Journal Article Review

Strategic performance management: Development of a performance measurement system at the Mayo Clinic
Author: Curtright, Jonathan W; Stolp-Smith, Steven C; Edell, Eric S Publication info: Journal of Healthcare Management 45. 1 (Jan/Feb 2000): 58-68.

1. Background Mayo Foundation is an integrated academic healthcare system and providing subspecialty and primary clinical care, educate residents and perform basic and clinical research. Mayo Clinic, as the Foundation’s oldest and largest practice, located in Rochester, includes an outpatient multispecialty group practice, tertiary-care hospital, and a regional health system of community physical group practices and hospitals in Iowa, Minnesota and Wisconsin. The extensively rapid and accelerating changes in US healthcare regulation created a high pressure to any healthcare system provider to improve clinical quality, enhance service, expand access, and reduce costs. In the other hand, competitive pressures in marketplace require healthcare system to measure, monitor, and report system performance to maintain and expand market base. Only those healthcare systems that are capable of dearly articulating and demonstrating the value of services provided enjoy a competitive advantage. Leaders of these institutions need to develop a methodology and system that align organizational strategies and core principles with performance measurement and management indicators. 2. Problem formulation The leadership of Mayo Clinic's outpatient operations realized that its current performance measurement systems were based largely on financial indicators (e.g., total expense and expense per unit of service) and clinical productivity (e.g., number of surgical patients and number of outpatient visits). 2.1 Corporate Business Trends The new performance measurement models incorporate financial figures as one among a broader set of measures (Eccles 1991). Many companies recognize that long-term success cannot be predicted by short-term measures such as quarterly earnings figures. For example, a Wharton School study of 317 companies found that 36 percent were using nonfinancial indicators to set executives' compensation (Wharton School 1997). The need to assess performance across both financial and operational indicators necessitates the development of a measurement framework. Kaplan and Norton's (1996; 1993; 1992) conceptual framework, known as the "balanced scorecard," is a potential solution to this complex management and measurement issue. 2.2 Trends in the Healthcare Industry National accrediting bodies, such as the National Committee for Quality Assurance (NCQA) and the joint Commission on the Accreditation of Health Care Organizations (joint Commission), request that managed care plans and hospitals prove the clinical quality and cost effectiveness of the care they

Ellwood and Enthoven 1995. 2. the quality of the care provided. private and public employers such as Allied Signal. resource utilization. health status of patients. Research Methodology Review current performance measurement Review subject related to performance measurement Benchmark against of peers New performance management & measurement system . accurate management information to improve and predict performance 3. with quantifiable data. finances. GTE. The NCQA and the joint Commission promote performance accountability among managed care organizations and hospitals by asking them to prove. The NCQAs Health Plan Data and Information Set (HEDIS) incorporates more than 60 performance indicators that cover quality of care. organizations must choose two clinical quality measures that will have an effect on at least 20 percent of their patient population (Morrissey 1997). Mosser. Schroeder and Lamb 1996). More than 300 managed care plans measure their performance according to the HEDIS measures and report their results to employers. and the states of New York and Ohio require that health plans obtain NCQA accreditation before bidding to provide medical services to their employees (Iglehart 1996. including  Clinical quality to maintain and expand market share  Organizational agility in creating and responding to market forces  Organizational focus on critical performance metrics  Timely. In addition. patient satisfaction. access to and satisfaction with care. The Joint Commission Is ORYX system asks that hospitals measure performance in the following broad domains: clinical quality. and financial strength.provide (Denton and Matloff 1995. Solberg.3 Expected outcome A strategic performance management system that monitors and reports how well the organization achieves its performance goals. General Electric. Xerox. and organizational management. and McDonald 1997). Further. and must be useful to enhance a wide range of organizational competencies.

Financial performance Those key common themes were integrated with Mayo’s vision. Benchmark was done against Allina Health System. Mayo’s team found common performance measurement frameworks. current performance measurement systems were based largely on financial indicators (e. primary value and core principles resulting the initial version of performance indicators of the performance management and measurement system. Group Health Northwest..Quality of service or products . Henry Ford Health System.g. Mayo’s team was reviewing performance frameworks devised by leading organizations in multiple industries (Kaplan and Norton 1993) and commissioning a healthcare research and consulting firm to study performance measurement system used by other leading academic healthcare centers. total expense and expense per unit of service) and clinical productivity (e. The performance management and measurement report intranet site become a common tool for obtaining information 3. and Lahey Hitchcock Clinic.Unsurprisingly. 1. Findings Based on the research.Customer satisfaction: internal and external customers . including . Leadership team showed an interest in measuring performance in areas beyond the traditional financial and clinical productivity indicators .Internal business process: efficiency of operations . Kaiser Permanente.000 patients Patient waiting times – access to appointments Percentage of staff from underrepresented groups Employee satisfaction surveys Mayo’s contribution to society Board of Governors’ environmental scan Market share Patient mix by geography and payor group Mutual respect & diversity Social commitment External environmental assessment Patient characteristics Other outcomes.. Reviewing measured outpatient access in its most recent budgeting and planning process and its performance in meeting its access targets 2. 4.Continuous improvement efforts . Performance Category Customer satisfaction Clinical productivity & efficiency Financial Internal operations Performance Indicator Rating of primary care provided Rating of subspecialty care provided Clinical productivity per physician per workday Outpatient visits per physician per workday Expense per relative value unit (unit of service) General examination average itinerary length in days Patient complaints per 1.Public responsibility and social commitment . number of surgical patients and number of outpatient visits).g. The overall effort become a catalyst to further develop an institution-wide clinical practice data set 4.

yet alone considering the implementation of performance measurement system. and regional health system operations. Future versions may include data on inpatient operations. The first iteration of this evolving report focuses on Mayo's outpatient operations. . it is worth to investigate whether they share the same common performance measurement framework whereas the pressure from Indonesian government not as high as US government. However. Management of the processes and technology driving these indicators facilitates the continued integration of disparate healthcare entities into a more seamless continuum of care for the patient. it needs further research to understand the true reason of ISO certification. Nevertheless. Discussion/suggestion for further research Health systems need to improve forecasting capabilities for both operational and planning purposes. Indonesia was experiencing high growth of International hospital. the competitive pressure for such announced ‘International Hospital’ to compete in the healthcare market is there. as part of healthcare system. Most of the new hospitals showed their ISO 9001 certification. 6.5. Thus. Some may feel that it just for the sake of marketing effort to attract more customers rather than to improve its service quality. In the other hand. some municipal/local hospitals also pursued ISO 9001 certification. A reporting system with the ability to provide information on both retrospective and prospective organizational performance creates an invaluable management tool. managed care operations. Conducting the same research in Indonesia context In last ten years.

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