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Dr. W. E. Deming
Main architect for introducing Total Quality into Japan Born 1900 Graduated in Electrical Engineering PhD in mathematical physics Became statistician for US govt. Sent by US govt. to Japan after WWII to advise on Japanese census.
Quality is about people, not products Suggested quality concept for designing product Management need to understand nature of variation and how to interpret statistical data Promoted importance of leadership 85% of production faults responsibility of management, not workers Enumerated a 14-point management philosophy
Product Development Cycle 1. 5. 4. Design the product. . Try to sell it. Redesign – start the cycle all over again. 2. Make it. 3. Do consumer research and test the product‟s uses.
Achieving Quality Companies should direct efforts towards: Innovation of products Innovation of processes Improvement of existing products Improvement of existing processes .
Quality Approach in Context .
Quality Costs Productivity Prices Market Share Stay in business .
Attributes of a Leader Coaches – not judges Strives to understand variation and its causes Strives to remove obstacles within the organization Responds to all customer forces Adopts consistency of purpose Places and emphasis on improving processes .
they are „jewels‟ Strives to recognize those who need help and the gives help Creates and atmosphere of trust Knows the work he supervises Does not place an over-reliance on figures Encourages education and continuous improvement of each person .Attributes of a Leader Recognizes that people are not „assets‟.
Create constancy of purpose for continual improvement of products Create constancy of purpose for improvement of systems. and provide jobs.Deming’s 14-point Management Philosophy 1. . products and services. Reduced defects and cost of development. satisfy customers. with the aim to become excellent.
and thus constantly decrease the time and cost of systems. Adopt a commitment to seek continual improvements Constantly and forever improve the system development processes. Improving quality is not a one time effort. .Deming’s 14-point Management Philosophy 2. to improve quality and productivity.
.Deming’s 14-point Management Philosophy 3. It is too late and unreliable – it does not produce quality. Inspection is not the answer. Switch from defect detection to defect prevention Cease dependencies on mass inspection (especially testing) to achieve quality. Reduce the need for inspection on a mass basis by building quality into the system in the first place.
. Move towards quality of product. In dealing with suppliers one should end the practice of awarding business on price. reliability of delivery and willingness to cooperate and improve. Minimize total cost. making them a partner in a long-term relationship of loyalty and trust. Build partnerships.Deming’s 14-point Management Philosophy 4. Move towards a single supplier for any one item or service.
Deming’s 14-point Management Philosophy 5. . Improvement is not confined to products and their direct processes but to all supporting services and activities All functions in an organization need to become quality conscious to deliver a quality product.
Train a modern way. as knowledge is essential for improvement. Everyone must be trained.Deming’s 14-point Management Philosophy 6. Institute training on the job. .
It is a manger‟s job to help their people and their systems do a better job. .Deming’s 14-point Management Philosophy 7. Institute leadership. Supervision must change from chasing. to coaching and support.
Deming’s 14-point Management Philosophy 8. Drive out fear. Drive out fear and encourage two-way communication. Management should be held responsible for the faults of the organization and environment. . so that everyone may work effectively.
They must foresee and prevent problems during systems development and use. People must work as a team.Deming’s 14-point Management Philosophy 9. Remove barriers between departments Break down barriers between areas. .
Do not place people under unnecessary pressure by asking them to do things which are not achievable.Deming’s 14-point Management Philosophy 10. exhortations. . Do not have unrealistic targets Set realistic targets. Eliminate slogans. Slogans do not build quality systems. and new levels of productivity. and targets that ask for zero defects.
. Substitute it with leadership. Eliminate quotas and numerical targets Eliminate numerical quotas and goals.Deming’s 14-point Management Philosophy 11.not quality and methods. Quotas and goals (such as schedule) address numbers .
. The responsibility of project managers must change from schedules to quality. Remove barriers that prevent employees having pride in the work that they perform Remove barriers to pride of workmanship.Deming’s 14-point Management Philosophy 12.
Deming’s 14-point Management Philosophy 13. Encourage education and self-improvement for everyone Institute and vigorous program of education and selfimprovement for everyone. . There must be a continuing commitment to training and educating software managers and professional staff.
Publish top management‟s permanent commitment to continuous improvement of quality and productivity .Deming’s 14-point Management Philosophy 14.
Identify customers Determine customer needs Translate Establishment units of measurement Establish measurements Develop product Optimize product design Develop process Optimize process capability Transfer . 6. 5. 2. 8. 3. 10. 4. 9. 7.Juran’s 10-point Program 1.
6. 5.Crosby’s 14-step program 1. 8. 3. 7. Management commitment Quality improvement team Quality measurement Cost of quality evaluation Quality awareness Corrective action Zero defect program Supervisor training . 2. 4.
14. 11. 13.Crosby’s 14-step program 9. 10. Zero defects day Goal setting Error cause removal Recognition Quality councils Do it over again . 12.
defect prevention is now part of the culture) Certainty (the whole organization is involved in continuous improvement) . culture of openness) Wisdom (management fully participates.Crosby’s Maturity Grid Uncertainty (adhoc) Awakening (recognition begins but management unwilling to spend on quality) Enlightenment (management begins to support quality improvement program.
A variant to this approach is FMEA .Shingo’s Philosophy Poka Yoke (meaning mistake proofing) This involves identifying potential error sources in the process and monitoring these sources for errors.
to brainstorm and to recommend and implement solutions.Ishikawa’s Philosophy Quality Control Circles (QCC) A quality control circle consists of a small group of employees who do similar work and arrange to meet regularly to identify and analyze work-related problems. .
Quality Control Circles Select problem State and re-state problems Collect facts Brainstorm Build on each other ideas Choose course of action Presentation .
Genichi Taguchi .
other than losses caused by its intrinsic function” He defines a loss function as a measure of the cost of quality He also developed a method for determining the optimum value of process variables which will minimize the variation in a process while keeping mean on target .Taguchi’s Philosophy Defines quality in terms of loss “the loss a product causes to society after being shipped.
Peter Drucker .
Drucker’s Philosophy Success is threefold Know your business Know your competencies Knowing how to keep focused on goals Effective management and employee participation Link between the bottom line and satisfying the customer .
Drucker’s Philosophy “Purpose of business lies outside itself – that is in creating and satisfying a customer. The decision process is central. and structure has to follow strategy and management has to be management by objectives and self-control.” .
4.Drucker’s 5 Principles of Management 1. Setting objectives Organizing Motivating and communicating Establishing measures of performance Developing people . 3. 2. 5.
Tom Peters .
cross-functional co-operative organization .Peter’s Philosophy Excellent firms believe in constant improvement and constant change Need to move from hierarchical management to horizontal. fast.
Peter’s Management Guidelines Actively create a quality revolution Put the customer first in everything you do Listen actively to all stakeholders Invest in people. education and recruitment Openly reward. recognize and support productivity innovation Openly support failures where people have tried to improve Involve everyone in everything at all times . training.
Peter’s Management Guidelines Setup simple and understandable measures Fight against bureaucracy and inflexibility Look through a different mirror: step outside the company and look at it from a different perspective Teamwork and trust: develop strong interpersonal and team skills Work on attitudes and attention to detail: get things done Be consistent and strive for improvements in all areas .
Ch. 1 .References A Practical Approach to Software Quality. 1 Total Quality Management: A Total Quality Approach. Ch.
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