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Reinforcing bars must be embedded a minimum distance into the concrete in order to achieve the full tensile capacity, T of the bar. This length is referred to as “Development Length”, Ld.

Concrete Rebar T = Asfy

Ld

The development length is based upon the BOND between the rebar and the concrete. Factors affecting this bond include the following: • • • • • Type of ribbing on the bar Presence of epoxy (or other ) coating Concrete quality Distance between bar and edge of concrete Type of end anchorage into the concrete

Lecture 11 – Page 1 of 9

0 for uncoated bars λ = lambda = Lightweight aggregate factor = 1.0 for all other locations β = beta = Coating factor = 1. PSI f’c = specified concrete compressive strength.3 for lightweight aggregate = 1.3 for top reinforcement = 1. PSI α = alpha = Bar location factor = 1.0 for normal weight aggregate Lecture 11 – Page 2 of 9 .5 for epoxy coated bars = 1.Determining Ld for Tension Bars: a) #6 and smaller bars: Ld = d b f y αβλ 25 f ' c b) #7 and larger bars: Ld = d b f y αβλ 20 f ' c where: db = diameter of bar fy = yield strength of bar.

0) REQUIRED: Determine the development length.8) Uncoated bar (β = 1.Example 1 GIVEN: A #6 rebar under tension force. Ld to achieve full tensile strength of the bar. Step 1 – Use the formula above to determine Ld: Ld = d b f y αβλ 25 f ' c ⎛6 ⎞ ⎜ " ⎟(60. Assume the following conditions: • • • • • • Concrete f’c = 4000 PSI Normal weight concrete (λ = 1.0)(1.5” Lecture 11 – Page 3 of 9 .0) ASTM A615 Grade 60 rebar #6 rebar (γ = 0.0)(1.000 PSI )(1.0) 8 Ld = ⎝ ⎠ 25 4000 PSI Ld = 28.0) Bar location is bottom of beam (α = 1.5” Concrete #6 Rebar Ld = 28.

clear cover > db Concrete f’c 3000 PSI 4000 PSI 5000 PSI 3000 PSI 4000 PSI 5000 PSI All other cases No. 7 and larger bars 55db 47db 42db 82db 71db 64db Example 2 GIVEN: The same information as Example 1.5” Lecture 11 – Page 4 of 9 . REQUIRED: Using the table above. clear cover > db Ld = 38db ⎛6 ⎞ = 38 ⎜ "⎟ ⎝8 ⎠ Ld = 28. determine the Ld for a #6 bar. Step 1 – Use table above to determine Ld: Concrete f’c = 4000 PSI Clear spacing of bars > db.Assuming “normal” conditions. 6 and smaller bars 44db 38db 34db 66db 57db 51db No. the following table may be used to determine development lengths of bars in tension: Development Length Ld of Grade 60 bottom bars in normal weight concrete Condition Clear spacing of bars > db.

02 Ldc = Larger of db f y f 'c ⎛6 ⎞ ⎜ " ⎟(60.000 PSI) = 13.0003 ⎜ "⎟ (60.2” Lecture 11 – Page 5 of 9 . Use f’c = 4000 PSI and Grade 60 bars.02 = larger of db f y f 'c or Ldc = 0.5” ⎝8 ⎠ Ldc = 14. Ldc = Development length in compression Ldc = 0.000 PSI ) 8 = 0. REQUIRED: Determine the Ldc for the bar.02 ⎝ ⎠ = 14.Determining Ld for Compression Bars: The development length of bars in compression is not as large as the development length in tension because of the absence of tension cracking in the concrete. Ldc = Development length in compression Ldc = 0.2” ← Use 4000 PSI or ⎛6 ⎞ Ldc = 0.0003dbfy = 0.0003dbfy Example 3 GIVEN: A #6 bar in compression.

e.3Ld for “Class B” splice if reinforcement does not meet Class A requirements Lecture 11 – Page 6 of 9 . i. beams. slabs and other situations requiring long lengths of bars. but transportation. For long walls..Lap Splices of Bars Bars are generally fabricated to lengths of about 60’-0”.0Ld for “Class A” splice if the area of reinforcement provided through the splice > twice that required by analysis and not more than 50% of the total reinforcement is spliced within the lap length = 1. workability and other concerns often require bars to be less than about 40’-0” long. Concrete Ls Ls = Length of lap splice = 1. It is good practice to place laps at regions of small tension. lap splicing is commonly used. low moment.

The following is a diagram showing the required lengths of bends and hooks: Ldh = Lhbλ Lecture 11 – Page 7 of 9 .Hooked and Bent Bars Hooks are used in concrete members where there is not sufficient straight length to achieve the full development length Ld.

“Y” and “Z”.000 = 0. required hook dimensions “X”.0 unless otherwise specified below: fy if using other than Grade 60 bars = 60.8 if ties or stirrups spacing < 3db = 1. REQUIRED: Determine the min.Where: Lhb = Basic development length of hook in tension = 1200 db f 'c λ = 1. Use LIGHTWEIGHT concrete with f’c = 4000 PSI.3 if lightweight concrete = Re quired _ As Pr ovided _ As Example 4 GIVEN: A #5 Grade 40 bar is in tension as shown below. Z = Ldh Side cover = 1½” X End cover = 1½” Y Critical section Step 1 – Determine dimension “X”: X = 12db ⎛5 ⎞ = 12 ⎜ " ⎟ ⎝8 ⎠ X = 7½” Lecture 11 – Page 8 of 9 .7 if side concrete cover > 2½” or end cover > 2” = 0.

9” Step 4 – Determine total development length.4” Lecture 11 – Page 9 of 9 .0 since side cover = 1½” < 2½” = 1.9”(1.67 60000 PSI Ldh = Lhbλ = 11.Step 2 – Determine dimension “Y”: Y = 4db since it is a #6 bar ⎛5 ⎞ = 4 ⎜ "⎟ ⎝8 ⎠ Y = 2½” Step 3 – Determine length of hooked bar. Z = Ldh: Ldh = Lhbλ Where: λ = 1.0)(1. Lhb: Lhb = 1200 db f 'c ⎛5 ⎞ ⎜ "⎟ 8 = 1200 ⎝ ⎠ 4000 PSI = 11.67) Ldh = 10.3)(0.3 since lightweight concrete = fy 60000 PSI = 40000 PSI = 0.

It is Lecture on RCC Development Length Hook

It is Lecture on RCC Development Length Hook

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