 miles NNE of Chennai Light. 6.. A flagstaff. has been previously described in paragraph 6.9 to 12.15 6. in a depth of 9.5 miles NNE.) is not easily distinguished as the river enters the sea behind a sandy point which is only 1m high. distant 2. Point Pudi (13°47'N.. is backed by an extensive plain which is densely wooded near the beach. is bordered by plantations of casuarina and palm trees. 6.16 6. The coast between Pulicat and Point Pudi. Nellore.

80°03'E. Depths should not be shoaled to less than 18. Kottapatam (15°26'N.1m. 6. and is one of the few conspicuous landmarks between Ramaypatnam and Kottapatam. but becomes tree covered for the remaining distance. A light is shown from a white tower. 80°06'E.17 6. lie about 11 miles W of Kottapatam and are useful marks. about 19 miles to the N. with red bands.5 mile within the Mudigorda Yeru River. of little importance commercially. Pub.. Anchorage can be taken in Nizampatam Bay. Except for the shoals in the vicinity of Mutapolli Bank. the coast remains low and sandy. A beacon lies on the NW entrance point of a boat creek about 5 miles E of Dindi House.1m.17 6.5 miles to the N. marked by a beacon on its S entrance point. from which a radiobeacon transmits.18 Nizampatam Bay (15°42'N. Chimakurti. Several detached clumps of casuarinas lie near the coast between Ramaypatnam and the entrance to the Upputeru River.16 Anchorage can be taken off Isakapalli.3 miles offshore.8 mile NE of the church at Ramaypatnam. 6. Singarayakonda Temple.14.5 miles W of the Upputeru River. a large building with a big. the coast continues low and sandy for 7 miles. lies about 1 mile inland.. 80°10'E. discharges about 6 miles N of the Upputeru River mouth. Mutapolli Bank has been previously described in paragraph 6. A backwater is formed 4 to 6 miles NNE of Kottapatam by the confluence of the Mudigorda Yeru River and the Gundlakamma River.8 to 14. white in color and 41m high. two hills connected by a ridge. From the mouth of the Gundlakamma River.1m.17 6.17 Krishnapatnam Light 6. During fine weather. lies on a 51m high hill about 3.17 Ramaypatnam Village (15°03'N.) is low and covered by small mangroves. lies on the N entrance point of the creek. in a depth of 9. about 25 miles NNE.18 6. extends about 1 mile S and about 3 miles W of False Divi Point..). Ramaypatnam Light.18 6. 6.).. Between Isakapalli and Ramaypatnam.. lies about 1. the coast remains low and sandy. about 41 miles ENE. but a heavy surf sets onto the beach. 80°50'E. about 15m high. Shoal patches. in a depth of 9. The holding ground is good. painted red. 80°33'E. India—East Coast —Point Calimere to Balisahi Point 139 Ramaypatnam Light 6. sand and mud. Depths of 7.3m until certain of the vessel’s position.18 . Tettu Temple.Sector 6. is shown from a hexagonal concrete tower lying on the coast 0.18 6. with a least depth of 2. A bank. Between Dindi House and False Divi Point. 638m high.16 6.3m and less lie between this shoal and the shore. almost 13 miles to the SE.7m. but is not very prominent. mud. Dindi House. The red church spire is visible over the trees. lies about 1 mile NW of the town. which dries in patches.5 to 8. about 10. and recedes about 14 miles to the N. the latter river is available to small boats.) is marked by a church and some high clumps of casuarinas. Kandalur and Konijedu. 30m high. 173 6. about 6 miles offshore.18 6. During good weather.5 miles offshore and from 3 to 5 miles NE of the town. with Kottapatam bearing 295°. lies 22 miles WNW of Kottapatam and is also a useful mark. anchorage can be taken 2. with Dindi House and the conspicuous tree at Nizampatam bearing 021°.18 6. about 1 mile offshore SE of the flagstaff. A beacon lies about 0. high tree close E of it. False Divi Point (15°43'N. the bay shore curves NE for about 35 miles to the entrance of a creek leading to the town of Nizampatam. Between Ramaypatnam and the town of Kottapatam.18 6. in depths of 12. A prominent white obelisk. The Paleru River (15°19'N. The rising ground near the temple is visible in places between the trees.17 A shoal. with depths of 5. lies 2 miles W of the village. lie up to 7 miles E of the town.5m.6m.17 6.) lies between Kottapatam and False Divi Point. the bay is free from dangers and its shores may be approached with safety to a depth of 9.

140

Sector 6. India—East Coast —Point Calimere to Balisahi Point
New Machilipatnam Light is shown from a white, round, concrete tower with black bands, 3.8 miles NNE of the mouth of Machilipatnam Creek. There are six lighter wharves, with a total length of 675m, within the port area; three of these wharves lie on the tidal side of the lock; the remainder are in Machilipatnam Canal. Groynes are under development to protect the entrance to the creek and to increase depths at the entrance. Depths in the approach to the port range from 11m, about 5.3 mile E of the entrance of the creek, to a depth of 1.8m about 1 mile offshore. When approaching the port, the following objects are prominent: 1. Karameda Beacon, 13.7m high, about 2 miles N of the main lighthouse. 2. A chimney, with an elevation of about 29m, 1.5 miles NNW of Karameda Beacon. This chimney is reported to be the first object sighted when approaching from the E. Storm and weather signals are displayed at Machilipatnam; the General System and the Brief System are used. Further information on these storm signals may be found in Pub. 160, Sailing Directions (Planning Guide) South Atlantic Ocean and Indian Ocean under “India—Signals.” Anchorage.—The roadstead is large and the holding ground, fine sand and mud, is good. From January through September, vessels should anchor according to draft, with the lighthouse bearing 270°, and from October through December, with the lighthouse bearing 288°. The coast between Machilipatnam and Narasapur Point, about 32 miles ENE, is low, sandy, and densely wooded in places. An inconspicuous beacon, about 6.1m high, stands on the coast 11.5 miles NE of Machilipatnam Light. A beacon stands on the coast 19.3 miles NE of the same lighthouse.
6.20 6.20 6.20 6.20 6.20 6.20 6.20 6.20 6.20 6.20

6.18

6.18

6.18

6.18

6.18

Coastal vessels can anchor, in 9.1 to 11m, sand and mud, about 1.5 miles off the village of Vadarevu, 19 miles NNE of the Gundlakamma River. A flagstaff and a conspicuous bungalow lie on the shore fronting the village. A submarine cable and pipeline area has been established between the Godavari River entrance and False Divi Point. The limits of this area, known as the Ravva Oilfield Development Area, may best be seen on the chart. Anchoring and fishing are prohibited. The Krishna River (15°45'N., 80°54'E.) rises in Bombay State and flows E across the peninsula of India, into the Bay of Bengal by several branches, the mouth of one being near False Divi Point. The enormous amount of silt carried by the river has formed a wide alluvial delta which extends seaward between the towns of Nizampatam and Machilipatnam. Divi Point is the SE extremity and False Divi Point is the SW extremity of the delta. Ocean-going local craft use the river for about 6 months of the year. Krishna Old Light, a white masonry tower, 44m high, lies about 9.5 miles ENE of False Divi Point. Another old lighthouse, a similar structure, 15m high, lies 2.3 miles NW of Divi Point and is maintained as a landmark.

Machilipatnam to Godavari Point
6.19 The coast between Machilipatnam and Godavari Point, about 97 miles distant, is generally low, sandy, and intersected by several rivers. The shore in places is densely wooded, and between the mouth of the Gautami Godavari and Godavari Point, the terrain is very low. Along this latter section of coast distances judged by eye may be in error because of sand haze. Ravva Oil Field Development Area, best seen on the chart, extends up to 15 miles offshore. There are numerous lit and unlit structures and submerged obstructions in the area. Not all hazards may be charted. Between Machilipatnam Point and Godavar Point, no other dangers exist seaward of the 20m curve which lies between 1.5 and 10 miles offshore. Between the mouth of the Guatami Godavari and Godavari Point the 15m curve never lies more than 2.5 miles offshore.
6.19 6.19 6.19

6.19

6.19

Sacramento Shoal (16°32'N., 82°20'E.), hard shifting sand, lies off the entrance to the Guatami Godavari and extends about 4 miles SE and 3.5 miles E from Sacramento Light. Depths over this breaking shoal range from 2.7 to 5.5m. This shoal is subject to frequent changes in position and depth. Tides—Currents.—The current from January through April sets steadily to the NE along the coast between Machilipatnam and Godavari Point. In the vicinity of Sacramento Shoal a rate of 4 knots is usually experienced about 5 miles offshore. The current in the bay to the W of Narasapur Point is weak and variable. 6.20 Machilipatnam (Masulipatam) (16°09'N., 81°09'E.) (World Port Index No. 49460), the only port of the Krishna District, lies about 5 miles within the mouth of the creek of the same name about 11 miles N of Divi Point. Vessels anchor in the roadstead to handle all cargo to and from native lighters.

6.21 Narasapur Point (16°18'N., 81°43'E.), low and wooded, lies on the E side of the mouth of the Vasishta Godavari, which is the southernmost branch of the Godavari River. An obelisk, 24.4m high, lies about 1 mile N of the point. Antarvedi Light is shown, and a radiobeacon transmits, from a white square masonry tower, with red bands, lying 0.3 mile ENE of the obelisk. Between Narasapur Point and the mouth of the Vanteyam Godavari River, about 15 miles ENE, the low coast is densely wooded. The entrance to this river is known as Warreo; during freshets, a spit forms off it. Two large prominent clumps of casuarinas lie on the E side of the river entrance. This section of coast may be approached safely to depths of 18.3m. During January and February, the current sets W at a maximum rate of 2 knots off the coast between Narasapur Point and the mouth of the Vanteyam Godavari. The entrance of the Guatami Godavari lies about 23 miles ENE of the entrance of the Vanteyam Godavari. Only small craft with local knowledge can enter the river in fine weather. The river is joined by two tributaries close within its mouth; during the rainy season the ebb current may attain a rate of 4 knots. The coast between the mouth of the Gautami Godavari and Godavari Point, about 24 miles to the N, is very low and intersected by many small outlets.
6.21 6.21 6.21 6.21 6.21 6.21

Pub. 173

Sector 6. India—East Coast —Point Calimere to Balisahi Point
Sacramento Shoal, which lies off the mouth of the Gautami Godavari, has been previously described in paragraph 6.19. Masanutippa Temple (16°39'N., 82°19'E.) stands near the coast, about 3 miles N of the Gautami Godavari, and is one of the few objects that can be identified between the entrance of the Gautami Godavari and Hope Island to the N. The temple is not conspicuous. Hope Island (16°49'N., 82°20'E.), one of a chain of similar islands which form part of the delta of the Godavari River, is low, swampy, and covered with jungle. A black and white banded, disused lighthouse stands on Hope Island. Anchorage can be taken by small vessels with local knowledge E of Masanutippa, in a depth of 7.3m, mud, about 1 mile offshore. Anchorage can also be taken 2 miles S of Sacramento Light in a similar depth.

141

6.21

6.22

6.22

6.21

heavily over these dangers with a moderate swell, but not in good weather. The channel between these rocks and the mainland is safe only during daylight. At night, vessels should keep in depths of over 35m when Santapilli Light bears between 322° and 290°. The summit of an isolated bare red double-peaked hill, 117m high, about 2 miles N of Santapilli Light, in line bearing 304° with Kandivalasa Peak, leads N of Santapilli Rocks. Santapilli Light in line bearing 322° with Kandivalasa Peak, leads S of these rocks.

6.21

Godavari Point to Vishakhapatnam
6.22 Godavari Point (16°59'N., 82°20'E.) is the N extremity of a low sandy spit and narrow sand bank, which forms a part of the coast N of Hope Island. It had been reported (1974) the point had extended to a position 0.8 mile NW of Godavari Point light, shown from a white pillar with black bands on Godavari Point. The coast between Godavari Point and Ganjam, about 215 miles NE, is mostly low, sandy, and backed by conspicuous hills at various distances inland. Between Pudimadaka, about 50 miles NE of Godavari Point, and Kalingapatam, about 80 miles farther NE, the coast is broken and rocky. Some of the headlands in the vicinity of Vishakhapatnam are bold and prominent. The coast between Kalingapatam and Ganjam becomes fairly regular with a few slight indentations. Tides—Currents.—The current between Godavari Point and Bimlipatam lies farther offshore than off Sacramento Shoal, but its velocity is less. Inshore of this current, slack water is usually found. Tidal currents will sometimes be experienced close offshore. In July and August, the velocity of the offshore current is less than 1 knot. The currents off the coast from Bimlipatam to Gopalpur, between December and June, are mainly influenced by the wind, the tidal current, even at springs, having very little effect. In December and January, when NE winds prevail, the current about 1 mile offshore sets steadily SW parallel to the coast at a velocity of 0.5 to 0.8 knot. Toward the end of February, the wind hauls around to the SW, and in March, blows steadily from that quarter. In the morning the wind is generally light, but freshens during the afternoon to a force of 5 to 6. The current at this time sets NE parallel with the coast; its velocity close inshore is about 0.5 knot. At 10 miles or more off the coast, its velocity is frequently 2 to 3 knots. The greatest velocity of the current observed between Santapilli Rocks and the mainland was 1 knot. Depths—Limitations.—Between Godavari Point and Ganjam there are no known or charted dangers between the 18m and 35m curves. The former curve lies between 0.5 and 6 miles offshore and the latter curve between 2 and 9 miles offshore. Santapilli Rocks (Chintapalli Rocks) (18°01'N., 83°43'E.), with a least depth of 1.5m and dangerous wrecks close E, lie between 5.5 and 6 miles SE of Santapilli Light. The sea breaks
6.22 6.22 6.22 6.22 6.22 6.22 6.22

6.23 Cocanada Bay (Kakinada Bay) (17°00'N., 82°19'E.) (World Port Index No. 49470), a shallow body of water filled with extensive drying mud flats at its head, is entered between Godavari Point and the coast about 2.8 miles WNW. For many years the bay has been silting up because of the discharge from the Godavari River, about 8 miles S of the entrance, but is the safest natural harbor on the E coast of the Indian subcontinent. The town and port of Cocanada lie on the W side of the bay, about 2 miles within the entrance of the Cocanada River. The low bay shores are subject to periodic inundations during cyclonic storms. The port of Cocanada (17°00'N., 82°17'E.) comprises a partly-exposed anchorage located about 3 to 4 miles NNE of the entrance of the Cocanada River and is suitable for oceangoing vessels; cargo is transported by lighters between the anchorage and the wharves on the river bank abreast of the town. Tides—Currents.—Tidal current effects are noticeable nearly 0.5 mile off Godavari Point. The current follows the contour of the land, with the flood current having a maximum velocity of 0.5 knot and the ebb current having maximum velocities of 1.5 to 2 knots.
6.23 6.23 6.23

In Cocanada Bay, the flood current sets SW and the ebb current sets NE. These tidal currents are strong at springs, especially from October to February, and must be taken into consideration when approaching in this vicinity. Tides at Cocanada are semi-diurnal. Depths—Limitations.—The coastal waters in the approach to Cocanada Bay have shoaled considerably more than shown on the chart. Depths are reported to be 2.7m less than charted. Depths S of a line drawn between Godavari Point and Vakalapudi Light to the NW shoal gradually to a depth of less than 1.8m about 4 miles to the S. Depths N and E of this line range from 7.3 to 11m, about on the meridian of Godavari Point. Depths in the dredged buoyed channel leading to the barge facilities on the banks of the Cocanada River average about 2.1m. Depths alongside the lighter wharves range from 1.2 to 2.1m. Deep Water Port is 610m long, with an alongside depth of 10m. It consists of two multi-purpose berths and one liquid cargo berth. Vessels up to 190m long, with a maximum beam of 32.4m and a maximum draft of 11.5m at HW, can be accommodated. Lighterage Area M1, which has been designated for lighterage operations, has a radius of 1 mile centered on a position about 7.5 miles ESE of Goadaveri Point, as seen on the chart. A designated anchorage for vessel awaiting lighterage operations lies about 3 miles NW of Lighterage Area M1 and is also best seen on the chart.
6.23 6.23 6.23 6.23 6.23 6.23

Pub. 173

142

Sector 6. India—East Coast —Point Calimere to Balisahi Point
Pentakota, a small village, lies at the mouth of a river about 21 miles NE of Upada. A coconut grove lies near two fairly high sand hills near the entrance of the river. A white temple stands on a high hill about 4 miles NW of the village. Sudikonda, a high cone-shaped hill, lies 2.5 miles N of the same village. Both the temple and the hill are good landmarks. The hill is the most conspicuous because of its shape and color. Between Pentakota and the Dolphins Nose, about 45 miles ENE, the coast is backed by a series of rounded hills which lie on a plain and show up well at night. A prominent white obelisk stands on rising ground about 4 miles NE of Pentakota and 0.5 mile inland. A beacon stands on a small very prominent rocky eminence at Pata Polavaram, about 13 miles ENE of Pentakota. Sanjib Peak, a remarkable conical mountain with a flattened broken summit, rises to a height of 652m about 11 miles NW of Pata Polavaram. Wattara (17°25'N., 82°52'E.), a small village, lies at the common entrance of three small rivers, about 3.4 miles ENE of Pata Polavaram. A beacon stands on a 185m high hill abreast of Rambilli Village about 4.8 miles ENE of Wattara. Pudimadaka Village (17°30'N., 83°00'E.) lies on the shore of a bight about 4 miles NE of Rambilli Beacon. A red stone temple, with three towers, lies in the village.

Aspect.—North of Cocanada, the land appears bold, with high land extending NE. South of the port, the low sandy coast is marked by some sand hills and trees. In the approach to the port, the disused lighthouse on Hope Island, Godavari Point Light, and Vakalapudi Light are conspicuous landmarks. Pilotage.—Pilotage is compulsory for all vessels using Deep Water Port. The vessel’s agent makes the request for pilotage 72 hours prior to arrival. Pilots board about 0.5 mile N of Fairway Lighted Buoy. The pilot station can be contacted on VHF channel 14 or 16.
6.23 6.23 6.23

6.24

6.24

Pilotage is not required for vessels calling at the Anchorage Port. Regulations.—Vessels using the Anchorage Port should advise their agent of their ETA. Vessels should also obtain bearing position from the harbormaster to ensure safe anchorage in the Anchorage Port. Signals.—A signal station is located at Vakalapudi Light. Vessels can communicate with the station by Morse code. Anchorage.—Anchorage in the bay, E of Vakalapudi Light, is subject to considerable ground swell from the SE, even when there is no wind. Anchorage may be obtained 2.25 miles ESE of Vakalapudi Light, in a depth of about 9m. Safe anchorage may also be obtained, in a depth of about 6m, about 3.25 miles SE of Vakalapudi Light. There is very little tidal current at these anchorages. Directions.—During the Northeast Monsoon, vessels should make a landfall near Pentakota, 30 miles NE of Cocanada, and should then run along the coast in depths of not less than 21.9m. By day, when Vakalapudi Light bears about 248°, course should be shaped for the anchorage. At night, Vakalapudi Light should be kept on that bearing until the depths decrease to 18.3m, when course should be altered to 230°, keeping the Cocanada River Entrance Light on that bearing when sighted until reaching the channel lighted buoys. Caution.—Vessels are advised not to anchor between 1 mile and 1.8 miles N and NW of Godavari Point Light, because of the numerous wrecks which lie in this area. Some of these wrecks are dangerous to surface navigation. There is a foul patch about 0.4 mile NNW of the point, with dangerous wrecks within 0.5 mile N of the foul patch. Other foul areas, best seen on the chart, lie NNE and NE of Godavari Light. Extensive developments, including the construction of wharves and breakwaters and the establishment of dredged areas and dumping grounds, have taken place in Cocanada Bay. Depths may also be less than charted.
6.23 6.23 6.23 6.23 6.23 6.23 6.23 6.23

6.24

6.24

6.24

6.24

6.24 The coast, up to 10 miles NE of Vakalapudi, is low and marked by numerous villages and coconut trees. Low sand hills then appear and continue as far as Pentakota, about 16 miles farther NE. Round Hill (17°22'N., 82°16'E.), 653m high, lies about 22 miles N of Vakalapudi Light and shows up well from positions near Cocanada. Upada (17°04'N., 82°20'E.), a port of call for small local coasters, lies on the coast about 4.5 miles NE of Vakalapudi Light.
6.24 6.24

6.25 Pillar Rock (17°29'N., 83°01'E.), 9.1m high, lies about 0.3 mile SSE of Pudimadaka Village. This rock and some dark cliffs on the coast show up prominently against the white sandy beaches. A ledge of rocks lies between Pillar Rock and the coast, and serves as a breakwater during the Southwest Monsoon. Anchorage can be taken, in a depth of 9.1m, with Pillar Rock bearing 214° and the sheds on the beach bearing 282°. The coast between Pudimadaka Village and the Dolphin’s Nose, about 20 miles NE, is rocky and backed by a hilly plain. Conspicuous sandy patches mark the SW sides of some of these hills. A rock on the beach, about 4 miles NE of Pillar Rock, appears as a low, black, double rock when viewed from the NE. Kutu Konda, a prominent small rocky headland marked by a beacon, lies about 10.5 miles ENE of Pillar Rock. Gangavarem (17°36'N., 83°14'E.) lies about 4.5 miles NE of Kutu Konda and is being developed as an all-weather deepwater multi-purpose port scheduled to open in early 2008. The port limits are best seen on the chart. Pigeon Islet (17°37'N., 83°14'E.), 21m high and rocky, lies in a small bay 5 miles NE of Kutu Konda. Dolphin’s Nose (17°41'N., 83°17'E.), a bluff headland 163m high, is conspicuous when viewed from the NE or SW. A lighthouse with a racon, two radio masts, and a flagstaff stand on Dolphin’s Nose. Dolphin’s Nose has been reported to be a good radar target up to 17 miles. Caution.—A wreck, whose charted position is approximate, and which is dangerous to navigation, lies about 3 miles E of Dolphin’s Nose. Submarine Exercise Areas lie centered 20 miles SSE and E of Dolphin’s Nose. A good lookout should be maintained when transiting these areas.
6.25 6.25 6.25 6.25 6.25 6.25 6.25 6.25

Pub. 173

Sector 6. India—East Coast —Point Calimere to Balisahi Point Vishakhapatnam (17°41'N., 83°18'E.)
World Port Index No. 49480 6.26 Vishakhapatnam, a port of growing importance and the fourth largest port in India, lies at the mouth of the Meghadri River, close NW of Dolphin’s Nose. Port limits extend from Dolphin’s Nose Light in the direction of 160° for 4.3 miles, then in the direction of 038° for 7.5 miles, then in the direction of 270° to a pillar on Scandal Point, 2 miles NE of the harbor entrance. Petroleum and iron ore products are the principal exports. The only shipyard in India capable of building ocean-going merchant vessels is in operation within the harbor area. Ample berthing facilities are available to accommodate all classes of vessels. Extensive works are in progress to increase these facilities. Winds—Weather.—Southwest winds prevail from March to August; NE winds prevail from October to December. During the day, the NE winds are fresh, but at night they are light and westerly. Heavy, windy, rain squalls occur during October and November, but most of the rainfall occurs from June through November. A considerable swell is experienced almost all year in the vicinity of the port. Vessels have remained in the harbor with safety during cyclonic weather. The climate is subtropical and varies from warm to hot, with high humidity throughout the year. Maximum temperatures occur in May, while minimum temperatures are usually recorded in December and January. Through May, June, and July, temperatures often exceed 38°C. Tides—Currents.—From about August to November, the current sets SW; from about the middle of December through June, it sets NE. Inside the 35m curve, the current is much weaker than farther offshore. Close offshore tidal currents will sometimes be experienced. Depths—Limitations.—In the seaward approach to the harbor, a depth of 18.3m exists about 0.8 mile E of the head of South Breakwater. The entrance to the outer breakwater is 183m wide and dredged (1991) to a depth of 19m. The entrance to the inner harbor is dredged to a depth of 18m. In 2007, it was reported that vessels up to 225m long, with a maximum beam of 32.5m and a maximum draft of 9.25m could be accommodated in the Inner Harbor and only daytime navigation was allowed. The ore berth, in the outer harbor, is dredged to a depth of 17.5m on its NE side and 17m on its SE side, and can accommodate two bulk carriers of 150,000 dwt. It has been reported that draft on the SW side of the ore berth was restricted to 15.3m. The entrance to the inner harbor isn dredged to 18m. A turning basin, dredged to 17.5m lies at the N end of the entrance channel to the inner harbor. The three basins which project from the turning basins are all dredged to 17.5m. The entrance to the inner harbor is dredged to a depth of 18m. A turning circle, dredged to 18m in 1991, lies between the berths and the entrance channel. Berth Q1 to Berth Q4, which lie on the E side of the N arm, have alongside depths of 9.4m. Berth Q5 and Berth Q6 have alongside depths of 10.4m. The berths on the W side of the N
6.26 6.26 6.26 6.26 6.26 6.26 6.26 6.26 6.26 6.26 6.26

143

arm, J1 to J3, have alongside depths of 9.4m and are used for oil, coal, and molasses. East Quay No. 8, a new multi-purpose berth, can accommodate vessels up to 180m long, with a beam of 32m and a draft of 10m on a rising tide. Further details can be obtained from the port authority. There is a shipbuilding yard SW of the turning basin and a fitting out wharf lies on the S side of the W arm. Opposite this wharf, on the N side, are two berths connected by pipeline to the oil refinery. There is a fertilizer wharf close W of the oil berths which can accommodate vessels with lengths to 168m and 9.1m draft. Vessels whose length exceeds 171m or whose draft exceeds 9.1m, may only enter the harbor at HW between the hours of 0600 and 1800. Smaller vessels may enter at any time. The mooring berths, which lie adjacent to the turning basin, have depths of 10.7m alongside the buoys. M1 Berth, between mooring buoys, lies close E of the turning basin. A general cargo berth, accommodating vessels up to 232m long and 15.2m draft, is located SW of the ore berth; facilities at the berth include a conveyor system for the importation of coking coal. It has been reported (1996) that during the Northeast Monsoon, the berth may be subject to considerable swell and vessels may have to be moved. A berth for discharging oil is located close NW of South Breakwater. Tankers of 260m length and 14.3m draft can be accepted. A submarine oil pipeline is laid from the berth, W to a trestle bridge, then leads to the coast. A new offshore oil berth has been added to accommodate tankers up to 150,000 dwt, 280m in length, and with a draft of 17m. Aspect.—The landmarks which lie on Dolphin’s Nose have been previously described in paragraph 6.25. Vishakhapatnam Fishing Harbor is separated from Outer Harbor by Groyne No. 2 which connects to East Breakwater and it is entered between N end of the East Breakwater and North Breakwaters. A light shows at the end of the North Breakwater. Several jetties extend NE from Groyne No. 2 with a depth of 4.5m alongside the quayage. Lights in line, bearing on 234.5°, located 0.2 mile SW of the North Breakwater Light, leads into the fishing harbor. A short breakwater extends SW from a position on the shore 0.3 mile NE of the head of North Breakwater and a light shows from its head. In 1988, the work in the shipyard was completed and the ferry berths were in use. A conspicuous white chapel, 68m high, lies on the summit of Ross Hill on the N side of the harbor entrance channel about 1 mile NNW of Dolphin’s Nose Light. A conspicuous minaret lies on the E side of Dargah Hill about 0.2 mile E of the chapel. A conspicuous signal station lies at an elevation of 65m on Sand Hill about 1.25 miles NE of the chapel. North of the port area, Circuit House flagstaff, 2.8 miles NNE, and the University clock tower, 3.5 miles NE of Dolphin’s Nose Light, are also conspicuous from the offing. Pilotage.—Pilotage is compulsory for power-driven and ocean-going vessels over 100 grt who wish to enter, depart, or shift berth within the harbor area. Pilots board 1.3 miles SE of South Breakwater Light.
6.26 6.26 6.26 6.26 6.26 6.26 6.26 6.26 6.26 6.26 6.26 6.26 6.26

Pub. 173

144

Sector 6. India—East Coast —Point Calimere to Balisahi Point
Vessels anchoring in the roadstead must leave sufficient room for vessels entering or departing. Anchors should be buoyed. Anchorage is prohibited in an area at the inner end of the entrance channel, as shown on the chart.

6.26

6.26

6.26

6.26

6.26

6.26

6.26

6.26

6.26

Regulations.—Vessels should send their ETA 48 hours and 24 hours in advance. Vessels planning to enter the harbor on the same day of arrival should arrive off the entrance prior to 2100. The following local port regulations are in force: 1. Only one vessel may enter or leave the harbor at a time. 2. Tugs are maintained to assist vessels, as necessary, in entering the harbor or shifting berths. 3. A pilot is required to be on board a vessel whenever a tug is employed. 4. Sailing vessels of 100 grt or greater shall not enter or leave the harbor unless towed by one or more tugs. 5. No ballast may be thrown or discharged overboard within the harbor limits. Signals.—Signal Station No. 1, with a flagstaff 26m high, lies midway on the East Breakwater about 1 mile E of Ross Hill. Signal Station No. 2 (Dufferin Signal Station), with a flagstaff, lies on the W side of Ross Hill, close E of another flagstaff, 68m high. Sand Hill Signal Station lies about 1.8 miles NNE of the Dolphin’s Nose Light. These stations communicate visually with vessels approaching or departing the harbor. The following signals are displayed for the use of entering and departing vessels: 1. Signal Station No. 1, upon sighting a vessel approaching the port, displays the International Code Flag P until the pilot answers by the entering signal 2. Vessels entering the harbor must display International Code Pennant 4 and enter only after Signal Station No. 1 has repeated the signal hoist. A green metal pennant with a white circle hoisted at Signal Station No. 1 and Signal Station No. 2 indicates the channel is clear for shipping. 3. A vessel waiting to enter the harbor should, if International Code Pennant 1 is displayed at Signal Station No.1, keep well clear of the entrance to allow the departing vessel plenty of room. 4. Vessels about to leave should display International Code Pennant 1 and proceed only after Signal Station No. 2 has repeated the signal hoist. 5. A vessel entering or departing at night and requiring a pilot displays a white light over a red light where it can best be seen by the signal stations. Storm and weather signals are displayed; the General System is used. Further information on these storm signals may be found in Pub. 160, Sailing Directions (Planning Guide) South Atlantic Ocean and Indian Ocean under “India—Signals.” The port can be contacted by e-mail, as follows: vpt@ap.nic.in

6.26

6.26

An Examination Anchorage Area is enclosed by a line as shown on the chart. Anchorages for petroleum tankers are situated 1.5 and 3 miles SE of Dolphin’s Nose Light. A gas and explosives anchorage lies 3.5 miles SSE of the light. It has been reported (1996) that during the Northeast Monsoon, vessels at anchor lie to the current, bow NE, regardless of wind and swell. Directions.—Vessels approaching the harbor should pass through a position about 7 miles bearing 135° from Sand Hill Light, then steer 315° until a depth of 18.3m is sounded. Course should then be altered to bring the lighted entrance beacons in line bearing 280°, which lead through the entrance channel between the breakwater heads and into the harbor. The alignment of the various channel reaches leading into the inner harbor are well defined by lighted range beacons. The coast between Vishakhapatnam and Bhimunipatnam, about 16 miles NNE, continues hilly. Caution.—There have been a number of pirate attacks on merchant vessels in this area. Mariners are advised to keep a sharp lookout, especially at night, for pirates attempting to board their vessel.
6.26 6.26 6.26 6.26 6.26 6.26

Vishakhapatnam to Ganjam
6.27 Waltair Point (17°44'N., 83°21'E.), about 4.3 miles NE of the Dolphin’s Nose Light, is low, sandy, and backed by red sand hills which show up well from the offing at times. Two houses on the side of a small hill about 4.5 miles NE, and the ruins of two houses on the summit of the Kailasa Range almost 4 miles N, respectively, of the N entrance point of Vishakhapatnam Harbor, are prominent. Rushi Hill, 154m high, conspicuous and topped by a beacon, lies 3.8 miles NNE of Waltair Point. Oppadu Konda, about 3.5 miles farther NNE, are 127m high and have the appearance of flat table lands with steep seaward faces. The high land terminates about 4 miles N of Rushi Hill and continues low as far as the Gostani River about 4 miles farther NNE. A few isolated, conical hills mark this latter stretch of coast. A large high conspicuous sand hill lies 2 miles SW of Bhimunipatnam Hill. Caution.—Vessels should not anchor in foul ground which surrounds Waltair Point within a depth of 15m. Also, vessels should keep clear of spoil ground lying 0.5 mile SE of East Point Light. A Submarine Exercise Area, in which submarines frequently exercise, lies with its center about 5 miles ENE of Waltair Point.
6.27 6.27

6.26

6.26

Anchorage.—Vessels awaiting to enter the harbor should anchor, in a depth of 22m, about 1.5 miles E of Dolphin’s Nose Light. Because of the currents and shoaling on the N side of the entrance channel, vessels should not approach inshore of the anchorage without a pilot.

