C2001 – Engineering Material & Construction II

Ms. Adilen Suil
adilen@polikk.edu.my www.scribd.com/delpkk


Definition and functions of FOUNDATION
• A foundation is a structure that transfers loads to the earth. Foundations are generally broken into two categories: shallow foundations and deep foundations ‘Or’ • A foundation is the base on which a building rests and its purpose is


Shallow Foundati on

Deep Foundati on

• Shallow foundations of a house versus the deep foundations of a Skyscraper.

a. SHALLOW foundations: those which transfer loads to subsoil at a point near to the ground floor of the building such as strips and rafts

• Deep Foundations: those which transfer the loads to a subsoil some distance below the ground floor of the building such as a pile

Suitability of foundation according to type of soil and
Table: Typical Subsoil bearing capacities

• Back fill : materials excavated from site & if suitable used to fill in around the walls and foundations • Bearing capacity: safe load per-unit area which the ground can carry • Bearing pressure: the pressure produced on the ground by the loads • Made ground: refuse, excavated rock or soil deposited for the purpose of filling in a depression or for raising the site above its natural level

• Settlement: ground movement which may caused by :
a. Deformation of the soil due to imposed loads b. Volume changes of the soil as a result of seasonal conditions c. Mass movement of the ground in unstable areas


Types of friction and end bearing pile foundation:

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