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Dr. W. E. Deming
Main architect for introducing Total Quality into Japan Born 1900 Graduated in Electrical Engineering PhD in mathematical physics Became statistician for US govt. Sent by US govt. to Japan after WWII to advise on Japanese census.
Quality is about people, not products Suggested quality concept for designing product Management need to understand nature of variation and how to interpret statistical data Promoted importance of leadership 85% of production faults responsibility of management, not workers Enumerated a 14-point management philosophy
4. 3. Redesign – start the cycle all over again. Try to sell it. 2. Design the product. Do consumer research and test the product‟s uses. Make it.Product Development Cycle 1. 5. .
Achieving Quality Companies should direct efforts towards: Innovation of products Innovation of processes Improvement of existing products Improvement of existing processes .
Quality Approach in Context .
Quality Costs Productivity Prices Market Share Stay in business .
Attributes of a Leader Coaches – not judges Strives to understand variation and its causes Strives to remove obstacles within the organization Responds to all customer forces Adopts consistency of purpose Places and emphasis on improving processes .
they are „jewels‟ Strives to recognize those who need help and the gives help Creates and atmosphere of trust Knows the work he supervises Does not place an over-reliance on figures Encourages education and continuous improvement of each person .Attributes of a Leader Recognizes that people are not „assets‟.
.Deming’s 14-point Management Philosophy 1. products and services. Reduced defects and cost of development. satisfy customers. with the aim to become excellent. and provide jobs. Create constancy of purpose for continual improvement of products Create constancy of purpose for improvement of systems.
Deming’s 14-point Management Philosophy 2. and thus constantly decrease the time and cost of systems. . Improving quality is not a one time effort. Adopt a commitment to seek continual improvements Constantly and forever improve the system development processes. to improve quality and productivity.
Deming’s 14-point Management Philosophy 3. . It is too late and unreliable – it does not produce quality. Reduce the need for inspection on a mass basis by building quality into the system in the first place. Inspection is not the answer. Switch from defect detection to defect prevention Cease dependencies on mass inspection (especially testing) to achieve quality.
Minimize total cost.Deming’s 14-point Management Philosophy 4. . making them a partner in a long-term relationship of loyalty and trust. Move towards a single supplier for any one item or service. reliability of delivery and willingness to cooperate and improve. In dealing with suppliers one should end the practice of awarding business on price. Build partnerships. Move towards quality of product.
Improvement is not confined to products and their direct processes but to all supporting services and activities All functions in an organization need to become quality conscious to deliver a quality product.Deming’s 14-point Management Philosophy 5. .
Everyone must be trained.Deming’s 14-point Management Philosophy 6. Train a modern way. Institute training on the job. as knowledge is essential for improvement. .
. to coaching and support. It is a manger‟s job to help their people and their systems do a better job. Supervision must change from chasing. Institute leadership.Deming’s 14-point Management Philosophy 7.
. Management should be held responsible for the faults of the organization and environment. Drive out fear and encourage two-way communication.Deming’s 14-point Management Philosophy 8. Drive out fear. so that everyone may work effectively.
Deming’s 14-point Management Philosophy 9. People must work as a team. Remove barriers between departments Break down barriers between areas. They must foresee and prevent problems during systems development and use. .
Slogans do not build quality systems.Deming’s 14-point Management Philosophy 10. and targets that ask for zero defects. Eliminate slogans. . and new levels of productivity. Do not place people under unnecessary pressure by asking them to do things which are not achievable. Do not have unrealistic targets Set realistic targets. exhortations.
Quotas and goals (such as schedule) address numbers . Substitute it with leadership. Eliminate quotas and numerical targets Eliminate numerical quotas and goals.Deming’s 14-point Management Philosophy 11. .not quality and methods.
.Deming’s 14-point Management Philosophy 12. Remove barriers that prevent employees having pride in the work that they perform Remove barriers to pride of workmanship. The responsibility of project managers must change from schedules to quality.
Deming’s 14-point Management Philosophy 13. . There must be a continuing commitment to training and educating software managers and professional staff. Encourage education and self-improvement for everyone Institute and vigorous program of education and selfimprovement for everyone.
Publish top management‟s permanent commitment to continuous improvement of quality and productivity .Deming’s 14-point Management Philosophy 14.
6. 10. 3. 8. 5.Juran’s 10-point Program 1. 2. 4. 9. Identify customers Determine customer needs Translate Establishment units of measurement Establish measurements Develop product Optimize product design Develop process Optimize process capability Transfer . 7.
8.Crosby’s 14-step program 1. 6. 2. 5. Management commitment Quality improvement team Quality measurement Cost of quality evaluation Quality awareness Corrective action Zero defect program Supervisor training . 4. 7. 3.
10. 11. Zero defects day Goal setting Error cause removal Recognition Quality councils Do it over again . 12. 14. 13.Crosby’s 14-step program 9.
culture of openness) Wisdom (management fully participates. defect prevention is now part of the culture) Certainty (the whole organization is involved in continuous improvement) .Crosby’s Maturity Grid Uncertainty (adhoc) Awakening (recognition begins but management unwilling to spend on quality) Enlightenment (management begins to support quality improvement program.
A variant to this approach is FMEA .Shingo’s Philosophy Poka Yoke (meaning mistake proofing) This involves identifying potential error sources in the process and monitoring these sources for errors.
. to brainstorm and to recommend and implement solutions.Ishikawa’s Philosophy Quality Control Circles (QCC) A quality control circle consists of a small group of employees who do similar work and arrange to meet regularly to identify and analyze work-related problems.
Quality Control Circles Select problem State and re-state problems Collect facts Brainstorm Build on each other ideas Choose course of action Presentation .
Genichi Taguchi .
Taguchi’s Philosophy Defines quality in terms of loss “the loss a product causes to society after being shipped. other than losses caused by its intrinsic function” He defines a loss function as a measure of the cost of quality He also developed a method for determining the optimum value of process variables which will minimize the variation in a process while keeping mean on target .
Peter Drucker .
Drucker’s Philosophy Success is threefold Know your business Know your competencies Knowing how to keep focused on goals Effective management and employee participation Link between the bottom line and satisfying the customer .
Drucker’s Philosophy “Purpose of business lies outside itself – that is in creating and satisfying a customer.” . The decision process is central. and structure has to follow strategy and management has to be management by objectives and self-control.
2. 5. 3. 4.Drucker’s 5 Principles of Management 1. Setting objectives Organizing Motivating and communicating Establishing measures of performance Developing people .
Tom Peters .
fast.Peter’s Philosophy Excellent firms believe in constant improvement and constant change Need to move from hierarchical management to horizontal. cross-functional co-operative organization .
training. recognize and support productivity innovation Openly support failures where people have tried to improve Involve everyone in everything at all times . education and recruitment Openly reward.Peter’s Management Guidelines Actively create a quality revolution Put the customer first in everything you do Listen actively to all stakeholders Invest in people.
Peter’s Management Guidelines Setup simple and understandable measures Fight against bureaucracy and inflexibility Look through a different mirror: step outside the company and look at it from a different perspective Teamwork and trust: develop strong interpersonal and team skills Work on attitudes and attention to detail: get things done Be consistent and strive for improvements in all areas .
1 . 1 Total Quality Management: A Total Quality Approach.References A Practical Approach to Software Quality. Ch. Ch.
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