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The Randy Quaid Handbook - Everything you need to know about Randy Quaid

The Randy Quaid Handbook - Everything you need to know about Randy Quaid

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Published by Emereo Publishing
Randall Rudy "Randy" Quaid (born October 1, 1950) is an American actor nominated for a Golden Globe, BAFTA and an Academy Award for his role in The Last Detail. Quaid also won a Golden Globe Award and was nominated for an Emmy for his portrayal of U.S. President Lyndon Johnson in LBJ: The Early Years, but he is perhaps best known for his roles in the National Lampoon's Vacation movies, Brokeback Mountain and Independence Day.This book is your ultimate resource for Randy Quaid. Here you will find the most up-to-date information, photos, and much more.In easy to read chapters, with extensive references and links to get you to know all there is to know about Randy Quaid's Early life, Career and Personal life right away. A quick look inside: Randy Quaid, 1973 in film, Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor, Balls Out: Gary the Tennis Coach, Black Cadillac (film), Bloodhounds of Broadway (1989 film), Brokeback Mountain, Bug Buster, Bye Bye Love (film), Caddyshack II, Carolina (film), Category 7: The End of the World, Colonel Tom Parker, Davis Rules, Days of Thunder, Dead Solid Perfect, Dennis Quaid, Elvis (TV miniseries), Foxes (film), Frank McKlusky, C.I., Frankenstein (1992 film), Freaked, Get on the Bus, Goya's Ghosts, Grind (2003 film), Hard Rain (film), Heartbeeps, Home on the Range (2004 film), Independence Day (film), Independent Spirit Award for Best Male Lead, Jack Quaid, John Steinbeck, Kart Racer, Kingpin (1996 film)…and more pages!Contains selected content from the highest rated entries, typeset, printed and shipped, combining the advantages of up-to-date and in-depth knowledge with the convenience of printed books. A portion of the proceeds of each book will be donated to the Wikimedia Foundation to support their mission.
Randall Rudy "Randy" Quaid (born October 1, 1950) is an American actor nominated for a Golden Globe, BAFTA and an Academy Award for his role in The Last Detail. Quaid also won a Golden Globe Award and was nominated for an Emmy for his portrayal of U.S. President Lyndon Johnson in LBJ: The Early Years, but he is perhaps best known for his roles in the National Lampoon's Vacation movies, Brokeback Mountain and Independence Day.This book is your ultimate resource for Randy Quaid. Here you will find the most up-to-date information, photos, and much more.In easy to read chapters, with extensive references and links to get you to know all there is to know about Randy Quaid's Early life, Career and Personal life right away. A quick look inside: Randy Quaid, 1973 in film, Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor, Balls Out: Gary the Tennis Coach, Black Cadillac (film), Bloodhounds of Broadway (1989 film), Brokeback Mountain, Bug Buster, Bye Bye Love (film), Caddyshack II, Carolina (film), Category 7: The End of the World, Colonel Tom Parker, Davis Rules, Days of Thunder, Dead Solid Perfect, Dennis Quaid, Elvis (TV miniseries), Foxes (film), Frank McKlusky, C.I., Frankenstein (1992 film), Freaked, Get on the Bus, Goya's Ghosts, Grind (2003 film), Hard Rain (film), Heartbeeps, Home on the Range (2004 film), Independence Day (film), Independent Spirit Award for Best Male Lead, Jack Quaid, John Steinbeck, Kart Racer, Kingpin (1996 film)…and more pages!Contains selected content from the highest rated entries, typeset, printed and shipped, combining the advantages of up-to-date and in-depth knowledge with the convenience of printed books. A portion of the proceeds of each book will be donated to the Wikimedia Foundation to support their mission.

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Published by: Emereo Publishing on Feb 25, 2013
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Te content within this book was generated collaboratively by volunteers.
Please be advised that nothing found here has necessarily been reviewed by
people with the expertise required to provide you with complete, accurate
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fnancial, or risk management) please seek a professional who is licensed or
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Sources, licenses and contributors of the articles and images are listed in the
section entitled “References”. Parts of the books may be licensed under the
GNU Free Documentation License. A copy of this license is included in the
section entitled “GNU Free Documentation License”
All used third-party trademarks belong to their respective owners.
Contents
Articles
Randy Quaid 1
1973 in film 10
Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor 20
Balls Out: Gary the Tennis Coach 36
Black Cadillac (film) 38
Bloodhounds of Broadway (1989 film) 40
Brokeback Mountain 42
Bug Buster 57
Bye Bye Love (film) 59
Caddyshack II 62
Carolina (film) 66
Category 7: The End of the World 68
Colonel Tom Parker 72
Davis Rules 87
Days of Thunder 91
Dead Solid Perfect 98
Dennis Quaid 100
Elvis (TV miniseries) 107
Foxes (film) 109
Frank McKlusky, C.I. 111
Frankenstein (1992 film) 113
Freaked 113
Get on the Bus 120
Goya's Ghosts 123
Grind (2003 film) 127
Hard Rain (film) 130
Heartbeeps 134
Home on the Range (2004 film) 137
Independence Day (film) 142
Independent Spirit Award for Best Male Lead 155
Jack Quaid 160
John Steinbeck 161
Kart Racer 174
Kingpin (1996 film) 175
LBJ: The Early Years 178
Last Dance (1996 film) 180
Lolly-Madonna XXX 182
Lone Star Love 184
Major League II 186
Martians Go Home (film) 191
Midnight Express (film) 192
National Lampoon's Christmas Vacation 198
National Lampoon's Vacation 203
Next Door (1994 film) 208
No Man's Land (1987 film) 210
Not Another Teen Movie 213
Of Mice and Men 219
Out Cold (1989 film) 226
P.U.N.K.S. 228
Paper Moon (film) 231
Parents (film) 235
Pershing Middle School (Houston) 238
Peter Bogdanovich 242
Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Lead Actor in a Miniseries or a Movie 249
Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Supporting Actor in a Miniseries or a Movie 257
Purgatory (1999 film) 263
Quick Change 265
Real Time (film) 267
Screen Actors Guild Award for Outstanding Performance by a Cast in a Motion Picture 269
Sweet Country 274
Texas Ranch House 275
The Adventures of Pluto Nash 278
The Adventures of Rocky and Bullwinkle 283
The Apprenticeship of Duddy Kravitz (film) 287
The Brotherhood of Poland, New Hampshire 290
The Choirboys (film) 293
The God of Hell 295
The Ice Harvest 296
The Last Detail 299
The Last Picture Show 305
The Long Riders 311
The Magical Legend of the Leprechauns 314
The Missouri Breaks 317
The Paper 320
The Siege at Ruby Ridge 325
The Slugger's Wife 327
The Wild Life (film) 329
The Wraith 332
True West (play) 335
University of Houston 338
Vegas Vacation 355
Woody Harrelson 359
References
Article Sources and Contributors 369
Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors 378
Article Licenses
License 380
Randy Quaid
1
Randy Quaid
Randy Quaid
Born Randall Rudy Quaid
October 1, 1950
Houston, Texas, United States
Occupation Actor
Years active 1971–2010
Spouse(s) • Ella Jolly (1980–1985)
• Evi Hellena Motolanez Quaid (1989–present)
Relatives Dennis Quaid (brother)
Jack Quaid (nephew)
Randall Rudy "Randy" Quaid (born October 1, 1950) is an American actor nominated for a Golden Globe,
BAFTA and an Academy Award for his role in The Last Detail. Quaid also won a Golden Globe Award and was
nominated for an Emmy for his portrayal of U.S. President Lyndon Johnson in LBJ: The Early Years, but he is
perhaps best known for his roles in the National Lampoon's Vacation movies, Brokeback Mountain and
Independence Day.
Early life
Randy Quaid was born in Houston, Texas, the son of Juanita Bonniedale "Nita" (née Jordan), a real estate agent, and
William Rudy Quaid, an electrician. Randy attended Pershing Middle School and Bellaire High School. He is the
older brother of actor Dennis Quaid and the uncle of Jack Quaid, and has a half brother, Buddy John Quaid.
[1]
Acting career
Film
Quaid has appeared in over 90 films. Peter Bogdanovich discovered him when Quaid was a student at the University
of Houston, and he received his first exposure in Bogdanovich's The Last Picture Show. His character escorts Jacy
Farrow (played by Cybill Shepherd) to late-night indoor skinny-dipping at a swimming pool. It was the first of his
several roles directed by Bogdanovich and/or based on the writings of Larry McMurtry. Quaid's first major role was
in the critically acclaimed The Last Detail (1973). He played a young US Navy sailor on his way to serve a harsh
sentence for stealing $40 from an admiral's wife's pet charity. Jack Nicholson played the Navy sailor assigned to
transport him to prison. Nicholson's character eventually becomes his friend and mentor, helping him experience
different aspects of life before he goes behind bars. Quaid was nominated for a Golden Globe, BAFTA and an
Academy Award for his role in The Last Detail. He was featured in two science fiction movies, Independence Day
Randy Quaid
2
and the unsuccessful Martians Go Home. Other movie roles include Kingpin, where he played the lovable Amish
bowler Ishmael alongside Woody Harrelson and Vanessa Angel, a loser father in Not Another Teen Movie, and an
obnoxious neighbor to Richard Pryor's character in Moving. He played the lead role in the HBO movie Dead Solid
Perfect, a golfer trying to make it on the PGA Tour. He also appeared in the National Lampoon Vacation movies as
Cousin Eddie to Chevy Chase's Clark W. Griswold. Shortly after starring in National Lampoon Christmas Vacation,
Randy Quaid was also featured in Days of Thunder as comical NASCAR car owner and successful car salesman Tim
Dailand, a determined businessman who expects his team to be top-notch for fans and sponsors. Quaid had a pivotal
supporting role in Brokeback Mountain (2005) as an insensitive rancher.
Television
Quaid received both Golden Globe and Emmy
[2]
nominations for his 2005 portrayal of talent manager Colonel Tom
Parker in the critically acclaimed CBS television network mini-series Elvis. He was also nominated for an Emmy and
won a Golden Globe for his portrayal of President Lyndon Johnson in LBJ: The Early Years. Quaid's other television
appearances include a season as a Saturday Night Live (SNL) cast member (1985–1986), the role of real-life
gunslinger John Wesley Hardin in the miniseries Streets of Laredo and starring roles in the short-lived series The
Brotherhood of Poland, New Hampshire (2003) and Davis Rules (1991–1992), as well as the two part television film
adaptation of John Steinbeck's novel Of Mice and Men, playing the character of Lenny. He was featured in the highly
rated television films Category 6: Day of Destruction and Category 7: The End of the World and starred in Last
Rites, a made-for-cable Starz/Encore! premiere movie. Quaid also voiced the animated Colonel Sanders character in
radio and television commercials for fast-food restaurant chain Kentucky Fried Chicken. Quaid's voice-over work
also included Capitol One Credit Card,US Air,Miller Beer and a guest role in The Ren and Stimpy Show (as
Anthony's father in the second season episode, "A Visit to Anthony"). He narrated the 2006 PBS show Texas Ranch
House.
Recurring characters on Saturday Night Live
Quaid played a number of recurring characters on Saturday Night Live, including:
• The Floating Head: A Rod Serling-esque character in The Twilight Zone parody, "The Limits of the Imagination"
• Rudy Randolph, Jr.: A pitchman dressed as a cowboy who sells irregular merchandise (e.g., furniture from the
Gulf Coast that smells like dead bodies) or treasures from dictators (e.g., Ferdinand Marcos's clothes). Often
paired with Rudy Randolph III (played by Robert Downey, Jr.) The name is a spin on Quaid's real name.
Theater
In 2004, Quaid appeared on stage undertaking the starring role of Frank in the world premiere of Sam Shepard's The
God of Hell produced by the New School University at the Actors Studio Drama School in New York. In The God of
Hell Quaid's portrayal of Frank, a Wisconsin dairy farmer whose home is infiltrated by a dangerous government
operative who wants to take over his farm, was well received and reviewed by New York City's top theatre critics. It
also marked the second time that Quaid starred in a Shepard play, the first being the long running Broadway hit True
West.
In February 2008, a five-member hearing committee of Actors' Equity Association, the labor union which represents
American stage actors, banned Quaid for life and fined him more than $81,000. The charges that brought the
sanctions originated in a Seattle production of Lone Star Love, a Western-themed adaptation of Shakespeare's The
Merry Wives of Windsor, in which Quaid played the lead role of Falstaff. The musical was scheduled to come to
Broadway, but producers cancelled it.
According to the New York Post, all 26 members of the musical cast brought charges that Quaid "physically and
verbally abused his fellow performers" and that the show closed rather than continuing to Broadway because of
Quaid's "oddball behavior". Quaid's lawyer, Mark Block, said the charges were completely false, and that one of the
Randy Quaid
3
complaining actors had said the action was actually driven by "the producers who did not want to give Randy his
contractual rights to creative approval ... or financial participation ..." Block also said that Quaid had left the union
before the musical started, making the ban moot, and that Quaid had only participated in the hearing because he
wanted due process.
[3]
Quaid's own statement on the charges was "I am guilty of only one thing: giving a
performance that elicited a response so deeply felt by the actors and producers with little experience of my creative
process that they actually think I am Falstaff."
[4]
Music career
Quaid has also performed musical work, primarily through his band Randy Quaid & The Fugitives. The group
released its first single, "Star Whackers", in March 2011.
[5]
An accompanying film, Star Whackers, was premiered
by the Quaids in Vancouver on April 23, 2011.
[6]
Personal life
Quaid was married to Ella Marie Jolly May 11, 1980, they separated on September 9, 1986 and divorced August 24,
1989. They had a daughter, Amanda Marie. Quaid then married Evi Motolanez
[7]
on October 5, 1989 at a Montecito,
California resort (The San Ysidro Ranch). His brother Dennis, actress Meg Ryan, and Randy's six-year-old daughter
Amanda were in attendance.
[8]
Quaid and Evi met in December 1987 on the set of the film, "Bloodhounds of
Broadway," starring Madonna and Quaid.
Legal history
Brokeback Mountain lawsuit
On March 23, 2006, Quaid, who played Joe Aguirre in Brokeback Mountain, filed a lawsuit against Focus Features
(LLC), Del Mar Productions (LLC), James Schamus, David Linde, and Does 1–10 alleging that they intentionally
and negligently misrepresented Brokeback Mountain as "a low-budget, art house film with no prospect of making
any money" in order to secure Quaid's professional acting services at below-market rates. The film had grossed more
than $160 million as of the date of his lawsuit, which sought $10 million plus punitive damages.
[9]
On May 5, Quaid
dropped his lawsuit. Quaid's publicist said he decided to drop the lawsuit after Focus Features agreed to pay him a
bonus. Focus Features denies making such a settlement.
[10]
Alleged failure to pay hotel bill
On September 24, 2009, Quaid and his wife were arrested in Texas for allegedly defrauding an innkeeper, burglary,
and conspiracy in California. The arrest stemmed from an earlier incident in which the Quaids had allegedly left a
Santa Barbara, California hotel with a balance due of approximately $10,000. The two were released on bail later
that evening.
[11]
Evi Quaid provided a handwritten statement to the celebrity news site TMZ after the arrest claiming
that the bill had been paid. A copy of a cashier's check for $5,546.96 dated September 22, 2009 accompanied the
note.
[12]
The Quaids made arrangements to appear in court in Santa Barbara but failed to do so. On October 29, the Santa
Barbara District Attorney's Office requested bench warrants for their arrest and extradition from Texas.