6.28 Bhimunipatnam (17°54'N., 83°29'E.) lies on the S side of the mouth of the large and shallow Gostani River. Vessels anchor in the open roadstead off the town to work cargo. The town is built on the E slopes of a hill, 166m high, which is topped by some trees and a pyramidal obelisk. A white temple lies about midway up the E slope of the hill and

Pub. 173

84°32'E. which extends about 0. about 37 miles ENE. distant 0. in a depth of about 9. and at a distance of 4 to 5 miles has the appearance of a headland. Ramachandrapur. 83°29'E.30 6. with the white obelisk bearing about 281°. The higher ranges inland are frequently obscured and are of little use to the mariner.32 6.29 Konada (18°01'N.8 miles NE of Baruva South Beacon. a flat range 175m high. Further information on these storm signals may be found in Pub. 160.5 miles NNW of Sandy Point.. Storm and weather signals are displayed in the town.. In the approach to the roadstead.3m high obelisk.8m.31 6. A group of trees SW of the customhouse is conspicuous. Pundi Village lies 0.). 84°09'E. 6. was reported to lie about 1. 84°35'E.5 miles NE of Bavanapadu Village. Anchorage can be taken during the Northeast Monsoon. A masonry beacon lies on a large sand bank near the coast. a 4.32 Baruva (18°52'N.9m.28 145 6. Two wharves lie on the S shore of the river but are available only to lighters. A white obelisk and a flagstaff lie in the village. The coast between Bhimunipatnam and Konada. A tall factory chimney lies about 2.29 6.5 miles NNW of the town.29 6.32 Pub.. The coast between Baruva and Gopalpur. which has its summit near its W end about 5.31 The coast between Kalingapatam and Pundi. lies about 3 miles NW of Pundi. Santapilli Rocks.8 mile above the entrance of the creek. rises to an elevation of 1.8 miles E of Rati Beacon. The reef is steep-to on its N and E sides. lies on the coast about 1. the land rises gradually to an elevation of about 91m. which enters the sea about 14 miles ENE of Ramachandrapur. with a depth of 11.4m at its outer end.).30 high. 6. Anchorage can be taken off Pundi. about 64m apart. An obstruction.).8 mile. A rocky patch.5 miles NNE of the obelisk at Pundi.) lies close S of the mouth of the Vamsadhara River and about 1. lies about 3. off the river mouth. Sailing Directions (Planning Guide) South Atlantic Ocean and Indian Ocean under “India—Signals. the General System is used. an isolated ridge 125m 6. All cargo is transported by lighters from the anchorage in the roadstead..28 6. Agra Rock (18°07'N. with a least depth of 7. and 51m high. red.Sector 6. sand. The Nagavali River.1m. sand and mud.31 6.3 miles NE of Konada. The village is not visible from the offing. a flat-topped hill 164m high surmounted by a beacon. Baruva North Beacon is black and white banded. with a least depth of 5.28 6. 6.30 6.31 6. about 0..8 miles E of Konada. Cargo is carried to these wharves from vessels at the anchorage. lies about 2 miles farther ENE. about 1 mile offshore abreast of the town. the highest and most prominent peak in this locality. which lie about 8. 6. Anchorage can be taken.5 miles E of Ramachandrapur.28 6. about 26 miles NE.5 miles W of the town. in depths of 11 to 12.8 mile ENE of the town. about 8 miles NE of Pundi and 0.30 6. Kaulvada.28 6. lies about 10.3 miles NE of Rati Beacon. have been previously described in paragraph 6. 83°34'E.8 mile offshore. The coast between Konada and Kalingapatam. This hill lies at the end of a small range of about the same height which slopes down to the coast. A beacon stands on the E side of the entrance of the river. lies about 2. stands on a double-peaked hill.8 mile inland. about 7 miles N of Konada and appears nearly conical on all bearings from seaward.32 6. is sandy and backed inland by ranges of hills. lies about 3. Bavanapadu Village lies about 19 miles NE of Kalingapatam. is shallow and available only to light-draft craft. about 9. Satara Reef (18°20'N. The town no longer has any importance as a trading center.31 6.29 6. Two beacons. Weather signals are displayed from a flagstaff close SW of the lighthouse. There are no berthing facilities. has general depths of 9. This bare prominent wedge-shaped ridge has two white temples and a tree on its E slope.5m. Anchorage can be taken. India—East Coast —Point Calimere to Balisahi Point shows up well when the sun shines on it.8 miles NNE of Bhimunipatnam Light. During the Southwest Monsoon. 83°46'E. with good holding ground.28 6.30 Kalingapatam (18°20'N.524m. about 10 miles NE of Baruva. Considerably less depths than charted have been reported to exist in the roadstead. a vessel should anchor with the lighthouse bearing 264°. with the port flagstaff bearing about 284°. The land in the vicinity of the port is low and flat but the locality may be identified by Sahliundam. in depths of 9. lies on the N bank of a river.6m. in a depth of 8m.29 6.). Kandivalasa. a prominent flat-topped hill 254m high and bare. Amnam (17°57'N. a high hill topped by a beacon. about 10 miles to the NE.8 to 14. is sandy and broken about midway along its length by some low red cliffs which show up well when the sun shines on them. about 29 miles NE. the depths shoal gradually from the 18m curve about 2 to 3 miles offshore to a depth of 11m at the anchorage 1 mile offshore. Baruva South Beacon is white. lie about 0.31 6. A rounded rocky point lies about 7.1 to 11m.30 6. with Baruva South Beacon bearing between 308° and 318°. anchorage should be taken with the lighthouse bearing between 249° and 259°.5 miles NNE of Sandy Point.29 6.3m. during the Northeast Monsoon.1m and a least depth of 6. a small town of little importance to shipping. the entrance of Bendi Creek lies about 1 mile farther N. The customhouse and a few huts are the only objects in the town which can be seen from the offing.. Rati Beacon (18°47'N.. 6.) lies at the mouth of a small river. This range is prominent when viewed from the NE or SW. In the vicinity of Kaviti. The steep Mahendragiri Range. and is a good mark.” Anchorage can be taken. small. consists of a sandy beach backed by low sandhills. 173 . rises to an elevation of 537m. Kalingapatam has been reported to be a good radar target up to 27 miles. continues sandy and is backed by numerous isolated hills.8 mile NE from Sandy Point. sand and mud.32 6. Bendi Hills.).22.30 6.29 6. Khirsinga Hill. The sea seldom breaks over this danger. 84°09'E. in depths of 12. about 6. Several white buildings and some trees lie on the N side of the river. about 15 miles NNW of Rati Beacon.

bearing 299°.). Winds constantly blow along the coast near Gopalpur in March and April. each at a velocity of about 1 knot. sometimes attains a velocity of 4 knots. Care is also necessary when navigating in the vicinity of False Point.7 mile E of Gopalpur Light.33 Central Sand (19°58'N.34 6.33 6. lies on a plateau at an elevation of 85m.. When viewed from the E. lies close to the coast between Ganjam and Puri. A shoal area.. some of the mountain peaks inland are conspicuous and useful marks. lie on an islet in the entrance of the river. the NE current begins and by the middle of February it sets steadily ENE with velocities of 0.34 6.). Gopalpur (19°15'N. Dandrasi. exposed indentation.7m. this hill appears round-topped. 85°04'E. The Dhamra River discharges N of this bay.3 miles N of Gopalpur. In fine weather. Manusurukota. should be avoided when anchoring. 2. Anchorage can be taken.5 miles offshore. there is little or no flood or W current off False Point and Palmyras Shoals.5 miles N of Kaviti Beacon and is 156m high. lies about 17 miles NE of Baruva South Beacon. is 198m high and lies about 8 miles N of Gopalpur. a shoal with depths ranging from 0. and increasing to 1.3 mile SW of the above position. A fort in ruins lies on rising ground on the S side of the town.8 mile SSE and the other 0. this section of coast is generally low and sandy and marked in places by sandhills. is regular and intersected by numerous rivers.34 Kaviti Beacon (19°02'N. Two hard patches.5 miles SE through 5. but very little of the town can be seen from seaward. about 12 miles NE.). 87°12'E.5 miles NW of the masonry beacon. a strong outset is experienced from the rivers during freshets. 84°47'E.33 6. to the W of Shortt Island. the flood sets to the NW and the ebb to the SE. fog may occasionally obscure the light or cause it to show a deep red color.34 6.3 to 10. the easternmost of two hills. April to July.). 85°25'E.3m. 86°24'E. 84°55'E. a small port on the N bank of the Bahuda River.1m. Landabaums.) lies on the N bank of the Rushikulya River close W of its entrance. about 0.33 Sonnapuram (19°07'N. with depths of 2.1m.32 6. The water over the rock is not discolored and it is not marked by breakers. lies 5. Pub. A customhouse.33 6. During January through March. 84°42'E. scattered trees. a small.8 miles SSE of Puri Light (19°48'N.34 Ganjam to Balisahi Point 6. b.34 6. is marked by several isolated conspicuous hills which are visible over the coastal sand hills. 6.33 6. one 0.7m.3m.—Firing practice areas are located NE and SE of Gopalpur.. During the windy months.34 6. fronted by an open exposed roadstead. The town is no longer a port of call for ocean shipping.34 6.. Caution. the current in the vicinity of False Point generally sets to the W. 173 6. because the depths decrease rapidly and soundings will give no warning of the proximity of these dangers. The NE current continues to run until July and then sets SW.146 Sector 6. The tidal current. 19°02'N. The W peak is slighty higher. a conspicuous range with four peaks.). extends about 1. The currents usually set with the prevailing wind.5m patch lies about 1. about 50 miles to the ENE. distant about 0. All of the known dangers which lie off this section of coast are mostly contained within the 18m curve which lies between 1. and to the S of Balisahi Point. This curve lies at its greatest distance offshore in the vicinity of False Bay and to the E of Shortt Island. On a clear day. together with the coastal current during the Southwest Monsoon.34 The coast between Ganjam and Balisaki Point. a rocky hill 54m high. rises about 4.33 6. N of the town the land is low. with a black flagstaff. about 147 miles NE. 84°42'E. with Gopalpur Light. but when viewed from the S it appears as a long summit with two peaks. lies 8 miles NW of Dandrasi. except at spring tides. Ichapur. About the middle of January. During the Northeast Monsoon or with NE winds. 6. and jungle growth. rises about 2. India—East Coast —Point Calimere to Balisahi Point False Bay. 86°24'E. 19°23'N. the Southwest Monsoon usually breaks about in the middle of June. This hill appears as a conical sugarloaf shape from all directions. lies about 8.. shallow body of water. Central Sand is reported to have extended about 1 mile farther SE. a 206m high hill. Tidal currents in the vicinity of Palmyras Shoals set at a rate of 2 knots at springs.—Care is necessary when approaching Palmyras Shoals from the E.5 knot close offshore..33 6.4 to 9. A detached 5. lies between False Point and Shortt Island to the NE.34 6. each about 15m high.1m. a white round masonry tower with red bands. it is recommended that anchorage be taken. the sea does not always break over this shoal.5 miles NE of Baruva South Beacon. lies 2 miles SSW of Investigator Rock. sand and mud.5 miles E through NE from Devi Point (19°59'N. in a depth of 13. Anchorage can also be taken.33 6.3m patches lie within 4. reported to be partially obscured by trees.5 miles NE of Ichapur. With the exception of the high mountain ranges which rise N of Ganjam in the interior. Farther N the winds are only occasional. 85°23'E. Frequent soundings should be taken and depths should not be shoaled to less than 20. in a depth of 16..). with a least depth of 2. with a least depth of 9. in a depth of 13.).5 and 13. The coast between Gopalpur and Ganjam. gradually strengthening to a rate of 2 knots and more. On the NE side of the shoals. because of its light-colored top and lack of background. Off False Bay the flood sets to the NW to N and the ebb sets SW. with ample chain veered. A white obelisk and a white column.).5 knots about 12 miles offshore.34 6.. Six detached 18.5 miles S of the same point. a large. The lighthouse is difficult to identify during a heat haze. stands on the beach at Sonnapuram. .34 6. The velocity is greatly influenced by the prevailing winds.5m. 85°50'E.32 6. Caution. From the end of June to the end of November. Raegara. lies about 11 miles NE of Sonnapuram. At the S end of these shoals the flood sets to the N and the ebb sets to the S.. a prominent sharp hill. Investigator Rock (18°58'N. 6. Palmyras Shoals (20°47'N.34 6. At the latter distance it sets NE. lie within a radius of 8 miles ENE through SE of the central part of Short Island.32 6. 6.35 Ganjam (19°23'N. as follows: a.6 mile. Chilka Lake.

Storm signals are displayed at the flagstaff which lies 0. 49530).35 6. Further information on these storm signals may be found in Pub. Chilka Lake (19°45'N. is separated from the sea by a long.5 miles. Puri Light is shown from a white pedestal on the wall of a two story building.” Anchorage can be obtained off the town. Kujidheppo Peak. a large shallow expanse of water. The river is shallow and of no importance to shipping. 160. Central Sand.2 mile SW of the light structure.). anchorage can be taken. about 16 miles ENE of Puri Light and 2 miles inland. The summit.. a conspicuous sharp peak. in a depth of 5.5m 12. 85°50'E. has been previously described in paragraph 6.000 dwt North Quay — — Barge operations.Sector 6. 6. with Devi Point bearing 057°. This point can best be identified by Balijori Obelisk. about 2 miles SW of the entrance of the Patakund River.). Anchorage can also be taken about 1 mile S of the above position when the winds are W.36 6. A submarine pipeline extends from the SPM to a point on the coast about 4.36 Paradip—Berth Information Berth Maximum vessel Draft 12.0m — Length 230m 230m — — Size Fertilizer Berth No.35 6. 85°56'E. about 18. 85°23'E. narrow sandy ridge. 2 No. From the NE it resembles a black pyramid.36 6.. Mita Kua Bungalow.). Anchorage is prohibited within 2 miles of the SPM and within 1 mile of the submarine pipeline..36 6. with Balijori Obelisk bearing 317°. Caution.35 6.8 mile inland and about 4 miles NE of Chilka Mouth.5m 5. 6.).5 miles WSW of the entrance to Paradip Harbor.. lies on a low sandy ridge on the coast where large buildings stretch about 3 miles fronting the sea. This pagoda is about 40m high and prominent. 85°08'E. Only the upper part of the temple is visible from seaward.36 6.36 6. Sandari Beacon lies about 5 miles ENE of Mita Kua Bungalow.35 6. Tundaha Obelisk (19°54'N. lies about 2. A beacon lies on the coast about 13 miles ENE of the above bluff. in a depth of 14.5m. the entrance of Chilka Lake. A prominent building lies near the shore.000 dwt 60. rises about 6 miles N of Ganjam.3 miles NE of Sandari Beacon and is sometimes visible among the trees. Sailing Directions (Planning Guide) South Atlantic Ocean and Indian Ocean under “India—Signals. the Brief System is used. 4. Harchandi Temple lies on a sandhill about 0. a small black pagoda-shaped building surrounded by trees. The entrance of the shallow Patakund River lies about 6 miles ENE of the mouth of the Jatadharmohan River. and lies out against the high ranges to the W.35 6. The coast between Devi Point and the entrance of the Jatadharmohan River. marked by a temple with two palms near it. The river is frequented only by native craft. saddle-shaped and 340m high. a small white house on a sandhill close to the coast about 20 miles ENE of Paluru Bluff. rises to an elevation of 577m about 22 miles NNW of Mita Kua Bungalow and is a useful mark on a clear day.5 miles ENE of Puri Light. 86°13'E.35 6. There are few landmarks found along this part of the coast. with local knowledge and a draft not exceeding 3m. 86°24'E. in fine weather.5 miles S and about 5. lies about 6 miles NE of Ganjam and is the bold NE termination of the high mountain ranges of the Ganjam District. about 17 miles NE. discharges about 13. A conspicuous water tower lies about 1 mile NE of the same entrance. Only boats can be accommodated. With onshore winds. Vessels with local knowledge can anchor off the mouth of the river NE and E of Devi Point. Construction completed in 2007.).6m high. each with a radius of 1. Danai (19°59'N. Babeswal Temple. A black pagoda in ruins lies in the village of Konarak. A low beach of sand hills extends 32 miles NE from Paluru Bluff to Chilka Mouth.35 6. Tankers are regularly handled at this berth. Remarks . 1 No. 1 No.5 mile.. The Devi River (19°59'N. Nulyasai Village is also conspicuous to approaching vessels in the vicinity of Devi Point.34. are centered about 4. appears as a double-peak when viewed from the S.5 miles ENE of the SPM. Paluru Bluff (19°26'N.35 6. which lies about 2. India—East Coast —Point Calimere to Balisahi Point The port of Ganjam is little used because of the heavy surf and shifting banks. The soundings of depths should be continuous while an approach is being made to the anchorage. 173 Tankers are regularly handled at this berth. consists of low sandy beach marked by small hillocks. The coast between Chilka Mouth and Puri continues low and sandy. stands on a sandhill about 7 miles E of the above black pagoda. 177m high.).35 147 6. The Kushbhadra River entrance.. stands about 7 miles ENE of Puri Light. is the most conspicuous. Pub.36 6.5 miles NNE of the point.. Small vessels. which lies about 16 miles N of Paluru Bluff. the shoal which extends from the river mouth.—An SPM has been established about 10 miles SE of the entrance to the Jatadharmohan River. 2 60. A dangerous wreck is reported (2006) to lie about 11 miles offshore. one of the largest branches of the Mahanadi River.)(World Port Index No.000-65.36 6. Anchorage areas for VLCCs. distant 1. can anchor inside the river mouth.36 6. distant 0. 85°20'E.5 miles. Mount Chandikho rises to an elevation of 462m on the W shore of Chilka Lake. painted black. an open roadstead.36 6. good holding ground.36 Baleshwar Temple (19°50'N. Puri (19°48'N.5 miles ENE of Devi Point. in a depth of about 14m.6m.000-65. flows into the sea N of Devi Point. Breakers are always visible across the shallow entrance of this river.

The channel leading into the inner harbor passes about midway between two breakwaters and then extends NW to the turning basin close SW of the T-head jetty on the E side of the harbor. 1.000 dwt 40.0m when departing at HW from October to April.000 dwt 65.37 the port is protected by a N and a S breakwater. 49535 6.000 dwt 60.37 6.5m 12.—Paradip Light is shown from a round concrete tower.148 Sector 6. A trestle pier projects from the S breakwater. ETA. Length overall. Tankers are regularly handled at this berth.) World Port Index No. Vessels with a draft of 13m can utilize this port.5m — 11. The entrance to 6. 86°41'E.— The port is approached through a channel with dredged depth of 12.000 dwt Coal Berths No. 2. Under construction. Last port of call. The following information should be sent by radio when a vessel is within 40 to 60 miles to the port: 1. The port handles containers.000 dwt 60. 2 No. 6. 173 .000 dwt 60.000-65. and liquid bulk cargo. The port has a large turning basin 520m in diameter.37 Pub.0m — 230m 260m 260m 40. Vessels permitted to load to a maximum draft of 13.paradipport. Vessel’s name.5m 13.0m 12. LASH operations are normally carried out between the mother ship at the anchorage and the lighter berths at the S end of the general cargo wharf. 1 No. Regulations. 7. 3. 3 No.—Pilotage is compulsoryfor all vessels greater than 200 gross tons and is available 24 hours.5 miles ENE of the entrance of the Jatadharmhan River.0m when departing at HW from October to April.37 6.000-65. Aspect.5m 260m 60. general cargo.5m 260m 60. Maximum permitted beam of 40m.8m. Departing vessels should reuest a pilot from Port Control on VHF channel 16 at least 2 hours prior to departure.000 dwt Paradip (20°16'N.000-45. India—East Coast —Point Calimere to Balisahi Point Paradip—Berth Information Berth Maximum vessel Draft 12.37 6. Vessels permitted to load to a maximum draft of 13.37 Paradip lies on the coast about 6.000 dwt 60. 6.000 dwt Other Berths Multpurpose Berth South Quay Iron Ore Berth Oil Berth — 12. with a dredged depth of 12.000-75. Under construction.in Depth—Limitations. 1 12.37 6. 2 12.000 dwt East Quay 40. Remarks No. 3 60.5 miles W of the entrance to the port.—Vessels should send their ETA 24 hours in advance. 2 No. dry bulk cargo. which offers problem-free berthing year round. Pilots board 2 miles SE of the harbor entrance.37 6. Breadth. 5. Draft.000 dwt Vessels permitted to load to a maximum draft of 13..0m 12. Gross tonnage. 8. Pilotage.0m Length 230m 230m — 260m 260m 230m Size Central Quay No. 1 No.0m 11.000-75.000-65. Port Authority of Paradip http://www.gov. Tankers are regularly handled at this berth. Berth information is given in the accompanying table.000-75. The alignment of the main fairway is indicated by two pairs of range lights. 4.37 6.000 dwt 50.8m. Deadweight tonnage.37 6.0m when departing at HW from October to April.

Dangerous cargo.38 6. Small vessels can anchor in a depression about 1. have been swept rapidly to the W and have grounded on the shoals extending from Temple Point (20°25'N. False Bay (20°31'N. with a banyan tree close by. The lighthouse on the point is shown from a white round masonry tower with red bands. 86°44'E. in the N part. numerous flats obstruct its entrance and it can only be entered by boats at half tide when the water is smooth. During freshets on the Kharnasi River and the Jambu River. The city of Cuttack. should not shoal to depths of less than 18.5 miles N and NW from Maipura Point.. or to the SW and NW.9m.38 6. Vessels approaching from the S.39 Pub.5 miles NNE of the Lion’s Rump. to a bottom of sand and mud. A tanker anchorage area. Vessels attempting to turn to starboard. to the E or NE. Anchorage is not recommended.3 miles E of the center of the general anchorage area..).Sector 6. False Point Anchorage (20°28'N. A large stone building. 20°16. trawling.. Vessels approaching from the N must guard against this current.37 6. about 1 mile N of the N extremity of Nurrea Banga Nassi.38 False Point (20°20'N. 20°13.37 6.—A general anchorage area. are shallow.).in 6.38 6. in the S part. This area is bound by lines joining the following positions: a.5 mile SW of the Lion’s Rump. or any other activity harmful to marine life within this area is prohibited. 6. but a heavy swell is experienced. 86°47'E. Stemming the current by turning the vessel to port. 86°45. b.—Storm and weather signals are shown at Paradip. lies centered on a point about 1.— The Gahiramatha Marine Wildlife Sanctuary. The Kharnasi River and the Jambu River. 18m high.3m until the light bears about 244°.38 6. with an isolated clump of trees at its NE end. and available only to small vessels with local knowledge. 86°55'E. with a radius of 0.38 6. Caution. c. the ebb sometimes attains a rate of 4 to 5 knots and sets around the N end of Nurrea Banga Nassi.0'N. W of Nurrea Banga Nassi. with a radius of 0. Long Sand. Protection is provided from NW winds.net.5 mile. Fishing. lies between the two entrances of the Mahanadi River and has been reported to be a good radar target up to 17 miles. is entered through two entrances.38 6. distant 2. 160. Speed. 86°44'E. which flow into the W side of the bay W of Nurrea Banga Nassi. stands on the W side of the island. Port Control can be contacted by e-mail.39 Satbaia Sand Hill (20°38'N.” Anchorage. as follows: pptinet@dte.). the flood sets toward the coast in the vicinity of Satbaia Sandhill about 15 miles N of the N end of Nurrea Banga Nassi. Anchoring is prohibited in a triangular-shaped area lying in the approach to Paradip NE of the designated anchorage areas.38 6. Anchorage within the bay is safe.37 The harbormaster can be contacted by e-mail.8m.38 6. The tides at False Point are semidiurnal. the lighthouse is difficult to see if there is a heat haze because it has a lightcolored top and there is no background.vsnl. This hill is a good landmark. 11.—With strong S winds.38 6. best seen on the chart.6'N.37 149 6. Such a current is noticeable by the rapid drift of the vessels to the N.8 miles NE from False Point and almost meets and sometimes joins the S extremity of Nurrea Banga Nassi.38 6. a low grass-covered narrow island about 5.38 6. about 20 miles NE.1'N.2'E. Although the river is deep. 87°00'E. Name of agent and requirements. the General System is used.38 6. The low coast extends about 3 miles ENE and terminates at the Lion’s Rump.38 6.5 miles long which lies W of the N part of Nurrea Banga Nassi. 86°42.). 6.37 6. Course should then be altered to about 320° which will lead to the anchorage.5 miles SW of Maipura Point.38 6. a shallow passage available only to boats with local knowledge. subject to change. distant 10 miles. India—East Coast —Point Calimere to Balisahi Point 9. extends about 2.8 miles. Anchorage can be taken off Maipura Point. is the headquarters of the Orissa District. lies centered on a point about 3 miles SE of the harbor entrance.39 6. in depths of 11 to 12.. A depth of 10m exists about 1 mile farther NE. at the entrance of the Maipura River. lies roughly between the 10m and 20m contours in False Bay.com Signals.37 6. 20°14. The Mahanadi River (20°18'N. with the N end of the sand hills on Maipura Point bearing NW. is entered between this point and the SW extremity of Long Sand. 10. With a strong flood it is advisable to approach the anchorage on a S course. The sea breaks heavily over this shoal. The shore on the W of the bay consists of moderately-high sand hills. lies 4. 86°44'E. 86°46. The currents within the bay.) lies between Nurrea Banga Nassi and Maipura Point..8'E. set through the channels at an average velocity of 2 knots at springs. 173 .. from a S course is advisable before anchoring. about 2.38 6. The holding ground is fairly good. Further information on these storm signals may be found in Pub. Type and quantity of cargo.8 miles long. 55 miles above the river mouth. Caution.5 mile. A drying shifting sand spit extends N and W from the N end of Nurrea Banga Nassi. A long tongue of land extends about 3. the other passes W and N of this land. Sailing Directions (Planning Guide) South Atlantic Ocean and Indian Ocean under “India— Signals.38 6. Depths in the bay decrease gradually toward the shore over a bottom of olive-green mud. 6. but the depths are shallow because of silting. as follows: harbourmaster_ppt@email. One passes S and E of the land on which False Point lies.8'E. False Point has been reported to be a good radar target up to 17 miles. and having made False Point Light..) lies in the bay W of the N part of Nurrea Banga Nassi. on the S side of the entrance of the Mahanadi River. an extensive drying shoal with the six small Wheeler Islands on its N part. and the large building on Nurrea Banga Nassi bears 100°.). has a depth of about 7. about 5 miles W of Maipura Point. 86°56'E. The Maipura River (20°42'N. 12. A conspicuous white house and a water tower stand about 0. The outer anchorage. but local knowledge is necessary.

3 miles NNW of the middle of Shortt Island.. in depths of 11 to 12.40 6. The point is difficult to distinguish because of the dense jungle growth which covers it.2m.41 6.39 Shortt Island (20°47'N. Wheeler Island.40 The Dhamra River (20°47'N.2 to 12. about 4 miles NE of Shortt Island. Palmyras Shoals. 6. Three beacons. Kanika Sand is the S extremity of these flats. and then leads between the shoals extending from it and Kanika Sand. an extensive drying mud and sand flat. This latter stretch leads to the entrance of the Dhamra River and passes N of the island lying in the middle of the river close within the entrance.8 miles above the entrance of the latter river entrance. At night. It then leads W between Kanika Sand and the N edge of the flats which extend E from Palmyras Point. 86°58'E.41 6.40 6.2m. Palmyras Point (20°46'N. is the largest of four small islands which lie on a drying shoal about 3 miles N of Maipura Point. 173 . is the N extremity of the low land which lies between the Maipura River and the Dhamra River.7m..41 6. The extensive drying mud and sand flats extend about 2.4m have been reported able to navigate the Matai Nadi at LW. 87°00'E.41 Pub. These buoys are liable to be moved to conform to changes in the channels and are not to be relied upon. have been previously described in paragraph 6.8m. The jetty at Chandbali provides berths for three small vessels with a maximum draft of 3.150 Sector 6. 3m high.” Vessels with local knowledge can anchor in mid-channel off the town of Chandbali. and about 18 miles above the entrance of the latter river. Anchorage can be taken.41 Kanika Sand (20°47'N.3m high.8 to 5. with the middle of Shortt Island bearing 206°. Sailing Directions (Planning Guide) South Atlantic Ocean and Indian Ocean under “India—Signals.41 6. about 8 miles above the junction of the Baitaran River and the Dhamra River.7m at HW and up to 1. The outer bar. A tower. the Kharsua River.8m. 6.5 miles W of Shortt Island. This bar had a least depth of 5. Shallow flats extend up to 6 and 7 miles offshore between the entrance of the Dhamra River and Balisahi Point.). and extensive drying sand and mud flats.5m at LW. forms the N outlet for the confluence of the Brahmani River. stands close off the E side of the island.). The buoyed entrance channel passes about 0.4 to 2. and the Baitarani River. 17. 160.5m. The outer bar maintains its position and depths. anchorage should be taken. but advisable for strangers.41 6. each 24m high with a ball topmark. in a depth of 12. The low land on the N side of the Dhamra River presents a similar aspect as far N as Balisahi Point. which lie off the seaward side of Shortt Island.). The several other bars which lie within the river were reported to have depths of 2.34. narrow island which lies on the middle of the river close within the river.41 6. 6. Palmyras Shoals. about 4 miles distant. The configuration of the island is constantly changing due to the continuous action of the sea.41 6. a long.41 6.4m.40 6. In 1960. about 6 miles W of Shortt Island. This flat has been reported extending to the SE. During strong SW winds good anchorage can be taken.41 6. India—East Coast —Point Calimere to Balisahi Point Chandnipal Bar lies in the fairway N of Kalibhanja Dian. The town of Chandbali lies on the N bank of the Baitarani River. Long Sand. Further information on these storm signals may be found in Pub. Vessels with a draft of 2. The area off the Dhamra River entrance embraces Shortt Island.41 6. stand in the vicinity of the entrance of the Dhamra River. a vessel drawing up to 3. S of Kanika Sand.40 6.3 miles to the N. The entrance channel over the outer and inner bars is buoyed and the channels within the river are buoyed in places. which has a least depth of 1. The river is entered about 6 miles W of Shortt Island.8m. lies about 1. about 4. 87°05'E.).5 miles offshore between the entrances of the Maipura River and the Dhamra River.8 mile N of Shortt Island. These aids are visible from seaward. could ascend the river to Chandbali.7m at certain stages of the tide. The Matai Nadi joins the Dhamra River about 3. The inner bar. the Brief System is used. but the inner bar is subject to change.41 6.39 6.41 6. between Palmyras Point on the S side and an unnamed low muddy point about 1 mile NW. the most important of the navigable rivers of the Orissa District. has a least depth of 2. Vessels intending to anchor should approach with the middle part of Shortt Island bearing 226°. Pilotage is not compulsory. 86°59'E.39 6. in depths of 8.41 6. but are not easy to identify outside the outer bar.. in depths of 11 to 12. Passengers and cargo are usually embarked and discharged alongside the jetty. 6.40 6.. lies on the N side of the entrance channel about 0. Weather signals are displayed at Chandbali.

Charts.7.0 Additional chart coverage may be found in NGA/DLIS Catalog of Maps. 173 SECTOR 7 — CHART INFORMATION 151 . Pub. India—East Coast—Balisahi Point to New Moore Island—Bangladesh and Burma—West Coast 7. and Related Products (Unlimited Distribution).

but if in doubt as to the vessel’s position.1 7. there are strong rotary tidal currents. Mayu and Arakan Yoma are the principal ranges. 7. Ramree Island and Mun Aung Island. The hot season. with very little rainfall.—The weather and climate of the area described in this sector is primarily influenced and determined by the Northeast Monsoon and the Southwest Monsoon and the short transitional periods between them. and the autumn transitional season.1 7. is an interim period of weak and variable winds prior to the Southwest Monsoon. which develop in the Bay of Bengal. and sands extend seaward in a general S direction from the delta shore at the head of the Bay of Bengal.6m until certain of the position. but rarely is the Gulf of Martaban affected. overcast skies. During the last quarter of the flood. Similar type vessels also ascend the Karnaphuli River to the port of Chittagong. April and May. 86°58'E. and general adverse weather conditions are associated with the Southwest Monsoon.—Surface currents across the head of the Bay of Bengal. Caution. in September. At the Sandheads in August. wet or rainy season). June through September. Mariners should be aware of and have regard for the numerous dangers which lie offshore between Elephant Point and Cape Negrais.1 7. Combermore Bay and Hunters Bay indent the shore N of the former island. the current sets W and SW. The flood current begins setting W at the end of the first quarter. is marked by good weather. is characterized by cloudiness.1 7. Tropical cyclones. they are greatly influenced by the immense volume of tidal backwater. with depths of 5. General Remarks 7. it is advisable not to shoal to depths of less than 36. is navigable by ocean-going vessels to the port of Chalna. after the retreat of the Southwest Monsoon. Local in drafts of the current are strong during the flood and the outset is small during the ebb. with the flood current setting N and the ebb current setting S.153 SECTOR 7 INDIA—EAST COAST—BALISAHI POINT TO NEW MOORE ISLAND—BANGLADESH.1 7. 7. another branch of the Ganges. The Orissa Coast and the Sundarbans Coast are generally low.—This sector describes the E coast of India E of Balisahi Point and then the coast of Bangladesh and the W coast of Burma. Winds—Weather. is the W branch of the Ganges and the means of access for ocean-going vessels calling at the port of Calcutta. some tropical cyclones cross the coast of the Gulf of Martaban. light rain almost daily.5m and less. These dangers. Tides—Currents. The Southwest Monsoon. High hills and mountains back this section of coast at varying distances inland. December through March. Tropical storms. this results in greater heating of the air masses.1 7..1 India—Balisahi Point to the Sundarbans Coast.1 The Hugli River.1 7. AND BURMA—WEST COAST 7.1 7. Tidal currents along the Arakan Coast set N on the flood and S on the ebb. with the intervening coast being irregular and broken in many places by the rivers which discharge into the sea on the E side of the Bay of Bengal.1 7. occasionally affect the coastal regions N of 15°00'N. whereas the Chittagong Coast is marked by high mountain ranges. Pub. The Northeast Monsoon.) is the extremity of the low land N of the entrance of the Dhamra River. the two largest islands of many which lie off this coast.1 The autumn transitional season. the spring transitional or hot season. occur most frequently during the transitional season.—Reefs. Restricted visibility. a period of weak and variable winds with land and sea breezes prevailing. Many of the peaks of these ranges are useful marks to vessels navigating along this coast. 173 . at half ebb it sets S. the Southwest Monsoon (summer monsoon.1 7. are developed and influenced by the effects of the monsoon winds.1 7.0 Plan. The Arakan Coast of Burma is more likely to be struck by a cyclone during the autumn transitional season than at any other time. interspersed with rain squalls or thunderstorms accompanied by torrential downpours. During the hot season. Cape Negrais lies about 333 miles SSE of Elephant Point. including the Hugli River to Calcutta 7. the current setting to the W depends on the force and duration of the E winds. Soundings provide a guide when approaching these shoals. its direction is WNW and at half flood about N. occurs in early October after the withdrawal of the Southwest Monsoon and before the cooler drier weather of the Northeast Monsoon is established in late November. thus making a complete rotation. and in most cases generally lie in a N-S direction parallel to the coast.2 Balisahi Point (20°51'N. the current sets ENE. as elsewhere in the bay.1 7. shoals. in the NW part of the Bay of Bengal. the Pussur River. with destructive winds. although Kyaukpyu is of some importance. The descriptive sequence is from W to E and then S.1 7. Increases in rainfall in April and May do not equal the amounts of rainfall during June through August.1 7. Tidal currents along the Chittagong Coast S of Elephant Point set parallel with the coast.1 7. a strong current sets to the W. Seaward of the Sundarbans Coast. cool or dry season).1 7. The year is divided into four seasons referred to as the Northeast Monsoon (winter monsoon. lie within the 11m curve and in places extend up to almost 30 miles offshore. and during the last quarter of the ebb it sets WSW.1 7. At commencement the ebb current sets E. high humidity. Flowing through the Sundarbans. lie about midway between Elephant Point and Cape Negrais. During October. Akyab is the most important commercial port.

springs rise 3. 87°03'E. otherwise this stretch of coast is without any prominent features..2 7.154 Sector 7. The coast between Balisahi Point and the entrance of the Hugli River.3 miles NE of Chandipur and is marked by low. Both currents set at a rate of 2 knots at springs. A black flagstaff lies near a large white bungalow.6m on its inner part and 4m on its outer part.4m... with drafts up to 2.2 7.. Anchorage can also be taken closer inshore in lesser depths. about 0. about 9. The entrance of the Burhabalang River lies 2. This town was formerly a port of some importance. Native craft. Spense Sand. which dries 4. Pippli Sand. lies about 2 miles S of the latter river entrance. can transit this part of the river. about 13 miles NNW of Balisahi Point. but the sandhills are more plentiful.2 7. barren. about 13 miles ENE. The coast between the entrance of the Panchpara River and the Subarnarekha River.5 miles NE of the Pichaboni River.3 India—Approaches to the Entrance of the Hugli River 7. in depths of 8. Pub.. which is moored about 46.3 7. the coast remains low and sandy. Northeast of Chandipur. Buoy EB is moored 1 mile WSW of the outer end of Western Sea Reef. India—East Coast —Bangladesh. with the pagoda bearing 327°. about 16 miles above its mouth. The anchorage can be approached with the highest part of Nilgiri Mountain (Dhobasila Pahar). Digwash Mohan and Munder Mohan. good holding ground.4m in places. 49550) lies on the S bank of the Burhabalang River.). respectively. the flat coast is bordered by dense mangroves.5 miles E of Balisahi Point and extends NE to a position about 22 miles S of the entrance of the Subarnarekha River (21°34'N. At Nauri.2 7. provides anchorage.). There are no distinctive landmarks.2 7. A pagoda and a clump of trees lie near the mouth of the river on the W bank. distant 7 miles. about 11 miles NNE.).8 mile NE of Chandipur.1m..6m. The Burhabalang River is tidal for about 23 miles.7m patch.3 7.1m. which dries from 0.3 to 2. This is the best anchorage for vessels with a draft of about 6. 87°54'E.2 7. 86°57'E. is marked by several sandhills. Between this village and Kalikoti. sandhills. extends about 19 miles S from Spense Sand and terminates in Western Sea Reef.—Baleshwar Road (21°23'N. Anchorage can be taken off the mouth of the river.) lies on the shore about 6.—Between Balisahi Point and the entrance of the Hugli River. but is available only to fishing boats. which dries. 7. which was reported to lie about 72 miles SE of Balisahi Point.7m and neaps rise 2.2 7.9m. but in recent years there has been no seaborne trade. in a depth of about 7.—A general description of the winds and weather along the coast has been previously given in paragraph 7. discharge about 13 and 17 miles ENE. Anchorage.2 to 9. The Subarnarekha River (21°34'N. and then extends ESE to a position about 40 miles S of the entrance of the Hugli River. Tides—Currents.3 Baleshwar (21°29'N. discharges on the W side of the Hugli River just within its entrance.2 7. about 16 miles W of the river entrance. the ebb lasts 8 or 9 hours and sets at a rate of as high as 4 knots. Depths within this curve decrease to 4. Baleshwar Road is in the track of cyclonic storms which pass through this area. 7. Winds—Weather.). flat. The tidal currents in Baleshwar Road set NE during the flood and SW during the ebb.5m curve adjacent to the coast are described under the principal description of the features which they front.2 7. Quoin Sandhill (21°36'N. 87°07'E. Southwest of Chandipur.2 7. but is navigable for only about 4 miles of this distance above the entrance.).3 7. 87°07'E.6 to 4. The Pichaboni River discharges about 6 miles farther E. 87°23'E. which lies off the entrance of the Burhabalang River. about 8 miles to the N. distant 8 miles. 88°03'E.3m.. These coastal features continue for an additional 10 miles NE to the village of Chandipur. with depths of 0. both shallow streams.3 miles WSW of the entrance of Digwash Mohan.—At Balramgari. 87°28'E. The Panchpara River (21°31'N. sand and mud. of the mouth of the Subarnarekha River. A sand cliff..3 7.1.7m. Cargo is transported by barges from the anchorage in Baleshwar Road. lies in Chandipur. is low. Depths—Limitations.3 7. The Rasulpur River (21°47'N. 16m high. A shoal. extends about 7 miles SSW from the S extremity of Jensen Sand.3 7. there are known dangers seaward of the 18m curve.. the 18m curve lies about 9. the trees are higher than elsewhere. The set of the flood averages only 0.2 7. with the flagstaff NE of Chandipur bearing 312°. The river is navigable only by small native craft capable of crossing the bar.4 Vessels entering the Hugli River approach Eastern Channel Light Vessel. The Orissa Coast terminates at the entrance of the Hugli River. During bad weather. and covered with scrub and mangroves along its S part. the 5m curve is tongue-shaped. anchorage can be taken off Kalikoti over a bottom of soft mud.5 miles NE of the entrance of the Burhabalang River. Those dangers which lie within the 5.) (World Port Index No.3 7. about midway between Nauri and Chandipur and 2 miles inland. The former port of Subarnarekha lies at the mouth of the river. heavy breakers are raised over this shoal projection. 173 . and Burma—West Coast During stormy weather. is visible among the trees on NW bearings. about 69 miles NE.2 7. The coast is low as far as the village of Bideipur. extends about 8 miles SSW from the mouth of the Rasulpur River.5 knot. with its outer edge about 10 miles offshore. Many disasters have been caused by these storms.3 7.) is reported to have moderate depths within its entrance and is navigable by native craft for about 16 miles of its distance.) discharges into the sea about 4. A large double pagoda. The coast between Balisahi Point and the entrance of the Burhabalang River is bordered by drying flats. In the Burhabalang River.5 miles SSE of Sagar Island Light (21°39'N.3 7.3 7. With the exception of a detached 34. Jensen Sand. the coast is marked by low sand hills and taller trees. which is just within the Burhabalang River Entrance (21°29'N. 87°23'E. bearing about 293°. South of the mouth of Digwash Mohan.2 7.2 7.

