Typhoid Fever Pathophysiology

Precipitating Factors: Predisposing Factors:     Age Immunocompromised Medical History Geographical area   Poor hand hygiene Eating food from the outside source (street foods, carinderia) Unboiled/ unpurified drinking water Unsanitary Preparation of food

Etiology: Ingestion of foods or fluids contaminated with Salmonella typhi bacteria

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Bacteria enter the stomach & survive a pH as low as 1.5

Bacteria invade the Peyer’s patches of the intestinal wall in the small intestine where it attach (incubation period is first 7-14 days after ingestion)

Enter bloodstream via lymphatics (Peyer’s patches) S/Sx: Inject toxin known as the effector proteins into the intestinal cells & interrupts with the cellular proteins & lipids & manipulate their function resulting in phagocytization of the epithelial cell membrane  Abdominal cramps

Bacteria induced macrophage apoptosis, breaking out into the bloodstream and cause systemic infection.
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S/Sx: High fever & chills Rashes made up of flat, rosecolored spots Fatigue / weakness Body malaise Headache


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Intestinal hemorrhage Typhoid psychosis Sepsis

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