[13]
Although
subsequent arrest warrants were quashed, after the Quaids failed to appear at court on April 12 and 13, 2010,
$40,000 in bail was forfeited and arrest warrants for the couple were issued again on April 14, 2010.
[14][15]
The Quaids appeared in court with their attorney Robert Sanger
[16]
on April 26, 2010 after missing several other
court appearances. The Quaids were briefly detained in custody on April 26, 2010 and released after processing. On
April 28, 2010, Sanger resolved the case with Senior Deputy District Attorney Arnis Tolks. The case was dismissed
against Randy Quaid for lack of evidence. Evi Quaid pleaded no contest to a misdemeanor count of defrauding an
Randy Quaid
4
innkeeper. She was granted probation for three years. She will also be required to serve 240 hours of community
service.
[17][18]
Alleged illegal occupancy
On September 18, 2010, in Santa Barbara, California, Randy Quaid and his wife faced burglary charges for living in
a guest house without the permission of the owner. They claimed that they had owned the property since the 1990s
although a representative of the property owner had called the sheriff's department and produced documents that
showed the house as being sold to the current owner in 2007. The previous owner had purchased the property from
the Quaids several years earlier. TMZ reported that the Quaids claim that the home was wrongfully transferred to a
third party by the use of the forged signature of a dead woman named Ronda Quaid in 1992.
[19]
The Quaids are
being accused of more than $5,000 worth of damage that they are claimed to have caused to the guest house.
[20]
They were booked for felony residential burglary under section 459 of the California Penal Code (459PC), and
misdemeanor entering a non-commercial building without consent (602.5 PC). Evi Quaid was also booked for
misdemeanor resisting arrest (148PC). Their bail was set at $50,000 each. On September 19, 2010 they posted bail
and were released.
[21]
On October 18, 2010, bench warrants for the Quaids were issued following their failure to
appear for a hearing on the burglary charges.
[22]
Their bail was subsequently raised to $500,000 each.
[23]
The bail
was forfeited in November 2010.
[24]
The company that had posted bail for the Quaids lost a court case in January
2012 to prevent the forfeiture.
[25]
Application for Canadian refugee status
On October 22, 2010, Quaid and his wife sought protection under the Canadian Immigration and Refugee Protection
Act, after being arrested in the Kerrisdale neighbourhood of Vancouver.
[26]
They have since applied for refugee
status on the grounds that they fear for their lives in the United States, claiming that numerous actors have died under
mysterious circumstances committed by the "Hollywood star whackers".
[27]
They were granted bail on the condition
of $10,000 bond pending further Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada hearings.
[28]
However, due to their
inability to deposit the required bond with the court for several days, they remained in custody of the Canada Border
Services Agency.
[29]
They were released on October 27 after the discovery that Evi Quaid is a "prima facie Canadian
citizen".
[30][31][32]
On July 15, 2011 an attempt to extradite Randy and Evi Quaid from Canada failed when the U.S.
Department of Justice turned down a request from the Santa Barbara County district attorney calling for the Quaids
to be returned to California to face the felony burglary charges dating from the September 2010 incident.
[33]
As a
result, if Quaid and his wife re-enter the United States, they will be arrested.
[34]
In January 2013, Canadian
immigration officials denied Randy Quaid's request for permanent resident status in Canada
[35]
while still leaving
open the option to challenge this decision in federal court.
[36]
Filmography
Randy Quaid
5
Year Title Role Notes
1971 The Last Picture Show Lester Marlow
1972 What's Up, Doc? Professor Hosquith
1973 The Last Detail Meadows Nominated-Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor
Nominated-BAFTA Award for Best Supporting Actor
Nominated-Golden Globe Award for Best Supporting Actor - Motion
Picture
1973 Paper Moon Leroy
1973 Lolly-Madonna XXX Finch Feather
1974 The Apprenticeship of Duddy Kravitz Virgil
1975 Breakout Hawk Hawkins
1976 Bound for Glory Luther Johnson
1976 The Missouri Breaks Little Tod
1977 The Choirboys Dean
1978 Midnight Express Jimmy Booth
1978 Three Warriors Ranger Quentin
Hammond
1980 Guyana Tragedy Clayton Ritchie Television film
1980 The Long Riders Clell Miller
1980 Foxes Jay
1981 Heartbeeps Charlie
1981 Of Mice and Men Lenny Small Television film
1983 National Lampoon's Vacation Cousin Eddie
1984 The Wild Life Charlie
1985 Fool for Love Martin
1985-1991 Saturday Night Live Various TV series (19 episodes)
1985 The Slugger's Wife Moose Granger
1986 The Wraith Sheriff Loomis
1987 LBJ: The Early Years Lyndon Baines
Johnson
Television movie
Golden Globe Award for Best Actor - Miniseries or Television Film
Nominated-Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Lead Actor in a
Miniseries or a Movie
1987 No Man's Land Vincent Bracey
1987 Sweet Country Juan
1988 Caddyshack II Peter Blunt
1988 Dead Solid Perfect Kenny Lee Television film
1988 Moving Frank
1989 National Lampoon's Christmas
Vacation
Cousin Eddie
1989 Bloodhounds of Broadway Feet Samuels
1989 Out Cold Lester
1989 Parents Nick Nominated-Independent Spirit Award for Best Male Lead
Randy Quaid
6
1990 Texasville Lester Marlow
1990 Quick Change Loomis
1990 Days of Thunder Tim Daland
1990 Martians Go Home Mark Devereaux
1990 Cold Dog Soup Jack Cloud
1991-1992 Davis Rules Dwight Davis TV series (29 episodes)
1992 Frankenstein The Monster
1993 Freaked Elijah
1993 Curse of the Starving Class Taylor
1993 The Ren & Stimpy Show Anthony's dad TV series (1 episode: "A Visit to Anthony")
1994 Major League II Johnny Uncredited
1994 The Paper Michael
1994 Next Door Lenny Television film
1995 Bye Bye Love Vic Damico
1996 Get on the Bus Tennessee State
Trooper
Uncredited
1996 Kingpin Ishmael
1996 Independence Day Russell Casse
1996 The Siege at Ruby Ridge Randy Weaver
1996 Last Dance Sam Burns
1997 Vegas Vacation Cousin Eddie
1998 Hard Rain Mike Collins
1998 Bug Buster George Merlin
1998 Sands of Eden Lenny Television film
1999 Last Rites Jeremy Dillon
1999 Purgatory Doc Woods Television film
1999 The Debtors Unknown
1999 P.U.N.K.S. Pat Utley
1999 The Magical Legend of the Leprechauns Jack Woods Television film
2000 The Adventures of Rocky and
Bullwinkle
Cappy von
Trapment
2001 Not Another Teen Movie Mr. Briggs
2002 The Adventures of Pluto Nash Bruno
2002 Frank McKlusky, C.I. Madman McKlusky
2003 Christmas Vacation 2: Cousin Eddie's
Island Adventure
Cousin Eddie
2003 Black Cadillac Charlie
2003 Grind Jock Jensen
2003 Carolina Ted
2003 Kart Racer Vic Davies
Randy Quaid
7
2003 The Brotherhood of Poland, New
Hampshire
Chief Hank Shaw TV series (7 episodes)
2003 Milwaukee, Minnesota Jerry James
2004 Home on the Range Alameda Slim
2004 Category 6: Day of Destruction Tornado Tommy
Dixon
2005 Brokeback Mountain Joe Nominated-Gotham Award for Best Ensemble Cast
Nominated-Screen Actors Guild Award for Outstanding Performance
by a Cast in a Motion Picture
2005 Elvis Tom Parker Television film
Satellite Award for Best Supporting Actor - Series, Miniseries or
Television Film
Nominated-Golden Globe Award for Best Supporting Actor - Series,
Miniseries or Television Film
Nominated-Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Supporting
Actor in a Miniseries or a Movie
2005 The Ice Harvest Bill
2005 Category 7: The End of the World Tornado Tommy
Dixon
2006 Goya's Ghosts King Carlos IV
2006 Treasure Island Kids: The Battle for
Treasure Island
Captain Flint
2008 Real Time Reuban
2009 Balls Out: Gary the Tennis Coach Coach Lou Tuttle
References
[1] [1] Texas Birth Index, 1974 births, p. 2939
[2] Randy Quaid Emmy Nominated (http:// www. emmys. com/ celebrities/ randy-quaid)
[3] Riedel, Michael (2008-02-06). "UNION BANS, FINES QUAID" (http:/ / www. nypost. com/ p/ entertainment/theater/
item_89ZTFKj05E52KEQLIAHNvK;jsessionid=8E2CE5092BAF8E44013E7E485E61E097). NY Post. NY Post. . Retrieved 2010-10-19.
[4] Union Curtain Falls on 'Oddball' Quaid – AOL News (http:/ / news. aol.com/ entertainment/ story/ _a/
union-curtain-falls-on-actor-randy-quaid/ 20080207140609990001?ncid=NWS00010000000001)
[5] Amos Barshad (3/22/11 at 09:45 AM). "Randy Quaid’s Hot New Single, ‘Star Whackers,’ Explains Everything" (http:// nymag.com/ daily/
entertainment/ 2011/ 03/ randy_quaids_hot_new_single_st. html). New York. .
[6] Tristan Hopper (Apr 23, 2011 – 4:49 PM ET). "Quaids unveil their bizarre ‘Star Whackers’ film at East Vancouver cinema" (http:// arts.
nationalpost.com/ 2011/ 04/ 23/ quaids-unveil-their-bizarre-star-whackers-film-at-east-vancouver-cinema/). National Post. .
[7] Sanz, Cynthia, and Kristina Johnson. "Randy Quaid, Back from His Vacation, Finds Peace at Home" (http:// www. people.com/ people/
archive/article/ 0,,20116295,00. html), People, December 18, 1989
[8] "Actor Randy Quaid Secretly Married," San Francisco Chronicle, October 12, 1989, p. E6
[9] Gorman, Steven (2006). "Randy Quaid sues studio over 'Brokeback Mountain'" (http:/ / go.reuters. com/ newsArticle.
jhtml?type=entertainmentNews&storyID=11644132). Reuters. . Retrieved May 5, 2006.
[10] "Randy Quaid drops 'Brokeback' lawsuit" (http:// msnbc. msn.com/ id/ 12633305). Associated Press. 2006. . Retrieved May 5, 2006.
[11] "Randy Quaid freed on bail after arrest in Texas" (http:/ / today.msnbc.msn. com/ id/ 33009765/ ns/ today-entertainment/t/
randy-quaid-freed-bail-after-arrest-texas/ #. TyFr5u2t3vY). MSNBC. . Retrieved 2012-01-26.
[12] "The Quaids' Mug Shots ... And So Much More" (http:// www.tmz. com/ 2009/ 09/ 25/ quaid-mug-shots-statement-cashiers-check/#.
Tx22je2t3vY). TMZ. . Retrieved 2012-01-24.
[13] Randy Quaid, Wife Miss Third Scheduled Court Date (http:// www. noozhawk.com/ local_news/ article/
102909_randy_quaid_wife_miss_third_scheduled_court_date/ )
[14] R.L. McCullough (April 19, 2010). "Randy Quaid skips another court date, could face re-arrest" (http:// crimevoice.com/
randy-quaid-skips-another-court-date-could-face-re-arrest-3431/ ). Crime Voice. . Retrieved April 24, 2010.
Randy Quaid
8
[15] Kamika Dunlap (April 19, 2010). "Wanted Fugitives: Randy Quaid and Wife Skip Out on Court Again" (http:// blogs. findlaw.com/
celebrity_justice/ 2010/ 04/ wanted-fugitives-randy-quaid-and-wife-skip-out-on-court-again.html). FindLaw. . Retrieved April 24, 2010.
[16] http:/ / www. sangerswysen. com/ robert-m-sanger
[17] "Randy & Evi Quaid Has Plea Deal, AVOID Jail Time" (http:// www. huffingtonpost.com/ 2010/ 04/ 28/
randy-evi-quaid-has-plea-_n_555926. html). Huffingtonpost.com. April 28, 2010. . Retrieved 2010-09-20.
[18] The Associated Press (2010-04-28). "Felony charges dropped against actor Randy Quaid as wife Evi gets probation in criminal case" (http://
www.nydailynews. com/ gossip/ 2010/ 04/ 28/
2010-04-28_randy_quaid_felony_charges_dropped_as_wife_evi_gets_threeyear_probation_in_crimi. html). New York: Nydailynews.com. .
Retrieved 2010-09-20.
[19] "The Quaids: We're Victims of a Corpse Conspiracy" (http:// www. tmz.com/ 2010/ 09/ 20/
randy-quaid-evi-quaid-arrested-squatting-santa-barbara/ ). TMZ. 2010-09-21. . Retrieved 2010-10-21.
[20] "Randy Quaid, wife face burglary charges in Calif" (http://ca. news. yahoo.com/ s/ capress/ 100919/ entertainment/
us_people_randy_quaid). Associated Press. Yahoo. 2010-09-19. . Retrieved 2010-09-19.
[21] "Santa Barbara Sheriff Department News Release" (http:// www. countyofsb.org/uploadedFiles/ ceo/ press_releases/ 2010/
10-1432QuaidsArrested Sept 20 2010.pdf). 2010-08-20. . Retrieved 2010-09-25.
[22] "Randy Quaid a no-show for felony vandalism case" (http:// hosted. ap. org/dynamic/ stories/ U/
US_PEOPLE_RANDY_QUAID?SITE=OHLIM& SECTION=HOME&TEMPLATE=DEFAULT). AP. AP. 2010-10-19. . Retrieved
2010-10-19.
[23] "EXCLUSIVE: Randy & Evi Quaid's Bail Increased To $500,000" (http:// www.radaronline.com/ exclusives/ 2010/ 10/
exclusive-randy-evi-quaids-bail-set-500000). 2010-10-22. . Retrieved 2012-02-01.
[24] "Randy Quaid Forfeits $500,000 Bail, Frames ‘Star-Whackers’ Tale" (http:/ / www. noozhawk.com/ local_news/ article/
110510_randy_quaid). 2010-11-05. . Retrieved 2012-02-01.
[25] "Press release: Santa Barbara DA's office" (http:/ / www. countyofsb.org/DA/msm_county/ documents/ Quaidspr. pdf). 2012-01-06. .
Retrieved 2012-02-01.
[26] "Randy Quaid arrested in Vancouver" (http:// www. cbc.ca/ canada/ british-columbia/story/ 2010/ 10/ 22/
bc-randy-quaid-vancouver-arrest. html). CBC. CBC. 2010-10-22. . Retrieved 2010-10-22.
[27] Quaids' claim for Canadian asylum fraught with problems (http:// www. ctvbc.ctv. ca/ servlet/ an/ local/ CTVNews/ 20101027/
bc_quaid_asylum_101026/ 20101027?hub=BritishColumbiaHome)
[28] Randy Quaid seeks refugee status in Canada (http:// www.theglobeandmail.com/news/ national/ british-columbia/
randy-quaid-seeks-refugee-status-in-canada/ article1769358/ )
[29] "Randy Quaid, wife still in custody despite release order" (http:// www. vancouversun. com/ news/ Randy+ Quaid+ wife+still+ custody+
despite+ release+ order/3725006/ story. html). Vancouver Sun. .