9'N. vessels should make Kalingapatam Light. in clear weather. This is expected to control the river flow so as to enable vessels of 8. The 35m curve follows the NE curve of the coast and lies about 24 miles E of False Point Light and 25 miles E of Palmyras Shoals. Pilotage.. when on station at the Sandheads will display. it will signify that no pilots are Pub. vessels should keep in depths of not less than 26m or even 37m when the wind is SE. 3. should contact the pilot vessel by calling Sandheads Pilot on VHF channel 12. 14. At night. the pilot vessel. but is not easily made out because of its low power. Masters of vessels wishing to board a pilot are advised to approach the pilot vessel from astern of it.4 7. 88°17. it will display the lights for a pilot vessel at anchor.6m. All vessels approaching Sandheads.4 7. or Puri Light.4 155 7.4 7.4 7. depending on the prevailing weather conditions. for deeper draft vessels or vessels of 7 knots and under. landfall should not be made so far to the S. in the vicinity of Eastern Channel Light Vessel. When supplying a pilot. 85°04'E.4 7.). The pilot vessel.4 7. Vessels should also contact the Vessel Traffic Management System (VTMS) Station by calling VTMS Control on VHF channel 16 or 68 for anchoring or pilot boarding instructions. Depths—Limitations. the Jagannath Pagodas at Puri and the black pagoda at Konarak should be sighted when passing.5 miles off Ganjam.4 7. The pilot vessel will always either turn around or move far enough ahead to allow the following vessel sufficient sea room to maneuver. A long boat rope and a pilot ladder fitted with man ropes should be ready on the star-board side. located in position 20°44'N. Sandheads Pilots or VTMS Control may instruct vessels to proceed to anchor S of Talent Light Vessel (Intermediate Light Vessel) or between Talent Light Vessel (Intermediate Light Vessel) and Lower Gasper Light Vessel.4 In September. Depths of 36.—Pilotage is compulsory N of latitude 21°39'N for all vessels of over 200 nrt. as the depths decrease gradually toward the shoal ground around it. together with the anchor lights. The pilot vessel is stationed between Gasper Channel and Sagar Island.9 and 7. A red and white pilot flag is displayed by day. 84°27'E. and about three ship’s length distant. special arrangements must be made and the date selected by the port pilotage office. when in depths of 36.4 after anchoring and maintain a continuous listening watch on VHF channel 16. should bear in mind that the pilot vessel is drifting to leeward and should approach slightly on its starboard quarter. will lie with the wind on its port side at all times throughout the year. At night.4 7. a flashing white light every 3 seconds. the current sets strongly to the SW.4 7. a light at the foremast head. This flag is only displayed when a pilot is available on board. dropping a pulling or motor boat.Sector 7. The E edge of the ridge is rather steep. where higher land backs the coast. in addition. if a vessel is on the E side of the Bay of Bengal. course should be shaped directly for Eastern Channel Light Vessel. In 1976. toward the end of the Southwest Monsoon. which is displayed in accordance with orders issued by the local port authorities. 7. or up to 10 miles N of the Eastern Channel Light Vessel. with depths seaward of it ranging from 51 to 55m.6 to 42. course should be shaped for Eastern Channel Light Vessel.1m. Vessels anchoring should state their time of anchoring (in local time) and position to Sandheads Pilot or VTMS Control 7. During the day. between sunset and sunrise. Occasionally the maximum draft at neaps decreases to 5.—A bank. from March 15 to October 31.. which should be picked up. Gopalpur Light.3'N. Soundings provide a guide when approaching this coast. and 15 miles S of Puri.4 7. Harbor pilots board in Garden Reach in position 22°33. A stern light is also displayed. the land is obscured until a very near approach is made.6m lie about 4 miles off Kalingapatam. is an excellent guide when approaching the entrance of the Hugli River.4 7. When the weather is very hazy. the 183m curve lies about 21 miles SE of Pundi. In very strong winds and heavy seas. or olivecolored mud with broken shells. continuous soundings should be taken when approaching the coast.4 7. No vessel shall anchor within a radius of 2 miles from Eastern Channel Light Vessel. 60 miles N of Calcutta.4 7.4 7. approaching slowly during the Southwest Monsoon.). it may be found at anchor during the Northeast Monsoon. was in operation.6'E..) or between Pundi and Ganjam (19°23'N. A forecast of monthly drafts is published by the port authorities. 85°50'E. The normal draft for vessels that can be taken upriver at springs. For tankers and vessels greater than 160m long. and Burma—West Coast During the Southwest Monsoon. it is best to make the coast near Pundi (18°40'N. heading in the same direction. The pilot vessel displays the usual signals for a pilot vessel on station when underway and. and if a vessel’s position is fixed. Care should be given to the soundings when passing False Point.4 7. consists of reddish-colored shell and sand and gravel. Vessels requiring a pilot are advised not to proceed N of latitude 21°00'N without being advised by Sandheads Pilot or VTMS Control to do so. when sending a pilot to board a vessel. At night. India—East Coast —Bangladesh. or 16 for instructions. and 13 miles S of Puri. Deep-draft vessels. a vessel should proceed along the coast in depths of about 36. It is advisable to determine a vessels position before proceeding N of Puri (19°48'N. During the Southwest Monsoon. the pilot vessel will be underway during the Southwest Monsoon from March 15 to October 31 inclusive. When about 10 miles beyond the black pagoda at Konarak.5m draft to reach Calcutta throughout the year and to reduce the effect of tidal bores. the bottom consists of sand and mud with shining specks. a barrage. Pilots are available 24 hours..4 7.4 7. 87°35'E and extending off the coast between False Point and Palmyras Point. The light is displayed from the top of the superstructure.2m. it will display the International Code of Signals signifying that it is at anchor. in deeper water to the E or seaward.5'E. During the Northeast Monsoon. Pilots board N of Lower Gaspar Light Vessel (21°21.4 7. At night or in bad weather. 23 miles SE of Ganjam.3m at neaps. either in the vicinity of the light vessel. Should a vessel arrive at the Sandheads and not find a vessel displaying the above signals. The bottom.. Should the pilot vessel be at anchor. under normal conditions. the pilot vessel cruises about 10 miles S of the light vessel. 173 . is about 7.4 7.). pilots may board S of Upper Gasper Light Vessel. The pilot vessel will proceed ahead. 88°09.

8. Number of working VHF radios on board. which is 5. Frasergunj. The message should include the following information: 1.—The wind and weather prevalent at the Sandheads is given in the accompanying table titled The Sandheads—Winds and Weather. a vessel should do so S of a line bearing 270° from Matia Station Buoy (20°59'N. and with the first of the ebb setting E.” Anchorage. 7. Vessel name. marks the entrance of Eastern Channel.4 7. with the first of the flood setting to the W. this time is kept by the pilot vessel and at Calcutta. and Haldia will allow vessels to enter the navigation channel safely on the Hugli Delta between Talent Wreck Light Vessel (21°17. sultry at times Remarks West current depending on force and duration of E winds. vessels should stem the tide before letting go an anchor.156 Sector 7. The VTMS guidance is provided by the Hug7.4 India—The Hugli River Entrance (21°39'N. which is frequently moved. 5.4 7. Western Channel leads into Beaumont’s Gut and then into Sagar Roads. 2. During cyclonic weather a strong W set of 2 knots is experienced.4 7.) and the pilot boarding ground. and details about any livestock. 7. the main fairway leading to the Hugli River. Regulations. whether any explosives are on board.5 7. If AIS is on board and operational.5 hours fast of GMT. Speed. and not too close to the pilot vessel. Vessels arriving at the Sandheads should have their clocks set to Bengal time.. number of passengers if any. The VTMS can be contacted on VHF channel 68.4 7. When anchoring. weather generally clear West and SW current. A Vessel Traffic Management System (VTMS) is in operation to improve the safety of vessels entering Calcutta and Haldia. vessels embarking a pilot hoist a black ball at the masthead. best seen on chart.4 7. and Burma—West Coast li River Pilots. a vessel should lie E. Local knowledge and assistance is essential to safe navigation. it is necessary to have daylight for the last 4 hours of the passage. the SE extremity of Sagar Island.5 7. 88°38'E.. there is a W and SW current. During the rising tide. The tidal current should be studied.5'E. To enable a vessel to reach Calcutta on one tide it is best to arrive at the Sandheads at the time of low water at Sagar Island. During the falling tide.4 7. However. is moored 19 miles S of the S end of Eastern Sea Reef.5 7. during September. It is then especially important that masters be guided by the advice given by the pilot vessel. Fresh water draft fore and aft. there is a strong set to the W. Instructions should then be requested by radio.4 7. Signals from the pilot vessel to prepare for bad weather should not be ignored. lies about 0. Tides at the Sandheads and in Sagar Roads are semidiurnal. Lloyd’s agents at Calcutta have facilities for delivering communications to vessels at the Sandheads. conical. 88°11. Gross tonnage and nrt. speed.). the W current depends on the force and duration of the E winds. lies about 2 miles W of the SW extremity of Sagar Island.—Seaward of the Sundarbans. mud.).4m. Winds—Weather. Cargo on board (type and quantity). the navigable entrance at the mouth of the Hugli River. When within the Hugli River. black and white stripes. Vessels should attempt to inform the pilot vessel by radio at least 24 hours in advance of their ETA at the pilot vessel.. in October. lie W and N. have been reported in the immediate vicinity of Eastern Channel Light Vessel. it commences by setting E and gradually turns through S to SW. after break up of the Southwest Monsoon October East East and calms Wind Force Light and variable Variable Weather Showers of rain Stormy. call sign. Three radar surveillance stations located at Sagar Island.5 7. there are strong rotatory currents. in a depth of not less than 27. because the current sets strongly at the Sandheads. 3. Length overall. lowering it to half-staff when at low speed. 173 . after the cessation of the Southwest Monsoon. Sagar Roads (21°39'N. stating their grt. At the Sandheads there is a strong W current in August.—If for any reason it should become necessary to anchor when approaching the pilot vessel.4 7.—Vessels should advise the pilots of the ETA at Eastern Channel Light Vessel well in advance.5 7.0'N. 4.5 Eastern Channel Light Vessel. 6. Eastern Channel is available for use both by day and night and leads into Gaspar Channel. Tides—Currents. length overall.4 available on the station.5 7.5 The Sandheads—Winds and Weather Months September. Western Channel Station Buoy.4 7. and MMSI number. draft in fresh water.) 7. 7.5 mile SSW of Sagar Island Light. India—East Coast —Bangladesh. 88°01'E..4 7. Vessels wishing to make any sound signals should do so in accordance with the Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea. the tidal current commences by setting W and gradually turns through N to NE. which occur from time to time. With a strong E wind. Sagar Tidal Semaphore. generally a gale or cyclonic storm Pub. 88°01'E. Dublat Mark lies on Sidney Point. An ETA should be sent to the pilot vessel at the Sandheads immediately upon vessel’s departure from a port less than 24 hours steaming distance away. call sign “VTMS Control. The navigable entrance channel leading to Sagar Roads is subject to change in position and direction to accompany the change in depths. displaying day and night signals. with black framework topmark. as several dangerous wrecks. which in turn leads into Sagar Roads Caution is necessary.5 7.

the “chota bursat” or small rain. calm midday. During the Southwest Monsoon.5 7. 88°09. 87°57'E.5 7. During the ebb the current sets.3 miles N of Upper Long Sand. Lower Gasper Light Vessel (21°21. This shoal breaks heavily during the Southwest Monsoon. fogs in January in morning Thick fogs in morning. Third quarter—bearing 194°.9m. its N extension. with Gaspar Channel. 88°03'E. Fourth quarter—bearing 070°. with depths of 1. with depths of 0. This reef extends S from Lower Long Sand.5 Lower Gasper Light Vessel about 26 miles SSE from New Island.. 2.. W and SW in April and May Southwest Force Fresh in morning and evening. the sea breaks heavily over the S end of this shoal. First quarter—bearing 306°.5 Pub. January February Wind North in morning and evening Variable. Eastern Channel. 4.6m. First quarter—bearing 126°. 2. and Burma—West Coast 157 The Sandheads—Winds and Weather Months November.5m. Both Gasper Channel and Sagar Roads are marked by lighted buoys.9'N. 173 . with depths of 0. 88°11'E. lies about 2. heavy rains. Western Channel lies between Western Sea Reef and Eastern Sea Reef.6 to 5. hauling to S toward evening August In Eastern Channel. A narrow shoal.). Weather Fine weather with cool mornings and evenings Warm toward end of month Northwesters.Sector 7. 0. generally lasts two weeks Freshets in the river. gales frequent Lighter July Southwest and W Southwest and W. April.6 to 4.5 7. Tigris Sand lies about 1 mile farther N. when not influenced by the wind: 1.5 7. with depths of 0.—Eastern Sea Reef (21°14'N. Upper Long Sand (21°34'N. Auckland Bar (21°45'N. Light Light at first. a small drying bank. The maximum velocities range from 2 to 3 knots at springs. W during day.5 7.5 7. Lighted Buoy LWA is moored close off the NE end of Mizen Sand. December. A similar breaking shoal. Depths—Limitations.2m over its S end..5 7. Second quarter—bearing 340°. with depths over 4.9m. Middle Ground.5 mile NE of Tigris Sand. Sagar Roads is entered N of this latter channel. Second quarter—bearing 160°. Lighted Buoy AD is moored close off the E side of Tigris Sand. 3. 3. with depths of 1. Depths over this shoal range from a drying patch on its N end to a depth of 5..8 to 4. NW sometimes Variable. lies between Eastern Sea Reef and the shoal to the E which extends 7. S at night.6 to 4.5 miles SSW of Sagar Island Light. a drying shoal with its N end about 4. heavy thunderstorms Squally heavy rains Squally.3 miles SW of Sagar Island Light. extends about 26 miles SSE from New Island (21°33'N. thunder. which leads into Sagar Roads. A shoal. lies between Eastern Sea Reef and the previously-described shoal which extends SSE from New Island. generally clear Remarks Cessation of the strong tides of the Hugli River. with rain. 87°59'E. and lightning. a drying bank about 5 miles long. is marked by Lighted Buoy AS. lies between Western Sea Reef and Eastern Sea Reef. Fourth quarter—bearing 070°.). May June Strong at first Strong. 2 miles NNW of Lighted Buoy LWA. until end of March.6m. Third quarter—bearing 025°. the tidal currents set as follows during the flood. are encountered at the junction of the two fairways. 4.5 knots during neaps between the bearings of 340° and 160°.5 7.) has a red hull with one mast surmounted by a topmark.. A 7. as follows: 1. marked by buoys. and 1 to 1. frequent. has its S extremity about 29 miles S of Sagar Island Light.). lies with its upper end about 5. sometimes a gale or cyclonic storm in April or May In June. hazy Northwesters decreasing in force. Mizen Sand.). much swell in Eastern Channel Strong W current at the Sandheads March.2 to 5. A number of dangerous wrecks. extends 10. floods strong in the Hugli River toward end of month Flood tide occasionally accompanied by bore.5m. India—East Coast —Bangladesh.5 miles S from Upper Long Sand and then curves NE to join the upper part of Eastern Sea Reef. sometimes strong at end. and leads into Beaumont’s Gut.5 7.6'E.

—The master of an inbound vessel should report the health condition of the vessel to the pilot when the pilot boards at the Sandheads and act in accordance with the pilot’s instructions. Further information on these storm signals may be found in Pub. is an optional signal that the vessel making the signal is obliged to stop and cannot get out of the way. quickly followed by three short blasts.6 7. in 9. Winds—Weather.) were to have been washed away to form a crossing to run from Jellingham Channel to Rangafala Channel. with stops at Ulubaria (abreast of Achipur Point). Middleton Bar (21°36'N. Rangafala Channel was marked by lighted buoys. or other epidemic diseases common in India. shall hoist and keep flying a yellow flag.6m. Caution. or of diphtheria or scarlatina on board.5 7. with the exception of the pilot boat. a detour from Haldia Channel. Diamond Harbor or Kulpi Roads. with depths of less than 3m.5 7. In 1988. in ordinary weather. measles.6 7.5 7. In 1986. the overall length of vessels will be regulated by the harbor master. and the signal indicating the port departed.6 mile off the W coast of Sagar Island.5 7.3 miles S of Sagar Island Light..1.5 7. Health officials will board such a vessel at its berth.5 7. The channel through the estuary is subject to such changes as occur in all wide. no communication shall be held with the shore. leading to Calcutta N of the parallel of latitude 21°01'N. Vessels proceeding against the current should slow down or stop if it appears that other vessels will be met with at difficult parts of the river. will not be granted free pratique. the pilot shall notify the health officer from Sagar and shall not proceed beyond Diamond Harbor without permission of the health officer.—Sagar Roads provides anchorage. it was reported that vessels make passage through Rangafala Crossing SSW of Aguimari into Rangafala Channel.—A dangerous wreck.5m. A prolonged blast of the whistle. 87°54'E. Vessels take advantage of the rise in tide and cross the shallowest bars at HW.” Anchorage. The 39-mile stretch from Hugli Point (22°13'N. Radio pratique may be obtained prior to arrival at Calcutta in accordance with local instructions. 160. During times of predicted tidal bores.6 Navigation on the Hugli River is reported to be difficult. Although well-populated and heavily cultivated. During this period. 88°07'E. a considerable swell rolls into the roads. on the W side of Gaspar Channel. A drying bank lies on this shoal about 1.5 Vessels with cases of smallpox. 173 .5 7. Storm and weather signals. In 1984.—The wind and weather conditions usually encountered in the upper reaches of the Bay of Bengal and the approaches to the Hugli River have been previously described in paragraph 7. According to the speed and type of vessel.5 miles WSW of the same lighthouse. North of Middleton Bar a narrow shoal.5 7.) to Calcutta is the most treacherous. and Burma—West Coast Signals.1 to 14. are displayed at the 7. lies in Bedford Channel about 0. extends about 4 miles N to join the drying coastal flat about 2 miles N of Sagar Island Light. the pilot will give instructions as to the signals to be hoisted. but sometimes it might take about 24 hours with an anchorage stop along the way. The usual rule of the road is adhered to in the river and estuary. it was reported that the channel buoys were not well maintained.158 Sector 7. 88°03'E.2m near its S end. lying E of Aguimari Char. A vessel inbound can generally go up the river with the tide without any stops.5 7. The navigable channel in the river is subject to annual variations. sandy. or on bars where the deep-water channels are narrow.—Storm signals are displayed at Sagar Island Light.5 passage from Auckland Bar to Haldia Port is made through Jellingham Channel. It was reported (1976) that night navigation above Hugli Point was prohibited. During heavy gales. 88°08'E.5 7. in accordance with the Indian General System. Mariners must always be aware that depths and aids to navigation in the river may be different than charted. even though it may have entered another Indian port during that period. sailing down the river takes about 36 to 48 hours. respectively. the island has few distinguishing features. 88°04'E. The quarantine station is situated at Diamond Harbor. Sailing Directions (Planning Guide) South Atlantic Ocean and Indian Ocean under “India—Signals. An outbound vessel cannot cover the total distance of the river during the same high tide.5 7. the Extended System is used...6 7. If the pilot has no reason to believe that there is anyone suffering from plague on board.). which the pilot has reason to believe is plague. cholera. In the case of a vessel with sickness on board.5 India—The Hugli River to Calcutta. are under the jurisdiction of the Port Commissioners of Calcutta. as the season is wet or dry. these are caused by the scour of the freshets and the flood current. the pilot shall bring the vessel up the river to Garden Reach and anchor it off Matia Bruz until visited by the health officer. and on its W side by Bedford Channel..) have been previously described. The coastal features on the W side of the mouth of the Hugli River to the Rasulpur River (21°47'N.6 7. and Sagar Roads Anchorage. this results in bunching of vessels. Pub. Aspect. 7.6 7. the transit down the river is made in stages. This connecting channel will allow an alternate route to Kulpi Roads and Calcutta. The main fairway leading into the Hugli River passes close off the SW extremity of this island. India—East Coast —Bangladesh. In 1989. with a least depth of 1. which dries 1.5 7. must report the facts to the pilot immediately after boarding the vessel.) lies on the E side of the Hugli River entrance and is flanked on its E side by the Baratala River.—Sagar Island (21°44'N. or a vessel on board which one or more cases of plague have developed within 12 days of the date of arrival. or with any other boat or vessel.6 7. A vessel that has called at any yellow fever infected port within 1 month of arrival in Calcutta. 7. lies centered about 3.5 7. Sharp bends in the river upstream of Diamond Harbor limit the length of a vessel to 189m at Buj-Buj and 172m at Calcutta. Regulations. many were either unlit or missing. Permission to haul them down must be obtained in writing from the health officer. about 3.6 7. tidal estuaries. or having plague on board. The navigable channels of the Hugli River.5 miles SW of the N extremity of the is-land.. A vessel arriving at the Sandheads from an infected port. including Haldia and Diamond Harbor 7. marked by lighted buoys. or those on which two or more deaths from suspicious causes have occurred during the voyage. it was reported that sand banks and islands SW of Aguimari Char (22°00'N.

The semaphores have three arms.5 mile SSW of Sagar Island Light. on the W bank about 7. and the rise of the barometer indicate that the storm has either broken up or passed inland. 3. Hugli Point. 173 . At Rajabagan. Kidderpore Docks. with or without steam. At Moyapur. From the flagstaff on the Port Commissioner’s Office in Calcutta. should put to sea until the wind direction and force. It is advisable that sailing vessels. near the telegraph office. the middle arm decimeters. Tidal semaphores have been established at the following places to indicate the rise of the tide in the Hugli River: 1. At Akra. state of the sea. Balari. which is not often the case with a small cyclonic storm. A cyclonic storm of severe intensity is frequently accompanied by a storm wave. 160. 2. India—East Coast —Bangladesh.6 159 7.6 7. Further information on these storm signals may be found in Pub. Vessels should not go to sea. Danger Signal V—Indicates that a storm of slight or moderate severity will probably cross the coast to the E of Sagar Island and W of Chittagong. Gangra. 7. Great Danger Signal IX—Indicates that a storm of great intensity will cross the coast to the W of Sagar Island and N of False Point. 7. At Balari. masters and pilots of outbound vessels should be guided by the appearance of the weather and height of the barometer in deciding whether it is advisable to proceed below Diamond Harbor or Mud Point. and weather are such as to lead masters and pilots to infer that there is no danger. The wind at the mouth of the Hugli River will probably veer from NE through E to SE or S. The height and destructive effect of a storm depend almost as much on the state and character of the tide when the cyclonic center reaches the coast. about 6. About 0. The wind at the mouth of the Hugli will probably haul from the NE through N to NW or W. and the lower arm centimeters.5 miles NW of the N point of Sagar Island. At LW. It is advisable that no vessels. 4.6 7. a ball is hoisted to its upper position. or proceed down the river from Diamond Harbor. it is advisable that none but fast steamers in light trim should put to sea. It should remembered that cyclonic storms of small extent in the Bay of Bengal sometimes blow with hurricane force. 1. Vessels should not go to sea from Sagar Island.6 7. the upper arm indicates meters. when the ball is hauled down. 7. 4. on the W bank about 12 miles NE of the tidal semaphore at Gangra. all vessels should be properly secured. as the tide begins to rise. and raises a high sea near their centers. The wind at the mouth of the Hugli will probably veer from NE through E to SE or S. the ball is hoisted to the lower position. Vessels may proceed to sea if the height of the barometer.6 Hugli River Tidal Semaphore Signals 7. Sailing Directions (Planning Guide) South Atlantic Ocean and Indian Ocean under “India—Signals. 5. as depicted in the diagram below.Sector 7.—Tides in the Hugli River are semidiurnal. about 17 miles downriver from Kidderpore Docks. when the ball is hauled down. 6. near the telegraph office. Danger Signal VII—Indicates the approach toward Sagar Roads of a storm of slight or moderate intensity. On Hugli Point. from the clock tower near the entrance. 3. Danger Signal VI—Indicates that a storm of slight or moderate severity will probably cross the coast to the W of Sagar Island and N of False Point. 2. Night semaphores are situated at Sagar. Budge. except fast vessels in light trim. 5. Pub. Tides—Currents. Diamond Harbor. the state of weather and sea. about 3 miles downriver from Kidderpore Docks. At Gangra. Great Danger Signal X—Indicates the approach of a storm of great intensity toward the mouth of the Hugli River and Calcutta. 3. and Burma—West Coast following points when the weather in the Bay of Bengal is disturbed: 1. or the intensity and extent of the storm.6 The masters of vessels in the port should take the special precautions for safety laid down in the port rules. the ball is hoisted to the upper until the tide has risen by 1m. and deep-draft or slow vessels should not proceed to sea. 6.6 At the moment of HW. about 12 miles upriver from the semaphore at Balari. the ball is lowered to the lower position until the tide has fallen by 1m. 4. Great Danger Signal VIII—Indicates that a storm of great intensity will cross the coast to the E of Sagar Island and W of Chittagong. as the tide begins to fall. and Moyapur. 2.” The following signals and instructions from the General System have been approved by the Deputy Conservator of the Port of Calcutta for the security of shipping and are described in greater detail so as to have local significance.6 7. and those only if the weather appearances and state of the sea are not too unfavorable. The wind at the mouth of the Hugli will probably haul from NE through N to NW or W. as upon the depression at the center.5 miles downriver from Kidderpore Docks. As these E winds will raise a heavy swell and produce a strong W set in the channel at the Sandheads.6 7.

known as the three Bs. Vessels drawing up to 7.6 Pub. and Burma—West Coast Bores in the Hugli River occur only with a greater than average spring tide.6m and 6. Extreme tidal bores are most prevalent in March and September and reach heights of 2. but vessels drawing up to 8.6 7. except in the estuary.6 Each semaphore can display two flashing lights.4m 3.5 knots at neaps. During the rainy season. Vessels at moorings surge and roll during the passage of the bore as there is a sudden lift of 1. the flow of the flood current is checked by the shallow and restricted bed of the river and by the seaward flow of water from the upper reaches. on the W side of the river abreast Diamond Harbor. During the Northeast Monsoon.. During the cold season. bends. it affects vessels at anchor by causing them to run upstream. vessels drawing up to 8. they can not be relied on to give an accurate presentation of the depths and dangers which may be encountered because of these rapid changes.6 One fixed red light is displayed if the semaphore is not working.6 7. those preceding the daylight HW being higher than those at night. especially if there is a strong S breeze. The strength of the tidal current varies in different parts of the Hugli River at different times of the year. causes the ebb current to predominate and it reaches a maximum velocity of 7 knots during spring tides. freshets do not occur and for this reason. 7. There is a seasonal variation in the probability of the occurrence of a bore.3m. lasting approximately 4 months each. encumber the winding channel of the river.0m 1. when it is 3 to 3.2m and 4. The first appearance of the bore is on Diamond Sand (22°10'N. the changes in depths and the directions of the channels are very rapid and no attempt will be made to describe them or the navigational aids which mark them. The river is high from June to October and during this period.160 Sector 7.0m 2. when. There are three distinct periods in the year.4m 1.6 7.2m 3. The rise of the tide is indicated.8m and 5. the occurrence of freshets during greater than average spring tides will always cause bores. At LW during spring tides.6m and 5. its velocity is least during the Northeast Monsoon from November to February.4m 2. constitute the main dangers to shipping in the Hugli River. with continuous fluctuating depths over them. about 26 miles above Kidderpore Docks. In some parts of the river. The flood current. besides swamping boats. It is not of much consequence until it enters the contracted reaches above Hugli Point.9m can reach the port at HWN. where the ascending wave runs on as a breaking roller.0m and 6.0m and 5.6m and 4.2m 1.8m and 4.5 knots at springs and 1.6 7.2 to 1.2m and 6.1m. Vessels at anchor have been known to break their anchor chains during extreme tidal bores.6m 1. from July to October. at this time the flood current is imperceptible.6 7. India—East Coast —Bangladesh. springs must be put on the flood moorings close down to the buoys to relieve the jerk on the cable and bits. The descent of the freshets.6m 2.6 7. These conditions can lead to the creation of a tidal bore.8m. 88°10'E. special arrangements have to be made and the date selected by the Port Pilotage Office. the river is low and the maximum permissible draft is 7. and disappears about 14 miles farther up the river above Naya Serai.6 7. There is a considerable diurnal inequality in the tides of the Hugli River. and during the day between May and September.6m 7.6 7. and bores. With the Southwest Monsoon.4m and 5. Although the charts may currently be correct.8m have ascended the river to Calcutta. is made considerably stronger than the ebb by the Southwest Monsoon. the higher HW of spring tides occurring at night between October and March. bores are a rarity.4 to 6. Maximum drafts may vary from year to year according to the season. When they do occur during this particular season. 7.6 7.6 7.6 7.8m 2. the flood current has a slight preponderance over that of the ebb. during the second half of the dry season.4m and 6.—Bars.6 7.6 7.6 7. Vessels proceeding to Calcutta should arrive at the pilot station with drafts as close to an even keel as possible. It is advisable to anticipate their occurrence during this season whenever greater than average spring tides are predicted. because of its shorter period of flow.4m and 4.2m 2. The bore reaches a maximum at Chinsura. During the latter part of the dry season.6 7.0m and 4. it is likely to be at night.8m 3. From October to June. A bore is more likely to occur preceding the higher HW than preceding the lower HW. the Southwest Monsoon blowing in the direction of the flood current increases its velocity so that it flows up the river at 4 to 6 knots during spring tides. They are dangerous because they are unexpected. Depths—Limitations. and usually when the seaward flow is augmented by freshets. an upper light showing a 2-second flash every 8 seconds and a lower light showing one flash every second. the flood current is overpowered by the descent of freshets and the ebb current predominates accordingly.6 7. from November to February. Numerous bars.5 to 2 knots at neaps.0m 3.2m and 5. 173 . as follows: Signal Upper light green Both lights green Green over red Green over white Lower light green Upper light red Red over green Both lights red Red over white Lower light red Upper light white White over green White over red Both lights white Tidal Rise 1.).6 7.5m can reach Calcutta at HWS. when bores are expected. The great body of the tidal current flows in the direction of the channels at velocities of 2 to 3 knots at springs and 1 knot to 1.

000 dwt. An important secondary port.). 88°08'30"E. and berthing areas. is utilized for the discharge of salt.7 7. with modern cargo handling equipment. 49560 7. 7. 2 are situated 2.7 7. at least five shots of chain must be used and a good anchor watch maintained.7 7. which leads to a large turning basin and an enclosed dock extending about 900m NNE. An examination anchorage area is enclosed by a line joining the following positions: a.) World Port Index No.9 haldia@hub. is also the site of the largest city. crosses the river above Howrah Railway Terminus and is a steel cantilever structure. in depths of 11 to 23. the oil port serves an oil refinery at Barauni.5m throughout the turning basin and dock system.8 Haldia (22°01'N.9 7.7 7.3 and 2 miles ENE of Haldia Point (22°01'N. A good anchor watch is required because of the strong currents.8m.—Signal stations are situated near the lighthouse on Sagar Island. When regular. channels. There is a depth of at least 8. Mooring buoys are available for vessels requiring them. provides ore.9 The port of Calcutta extends from Budge Budge. and about 128 miles from Eastern Channel Light Vessel.7 Haldia.9 Tides—Currents. and provides anchorage for large vessels. with a maximum length of 238m. Explosives destined for Calcutta are usually unloaded into special barges at this anchorage. Anchors are then quickly buried by the silt. the velocity of the current is 3 to 3. 161 7. Diamond Harbor Signal Station is connected by telegraph. Calcutta. coal. vessels are required to secure to these buoys with unshackled anchor chains.8 7.8 7.7 7.. 22°11'00"N. It has been reported (1996) that shoaling has begun to limit the size of vessels able to use Berth No. the second largest commercial port in India. Several ferries ply across the river.in 7. which can accommodate vessels on either side. and Burma—West Coast Signals. Haldia Terminal Oil Jetty No. mud. Between March and July. 1 and Haldia Terminal Oil Jetty No.. Extensive works are in progress to dredge and deepen the approaches. as follows: 7. a subsidiary port and anchorage. the ebb during freshets has a maximum velocity of 7 knots at springs.000 dwt. 88°19'E. 1 has a berthing face of 91. July to October. 88°05'E. 1. 88°11'00"E.7 Anchorage can be taken in mid-channel.8m. to Konnagar.7 Port Authority of Calcutta http://www. The port is about 83 miles above the entrance of the Hugli River. and at Hugli Point. Vessels up to 230m in length can utilize this entrance. about 15 miles above the downriver boundary of the port. with the anchorage lights in range 244° and Bagnapara Mark bearing 350° on the ebb and 339° on the flood. with two container berths S of it.portofcalcutta.7 The pilot and the customs officer remain on board during the vessels stay at Haldia and accommodations must be furnished.) World Port Index No.. 22°11'30"N.. and phosphate berths. from S to N.. b. 280 miles NW by pipeline. At the N end of the W side of the dock is a general cargo berth. A signal and telegraph station and a customhouse are situated in the town.. 7. The E side. Drafts are issued as the draft of the day and forecasted 6 weeks in advance. the flood runs 5 hours and the ebb runs 7 hours. and fertilizer. with tower on either side of the river which rises to a height of 91m. During the Northeast Monsoon. abreast of the port area over a bottom of medium to hard mud and sand.) lies on the E bank of the Hugli River about 38 miles above Sagar Roads. Two mooring buoys are available. about 21 miles farther upriver.9 7. Modern well-equipped berthing facilities are provided for all classes of vessels alongside and at the mooring buoys in the river. 88°11'00"E. The results of dredging in shipping lanes are constantly reviewed to affirm permissible drafts. 7. Haldia Oil Jetty No.7 7. good holding ground.6 7. 49555 7. 2 can accommodate tankers up to 150. Berth No. 22°11'30"N. c. in a depth of 11m. 88°11'E. Currents may exceed 5 knots.5 to 2 knots at neaps. The maximum rate of the current in the river is about 5 knots. so that Pub.7 7. with a least depth of 8. 173 . LASH vessels are at present (1978) worked at the anchorage 0. both on the flood and the ebb. Because of the strong river current. the velocity of the flood is increased and reaches a maximum velocity of 4 to 7 knots at springs. India—East Coast —Bangladesh.nic.com 7. the flood is weak and of short duration and at neaps may be nearly imperceptible. 3 can accommodate vessels up to 150. in a depth of 12.5 knots at springs and 1.8 Diamond Harbor Anchorage (22°11'N. on the E bank at Diamond Harbor. The Howrah Bridge.5m..7 7. 88°08'30"E. and the other stations are connected by telephone with Calcutta.9 7. Diamond Harbor Anchorage 7. Berth No. near The Sandheads. A vessel has anchored. The port can be contacted by e-mail. about 21 miles above Hugli Point.. the limits being marked by boundary pillars. d. This berth. lies on the W bank of the Hugli River about 56 miles downriver from Calcutta. about 6 miles above Diamond Harbor.3 mile S of the oil jetty. 88°04'E.7 7. Mooring takes place under the direction of the pilot and an experienced mooring crew is provided. 22°11'00"N.Sector 7. sulfur. The Haldia dock system is approached through a lock entrance at Haldia Point. During the freshets.—Tides in the Hugli River at Calcutta are semidiurnal.5m and can accommodate tankers up to 90.000 dwt. A 235m finger pier projects S from the N head of the dock.7 Calcutta (Kolkatta) (22°33'N. The bridge marks the upper limit of navigation for ocean-going vessels.