[30] "Quaids released from detention in Vancouver, authorities say" (http://www. theglobeandmail. com/ news/ national/ british-columbia/
quaids-released-from-detention-in-vancouver-authorities-say/ article1775483/ ), The Globe and Mail
[31] Randy Quaid Speaks To Vancouver Media.[YouTube.Part 1. Retrieved Nov 15,2010 (http:// www. youtube.com/
watch?v=fYyW1Kttp6M)
[32] Randy Quaid Speaks To Vancouver Media.[YouTube.Part 2. Retrieved Nov 15,2010 (http:/ / www. youtube.com/
watch?v=ppTpSb_u7hA& feature=channel)
[33] "Santa Barbara Sheriff Department News Release" (http:// www. countyofsb.org/da/ msm_county/ documents/
DAPressReleaseQuaidExtradition71511. pdf). 2011-07-15. . Retrieved 2011-01-29.
[34] Runaways Randy & Evi Quaid Won’t Be Extradited From Canada (http:// www. radaronline.com/ exclusives/ 2011/ 07/
randy-and-evi-quaid-not-extradited-canada-hollywood-star-whackers) retrieved 25 October 2012
[35] Randy Quaid denied request for Canadian permanent resident status (http:/ / www. ctvnews.ca/ canada/
randy-quaid-denied-request-for-canadian-permanent-resident-status-1.1131363)
[36] Beacon BC News (2013-01-28). "Immigration officials turn down Randy Quaid’s request for permanent residence" (http:// beaconnews.ca/
blog/ 2013/ 01/ immigration-officials-turn-down-randy-quaids-request-for-permanent-residence/) (in (English)). Beacon News. . Retrieved
2013-01-30.
Randy Quaid
9
External links
• Randy Quaid (http:/ / www. imdb.com/ name/ nm1642/ ) at the Internet Movie Database
• Randy Quaid (http:/ / www. lortel.org/LLA_archive/index. cfm?search_by=people&first=Randy&
last=Quaid& middle=) at the Internet Off-Broadway Database
• "WCBS Newsradio article — Randy Quaid drops lawsuit over "Brokeback Mountain" pay" (http:/ / web. archive.
org/web/ 20061111160916/ http:/ / wcbs880. com/ pages/ 32155. php?contentType=4&contentId=137069).
Archived from the original (http:// www. wcbs880. com/ pages/ 32155.php?contentType=4&contentId=137069)
on 2006-11-11. Retrieved 2006-11-29.
• January 2011 Vanity Fair profile (http:/ / www. vanityfair.com/ hollywood/ features/2011/ 01/ quaid-201101)
• Randy Quaid at Emmys.com (http:/ / www. emmys. com/ celebrities/ randy-quaid)
1973 in film
10
1973 in film
List of years in film       (table)
... 1963
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  1964
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  1965
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  1966  
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1967  
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1968  
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1969 ...
1970 1971 1972 -1973- 1974 1975 1976
... 1977
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  1978
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  1979
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  1980  
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1981  
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1982  
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1983 ...
In home video: 1970 1971 1972 -1973- 1974 1975 1976
    In television: 1970 1971 1972 -1973- 1974 1975 1976
Art
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Archaeology
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Architecture
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Literature
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Music
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Philosophy
.
Science +...
The year 1973 in film involved some significant events.
Events
• The Marx Brothers' Zeppo Marx divorces his second wife, Barbara Blakely. Blakely would later marry
actor/singer Frank Sinatra.
• Martial arts legend Bruce Lee dies before Enter the Dragon was released.
• The Exorcist reawakens the horror film genre and becomes one of the most popular and controversial films ever
released.
Top grossing films (U.S.)
Rank Title Studio Actors Gross
1. The Exorcist Warner Bros. Ellen Burstyn, Jason Miller, Linda Blair
$193,000,000
[1]
2. The Sting Universal Paul Newman, Robert Redford, Robert Shaw
$159,616,327
[2]
3. American Graffiti Universal Richard Dreyfuss, Ron Howard
$115,000,000
[3]
4. Papillon Allied Artists Steve McQueen, Dustin Hoffman
$53,267,000
[4]
5. The Way We Were Columbia Barbra Streisand, Robert Redford
$49,919,870
[5]
6. Magnum Force Warner Bros. Clint Eastwood, Hal Holbrook
$44,680,473
[6]
7. Last Tango in Paris United Artists Marlon Brando, Maria Schneider
$36,144,000
[7]
8. Live and Let Die United Artists Roger Moore, Jane Seymour
$35,377,836
[8]
9. Robin Hood Disney Roger Miller, Phil Harris, Andy Devine
$32,056,467
[9]
10. Paper Moon Paramount Ryan O'Neal, Madeleine Kahn, Tatum O'Neal
$30,933,743
[10]
11.
[] The Devil in Miss Jones Pierre Productions Georgina Spelvin
$15,000,000
[11]
12. Serpico Paramount Al Pacino
$29,800,000
[12]
13. Enter the Dragon Warner Bros. Bruce Lee
$25,000,000
[13]
14. Jesus Christ Superstar Universal Ted Neeley, Carl Anderson
$24,477,615
[14]
15. Walking Tall Cinerama Releasing Corporation Joe Don Baker
$23,000,000
[15]
1973 in film
11
16. The World's Greatest Athlete Disney John Amos
$22,583,370
[16]
17. Sleeper United Artists Woody Allen
$18,344,729
[17]
18. A Touch of Class Embassy Pictures George Segal, Glenda Jackson
$16,800,000
[18]
19. The Day of the Jackal Universal Edward Fox, Michael Lonsdale
$16,056,255
[19]
20. High Plains Drifter Universal Clint Eastwood
$15,700,000
[20]
21. The Last Detail Columbia Jack Nicholson, Randy Quaid, Otis Young
$10,000,000
[21]
22. Battle for the Planet of the Apes 20th Century Fox Roddy McDowall, Claude Akins
$8,844,595
[22]
Awards
Academy Awards:
Best Picture: The Sting - Bill/Phillips-Hill, Zanuck/Brown, Universal
Best Director : George Roy Hill - The Sting
Best Actor: Jack Lemmon - Save the Tiger
Best Actress: Glenda Jackson - A Touch of Class
Best Supporting Actor : John Houseman - The Paper Chase
Best Supporting Actress : Tatum O'Neal - Paper Moon
Best Foreign Language Film: Day for Night (La Nuit américaine), directed by François Truffaut, France
Golden Globe Awards:
Drama:
Best Picture: The Exorcist
Best Actor: Al Pacino – Serpico
Best Actress: Marsha Mason – Cinderella Liberty
Musical or comedy:
Best Picture: American Graffiti
Best Actor: George Segal – A Touch of Class
Best Actress: Glenda Jackson – A Touch of Class
Other
Best Director: William Friedkin – The Exorcist
Best Foreign Language Film: The Pedestrian (Der Fußgänger), W. Germany
Palme d'Or (Cannes Film Festival):
The Hireling, directed by Alan Bridges, United Kingdom
Scarecrow, directed by Jerry Schatzberg, United States
Golden Bear (Berlin Film Festival):
Ashani Sanket (Distant Thunder), directed by Satyajit Ray, India
1973 in film
12
Notable films released in 1973
U.S.A. unless stated
#
• The 14, directed by David Hemmings, starring Jack Wild - (U.K.)
A
• Abhimaan (Pride) - (India)
• Ace Eli and Rodger of the Skies, starring Cliff Robertson and Pamela Franklin
• The Adventures of Rabbi Jacob (Les Aventures de Rabbi Jacob) - (France)
• All Nudity Shall Be Punished (Toda Nudez Será Castigada) - (Brazil)
• The Alpha Caper, starring Henry Fonda
• Alvin Purple - (Australia)
• Amarcord, directed by Federico Fellini - (Italy)
• American Graffiti, directed by George Lucas, starring Richard Dreyfuss, Ron Howard, Cindy Williams, Paul Le
Mat, Candy Clark, Harrison Ford
• Ana and the Wolves (Ana y los lobos), starring Geraldine Chaplin - (Spain)
• And Now the Screaming Starts!, starring Peter Cushing, Stephanie Beacham, Herbert Lom
• Ashani Sanket (Distant Thunder), directed by Satyajit Ray - Golden Bear winner - (India)
B
• The Baby, starring Anjanette Comer and Ruth Roman
• Badlands, directed by Terrence Malick, starring Martin Sheen and Sissy Spacek
• Bang the Drum Slowly, starring Robert De Niro and Michael Moriarty
• Battle for the Planet of the Apes, starring Roddy McDowall, Claude Akins, Natalie Trundy, John Huston
• Battles Without Honour and Humanity (ingi naki tatakai) - (Japan)
• Baxter!, starring Patricia Neal and Britt Ekland - (U.K.)
• Black Holiday (La Villeggiatura), starring Adolfo Celi - (Italy)
• Blood Brothers (Ci Ma), directed by Chang Cheh - (Hong Kong)
• Blood in the Streets, aka Revolver, starring Oliver Reed - (Italy/France/West Germany)
• Blood of the Dragon (Zhui ming qiang) - (Hong Kong)
• Blume in Love, starring George Segal, Susan Anspach, Kris Kristofferson
• Bobby, starring Rishi Kapoor - (India)
• Il Boss, starring Henry Silva and Richard Conte - (Italy)
• Breezy, directed by Clint Eastwood, starring William Holden and Kay Lenz
• A Brief Vacation (Una breve vacanza), directed by Vittorio de Sica - (Italy)
•• Brother of the Wind
C
• Cahill U.S. Marshal, starring John Wayne and George Kennedy
• Can Dialectics Break Bricks? (La Dialectique Peut-Elle Casser Des Briques?) - (France)
• The Candy Snatchers, starring Tiffany Bolling
• Charley and the Angel, starring Fred MacMurray, Cloris Leachman, Kurt Russell
• Charley Varrick, directed by Don Siegel, starring Walter Matthau, John Vernon, Joe Don Baker, Andy Robinson,
Sheree North
• Charlotte's Web, an animated film directed by Charles A. Nichols and Iwao Takamoto, with the voices of Debbie
Reynolds and Henry Gibson
• Chino, directed by John Sturges, starring Charles Bronson
• Cinderella Liberty, directed by Mark Rydell, starring James Caan and Marsha Mason
1973 in film
13
• Class of '44, starring Gary Grimes
• Cleopatra Jones, starring Tamara Dobson and Shelley Winters
• Coffy, starring Pam Grier
• Cops and Robbers, starring Joseph Bologna and Cliff Gorman
• The Crazies, directed by George A. Romero
• The Creeping Flesh, starring Christopher Lee and Peter Cushing - (U.K.)
D
• Dark Places, starring Christopher Lee, Joan Collins, Jane Birkin - (U.K.)
• Day for Night, directed by François Truffaut, starring Jacqueline Bisset, Valentina Cortese, Jean-Pierre Aumont -
Academy Award and Bafta winner - (France)
• The Day of the Dolphin, directed by Mike Nichols, starring George C. Scott, Trish Van Devere, Paul Sorvino
• The Day of the Jackal, directed by Fred Zinnemann, starring Edward Fox, Michael Lonsdale, Delphine Seyrig -
(U.K./France)
• The Death of a Lumberjack (La Mort d'un bûcheron) - (Canada)
• A Delicate Balance, starring Katharine Hepburn, Paul Scofield, Lee Remick, Kate Reid, Betsy Blair
• The Devil in Miss Jones, directed by Gerard Damiano
• Dillinger, starring Warren Oates, Harry Dean Stanton, Richard Dreyfuss, Geoffrey Lewis
• A Doll's House, starring Claire Bloom and Anthony Hopkins - (U.K.)
• The Don Is Dead, starring Anthony Quinn, Robert Forster, Al Lettieri, Ina Balin
• Don't Be Afraid of the Dark, starring Kim Darby and Jim Hutton
• Don't Look Now, directed by Nicolas Roeg, starring Julie Christie and Donald Sutherland - (U.K./Italy)
E
• Electra Glide in Blue, starring Robert Blake
• Emperor of the North Pole, directed by Robert Aldrich, starring Lee Marvin, Ernest Borgnine, Keith Carradine
• England Made Me, starring Peter Finch and Michael York - (U.K.)
• Enter the Dragon, starring Bruce Lee, John Saxon, Jim Kelly - (Hong Kong/U.S.A.)
• Executive Action, starring Burt Lancaster and Robert Ryan
• The Exorcist, directed by William Friedkin, starring Ellen Burstyn, Linda Blair, Jason Miller, Max von Sydow --
winner of 5 Golden Globes and 2 Oscars
F
• Fantastic Planet (La Planète Sauvage) - (France/Czechoslovakia)
• Fé, Esperanza y Caridad (Faith, Hope and Charity), starring Katy Jurado - (Mexico)
• Five on the Black Hand Side, starring Godfrey Cambridge
• The Friends of Eddie Coyle, directed by Peter Yates, starring Robert Mitchum, Richard Jordan, Steven Keats,
Peter Boyle
• From the Mixed-Up Files of Mrs. Basil E. Frankweiler (a.k.a. The Hideaways), starring Ingrid Bergman
G
• Godspell, starring Victor Garber
• Godzilla vs. Megalon, directed by Jun Fukuda - (Japan)
• La Grande Bouffe (Blow-Out), starring Marcello Mastroianni, Ugo Tognazzi, Michel Piccoli, Philippe Noiret -
(France/Italy)
H
• The Hare Census (Prebroyavane na Divite Zaytsi), directed by Eduard Zahariev, starring Itzhak Fintzi, Nikola
Todev, Georgi Rusev - (Bulgaria)
• The Harrad Experiment, starring Don Johnson, Tippi Hedren, James Whitmore
1973 in film
14
• Heavy Traffic, an animated film by Ralph Bakshi
• Hell Up in Harlem, starring Fred Williamson
• High Plains Drifter, directed by and starring Clint Eastwood, with Verna Bloom, Marianna Hill, Geoffrey Lewis
• The Hireling, directed by Alan Bridges, starring Robert Shaw and Sarah Miles - Palme d'Or winner - (U.K.)
• Hitler: The Last Ten Days, starring Alec Guinness - (U.K./Italy)
• The Holy Mountain (La Montaña Sagrada), directed by Alejandro Jodorowsky - (Mexico/U.S.)
• Home Sweet Home (La fête à Jules) - (Belgium)
• The Homecoming, directed by Peter Hall, starring Cyril Cusack, Ian Holm, Vivien Merchant - (U.K.)
• Hot Winds (Garm Hava), directed by M.S. Sathyu - (India)
• The Hour-Glass Sanatorium (Sanatorium pod klepsydrą), directed by Wojciech Has - (Poland)
• The House in Nightmare Park, directed by Peter Skyes, starring Frankie Howerd and Ray Milland - (U.K.)
• The House on Chelouche Street (Ha-Bayit Berechov Chelouche) - (Israel)
• Hugo the Hippo (Hugó, a víziló) - (Hungary)
I
• The Iceman Cometh, directed by John Frankenheimer, starring Lee Marvin, Fredric March, Robert Ryan
• Idaho Transfer, directed by Peter Fonda
• Indian Summer, directed by Milen Nikolov, starring Georgi Partsalev, Leda Taseva, Tatyana Lolova - (Bulgaria)
• Interval, starring Merle Oberon
• L' Invitation (The Invitation), directed by Claude Goretta - Academy Award for Best Foreign Film -
(France/Switzerland)
• Ivan Vasilievich: Back to the Future (Ivan Vasilyevich menyayet professiyu) - (U.S.S.R.)
J
• Jesus Christ Superstar, directed by Norman Jewison, starring Ted Neeley and Yvonne Elliman, music by Andrew
Lloyd Webber
• Jeremy, starring Robby Benson and Glynnis O'Connor
• Jonathan Livingston Seagull, featuring the voices of James Franciscus and Juliet Mills
K
• Kanashimi no Belladonna (Belladonna of Sadness), Anime feature film - (Japan)
• Kid Blue, starring Dennis Hopper and Warren Oates
L
• Lady Ice, starring Donald Sutherland and Jennifer O'Neill
• Lady Snowblood (Shurayukihime) - (Japan)
• The Land of Our Ancesters (Maa on syntinen laulu) - (Finland)
• The Last American Hero, starring Jeff Bridges
• The Last Detail, directed by Hal Ashby, starring Jack Nicholson, Randy Quaid, Otis Young
• The Last of Sheila, written by Stephen Sondheim and Anthony Perkins, starring Raquel Welch, Dyan Cannon,
James Mason, James Coburn, Richard Benjamin
• The Laughing Policeman, starring Walter Matthau, Bruce Dern, Louis Gossett, Jr., Cathy Lee Crosby
• The Legend of Hell House, starring Pamela Franklin and Gayle Hunnicutt
• The Legend of Paul and Paula (Die Legende von Paul und Paula) - (East Germany)
• Le Magnifique, starring Jean-Paul Belmondo and Jacqueline Bisset - (France)
• Little Tiger of Canton (Guang dong xiao lao hu), starring Jackie Chan - (Hong Kong)
• Live and Let Die, starring Roger Moore (as James Bond), with Jane Seymour and Yaphet Kotto - (U.K.)
• Lolly-Madonna XXX, starring Rod Steiger, Robert Ryan, Jeff Bridges
• The Long Goodbye, directed by Robert Altman, starring Elliott Gould, Nina Van Pallandt, Sterling Hayden, Mark
Rydell, Jim Bouton
1973 in film
15
• Lost Horizon, starring Peter Finch, John Gielgud, Liv Ullmann, George Kennedy, Olivia Hussey
• Love and Anarchy (d'amore e d'anarchia), directed by Lina Wertmuller - (Italy)
• Love and Pain and the Whole Damn Thing, directed by Alan J. Pakula, starring Timothy Bottoms and Maggie
Smith
• Luther, a biopic of Martin Luther, starring Stacy Keach - (U.K./U.S.A./Canada)
M
• The Mackintosh Man, starring Paul Newman - (U.K./U.S.A.)
• Magnum Force, directed by Ted Post, starring Clint Eastwood, Hal Holbrook, David Soul, Tim Matheson, Robert
Urich
• Malizia (Malicious) - (Italy)
• Le Magnifique', directed by Philippe de Broca, starring Jean-Paul Belmondo and Jacqueline Bisset - (France)
• Manson, a documentary film about Charles Manson
• Massacre in Rome (Rappresaglia), directed by George Pan Cosmatos, starring Richard Burton and Marcello
Mastroianni - (Italy)
• Maurie, directed by Daniel Mann, starring Bo Svenson and Bernie Casey
• Mean Streets, directed by Martin Scorsese, starring Harvey Keitel and Robert De Niro
• The Mother and the Whore (La Maman et la Putain) - (France)
• My Name is Nobody (Il mio nome è Nessuno), starring Terence Hill and Henry Fonda - (Italy)
N
• The Neptune Factor, starring Ben Gazzara, Yvette Mimieux, Ernest Borgnine
• The No Mercy Man, starring Sid Haig and Ron Thompson
• Night Flight from Moscow, starring Yul Brynner, Henry Fonda, Dirk Bogarde - (France/Italy/Germany)
• Night Watch, starring Elizabeth Taylor and Laurence Harvey - (U.K.)
• The Night Strangler, TV movie sequel to The Night Stalker (film) starring Darren McGavin, Simon Oakland, Jo
Ann Pflug, Scott Brady. Wally Cox, John Carradine, Margaret Hamilton, Al Lewis and Richard Anderson
• The Nutcracker (Schelkunchik) - (U.S.S.R.)
O
• Oklahoma Crude, directed by Stanley Kramer, starring Faye Dunaway and George C. Scott
• O Lucky Man!, directed by Lindsay Anderson, starring Malcolm McDowell, Ralph Richardson, Rachel Roberts -
(U.K.)
• The Olsen Gang Goes Crazy (Olsen-banden går amok) - (Denmark)
P
• The Paper Chase, starring Timothy Bottoms, Lindsay Wagner, John Houseman
• Paper Moon, directed by Peter Bogdanovich, starring Ryan O'Neal, Tatum O'Neal, Madeline Kahn
• Paperback Hero, starring Keir Dullea and Elizabeth Ashley - (Canada)
• Papillon, directed by Franklin J. Schaffner, starring Steve McQueen and Dustin Hoffman
• Pat Garrett and Billy the Kid, directed by Sam Peckinpah, starring James Coburn, Kris Kristofferson, Bob Dylan,
with music by Dylan
• The Pedestrian (Der Fußgänger), directed by Maximilian Schell, starring Peggy Ashcroft - Golden Globe for best
foreign film - (West Germany/Switzerland/Israel)
• Property Is No Longer a Theft (La proprietà non è più un furto), starring Ugo Tognazzi - (Italy)
R
• El Retorno de Walpurgis (a.k.a. The Curse of the Devil) - (Spain/Mexico)
• Robin Hood (Walt Disney) with the voices of Roger Miller, Phil Harris, Andy Devine, Peter Ustinov,
Terry-Thomas
1973 in film
16
S
• Save the Tiger, directed by John G. Avildsen, starring Jack Lemmon
• Scarecrow, directed by Jerry Schatzberg, starring Gene Hackman and Al Pacino - Palme d'Or winner
• Scenes from a Marriage (Scener ur ett äktenskap), directed by Ingmar Bergman, starring Liv Ullmann and Erland
Josephson - (Sweden)
• Scorpio, starring Burt Lancaster, Alain Delon, Paul Scofield, Gayle Hunnicutt
• Scream Blacula Scream, starring William H. Marshall and Pam Grier
• Serpico, directed by Sidney Lumet, starring Al Pacino
• The Seven Madmen (Los siete locos), directed by Leopoldo Torre Nilsson - (Argentina)
• The Seven-Ups, starring Roy Scheider
• Showdown, starring Dean Martin and Rock Hudson
• Sisters, directed by Brian De Palma
• Slaughter's Big Rip-Off, starring Jim Brown, Brock Peters, Ed McMahon
• Sleeper, directed by and starring Woody Allen, with Diane Keaton
• Slither, starring James Caan, Sally Kellerman, Peter Boyle
• The Society of the Spectacle (La Société du Spectacle) - (France)
• Soul Hustler, directed by Bert Topper, starring Fabian, Nai Bonet, Tony Russel, Casey Kasem
• Soylent Green, directed by Richard Fleischer, starring Charlton Heston, Leigh Taylor-Young, Edward G.
Robinson
• The Spirit of the Beehive (El espíritu de la colmena) - (Spain)
• Steelyard Blues, starring Donald Sutherland and Jane Fonda
• Steptoe and Son Ride Again, starred Wilfrid Brambell and Harry H. Corbett - (U.K.)
• The Sting, directed by George Roy Hill, starring Paul Newman, Robert Redford, Robert Shaw, Eileen Brennan,
Charles Durning, Ray Walston - winner of 7 Academy Awards
• The Stone Killer, starring Charles Bronson
• Superdad, starring Bob Crane, Barbara Rush, Kurt Russell
• Sweet Kill, starring Tab Hunter
T
• The Tenderness of Wolves (Die Zärtlichkeit der Wölfe) - (West Germany)
•• Theatre of Blood
• That´ll Be the Day, starring David Essex, Rosemary Leach, Ringo Starr - (U.K.)
• Themroc, starring Michel Piccoli - (France)
• There's No Smoke Without Fire (Il n'y a pas de fumée sans feu), starring Annie Girardot - (France)
• The Thief Who Came to Dinner, starring Ryan O'Neal, Jacqueline Bisset, Warren Oates
• The Three-Day Reign (Samil cheonha) - (South Korea)
• The Three Musketeers, directed by Richard Lester, starring Michael York and Oliver Reed - (U.K./U.S.)
• Three Nuts for Cinderella (Tři oříšky pro Popelku) - (Czechoslovakia/East Germany)
• A Touch of Class, starring George Segal and Glenda Jackson - (U.K.)
• Tom Sawyer, starring Johnny Whitaker and Jodie Foster
• Touki Bouki (Journey of the Hyena) - (Senegal)
• The Train Robbers, starring John Wayne and Ann-Margret
• Tsugaru Folk Song (Tsugaru Jongarabushi) - (Japan)
• Turkish Delight (Turks Fruit), directed by Paul Verhoeven, starring Rutger Hauer - (Holland)
• Two Men in Town (Deux hommes dans la ville), starring Jean Gabin and Alain Delon - (France)
• Two People, directed by Robert Wise, starring Peter Fonda and Lindsay Wagner
U
1973 in film
17
• Ultimul cartuş (The Last Bullet) - (Romania)
V
• The Vault of Horror, starring Glynis Johns, Terry-Thomas, Curd Jurgens - (U.K.)
• Voices, starring David Hemmings and Gayle Hunnicutt - (U.K.)
W
• Walking Tall, starring Joe Don Baker
• The Way We Were, directed by Sydney Pollack, starring Barbra Streisand and Robert Redford
• We Want the Colonels (Vogliamo i colonnelli), starring Ugo Tognazzi - (Italy)
• Wedding in Blood (Les Noces rouges), directed by Claude Chabrol, starring Stéphane Audran and Michel Piccoli
- (France)
• Westworld, directed by Michael Crichton, starring Yul Brynner, Richard Benjamin, James Brolin
• White Lightning, starring Burt Reynolds
• Wicked, Wicked, starring David Bailey, Edd Byrnes, Tiffany Bolling
• The Wicker Man, directed by Robin Hardy, starring Edward Woodward, Christopher Lee, Diane Cilento - (U.K.)
• The World's Greatest Athlete, starring Jan-Michael Vincent and John Amos
Z
• Zanjeer (Shackles) - (India)
Births
• February 12 - Tara Strong, voice actor
• March 20 - Jane March, actress and model
• April 10 - Guillaume Canet, actor
• April 14 - Adrien Brody, actor
• April 30 - Antonino Isordia, Mexican director
• May 5 - Tina Yothers, actress
• June 15 - Neil Patrick Harris, actor
• June 21 - Juliette Lewis, actress
• July 26 - Kate Beckinsale, actress
• August 24 - Dave Chappelle actor
• September 12 - Paul Walker, actor and producer
• September 26 - Julienne Davis, actress and model
• October 3 - Neve Campbell, actress
• October 26 - Seth MacFarlane, actor, voice actor, animator, screenwriter, comedian, television producer, director
and singer
• November 26 - Peter Facinelli, actor
• November 27 - Sharlto Copley, actor
1973 in film
18
Deaths
• January 26 - Edward G Robinson, actor
• February 15 - Tim Holt, actor
• February 22 - Katina Paxinou, actress
• March 10 - Robert Siodmak, director
• March 23 - Ken Maynard, actor
• March 26 - Noël Coward, prolific English actor, playwright and composer of popular music
• May 11 - Lex Barker, actor
• June 23 - Fay Holden, actress
• July 2 - Betty Grable, actress
• July 6 - Joe E. Brown, actor
• July 7 - Veronica Lake, actress
• July 11 - Robert Ryan, actor
• July 12 - Lon Chaney Jr, actor
• July 18 - Jack Hawkins, actor
• July 20 - Bruce Lee, actor
• August 10 Douglas Kennedy, actor
• August 22 - Louise Huff, actress
• September 13 - Betty Field, actress
• September 21 - Diana Sands, actress
• September 26 - Anna Magnani, actress
• October 16 - Gene Krupa, musician, actor
• October 25 - Cleo Moore, actress
• November 23 - Sessue Hayakawa, actor
• November 23 - Claire Dodd, actress
• November 23 - Constance Talmadge, actress
• November 25 - Laurence Harvey, actor
• December 26 - William Haines, actor
Debuts
•• John Candy
•• Gérard Depardieu
•• Nick Nolte
•• Bernadette Peters
•• Victor Garber
1973 in film
19
Notes
[1] "The Exorcist, Box Office Information" (http:// boxofficemojo.com/ movies/ ?id=exorcist. htm). Box Office Mojo. . Retrieved January 16,
2012.
[2] "The Sting, Box Office Information" (http:// www. the-numbers.com/ movies/ 1973/ 0STNG. php). The Numbers. . Retrieved January 16,
2012.
[3] "American Graffiti, Box Office Information" (http:// www. the-numbers.com/ movies/ 1973/ 0AMGR. php). The Numbers. . Retrieved
January 16, 2012.
[4] "Papillon, Box Office Information" (http:/ / boxofficemojo.com/ movies/ ?id=papillon.htm). Box Office Mojo. . Retrieved January 16, 2012.
[5] "The Way We Were, Box Office Information" (http:// www. the-numbers.com/ movies/ 1973/ 0WWWT.php). The Numbers. . Retrieved
January 16, 2012.
[6] "Magnum Force, Box Office Information" (http:/ / www.the-numbers.com/ movies/ 1973/ 0DHA2. php). The Numbers. . Retrieved January
16, 2012.
[7] "Last Tango in Paris, Box Office Information" (http:// boxofficemojo.com/ movies/ ?id=lasttangoinparis. htm). Box Office Mojo. . Retrieved
January 16, 2012.
[8] "Live and Let Die, Box Office Information" (http:// boxofficemojo.com/ movies/ ?id=liveandletdie.htm). Box Office Mojo. . Retrieved
January 16, 2012.
[9] "Robin Hood, Box Office Information" (http:// www. the-numbers.com/ movies/ 1973/ 00246.php). The Numbers. . Retrieved January 16,
2012.
[10] "Paper Moon, Box Office Information" (http:/ / www. the-numbers.com/ movies/ 1973/ 0PMON. php). The Numbers. . Retrieved January
16, 2012.
[11] The gross for The Devil in Miss Jones is unknown, but the film is confirmed as having earned $15 million in theatrical gross rentals,Krämer,
Peter (2005). The new Hollywood: from Bonnie and Clyde to Star Wars. Wallflower Press. pp.  208–209 (http:/ / books. google.co. uk/
books?id=B5PjuAbEPooC&pg=PA108#v=twopage). ISBN 9781904764588. which places it above Serpico which earned slightly less.'
"Serpico, Box Office Information" (http:// www. the-numbers. com/ movies/ 1973/ 0SPCO. php). The Numbers. . Retrieved March 10, 2012.
[12] "Serpico, Box Office Information" (http:// boxofficemojo.com/ movies/ ?id=serpico.htm). Box Office Mojo. . Retrieved March 12, 2012.
[13] "Enter the Dragon, Worldwide Box Office" (http:// www. worldwideboxoffice.com/ movie.cgi?title=Enter the Dragon&year=1973).
Worldwide Box Office. . Retrieved January 16, 2012.
[14] "Jesus Christ Superstar, Box Office Information" (http:/ / www. the-numbers.com/ movies/ 1973/ 0JCSP. php). The Numbers. . Retrieved
May 27, 2012.
[15] "Walking Tall, Worldwide Box Office" (http:// www. worldwideboxoffice.com/ movie.cgi?title=Walking Tall&year=1973). Worldwide
Box Office. . Retrieved January 16, 2012.
[16] "The World's Greatest Athlete, Box Office Information" (http:/ / www. the-numbers.com/ movies/ 1973/ 0WGAT.php). The Numbers. .
Retrieved May 27, 2012.
[17] "Sleeper, Box Office Information" (http:/ / boxofficemojo.com/ movies/ ?id=sleeper.htm). Box Office Mojo. . Retrieved January 17, 2012.
[18] "A Touch of Class, Box Office Information" (http:// www. the-numbers.com/ movies/ 1973/ 0TOCL. php). The Numbers. . Retrieved
January 17, 2012.