162

Sector 7. India—East Coast —Bangladesh, and Burma—West Coast
Raimangal River, the Malancha River, the Pussu Riverr, the Haringhata River, and the Rabnabad River. An intricate series of branches connect these rivers whose courses are continually shifting their positions. Boats can be piloted through the Calcutta Canals towards Kulna, about 65 miles to the E. Kulna is the most important center situated in the Sundarbans. The Meghna River, the E branch of the Ganges, discharges the main volume of the Ganges waters. Depths—Limitations.—Swatch of No Ground (21°05'N., 89°17'E.) is a remarkable tongue-shaped depression lying S of the entrance of the Pussur River. The NE side of the depression is centered in about position 21°24'N, 89°36'E. Depths around the perimeter of this depression decrease rapidly from 36.6m to over 183m within a distance of 1 to 2 miles along the N and NW sides, and to much greater depths in its central and S parts. Swatch of No Ground ranges in width from 6 to 12 miles within the 183m curve and is about 50 miles long. It has been reported (2006) that depths of as little as 12m and 17m are located in Swatch of No Ground, about 43 miles SSE of Putney Island. The 11m curve, like the 18 and 35m curves to the S, extends in a general E and W direction from a position about 25 miles S of the entrance of the Matla River to a position about 60 miles S of the mouth of the Hatia River. The 11m curve lies nearest to the coast about 11 miles S of the entrance of the Pusur River. Those depths and dangers which lie within the 11m curve are described together with the principal description of the coastal features which they front. East of Sagar Island is a series of low alluvial jungle-covered islands intersected by numerous creeks and rivers.
7.10 7.10 7.10 7.10 7.10

sometimes it is necessary to slip the cable and leave the anchor to be picked up by the Port Commissioners. The tidal currents set fair up and down Calcutta Reach. Depths—Limitations.—Mooring berths in the river have sufficient depths to accommodate any vessel that can enter the river. Depths at the moorings range from 5.5 to 15.2m, but vary according to their location in the river. Kidderpore Docks comprise No. 1 Dock, No. 2 Docks, and a turning basin. The lock entrance from the river is 176.8m long and 24.4m wide. Vessels up to a maximum length of 157m and a beam of 21.3m can enter Kidderpore Docks. No. 1 Dock has 11 berths; No. 2 Dock has eight berths for general cargo and six coal berths. A depth of 9.1m exists alongside the berths in both docks. Nataji Subhas Docks (King George Dock) lock entrance is 213.4m long and 27.4m wide. Vessels up to 172m may enter the dock. Seven berths, with a depth of 10m alongside, are available for ocean-going vessels. The other berthing facilities within the dock are for the sole use of lighters. In 1985, there were two container berths and cranes in Nataji Subhas Docks. Garden Reach Jetties consist of five jetties for ocean-going vessels. Vessels, with lengths from 137 to 172m can be accommodated alongside. Vessels berthed at Garden Reach Jetties are limited to a draft of 5.5m during bore periods. Calcutta Jetties, which lie below Howrah Bridge, consist of nine jetties, but only five are available to ocean-going vessels. The petroleum facilities at Buj-Buj (Budge Budge) consist of eight pontoon jetties. Vessels, with a maximum draft of 9.1m, can be accommodated alongside these berths. Vessels mooring in the river are required to moor head stern, with two lower and stern cables shackled to the permanent moorings which are laid parallel with the banks. Regulations.—Port Regulations are supplied to vessels on arrival by the harbor master. Rules regulating the handling of explosives are issued by the port authorities. Masters of vessels with explosives on board are required to give an advance notice of arrival of 72 hours. Signals.—The port can be contacted by e-mail, as follows:
7.9 7.9 7.9 7.9 7.9 7.9 7.9 7.9 7.9 7.9 7.9

portofcalcutta@portofcalcutta.com

India—The Sundarbans to the Chittagong Coast
7.10 The Sundarbans, broken by many outlets of the Ganges, extends E from the entrance of the Hugli River for about 165 miles to the entrance of the Tetulia River, the W mouth of the Meghna River. The Sundarbans, an extensive, heavily-wooded swampy area in the S part of the Ganges Delta, is intersected by many creeks and rivers. The more important rivers are the Matla River, the
7.10

Saptamukhi Sand (21°20'N., 88°27'E.) and Bulcherry Sand, both with depths of 5.5m and less, extend about 28 and 20 miles S, respectively, from the shore. Reliable information about this part of the coast is scanty and the chart should be used with great caution. Changes on the SW part of the Sundarbans have been particularly rapid in recent years. Lacams Channel (21°13'N., 88°24'E.), which lies close W of Saptamukhi Sand leads N into the Baratala River on the E side of Sagar Island. Saptamukhi Channel, which lies close E of Saptamukhi Sand and is the common entrance of the Jamira River on the E and the Saptamukhi River on the W. Oceangoing vessels cannot use the channels. A dangerous wreck is situated in the outer approach to Lacam’s Channel about 18 miles E of Eastern Channel Light. Signals.—Special storm signals, used on the rivers of the Sundarbans, are displayed at Namkhana, Barisal, Goalunda, Noakhali, Narayanganj, Chandpar, Mongla, and at some river police stations in Bengal, Assam, and Bangladesh; for further information, see the accompanying table titled Special Storm Signals—Rivers of the Sundarbans.
7.10 7.10 7.10 7.10

Special Storm Signals—Rivers of the Sundarbans Signal Cautionary Signal I Warning Signal II Black ball Day Black diamond Red light Night White light over red light Meaning Squally weather threatens your area A storm may affect you shortly

Pub. 173

Sector 7. India—East Coast —Bangladesh, and Burma—West Coast

163

Special Storm Signals—Rivers of the Sundarbans Signal Danger Signal III Great Danger Signal IV Day Cone, point up Cylinder, displayed vertically Night Two red lights displayed vertically Three red lights displayed vertically Meaning A storm will soon strike you A violent storm will soon strike you

India—The Matla River
7.11 The Matla River (21°37'N., 88°41'E.), about 34 miles E of Sagar Island Light, lies with its mouth between Dalhousie Island and Bulcherry Island. The river is entered through Eastern Channel and Western Channel, which are divided by a partly drying shoal known as Raimatla Sand (West Spit), about 10 miles S of Dalhousie Island. Shoals at the entrance are subject to change and, since pilotage is not available, caution is necessary in navigating these two channels and the Matla River. Eastern Channel has least charted depths of 7.9 to 12.8m; Western Channel has least charted depths of 6.1 to 11m. Western Channel is preferred to Eastern Channel, but navigation is dangerous because the depths in the approach to the SW side of Dalhousie Island are fairly regular and the lead gives no warning of the proximity of the steep-to bordering sands. This condition also exists within the river. Tides—Currents.—The tidal currents below Dalhousie Sand appear to rotate; the flood current sets WNW at its commencement and works through N around ENE. The ebb current sets ESE through S to WSW. Velocities of the flood and ebb currents are 2 to 3 knots at springs and 1 to 1.5 knots at neaps. In the channel, the flood current runs toward the E shore until abreast of Dalhousie River at the N end of Dalhousie Island, then it crosses S of Grappler Sand and runs toward Peel Point, forming eddies. It then runs N for about 8 miles to Roger Point (21°55'N., 88°40'E.) where it bifurcates, the greater portion going up Bidda River and the balance running around Roger Point into Katalli Bight, leaving slack water in the vicinity of Bidda River Point. The velocity of the flood current varies in different parts of the river, but 5 knots is the maximum velocity recorded. The ebb current sets fairly down the river; off Roger Point it forms numerous eddies. At the last of the ebb, the current sets from abreast the N end of Dalhousie Island across the river toward Halliday Island. The maximum recorded velocity of the ebb current is 2.5 knots. Aspect.—Clumps of trees lie on Dalhousie Point on the W side of the island of the same name. This point and Halliday Island to the NW, may be seen from a distance of 10 miles when the height of eye is about 7.3m. When close to Dalhousie Point, conspicuous when the sun is shining, appears as a high, white sandy beach. Below Kattali, which lies 12 miles N of the N end of Dalhousie Island, the land is so low that at HWS the water runs some distance inland. From the sea to Eedoo Reach, about 23 miles above Kattali, the land is covered by dense jungle. Between this reach and Port Canning, about 8 miles distant, the banks are marked by villages.
7.11 7.11 7.11 7.11 7.11 7.11

7.12 Port Canning (22°19'N., 88°39'E.), about 60 miles above the entrance of the Matla River, is connected with Calcutta by railroad. Anchorage can be taken off the port, in depths of 7.3 to 14.6m, but local knowledge is essential. The coast between the Matla River and the Pusur River, about 50 miles to the E, is marked by the entrances of the Bangaduni River, the Gosaba River, the Raimaugal River, and the Malancha River. All of these rivers are fronted by shoals which extend from 3 to 17 miles offshore. Dalhousie Sand (21°24'N., 88°51'E.) extends about 17 miles SSE from Dalhousie Point. Bhangaduni Island (21°33'N., 88°52'E.), which lies between the mouths of the Bhangaduni River and the Gosaba River, is fronted by Bhangaduni Sand, which extends about 17 miles SE from it. Both of these rivers have shallow entrances and are of no commercial value. The Raimangal River and the Malacha River farther to the E are both shallow. The Haribhanga River opens 12 miles ENE of the Gosaba River; the Raimangal River is about about 4 miles E; both enter the sea through a common estuary which extends miles S. It has a least depth of 6.4m in its approach, but local knowledge is essential for entering. New Moore Island (South Talpatty Island) (Purbasha Island (21°37'N., 89°09'E.) is located on the W side of the main entrance channel to the Haribhanga River; the boundary between India and Bangladesh lies in the vicinity.
7.12 7.12 7.12 7.12 7.12 7.12

Bangladesh—The Pusur River to Khulna, including the Mongla Anchorage
7.13 The Pusur River (21°46'N., 89°30'E.) is entered between Jefford Point and West Point, about 8 miles to the W. Zulfiquar Channel extends N from the bar which lies between these two points and joins the deep channel leading through the estuary to Akram Point about 15 miles to the N. This point lies at the junction of the Sipsah River and the Pusur River. Boar Point lies on the E side of Zulfiquar Channel about 5 miles N of Jefford Point. Hiran Point lies on the W side of the channel about 6.5 miles NE of West Point. The Pusur River, between Akram Point and the anchorage off Mungla, is fairly broad and navigable 24 hours. Vessels with a speed of less than 8.5 knots shall not be permitted to transit the river during springs. Under special circumstances, provided permission is granted, a tug will have to be hired from the port to assist a vessel within the port limits. Requests for a tug must be made at least 24 hours in advance. For reasons of safety, Mongla Anchorage is normally departed only on the flood. Deep-draft vessels depart on the first of the flood.
7.13 7.13

Pub. 173

164

Sector 7. India—East Coast —Bangladesh, and Burma—West Coast
Chalna Port Authorities. Draft permitting, the bar can be crossed anytime both by day and night. When crossing the bar during the Southwest Monsoon, vessels should have not less than 1.2m of water under the keel and not exceed a speed of 12 knots. During the Northeast Monsoon, a minimum clearance of 1m under the keel is considered a safe margin for crossing the bar. The best time to cross the bar inbound is about 1 hour before HW in the entrance. Outbound vessels should cross the bar during the last 45 minutes of the flood. During the first stage of the ebb, the river level drops very rapidly. The depths over the crossings inside the river range from 5.8 to 7m. Vessels with a fresh water draft of 7.3m and vessels with drafts of 7.5 to 7.6m can enter the river during spring tides in September through December, and proceed as far as the anchorage off Mongla, about 48 miles above Jefford Point. Vessels with a maximum draft of 4.9m can proceed to Khulna, about 25 miles above Mongla Anchorage. A dangerous wreck with exposed masts lies about 11 miles SSW from Jefford Point; close W of Buoy B5. Another dangerous wreck lies approximately 6 miles NW of Fairway Buoy. Numerous fishing boats and nets have been reported in the vicinity of the river entrance. Sarwah Sand (21°42'N., 89°28'E.), awash at HW, lies on the W side of Zulfiquar Channel with its N edge 4.5 miles S of Hiran Point. An unnamed sand, which dries in patches, lies about midway between Sarwah Sand and Hiran Point. Dubla Shoal (21°46'N., 89°31'E.), with depths of less than 1.8m and patches which dry up to 0.9m, lies on the E side of the channel between Jefford and Boar Points. Pavanga Shoal (21°51'N., 89°30'E.), with depths of less than 5.5m and a central drying area, lies on the W side of the main fairway with its S end about 1.5 miles SW of Boar Point. The S end of this shoal has been reported extending to the S. Less water has been reported in the channel W of the N part of Pavanga Shoal. Aspect.—The terrain in the vicinity of the river is low and has no distinctive landmarks which can be seen from the offing. Land is not normally sighted until the outer bar is crossed. Jefford Point Light (21°44'N., 89°32'E.) is shown from a gray metal-framed tower. Reports indicate that the entrance is a poor radar target. The radiobeacon antenna, about 1.5 miles NNW of Hiran Point is reported to be a good landmark when approaching the entrance. Some white houses stand near this radiobeacon. Hiran Point Light is shown from a grey metal-framed tower. The entrance of the river, between the approach to the bar and the central part of Zulfiquar Channel, is normally buoyed and marked in places by light floats. Lighted Buoy Z2, Lighted Buoy Z3, and Lighted Buoy Z4 mark the fairway through Zulfiquar Channel. After the annual winter survey of the bar, the floating aids are moved to conform with the changes in the channel; replacement of aids is not always made. During severe weather, the buoys are liable to be blown off station; their charted positions cannot always be relied on. A lighted fairway buoy, equipped with a radar reflector, is moored about 20 miles SSW of Jefford Point. Within the river above the bar, the main fairway, as far N as Chalna Bazar, is well-marked by navigational aids. Some of these are equipped with radar reflectors.
7.13 7.13 7.13 7.13 7.13 7.13 7.13 7.13 7.13 7.13 7.13 7.13 7.13 7.13

This coast must be approached with caution at all times and soundings taken continuously. Swatch of No Ground is a good aid for vessels coming from the W. The change in the water from blue or blue-green to a yellow color normally indicates the approach to shallow water. During the ebb at springs, yellow water is found as far seaward as Swatch of No Ground. In 1985, lesser than charted depth was reported 17.5 miles SSW of Jefford Point. A dangerous wreck lies about 18 miles SSW of Jefford Point and is marked on its SW side by a lighted buoy. Winds—Weather.—Haze generally prevails in the approaches to the low coast, except at the change of the seasons. Fog, off the coast and in the river, occasionally occurs during the change of seasons, but it usually lifts during the forenoon. In general, thick weather can be expected during the Southwest Monsoon from May to September. At the anchorage off Mungla, vessels are required to have steam ready for meeting any emergency during northwesters, March through May, and during the Southwest Monsoon. Northwesters are usually directional as their name implies; they are storms accompanied by heavy rain and high winds, with velocities up to 30 to 40 knots. Northwesters give about 2 or 3 hours notice, and vessels are usually advised in the day’s weather forecast. Tides—Currents.—Tides in the Pusur River are semidiurnal. High water over the bar occurs about 1 hour before predicted HW for the river entrance. Tide gauges lie on the river banks at Hiran Point, abreast Sundar Kota, about 9 miles above Akram Point, about 5 miles below Mongla, and about 1.5 miles below Chalna Bazar. Tidal heights vary with the season, being lower in February and March and higher in July through November. At Mongla Fairway Lighted Buoy (21°27'N., 89°34'E.), 17.5 miles S of Jefford Point, the ebb sets about SSE and the flood sets NNW. The velocity of the current is about 2 knots at springs during the Northeast Monsoon. At the time of the Southwest Monsoon, the ebb is stronger and the flood is weaker. In Zulfiquar Channel, the ebb flows at a velocity of about 3 knots at springs. The currents turn about 1 hour after high and low water in the entrance of the Pusur River. Extensive rips and eddies mark the edges of Sarwar Sand and Dubla Shoal. At the anchorage off Mongla the ebb has a velocity of about 4 knots at springs. The currents turn about 4.5 hours after HW and LW in the entrance. A report states the currents turn in Zulfiquar Channel about 2 hours and at the anchorage off Mongla about 3 hours, respectively, after HW and LW in the entrance. The velocity of the ebb was reported to be 6 knots at springs at the anchorage off Mongla. Depths—Limitations.—A bar, about 5 miles wide with a least depth of 5.5m, lies in the approach to the Pusur River between 5 and 10 miles S of the entrance. Lighted Buoy B1 to Lighted Buoy B10 mark both sides of the channel across the bar. A dangerous wreck, marked by a buoy moored close S, lies on the E side close S of the channel entrance. Following pilot instructions, vessels drawing up to 7m may cross the bar in all seasons. During Southwest Monsoon, 7.8m draft may be permitted. The maximum permissible fresh water draft for Chalna Port is published each day in advance by the
7.13 7.13 7.13 7.13 7.13 7.13 7.13 7.13 7.13 7.13 7.13 7.13 7.13 7.13

Pub. 173

Sector 7. India—East Coast —Bangladesh, and Burma—West Coast
Pilotage.—Pilotage is compulsory for all vessels over 200 grt. Pilots board 2 miles SE of Hiran Point or, in bad weather, off Akram Point (21°59.4'N., 89°31.9'E.). Vessels should arrive at Mongla Fairway Lighted Buoy at least 3 hours prior to HW at Hiran Point to enter that day. Regulations.—The Port Director at Khulna is to be notified 24 hours in advance of vessel’s arrival as to the state of health on board and vessel’s last port of call. Radio pratique may be granted. A report states that health officials board vessels about 7 miles below Mongla Anchorage (Chalna Anchorage). The port health officer is stationed at Khulna. Vessels should send their ETA to Port Contrial, via their agent, and to the pilots, on VHF channel 11, at least 24 hours prior to arriving at Mongla Fairway Lighted Buoy. The ETA message should include the following information: 1. ETA at Mongla Fairway Lighted Buoy. 2. Fresh water draft. 3. Speed. 4. Length overall. 5. Gross tonnage. 6. Flag. 7. Fresh water requirements. 8. Type and amount of cargo. 9. Local agent. On, or before, arriving at Mongla Fairway Lighted Buoy, vessels should contact the pilot station on VHF channel 16 for instructions on crossing the bar. Anchorage.—During the Northeast Monsoon, anchorage can be taken outside the bar, in depths of 7.3 to 9.1m, good holding ground, about 14.5 miles S of Jefford Point. Deeper water exists about 0.8 mile N of this position. Unsheltered anchorage, with good holding ground, can be taken, in a depth of 8.2m, about 1.5 miles NE of Sarwar Sand Lighted Beacon. A vessel should not anchor N of 21°47'N to avoid Pavanga Shoal. Caution.—In 1976, strict security measures were in force in the port area. A ban on bathing and swimming in the anchorage was strictly enforced. Mongla Port Rules are used primarily by the pilots and port service organizations. If repairs are to be made to a vessel at the anchorage and the work requires the immobilization of the vessel, permission should be obtained from the port authorities. In 1994, many buoys in Zulfiquar Channel were reported missing or unlit. The 5m curve of Pavanga Shoal was reported to be extending S to Buoy B18; a shoal patch, with a least depth of 5.3m, was reported between Buoy B18 and Buoy B15. Anchored vessels may be encountered in the vicinity of Mongla Fairway Lighted Buoy, in the vicinity of Buoy B18, and anywhere along the Pussur River from latitude 21°46.0'N to Mongla Anchorage.
7.13 7.13 7.13 7.13 7.13 7.13 7.13 7.13 7.13 7.13 7.13 7.13 7.13

165

66 miles above Mongla Fairway Lighted Buoy and 9 miles downstream from Mongla Bazar. Mongla Home Page http://www.monglaport.com.bd
7.14

The anchorage area stretches along the river for about 3 miles and has depths which range from 6.4 to 13.7m. Several swing moorings are available. One of the vessel’s chains is made fast to a buoy with the assistance of a mooring tug. Vessels can also anchor in midstream at nine additional anchorage berths. The holding ground is good. All cargo is discharged into lighters and transferred to Mongla. Vessels up to 6.9m draft may use the anchorage, and of slightly greater draft in the flood season. To prevent dragging anchors when a strong ebb is running, especially during the Southwest Monsoon spring tides, it is advisable not to moor more than two large or four average-size lighters alongside a vessel. Hazardous cargo can be discharged about 5 to 6 miles below the anchorage. Tugs are available for handling the lighters. Pilotage is provided by Hiran Point. The vessel’s ETA should be sent 24 hours in advance through the pilot station at Hiran Point. Further information regarding pilotage and regulations can be found in paragraph 7.13. Storm signals are displayed for the Bay of Bengal from the signal tower on the E side of the river at Mongla. The port can be contacted by e-mail, as follows: mpa@bttb.net.bd

7.14

7.14

7.14

7.14

7.14

7.14

7.14

7.14

7.14

7.14

7.14 Mongla Anchorage (Chalna Bazar) (22°28'N., 89°35'E.) (World Port Index No. 49580), the lighterage port for Chalna, consists of a river anchorage in the Pusur River, about

Old Chalna Anchorage, about 9 miles above Mongla Anchorage, extends about 1 mile below Mongla Bazar and has a least depth of 3.8m. In 1974, the maximum draft allowed at Mongla was 7.3m. This site was found to be unsuitable because moored vessels were frequently set adrift by the strong freshets and eddies. Ocean-going vessels no longer use this anchorage. Mongla Wharf, five berths with a total length of 920m and an alongside dredged depth of 6.1m, stand on the E bank of the Pusur River, about 2 miles N of the anchorage off Mongla. Regulations.—No vessel should attempt to cross the outer bar without a pilot on board. If the pilot is unable to board at the fairway buoy, the vessel should wait until detailed instructions are received by radio. At this time navigational aids, depths, and pilotage information should be verified. Mongla pilots emphasize that all instructions received over VHF are repeated by the Master to ensure understanding. Directions.—From a position close E of Fairway Lighted Buoy, steer N for about 3 miles to the buoyed channel entrance. This buoyed channel should be followed, according to radioed instructions, to the anchorage area about 1.3 miles SE Hiran Point Light.

Pub. 173

166

Sector 7. India—East Coast —Bangladesh, and Burma—West Coast
7.17 Sandwip Island (22°28'N., 91°29'E.), the furthest E, is one of the largest of the numerous islands which lie between the entrances of the Meghna River. Several shoal spurs, with depths of 5.5m and less, extend up to 22 miles S from South Hatia Island and extend irregularly NE to a position about 15 miles S of Sandwip Island. In 1979, less water than charted was reported 35 miles S of South Hatia Island. Two detached shoals, with depths of 2.4 and 5.5m, lie in the entrance of the narrow channel on the W side of Sandwip Island, about 6.5 and 7.5 miles S of the SW point of that island. Tides—Currents.—The velocity of the tidal current in the vicinity of D’Apres Shoal is about 4 knots. During the first 30 minutes of the flood, there is always a swell in depths of 9.1m and less. About 40 miles SW of D’Apres Shoal the tidal current continues to run N and NE for 1 hour after HW and SSW and SW for 1.5 hours after LW. During spring tides the tidal currents set N and S and at neaps they gradually turn in a clockwise direction. Tidal currents setting more to the W than the E are experienced during good weather. The estimated velocity of the ebb current at springs is from 4 to 6 knots and at neaps about 2.5 knots. Depths—Limitations.—The Meghna River discharges the main volume of the waters of the Ganges River and the Brahmaputra River through its four principal mouths (the Tetulia River, the Shahbazpur River, the Hatia River, and Sandwip Channel). The Brahmaputraa River joins the Ganges River at Goalunda; the combined waters enter the Meghna River at Chandpur. In 1979, the banks S of the entrances to these two rivers were extending S and less water was reported. The Hatia River, the only navigable passage of the Meghna River, passes between Sandwip Island on the E and the Hatia Islands group to the W. Sandwip Channel, between Sandwip Island and the mainland coast to the E, is closed by sandbanks N of the N end of Sandwip Island. Vessels, with a draft of 3m, can proceed upriver as far as Narayanganj. In 1964, Hatia Channel, the navigable entrance of the Meghna River, had its entrance about 9 miles SE of the S extremity of Sandwip Island. The buoyed channel leading from the entrance extends NW and W to a position midway between South Hatia Island and North Hatia Island. Depths in Hatia Channel and over the adjoining shoals are subject to rapid changes, and the buoys may be moved to conform to these changes. Extreme caution is advised. Directions cannot be given because of the rapid changes in the depths and no one without local knowledge or a pilot aboard should attempt to enter. Pilots are available at Chittagong. Anchorage.—Anchorage can be taken off the W side of Sandwip Island, abreast of the village of Sandwip or in Sandwip Channel E of that island. A shallow flat extends about 6 miles S of the island. Authority Lghted Buoy is moored about 9.5 miles SE of Sandwip and 2.5 miles SSW of a dangerous wreck. The lighted buoys marking the S approaches to Hatia Channel are moved as the channel changes. Caution.—Sandwip and the Hatia Islands are particularly subject to flooding by storm waves.
7.17 7.17 7.17 7.17 7.17 7.17 7.17 7.17 7.17 7.17 7.17 7.17

7.14

7.14

When entering or leaving, Dubia Shoal Lighted Buoy should be passed to the W and the lighted buoys off Sarwar Sand and Pavanga Shoal should be passed to the E. Vessels are required to display their call sign by International Code Signal Flags when entering port and while at the anchorage off Hiran Point awaiting a pilot.

7.15 The Haringhata River (21°50'N., 89°57'E.), one of the principal outlets of the Ganges, is entered through an estuary about 7 miles wide at the entrance. Tiger Point lies on the W side of the entrance, about 17.5 miles NE of Pusur Point. The river is navigable by ocean vessels as far inland as Morreigani, about 37 miles from the entrance, and throughout its entire course by the largest native boats. Navigation of this river is said to be easier than that of any other river at the head of the Bay of Bengal, as the river is free from tidal bores and mid-channel dangers. The river should not be entered without local knowledge or a pilot aboard. Tidal currents within the river are reported to exceed a velocity of 4 knots at springs. Caution.—A bar, with a LW depth of about 4.6m, fronts the mouth of the Haringhata.
7.15 7.15 7.15 7.15

7.16 Argo Flat (21°44'N., 89°57'E.), an extensive area of shoal ground with depths of less than 5.5m, lies between Pusur Point and Landfall Point, about 30 miles ENE. The flat extends up to 19 miles offshore and dries in patches up to 8 miles S of Tiger Point. Heavy breakers have been observed over these patches. Morrelgani, a local rice exporting center, lies on the river bank about 37 miles above the entrance. Local river steamers frequent the port. Good holding ground and shelter is provided at the anchorage in the river abreast of the town. Rabnabad Channel Entrance (21°50'N., 90°16'E.) lies about 8 miles ENE of Landfall Point. The narrow channel within the entrance has a least charted depth of 4.3m in its N part, which lies between the westernmost Rabnabad Island and the mainland to the W. Above this island, the channel connects with the Ganges River through the Kaja Riverl and the Tetulia River. Little is known of these latter two rivers. An area between the S point of the E Rabnabad Island and a position about 18 miles to the E, has not been surveyed. A similar unsurveyed area lies N of a line extending about 50 miles ENE from the S point of the E Rabnabad Island to a position about 6 miles E of the SE point of South Hatia Island (22°15'N., 91°05'E.).
7.16 7.16 7.16 7.16 7.16

7.16

Meghna Flats (21°30'N., 90°24'E.), an area of shoal ground with depths of 5.5m and less, lie between the entrance of the Haringhata River and the entrance of the Shahbazpur River, about 60 miles to the NE. These flats and shoals extend up to 45 miles S of the mouths of the Meghna River. D’Apres Shoal (22°00'N., 91°09'E.), a drying sand bank with a 2.4m depth, lies on the E side of the entrance of the Shahbazpur River, about 14 miles S of the SE point of South Hatia Island.

Pub. 173

Whatever the state of the weather or the time of the year. the velocity of the tidal current is about 2 knots at neaps and 3 to 4 knots at springs.Sector 7.20 7. lies about 1 mile farther S at the S end of the ridge close N of Chittagong. Kohinur Shoal (21°07'N. 7.3 hours after HW and LW at Chittagong.—The tidal currents in this part of the Bay of Bengal set N and S with the trend of the coast. and a similar detached patch lies 27. 91°41'E. The tidal current turns about 1. South of Cox’s Bazar to Elephant Point. a small river port frequented by local steamers. lies centered about 28 miles SSW of Kutubdia Light..—About 0.).19 7. A black pillar.. small fog banks or thick mists occur on the Chittagong Coast on an average of 2.. Soundings should be taken frequently and allowances made for tidal currents. A ridge of hills extends SSE from this mountain and roughly parallels the coast for about 18 miles. A tidal bore affects the lower parts of the river. 90°32'E.1m. The ebb current is very strong during the rainy season from April to September.). Under ordinary conditions.19 7. lies about 7 miles WSW of the lighthouse. In hazy weather. A shoal.6m.19 Dolphin Shoal (21°51'N. about 20 miles NNW of Chittagong.—Off the Chittagong coast the depths decrease gradually from the 36. Pub.).19 North Patches (21°43'N. When approaching from the SW and uncertain of a vessel’s position. 88m high. 173 . South Patches (21°26'N. about 22 miles W of Elephant Point (21°11'N. a group of hard.). Caution. Martins Island. 91°44'E. 6. 91°38'E. 91°46'E. Tides—Currents.20 7. Even with favorable weather and when a vessel’s position is known. 92°03'E. If the position is doubtful and there is a strong flood or N current.. a white sandy beach borders the shore for about 27 miles SSE to the mouth of the Karnaphuli River.1m high. India—East Coast —Bangladesh.17 7. 91°59'E.5 miles SW of Kutubdia Light. North Patches.17 7.). being cognizant of the depths and dangers.6m curve. small in extent with a least depth of 4. was reported to exist about 23. Between the entrance of the Karnaphuli River and Cox’s Bazar. vessels have been swept past the entrance of the Karnaphuli River by the flood or N current and set upon the sands S and SW of Sandwip Island. A detached 14.18 7.).5 hours after HW and LW near Juldia. 73m high.. 7. 7. which lies about 5 miles NE of St. a landfall can be made in the vicinity of the conspicuous white cliffs about 4 miles SSE of Cox’s Bazar. 90°33'E. Chains of mountain ranges rise parallel with the Chittagong Coast at varying distances inland.19 7. lies at the junction of the Meghna River and Chandpur Khal.20 The entrance of the Karnaphuli River lies between Patenga Point (22°13'N.19 7.19 7.. with a least depth of 8. Nagarkha. the velocity at spring tides ranges from 4 to 6 knots.5 miles long with a least depth of 9. The port has little commercial value. it is well to anchor to avoid being set on the shoals lying off Sandwip Island and the entrance of the Meghna River.) and Norman’s Point. A dangerous wreck. Chandpur (23°09'N. the coast is broken by Kutubdia Island and Maiskhal Island..). the flood current sets NNW and the ebb current sets SSE.9m.2m.17 7.19 Bangladesh—Approach to the Karnaphuli River 7. lies about 17 miles SSE of Sitakund Mountain. Less water than charted may exist over these shoals. strict attention to the depth as well as to the course and distance made good over the ground is necessary.).6m patch lies about 25. Narayanganj (23°37'N. the boundary between Bangladesh and Burma.19 7. the shoal was reported to be 0.. These weather conditions cause the lights in some instances to assume a deep red color and in other instances to completely obscure them. sand shoals with depths of 4. 91°40'E.8 miles SSW of Kutubdia Light. with a least depth of 6. Depths—Limitations. but especially during the Southwest Monsoon from April to September.). It has been reported that the Meghan River can be dangerous for navigation between February and November. lies about 8 miles SE of Dacca on the left bank of the Lakhya River near its junction with the Meghna River. 7.. Vessels should always use local knowledge. From a position along the coast E of the N part of Sandwip Island.—During the Northeast Monsoon.19 7. Vessels should pass outside of South Patches. and Dolphin Shoal.5 mile W of the outer bar at the entrance of the Karnaphuli River. extend about 8 miles S from a position about 7. 91°48'E.18 A narrow shoal bank.19 7. low hills rise close inland and cliffs mark the coastline. to the 11m curve about 15 miles SSW of the entrance of the Karnaphuli River. from October to March.5 mile NW of its charted position.5 miles W of Elephant Point. The mean range of the tide at Chittagong is 2. without sighting Kutubdia Island Light by night or the land by day.5 miles WNW of Elephant Point.9m.—The greatest care is necessary in making the entrance of the Karnaphuli River.19 7.5m. mariners should exercise extreme caution. Sitakund Mountain (22°38'N. With but few exceptions.19 7.1 to 5.4m. Fakir Hill. and Burma—West Coast A stranded wreck lies approximately 7 miles off the mainland coast at the S end of Sandwip Channel.5 days a month. In 1977. The Feni River empties into Sandwip Channel about 8 miles N of the N extremity of Sandwip Island.3 and 5 miles WSW of Kutubdia Light (21°52'N.19 7.) rises to an elevation of 352m. These shoals may lie farther S than indicated on the chart.8 miles NW.18 7.17 167 Bangladesh—The Chittagong Coast to Elephant Point 7.. especially around the equinoxes. lies about 7 miles NNW of Elephant Point. the spring range is 3.4m. Reju Shoal (21°17'N. and 1. a narrow shoal bank with a least depth of 9.9m. Tides—Currents. about 4. Winds—Weather. is situated 10 miles SE of the S end of Sandwip Island.19 7. lies atop this hill. 7. Local steamers frequent the port. about 2 miles SSE. all of the known dangers which lie off this section of coast are contained within the 11m curve. lies between 3.. marked by a lighted buoy.18 The coast of the Chittagong District extends S from the Feni River for about 150 miles to the Naf River.17 7. a small river port and transshipment point. lies centered about 23. 91°51'E. with a least depth of 21. Shifting banks and snags also present a hazard.