[19] "The Day of the Jackal, Box Office Information" (http:// www. the-numbers.com/ movies/ 1973/ 00227.php). The Numbers. . Retrieved
May 27, 2012.
[20] http:/ / www. the-numbers.com/ movies/ 1972/ 0HPDF. php
[21] "The Last Detail, Box Office Information" (http:// www. the-numbers.com/movies/ 1973/ 0LADE.php). The Numbers. . Retrieved May
27, 2012.
[22] "Battle for the Planet of the Apes, Box Office Information" (http:/ / boxofficemojo.com/ movies/ ?id=battlefortheplanetoftheapes.htm). Box
Office Mojo. . Retrieved May 27, 2012.
References
Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor
20
Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor
Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor
Awarded for Best Performance by an Actor in a Supporting Role
Presented by Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences
Country United States
First awarded 1936 (for performances in films released in 1936)
Currently held by Christopher Plummer,
Beginners (2011)
Official website http:/ / www. oscars. org
Performance by an Actor in a Supporting Role is one of the Academy Awards of Merit presented annually by the
Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS) to recognize an actor who has delivered an outstanding
performance while working within the film industry. Since its inception, however, the award has commonly been
referred to as the Oscar for Best Supporting Actor. While actors are nominated for this award by Academy
members who are actors and actresses themselves, winners are selected by the Academy membership as a whole.
History
Throughout the past 76 years AMPAS has presented a total of 76 Best Supporting Actor awards to 69 different
actors. Winners of this Academy Award of Merit receive the familiar Oscar statuette, depicting a gold-plated knight
holding a crusader's sword and standing on a reel of film. Prior to the 16th Academy Awards ceremony (1943),
however, they received a plaque. The first recipient was Walter Brennan, who was honored at the 9th Academy
Awards ceremony (1936) for his performance in Come and Get It. The most recent recipient was Christopher
Plummer, who was honored at the 84th Academy Awards ceremony (2012) for his performance in Beginners.
Until the 8th Academy Awards ceremony (1935), nominations for the Best Actor award were intended to include all
actors, whether the performance was in a leading or supporting role. At the 9th Academy Awards ceremony (1936),
however, the Best Supporting Actor category was specifically introduced as a distinct award following complaints
that the single Best Actor category necessarily favored leading performers with the most screen time. Nonetheless,
Lionel Barrymore had received a Best Actor award (A Free Soul, 1931) and Franchot Tone a Best Actor nomination
(Mutiny on the Bounty, 1935) for their performances in supporting roles. Conversely, James Dunn received a Best
Supporting Actor award for his clearly leading actor role in "A Tree Grows In Brooklyn" (1945). Under the system
currently in place, an actor is nominated for a specific performance in a single film, and such nominations are limited
to five per year. Currently, Performance by an Actor in a Leading Role, Performance by an Actress in a Leading
Role, Performance by an Actor in a Supporting Role, and Performance by an Actress in a Supporting Role constitute
the four Academy Awards of Merit for acting annually presented by AMPAS.
Superlatives
Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor
21
Superlative Best Actor Best Supporting Actor Overall
Actor with most awards Spencer Tracy
Fredric March
Gary Cooper
Marlon Brando
Dustin Hoffman
Tom Hanks
Jack Nicholson
Daniel Day-Lewis
Sean Penn
2 Walter Brennan 3 Walter Brennan
Jack Nicholson
3
Actor with most nominations Spencer Tracy
Laurence Olivier
9 Walter Brennan
Claude Rains
Arthur Kennedy
Jack Nicholson
4 Jack Nicholson 12
Actor with most nominations
(without ever winning)
Peter O'Toole 8 Claude Rains
Arthur Kennedy
4 Peter O'Toole 8
Film with most nominations Mutiny on the Bounty 3 On the Waterfront
The Godfather
The Godfather Part II
3 On the Waterfront
The Godfather
The Godfather Part II
4
Oldest winner Henry Fonda 76 Christopher Plummer 82 Christopher Plummer 82
Oldest nominee Richard Farnsworth 79 Hal Holbrook 82 Hal Holbrook 82
Youngest winner Adrien Brody 29 Timothy Hutton 20 Timothy Hutton 20
Youngest nominee Jackie Cooper 9 Justin Henry 8 Justin Henry 8
Walter Brennan, the winner of the inaugural award in 1936, is the only actor to win the award three times (from four
nominations). Five actors have won the award twice: Anthony Quinn, Melvyn Douglas, Michael Caine, Peter
Ustinov, and Jason Robards. Robards was the only person to win consecutive Best Supporting Actor awards, for All
the President's Men (1976) and Julia (1977).
Claude Rains and Arthur Kennedy share the greatest number of unsuccessful nominations, four each. The only other
actors with four nominations were Walter Brennan (won three times) and Jack Nicholson (won once). Charles
Bickford, Jeff Bridges, Robert Duvall, Ed Harris, and Al Pacino have each had three unsuccessful nominations.
Heath Ledger is the only person to posthumously win an acting Oscar in a supporting role. He won the Best
Supporting Actor award for his portrayal of the Joker in The Dark Knight, 2008.
Winners and nominees
Following the Academy's practice, the films below are listed by year of their Los Angeles qualifying run, which is
usually (but not always) the film's year of release. For example, the Oscar for Best Supporting Actor of 1999 was
announced during the award ceremony held in 2000. Winners are listed first in bold, followed by the other
nominees. For a list sorted by actor names, please see List of Best Supporting Actor nominees. For a list sorted by
film titles, please see List of Best Supporting Actor nominees (films).
Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor
22
1930s
Year Actor Film Role(s)
1936
(9th)
Walter Brennan Come and Get It Swan Bostrom
Mischa Auer My Man Godfrey Carlo
Stuart Erwin Pigskin Parade Amos Dodd
Basil Rathbone Romeo and Juliet Tybalt – Nephew to Lady Capulet
Akim Tamiroff The General Died at Dawn General Yang
1937
(10th)
Joseph Schildkraut The Life of Emile Zola Capt. Alfred Dreyfus
Ralph Bellamy The Awful Truth Dan Leeson
Thomas Mitchell The Hurricane Dr. Kersaint
H. B. Warner Lost Horizon Chang
Roland Young Topper Cosmo Topper
1938
(11th)
Walter Brennan Kentucky Peter Goodwin
John Garfield Four Daughters Mickey Borden
Gene Lockhart Algiers Regis
Robert Morley Marie Antoinette King Louis XVI
Basil Rathbone If I Were King King Louis XI
1939
(12th)
Thomas Mitchell Stagecoach Dr. Josiah Boone
Brian Aherne Juarez Emperor Maximilian von Habsburg
Harry Carey Mr. Smith Goes to Washington President of the Senate
Brian Donlevy Beau Geste Sgt. Markoff
Claude Rains Mr. Smith Goes to Washington Sen. Joseph Harrison Paine
1940s
Year Actor Film Role(s)
1940
(13th)
Walter Brennan The Westerner Judge Roy Bean
Albert Basserman Foreign Correspondent Van Meer
William Gargan They Knew What They Wanted Joe
Jack Oakie The Great Dictator Benzini Napaloni (Dictator of Bacteria)
James Stephenson The Letter Howard Joyce
1941
(13th)
Donald Crisp How Green Was My Valley Gwilym Morgan
Walter Brennan Sergeant York Pastor Rosier Pile
Charles Coburn The Devil and Miss Jones John P. Merrick
James Gleason Here Comes Mr. Jordan Max Corkle
Sydney Greenstreet The Maltese Falcon Kasper Gutman
Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor
23
1942
(15th)
Van Heflin Johnny Eager Jeff Hartnett
William Bendix Wake Island Pvt. Aloysius "Smacksie" Randall
Walter Huston Yankee Doodle Dandy Jerry Cohan
Frank Morgan Tortilla Flat The Pirate
Henry Travers Mrs. Miniver James Ballard
1943
(16th)
[1]
Charles Coburn The More the Merrier Benjamin Dingle
Charles Bickford The Song of Bernadette Father Peyramale
J. Carrol Naish Sahara Giuseppe
Claude Rains Casablanca Capt. Louis Renault
Akim Tamiroff For Whom the Bell Tolls Pablo
1944
(17th)
Barry Fitzgerald Going My Way Father Fitzgibbon
Hume Cronyn The Seventh Cross Paul Roeder
Claude Rains Mr. Skeffington Job Skeffington
Clifton Webb Laura Waldo Lydecker
Monty Woolley Since You Went Away Colonel William G. Smollett
1945
(18th)
James Dunn A Tree Grows in Brooklyn Johnny Nolan
Michael Chekhov Spellbound Dr. Alexander "Alex" Brulov
John Dall The Corn Is Green Morgan Evans
Robert Mitchum The Story of G.I. Joe Lt. Capt. Bill Walker
J. Carrol Naish A Medal for Benny Charley Martin
1946
(19th)
Harold Russell The Best Years of Our Lives Homer Parrish
Charles Coburn The Green Years Alexander Gow
William Demarest The Jolson Story Steve Martin
Claude Rains Notorious Alexander Sebastian
Clifton Webb The Razor's Edge Elliott Templeton
1947
(20th)
Edmund Gwenn Miracle on 34th Street Kris Kringle
Charles Bickford The Farmer's Daughter Joseph Clancy
Thomas Gomez Ride the Pink Horse Pancho
Robert Ryan Crossfire Montgomery
Richard Widmark Kiss of Death Tommy Udo
1948
(21st)
Walter Huston The Treasure of the Sierra Madre Howard
Charles Bickford Johnny Belinda Black McDonald
José Ferrer Joan of Arc The Dauphin, Charles VII, later King of France
Oskar Homolka I Remember Mama Uncle Chris Halverson
Cecil Kellaway The Luck of the Irish Horace (A Leprechaun)
Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor
24
1949
(22nd)
Dean Jagger Twelve O'Clock High Major Harvey Stovall
John Ireland All the King's Men Jack Burden
Arthur Kennedy Champion Connie Kelly
Ralph Richardson The Heiress Dr. Austin Sloper
James Whitmore Battleground Sgt. Kinnie
1950s
Year Actor Film Role(s)
1950
(23rd)
George Sanders All About Eve Addison De Witt
Jeff Chandler Broken Arrow Cochise
Edmund Gwenn Mister 880 "Skipper" Miller
Sam Jaffe The Asphalt Jungle Dr. Erwin Riedenschneider
Erich von Stroheim Sunset Boulevard Max von Meyerling
1951
(24th)
Karl Malden A Streetcar Named Desire Harold "Mitch" Mitchell
Leo Genn Quo Vadis Petronius
Kevin McCarthy Death of a Salesman Biff Loman
Peter Ustinov Quo Vadis Nero
Gig Young Come Fill the Cup Boyd Copeland
1952
(25th)
Anthony Quinn Viva Zapata! Eufemio Zapata
Richard Burton My Cousin Rachel Philip Ashley
Arthur Hunnicutt The Big Sky Zeb Calloway
Narrator
Victor McLaglen The Quiet Man Will "Red" Danaher
Jack Palance Sudden Fear Lester Blaine
1953
(26th)
Frank Sinatra From Here to Eternity Pvt. Angelo Maggio
Eddie Albert Roman Holiday Irving Radovich
Brandon deWilde Shane Joey Starrett
Jack Palance Shane Jack Wilson
Robert Strauss Stalag 17 Sgt. Stanislas "Animal" Kasava
1954
(27th)
Edmond O'Brien The Barefoot Contessa Oscar Muldoon
Lee J. Cobb On the Waterfront Johnny Friendly
Karl Malden On the Waterfront Father Barry
Rod Steiger On the Waterfront Charley "The Gent" Malloy
Tom Tully The Caine Mutiny Commander DeVriess
Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor
25
1955
(28th)
Jack Lemmon Mister Roberts Ens. Frank Thurlowe Pulver
Arthur Kennedy Trial Barney Castle
Joe Mantell Marty Angie
Sal Mineo Rebel Without a Cause John "Plato" Crawford
Arthur O'Connell Picnic Howard Bevans
1956
(29th)
Anthony Quinn Lust for Life Paul Gauguin
Don Murray Bus Stop Beauregard "Bo" Decker
Anthony Perkins Friendly Persuasion Josh Birdwell
Mickey Rooney The Bold and the Brave Dooley
Robert Stack Written on the Wind Kyle Hadley
1957
(30th)
Red Buttons Sayonara Airman Joe Kelly
Vittorio De Sica A Farewell to Arms Major Alessandro Rinaldi
Sessue Hayakawa The Bridge on the River Kwai Colonel Saito
Arthur Kennedy Peyton Place Lucas Cross
Russ Tamblyn Peyton Place Norman Page
1958
(31st)
Burl Ives The Big Country Rufus Hannassey
Theodore Bikel The Defiant Ones Sheriff Max Muller
Lee J. Cobb The Brothers Karamazov Fyodor Karamazov
Arthur Kennedy Some Came Running Frank Hirsh
Gig Young Teacher's Pet Dr. Hugo Pine
1959
(32nd)
Hugh Griffith Ben-Hur Sheik Ilderim
Arthur O'Connell Anatomy of a Murder Parnell Emmett McCarthy
George C. Scott Anatomy of a Murder Asst. State Atty. Gen. Claude Dancer
Robert Vaughn The Young Philadelphians Chester "Chet" Gwynn
Ed Wynn The Diary of Anne Frank Albert Dussell
1960s
Year Actor Film Role(s)
1960
(33rd)
Peter Ustinov Spartacus Lentulus Batiatus
Peter Falk Murder, Inc. Abe "Kid Twist" Reles
Jack Kruschen The Apartment Dr. Dreyfuss
Sal Mineo Exodus Dov Landau
Chill Wills The Alamo Beekeeper
Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor
26
1961
(34th)
George Chakiris West Side Story Bernardo Nuñez
Montgomery Clift Judgment at Nuremberg Rudolph Petersen
Peter Falk Pocketful of Miracles Joy Boy
Jackie Gleason The Hustler Minnesota Fats
George C. Scott (declined nomination) The Hustler Bert Gordon
1962
(35th)
Ed Begley Sweet Bird of Youth Tom 'Boss' Finley
Victor Buono What Ever Happened to Baby Jane? Edwin Flagg
Telly Savalas Birdman of Alcatraz Feto Gomez
Omar Sharif Lawrence of Arabia Sherif Ali ibn el Kharish
Terence Stamp Billy Budd Billy Budd
1963
(36th)
Melvyn Douglas Hud Homer Bannon
Nick Adams Twilight of Honor Ben Brown
Bobby Darin Captain Newman, M.D. Corporal Jim Tompkins
Hugh Griffith Tom Jones Squire Western
John Huston The Cardinal Cardinal Glennon
1964
(37th)
Peter Ustinov Topkapi Arthur Simon Simpson
John Gielgud Becket Louis VII of France
Stanley Holloway My Fair Lady Alfred Doolittle
Edmond O'Brien Seven Days in May Senator Raymond Clark
Lee Tracy The Best Man President Art Hockstader
1965
(38th)
Martin Balsam A Thousand Clowns Arnold Burns
Ian Bannen The Flight of the Phoenix "Ratbags" Crow
Tom Courtenay Doctor Zhivago Pasha Antipov (Strelnikov)
Michael Dunn Ship of Fools Carl Glocken
Frank Finlay Othello Iago
1966
(39th)
Walter Matthau The Fortune Cookie Willie Gingrich
Mako The Sand Pebbles Po-han
James Mason Georgy Girl James Leamington
George Segal Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf? Nick
Robert Shaw A Man for All Seasons Henry VIII of England
1967
(40th)
George Kennedy Cool Hand Luke Dragline
John Cassavetes The Dirty Dozen Victor P. Franko
Gene Hackman Bonnie and Clyde Buck Barrow
Cecil Kellaway Guess Who's Coming to Dinner Monsignor Mike Ryan
Michael J. Pollard Bonnie and Clyde C.W. Moss
Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor
27
1968
(41st)
Jack Albertson The Subject Was Roses John Cleary
Seymour Cassel Faces Chet
Daniel Massey Star! Noël Coward
Jack Wild Oliver! The Artful Dodger
Gene Wilder The Producers Leo Bloom
1969
(42nd)
Gig Young They Shoot Horses, Don't They? Rocky Graver
Rupert Crosse The Reivers Ned McCaslin
Elliott Gould Bob & Carol & Ted & Alice Ted Henderson
Jack Nicholson Easy Rider George Hanson
Anthony Quayle Anne of the Thousand Days Cardinal Wolsey
1970s
Year Actor Film Role(s)
1970
(43rd)
John Mills Ryan's Daughter Michael
Richard S. Castellano Lovers and Other Strangers Frank Vecchio
Chief Dan George Little Big Man Old Lodge Skins
Gene Hackman I Never Sang for My Father Gene Garrison
John Marley Love Story Phil Cavalleri
1971
(44th)
Ben Johnson The Last Picture Show Sam the Lion
Jeff Bridges The Last Picture Show Duane Jackson
Leonard Frey Fiddler on the Roof Motel Kamzoil
Richard Jaeckel Sometimes a Great Notion Joe Ben Stamper
Roy Scheider The French Connection Det. Buddy "Cloudy" Russo
1972
(45th)
Joel Grey Cabaret Master of Ceremonies
Eddie Albert The Heartbreak Kid Mr. Corcoran
James Caan The Godfather Sonny Corleone
Robert Duvall The Godfather Tom Hagen
Al Pacino The Godfather Michael Corleone
1973
(46th)
John Houseman The Paper Chase Charles W. Kingsfield, Jr.