about 0.20 7. good holding ground. 38m high and topped by trees.).20 7.20 7.4m. and Burma—West Coast Pilots are available only from sunrise to sunset. The channels and depths in the Karnaphuli River and its approaches are subject to frequent change. The arrival draft should be forwarded in writing if it is expected to be within 0. on the N side of the entrance of the Karnaphuli River. 7. Range lights in line bearing 037°. a white mark 9.—Patenga Point (22°13'N. Dangerous wrecks lie up to 7 miles NW of Patenga Point and are best seen on the chart. Aids to navigation are adjusted accordingly.20 7.168 Sector 7.). The river entrance is constantly changing and no vessel should attempt to enter without a pilot on board.20 7. The limits of these three areas. An obstruction lies on the NW limit of Anchorage C.5 miles WSW from a position about 2. Pilotage. Dangers on the E side of the approach consists of South Patches.8 mile NNE of Norman’s Point. lie off the entrance of the Karnaphuli River.20 7. The following information should be sent to Chittagong 72 hours and confirmed 24 hours in advance of arrival: 1.. The greater part of the island is awash at HWS.1m high.20 7. An abandoned submarine pipeline extends 1.20 7. all of which have been previously described in paragraph 7. flat. and fish nets marked by small black and white stakes.—A signal station lies on Juldia Hill and is equipped with radiotelephones and facilities for signaling by the International Code of Signals.20 7.1m lie SE of Meghna Flats and S of Sandwip Island.1m. 7. lies 2.—Pilotage is compulsory for all merchant vessels.3 miles N of Patenga Point.20 7.20 7. Anchorage C is for lightering and other vessels not scheduled to enter for 24 hours. 91°49'E. 173 . as follows: 1. Signals. but are reportedly difficult to distinguish. A vessel using this anchorage should note the way it swings at the change of the tide. Anchorage C—8. A conspicuous flare stands 2. 4. 2. depths of less than 9..20 7. is low. about 0.20 Pub. and the 8. about 1.2 mile WSW of the light. Vessels with a speed of under 7 knots will not normally be handled during spring tides. the stranded wreck of a coastal sailing vessel. North Patches.5m have grounded while in Anchorage A. Anchorage B is for vessels entering within 24 hours.20 7. During spring tides. lettered A through C. Four Tree Hill. Norman’s Point Light shows from a red and white framework tower. lies on the S side of the entrance of the Karnaphuli. Extensive mud flats lie between this point and the entrance of the river. during the Southwest Monsoon. the Indian General System is used.” Weather signals will be displayed from the Port Commissioner’s Office for inland vessels and small craft. is a part.5 miles WSW of Patenga Point.20 7.—Small fishing craft without lights. Priority vessels should arrive at least 6 hours prior to daylight HW. Middle Island lies in the center of these flats.5m. India—East Coast —Bangladesh. Anchorage B—8.5m with Norman’s Point Light bearing 109°. Vessel’s ETA at Kutubdia and Chittagong outer anchorage. Vessels should arrive at the pilot station at least 3 hours before the daylight HW. 2. During a stay of 11 days at this anchorage.8 mile N of Juldia Hill. 91°48'E.20 7. Anchorage A—9.—On the W side of the approach to the entrance of the Karnaphuli River from the SSW. Dolphin Shoal..20 7. Norman’s Point (22°12'N. on a 24-hour basis. together with the prohibited anchorage area. Maximum fresh water draft on arrival.20 7. A disused light lies 0.5 miles NW of Patenga Point. The pilot launch is stationed off Juldia and is equipped with radar and VHF radiotelephone. and marked by a few trees. the maximum current experienced was 5 knots.20 Depths—Limitations.2m shoal. A dangerous wreck lies close NW of the range line 2. 3. about 0. It has been reported (2006) that numerous charted and uncharted wrecks lie in the anchorage areas as well as the approaches to Chittagong. Coombs Pillar (22°15'N. A vessel reported anchoring in a depth of 10. the holding ground is soft mud and vessels are liable to drag.5 miles ENE of Norman’s Point. Mariners are advised to contact local port authorities for current information on depths and wrecks prior to arrival.5 mile SW from the point. In addition. Anchorage.5m.—Three anchorage areas. because it is liable to swing in one direction only.). a racon is located at the light. All vessels entering or leaving port should display their signal letters. The least charted depth in each anchorage area is. Sailing Directions (Planning Guide) South Atlantic Ocean and Indian Ocean under “India—Signals. Date and hour of departure last port of call. a low extremity of the coast.20 7. From a distance. 7.19. was reported to be lying 5 miles offshore.20 7.5 mile below the SW extremity of the railway jetties and take vessels to their assigned berth. Vessels anchor should be sighted at regular intervals to avoid fouling. 1.5 miles SW of Patenga Point.20 7. lies about 10.20 7. with masts visible. Anchoring is prohibited in this vicinity. can best be seen on the chart.20 7.20 7.20 7. The mud is firmer farther S of this bearing.20 7. Further information on these storm signals may be found in Pub. lie approximately 0. Nature and quantity of cargo to be discharged. Vessels are usually boarded about 2 miles SW of the outer bar lighted buoy.5 miles NNW of Four Tree Hill.20 7. Anchorage A is for vessels with a draft of over 9. were reported to be a hazard to vessels approaching the river entrance. a vessel reported good holding ground with Patenga Lighted Beacon bearing 070° and Norman’s Point Light bearing 120°. but attention should be given to the strong ebb which is experienced here especially during the Southwest Monsoon. several of these wrecks are located in Anchorage A. 160. 3. The harbormaster boards in the river.2m of the maximum permissible draft. A flagstaff and some radio towers lie on Juldia Hill.20 7. North of a bearing of 055° on Patenga Lighted Beacon. the hill appears to form the S end of a tableland of which Juldia Hill. distant 2 miles.3 miles S of Norman’s Point. it has been reported (2002) that two vessels with drafts of 10. 91°51'E. A stranded wreck. stands on the highest part of the ridge. Storm signals are displayed on Juldia Hill and at Norman’s Point. Aspect.5 mile NE of Patenga Point. A drying sandy mud flat extends about 0. Consult the harbormaster at Chittagong for the latest information. Caution. marked by a light.5 miles SSW of Patenga Point. The outer part of these flats dries. In 1984.

rain and/ or cyclonic rotation winds which may reach a velocity of upwards of 50 knots. There are nine river mooring berths. Daily maximum anticipated safe drafts in the Karnafulli River for the months can alter with prevailing winds and unusual siltation. which can accommodate vessels up to 16.—The tidal currents set across the outer part of the bar with the flood setting NNW and the ebb to the SSE. the neap range is about 2. berth at Jetty No.21 Chittagong.21 7. During the winter the spring range is 2. 49590 7.7m.21 7.21 7.. Vessels entering or leaving port must have full steam on main engine and deck. 1. lie on the sides of the river at various locations to assist in determining the level of the tides. Two ocean-going tugs and a sufficient number of barges are available for handling cargo at the anchorages off the river entrance. Notices regarding them are circulated well in advance by the local port authorities.2cm draft advantage by entering close to time of HW and berth.5 to 8. 342m long. are berthed at Jetty No. The fine weather period is from the middle of October to March. 16 and Jetty No. with the day’s permissible draft.6cm. such as 3 inches for vessels of less than 152. strong freshets are experienced at which time there may be no flood current for several days. masters must exercise great caution. 1.21 7.6 to 15. but not exceeding 8.21 7. may gain a 7. in the months of June to September and sometimes in October.9 to 9.6m. Early morning fogs. are situated on the W bank of the river.21 7.4m.4m. A monthly forecast of drafts is published by the port authorities. on the ebb current. Vessels at fixed moorings and pontoon jetties must exercise extreme caution when a storm is blowing.5 miles above Jamuna Oil Jetty. Ship movements generally commence about 4 to 5 hours before the day’s HW. dense fogs occasionally occur. after turning.21 Pub. marked in 3-inch divisions. modern berthing facilities are provided for all classes of vessels capable of crossing the river bars. the greatest depths are available in the summer and the least in the winter. 7. Vessels having a length of 167 to 186m. the anchor is weighed and the vessel proceeds to either a berth or mooring buoy using the port anchor.21 7.5 to 35. A confused and dangerous sea breaks on the outer bar during strong SW winds. the port has been damaged on numerous occasions. Ample. This causes corresponding differences in vessels’ drafts and is important in that maximum drafts are based on fresh water.21 169 affirm maximum permissible draft for the day. 14 and Jetty No. When signs of such a storm exist. During freshets the velocity of the current increases to 6 to 8 knots. drawing the day’s permissible draft. Jamuna Oil Jetty is situated 0.5m.—Outer Bar lies at the seaward end of the entrance range and has a least depth of about 4. about 10 miles above its entrance. intending to discharge cargo.21 7. including two pontoon jetties. are not granted. Two container berths. also occur from December through February and sometimes in March.21 7. with total length of 450m and a depth of 10m alongside.21 7. rainfall is heavy during the Southwest Monsoon. stand on the W bank.21 7.cpa. clearing by mid-morning. During the Southwest Monsoon season.7 to 4m and the neap range is 1. Depths over the bars and in the river are subject to constant change. A fitting-out quay. 15. To determine the draft for entering or leaving port.5m. of which two have pontoons for supporting pipelines.1m.gov.5 to 2.—Chittagong is in the track of cyclones and as a result. thunder.21 7. Tide gauges. Explosives are handled at the outer anchorage. the channel for crossing the bar is a sharp zigzag and the usual extra draft allowances. allowing for an error of 30. Local authorities should be consulted to 7. depending on the tide. During the Southwest Monsoon. 173 . A vessel entering on the flood normally turns off the assigned berth using the starboard anchor. Pilots check drafts of deeply-loaded vessels.21 7. Vessels up to 164m in length. generally referred to as fresh water draft.8 miles NW of Norman’s Point.) World Port Index No. respectively. A hot sultry day followed by still air conditions in the evening usually results in thunderstorms.500 dwt. 9. depending on the phase of the moon and season. In general. A special pilot is required to place the tanker alongside the terminal buoy.21 The port has 17 jetties. It was further reported that due to siltation. The draft limits at the jetty vary seasonally with tide from 7. Chittagong Port Authority Home Page http://www. In general.21 7.8 miles WNW of Gupta Point. The maximum safe fresh water drafts in the Karnaphuli River may range from 5. The deepest draft that can be accommodated is 10. are berthed at Jetty No.4m.bd Winds—Weather. and Burma—West Coast Chittagong (22°19'N.21 7. 1 to Jetty No.21 7. and both anchors with full lengths of chain must be available for use at all times. The peculiarity of these storms is that they approach from the N and W in the form of a line squall accompanied by intense lightning.Sector 7. Vessels having a length of 164m. one of the leading ports in Bangladesh.5 and 4. ships with the maximum draft for a particular day sail about 2 hours before daylight HW.5 mile upriver of Gupta Khal No. India—East Coast —Bangladesh.4m in length and a speed of over 14 knots.6m over the inner bar is added to the height of water in the tide tables. with a maximum draft of 8. Tides—Currents. Outbound ships of light draft sail on the first daylight flood. A deep-draft vessel.5m. depending on the time of the year and local conditions. Chittagong is a first port of entry. Depths—Limitations.9m. 17.21 7. Safety explosives can be handled alongside the jetties.21 7.21 7. 7. the spring range of the tide is about 6. 91°49'E. and a dry dock.21 7. A 1965 report states the water salinity at the outer anchorages changes from almost salt water to practically fresh water. The least charted depths over the Inner Bar and Gupta Crossing are 5. The largest berths can accommodate vessels of up to 186m in length. lies on the W bank of the Karnaphuli River. An offshore oil terminal is situated about 4.21 7. whenever practicable. the depth of 3.21 7. 13.

wooded. indicating the fairway in the entrance and over the outer bar.21 Tidal lights for night pilotage are displayed from two framework masts. Large mud flats lie along this part of the bank and embankments have been constructed to prevent inundation. Vessels cannot remain at anchor at low water. The outer bar fronts the entrance of the river about 1.—Tidal signals are displayed from a tidal semaphore station on Juldia Hill. Active Spit. Anchorage. 91°50'E. Vessels are advised to report any piracy incidents immediately to Port Radio Control on VHF channel 12.21 7. In addition. lie about midway between the river and the point. separated by shallow channels. The lighted beacons. The diagram (See Tidal Semaphore Signals for Calcutta in paragraph 7. and dropped when the tide has fallen 3 inches below HW level. Pilotage. 7.—Vessels are advised to report any incidents of piracy and armed robbery to the Port Radio Control on VHF channel 12. For further information.—Vessels can anchor temporarily in certain reaches of the river on their way to or from Chittagong. will not display a black ball at the foremast head. Vessels with plague or other infectious diseases on board must anchor off Coombs Pillar until inspected by the Health Officer.21 7.21 7. A drying mud flat extends up to 2 miles offshore along this section of coast.3 miles farther N. vessels have reported a high incidence of theft of zinc anodes from vessel hulls and rudders.22 The Chittagong Coast from the entrance of the Karnaphuli River extends about 66 miles S and SSE to Elephant Point. the height of water above tidal datum.22 7.5 miles SW of Patenga Lighted Beacon.21 7. in order to be certain the rise of tide as indicated by the semaphore. vertically displayed.21 7. 7. Regulations. There are three main anchorage areas outside the harbor.22 info@cpa.21 7. 173 . Gupta Bar is about 5 miles above the river’s entrance. Two high tension power line pylons.—Pilotage is compulsory and available during daylight hours only. lies between the W bank and the training wall. from the mainland to the E.21 7. A group of deltaic islands.) is lighted and is situated about 23 miles SW of Chittagong. These lights are visible both from the jetties and outside the outer bar. Three lights. The port was reported to have the second highest number of piracy incidents in 2001. lie one on each side of the Karnaphuli River.5 mile SW from Patenga Point. the E bank becomes low and swampy and is cultivated. South of the mouth of the Sangu River the coast is low. are part of this bank and low-lying land to the E.—The entrance of the river lies between a training wall on the W side. by day.21 7.bd 7. which retains a sand and mud flat extending about 0. Vessels should arrive at the Pilot Boarding Ground. each 49m high. About 7 miles S of the Sangu River. The alignment of the fairways. are denoted by lighted range beacons. the low coast is wooded and marked in places by small sand hills. about 5.. Contact the pilots on VHF channel 16 or 12.6) shows the position of the semaphore arms and their meanings. The river is entered about 3 miles S of this point. Mariners are advised to keep a sharp lookout. which is the SW extension of Juldia Training Wall. 2 miles SW of Sadarghat.22 The N entrance point of the river is marked by low sand hills and a clump of trees. Armed attacks from small boats can occur in Chittagong Anchorage or in the harbor. and then only with the assistance of the engines.170 Sector 7.21 7.21 7. The signals indicate. Sangu Gas Platform (22°01'N. Lighted and unlighted buoys mark the channel limits and some of the sunken wrecks in the river. 105m high with obstruction lights. Numerous creeks (khals) intersect the W bank of the river for a distance of about 4 miles between Gupta Point and the jetties at Chittagong. Between Norman’s Point and the N point of the Sangu River. Pub. 91°31'E. A black ball is displayed on top of the semaphore at HW. The stone apron and training walls at the entrance of the river have been reported to be submerged at HW. The port can be contacted by e-mail.gov. and marked by low sand hills. A high pressure gas line extends from the platform to the shore about 2 miles N of Chittagong. Caution.). The charted range beacons and buoys in the river are moved as necessary to conform to depth changes in the channel. as best seen on the chart. see paragraph 7. are in line bearing 037°04'.21 7. as follows: 7.21 7.5 miles NW of the platform. the coast recedes at Cuckold Point. and Burma—West Coast Signals.5 miles within the entrance and W of Juldia Hill.5 miles to a position NW of Juldia Hill.22 7. The overhead clearance under the power line is 52m. However. E through S of Gupta Point. Cuckold Point has been reported to be a good radar target up to 24 miles. indicate the rise of the tide in feet and inches.21 7. the E bank of the river curves NE for a distance of 2.—Piracy remains a concern at Chittagong. The inner bar lies about 2. Vessels should report their ETA on VHF channel 16 when 12 miles from the port. with the best water over the bars and within the river. Several small villages are situated on this section of the bank.20.21 7. Back Channel Khal and a passage for boats at half tide separate Gupta Island and Lukia Island.. 1 mile SW of Outer Bar Lighted Buoy.21 7.21 7. About 1 mile NNW of Norman’s Point.21 7. the greater part of which is enclosed by a training wall. Vessels due to enter the port in the upcoming 24-hour period should anchor in the appropriate anchorage and keep a listening watch on VHF beginning at least 3 hours before the pilot boarding time. Mud flats and Middle Island lie SE of the stone apron and Juldia Training Wall. Mud islands (chars). The W bank of the Karnaphuli trends NE from Patenga Point for about 3 miles to Gupta Point (22°17'N.21 Bangladesh—Norman’s Point to Elephant Point 7.5 miles SSE.21 7. About 2. A dangerous gas well head is situated about 2. the largest of which are Gupta Island and Lukia Island.5m apart and displayed from each mast. 5. as viewed from a vessel approaching from seaward. there is only swinging room at or near HW.21 7.21 7. and a stone apron on the side. India—East Coast —Bangladesh. Vessels approaching the outer bar. Aspect. respectively. but is available only to large native boats.21 7. at least 3 hours before daylight high water.

4m high near its central part. and Sonadia Island on the E and Dolphin Shoal. Kutubdia Island has been reported to be a good radar target up to 16 miles. with Kutubdia Island Light bearing 068°. is low. Cox’s Bluff. Rupadia Sands (21°27'N.5m..22 7. and Burma—West Coast 171 which dries in places. Sonadia Island (21°29'N. which dries 1. The island is visible for about 8 miles. 91°52'E.24 7. Cox’s Bazar Light is shown from a gray. but the depths are shallow.1m. distant 1 mile.8m. A marshy flat extends up to 3 miles offshore S of the Matarbari Channel entrance. about 15.5m.24 7. Approach to this anchorage should be made from N of Dolphin Shoal. the other sides are low. about 2 miles SSW of Maiskhal Island. There are usually heavy rollers off the entrances of both channels and the bars break occasionally.). A spit.24 7. The town lies on a low range of sand hills on the mainland and on the SW bank of the Baghkhali River. metal framework tower on a white concrete building on Cox’s Bluff.1m.22 7. lies about in the middle of the marshy flat which fronts the W side of Maiskhal Island.23 7. covered with trees.. which lies between the E side of Maiskhal Island and the mainland.22 7. extend up to 2. in depths of 9.24 7. Maiskhal Bluff. sand and mud. 91°53'E. distant about 2. about 0. Channel depths are subject to rapid changes and cannot be relied on.23 Kutubdia Channel (21°44'N. in a depth of about 5.8 miles W and 3. lies about 4 miles S of the SE extremity of Maiskhal Island. lie almost 0. This channel should not be attempted. Kutudbia Island Light has been reported to have a radiobeacon and a racon. 173 ..5 mile NE of Cox’s Bluff. which enters Maiskhal Channel about 1.Sector 7.23 7.5 miles S of the E end of Hamidardia Island. flat. A flat.—Anchorage can be taken. about 30 miles long in a N-S direction. rises steeply to an elevation of 48m. 91°56'E. mud.24 7.24 7. in a depth of 9. lies on the NW side of the fairway of Maiskhal Channel about 0.3 to 11m. but the currents are strong. and is fitted with a radiobeacon and racon. India—East Coast —Bangladesh. the light structure is topped by a conspicuous orange dome. Vessels capable of crossing the bar can anchor off the mouth of the Baghkhali River in Maiskhal Channel. Maiskhal Island (21°37'N.. with Cox’s Bluff bearing 055°.24 7. Garamchari Hill is not distinctive as the range is of uniform height. 61m high and conspicuous.) lies SE of Kutubdia Island. lies near the SE extremity of the island. A channel. composed of sand and mud with depths of less than 1.). The Baghkhali River. Matarbari Island lies in between them.8m and which dries in places. Deep-draft vessels can anchor S of the entrance of the main channel. 91°51'E.24 Cox’s Bazar (21°27'N. is backed by low hills. is narrow with rapidly changing depths.).). which consists of a small town and export center. Anchorage. These sands lie on the W side of the entrance of Maiskhal Channel. Maiskhal Island is marked by a range of hills about 91.24 7. 7. 7.3 miles. is narrow and shallow and dries in places. The principal channel leading into Maiskhal Channel lies between the spits extending from Cox’s Bluff and S from Sonadia Island over a shifting bar about 3 miles W of Cox’s Bluff.5 mile S of the town. The sea breaks heavily over this spit. because they are subject to change during the monsoon. Light-draft vessels can anchor.24 7. The anchorage is fairly well protected. With a flood current the sea breaks heavily over this flat. whereas. Twin casuarina trees.3m.).). which dries in patches. Maiskhal Channel (21°30'N.3 miles S of the SE end of Sonadia Island.5 miles WNW from Cox’s Bluff. extends about 3 miles from the island.. 91°57'E. both conspicuous. This river discharges into Maiskhal Channel about 1. in a depth of 12. Tidal currents set through this channel at a high velocity and it should not be attempted without local knowledge.. In 1960. Reliable pilots are not available and the bar and channel should be examined and buoyed before entering. 91°52'E.23 Sangu Gas Platform 7. 91°57'E. especially during the flood tide.).22 Kutudbia Island (21°51'N. there was a least depth of 2.5 miles SSE of Cox’s Bluff. 7. lies between Kutubdia Island and the mainland..23 7. Caution is necessary as a submarine cable lies close SSE of the anchorages.). 7. bare in places with shallow depths elsewhere.23 7. distant 3 miles. Maiskhal Island. Another channel crosses the spit extending S from Sonadia Island. The coast between Cox’s Bazar and Elephant Point. 91°58'E. with Cox’s Bluff bearing 043°. Depths in these channels are subject to rapid changes.24 Pub. North Patches.22 7.. lies between Kutubdia Island. Low hills lie along most of the E side of the island.5 mile S of Hamidardia Island (21°30'N.5 miles N of the town..1m in this channel. A shoal. is marked by low white sand hills.22 7. Lattadia Island (21°35'N. extends about 2. sand and mud. The best time to enter is at about half flood when the breakers will mark the edges of the shoals. Depths in the channel range from 10 to 31.1 to 18. and is about 12 miles long. which lies with its N end about 1 mile SW of Cuckold Point. and South Patches on the W. 91°59'E. a narrow passage with depths of 4.

The hot season. rocks. lie between 5. referred to as the Northeast Monsoon (winter monsoon. is an interim period of weak and variable winds prior to the Southwest Monsoon.—The 35m curve is not defined off the coast between Elephant Point and a position about 18 miles WSW of the entrance of the Mayu River. Burma—Elephant Point to Thames Point 7. The intervening coast is irregular and broken by the many rivers which discharge their waters into the E side of the Bay of Bengal. From the above position. Depths between the St.25 7. or in general in any direction.5 miles SSE of Cox’s Bluff.25 7. 7. Hills and mountain ranges back the coast at varying distances inland. high humidity.25 7. cool or dry season). North Tall Trees.—Sheltered anchorage can be taken about 0. The Northeast Monsoon tends to produce a seasonal current setting to the W. Ramree Island and Mun Aung Island. the 35m curve extends SE to a position about 18 miles WSW of Thames Point on the W side of Ramree Island. The 35m curve lies within 10 miles of the W side of the NW extremity of Ramree Island and about 16 miles WSW of the entrance of the Kaladan River. India—East Coast —Bangladesh. overcast skies. this results in greater heating of the air masses.172 Sector 7.25 7. which develop in the Bay of Bengal. the 18m curve lies near the shore in the proximity of the W side of Myengun Kyun (West Boronga Island) and Boronga Point. Tropical cyclones. occurs in early October after the withdrawal of the Southwest Monsoon and before the cooler. occur most frequently during the transitional season. and Burma—West Coast variable and at the height of each monsoon.25 7.25 7. June through September. leaving a shoal.25 7. Restricted visibility.5 mile E of the N end of the large island. currents may sometimes be met setting in the opposite to the monsoon current. with the flood setting N and the ebb setting S. Martins Island Light is shown from a gray metal framework tower on a white concrete building near the N end of the island.25 7. is 82m high. and on a clear day they may be visible up to 20 miles. interspersed with rain squalls or thunderstorms accompanied by torrential downpours.5 to 6.25 7. The currents are still more variable during the transition periods of the monsoons. Mayu and Arakan Yoma are the principal mountain ranges. The Arakan Coast of Burma is more likely to be struck by a cyclone during the autumn transitional season than at any other time. Numerous islands. Local in drafts of the current are strong during the flood and the outset is small during the ebb. generally lying parallel to the coast in a N-S direction. From offshore these cliffs appear white when the sun is shining on them. Mariners should keep a constant and careful lookout. lie about midway between Elephant Point and Cape Negrais.25 Cape Negrais lies about 333 miles SSE of Elephant Point.6m curve W of Combermere Bay and in the approach to Kyaukpyu Harbor are irregular. 92°20'E. Anchorage. April and May. the Southwest Monsoon a similar current setting to the E in the open waters of the Bay of Bengal. reefs.25 7.—The weather and climate of Burma is primarily influenced and determined by the Northeast Monsoon and the Southwest Monsoon and the short transitional periods between them. Red and white daymarks are fixed to the top of the light structure which is also fitted with a racon. and the autumn transitional season. Shore dangers which lie within the 9. The autumn transitional season.25 7.3m. Waila Taung (Sugarloaf Hill) rises to a height of 413m about 11 miles ENE of Elephant Point. To a great extent the currents are 7. Southwest of the entrance of the Kaladan River. The 18m curve lies about 7 miles W of Elephant Point and 3 miles W of the W side of Ramree Island.25 Between Boronga Point and Ramree Island. drier weather of the Northeast Monsoon is established in late November. Depths—Limitations. is marked by fine weather with very little rainfall.25 7. about 61m high. the Southwest Monsoon (summer monsoon. Tides—Currents. as it is not possible to keep their existence charted. and general adverse weather conditions are associated with the Southwest Monsoon. Martins Islands (20°37'N. wet or rainy season). Mud volcanoes occasionally rise from the sea off the coast between the entrance of the Kaladan River and Mun Aung Island. 7. the island’s S extremity. light rain almost daily. 173 . Akyab is the most important port. December through March. in a depth of 7. South Cliff. Increases in rainfall in April and May do not equal the amounts of rainfall during June through August. Martins Islands and the mainland are less than 9.1m.26 The St. a group of one island and two islets. Combermere Bay and Hunters Bay indent the coast N of Ramree Island. although Kyaukpyu is of some importance. Winds—Weather. the N entrance point of the Naf River.1 and 11m curves are described under the principal description of that section of coast which they front. The year is divided into four seasons. and shoals lie seaward of the coast up to 16 miles offshore between Elephant Point and Thames Point. the spring transitional or hot season.. depths within the outer 36. the largest islands along this section of coast. Tropical storms with destructive winds occasionally affect the coastal regions N of 15°00'N. line the coast from 3.25 7. 7. These cliffs are a good landmark for vessels approaching Chittagong from the S. Tidal currents along the Arakan Coast set N on the flood and S on the ebb. but rarely is the Gulf of Martaban affected. is characterized by cloudiness. Tidal currents along the Chittagong Coast S of Elephant Point set parallel with the coast.). Sunken dangers extend up to 1 mile offshore along the W side of the island. the 18m curve is defined in an irregular pattern lying between 15 and 7 miles off the entrance.—The monsoon winds affect and influence the surface currents. lie at the N end of the large island and a similar clump of trees lie near the S end.24 Red cliffs. The Northeast Monsoon. Many of these exist only temporarily and disappear. a period of weak and variable winds with land and sea breezes prevailing.5 and 9 miles SSW of Shahpuri Point. the S cliff. St.24 7. During the hot season some tropical cyclones cross the coast of the Gulf of Martaban.25 7. they are greatly influenced by the immense volume of tidal backwater. The Southwest Monsoon.26 Pub. Southeast of the entrance of the Kaladan River. a group of casuarinas.25 7.

with a least depth of 9.5m and less. was marked by discolored water and should be avoided.8m. The entrance can be identified by the high trees which lie in the vicinity of the entrance points. which is low. 92°13'E.8m. 93°27'E. Martins Islands. 92°15'E. 3.8 miles S of Irrawaddy Rock. small and rocky with a depth of less than 1.3 mile ENE of Irrawaddy Rock. Wetkyein Tauno.) is entered between Shahpuri Point and Cypress Point. lies about 2 miles S of North Delay Shoal.1m.28 7.28 7.27 7.).. This shoal. and covered with jungle growth. bearing 080°. flat. 7. A rock. 7.8m. The coast between Elephant Point and the entrance of the Naf River. Stranded wrecks lie 13 miles WNW and 9 miles SW of the point.. This shoal should not be crossed because lesser depths may exist. A stranded wreck lies in shoal water about 2 miles SSE of Oyster Island.27 St. A conspicuous peak. South Delay Shoal (20°28'N. extends S from the shore about 9 miles NNW of Shahpuri Point to a position about 5 miles SW of the point.. Martins Reef (20°37'N. Martins Islands.5 miles WNW of Asirgarh Shoal. lies about 11 miles SE of Elephant Point.28 7. lies about 6. with a depth of 7.). A breaking shoal lies about 0.5 miles SW of North Terrible.7m and less.).5 miles SE. awash. In the approach to the anchorage.8 miles in extent.3 miles SE of the southernmost St. and bearing 060°. 92°44'E. North Delay Shoal (20°30'N.29 7. 92°18'E.27 7. lie on the S side of the W approach to Kyankpyu Harbor.).27 7. A dangerous wreck lies about 6 miles NNE of Mayu Light. leads N of.27 7. a small patch of hard ground with a least depth of 6.5 miles SW of the same point. but lesser depths have been reported to exist. A detached 9. Less water than charted may exist in this area...3m high. 92°22'E.5 miles SW of the S extremity of the St..) on the NW extremity of Ramree Island. low. A heavy sea breaks over this reef during bad weather or when a swell sets in.29 7.29 Irrawaddy Rock (19°25'N. 92°25'E.5 mile radius of this rock are less than 11m. composed of mud and sand with depths of 5. lies about 9 miles farther SSE. Shahpuri Point.2m.7m. Elephant Point (21°11'N.) which is on the mainland. between 8 miles WNW and 10. lies about 1. Martins Islands.7 to 9. India—East Coast —Bangladesh. is the NW entrance point of the Naf River. a sunken reef with depths of 1.5 miles to the SE. about 33 miles SSE. Taylor Shoal (20°15'N.).8m.).5 mile S of it.). 7.8m. a 4 mile long ridge of sunken rocks.).28 7. The Naf River (20°43'N. was reported to exist about 13. South Rock. about 1.. the best water lies E and S of the St. Elephant Point has been reported to be a good radar target up to 35 miles. a group of shoal patches with depths of 2.8 to 8. 93°23'E. South Terrible (19°23'N. S of Heckford Patch.5m.). Oyster Island (20°12'N. The peninsula terminates to the S in Shahpuri Island. lies centered about 5.5 miles WSW of Foul Point. is backed by Elephant Point summit. The red can buoy moored about 1. A depth of 16.28 7.. Depths within a 0. lies about 18. which dries 1. and low trees lie on the NE side of the island. 267m high and the highest peak on the Naf Peninsula. lies about 1.29 7. the S extremity of the island. lies about 4.27 7.28 7. A mud volcano was observed about 3. The sea breaks between South Rock and South Terrible. 7. 253m high..5 miles S of South Terrible. and Burma—West Coast good holding ground. about 9. with a least depth of 9.29 7.8 miles N and a rock. 173 . Vessels should not attempt to cross this danger. 92°39'E.9m. 93°17'E..28 7. Vessels should avoid this shoal because lesser depths than charted may exist. which dries 0. 93°16'E. visible on a clear day for about 20 miles. 93°28'E. 92°26'E.27 7. A heavy breaking sea usually exists over this flat in depths of 3. East of the Naf Peninsula the Mayu Range rises to heights of 332 to 670m. with a least depth of 7.. some buildings.).28 Heckford Patch (19°57'N. lies centered about 9 miles SE of Oyster Island.). A mud volcano was reported to have existed in this area. Isolated drying rocks lie 1..).).). lies about 12. 93°02'E. the highest being 3.). The rock is hard to make out with a smooth sea. three groups of rocks. sandy. The least charted depth is 1. The sea breaks over the reef in heavy weather or with a S swell.9 to 10. about 1.28 7.27 173 North Terrible (19°27'N. rises at the N end of the Mayu Range.5 miles WSW of Saddle Island (19°26'N.30 Shahpuri Flat (20°43'N... lies about midway between Middle Terrible and Saddle Island.). A flagstaff. 4. 92°32'E. Middle Terrible... Research Rock. Volcanic disturbances have been reported to have occurred about 3.. about 19 miles E of Elephant Point. lies about 8 miles WNW of Oyster Island. 92°15'E. 92°12'E. is formed by the W side of the Naf Peninsula. 7. which is the remains of a mud volcano.7m high. lies about 0. the sea breaks over this shoal.).7m. Asirgarh Shoal (20°28'N. whose existence is doubtful.5m. This island lies on the E side of a rocky ledge from which foul ground extends about 1... a conspicuous 124m high hill. 92°03'E. A patch of discolored water was reported to exist about 8 miles SW of Boronga Point (19°49'N.Sector 7. almost 3 miles SSW of Middle Terrible. Drying rocks lie within 1.3 miles NNW of North Terrible. A shoal. lies about 3 miles SSW of West Point(19°22'N.5 miles NNW and 3. lies about 6.27 7. During heavy weather and at LW. Taungnyo Hill (21°04'N. Depths elsewhere on the reef range from 0. lies about 10 miles WSW of Shahpuri Point. lies on the S part of the reef. Oyster Reef (20°05'N. 93°16'E. 92°32'E. 92°28'E. The Terribles (19°24'N. consists of several low rocks. Mayu Light. Prain Daung (20°01'N..29 7.27 7.5 miles SW of Sitaparokia (20°33'N.)..30 Pub. is the N rock of the group.6m.). 92°57'E. 460m high.7m.. awash.3 miles SW of North Terrible. 7.28 7.5 miles WNW and 1 mile SSW of Middle Terrible. and almost devoid of vegetation.8 miles S of Oyster Reef is withdrawn from May 1 to November 1.5 miles SE of Oyster Island.29 7. Sitaparokia Patches (20°32'N.5 miles S of South Cliff.8m patch lies about 1. Shoal water and breakers have been reported in an area 8 to 9 miles S of Boronga Point.

The bar obstructing the river entrance has a least depth of 5.31 7. in a depth of 8..6m existed up to 12 miles above the entrance of the Naf River.5 to 14.32 7.30 7. are subject to constant change and are marked by breakers.31 7. with the ruins of a temple on its summit. The E channel within the river E of Kazidiya Kyun and the shoal extending S from that island had a least depth of 5. lies on a point 13 miles SE of Cypress Point.31 7.2m.3 miles NNW of Fakirmura Hill..4m at MLWS In 1960. Between Foul Point and Burne Rocks.32 7.1m W of Mayu Point. about 7 miles above the entrance of the Naf River. The tidal currents run mainly fair in Patricks Gut. A rock.174 Sector 7. about 8 miles NW of Foul Point.5 knots at springs. 92°32'E. a flat with depths of 5. about 34 miles SE.3m. 133m high and conspicuous.5m and less. On the SE side of the entrance. is easily identified. about 3.32 7. with depths of less than 5.5 miles SSW of the point where it terminates in North Spit. lies at the SE end of this range about 3 miles NW of Foul Point. flowing from the E.) consist of a number of shallow ridges.6 to 2.) is entered between Foul Point and Mayu Point.32 7. The channel W of the island and the shoal had a least depth of 5. 92°45'E.5 knots at neaps. Martins Islands.30 7. 92°44'E.1m and increase to depths of 16. 107m high.3 miles S of the town.5m. 7. The least depth in Patricks Gut and in the deepest channel between the ridges of Cypress Sands was about 2. Kazidiya Kyun. some of which dry. with depths of less than 1. The SE channel leads in a N direction through Patricks Gut and then through Cypress Sands. A long narrow shoal. about 1. lies about 1. Depths inside the bar increase from 5. 7.5m in past years.. is sheltered from the swell and passage should be possible during the Southwest Monsoon. Depths of 9. Fakirmura Hill.5 miles to the S.8m and which dries in places.5 mile NW of Sitaparokia. When viewed from the S. The tidal currents at the bar have a velocity of about 2.30 7.31 7.32 7. close S of Cypress Sands.31 7. The bar which obstructs the river entrance lies between Shahpuri Flat and Cypress Sands. a small conical hill 65m high.30 The tidal currents set across the approach to the bar. lies about 1.). 338m high. extends from a position close offshore. Between Cypress Point and Foul Point. lies at the N end of the shoal with a drying spit extending almost 3 miles S from it.).5 to 20. Good anchorage can be taken.5 knots at springs and 1. passing N of St. 414m high. the least charted depth over the Shahpuri Flat part of the bar N and NW of Cypress Sands was about 3. Bengara Hill. about 4. extends about 4 miles SW from Mayu Point. The Mayu River (20°13'N. There is little or no river current.2m.8m and lies between North Spit and South Spit. Vessels should approach the entrance of the SE channel (Patricks Gut) by passing S and E of the St.31 Mount Todd (20°23'N. Martins Reef and the St.4m.8 to 1 knot at spring tides.32 7.5 miles SSE. In 1966. The river has been surveyed for a distance of about 13 miles above Foul Point and flows almost due S. Martins Islands and Cypress Sands. Two buoyed channels lead across the bar to the river entrance.7m. and Burne Rocks.32 Burne Rocks (20°15'N. This shoal extends from 1. Their location is marked by breakers.30 7.5 miles NNE to almost 9 miles N of Foul Point. in depths of 11 to 18. Cypress Sands (20°40'N. there are numerous patches and rocks which dry from 0.31 7. joins the Mayu River within its entrance.3 miles to the E. About 4 miles N of Mayu Point.). The tidal currents within the river attain a velocity of 3. Dangers on the NW side of the entrance include North Spit. rises about 19 miles NE of Fakirmura Hill.8m lie in the fairway of the Kywede River up to 4 miles above its entrance. charted depths of 5. lies about 183m offshore 0. with the flood setting to the N and the ebb to the S.32 Pub. Two small islets lie between these rocks and Foul Point. In 1960.. the tidal current runs full at velocities up to 4 knots. The E channel is obstructed by fishing stakes.30 7. Martini Sands. South Spit lies on its outer edge. about 12 miles N of foul Point or in a position about 2. Anchorage can be taken. lies about 4.5 miles SE of Agandu Hill.30 7. in the fairway E of Burne Rocks. In the Naf River. 92°42'E.32 7.31 7.30 7. Martini Sands (20°13'N. It has been reported that considerable shoaling has taken place in the E channel within the Mayu River NE of Foul Point and at the junction of that river and the Kywede River.5 miles SW of Mayu Point. Sitaparokia (20°33'N. The entrance of the W channel is narrower and dangerous. Anchorage can also be taken in the channel which lies between Foul Point and the shoal about 1. Pimple Hill. divides the river into two channels. an island covered by mangroves. at velocities of 0. Local knowledge or the services of a pilot is essential to enter the river. 173 .). the numerous sharp peaks of the Mayu Range back this section of coast from 1 to 6 miles inland. Depths are less than 3.8m to over 9.. lies 7 miles ENE of Fakirmura Hill.8 miles offshore and almost 2 miles S of Sitaparokia. The approach to the entrance of the NW channel should be made from the NW.32 7. 36. A mid-channel course should be steered in the river. Mayu Spit lies on the inner part of this flat. but it is easier to navigate.31 7. with a least depth of 3m. one of which is above-water. with the rest drying in places. it appears as a conspicuous sharp peak. This conspicuous hill. The flood sets NNE and the ebb in the opposite direction. and when seen from the W appears flat-topped and slightly higher than the peaks on either side. and Burma—West Coast A flat. 92°45'E. Martins Islands. when open S of the latter hill..30 7. India—East Coast —Bangladesh. it was reported that considerable shoaling had taken place within the river.30 7. 7. 92°18'E.31 7. A conspicuous rock.1 to 12. Agandu Hill. 7. to a position about 7.6m high and shaped like a chair. off Maungdaw. Anchorage can also be taken in the Mayu River abreast of the town of Rathedaung. the Kywede River. which lie on the flat extending about 4 miles SW from Cypress Point. The NW channel leads in an E direction and lies N of the St. Patricks Gut. which extend about 3 miles S and SSW from Burne Rocks.8m. 192m high with a pagoda on its summit.

33 7. and Burma—West Coast A distant bluff.33 7. 92°56'E.1 to 9. The inner bar leading into Sittwe Inner Harbor lies between the SW end of this spit and the shoal bank extending E from the mainland. Main Wharf. from November to April. lies in the middle of the river about 5. about 1.4m. when in the vicinity of White Rocks. 92°54'E. vessels should keep as close to 7. 92°51'E.8 mile E of Fakirmura Hill.33 Horseshoe Shoal (20°05'N. A tanker berth.33 7. during which period the rainfall is so heavy as to almost inundate the country.).33 7.33 Pub.8 miles N of Fakir Point.9 to 1. 175 7. lies close N of Flat Island.33 7.). Vessels moved from the inner harbor to the outer harbor can be loaded to a draft of 7. The velocity at springs on the outer bar is from 0.32 7. extends about 4. in line bearing 001° with a wooden pagoda atop an 82m elevation.. about 1. overfalls form on the ebb running between Fakir Reef and Passage Rock. Flat Island Spit (20°10'N.32 Sittwe Harbor 92°54'E.5 miles N of Fakir Point.) lies on the NW side of the entrance of the Kaladan River. Silting is a problem because of inadequate dredging facilities. During the winter months. and a lighthouse.5m patch. lies in the fairway about 2 miles ENE of Fakir Point. Five vessels moored to their own two anchors can be loaded simultaneously to drafts of 6. When Bengara Peak is in line bearing 032° with Pimple Hill.3m high and the outermost danger.33 7. A disused lighthouse lies on the NW point of Savage Island.6m.5 miles to the S. 7. World Port Index No. vessels crossing the outer bar should have 0.33 7. The pagoda. this course should be steered until Mayu Point bears 158°.33 7.33 7.33 7. Fakir Reef (20°06'N. lies about 1 mile S of Main Wharf. lies on the W bank of the Kaladan River. During the Southwest Monsoon. 92°54'E.).5 mile SSE from Fakir Point. 92°58'E.8 miles E. Supplemental berthing facilities consist of the Naval Pier at Fakir Point.—The Southwest Monsoon begins early in May and lasts until the end of October. Passage Rock. a detached 5. The inner bar lies within the entrance of the Kaladan River. with. Flat Island (20°11'N.5 miles N of Main Wharf . the chief port and administrative center of the Arakan Division of Burma.) (Akyab Harbor) (20°08'N..8 to 2 knots. leads across the bar between North Spit and South Spit. the mean level of the Kaladan River rises about 0.33 7. 92°54'E. Aspect..—Fakir Point (20°07'N.3 miles SW from the S side of Flat Island.33 7.. 49620 7. consists of a T-head pier with a berthing length of 98. 152. 7. located SE of Fakir Point. a large body of shoal water with depths of 5. Sittwe Harbor is a first port of entry.32 Fakir Point (20°07'N.33 7. is a useful landmark.3 mile S of Main Wharf. low and brush covered. an extensive mud shoal which dries in places. topped by drying rocks.32 7. 7.33 7. Savage Island.1m. 92°54'E. and during the Southwest Monsoon as much as 7 knots. The harbor area has been reported to be a good radar target up to 17 miles.33 Sittwe Harbor. on the E side of the fairway. and the tongue-shaped spur of Horseshoe Shoal.8m across the outer face. extends about 5 miles SE from Fakir Point and then about 3.). 4. The Northeast Monsoon.2m of water under their keels because of heavy swells.8 mile SSE of Fakir Point. During neaps. the tidal currents are very weak.. The tidal currents are regular and rapid at springs.33 7. thick fog may be expected with the flood tide... Vessels entering the harbor during the flood current. 173 .33 7. as a narrow tail about 1 mile wide. In 1976. Vessels do not normally load in Sittwe during this period. about 10 miles SE of Mayu Point. is bordered by deep water on all except its E side. Vessels anchor to work cargo from barges or berth at the main wharf abreast of the city. require careful navigation as the current sets directly towards the rocks. a lookout tower. about 1..5m and less. and White Rocks lie on the E side of the fairway between 1. is low and marked by two conspicuous radio masts.33 7.9m.9m draft at the T-head pier.32 7. During the Southwest Monsoon. channel depths range from 6.5 miles S of Fakir Point. The disused lighthouse on Savage Island. Saunders Shoal (20°07'N.Sector 7.8 mile E of Burne Rocks.33 7.). which lies in the inner harbor about 1.—Tides in the entrance of the Kaladan River and at Sittwe are semidiurnal. The tide rises and falls quickly with slack water lasting about 1 hour during springs and from 2 to 3 hours during neaps. Winds—Weather. During the rainy season. Paw Kyun. The main wharf can accommodate vessels up to 99m in length and up to 4. between the mainland N of Fakir Point and the SW end of Flat Island Spit. The tidal currents set directly across Fakir Reef. Sittwe Harbor (20°08'N. which lies about 4 miles S of Fakir Point. Passage Rock. A pipeline extends to the shore from this berth.5m lies 0. When leaving the harbor on the ebb current. North of the Main Wharf. Stone Pier. Peaked Rocks. The rivers become swollen at this time. Course should then be altered to the N so as to pass about 0. the sea breaks heavily over the outer part of this shoal. close N of Fakir Point and is the oldest rice exporting center in the country. Depths—Limitations. Vessels are prohibited from entering Sittwe Harbor between sunset and sunrise. which is difficult to make out. Tides—Currents.33 7. lies almost 0.9m.4m long.32 7.33 7. India—East Coast —Bangladesh. and the oil pier.).4m in the inner harbor. the least depth over the bar was 6. extends almost 0. about 0.—The outer bar lies between the W coast of Myengun Kyun. but between Fakir Point and Passage Rock the velocity is 3 to 4 knots.33 White Rocks as practicable to prevent being set on Horseshoe Shoal. and a vessel leaving an inner anchorage when the ebb current is running will be set towards the reef after passing Fakir Point.5m and 2. is very dry. In 1984. The entrance of the Kaladan River lies between Fakir Point and Savage Island. a similarly-covered island.) lies just within the entrance N of Fakir Point.3 miles NE of Fakir Point.. the NW entrance point of the Kalandan River.33 7. A depth of 5. 92°57'E. the bar had a least depth of 4.

Course should then be altered to the N between Fakir Point and Saunders Shoal. 93°19'E. lie near the N end of the island. about 6.6m.33 7. 92°58'E.5 mile W of this beacon and about 0. and Conspicuous Rock. about 4 miles S of Savage Island. the most conspicuous part of the island. course should be altered to pass 0.—Pilotage is compulsory for all vessels. rises to an elevation of 262m at its NW end. Pilotage. bold and high. a high and thickly-wooded island.4m. lies about 3. which runs at a considerable rate in this vicinity.3 miles ENE of Boronga Point.33 7.34 7.34 7. Combermere Bay (19°37'N. The latter appears as a sharp peak when viewed from the S. This hill is a good landmark when viewed from the W. a small island 80m high. The strong S and W set of the ebb tidal current must be allowed for. 93°02'E.33 7. are easily distinguished. In the event no pilots are available. 106 and 137m high. Myengun Kyun (20°00'N.176 Sector 7.33 7. has a narrow ledge of rocks extending about 1 mile S from it. about 0.5 miles E of and parallel to Peinnechaung Kyun.). which leads between Oyster Reef and Heckford Patch to the entrance range over the outer bar. 93°27'E. Anchorage is prohibited in the area lying between the tanker berth and the shore. Licensed Burmese pilots are stationed at Fakir Point where the lookout tower is situated. which leads to a position with Fakir Point Light bearing 315°. lies about 4. vessels can anchor in the outer harbor outside of the inner bar.5 miles N of Boronga Point. the S extremity of Myengun Kyun. distant 1 mile. between 3. lies S of the entrance of the Kaladan River about 2 miles SE of Fakir Point. Painaisa Island has been reported to be a good radar target up to 14 miles.5m can anchor abreast of the hospital. a vessel should anchor about 3.). Hunters Bay (19°55'N. a high denselywooded island about 17 miles long. especially during the Southwest Monsoon. Bingham Rock. 93°28'E. It has no conspicuous summit. Sailing Directions (Planning Guide) South Atlantic Ocean and Indian Ocean under “India—Signals. and foul ground extends about 7 miles SSE from the S End of Peinnechaung Kyun. about 35 miles SE.34 7. 93°29'E.. lies about 2. In clear weather. Directions. South Hummock. Cargo vessels usually anchor close offshore. vessels should be well kept up after passing the buoy off Fakir Reef and before turning toward the inner bar or the anchorage.) is entered between Kyunthaya and the N point of Nakhaungbauk Kyun. entered between Linlok Kyun and Kyunthaya about 9 miles SE. Good anchorage berths lie N of Saunders Shoal Buoy. The ebb tide. provides sheltered passage to small craft with local knowledge.5 miles to the S. This wedge-shaped island makes a good landmark.1m high. A shoal. may cause vessels to drag their anchors.33 7. A chain of small islands. 173 . A conspicuous white pagoda stands on a low hill about 1. is deeply indented by Hunters Bay and Combermere Bay.3 mile NW of 7.8 to 14. Further information on these storm signals may be found in Pub.). 93°02'E. 58m high.34 7.. where it is obscured by a high mountain. Regulations.). but shoals rapidly toward the N end. A course of 330° should be steered from a position about 1.35 7. lies near the S end of Myengun Kyun. inconspicuous from seaward.3 mile SE of the buoy moored off Fakir Reef. Prain Daung. 93°05'E.—Storm and weather signals are displayed at Sittwe.33 7.33 7. which dries. Painaisa Island. Pub.3 mile W of Peaked Rocks. When necessary.33 7.3 mile S of the Main Wharf. Naungdaw Kyun. rises to a height of 293m. and Burma—West Coast Passage Rock and then a course of about 060° will pass about 0. a conspicuous peak 480m high. leads over the outer bar.34 7.. but as a saw-toothed ridge when viewed from the W.33 7.). in line bearing 350° with Savage Island Light.8 and 4 miles S of Savage Island. lies at the S end of the chain.7 to 9. Port authorities must be notified 48 hours prior to a vessel’s ETA. Pilots board from a white launch.34 Boronga Point (19°49'N. 225m high.33 7. this anchorage may not be practicable. lies in the S part of the strait about 2. Kyunthaya (19°43'N.. 160. The beacon on White Rocks. which lies between Myengun Kyun and Peinnechaung Kyun. with a least depth of 6.5 miles NE of the NW end of Kyunthaya. lies close SE of the S end of Ingrinchaing Kyun. displaying the usual signals.34 7.35 Retkamauk Taung (19°48'N.3 miles SE of Kyunthaya. A chain of above and below-water obstructions extend about 4 miles SE from Linlok Kyun. it is advisable to obtain information prior to anchoring. This tableland is conspicuous from seaward.). is shallow over most of its area and has no commercial value to ocean shipping.). this peak is sometimes visible for 45 miles when viewed from the S..33 7. Pagoda Summit.5 miles SSW of Hodge Point until one can be obtained..—Deep-draft vessels approaching from the W during the Southwest Monsoon should steer 091° for Prain Daung on Myengun Kyun. attains an elevation of 256m in the conspicuous coneshaped summit of Seppings Peak. It is recommended that eight shots of chain be veered when anchoring anywhere within Fakir Point. The peak slopes gradually on its SE side. When W of Savage Island. 7. Linlok Kyun.—Temporary anchorage can be taken outside the outer bar. Nasapo Kyun. Some of these rocks dry. Peinnechaung Kyun (19°57'N.3 miles S of the beacon on White Rocks.34 7.1m caused by a mud volcano.” Anchorage.33 7. a conspicuous 73m high hill. the Indian Extended System is used. a high tableland located about 4 miles SSE of the N end of the island. rocks. which leads about 0. Two prominent hummocks. The S end of the strait is deep.. in depths of 12. 9. During the Southwest Monsoon. in the inner harbor W of Flat Island Spit between the Main Wharf and Charugyea Chaung. The broken and irregular coasts between Boronga Point and Ramree Island.—As silting may have occurred. and thence to the inner bar or to the anchorage in outer harbor. in depths of 6.33 7. backs this low hill and the white pagoda. Vessels drawing less than 5. India—East Coast —Bangladesh. the S extremity of the island.34 Research Strait (19°58'N. 7. Ingrinchaing Kyun.33 7.33 7. except when viewed from the SSE. 111m high and conspicuous.33 7. 1 mile E of Nasapo Kyun. lies 1 to 6 miles E of Myengun Kyun and roughly parallel to it.. Signals.

93°29'E.3 miles S of the S end of Saddle Island. conical-shaped and toped by two sharp points close together. Dalhousie Point. A detached 4. lies between Irrawaddy Rock and the foul ground which extends W from Saddle Island.8 miles NW from Adams Point (19°24'N.37 7.8 miles SSW of the SE extremity of Kyunthaya. A shoal. a detached patch with a least depth of 3m.). with depths of 11m and less. low and sandy. lie in the entrance of Combermere Bay about 2. 7.) is situated between Tankharo Island.5 mile E of Adams Point. A small shoal. because of these dangers and intricate channels. 93°27'E. 93°30'E.1 to 11m. near the NW end of the ridge. Strong eddies occur at springs. over which the sea breaks heavily. about 0. the currents follow the directions of the channels. A small pagoda stands at the NW end of a ridge of hills on the N island.35 7.8 mile long. E of Ramree Island.38 7. Cap Islet. extends about 2.3 mile offshore.5 to 18. The rock. mud with good holding ground. Wood Harbor. about 32 miles distant. The town of Kyaukapyu lies on the N shore of Ramree Island.36 7. In 1964.5 to 4. lies about 2. lies with its N edge about 0.9m patch lies about 1 mile W and a similar patch lies about 0. lies in the E part of Kyaukpyu Harbor. A sandy beach. The tides in Kyaukpyu Harbor are semidiurnal. The N part of Ramree Island. 93°29'E.37 7. lie close W of the N half of Tankharo Island. 173 . 93°37'E. which forms the S side of Kyaukpyu Harbor.. the flood sets N and the ebb sets S. and thickly wooded.). Many islands. At neaps. The S and W sides of the rock are steep-to. islets..37 7. long.5 miles SE of Nakhaungbauk Kyun and separates Combermere Bay from Kyaukpyu Harbor. 93°34'E. 158m high and covered with foliage.). The least depth was found on the alignment of the entrance range across the bar at the mouth of the creek..36 Kyaukpyu Harbor (19°27'N. 93°32'E.8 mile E of Bombay Shoal..36 7. located on the S side of the entrance of Kyaukpyu Harbor. 93°31'E. a small rocky patch.7m. lies about 1. with the pier bearing between 271° and 288°. the channel between Saddle Island and Ramree Island. Conspicuous from the W are some trees lying at an elevation of 66m..). Bowman Passage lies between this latter group of rocks and the foul ground extending S from Saddle Island. is thickly wooded. 93°27'E. Knot Islet. about 3 miles NE.8 miles WSW of Kyaukpandu and is the outermost danger on the N side of the entrance of Kyaukpandu Harbor. Only native craft attempt to enter it as a rule. Pub.37 7.6 to 20. Temporary open anchorage can be taken. in depths of 12.38 Reliance Shoal (19°27'N.38 7. The harbor provides sheltered anchorage. on the S side of Combermere Bay. Fletcher Hayes Strait leads E from the harbor.).3 miles W from the N half of the Island. Mount Peter. part of which dries. lies at the N end of the foul ground extending N from Saddle Island.4m. Anchorage can be taken SE of Dalhousie Point. 45m high and conspicuous.37 7. and the N side of the NW end of Ramree Island.) lies about 2. 93°27'E. Sinbaikchaing and Ledaung Kyun. Soundings in Ngalapwe Chaung differ from charted depths. Kyaukpandu (19°29'N. 7. A close approach to Saddle Island should not be made from any direction.36 7. rises to two rounded summits near its N end.38 7. which dry 2.1m. 93°30'E. lies about 1.8 mile SE of the S extremity of Tankharo Island. Both islets lie on an area of foul ground which extends about 1 mile WNW and 1.35 7.3 miles NE of Georgina Point. Care should be taken to avoid the shoal and the wreck SE of Dalhousie Point. and Burma—West Coast Black Rocks (19°38'N.36 7. Giles Bank (19°28'N. lies about 0.3 miles SSW of the NW extremity of Tankharo Island and is 25m high. Only boats use this passage. Laws Island (19°26'N.36 7. 0. a rocky foul area with a least depth of 2. in depths of 16.. Bombay Shoal (19°26'N.5 mile SE of the point. with a least depth of 4.35 7.37 7.36 7. lies close N of the NW end of Tankharo Island.Sector 7.. about 0.).5 7. about 1 mile NNE of Cap Islet..37 7.8 miles SE. small in extent with a least depth of 6. about 0.5m patch lies about in the middle of the passage.). The velocity of the tidal current ranges from 1 to 3 knots. 93°27'E... This island lies about in the middle of a narrow area of shoal ground about 2. is bordered by several beaches and rocky points. A shoal spit extends about 1 mile W from the NW side of Laws Island.. a small inlet. The ruins of a fort and a large clump of coconut trees lie on the point. with depths of 14. with depths of 9.36 miles S of the S end of Saddle Island. North Shoal (19°28'N.). narrow.38 7. A group of drying rocks lie on a shoal about 1. Seaward of Saddle Island. 93°32'E.7m.5 miles SE of the S end of Saddle Island.7 mile wide. is well-marked by high trees.36 7. is unsafe because of the numerous reefs and rocky patches which foul it. India—East Coast —Bangladesh. 101m high. low and covered with scrub growth.37 7.5m. lies at the outer edge of an area of foul ground extending from the coast almost 0. Dicey Shoal (19°27'N.5 mile distant.8 miles long and 0. is low and backed by a ridge of hills. 7.37 Saddle Island (19°25'N. and shoals lie within the entrance of Combermere Bay. the NW extremity of Ramree Island.8 mile NNW of Georgina Point. with a foreshore of mud which dries up to 0.5 mile S of Georgina Point. the currents are very weak. The NW end of Ladies Ridge... two small islands. occasionally has its seaward side white washed which makes an excellent mark.35 177 7. lies about 1. lies about 1. lies on the S side of the harbor between Dalhousie Point and the entrance of Ngalapwe Chaung. Adams Point. is low with some scrub growth.) on Ramree Island. and then SE to Ramree Harbor. An extensive shoal area. Between the islands. 1.5 miles SSE of Kyaukpandu.).). mud. Tankharo Island (19°30'N. Helen Passage (19°24'N. The coast between Adams Point and Georgina Point. frequently with considerable velocity.8m in the channel leading to the piers within the creek.3m. lie close off the SW end of Sinbaikchaing.36 7. off the entrance of Combermere Bay. lies between 5 and 8 miles NW of Nakhaungbauk Kyun. lies about 0. and then to Dalhousie Point 2 miles farther E. Dickenson Channel. The N island is low.9m. whereas the S island is high. A detached 5. there was a least depth of 4. Squadron Rocks.8 to 16.

2m long pontoon head.5m exists alongside the pontoon. lie within a radius of 6.. 7. course should be altered to 099° to enter the harbor. lie about 20 miles SSW of Abhay Island. and Tree Summit are the most prominent summits of this range. South of Taungnela. 93°36'E.39 7.5 miles ESE of Nantha Kyun. 94°02'E. The coast S of Ramree Island to Cape Negrais is rocky. lies on the W bank of the Ngalapwe Chaung. Vessels approaching from the S may pass E of the Terribles.. which nowhere lies more than 1 mile offshore. Satellite Ledge (18°07'N. a small rocky patch with a depth of 5.5m.). a group of four rocks.41 7. safe for coastal vessels to berth alongside at any time.. A narrow shoal bank extends about 5 miles WNW from William Shoal and has depths of less than 36.41 Burma—Thames Point to Cape Negrais 7. 94°19'E. 7. and Andrew Bay are of some commercial importance. 94°29'E.). or when the N extremity of Saddle Island bears 119°.41 Nantha Kyun (18°04'N. From Andrew Bay to the S.40 7.).29. The island is thickly wooded.39 7.6m. A depth of 5.39 Kyaukpyu (19°25'N. An iron pier. the W extremity of Ramree Island.41 7. numerous dangers also lie off the coast within the 35m curve.8 miles SSW of West Point.40 Thames Point (19°09'N. All of the dangers along this section of coast are contained within the 9. sand and mud. in poor condition.7m alongside.5m. lies about 5.9m and the other with a least depth of 6. Robinson Shoal.7m.42 Pub. 7.42 Thyne Bank (17°46'N. lies about 13 miles ESE of Nantha Kyun.5 miles above its entrance.course should be altered to 001° to pass about 2 miles W of Irrawaddy Rock.178 Sector 7.39 7. a small town and trading center.).1m curve.40 7. the deepest patch lies about 3 miles WNW of the shallowest patch. 94°20'E. but has a bare scar extending from the crater to the water on its W side.).8 mile ESE of this pier.2m high and resembles a church when viewed from the N.). St. Research Rock.8 miles ENE of Nantha Kyun.) (World Port Index No..39 7.3m. Brougham Shoal (18°09'N. irregular. lies about 9.).) consist of two separate shoal areas.8 miles E of Vestal Shoal.. lies about 20 miles WNW of Bluff Cape. a rocky patch with a least depth of 4. Ramree Island (19°07'N. the range is lower and terminates in the vicinity of Cape Negrais. John’s Rocks and the Northwest Group of the Calventuras Islands lie outside the 35m curve... has a depth of 3. St. an active mud volcanic island 168m high.3m. one with a least depth of 4. 93°33'E.38 7.5 miles NNE of Nantha Kyun. with depths of 12. about 1.). 173 . and is well open NW of Nakhaungbauk Kyun.).8 to 18..5 miles SE of Nantha Kyun. has a least depth of 1. is also situated in the creek. with depths of 11 to 16. the Saudoway River. When the summit of Nasapo Kyun bears 040°. about 12 miles NNW of the entrance of Mun Aung Strait.3 miles WSW of the same island. West Point (19°22'N. about 1 mile N of the island. All of these summits are easily identified when not obscured by the coastal range. is located about 2 miles SSW of Adams Point. about 2. none of which provide good shelter during the Southwest Monsoon.2 mile SSE of Dalhousie Point. and shoals lie inside the 183m curve SE of Mun Aung Island to a position about 20 miles W of Bluff Cape. When South Terrible bears 316°. An all-weather jetty. 7.5 miles of the E patch. lies about 3. 93°28'E. 94°18'E. Investigator Ledge (18°01'N. The largest rock is 12. with a least depth of 27. lies near the shore about 0. India—East Coast —Bangladesh. 94°07'E. about 15 miles SSE.5m. A T-head wooden pier.).. The sea usually breaks over this danger. steering for Laws Island Light and passing S of Giles Bank and North Shoal and N of Dicey Shoal and Reliance Shoal.. Depths—Limitations. Depths within the 18 and 35m curves along the coast between Ramree Island and Cape Negrais are irregular for the most part.. Between Gwa Bay and Cape Negrais. rocks. mountainous. about 0.39 7. William Shoal.). with a least depth of 21. 49630). a coral patch with a least depth of 21.) in line bearing 029° with the N point of Nakhaungbauk Kyun. it should be steered for on a course of 040° until Paungnetkyi Light bears 099°. John’s Rocks (17°28'N. lies about 6.40 7.39 7. the widest part of the island.6 to 18. Good anchorage can be taken. Breakers usually mark both shoals. 94°13'E. with a 73.38 Vessels approaching from the W or NW should enter Kyaukpyu Harbor by steering 091° for Kyaukpandu and remain on that course until North Terrible bears more than 212°. has been previously described in paragraph 7. and indented by numerous small bays. lies about 12.4m. course may be shaped for the anchorage SE of Dalhousie Point.. in depths of 14. Both banks are of coral formation.—Numerous small islands.40 7.) is about 43 miles long in a NW and SE direction and about 20 miles wide across its center. Ramree Harbor. White Bank. 93°33'E. about 0. 94°05'E.41 7.9m. 94°09'E.41 7. is located on the W coast of Ramree Island. 94°15'E.40 7. a coral shoal with a depth of 25. The shallowest patch lies about 10 miles NNW of Nantha Kyun. The dangers lying E of Nantha Kyun can be avoided by passing within 3 miles E of the island. a small coral patch with a least depth of 1.41 7. The approach should be made with the summit of Nasapo Kyun (19°39'N. When North Terrible bears more than 212°.6m. 93°47'E. and Burma—West Coast Burma.2m coral. 7. lie up to 2 miles NE of the shoal. North Paps. lies about 8. The Arakan Yoma Range rises from the mountainous country along the W edge of New Shoal (18°05'N. with a least depth of 1. the coastal land is hilly. lies about 4.41 7. The directions previously given should then be followed for entering the harbor. Carpenter Shoals (18°15'N. Vestal Shoal (18°03'N.8m..41 7. Having passed Reliance Shoal..5 miles WNW of Abhay Island (17°45'N.40 7. Outer Peak. A submarine pipeline has been laid between a tanker berth and the shore.8 mile SE of Dalhousie Point. rocky and dangerous. The coast between West Point and Thames Point. a low-lying projection marked by some tall trees. Numerous coral heads and shoal patches. 7.9m. about 1. and marked by high peaks which are visible from seaward and serve as useful landmarks. Detached shoal patches..6m.5 miles ENE of Nantha Kyun. has a rocky appearance and rises steeply to a range of high hills.

as defined by the 5. lies on the SE side of Ramree Island. lies about 1. 93°51'E. an extensive shoal area with depths of 4. A 123m high dome-shaped hill lies near the coast. about 8.45 7.44 7. about 9 miles ESE. The coastal bank. obstructs the channel midway between the islands and two large rocks lie close N of South Island. lying W of the coast between Andrew Bay and Bluff Cape..45 Pub.1m. Helmby Hummock.8 mile SSE of Dark Hill. the N extremity of Mun Aung Island. 79m high and wooded. The dangers break heavily during the Southwest Monsoon. with the lighthouse bearing about 215°. 93°40'E. Great caution must be exercised when navigating in this vicinity. distant 4.) lies near the outer end of an extensive area of foul ground which extends about 10. lies near the outer edge of this shoal. occupies about 0.. Mud volcanoes frequently raise islets and shoals in the vicinity of Mun Aung Strait.42 7.8 and 8 miles NNW of Beacon Island. All of the known dangers along this section of coast lie within 1. A least charted depth of 6. 94°23'E.5 miles W of Rocky Point with Zikha Taung bearing 102° and Ywathit Taung bearing 170°.4m exists along the recommended track leading through the strait.44 Northeast side of Mun Aung Strait. A patch. above-water rocks lie on parts of this foul ground. Mun Aung Village lies about 0. Rocky Point (19°00'N. course should be altered to 7. similar depths extend up to 0.45 7.1m high island is marked by a white stone beacon on its highest part.42 7. which dries 2.5 miles W from Searle Point. a low rocky reef-fringed projection marked by a white pole beacon.3m mile wide with a least depth of 6. and the high hills on Ramree Island will be visible to vessels approaching Mun Aung Strait from the NW. During the Northeast Monsoon.8 mile within the creek entrance.5m..). lies about 30 miles W of Cape Negrais.3 to 5.. In the Southeast Group. The current between Gwa Bay and Cape Negrais sets with the direction of the coast. the current may set to the S. Ywathit Taung and Taungni Taung.5 miles wide. The currents in the vicinity of the shoals.42 7.—Zikha Taung (18°56'N.7m.) lies between Ramree Island and Mun Aung Island and is entered between Rocky Point and Searle Point. 173 . When Dark Hill bears 338°.45 Southwest side of Mun Aung Strait.4m. The recommended track passes N of these dangers.7 mile of the channel to the E of the recommended track through the strait between Sandy Point and the S extremity of Ramree Island. Taik Kyun.8 miles NE of Beacon Island.5 miles of the shore.8 miles.8 mile offshore. lies near the shore about 2. rises to a height of 305m about 10 miles ESE of Rocky Point. 93°41'E. The highest island of the Northwest Group is 38m high.). Several volcanic shoals and islets were reported to lie between 4. 94°16'E. North Island is 39m high and South Island is 24m high. North Island and South Island lie 7 miles WSW and 8 miles SW. leaving dangerous shoals. The shallowest patch has a least depth of 2. Anchorage can be taken. fronts the S coast of Ramree Island at distances up to 1. A mud volcano shoal. Burma—Mun Aung Strait 7. Middle Ground. and Burma—West Coast The Calventuras Islands (16°54'N.43 7. a small wooded hill about 2. Small vessels can 7. India—East Coast —Bangladesh. but the navigable channel is much less because of the fringing dangers along the sides.8 miles E of Rocky Point.Sector 7.5 miles NNE of Searle Point. the channel is about 1 mile wide and has a least depth of 6. Beacon Island (18°56'N. extends from 1 to 6 miles offshore from the E side of Mun Aung Island. with a depth of 5. Navigable channels lie between the Northwest Group and the Southeast Group. about 1. both on Mun Aung Island.42 7.45 7. The channel between North Island and South Island should not be attempted. about 10 miles SSE of Sandy Point. and barely exceeds a velocity of 1 knot. shows up well from the NW. the highest peak on Ramree Island.. The coastal tides between Thames Point and Cape Negrais are semidiurnal.43 7. Between the SE end of Mun Aung Island and Ye Kyun there is a considerable indraft. in a depth of 6.44 7.43 7. The E coast of Mun Aung Island is low for about 8 miles and then becomes high as far S as the southernmost point of the island.42 7. in depths of 9. N or S according to the prevailing monsoon.42 179 anchor. lies about 3 miles SSW of Rocky Point and is the furthest west of a line of shoals which extends about 5 miles ESE. about 10 miles SSE of Thames Point.1m.42 Juanita Shoals (16°00'N. The channel between Middle Ground and the S coast of Ramree Island is about 0.5m. 7.—The N coast of Mun Aung Island is generally low and fronted by foul ground. Tidal currents along the SW side of Mun Aung Island follow the general trend of the coast.3 miles between Rocky Point and Button Island.8 miles NE of Sandy Point and close W of the recommended track. and is a useful mark for vessels entering the strait from the WNW.43 7. both in velocity and direction. are influenced and affected by the monsoons and the tides. 93°38'E.4m. The strait is about 4.. and between the latter group and the mainland. or in a depth of 11m with the lighthouse bearing 242°.1 to 11m. with a least depth of 2. vessels should steer 109° on the recommended track indicated on the chart and toward the dome-shaped hill on Ramree Island.45 7. 7. a coral bank with a least depth of 29. A rock.) comprise the Northwest Group.45 7. Dark Hill. located about 10 miles W of Broken Point (16°55'N.). From a position about 5.43 Mun Aung Strait (Cheduba) (18°58'N.42 7. Their well-wooded summits form good landmarks. about 4 miles NW of the S end of Ramree Island. On Chaung enters the sea about 2 miles S of Sandy Point. mud and sand. with depths of 5. respectively.45 7.. of Broken Point.45 7. Between this island and the S extremity of Ramree Island.3m. about 1. 93°27'E. This stony 9. Helby Hummock and Dark Hill are seen over the low ground of Rocky Point.5m curve. Shoal water.42 7.4m. The current sets strongly across these shoals. 78m high with an even-rounded summit.5m and less. Between Middle Ground and the coastal shoal to the W.\ and is marked by a white pagoda about 1 mile WNW of its entrance.5 miles farther ESE. good holding ground.) and the Southeast Group. 7. These islets may disappear suddenly.