Vincent Gardenia Bang the Drum Slowly Dutch Schnell
Jack Gilford Save the Tiger Phil Greene
Jason Miller The Exorcist Father Damien Karras
Randy Quaid The Last Detail Larry Meadows
Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor
28
1974
(47th)
Robert De Niro The Godfather Part II Vito Corleone
Fred Astaire The Towering Inferno Harlee Claiborne
Jeff Bridges Thunderbolt and Lightfoot Lightfoot
Michael V. Gazzo The Godfather Part II Frank Pentangeli
Lee Strasberg The Godfather Part II Hyman Roth
1975
(48th)
George Burns The Sunshine Boys Al Lewis
Brad Dourif One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest Billy Bibbit
Burgess Meredith The Day of the Locust Harry Greener
Chris Sarandon Dog Day Afternoon Leon Shermer
Jack Warden Shampoo Lester Karpf
1976
(49th)
Jason Robards All the President's Men Ben Bradlee
Ned Beatty Network Arthur Jensen
Burgess Meredith Rocky Mickey Goldmill
Laurence Olivier Marathon Man Dr. Christian Szell
Burt Young Rocky Paulie Pennino
1977
(50th)
Jason Robards Julia Dashiell Hammett
Mikhail Baryshnikov The Turning Point Yuri Kopeikine
Peter Firth Equus Alan Strang
Alec Guinness Star Wars Obi-Wan Kenobi
Maximilian Schell Julia Johann
1978
(51st)
Christopher Walken The Deer Hunter Nikonar "Nick" Chevotarevich
Bruce Dern Coming Home Capt. Bob Hyde
Richard Farnsworth Comes a Horseman Dodger
John Hurt Midnight Express Max
Jack Warden Heaven Can Wait Max Corkle
1979
(52nd)
Melvyn Douglas Being There Benjamin Turnbull Rand
Robert Duvall Apocalypse Now Lt. Col. Bill Kilgore
Frederic Forrest The Rose Huston Dyer
Justin Henry Kramer vs. Kramer Billy Kramer
Mickey Rooney The Black Stallion Henry Dailey
1980s
Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor
29
Year Actor Film Role(s)
1980
(53rd)
Timothy Hutton Ordinary People Conrad Jarrett
Judd Hirsch Ordinary People Dr. Tyrone C. Berger
Michael O'Keefe The Great Santini Ben Meechum
Joe Pesci Raging Bull Joey LaMotta
Jason Robards Melvin and Howard Howard Hughes
1981
(54th)
John Gielgud Arthur Hobson
James Coco Only When I Laugh Jimmy Perry
Ian Holm Chariots of Fire Sam Mussabini
Jack Nicholson Reds Eugene O'Neill
Howard Rollins Ragtime Coalhouse Walker, Jr.
1982
(55th)
Louis Gossett, Jr. An Officer and a Gentleman Gunnery Sgt. Emil Foley
Charles Durning The Best Little Whorehouse in Texas Governor
John Lithgow The World According to Garp Roberta Muldoon
James Mason The Verdict Ed Concannon
Robert Preston Victor Victoria Carroll "Toddy" Todd
1983
(56th)
Jack Nicholson Terms of Endearment Garrett Breedlove
Charles Durning To Be or Not to Be Colonel Erhardt
John Lithgow Terms of Endearment Sam Burns
Sam Shepard The Right Stuff Chuck Yeager
Rip Torn Cross Creek Marsh Turner
1984
(57th)
Haing S. Ngor The Killing Fields Dith Pran
Adolph Caesar A Soldier's Story Sgt. Waters
John Malkovich Places in the Heart Mr. Will
Pat Morita The Karate Kid Kesuke Miyagi
Ralph Richardson (posthumous nomination) Greystoke: The Legend of Tarzan, Lord of the Apes The Sixth Earl of Greystoke
1985
(58th)
Don Ameche Cocoon Arthur Selwyn
Klaus Maria Brandauer Out of Africa Baron Bror von Blixen-Finecke
William Hickey Prizzi's Honor Don Corrado Prizzi
Robert Loggia Jagged Edge Sam Ransom
Eric Roberts Runaway Train Buck
1986
(59th)
Michael Caine Hannah and Her Sisters Elliot
Tom Berenger Platoon Sgt. Bob Barnes
Willem Dafoe Platoon Sgt. Elias Grodin
Denholm Elliott A Room with a View Mr. Emerson
Dennis Hopper Hoosiers Wilbur "Shooter" Flatch
Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor
30
1987
(60th)
Sean Connery The Untouchables Jim Malone
Albert Brooks Broadcast News Aaron Altman
Morgan Freeman Street Smart Leo "Fast Black" Smalls, Jr.
Vincent Gardenia Moonstruck Cosmo Castorini
Denzel Washington Cry Freedom Steve Biko
1988
(61st)
Kevin Kline A Fish Called Wanda Otto West
Alec Guinness Little Dorrit William Dorrit
Martin Landau Tucker: The Man and His Dream Abe Karatz
River Phoenix Running on Empty Danny Pope
Dean Stockwell Married to the Mob Tony "The Tiger" Russo
1989
(62nd)
Denzel Washington Glory Pvt. Silas Trip
Danny Aiello Do the Right Thing Sal Frangione
Dan Aykroyd Driving Miss Daisy Boolie Werthan
Marlon Brando A Dry White Season Ian Mackenzie
Martin Landau Crimes and Misdemeanors Judah Rosenthal
1990s
Year Actor Film Role(s)
1990
(63rd)
Joe Pesci Goodfellas Tommy DeVito
Bruce Davison Longtime Companion David
Andy García The Godfather Part III Vincent Mancini
Graham Greene Dances with Wolves Kicking Bird
Al Pacino Dick Tracy Alphonse "Big Boy" Caprice
1991
(64th)
Jack Palance City Slickers Curly Washburn
Tommy Lee Jones JFK Clay Shaw
Harvey Keitel Bugsy Mickey Cohen
Ben Kingsley Bugsy Meyer Lansky
Michael Lerner Barton Fink Jack Lipnick
1992
(65th)
Gene Hackman Unforgiven Little Bill Daggett
Jaye Davidson The Crying Game Dil
Jack Nicholson A Few Good Men Colonel Nathan R. Jessep
Al Pacino Glengarry Glen Ross Ricky Roma
David Paymer Mr. Saturday Night Stan Young
Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor
31
1993
(66th)
Tommy Lee Jones The Fugitive U.S. Marshal Samuel Gerard
Leonardo DiCaprio What's Eating Gilbert Grape Arnie Grape
Ralph Fiennes Schindler's List Amon Göeth
John Malkovich In the Line of Fire Mitch Leary
Pete Postlethwaite In the Name of the Father Giuseppe Conlon
1994
(67th)
Martin Landau Ed Wood Béla Lugosi
Samuel L. Jackson Pulp Fiction Jules Winnfield
Chazz Palminteri Bullets Over Broadway Cheech
Paul Scofield Quiz Show Mark Van Doren
Gary Sinise Forrest Gump Lt. Dan Taylor
1995
(68th)
Kevin Spacey The Usual Suspects Roger "Verbal" Kint
James Cromwell Babe Farmer Arthur Hoggett
Ed Harris Apollo 13 Gene Kranz
Brad Pitt 12 Monkeys Jeffrey Goines
Tim Roth Rob Roy Archibald Cunningham
1996
(69th)
Cuba Gooding, Jr. Jerry Maguire Rod Tidwell
William H. Macy Fargo Jerry Lundegaard
Armin Mueller-Stahl Shine Peter Helfgott
Edward Norton Primal Fear Aaron Stampler
James Woods Ghosts of Mississippi Byron De La Beckwith
1997
(70th)
Robin Williams Good Will Hunting Dr. Sean Maguire
Robert Forster Jackie Brown Max Cherry
Anthony Hopkins Amistad John Quincy Adams
Greg Kinnear As Good as It Gets Simon Bishop
Burt Reynolds Boogie Nights Jack Horner
1998
(71st)
James Coburn Affliction Glen Whitehouse
Robert Duvall A Civil Action Jerome Facher
Ed Harris The Truman Show Christof
Geoffrey Rush Shakespeare in Love Philip Henslowe
Billy Bob Thornton A Simple Plan Jacob Mitchell
1999
(72nd)
Michael Caine The Cider House Rules Dr. Wilbur Larch
Tom Cruise Magnolia Frank T.J. Mackey
Michael Clarke Duncan The Green Mile John Coffey
Jude Law The Talented Mr. Ripley Dickie Greenleaf
Haley Joel Osment The Sixth Sense Cole Sear
Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor
32
2000s
Year Actor Film Role(s)
2000
(73rd)
Benicio del Toro Traffic Javier Rodríguez
Jeff Bridges The Contender President Jackson Evans
Willem Dafoe Shadow of the Vampire Max Schreck
Albert Finney Erin Brockovich Edward L. Masry
Joaquin Phoenix Gladiator Commodus
2001
(74th)
Jim Broadbent Iris John Bayley
Ethan Hawke Training Day Jake Hoyt
Ben Kingsley Sexy Beast Don Logan
Ian McKellen The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring Gandalf
Jon Voight Ali Howard Cosell
2002
(75th)
Chris Cooper Adaptation John Laroche
Ed Harris The Hours Richard Brown
Paul Newman Road to Perdition John Rooney
John C. Reilly Chicago Amos Hart
Christopher Walken Catch Me If You Can Frank Abagnale, Sr.
2003
(76th)
Tim Robbins Mystic River Dave Boyle
Alec Baldwin The Cooler Shelly Kaplow
Benicio del Toro 21 Grams Jack Jordan
Djimon Hounsou In America Mateo
Ken Watanabe The Last Samurai Lord Moritsugu Katsumoto
2004
(77th)
Morgan Freeman Million Dollar Baby Eddie "Scrap-Iron" Dupris
Alan Alda The Aviator Senator Owen Brewster
Thomas Haden Church Sideways Jack
Jamie Foxx Collateral Max Durocher
Clive Owen Closer Larry Gray
2005
(78th)
George Clooney Syriana Robert Barnes
Matt Dillon Crash Sgt. John Ryan
Paul Giamatti Cinderella Man Joe Gould
Jake Gyllenhaal Brokeback Mountain Jack Twist
William Hurt A History of Violence Richie Cusack
Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor
33
2006
(79th)
Alan Arkin Little Miss Sunshine Edwin Hoover
Jackie Earle Haley Little Children Ronald James McGorvey
Djimon Hounsou Blood Diamond Solomon Vandy
Eddie Murphy Dreamgirls James "Thunder" Early
Mark Wahlberg The Departed Sgt. Sean Dignam
2007
(80th)
Javier Bardem No Country for Old Men Anton Chigurh
Casey Affleck The Assassination of Jesse James by the Coward Robert Ford Robert Ford
Philip Seymour Hoffman Charlie Wilson's War Gust Avrakotos
Hal Holbrook Into the Wild Ron Franz
Tom Wilkinson Michael Clayton Arthur Edens
2008
(81st)
Heath Ledger (posthumous win) The Dark Knight The Joker
Josh Brolin Milk Dan White
Robert Downey, Jr. Tropic Thunder Kirk Lazarus
Philip Seymour Hoffman Doubt Father Brendan Flynn
Michael Shannon Revolutionary Road John Givings
2009
(82nd)
Christoph Waltz Inglourious Basterds Col. Hans Landa
Matt Damon Invictus Francois Pienaar
Woody Harrelson The Messenger Capt. Tony Stone
Christopher Plummer The Last Station Leo Tolstoy
Stanley Tucci The Lovely Bones George Harvey
2010s
Year Actor Film Role(s)
2010
(83rd)
Christian Bale The Fighter Dicky Eklund
John Hawkes Winter's Bone Teardrop Dolly
Jeremy Renner The Town James "Jem" Coughlin
Mark Ruffalo The Kids Are All Right Paul
Geoffrey Rush The King's Speech Lionel Logue
2011
(84th)
Christopher Plummer Beginners Hal Fields
Kenneth Branagh My Week with Marilyn Laurence Olivier
Jonah Hill Moneyball Peter Brand
Nick Nolte Warrior Paddy Conlon
Max von Sydow Extremely Loud and Incredibly Close The Renter
Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor
34
2012
(85th)
TBA TBA TBA
Alan Arkin Argo Lester Siegel
Robert De Niro Silver Linings Playbook Pat Solitano, Sr.
Philip Seymour Hoffman The Master Lancaster Dodd
Tommy Lee Jones Lincoln Thaddeus Stevens
Christoph Waltz Django Unchained Dr. King Schultz
Multiple awards
2 awards
•• Michael Caine
•• Melvyn Douglas
•• Jason Robards
•• Anthony Quinn
•• Peter Ustinov
3 awards
•• Walter Brennan
Multiple nominations
2 nominations
•• Eddie Albert
•• Alan Arkin
•• Michael Caine
•• Lee J. Cobb
•• Benicio del Toro
•• Willem Dafoe
•• Robert De Niro
•• Melvyn Douglas
•• Charles Durning
•• Peter Falk
•• Morgan Freeman
•• Vincent Gardenia
•• John Gielgud
•• Hugh Griffith
•• Alec Guinness
•• Edmund Gwenn
•• Djimon Hounsou
•• Walter Huston
•• Ben Kingsley
•• John Lithgow
•• John Malkovich
2 nominations (cont.)