.47 Nerbudda Shoal (18°22'N.8 miles SE of Henry Rocks and has been reported to be a good radar target up to 22 miles. 93°49'E.) comprises the estuary of the Kaleindaung River. 0.4m.46 7. an island on the E side of Ramree Roads. The N rock lies 0. Gungasager Rocks. lies about 0. with depths of 6..48 7.8 miles ESE of Taung Kyun. 94°02'E. lies about 1. lies 7 miles SE of the NW point of the island.46 7. 196m high.7 to 7.. The rocks are sometimes visible at LW when the sea breaks over them.45 7. 93°50'E.46 Mun Aung Island (18°47'N.47 158°.47 7. From abeam of Taik Kyun. awash at LW.). leads W of this danger. This shoal is the remains of a volcanic eruption which occurred in 1908. marked by numerous above-water rocks.3 miles SE of Unguan Island. bearing more than 338°.46 7. This island lies on the W side of an area of foul ground about 2 miles long and 1. preference should be given to the E or Middle Ground side of the channel. is recommended when West Shoal is breaking. 2. West Shoal (18°30'N. Cutters Patch. and the channel W of Nerbudda Shoal.8 miles SW of the SW side of Ramree Island. 93°51'E.). Ramree Roads and the 7. The channel between Unguan Island and Nerbudda Shoal is almost 3 miles wide at its narrowest part and has a least depth of 18.). A rock..3 miles WSW of the NW point of Mun Aung Island.6m patch.48 Unguan Island (18°26'N. a group of above and below-water dangers.3m patch was reported to lie about 0.180 Sector 7. The high SW coast of Mun Aung Island is bold and fronted by above and below-water rocks..47 7. lies centered about 5.2m.8 mile S of Ye Kyun. is 40m high with a dense clump of trees on its summit. Childers Channel (18°30'N. A reef. 93°56'E. lies about 5 miles SSE of Taung Kyun.8 miles SSE of Osprey Rocks. A patch. 3m high. In the narrowest part of this channel NW of False Rock.46 7.5 mile NW of Unguan Island.5 miles N of Gungasager Rocks.).3 miles offshore W of West Hill. The island is well-wooded and marked by several high hills on its W and SW sides. South Rock. about 7 miles S of Searle Point. When 2 miles have been made on the 158° course.5 mile S of Taung Kyun. and Burma—West Coast entrance of the harbor are approached from the NW through Mun Aung Strait and from the SW through Heywood Channel. When Taik Kyun bears 203°. 94°05'E. This channel is frequently used because of the light on Unguan Island. the mud volcano shoal NE of Sandy Point will be cleared to starboard.). reef-fringed. there is a least depth of 9. 4. is generally low.48 7.46 7. lies about 5.8m.46 7. 2.5 miles NNE of Sail Rock and is joined to it by a chain of sunken rocks and reefs. Heywood Channel (18°34'N.2 to 18. Taung Kyun should not be approached within a distance of 2 miles from any direction. lies near the outer edge of the foul ground. lies about 4.) lies between the SE side of Ramree Island and the mainland.1m and less extend about 0. lies almost 4. 93°59'E. 173 .. 93°54'E..3m. A high pyramidal rock lies off the entrance of this bay.48 7.).9m high. Taung Kyun.47 7. Cutters Patch (18°28'N.).47 7. with a depth of 1. This channel. lies about 1.48 7. the bare blunt conical hill and Dark Hill will be just visible over the horizon and will appear as a hill with twin summits. 7.. 93°27'E. lies about 2 miles farther S and has two pagodas on its summit. and the shoal ground extending E from Taung Kyun and Ye Kyun.. 94°09'E. lie within the coastal bank about 5.) lies between Sail Rock and False Rock. 93°55'E. Taung Kyun. lie at the SW end of a narrow shoal about 4. 186m high and wooded. irregular in shape with depths of 1. and East Reef to the E. which flows into the sea between the S extremity of Ramree Island and the mainland to the E. 93°52'E. 93°47'E. lies about 4 miles NNE of Unguan Island.4m high.). Oyster Rock.44. West Hill. As the edge of the coastal bank E of Mun Aung Island is fairly steep-to in places.. which dries 2.. an area of foul ground which uncovers 1. is 172m high and conspicuous. Palengu Taung. There is no clear passage between Mun Aung Island and Ye Kyun. A detached 7. 94°00'E.. about 0. Passage through this channel is not recommended. The highest rock rises to a height of 5.47 Ye Kyun (18°37'N. India—East Coast —Bangladesh. Sail Rock.9m..). but rises to an elevation of 32m in its central part.).5m. and False Rock to the W and Unguan Island. Ramree Harbor (19°01'N.47 7.). Osprey Rocks (18°40'N. 93°38'E. roughly triangular in shape. a group of above and below-water rocks.. Henry Rocks (18°52'N.48 Burma—Islands and Approaches to Ramree Harbor 7. a group of sunken rocks. provides good anchorage to native craft during the Northeast Monsoon. Ywathit Taung (18°48'N. above-water. a bare blunt conical hill will appear open W of Dark Hill. Pantaw Rocks (18°40'N. located near the S end of Mun Aung Island.) lies between West Shoal. about 11 miles SE of Taung Kyun. lie about 4 miles ENE of Osprey Rocks. lies on the SW end of Nerbudda Shoal. extends up to 2 miles S from the S end of Mun Aung Island.2m which breaks. Pub. 7. Taungni Taung. lies about 2 miles NNW of Unguan Island. a detached 4...2m. 93°37'E. which has a least depth of 16. 93°39'E.8 mile NE from the reef. Ye Kyun.). Ye Kyun lies near the edge of the foul ground about 3 miles S of Taik Kyun.. A detached area of foul ground.). Childers Channel. 94°00'E. Several detached reefs lie between the two islands. False Rock.).9m high.. lie on a reef about 2. lies 7 miles SE of Taungni Taung on the S part of Mun Aung Island. Middle Ground will have been cleared. 7. 7.4m high and small in extent.46 7.5 miles SE of Magyi Kyun (18°44'N.6m high. The N and E sides of the island have been previously described in paragraph 7.49 Ramree Harbor (19°00'N. Shoal depths of 9. Taung Kyun and numerous rocks lie on the foul ground which extends about 8 miles SE from the S extremity of Mun Aung Island. East Reef (18°30'N.3m.3 miles wide. Sail Rock (18°33'N. lies about 1. Pyramid Bay (18°41'N. 7. all of which lie between numerous islands and dangers.48 7. If Dark Hill is kept bearing not more than 338° astern.46 7.48 7. 257m high.

The rock is sometimes marked by a swirl. there are depths of 5. a small islet.. Depths elsewhere in the approach channel range from 10. Two white marks lie on the W shore of the harbor 1. course should be altered to the NNE and the W of the two clumps of trees on the N coast of Sagu Kyun kept bearing 208° astern. Between Nepal Rock and the narrow entrance of the Mingaung Chaung. lies about C mile E of the Ramree River entrance. lies about 0. vessels drawing 2.50 7. Ramree Roads lie about 5 miles SW of The Gates.9m high and one of a group of above-water rocks on the shoal. A course of 054° leads through The Gates in mid-channel.).3m. when a 046° course may be steered through mid-channel.50 7.6 to 65.. Caution is advised. lies about 6.3 miles WSW of the N point of the island. The fairway of the channel between Dragon Shoal and the shore bank to the W is about 0.7m. Then. not obstructed by shoals or fishing stakes.51 7. lies near the N coast of Sagu Kynun about 1. This patch lies about midway between 7. Vessels may approach Ramree Harbor from the S and in such case the channel between Unguan Island and Nerbudda Shoal is recommended.1m. Excellent anchorage can be taken.3 miles S of the N end of Dragon Shoal. Magyi Kyun (18°44'N. Channel Clump.8 miles NNE of the S end of Ramree Island.50 Dragon Shoal (18°53'N. 94°00'E. Vessels approaching from the SE should pass SW of Gungasager Rocks and Osprey Rocks at distances of 2 and 2. 7.5 miles W from the W extremity of Magyi Kyun. 173 7. 106m high near its SW side. the S island in the approach to Ramree Harbor. but is fouled by numerous reefs and shoals and is available only to fishing vessels and small craft with local knowledge. which covers at HW and is marked by a beacon. but the channel to the E is preferred. This 80m high island is surrounded by foul ground.)..50 7.51 7. lie near the N shore of Sagu Kyun and are surrounded by deep water. there is a least charted depth of 9. and Burma—West Coast A group of islands obstructs and divides the harbor entrance into two channels.. This bank partly dries and has a group of rocks awash on its W side. Vessels should be kept to the deeper water towards Flat Reef. India—East Coast —Bangladesh. lies about 1. taking care to avoid fishing stakes in the near approach to the entrance of the harbor. Mingaung Chaung connects the head of Ramree Harbor with the inner part of Kyaukpyu Harbor. Channel depths within The Gates are for the most part deep.51 Middle Bank (19°04'N.50 7.3 miles SSE of the S extremity of Ramree Island. Flat Reef (18°55'N.49 7.51 7.. Unguan Island must not be brought to bear less than 350° until well N of Nerbudda Island. In the harbor at springs.3m. Big Rock. Cutters Rock lies 1 mile N of Oyster Rock. Having passed Flat Reef.49 7.5 mile SW of Magyi Kyun and marks the SW edge of the foul ground surrounding the latter island..5 and 4 miles W of Magyi Kyun and then a N course towards The Gates then steered.5 miles. a lone conspicuous group of high trees.49 7.3 miles long and narrow and lies with its S end 1 mile NNE of the N extremity of Sagu Kyun. is about 4. 93°59'E.9m. Caution is necessary between White Rock and Flat Reef. which dry.5 to 18. 94°00'E.51 7. Nepal Rock. the E and W entrances. but the channel is narrowed by mud banks.51 7. 7.49 7. A beacon lies on the shore reef extending about 1. and in the vicinity of Oyster Rock. in all parts of Ramree Harbor. ranging from 9. Harbor depths up to 10 miles within The Gates range from 10. 0. lies 3 miles N of Low Islet.49 7. 93°59'E.. is the largest island in the approach to Ramree Harbor and forms the S side of The Gates.7m or less can enter the river Pub.3 and 3. lies on the foul ground close off the S side of Sagu Kyun. lies between the N end of Dragon Shoal and the shore bank to the W. and forms a useful landmark for The Gates from the SW. Low Islet (18°58'N.Sector 7. vessels approaching the entrance of the Ramree River should keep about 0. 94°00'E. course should be shaped to pass about 0. The SE and NW sides of the reef are marked by beacons.3m high. parts of which dry. when the N point of Sagu Kyun bears 140°. The tidal current sets through The Gates in the direction of the channel at velocities of 3 to 4 knots.3 to 12. taking care to avoid any fishing stakes. marked by a beacon and steep-to on its E side. Oyster Rock (19°00'N. which covers at HW. a high bluff.49 7. between the W side of Dragon Shoal and the shore bank to the W.9 to 7. in depths up to 18. At ordinary HW.49 181 7.) lies about 1 mile SW of an island located 3 miles E of the Ramree River entrance. via Fletcher Hayes Strait.4m or less can use this channel.49 7. depths of 7.8 mile N of Low Islet. 18. the flood sets N and the ebb sets S at a velocity of 3 knots.5 miles NNW of Low Islet.). Cutters Rock. Alligator Rocks. almost awash at low water springs.51 7. Anchorage can be taken.8 miles NNE of the S extremity of Ramree Island. The E entrance of Ramree Harbor lies between the E side of Sagu Kyun and the mainland. Fishing stakes are placed at various places in the harbor and may constitute a hazard to navigation. Fishing stakes are usually found in the channel about 2 miles S of The Gates. The Ramree River has its entrance almost 8 miles N of Kyangyaung Point and about 17 miles within The Gates.5 mile SE of Kyangyaung Point.49 7. Sagu Kyun (18°48'N. with a least depth of 2. For about 4 miles N of Cutters Rock to a position abeam of the entrance of the Ramree River. A rocky patch.).51 . The reef may be passed on either side. A small islet lies about in the middle of the foul ground which extends about 1.6m. 93°58'E.5 mile E of Low Islet and then at similar distances E of Oyster Rock and Cutters Rock. lies about 2.50 7. The W or main entrance channel is known as The Gates. and Nepal Rock.51 7. The tides in Ramree Harbor are semidiurnal.1 to 43. Vessels drawing 2.9m.3 miles NE from the NE extremity of Sagu Kyun. in a depth of 11m. about 3. respectively. 93°59'E. lies about 0. When N of Cutters Rock. White Rock.3 miles N of Flat Reef and about 0.). This leads between Dragon Shoal and the shoals and rocky patches lying off the Ramree Island shore and between Dragon Shoal and Flat Reef.1 to 20.8m exist in the fairway.3m.8 mile off the W shore of the harbor.50 Low Islet and a white mark on the W shore about 1.51 7.). Vessels should pass between 2.51 7. Nyaunghin Kyun.51 7. about 2 miles farther N. Between the 10m curves in Ramree Roads SSW of The Gates.8 mile wide with depths of 10.

). Only small craft can be accommodated. lead to the anchorage within the bay. the coast is bordered by several hills and peaks which are easily Pub. 94°12'E. 7. stands on the SW part of this promontory.8 mile SW from the central part of the island and a detached 9. about 0. lie between the entrance of the Kayaing River and Magyi Kyun to the W.. 94°22'E. a 168m high hill. 94°21'E. in line bearing 147°.55 7.1m..5 miles offshore. 7.5 mile farther SW... Two beacons. A radar buoy is moored about 0.51 7. Sandoway Bay (18°22'N. in a depth of 11m.3 miles.. Zalat Taung. and Burma—West Coast Andrews Bay (18°20'N. rises steeply from the sea to a height of 137m and is a fairly conspicuous landmark.51 7. The shallow Kamgit River and the Salu River enter the sea about 4. Good anchorage is provided with good holding ground. The entrance of the shallow Kayaing River (18°45'N. about 1. During the Southwest Monsoon. an island 52m high. 94°26'E. being the highest elevation along this section of coast.). 7. up to 2 miles within the entrance.53 7. this anchorage is exposed and dangerous. entered between an unnamed point and Money Point. Several detached reefs and rocks.52 7.1m.3 miles S of the SW extremity of the promontory. 173 . about 3. is backed inland by some isolated hills and ranges. lies on the N side of the entrance of the Sandoway River. A detached drying rocky patch lies about 4. with Money Point as its NW extremity.182 Sector 7.51 7.).5 miles W of Money Point and is a hazard to vessels bound for Andrew Bay. lies about 2.53 The Sandoway River (18°33'N. but bordered by foul ground around its shores and inner reaches. Depths are regular in the near approach to Andrew Bay.3 to 9. which nearly dries and breaks at LW. A beacon lies on the E side of the bay about 0. This hill is a good landmark.) lies near the SE corner of Andrew Bay and provides sheltered anchorage during the Southwest Monsoon.1m high and conspicuous. in line bearing 348°..52 7.53 7. about 9 miles SSE.8 mile S of Drunken Sailor Rock. 7. Money Summit rises to an elevation of 0. 94°13'E.). lies on the N shore of Andrew Bay close within the entrance. Beacons. Singyat Kyun lies close SE of Zalat Taung and is separated from it by a foul channel.) lies about 11 miles SE of the N point of Sagu Kyun.1m patch lies about 0. Foul ground extends about 0. Depths have been reported to be less than charted in Andrew Bay. 94°20'E.. the southernmost island along this section of coast. 94°22'E. Remarkable Rock (18°14'N. A drying rock lies about 1. During the Northeast Monsoon.. about 24 miles SSE.5 miles SE of the same extremity. topped with detached trees. Berthing facilities consist of a pontoon jetty and a 112. This summit. the shoal remains of a mud volcano with a least depth of 6.52 7. Depths within the bay. The Kyaukpyu mountain range backs this part of the coast. range from 18.. The SW point of Singaung Kyun.54 7. distant 2. Gaw Taung (18°31'N.54 7. lies about 4. but the bay is exposed to the full force of the Southwest Monsoon. The positions of these dangers can best be seen on the chart. The low sandy rock-fringed coast between Gaw Taung and Apaw-ye Kyun. The shallow Kyeintali River discharges about 2 miles E of the cape. Mawyon Pagoda. Vessels drawing 2.5 mile E of the same lighthouse.8 mile E of the lighthouse on the N entrance point of Andrew Bay. Between Bluff Cape and the Gwa River. with the rest house on Singaung Kyun bearing 120°.54 7.53 7.52 Whalers Rock (18°37'N. marked by numerous above and below-water rocks.52 7. rises to an elevation of 90m.8 mile SSW of Money Point. 94°19'E. Mud volcanoes were reported to lie about 1.8 miles SSE of Remarkable Rock. A heavy surf breaks on this coast in the vicinity of the Sandoway River entrance when the wind is W of N.. India—East Coast —Bangladesh. lead to a position close off the head of this pier.55 Bluff Cape (18°00'N.53 7.5 miles ESE of the pagoda mentioned above. Under certain conditions of tide and wave height. The river is tidal for a short distance above the town of Sandoway. the rock may be visible at other times. a bluff island.52 7. about 5 miles to the S. 94°15'E.3 miles WSW of Money Point and is the outermost danger.3m between the entrance points.53 7. awash.5 miles WNW of the N end of Singaung Kyun and 2 miles offshore. Mills Patch (18°19'N. about 14 miles SSE of Remarkable Rock. lies on the S side of the entrance of the Sandoway River. 94°09'E.). lies near the coast about 3 miles SE of the Sandoway River entrance.) is entered between the SW point of Singaung Kyun and Zalat Taung Island.53 7.2m alongside.). Apaw-ye Kyun (18°23'N. Shelter is provided from the force of the monsoon in Mayo Bay in the SE part of Andrew Bay. 19°16'E.54 7. Local knowledge is necessary.8 mile SW of the SW point of Singaung Kyun.8m causeway with a depth of 5. Open anchorage can be taken.).4m can ascend the river at ordinary HW from its entrance to within 4 miles of the town.5 miles of the village of Ramree.54 Mayo Bay (18°18'N.52 7. is clear of dangers in its central part.53 and proceed to within 1. A road connects the village with a wharf about 5 miles within the river’s entrance. a small shallow indentation.). which dry. decreasing gradually to a depth of 18..3 miles SSW.3 miles N of Drunken Sailor Rock. lies about 2.54 7. conspicuous from seaward when the sun shines on it. Between Whalers Rock and Drunken Sailor Rock. A large promontory. but the swinging room is restricted by a shoal patch in the middle part of the bay. but much less elsewhere. 9.53 7. lies about 2 miles W of the SW point of Singaung Kyun. the coast is bordered by an area of foul ground which extends up to 2. Drunken Sailor Rock (18°33'N. is a conspicuous landmark and easily identified from the offing. A rest house stands on the SW point. fronts the W side of the promontory up to 3.51 7.52 7. mud. low islands forms the coast for about 14 miles SSE of the entrance of the Kayaing River to the entrance of the Sandoway River.5 miles offshore in places.53 7.). A series of long.8 miles W and almost 1 mile SSW of this island. vessels with local knowledge can anchor about 0. 94°13'E. extends about 5 miles W from the general line of the coast close S of Andrew Bay.8 miles SE and 6. Dangerous foul ground.. a foul patch lies about 1.52 7. 7.

1. can be taken. protected from the N and NW.5 to 14.5 miles E of Bluff Cape. 7. is available only to small craft. rises to a height of 401m. but W winds are experienced. Saba Island lies between South Reef and Alligator Head.55 7. India—East Coast —Bangladesh. lies 4.57 7.57 7.8 mile N of the entrance and 0.3 miles S. but its shores are bordered by foul ground which extends up to 1 mile offshore in places. is shallow and available only to native boats. the coast is rocky and irregular.5 miles NNW of Alligator Head. and West Reef lie about 1 mile S through W to N of High Island. A similar reef lies 0. Taunglun Taung. extends about 3.).8 miles SW of Round Island.8 miles WNW of High Island.57 7. 94°24'E. lies about 2.3 miles SW. A small shallow river empties into the S part of the bay. 7. lies about 0. 7. 7.5 miles SW from the entrance of the Satthwa Chaung.9 to 5. about 9.. a detached steep-to rock 12. about 42 miles SSW. Round Hill. is sheltered from S and SW winds.. discharges into the sea about 14 miles S of Bluff Cape. Vibart Shoal (16°43'N. Taungnela.55 7. 94°26'E.57 7. 44m high. almost entirely obstructed by a reef at its entrance.56 Pontamau Island (17°19'N.6m. Two small shoals. Milestone Rock (16°40'N. The Satthwa Chaung (Hswathwa River). lies almost 4 miles S of High Peak and Button Hill.6m. lie about 2. extends about 3. 4. with depths of 8. Good anchorage. with depths of 5. The coast between Gwa Bay and Broken Point.146m high. A narrow passage leads through the reefs to the village of Hswathwa just within the entrance.58 7. is indented by several small bays which provide anchorage in good weather. Shoal ground.56 The coast between West Sandy Islet and High Island.5m high. about 6.57 7.1 to 11m. North Reef. vessels occasionally call at the village of Gwa on the E side of the entrance of the river on the S side of the bay. and Burma—West Coast identified from the offing. lies about 3 miles W of Bomie Bay. 54m high and reef-fringed. lies near the outer edge of the foul ground which extends about 3 miles SW from the S entrance point of Gwa Bay.55 7.56 7.58 Pub.. is wedge-shaped and rocky.57 7.55 7. The river is available only to boats.3 to 11m. sand.58 Koronge Island (Goyangyi Kyun) (16°32'N. Ngayot Taung (16°32'N.3 miles NW of High Island.Sector 7.) lies about 3. The central part of the bay has depths ranging from 5. marked by numerous drying rocks.57 The Kyaungtha River (16°57'N. Bomie Bay (17°20'N. Myauk Island lies near the outer edge of the shoal ground which extends about 0. when entering.57 7.).56 7.8 miles W of the S entrance point. Foul ground. 124m high. The island is an excellent landmark.56 7. 94°20'E. 253m high.5m.2m high. High Island rises to a height of 40m. 94°15'E. in a depth of 11m. The N entrance point is fringed by foul ground which extends about 0. 707m high. Between Broken Point. South Reef.. it resembles an alligator’s head facing S. With the exception of the above depths.. small in extent and irregular. Danson Bay (17°12'N. An area of foul ground. 94°19'E.). A 9.).. Depths of 4. within Gwa Bay. with Round Hill bearing 056° and Thumb Hill bearing 098°..5 mile from its outer edge.5m lie within 2 miles S of Gwa Island and up to 1. little shelter is provided except in Danson Bay. 94°34'E. 81m high and rugged.3 miles of the shore between Gwa Island and Bomie Bay. entered between Alligator Head and the N end of Koronge Island. The anchorage should be approached cautiously to avoid Crawford Shoal and the drying rock on the S side of the approach.5 mile NE from Pontamau Island. Gwa Bay (17°37'N.5m and less. in depths of 9. Ngayot Bay (16°34'N.5 mile offshore. 94°33'E. extends about 2.5 miles NNE of Alligator Head. During the Southwest Monsoon. rises to a height of 585m.7 miles to the S.5 mile SSW and 0.1m patch lies about 0. with a least depth of 4. This anchorage is sheltered from all except NW winds.) lies about 2 miles NW of Alligator Head. and Koronge Island.55 7. lie 5. 39.56 7.. 7. Both hills are conspicuous and form excellent landmarks. lies on this foul ground about 0. 12 miles SSE of Bluff Cape. Koronge Island has been reported to be a good radar target up to 16 miles. 94°18'E. The Thitpok River enters the sea about 11 miles S of Broken Point. should give West Sandy Islet a berth of 2 miles.).) is the S extremity of a large. Vessels. Large vessels should not enter this bay because of the numerous dangers lying within it. Goyaugyi Kyun Light is shown from a black framed tower with white bands standng on a rising ground near the center of the island. provides little protection except from the S. West Sandy Islet.8 miles offshore..). 10.8 mile W from it. Little Quoin Island (16°39'N.) is entered about 6 miles SSW of Pontamau Island. 94°31'E. about 13. High Island (16°37'N. unlike other bays found along this section of the coast. 238m high. 94°29'E. between the S end of Koronge Island and the mainland.55 7.57 7. entered close N of High Island.3 miles SW of High Island. lies about 12. When viewed from the offing.3 and 8 miles SSE of Pontamau Island.6m high. 173 .6m high..). and Thumb Hill. marked by numerous rocks. 94°17'E. A detached drying reef lies 1. lies about 14 miles SE of Bluff Cape. Anchorage is provided. High Peak.3 miles NW from High Island.. 94°18'E. Large vessels can anchor..55 7.). lies on this shoal ground about 1.58 7..3 miles SE of Alligator Head. lies 3 miles S of Taunglun Taung.) is entered between a 63m high peninsula and an unnamed point about 2 miles S. 194m high.55 183 7.55 7.57 7.). Alligator Head (16°36'N. about 3.8 mile W of the outer edge of this foul ground. Gwa Kyun (17°34'N. rocky promontory about 19 miles S of Broken Point. about 24 miles SSW. Round Island.5 miles W from the SW entrance point of Danson Bay. small in extent and shallow. North Rock lies close off the NE end and West Rock lies close off the SW end of the island. Sandy Island. is indented by an open bay in its N part and fringed by shoal ground which extends up to 2 miles offshore in places. 94°30'E. 94°19'E..5 mile SSW of this reef. in depths of 7. one of the most conspicuous peaks along this coast.2 and 16. about 5. During the Northeast Monsoon. Kungyaung Taung. all of the other dangers lie within 1.

lies on the S edge of a shoal area about 0.59 Pub. Conical Mount. is 198m high.). 7. A spit. 3. All of the above peaks comprise the most conspicuous summits between Koronge Island and Cape Negrais. lies about 2.59 7. Rocks and foul ground fringe the three islands. 173 .). lie about 3 miles SW of Koronge Island. 94°18'E. Mushroom Rock. about 29 miles to the S. which dries.59 White Rock (16°29'N. lies 6 miles NNW of Round Cape.. 2. Crawford Shoal (16°29'N.3 miles SW of May Gaumgaun. Several detached shoal patches.59 7.58 Between Koronge Island and Cape Negrais. lies about 15. 94°13'E. lies about 4.).. Saingbain Kieu (16°20'N. with a depth of 5.5 miles S of Koronge Island.5 mile SW of Lichune. and Burma—West Coast May Gaumgaun. 1. Round Cape. the N rock. 4 miles NE of Cape Negrais. 7. about 7. 7. South Twin. lies centered about 1.). parallel the coast for about 3 miles and 2. A rock.5 miles offshore. Several detached shoal patches lie between this group and the coast. with depths of 9.9m. North Twin. rises to a height of 259m..5m at its outer end. with a least depth of 4. a group of large conspicuous rocks. extends about 0.5 miles NW of Round Cape.7m high.59 7. and Lichune form a group of islands which lies between 6 and 9 miles S of Koronge Island. India—East Coast —Bangladesh. 104m high. Fat Hill. lies about 2 miles N of Round Cape.5 miles W through 1. 7. lie within 1.59 7. 94°15'E. and conspicuous. the S rock. 224m high and cone-shaped. lies about 4 miles SE of Round Cape and is conspicuous from all directions. a group of drying rocks.58 7.5 miles S from Crawford Shoal.184 Sector 7.5 miles NE of Round Cape. lies about 4 miles NW of Round Cape. Black Rock. the coast is indented by numerous small coastal inlets. thickly wooded.5 miles SW of Round Cape.58 Spike Hill (16°22'N. some appearing white.4m high.3 miles SSE of Koronge Island.1m and less.2m high and dark-colored. 94°11'E. Ung Chune. A stranded wreck lies close N of Lichune (Leik Kyun)..58 7. A narrow shoal.

0 Additional chart coverage may be found in NGA/DLIS Catalog of Maps. Charts. 173 .185 8. Burma—South and West Coasts and Thailand—West Coast 8. SECTOR 8 — CHART INFORMATION Pub. and Related Products (Unlimited Distribution).

and the Mergui Archipelago.1 The coast between the S entrance of the Takua Pa Inlet and the N entrance of Chong Pak Phra is regular and is fronted by the Similan Islands. Cloudiness reaches a maximum during the Southwest Monsoon. and the offlying Moscos Islands. The Mergui Archipelago. to the Similan Islands. Rainfall decreases. lie about 70 miles off the mainland.1 Winds—Weather. The coast of Burma.000 islands ranging in size from mere hummocks of rock to King Island. Chong Pak Phra is the narrow strait between the coast and Ko Phuket. There are no ports of significance.1 Between Cape Negrais and the Sittang River. and are most frequent during May. The climatic seasons of the Tenasserim Coast and the W coast of Thailand are based on two major wind systems. relative humidity reaches its highest values. many surrounded by reefs. is low.1 8. Many mountain ranges parallel this coast. 8. Takua Pa Inlet is formed by a large river which flows into the sea by way of four channels between the parallels of 9°15'N and 8°52'N.1 8. occur until the Northeast Monsoon is established. namely the Northeast Monsoon and the Southwest Monsoon. the nearshore islands are low and covered with jungle. It has not been closely examined. Relative humidities and cloudiness increase. except over the S of the Tenasserim coast and the W coast of Thailand. extends from early December through late March. A number of islands. General Remarks 8. The only ports of any importance along this entire section of coast are Tavoy and Mergui. with land and sea breezes prevailing. 98°33'E. A description of the Tenasserim Coast then follows as far S as the Tavoy River and includes the port of Moulmein. and backed by hills of moderate elevation. The Southwest Monsoon. The N part of this coast. The archipelago extends from Tavoy Island. The average daily temperatures are in the upper 27° or low 32°C. and rainy. the Irrawaddy coast.1 8. with the lowest averages usually occurring in January. Cloudiness is at a minimum. which consists of approximately 1. usually from mid-March to mid-May. Bentinck Sound. and January. Weak and variable winds.—This sector describes the S and W coasts of Burma (Myanmar) and the W coast of Thailand between Cape Negrais and Ko Phucket and includes the Irrawaddy River Delta.1 8. Tides—Currents.—The weather and climate of Burma have been previously described in paragraph 7. here the current has no apparent connection with the rise and fall of the tide. which include the ports of Bassein and Rangoon are described first. the Gulf of Martaban. lie off this coast.187 SECTOR 8 BURMA—SOUTH AND WEST COASTS AND THAILAND—WEST COAST 8. 8. Maximum cloud cover reaches 80 to 95 per cent. The spring intermonsoon season. During this period. occur. between the entrance of the Pakchan River and the entrance of Takua Pa Inlet. Weak and variable winds occur in April and May. densely wooded. The greatest contrasts are in November. but there is some early morning fog. is indented by many inlets of little or no commercial value to ocean shipping. is mostly low. Poor visibility occurs mainly during heavy rain squalls. which is associated with the Northern Hemisphere winter. 173 . the N extremity of which is nearly 20 miles S of Tavoy Point. a distance of about 285 miles. the outermost islands.1 8. Some of the islands have mountain peaks which attain a height of 762m. Heinze Chaung.0 Plan. except at some stations along these coasts where all seasons are about equally warm and humid. lies within the 95m curve. humid.. December. and humidities than over the remaining areas. The autumn intermonsoon season is normally limited to the months of October and November. The W coast of the latter island is indented by several open bays. each with its own weather characteristics. which extends from mid-May through late September. when these coasts are hot. and sloping gradually to the N and S. interspersed with occasional heavy rainstorms or thunderstorms accompanied by torrential downpours.The Great Western Torres Islands.1 8. A range of mountains backs this coast. with an area of about 175 square miles. This is the dry season. a large island to the S. the Ye River. Victoria Point (9°58'N. 8.1 8. The coast of Thailand.1 8. and intersected by many rivers and creeks. between Tavoy Point and Victoria Point. occasional thunderstorms. Temperatures reach their maximum values in April. densely wooded. the largest of the group. Visibilities are usually good. Periods of low visibilities are rare.1 8. Bentinck Sound provides some shelter. but there are many sheltered anchorages. Cloudiness decreases. Visibility is usually good.—The current W of the entrance of the Irrawaddy River is irregular in the fine weather season and varies with the direction of wind. the Bassein River and the Rangoon River. others are joined to the mainland by sandbanks. The Northeast Monsoon. but a flow of warm moist air from across the South China Sea covers the beforementioned coasts and causes somewhat higher cloudiness. with the exception of a small area. but thunderstorms increase slightly over these coasts. The Pakchan River forms the boundary between Burma and Thailand. is the rainy season. The S part rises steeply to a mountain range from about 262 to 518m high. is the period in which the dry NE winds give way to the moist SW winds. Daily intermittent light rain. The outer islands are steep and wooded. the moist Southwester Monsoon is replaced by moist E winds over these coasts. higher temperatures. There is a slight increase in rainfall in April and a big increase in May.) lies on the N side of the entrance of this river. Temperatures and relative humidity remain high. Temperatures decrease slightly at most places due to the increased cloud cover. Thunderstorms reach their lowest frequency during the Northeast Monsoon.25. Temperatures reach their lowest values. wooded.1 Pub. The descriptive sequence is E and then S. Thunderstorm frequencies rise sharply.