•• Karl Malden
•• James Mason
•• Burgess Meredith
•• Sal Mineo
•• Thomas Mitchell
•• Edmond O'Brien
•• Joe Pesci
•• Christopher Plummer
•• Anthony Quinn
•• Basil Rathbone
•• Ralph Richardson
•• Mickey Rooney
•• Geoffrey Rush
•• George C. Scott
•• Akim Tamiroff
•• Christopher Walken
•• Jack Warden
•• Denzel Washington
•• Clifton Webb
•• Christoph Waltz
3 nominations
•• Charles Bickford
•• Jeff Bridges
•• Charles Coburn
•• Robert Duvall
•• Gene Hackman
•• Ed Harris
•• Philip Seymour Hoffman
•• Tommy Lee Jones
•• Martin Landau
•• Al Pacino
•• Jack Palance
•• Jason Robards
•• Peter Ustinov
•• Gig Young
4 nominations
•• Walter Brennan
•• Arthur Kennedy
•• Jack Nicholson
•• Claude Rains
Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor
35
International presence
As the Academy Awards are based in the United States and are centered on the Hollywood film industry, the
majority of Academy Award winners have been Americans. Nonetheless, there is significant international presence
at the awards, as evidenced by the following list of winners for the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor.
• Australia: Heath Ledger
• Austria: Joseph Schildkraut, Christoph Waltz
• Cambodia: Haing S. Ngor
• Canada: Christopher Plummer
• Ireland (republic): Barry Fitzgerald
• Mexico: Anthony Quinn
• Puerto Rico: Benicio del Toro
• Spain: Javier Bardem
• United Kingdom: Christian Bale, Jim Broadbent, Michael Caine, Sean Connery, Donald Crisp, John Gielgud,
Hugh Griffith, Edmund Gwenn, John Mills, George Sanders, Peter Ustinov
There have been two years in which all four of the top acting Academy Awards were presented to non-Americans.
• At the 37th Academy Awards (1964), the winners were Rex Harrison (British), Julie Andrews (British), Peter
Ustinov (British), and Lila Kedrova (Russian).
• At the 80th Academy Awards (2007), the winners were Daniel Day-Lewis (British and Irish), Marion Cotillard
(French), Javier Bardem (Spanish), and Tilda Swinton (British).
References
[1] [1] Beginning with the 1943 awards, winners in the supporting acting categories were awarded Oscar statuettes similar to those awarded to
winners in all other categories, including the leading acting categories. Prior to this, however, winners in the supporting acting categories were
awarded plaques.
External links
• Oscars.org (http:// www. oscars. org/) (official Academy site)
• Oscar.com (http:/ / www. oscar.com/ ) (official ceremony promotional site)
• The Academy Awards Database (http:/ / www.oscars. org/awardsdatabase/ index. html) (official site)
Balls Out: Gary the Tennis Coach
36
Balls Out: Gary the Tennis Coach
Balls Out: Gary the Tennis Coach
Directed by Danny Leiner
Produced by Danny Leiner
Seann William Scott
Written by Andy Stock
Rick Stempson
Starring Seann William Scott
Randy Quaid
Leonor Varela
Music by John Swihart
Cinematography Rogier Stoffers
Editing by Matthew Rohrs
Studio GreeneStreet Films
Distributed by Sony Pictures Home Entertainment
Release date(s) • February 8, 2008 (EFM)
• January 13, 2009 (United States)
Country United States
Language English
Budget $15 million
Balls Out: Gary the Tennis Coach is an American comedy film directed by Danny Leiner starring Seann William
Scott, Randy Quaid and Leonor Varela. The film was filmed mostly in the Austin, Texas area and Taylor, Texas.
The film was released direct-to-video on January 13, 2009.
[1]
Cast
• Seann William Scott as Gary "The Beast" Housman
• Randy Quaid as Coach Lew Tuttle
• Brando Eaton as Mike Jensen
•• Emilee Wallace as Jenny Tuttle
• A.D. Miles as Steve Pimble
• Leonor Varela as Norma Sanchez
•• Daniel Ross as Jeffery Vanier
•• Tim Williams as Dick Daubert
•• Ryan Simpkins as Amy Daubert
• Conor Donovan as Burke Nibbons
• Allen Evangelista as Maricar Magwill
• Justin Chon as Joe Chang
•• Vincent Coleman Taylor as Kevin Jones (as Vincent Taylor)
•• Bryan Mitchell as Randy King
•• Remington Dewan as Paul the Videographer
• Meredith Eaton as Mrs. Tuttle
• Sterling Knight as Opposing Team Tennis Player (uncredited)
Balls Out: Gary the Tennis Coach
37
Production
The screenplay, written by Andy Stock and Rick Stempson, won the 2005 BlueCat Screenplay Competition.
[2]
The
film is set in Lincoln, Nebraska. The writers Rick Stempson and Andy Stock are both Lincoln East High School
graduates.
[3]
References
[1] "Ball's Out: The Gary Houseman Story" (http:/ / www. themovieinsider.com/ m3456/ gary-the-tennis-coach/). The Movie Insider. Archived
(http:/ / web. archive.org/ web/ 20090204114354/ http:/ / www. themovieinsider.com/ m3456/ gary-the-tennis-coach/) from the original on 4
February 2009. . Retrieved March 7, 2009.
[2] "BlueCat Screenwriting Competition - 2005 Winner" (http:// www. webcitation. org/5r47QeBxC). Bluecat Screenplay Competition.
Archived from the original (http:// www. bluecatscreenplay. com/ winner/2005.php) on July 8, 2010. . Retrieved July 8, 2010.
[3] "Tennis coach is seeing stars with Hollywood screenplay deal" (http:/ / www. dailynebraskan.com/ sports/
tennis-coach-is-seeing-stars-with-hollywood-screenplay-deal-1.303770). Daily Nebraskan. . Retrieved April 6, 2006.
External links
• Balls Out: Gary the Tennis Coach (http:/ / www. imdb. com/ title/ tt0787470/ ) at the Internet Movie Database
Black Cadillac (film)
38
Black Cadillac (film)
Black Cadillac
Directed by John Murlowski
Produced by Kenneth Burke
Written by John Murlowski, Will Aldis
Starring Randy Quaid
Shane Johnson
Josh Hammond
Jason Dohring
Cinematography Douglas Smith
Editing by John Gilbert
Distributed by First Look International,
MTI Home Video,
Artist View Entertainment
Release date(s) 2003
Running time 88 min.
Country United States
Language English
Black Cadillac is a 2003 American thriller/horror film, directed by John Murlowski and written by Murlowski and
Will Aldis. The film stars Shane Johnson, Josh Hammond, Jason Dohring, and Randy Quaid.
Plot
Three young men, Scott, Robbie, and CJ, stop at a roadhouse in Wisconsin in search of a good time, as Robbie is
looking to have sex for the first time. Soon, CJ gets into a fight in the bar and Scott is forced to come inside and bail
him and Robbie out. Leaving the roadhouse and their new enemies at the bar behind, the three set off for Minnesota,
their home state.
Within a few minutes, a large, menacing black car begins stalking them, repeatedly creeping up close and backing
off again. Several minutes later, they pick up Deputy Sheriff Charlie Harman, whose '86 Chevrolet police cruiser has
frozen to death at the side of the road. After picking up the friendly and talkative Charlie, the 1957 Cadillac Series 75
Limousine, begins to get more and more aggressive, and for unknown reasons challenges Scott's SAAB to a drag
race in which it tries repeatedly to wreck the SAAB.
Suspicion over why the car is after them and who its occupants are after begins to rise within the SAAB, and Scott
decides to kick Charlie out of the car and leave him, believing he is the reason they are being chased. The Cadillac
then reappears, and Charlie is apparently killed by a gunman in the Cadillac. After a long while is spent by the three
attempting to escape and outwit the Cadillac, the SAAB overheats and stops, and a fight breaks out between the three
young men. CJ intervenes and stops the fight, and the three push the SAAB down the road to a repair garage. CJ is
soon kidnapped by the Cadillac's occupants while outside, and a chase between both cars across the nearby frozen
lake ensues, in which Scott's car is finally destroyed by its overheating problems.
CJ is then found tied to a tree, and the reason for the entire set of events is revealed. Charlie, who is in truth a cruel
and vindictive man whose death was faked by his brother, Luther, the Cadillac's driver, has been attempting to
identify the man his wife had been seeing at a roadhouse, and learned that it was Scott. As he prepares to kill Scott
with a hunting knife, his wife Jeanine taunts and distracts him, allowing Scott, Robbie and CJ to break free and run.
Black Cadillac (film)
39
An insanely enraged Charlie, now personally driving the Cadillac, chases after them. When he corners Scott at the
edge of a cliff, he waits a moment, then charges. His wife appears at the last moment in front of Scott, causing
Charlie to veer away, sending the black Cadillac crashing down the cliff and into the lake. The destroyed, burning
car sinks into the lake while Scott, CJ, Robbie, and Jeanine look on. The next morning, the group finally makes it
across the state line into Minnesota.
Cast
• Randy Quaid as Charlie
• Shane Johnson as Scott
• Josh Hammond as C.J. LongHammer
• Jason Dohring as Robby
• Adam Vernier as Beefy
• Kiersten Warren-Acevedo as Jeannine
• Robert Clunis as Luther
• Taylor Stanley as Denise
Development
• Scott's red car is a Saab 900, while the black car stalking them is a 1957 Cadillac Fleetwood.
•• In several scenes, a black '57 Series 62 Sedan is substituted for the Series 75 limousine. Since the roof and rear
window is completely different on the two cars, a fake roof extension had to be created for the Series 62 model. It
was this car and not the limousine that drove off the cliff into the frozen lake at the end of the film.
•• The film is based loosely on an experience from the director's past. In the early eighties, while he and a few
friends were driving home, they were chased by a car, for several hours, through backwoods roads.
External links
• Black Cadillac
[1]
at the Internet Movie Database
References
[1] http:/ / www.imdb. com/ title/ tt0313285/
Bloodhounds of Broadway (1989 film)
40
Bloodhounds of Broadway (1989 film)
Bloodhounds of Broadway
Directed by Howard Brookner
Produced by Samuel Benedict
Chris Brigham
Howard Brookner
Colman deKay
Kevin Dowd
Lindsay Law
Written by Howard Brookner
Colman deKay
Damon Runyon (stories)
Starring Matt Dillon
Jennifer Grey
Julie Hagerty
Rutger Hauer
Madonna
Esai Morales
Anita Morris
Randy Quaid
William S. Burroughs
Music by Jonathan Sheffer
Cinematography Elliot Davis
Editing by Camilla Toniolo
Studio American Playhouse Theatrical Films
Distributed by Columbia Pictures
Release date(s) November 3, 1989
Running time 90 minutes
Country United States
Language English
Bloodhounds of Broadway is a 1989 film based on four Damon Runyon stories.
[1]
It was directed by Howard
Brookner and starred Matt Dillon, Jennifer Grey, Anita Morris, Julie Hagerty, Rutger Hauer, Madonna, Esai Morales
and Randy Quaid.
[2]
Madonna and Jennifer Grey perform a duet, "I Surrender Dear", during the film.
Bloodhounds of Broadway was Brookner's first feature-length film (and his last, as he died shortly before the film
opened). The film was recut by the studio and Walter Winchellesque narration added.
[1]
Bloodhounds of Broadway (1989 film)
41
Plot
Broadway, New Year's Eve, 1928. A muckraking reporter, Waldo Winchester, frames four major stories during the
wild New Year's Eve of 1928.
We meet the players in a diner. The Brain, a gangster with multiple girlfriends, is accompanied by a gambler named
Regret (after the only horse he even won a bet on) and an outsider who (with his bloodhounds) is being treated to a
meal. Feet Samuels (so named because of his big feet) is in love with a showgirl named Hortense Hathaway, who is
tossed out of the diner because of an unsavory reputation). Feet plans to have one wild night before committing
suicide, having sold his body in advance to a medical doctor.
Harriet MacKyle, a sheltered but friendly socialite, makes arrangements with a smooth-talking fixer for a big party
that night at her estate, where many of the players will later attend. She has an interest in the exciting but dangerous
criminal element. A girl selling flowers comes in after Feet makes a full payment of a debt to the Brain, so the Brain
offers $5 for a 25-cent flower, telling her to keep the change. But before he can leave, a hitman for the Brooklyn
Mob stabs him. The wounded Brain tells his men to take him "home." Unfortunately, his many girlfriends refuse to
allow him in for various reasons.
Feet gets involved in a high-stakes craps game. With considerable luck, he wins a massive payoff of money and
jewelry. Regret suggests they find another game, but Feet reveals his plan to kill himself. Regret tries to talk him out
of it, but Feet, sworn to see his last promise fulfilled, is adamant. Regret dials up the reporter, who is now at
MacKyle's party, and asks him to talk to Hortense (his niece) and get her to realize Feet is smitten with her.
Hortense must try to persuade Feet that she wants to quit her life as a lounge singer, move to New Jersey and raise a
family. Regret, meanwhile, continues to be the world's unluckiest gambler, but showgirl Lovey Lou is in love with
him anyway.
Cast
• Matt Dillon as Regret
• Madonna as Hortense Hathaway
• Randy Quaid as Feet Samuels
• Julie Hagerty as Harriet MacKyle
• Rutger Hauer as The Brain
• Jennifer Grey as Lovey Lou
• Anita Morris as Miss Missouri Martin
• Josef Sommer as Waldo Winchester
• Esai Morales as Handsome Jack
• Steve Buscemi as Whining Willie
• Fisher Stevens as Hotfoot Harry
• Alan Ruck as John Wangle
• Dinah Manoff as Maud Milligan
Bloodhounds of Broadway (1989 film)
42
References
[1] Harmetz, Aljean (1989-11-01). "A Director's Race With AIDS Ends Before His Movie Opens" (http:// www. nytimes. com/ 1989/ 11/ 01/
movies/ a-director-s-race-with-aids-ends-before-his-movie-opens.html). The New York Times. . Retrieved 2008-07-16.
[2] "The New York Times" (http:// movies. nytimes. com/ movie/ 6176/ Bloodhounds-of-Broadway/ details). The New York Times. . Retrieved
2012-01-11.
External links
• Bloodhounds of Broadway (1989 film) (http:// www. imdb.com/ title/ tt0096953/ ) at the Internet Movie
Database
• Bloodhounds of Broadway (1989 film) (http:/ / www. allrovi.com/ movies/ movie/ v6176) at AllRovi
Brokeback Mountain
Brokeback Mountain
Theatrical release poster
Directed by Ang Lee
Produced by James Schamus
Larry McMurtry
Diana Ossana
Screenplay by Larry McMurtry
Diana Ossana
Based on Brokeback Mountain by
Annie Proulx
Starring Heath Ledger
Jake Gyllenhaal
Anne Hathaway
Michelle Williams
Randy Quaid
Music by Gustavo Santaolalla
Cinematography Rodrigo Prieto
Editing by Geraldine Peroni
Dylan Tichenor
Studio River Road Entertainment
Good Machine
Distributed by Focus Features
Release date(s) • September 2, 2005 (VIFF)
• December 9, 2005 (United States)
• December 23, 2005 (Canada)
Running time 134 minutes
Country Canada
United States
Language English
Budget $14 million
Box office $178,062,759
Brokeback Mountain
43
Brokeback Mountain is a 2005 romantic drama film directed by Ang Lee. It is a film adaptation of the 1997 short
story of the same name by Annie Proulx with the screenplay written by Diana Ossana and Larry McMurtry. The film
stars Heath Ledger, Jake Gyllenhaal, Anne Hathaway and Michelle Williams and depicts the complex romantic and
sexual relationship between two men in the American West from 1963 to 1983.