Between the Bassein River and the China Bakir River there are no landmarks and the navigational aids are few in number.). There is comparatively little reliable information concerning the tidal currents off the W coast of Thailand. 8. The tidal current movement is usually semidiurnal in character with some variations in the velocities and durations of the flows.2 8. here the S extremity of the Arakan Yoma Range terminates in the vicinity of Maw Dengi. should not be shoaled to depths of less than 18. with a depth of 9.2 Cape Negrais (16°02'N. In the vicinity of Maw Dengi these hills have some conspicuous.2m at Mergui.3 knots through Forrest Strait. Those depths and dangers which lie within the 10m curve are described together with the principal description of that part of the coast which they front. These tidal currents seldom exceed 2 to 3 knots and are seldom experienced over 8 miles offshore. The platforms are surrounded by a restricted area. Caution.). the tidal currents will also exert great influence and will either augment or deter the non-tidal currents. The coast of the Irrawaddy Delta is low along its entire length between the Bassein River and the Sittang River.4 knot. Tidal currents are strong along the entire coast between Tavoy Point and the Burma-Thailand border. In May the currents set from S to SW.1 8.2 During November.—Vessels should not approach within a distance of 3 miles of the coast in the vicinity of Cape Negrais. The 10m curve to the SE and E of Baragua Point lies only about 1 to 2 miles within the 20m curve. 173 . best seen on the chart. Shoal depths of 5. The tidal currents attain a rate of 2. is fronted by conspicuous cliffs which rise about 0.1m.3 8. 94°12'E. little or no flood current is observed S of Alguada Reefs. with a maximum of about 0. Tidal bores occur in the mouths of rivers and bays. as a rule. The coast between Cape Negrais and Maw Dengi. 8.1 8.1 8. This flow continues through April. the tidal effect becomes negligible and the general circulation predominates.1 8. Considerable variation in set and drift is to be expected between the many islands off these coasts and in the confined areas and estuaries.2 8. the seaward extremity of a spur of the Arakan Yoma range.8 mile inland to a high summit. and approximates the outer limits of the Gulf of Martaban.5m and less lie between the 11m curve and the shore.—Uncharted drilling rigs may be tempoarily located in the Andaman Sea. except at springs.3 Yadana Gas Field (15°08'N.3 miles offshore in places. consisting of three lit platforms. was reported to lie about 46 miles S of Elephant Point.2 8. In deeper water offshore.2 8. The cape has been reported to be a good radar target up to 24 miles. The 20m curves lies about 18 miles SE and 21 miles E of Baragua Point and then extends E to the vicinity of Kalegauk Island. The currents along the Tenasserim coast and along the W coast of Thailand usually set N in January and S in February.. Cape Negrais to the Sittang River Yadana Platform 8. consists of a series of low densely-wooded hills. which fronts the delta shore between Purian Point and Baragua Point. The set and drift of the currents in local areas often varies from the patterns shown below. about 6 miles SSE. In March the water flowing N from the Strait of Malacca causes a N current to flow along these coasts.7 knot. Near the coast. The tidal currents.—Between positions S of Purian Point and Baragua Point.1 8. The currents set S in June and July and N from August through December. and January. The 10m curve roughly parallels the 20m curves at distances of about 2 to 8 miles within the latter curve.2 8. Navigation.1 8. The only high coastal ground lies on the W side of the mouth of the Bassein River.188 Sector 8.3 8. A shoal..3 8. The tides approach these coasts from the SSW and progress N. Two submarine pipelines run ESE from the central platform to the coast of Burma. the 20m curve lies about 10 to 20 miles offshore. The shallow bank. and anchoring are prohibited within 500m of the restricted area. A fringing reef and off-lying rocks make caution advisable even outside this distance. Between Tavoy Point and Forrest Strait.3m. December. The tides along the Tenasserim coast and along the W coast of Thailand are semidiurnal with a small diurnal inequality in both time and height. Uncharted well heads and other obstructions may also be located in the Andaman Sea. but to the ENE it lies between 8 and 30 miles offshore. set from ENE to NNW on the rising tide and from WSW to SSE on the falling tide. 8.2 Pub. except for the extreme S part of this area where a N current still exists.1 8. fishing. reddish slopes of driven sand which leave well-defined edges of dark foliage near their summits. Burma—South and West Coasts and Thailand—West Coast Depths—Limitations.1 8. This is due to frequent storms. the tidal currents usually set N on the rising tide and S on the falling tide at rates of 2 to 4 knots. The mean spring ranges increase from about 3m at the Burma-Thailand border to over 5.2 8. The coast between Cape Negrais and Maw Dengi is fringed by reefs and shoal patches which extend up to 1. The currents flow at an average rate of 0. situated about 48 miles SE of Purian Point. 94°47'E. Caution.

almost awash at HWS.6 8. is attained during the second and third quarters of each tide.3 miles S of the light.6m. About 1 mile N of Thamihla Kyun the tidal currents are rotary during spring tides.3m and 2 miles in extent. A pagoda lies on the point and is visible above the trees.6 8.5 knots. At the beginning of the flood tide. Purian Point (15°50'N. the current sets 152° and changes through 090°. Having passed Phaeton Shoals. Depths of 11 to 18.5m and less.5 8..6 8. Having cleared that rock course should be al8. 8. Hugh Rose Rock. terminates in a bare bluff.6 Approaches to the Bassein River 8. Augmented by numerous tributaries. with a least depth of 4.4 The Irrawaddy River rises in the N part of Burma and generally flows to the S. Many low islands are formed near its seaward extremity by tidal backwaters and smaller cross channels which connect with the main channels.. 94°17'E. passing N of Broni Rock and then altering course to the NE.. course should be shaped for the anchorage SE of Thamihla Kyun. a vessel should proceed to the anchorage SE of Thamihla Kyun.5 mile S and W respectively of the point. Reefs and shoals extend about 2 miles SSW and 0. 8. the Irrawaddy River flows into the Bay of Bengal by way of several channels through an extensive delta lying approximately between the meridians of 94°15'E and 96°50'E. during the rainy season. Thamihla Kyun (15°52'N.1m.6 Phaeton Shoals (15°47'N. lies about 5. White sandstone low bluffs extend 1.3m surround these shoals.6 8.5 Maw Dengi. To avoid delay. lies about 0. low and backed by a group of trees 23m high. 8.4 Alguada Reef Light bearing 092° 8. At spring tides. with depths of 5. about 30m high and flat.5 miles SSE of Maw Dengi.1m patch lies about 1. the vessel’s ETA should be sent to the Port Officer at Bassein at least 48 hours prior to arrival. Directions.5 miles NNE of the light. the ebb current may reach a velocity of 6 knots. 94° 12'E. Pilots will board off the pilot station.7m high obelisk lies on the reef on the SE extremity of Maw Dengi.5 mile E of the easternmost shoal depths of Alguada Reef and Phaeton Shoals. 94°14'E.6 Near the entrance bar.).3 8. A 4. Thamihla Kyun has been reported to be a good radar target up to 18 miles.3 189 The Irrawaddy River Delta 8. 94°17'E. 8. which lies near the SW end of the reef. 173 .8 mile NE from the island.5 8. and well open E of Thamihla Kyun. the flood current sets E and the ebb current sets W. leads about 0. A detached 5.—Pilotage is compulsory.5 Haing Gyi Shoal (15°57'N.5 mile NE of the N end of Thamihla Kyun.3 miles S of Maw Dengi. extend about 0. which is awash. Depths of 10.5m patch lies about 1 mile W of the point.5 Several detached shoal patches. Higher bluffs begin about 1 mile NNE of the point and extend to the N for about 1. the furthest W and E. A shoal. The summit of Haing Gyi Kyun bearing 020°..).). Rocky patches.3 miles. 8. has detached sunken rocks extending a considerable distance from it.9m. located about 0. setting at the end about 225°. lies off the N end of the reef about 2.—.). Baroni Rock (15°52'N.5 miles SSW of Alguada Reef Light. extends about 5. lie centered about 10.5 8.. lies on the SE side of the entrance of the Bassein River.6 Pub. entering the river between Haing Gyi Shoal and Purian Bank. the flood current sets about E and the ebb current sets between SW and SSW at velocities of 1.).2.3 miles NE of Maw Dengi. Care should be taken to allow for the tidal current. Tides—Currents. Depths in the approach to and within the entrance channel W and N of Thamihla Kyun range from 18. A small 2. a group of shoal patches with a least depth of 4.5 miles S into the river entrance from the shore about 3.Alguada Reef (15°42'N. Burma—South and West Coasts and Thailand—West Coast Maw Dengi (Pagoda Point) (15°57'N.9m.—Tides in the entrance of the Bassein River are semidiurnal. 8. which lies on the NW side of the entrance of the Bassein River.. so that at the end of the flood it sets about 057°.). The greatest velocity. with depths of 5.8 miles farther SW. 94°15'E. 1. have been reported to lie within a 1 mile radius of a position about 17 miles WNW of Alguada Reef Light.3 to 7. with a least depth of 7. Depths—Limitations. respectively. with depths of 5.1 to 9. if no pilot is readily available.—Vessels approaching the entrance of the Bassein River from the S should not approach Alguada Reef Light closer than 3 miles.5 8.—Less water than charted has been reported to lie in an area between 19 miles W and 18.3 mile SE of Dalhousie Point. Pilotage. This delta is being constantly extended seaward by the deposit of silt. The only channels through the Irrawaddy Delta used by ocean-going vessels are the Bassein River and the Rangoon River.5 8. 94°17'E.. The tidal currents set strongly across Phaeton Shoals.1m and less extend about 0. Depths in the channel between Thamihla Kyun and the shore bank extending about 6 miles WNW from Purian Point range from 6.8 mile W from the island.5m and less. A course of 350° should be steered to pass E of the two lighted buoys E of Thamihla Kyun. the current sets about 315° and changes through 270°. flat and wooded. has been previously described in paragraph 8.6 8. alter course NNE and pass not less than 0.5 miles NE from the point.6 8.5 to 3. With the commencement of the ebb tide.3m. lies up to 0.2 mile W of Burgess Rock.5 to 14.5 8.Sector 8.5 knots during spring tides. During the Northeast Monsoon. When 3 miles S of Rocky Point. 94°24'E. Caution.).

black.1m.—During the Northeast Monsoon.8 8. and white plaques from the top downward. The E bank of the river between Purian Point and Ward Point.7 8. about 5 miles ENE of Maw Dengi.8 miles N of Sinswe Kyun at the outer edge of Enterprise Flat. which consists of two islands close together.7 8. a clearance of at least 1.7 8. its S extremity. Pariah Rock. lies about 0.7 A tide gauge lies on Ashby Rockys near the W bank of the river and just N of Panmawaddy Flat.4 mile off the E side of Haing Gyi Kyun. marked by a beacon. During the Southwest Monsoon.. the port receives information but no signals are displayed.8m.7 The Bassein River. marks the S entrance point of the shallow Panmawaddy River.6 8. on the W bank about 2.. lies about in the middle of the main fairway. which consists of two islands lying on a long.2m under the keel is considered necessary when crossing the entrance bar. The bar lies between the shallow flat close E of the Maw Dengi and the W and SW edges of Purian Bank.8 8.6 8. In heavy weather. Winds—Weather. 94°19'E.8 8.5m and less. is the means of access for oceangoing vessels calling at the port of Bassein.5 miles upriver from Tazingyun. lies about 1. two small islands lie on the E side of the reach. an island with a 135m hugh densely-wooded summit on its NE extremity. lies about 1 mile SSW of Elbow Point at the outer end of a spit extending from the shore. if proceeding to the anchorage SE of Thamihla Kyun.—The weather generally is hot and humid. 94°32'E. Anchorage.700mm annually. narrow shoal. Long Sand (16°04'N. tered to the NE and then proceed to the anchorage off the pilot station at Dalhousie Point.. about 10. Tidal currents at springs attain velocities of 1. lies 1. Each plaque represents 0. Dalhousie Point. 94°22'E. Foul ground extends about 0.8 8. lies about 3 miles ENE of Ward Point...5 miles N of Ward Point.4 mile E and S from the rock.7 8. During freshets the velocity may reach 5 knots. In 1964. Sinswe Kyun (16°23'N. 94°40'E. is marked by several pagodas. single-screw vessels exceeding a length of 137m and twin-screw vessels ex- 8.) lies within the limits of the shore bank which extends about 6 miles NW and then 9. This lack of navigational aids makes navigation at night impracticable. 94°22'E. on the E bank of the river about 5. 8. lie close N of Cockatoo Point. mark the tide gauge.7 8. 160.5 to 2 knots during the flood and up to 3 knots during the ebb.190 Sector 8. 8. with a least depth of 5.3m and surrounded by shoal depths of 5.. Due to the narrowness of the river at Bassein... Burma—South and West Coasts and Thailand—West Coast ceeding a length of 145m are advised not to attempt the upriver passage.). 8. Successive periods of HW are usually required and the passage in both directions ordinarily takes more than a day.9m level.. 173 .). about 2. about 75 miles above the river’s entrance. Burgess Rock (16°00'N. A 22m high tree on Southeast Point. Elbow Point (16°32'N.8 miles NW of Amazon Point. in depths of 8. the summit on Haing Gyi Kyun should bear about 016° and the light structure on Thamihla Kyun about 322°.8 8. A white cage topmark and red.).7 8.3 miles N of Sinswe Kyun. respectively.8 miles NNW of Amazon Point. which sometimes exceeds 2. forms the SE side of the river entrance. as defined by the 6m curve. with a depth of less than 1. Sesostris Rocks lie on the W side of the reach.7 8.7 8. Tazingyun (16°09'N. Ashby Rocks.8 Purian Bank (15°53'N. about 0. Storm and weather signals are displayed at Thamihla Kyun in accordance with the Indian Extended System.). Sailing Directions (Planning Guide) South Atlantic Ocean and Indian Ocean under “India— Signals.3 mile NNE of Rocky Point.8 8.—Large diurnal inequalities and seasonal variations best describe the tides at Bassein.. Cockatoo Point (16°30'N.2m.3m. Haing Gyi Kyun (16°00'N. When anchored in this position. lies with its N end about 1. The heavy rainfall. When Thamihla Kyun Light bears 206°. on the W bank of the river. Vessels approaching the entrance of the river from the W. lies in mid-channel about 0. 94°39'E.8 Pub.8 miles NE to Ward Point.) lies about 2.7 8.) is entered about 7. lies with Rocky Point.7 The Bassein River to Bassein 8.6m.7 8.5m. Further information on these storm signals may be found in Pub.—The least depth in the channel over the bar which lies across the entrance of the Bassein River is about 6. good anchorage can be taken. Depths—Limitations. Elbow Shoal. Alexander Rock. The controlling depth in the river channel between Thamihla Kyun and Bassein is the depth over Panmawaddy Flat.5 mile S of Sinswe Kyun. the channel was dredged to 5. the lower edge of the topmost white plaque marks the 7. lies on the E side of the fairway about 4 miles above Long Sand. 94°41'E. The Extended System is in use at Bassein. This approach is not recommended during the Southwest Monsoon.8 8.7 8. The channel over the bar leads between Purian Bank to the E and Haing Gyi Shoal to the W. 94°28'E.” Tides—Currents.) lies in mid-channel at the N end of Ransom Reach. Deep-draft vessels await HW in order to cross the entrance bar. the best time to cross the bar is between half tide and 2 hours after HW at Thamihla Kyun. should pass about 1 mile N of the island so as to clear the shoal depths N of Baroni Rock. steer for the anchorage.8 miles WSW of Ward Point. The river entrance has been reported to be a good radar target up to 15 miles.. with a depth of less than 1.). when the vessel should proceed directly to the anchorage off the pilot station.5m. Wolf Rock (15°59'N. occurs during the Southwest Monsoon between June and September. with a least depth of 0. Shoal depths extend about 3 miles WSW and NNE from Long Sand. 94°42'E. is a good mark. with a least depth of 4. about 1 mile SE of Thamihla Kyun. 94°20'E.).3 miles SW of Amazon Point. Amazon Point (16°29'N. Ransom Reach (16°17'N. Depths over this bank and shoal are less than 5. HW is essential to cross Panmawaddy Flat. Panmawaddy Flat.).7 8.8m.7 8.8 8.1m. Changes in the channel are frequent and the navigational aids are scarce.8 miles to the N. the W of the channels leading through the Irrawaddy Delta. 94°41'E.2 to 9.

natural gas was discovered in large quantities up to 100 miles offshore in the Gulf of Martaban. About 732m of berthing space is provided for lighters and native craft.2 to 7. 8. another tower stands 0. U Pe Beacon (15°44'N. The China Bakir River (16°19'N. numerous drying patches lie on the E part of the bank including Baragua Flats. Vessels should not approach this section of coast in depths of less than 18. Vessels suspected of or infected with yellow fever must anchor off Dalhousie Point. of the gulf. lies on the E bank of the Bassein River. Beacons stand on Mye Saon Sand. five of its principal mouths. The Sittang River flows into the head of the gulf.9 8. Larger vessels sometimes anchor or moor off the jetties.5 mile distant from the LW line. Vessels usually frequent the port between January and September. Vessels with other diseases on board may anchor anywhere below the wharves. Burma’s second-largest seaport. about 16 miles NE of the entrance of the China Bakir River...1m detached patch was reported to lie about 43 miles ESE of Pymbong Beacon.12 8. This section of coast is low and nothing conspicuous is visible from outside the shallow banks which front it.3 miles S and 4. on the SE side of Junction Reach. and then ENE for about 23 miles to the main outlet of the China Bakir River. A 9. Bassein Creek.5 miles ENE of Baragua Point and 1. the coast extends NE for about 35 miles to the mouth of the Pyapon River. 94°44'E. Two conspicuous masts support telegraph wires across its entrance.11 8. fronts the whole coast between Purian Point and Baragua Point and extends as much as 17 miles offshore from a position about 10 miles W of the latter point. 96°23'E. about 2.5 miles ESE of the SW end of Krishna Shoal. the W outlet of the China Bakir River.9 8. 96°06'E.9 Bassein (16°47'N. These mud flats form the NW side of Western Channel. which lies on the E side of the entrance of the Rangoon River. a dangerous wreck was reported to lie in position 15°20'20"N.9 Between Purian Point and Baragua Point. the Irrawaddy River. about 55 miles to the E. the coast is indented by many of the outlets of the Irrawaddy River.Sector 8.8 8.5 miles farther E. of Elephant Point and are reported to be conspicuous.). The remains of China Bakir Light are near the SE point of the bank. which dries.9 8. about 140 miles to the E. is low and lies about 3.12 Elephant Point (16°28'N. These white conical framework beacons with black topmarks stand on black bases. 95°37'E. Dedaye or Desaing Flats forms the SW part of the bank. from a position about 11 miles SE of U Pe Beacon. Thante Point (16°30'N. in depths of 5. not less than 0.12 . The entire area of the gulf is shallow and anchorage can be taken anywhere with a suitable draft. Anchorage. 8. A ruined pagoda stands in the village and Tazaung Tower stands about 2.8 191 8.) (World Port Index No. 8. with alongside depths of 5. capable of accommodating vessels up to 107m in length. on which the depths are less than 5.5 miles NE as a narrow ridge of hard sand. about 1 mile E of Dalhousie Point.11 8.10 8.8 8. blowing fresh Pub. fronts the coast between the mouth of the China Bakir River and Elephant Point and extends up to 4.). which extend about 8 miles SW from Baragua Point. Bassein is primarily a rice-exporting center. but was reported (1978) to lie 7 miles NE. about 75 miles above the mouth.—The winds at the entrance of the Rangoon River are NE in December and veer E.7m. about 60 miles SSE of Rangoon River Western Channel Entrance.5 to 6. marks the W side of the entrance of the Rangoon River.3m. about 75 miles N of the entrance. the Ywe River.) lies about 4.6m.5 mile farther SW.8 miles ENE of U Pe Beacon. the S extremity of the Pyapon District. Pymbong Beacon lies near the coast about 6. Elephant Point Tower stands 0.11 8.. 95°24'E.).3m draft during the Southwest Monsoon.11 8.9 8. 8. The Rangoon River and the Moulmein River enter the sea on the NW and E sides.9 In 1981. which enters the sea through extensive mud flats. but prior to anchoring the direction of the tidal current should be noted and very little chain veered until the vessel stems it.10 8.. respectively. in depths of 9. Each rice mill has one or more jetties. extends about 12. The port is open to vessels up to 145m in length and 7m draft during the fine season and up to 7.12 The Gulf of Martaban 8. the position of which is approximate. From Baragua Point.5 miles SSW. Other dangerous wrecks and navigational hazards in the Gulf of Martaban can best be seen on the charts. Sanda Lightship is moored 7. 96°36'12"E.—Anchorage can be taken.5 miles above the entrance of the Panmawaddy River.. In 1985. branches off from the main outlet of the China Bakir River about 2.10 8. the Pyamalaw River. Mye Saon Sand forms the NE part of the bank. was reported to lie about 30 miles ENE of Pymbong Beacon. Winds—Weather.5m.5 miles ENE of Elephant Point. including the Hetkethaung River. and the Bogale River. A bank.3 mile SW of the point. 8. The low land on both sides of the entrance of the river is not visible from seaward until about 7 miles from the coast. flows into the Bassein River about 8.. An extensive mud bank. A mud volcano. with a least depth of 2. Vessels with plague or cholera on board may anchor off Takaing Pagoda on the W bank of the river about 2 miles below Bassein. Baragua Point has been reported to be a good radar target up to 29 miles. navigable by small craft at HW.9 8.10 The Gulf of Martaban is entered between Baragua Point and the coast extending N abreast of Kalegauk Island. 173 8.) entrance may be identified by a clump of coconut palms on the W side and by Kanyingon Village on the E side.10 8. lie off the jetties. 8. Burma—South and West Coasts and Thailand—West Coast Rangoon Creek.12 8.3m. respectively.5 miles offshore.5 miles inland.1 to 10. The coast is not visible from the S extremity of this bank. 96°20'E. Three fixed moorings.11 The Rangoon River—Approaches 8.10 8. 49640). Tugs and an ample supply of lighters are available for handling cargo.5 miles within the entrance and connects with the Rangoon River about 10 miles below the city of Rangoon.11 Krishna Shoal (15°41'N.1m.

In February and March. In Western Channel the flood current begins setting NE toward the entrance of the river. Maneuvering speed and sea speed. There are rotary tidal currents.. A tide gauge and a tide gauge tower stand on Elephant Point. A flat.12 8. In January the wind is more N. 2.5 to 2 knots at springs and about 0. there is heavy but not continuous rainfall. respectively. Depths—Limitations. Fresh water draft fore and aft.12 8. 94°24'E. Southeast of Elephant Point. The bar has a soft silt bottom. in July and August continuous rainfall is often experienced. on the sound of a vessel’s whistle or siren being heard. The pilot boards about 1. A vessel approaching the pilot vessel to obtain a pilot should pass astern of and never ahead of the pilot vessel.12 8. A shifting bar. but sometimes a strong E wind prevails for several days. the ebb currents set across the channel onto a part of Eastern Sands.12 8.12 8. During the Northeast Monsoon. the velocity at springs is 2 to 4 knots.12 Pub. Gross tons. the vessel should make a lee for the boarding boat to the prevailing weather.5 hours after LW.12 8.12 8. extends up 8. By day—The regulation pilot flag (Hotel) and. The channel then leads N for 12 miles. Thick fogs prevail.5 hours earlier than at Elephant Point.). Burma—South and West Coasts and Thailand—West Coast to 8 miles farther SE from the S edge of Thante Flats (Eastern Grove Flats). extend almost 7 miles SE from Thante Point. a shoal which dries up to 2. 6.12 8. obstructs the approaches to the entrance of the river. when the monsoon develops fully and continues with few breaks until the end of October. on the flood and on the ebb. A detached 4.—Pilotage is compulsory for merchant vessels of over 200 grt.12 8. as may be necessary to enable the approaching vessel to locate the pilot vessel. with depths of less than 5. Condition of navigational equipment and anchors. the flood current sets about 034° and the ebb about 214°. about 20 miles S of Elephant Point.12 during the day. especially on the first of the flood. 96°17'E. Occasionally in October and November. Tides—Currents. After a few stormy days the weather is clear until the beginning of May. when in this position. 2. about 2.5m. with fluctuating depths.12 8.4m in places. Length overall and length between perpendiculars. off the mouths of the Irrawaddy River and off Baragua Flats. The entrance channels leading into the Rangoon River shift frequently as the result of excessive silting. Signals. Eastern Sands (16°26'N. The weather is generally good.) 8. depths within this curve shoal gradually toward the flats which lie in the river mouth and on either side of the main fairway.—The pilot vessel is radio equipped and displays the following signals: 1.—Changes in the depths and in the positions of the flats and shoals in the Rangoon River and its entrance are so constant that the chart must be used with great caution. but after the flats nearby are covered. 173 .—Deep-draft vessels. the pilot vessel will sound. these currents attain velocities of 1. Near the shore the sea breezes are fresh and generally the strongest at the time of spring tides. the flood current changes direction and sets strongly onto Mye Soan Sand over which it runs directly for Elephant Point.12 8. which shift clockwise. The ebb current sets SW in Western Channel outside Elephant Point. lies about 5.12 8. In the vicinity of the pilot vessel. 4. light land and sea breezes are observed in conjunction with thick and hazy weather.12 8. A shoal area. and dwt. Considerable eddies may be experienced off Elephant Point. Western Channel is the main channel for entry into the Rangoon River.—Tides in the approaches to and in the Rangoon River are semi-diurnal. The great body of the flood passes E into the Sittang River. To enable vessels to locate the pilot vessel during thick weather.12 8. attaining their greatest velocities at HW and LW. sea and swell permitting. The pilot vessel is usually at anchor about 17 miles S of Elephant Point.12 8. near the entrance of the Rangoon River the velocity is greater. medium-draft vessels may anchor about 2 miles E of Lanthaya Light Float (Fairway Light Float) (16°13'N. Vessel’s name and call sign. During the Northeast Monsoon.—The ETA should be sent 48 hours and 24 hours prior to arrival and should include the following information: 1. 5. Anchorage. two long and two short blasts (letter Z of the Morse code). lies between 2 and 7 miles S of Thante Point. Buoys may be missing or unlit. which dries 0. 3.12 8. Towards the end of the month.12 8.12 8. The channel is marked by a light float and by lighted buoys. The Southwest Monsoon commences about the middle of April.192 Sector 8.5 miles E of Lanthaya Light Float.5 miles S of the river entrance. The time of HW in this vicinity occurs about 1. if at anchor. a black ball. The velocity at springs is 5 to 6 knots. Thante Flats (Eastern Grove Flats) (16°28'N. and will repeat this signal at such intervals. Depths in this vicinity have been reported to have shoaled considerably.12 8. the tidal currents set NE and SW. Pilotage. Regulations.12 8. The channel is approached via Lanthaya Light Float (Fairway Light Float) and Lower Lighted Buoy. The 11m curve lies about 26.).8 miles SSW of Thante Point. At night—Lights and signals as prescribed by the Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea. The ebb current is the stronger. In good weather. a W set is observed sufficiently steady and strong enough to overcome the flood which sets to the NE. an extensive drying bank. and for so long a period.12 8. 96°28'E.8 knot at neaps. the current sets about 034° during the flood and 214° during the ebb. Vessels of 8m draft and over must anchor about 13 miles S of the pilot station and await instructions. In May and October. Between a position about 22 miles SSW of Baragua Point and the entrance of the Rangoon River. should anchor SE of Lanthaya Light Float. a number of which have been reported unlit. the land and sea breezes are regular. converging with Desaing Flats and Mye Saon. Close to the mouths the tidal currents set in and out of the channels.12 8. The navigational aids which mark these channels are moved as necessary to conform to these changes.. nrt. awaiting a pilot or anchoring for other reasons.6m patch lies about 20 miles SE of Thante Point. whether at anchor or underway. on its whistle or siren..3m.12 8.12 8. In the vicinity of the pilot vessel station.12 8.

The effect of the rains which augment the river during the rainy season.09m. and dry with low humidity.13 8. Tides—Currents. with three distinct seasons.1 to 11m until the position has been ascertained. Inclined to the right at 45° angle—1. Placed horizontally to the right—0. flows into the Gulf of Martaban between Elephant Point and Thante Point. c. Inclined to the right at 45° angle—0. In the river. Beginning in March the temperature and humidity commence to rise uncomfortably and the dry land bakes in the hot season until the first of the monsoon rains bring relief.12 8. best seen on chart. passing approximately 2 miles SE of Sanda Light Vessel. and the hot period. 2. A message from the pilot vessel will advise of a safe anchorage and also when to return to embark the pilot. A tide gauge and a tidal semaphore stand in the harbor.13 8. Inclined to the right at 45° angle below horizontal—5. Along this course. about 0. The interval of slack water is only a few minutes. Placed horizontally to the right—3. the channel is confined between Middle Bank and the W bank of the river. Temperatures are moderately warm. b.5m.12 8.8m. humid weather following the monsoon.2m. On the second and third day after the moon quarters. Several tide gauges stand on the banks of the river between its entrance and the anchorage S of Hastings Sand.12 193 8. the flood current sets in abruptly and the tide rises 1. e. c.13 8. Inclined to the left at 45° angle—1.13 8. the cool period. but the humidity is very high. the tidal currents attain excessive velocities. June to September inclusive. b. The river channel leads in a general NNW direction from Elephant Point to the port of Rangoon. From this time until March.13 8.13 8. Inclined to the right at 45° angle below horizontal—5.13 The Rangoon River to Rangoon 8.13 8. Directions.3m may not anchor at the pilot station. the current follows the course of the channel.13 8. After neap tides the tidal current gradually increases in velocity and is rapid until the moon quarters. lie ESE of Lanthaya Light Float. is to weaken the Pub. the E channel through the Irrawaddy Delta. The rise and fall of the tide at the port as well as near the entrance of the river is considerable. as there is not a sufficiently marked change in the depths in the channel to enable a vessel to determine its position by sounding. Burma—South and West Coasts and Thailand—West Coast Deep-draft vessels drawing over 7. Placed horizontally to the left—1.3 mile W of Monkey Point. Days are sunny with the nights being cool and the weather is clear. It is important to remember that the shore of the Irrawaddy Delta is so low as to be invisible until within a few miles of it and that shallow banks extend in places to considerable distances offshore. Placed horizontally to the right—3. the cool season begins about mid-November. Above Middle Bank the velocity decreases.5m. great caution is necessary when approaching the entrance.—A vessel approaching the Rangoon River from the W should pass about 5 miles S of Alguada Reef and then steer to pass about 26 miles S of Baragua Point. as follows: 1. Center arm a. there are strong eddies off the points of land. The flood current turns earlier inshore than in mid-channel. c. The position of the three arms of the tidal semaphore. During this period the ebb current continues running in mid-channel.7m. although the average would be about 35°C. During February and March.—Soundings are not an accurate guide in approaching the entrance of the Rangoon River. Vessels approaching the Rangoon River from the E should keep in depths of 10.13 The Rangoon River. flat. during spring tides. about 21 miles above the entrance.3m.8m in the first hour. which are the monsoon period. Lower arm a. Inclined to the left at 45° angle—7. indicate the height of the tide above LWS tide level.13 8. Rangoon receives most of its average 2.5 hours and for 1 hour on the ebb.13 8. Caution.18m. Winds—Weather. here the flood current attains velocities of 5 to 6 knots at springs.12 8. Inclined to the right at 45° angle below horizontal—0. as observed from S. Dangerous wrecks lie approximately 4 miles S of Thuriya Light Float and 11 miles ENE of the charted position of Sanda Light Vessel.5m. Course may then be altered to the NE to make for a position 8 miles S of Rangoon Pilot Station. d.8m. great caution is necessary when approaching the entrance of the Rangoon River. when thick fogs are frequent. when thick fogs are liable to occur.—The climate in Rangoon is tropical throughout the year.13 29°C. 24° to 32°C. A large navigational buoy (LANBY) is anchored near the wreck.12 8.700mm rainfall for the year. Upper arm a. Inclined to the right at 45° angle—1. when the velocity suddenly decreases.12 8. Compact clumps of trees lie in the vicinity of the villages. The tidal current attains its maximum velocity of 5 to 6 knots in the channels on the night of the second day after full or new moon. and sparsely-wooded land bordering the river consists of rice paddies. During February and March. remembering that the flood or NE current sets very strongly toward and over the shallows of the entrance of the Sittang River.7m. During the monsoon season (Southwest Monsoon). Close within the entrance of the river above Elephant Point. from about mid-May through September. 8. 18 to 8. Once S of the pilot station.27m. Changes in depths in the river and approaches are so rapid and frequent that charts of the area should not be taken as a sure guide. Numerous wrecks. the weather is pleasantly cool. The partially submerged wreck of the Dagon Light Vessel lies approximately 12 miles SSW of Lanthaya Light Float. During this season the temperature may rise to 41°C. Most of the low.13 8. there is slack water on the flood current for 1. b. The Rangoon River tides are subject to a large diurnal inequality. slack water occurs at the end of this hour.Sector 8. Consideration must be given the tidal current. At springs.12 8.—Tides at Rangoon are semidiurnal. course should be altered N for the pilot vessel and then NNE to pass E of Lanthaya Light Float (Fairway Light Float) and into the river entrance. 3. d. 173 . the times of HW and LW may occur as much as 1 hour before or after the computed times. After a brief period of warm.

Kanaungto Creek is entered about 0. Abreast Mower’s Point.14 8.5 mile SW of Pegu Point. Berth No. Bars in the river.. The S end of this bank lies 2. with a least depth of 1.). lie on the E side of the main channel about 2 miles NW of the NW extremity of Middle Bank.1 to 18.8 miles W of Monkey Point. A wreck.7m. At times the flood current is weakened to the extent that vessels moored in Rangoon Harbor do not swing to it. d. Hastings Sand (16°44'N.1m. which barely dry. The bend in the channel at Monkey Point imposes a maximum length limitation of 182. the depths range from 7.8m. a continuation of Eastern Sands to the NW. on the S bank of the Rangoon River. Berth lengths are. the maximum draft that could be taken over the outer bar was reduced to 7. lies on the W side of the main fairway about 5. 96°13'E.9m. lies in mid-channel with its NW end about 4. lies on the NE part of a narrow bank with depths of less than 5.3m. on the shore abreast of the N end of the above bank and North Beacon on the opposite shore. with a depth of 3. with depths alongside of 7.7m between August and March. 8. which parallels the W bank of the river.. 3—137m..3 miles to the N. A draft of 8. August to November. 8. 8. February to May.5 hour after time of LW and the ebb about 1.13 Rangoon (Yangon) (16°46'N.7m.13 8.3 miles W of Monkey Point. S of Hastings Sand.. between Monkey Point and Kanaungto Creek 3. the chart should not be accepted as completely accurate and up-to-date. 96°15'E. Draft limitations are calculated according to the prevailing depths over the bar at the entrance of the river. The whole bank dries from 0.8 miles to the W.13 8. Between positions about 1 and 1.3 and 9. During spring tides.13 8. as well as the depths over them. Tidal bores.14 Rangoon (Yangon) is the capital. especially in February. which leads between Chokey Shoal and the E bank of the river.13 8.13 flood current and strengthen the ebb. The SE end of this bank is marked by a lighted buoy.13 8.13 8.3 to 2. chief city.9m high.5 miles NW of Mower’s Point.13 8. 1—137m. There is no beam restriction. The maximum depths occur toward the end of the monsoon season. in early 1967. lies NNW of the N end of Hmawun Lumps and is best seen on the chart. about 3.5 miles NNW of Sinha’s Beacon. 96°14'E.13 8. The port of Rangoon comprises a 3. Night navigation on the river is practicable up to within the harbor limit. with depths of less than 5. c. An obstruction.14 8.5m. sweep up the Pegu River in the sudden rising of the early flood. a similar drying bank. Vessels over 183m in length are usually moored off Hastings Sand. It lies on the N bank of the Rangoon River.) is entered close W of Mower’s Point. Provisional drafts. Berth No..13 8. because of heavy silting. Sule Pagoda Wharf.). The minimum depths occur prior to the monsoon season. the depths range from 9..). marks the S limit of Rangoon Harbor.). The port of Rangoon is a first port of entry.14 8.5 mile SW of the entrance to Twante Canal..).3 miles W of Monkey Point.5m.. Depths—Limitations. 2—137m. caused in part by excessive silting.4 to 9. Berth No. and April. 96°12'E. Navigational aids mark most of these dangers. the SW entrance point of Pazundaung Creek. a drying bank about 1 mile long. The Pegu River is navigable by light-draft vessels only. 96°08'E. 96°20'E. A beacon stands on Mower’s Point. The positions of the bars and banks.13 8. Farther W. lies about 1 mile E of Sinha’s Beacon.13 8. Range lights lead up the river starting in Middle Bank Channel. lies at the E end of the city of Rangoon about 0. can accommodate seven general cargo vessels. A line drawn between Sinha’s Beacon. Chokey Track.3 to 9.. lies in the middle of the river with its S end about 1.5 mile-long section of the Rangoon River W of Monkey Point. b. and principal port of the Union of Burma. Depths—Limitations.) flows into the Rangoon River between Syriam Point and Pegu Point. 4—137m. Berth No. however.5 miles NW of Elephant Point.3m. depths in the river range from 6.13 8.1m. Monkey Point (16°46'N.). but vary depending on the tides which have considerable variance throughout the year. are constantly changing. subject to tide and monsoon conditions. subject to change without notice.194 Sector 8.—The port of Rangoon is accessible to ocean-going vessels drawing 9.5 miles NNW of Sinha’s Beacon.13 8.—Wrecks and obstructions still exist in the river abreast of the city of Rangoon.3 mile ESE of the obstruction.5 mile SW of Hastings Sand.13 8.1m can be taken over the bar at Monkey Point during spring tides. as follows: a. Burma—South and West Coasts and Thailand—West Coast An obstruction. Chokey Shoal (16°41'N. especially between positions 1. The NW limit of the Port of Rangoon is defined by beacons on both shores of the creek about 3. 96°15'E.3 and 3. but are subject to rapid change because of heavy silting.14 8. The Pegu River (16°46'N. The flood current commences about 0. at times other than the rainy season. Kings Bank Sand (16°44'N. The following wharves are available for ocean-going vessels: 1. are forecast for each month. is subject to sudden shoaling and may have depths of less than 3. about 0.13 8. cause fluctuations in the depths.13 8.13 8. lies 0. These depths exist abreast of the small wharves closest to Monkey Point. Usually the controlling river depths over the bars range between 7.13 8.1m. Modern alongside berthing facilities are provided as well as numerous mooring berths in the river abreast of the city. with a least depth of 0.5 miles NNW of Hmawun Lumps and the N end closes the shore about 3.5 to 9. 96°12'E. 96°13'E. tidal currents in the harbor may attain velocities of 5 to 6 knots.). D’Silva Shoal (16°38'N.13 8. The description of the Rangoon River between its entrance and the port of Rangoon is confined to the shoals and banks in mid-river. lies about 0.6 to 12..3 hours after time of HW. Twante Canal (16°46'N.4m at HW. with a depth of 7m. 96°10'E) World Port Index No.9m to vessels which can be safely taken through the channel in this vicinity. 49650 8. abreast of Brooking Street Wharfand Sule Pagoda Wharf. March.2m. 173 . Hmawun Lumps (16°34'N.14 Pub. Middle Bank (16°30'N.

14 195 e. Vessels with slightly longer lengths can be accommodated by removing a buoy. Berth No. Vessels with a draft of 8m or more must anchor about 8 miles S of the pilot station. Berth No. Berth No. For example. a close study of them is obviously important. handles containers and general cargo.Sector 8. Berth No.5m. with depths alongside of 7. 1—137m. The lower quarantine anchorage. 5.9m. Berth lengths are. with depths alongside of 7. Sailing Directions (Planning Guide) South Atlantic Ocean and Indian Ocean under “India—Signals.