[1]
Brokeback Mountain won the Golden Lion at the Venice Film Festival and was honored with Best Picture and Best
Director accolades from the British Academy of Film and Television Arts, Golden Globe Awards, Producers Guild
of America, Critics Choice Awards, and Independent Spirit Awards among many other organizations and festivals.
Brokeback Mountain was nominated for eight Academy Awards, the most nominations at the 78th Academy
Awards, where it won three: Best Director, Best Adapted Screenplay, and Best Original Score. The film was widely
considered to be a front runner for the Academy Award for Best Picture, but lost to Crash.
[2][3][4][5]
Brokeback
Mountain ranks 11th among the highest-grossing romance films of all time.
[6]
Plot
In 1963, Ennis Del Mar (Heath Ledger) and Jack Twist (Jake Gyllenhaal) are hired by Joe Aguirre (Randy Quaid) to
herd his sheep through the summer in Wyoming. After a night of heavy drinking, Jack makes a sexual pass at Ennis,
who is initially apprehensive but eventually falls to Jack's advances. Though he informs Jack that it was a one-time
incident, they develop a sexual and emotional relationship. Shortly after learning their summer together is being cut
short, they briefly fight, and each is bloodied.
After Jack and Ennis part ways, Ennis marries his longtime fiancée Alma Beers (Michelle Williams) and fathers two
children. Jack returns the next summer, but Aguirre, who witnessed Jack and Ennis on the mountain, does not re-hire
him. Jack meets, marries, and starts a family with rodeo rider Lureen Newsome (Anne Hathaway). After four years,
Jack visits Ennis. Upon meeting the two kiss passionately, which Alma accidentally witnesses. Jack broaches the
subject of creating a life together on a small ranch, but Ennis, haunted by a childhood memory of the torture and
murder of a man suspected of homosexual behavior, refuses. He is also unwilling to abandon his family. Ennis and
Jack continue to meet for infrequent fishing trips.
The marriages of both men deteriorate. Alma and Ennis eventually divorce. Ennis sees his family regularly until
Alma finally confronts him about her knowledge of the true nature of his relationship with Jack which incites a
violent argument and causes Ennis to abandon his connections with Alma. Lureen abandons her rodeo days and
becomes a businesswoman with her father and expects Jack to work in sales. Hearing about Ennis's divorce, Jack
drives to Wyoming hoping they can live together, but Ennis refuses to move away from his children. Jack finds
solace with male prostitutes in Mexico. Ennis meets and has a brief romantic relationship with a waitress, Cassie
Cartwright (Linda Cardellini). Jack and Lureen meet and befriend another couple, Randall and Lashawn Malone, and
it is implied that Jack and Randall begin an affair behind their wives' backs.
At the end of a fishing trip, Ennis attempts to push back their next meeting. An argument erupts over Jack's
frustration at him and Ennis meeting infrequently and Ennis blames Jack for being the cause of his own conflicted
actions. Jack attempts to hold him and there is a brief struggle, but they end up locked in an embrace. A flashback of
Ennis saying goodbye to Jack during their summer on Brokeback Mountain fades back to Jack watching Ennis drive
away.
Some time later, a postcard Ennis sends to Jack is returned stamped "Deceased". In a telephone conversation, Lureen
tells Ennis that Jack died when a tire he was changing exploded; while listening, Ennis imagines Jack being
bludgeoned to death by a gang. Jack's actual fate is left "deliberately ambiguous".
[7]
Lureen tells Ennis that Jack
wanted to have his ashes scattered on Brokeback Mountain, but she does not know where it is. Ennis travels to meet
with Jack's mother and father (Roberta Maxwell and Peter McRobbie), where he offers to take Jack's ashes – but the
father refuses, preferring to have them interred in a family plot. In Jack's childhood bedroom, Ennis finds the
bloodstained shirt he thought he lost on Brokeback Mountain, realizing that Jack kept it hanging with the
bloodstained shirt Jack himself wore during that fight. Ennis holds them up to his face, breathing in their scent and
Brokeback Mountain
44
silently weeping. Jack's mother allows him to keep the shirts.
Later, 19-year-old Alma Jr. (Kate Mara) arrives at her father's trailer with the news that she is engaged. She asks
Ennis for his blessing and invites him to the wedding. Ennis asks her if her fiancé really loves her, and she answers
"yes". After Alma's departure, Ennis goes to his closet. Hanging on a nail pounded into the door are the shirts, with a
postcard of Brokeback Mountain tacked above. Now Jack's shirt is tucked inside of Ennis's. Ennis fastens the top
button of Jack's shirt, and with tears in his eyes mutters, "Jack, I swear..." while straightening the postcard, before
closing the door and walking away.
Cast
• Heath Ledger as Ennis Del Mar
• Jake Gyllenhaal as Jack Twist
• Randy Quaid as Joe Aguirre
• Michelle Williams as Alma Beers Del Mar
• Anne Hathaway as Lureen Newsome Twist
• Linda Cardellini as Cassie Cartwright
• Anna Faris as Lashawn Malone
• David Harbour as Randall Malone
• Roberta Maxwell as Mrs. Twist
• Peter McRobbie as John Twist
• Kate Mara as Alma Del Mar Jr.
Production
Before Lee, Gus Van Sant attempted to turn Proulx's story into a film starring Joaquin Phoenix and Matt Damon.
Damon told the director, "Gus, I did a gay movie (The Talented Mr. Ripley), then a cowboy movie (All the Pretty
Horses). I can't follow it up with a gay-cowboy movie!"
[8]
While the film is set in Wyoming, it was filmed almost entirely in the Canadian Rockies in southern Alberta.
[9]
"Brokeback Mountain" in the film is so named because the mountain has the same swayback curve as a brokeback
horse or mule, which is swaybacked or sagging in the spine,
[10]
is actually a composite of Mount Lougheed south of
the town of Canmore to Fortress and Moose Mountain in Kananaskis Country.
[11]
The campsites were filmed at Goat
Creek, Upper Kananaskis Lake, Elbow Falls and Canyon Creek, also in Alberta. Other scenes were also filmed in
Cowley, Fort Macleod,
[12]
and Calgary. The film was shot during the summer of 2004.
[13]
Mark Wahlberg declined the starring role, saying he turned down the opportunity because he was "a little creeped
out" by the homosexual themes and sex scene.
[14]
Commercial success
Brokeback Mountain cost about US$14 million to produce, excluding its reported advertising budget of $5 million.
According to interviews with the filmmakers, Focus Features was able to recoup its production costs early on by
selling overseas rights to the film.
The film saw limited release in the United States on December 9, 2005 (in New York City, Los Angeles, and San
Francisco), taking $547,425 in five theaters its first weekend.
Over the Christmas weekend, it posted the highest per-theater gross of any film and was considered a box office
success not only in urban centers such as New York City and Los Angeles, but also in suburban theaters near
Portland, Houston, Chicago, Dallas, Denver, and Atlanta. On January 6, 2006, the film expanded into 483 theaters,
and on January 13, 2006, Focus Features, the film's distributor, opened Brokeback in nearly 700 North American
cinemas as part of its ongoing expansion strategy for the film. On January 20, the film opened in 1,194 theaters in
Brokeback Mountain
45
North America; it opened in 1,652 theaters on January 27 and in 2,089 theaters on February 3, its widest release.
Brokeback Mountain's theatrical run lasted for 133 days and grossed $83,043,761 in North America and $95,000,000
abroad, adding up to a worldwide gross of more than $178 million. It is the top-grossing release of Focus Features,
ranks fifth among the highest-grossing westerns (since 1979) and eighth among the highest-grossing romantic
dramas (1980 – present).
The film was released in London on December 30, 2005, in only one cinema, and was widely released in the rest of
the United Kingdom on January 6, 2006. On January 11, Time Out London magazine reported that Brokeback was
the number one film in the city, a position it held for three weeks.
[15]
The film was released in France on January 18, 2006, in 155 cinemas (expanding into 258 cinemas in the second
week and into 290 in the third week). In its first week of release, Brokeback Mountain was in third place at the
French box office, with 277,000 people viewing the film, or an average of 1,787 people by cinema per week, the
highest such figure for any film in France that week. One month later, it reached more than one million viewers
(more than 1,250,000 on March 18), with still 168 cinemas (in the 10th week). Released in Italy on January 20, the
film grossed more than 890,000 euros in only three days, and was the fourth highest-grossing film in the country in
its first week of release.
Brokeback Mountain was released in Australia on January 26, 2006, where it landed in fourth place at the box office
and earned an average per-screen gross three times higher than its nearest competitor during its first weekend despite
being released in only 48 cinemas nationwide. Most of the Australian critics praised the film.
[16]
Brokeback was
released in many other countries during the first three months of 2006.
[17]
During its first week of release, Brokeback was in first place in Hong Kong's box office, with more than US$473,868
($22,565 per cinema).
[18]
Brokeback Mountain was the highest-grossing film in the U.S. from January 17 through January 19, 2006, perhaps
due primarily to its wins at the Golden Globes on January 16. Indeed, the film was one of the top five
highest-grossing films in the U.S. every day from January 17 until January 28, including over the weekend (when
more people go to the films and big-budget films usually crowd out independent films from the top-grossing list) of
January 20–22.
[19]
On January 28, the film fell out of the top five and into sixth place at the box office during that
weekend before entering the top five again on January 30 and remaining there until February 10.
The film was released on January 20, 2006, in Taiwan, where director Ang Lee was born. It ran until April 20.
The pair of shirts from the film sold on eBay on February 20, 2006, for US$101,100.51.
[20][21]
The buyer, film
historian and collector Tom Gregory, called the shirts "the ruby slippers of our time," and intends never to separate
them.
[22]
The proceeds will benefit California children's charity Variety, which has long been associated with the
film industry.
[23]
The shirts (still entwined and on the original hanger) are currently on loan to the Autry National Center, where they
are on display in the Autry's Imagination Gallery.
[24]
On December 11, 2010, in association with Focus Features, the
Autry screened Brokeback Mountain to commemorate the film's 5th anniversary, followed by a staged reading based
on the book Beyond Brokeback, written by Members of the Ultimate Brokeback Forum and adapted for the stage by
author and producer Gregory Hinton. This program was presented as part of the Out West at the Autry series.
Conceived by Hinton, consulting producer for the series, Out West at the Autry was inspired not only by the
installation of the iconic Brokeback shirts but also by the permanent inclusion of the International Gay Rodeo
Association's (IGRA) archives into the Autry Library (both facilitated by Hinton). The Autry National Center is the
first major American museum to recognize the contributions of the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT)
community to the American West.
Brokeback Mountain
46
Reception
Professional film critics have heaped praise on Brokeback Mountain.
[25]
The film won four Golden Globe Awards,
including Best Motion Picture – Drama, and was nominated for seven, leading all other films in the 2005 awards. It
won the Golden Lion at the Venice Film Festival, as well as the title Best Picture from the Boston Society of Film
Critics, the Dallas-Fort Worth Film Critics Association, the Florida Film Critics Circle, the Las Vegas Film Critics
Society, the Los Angeles Film Critics Association, the New York Film Critics Circle, the San Francisco Film Critics
Circle, the Southeastern Film Critics Association, the Utah Film Critics Society, and the British Academy of Film
and Television Arts (BAFTAs).
The poster's layout was fashioned after Titanic's, which similarly used the theme of star-crossed lovers.
[26]
Brokeback Mountain received an 87% "Fresh" rating on Rotten Tomatoes, compiled from 223 reviews, with the
consensus that "a beautifully epic Western, Brokeback Mountain's gay love story is imbued with heartbreaking
universality, helped by the moving performances of Ledger and Gyllenhaal."
[25]
It also received an 87 out of 100
score on Metacritic based on 41 reviews, indicating "Universal acclaim."
[27]
The film was given a "two thumbs up"
rating by Roger Ebert and Richard Roeper, the former giving a four-star review in the Chicago Sun-Times. The film
received positive reviews from Christianity Today.
[28]
Conservative radio host Michael Medved gave the film three
and a half stars, stating that while the film's "agenda" is blatant, it is an artistic work.
[29]
The film's significance has been attributed to its portrayal of a same-sex relationship without any reference to the
history of the gay civil rights movement.
[30]
This emphasizes the tragic love story aspect, which leads many
commentators to effectively compare Ennis and Jack's drama to classic and modern romances like Romeo and Juliet
or Titanic, often using the term star-crossed lovers.
[31][32][33]
This link to classic romances is no coincidence; the
poster for the film was inspired by that of James Cameron's Titanic, after Ang Lee's collaborator James Schamus
looked at the posters of "the 50 most romantic movies ever made".
[34]
There was also disagreement among reviewers, critics, and even the cast and crew as to whether the film's two
protagonists were actually homosexual, bisexual, heterosexual, or under no sexual label at all. Most often the film
was referred to in the media as the "gay cowboy movie," but a number of reviewers wrote that Jack and Ennis were
bisexual.
[35][36][37]
Sex researcher Fritz Klein also asserted his opinion that the film was "a nice film with two main
characters who were bisexual", and further analyzed that Jack is more "toward the gay side of bisexuality" and Ennis
is "a bit more toward the straight side of being bisexual".
[38]
In an article in American Sexuality Magazine,
bisexuality-focused sex educator Amy Andre critiqued the media's avoidance of the use of the term bisexual in
association with Brokeback Mountain:

Brokeback Mountain is a not a movie about gay people, and there are no gay people in it. There. I said it. Despite what you may have read in
the many reviews that have come out about this new cowboy feature film, Brokeback Mountain is a bisexual picture. Why can't film reviewers
say the word 'bisexual' when they see lead characters with sexual and romantic relationships with both men and women? I am unaware of a
single review of Brokeback calling the leads what they are—a sad statement on the invisibility of bisexual experience and the level of biphobia
in both the mainstream and gay media.
[39]

Gyllenhaal himself took the opinion that Ennis and Jack were heterosexual men who "develop this love, this bond,"
also saying in a Details interview: "I approached the story believing that these are actually two straight guys who fall
in love."
[38]
Still others stated that they felt the characters' sexuality to be simply ambiguous. Clarence Patton and
Christopher Murray said in New York's Gay City News that Ennis and Jack's experiences were metaphors for "many
men who do not identify as gay or even queer, but who nevertheless have sex with other men".
[40]
A reviewer at
Filmcritic.com wrote, "We later see Jack eagerly engage Lureen sexually, with no explanation as to whether he is
bisexual, so in need of physical intimacy that anyone, regardless of gender, will do, or merely very adept at faking
it."
[41]
Ledger was quoted as stating in TIME: "I don't think Ennis could be labeled as gay. Without Jack Twist, I
don't know that he ever would have come out.... I think the whole point was that it was two souls that fell in love
Brokeback Mountain
47
with each other." Conversely, others stated that the characters were undoubtedly gay, including GLBT non-fiction
author Eric Marcus, who dismissed "talk of Ennis and Jack being anything but gay as box office-influenced political
correctness intended to steer straight audiences to the film". Roger Ebert also agrees that both characters are gay,
although in doubt of it: "Jack is able to accept a little more willingly that he is inescapably gay,"
[42]
and the film's
producer James Schamus said, "I suppose movies can be Rorschach tests for all of us, but damn if these characters
aren't gay to me."
[38]
Annie Proulx herself opined "how different readers take the story is a reflection of their own
personal values, attitudes, hang-ups."
[43][44]
When Ledger and Gyllenhaal were asked about any fear of being cast in such controversial roles, Ledger responded
that he was not afraid of the role, but rather he was concerned that he would not be mature enough as an actor to do
the story justice. Gyllenhaal has stated that he is extremely proud of the film and his role, regardless of what the
reactions would be. He regards rumors of him being bisexual as flattering, stating, "I'm open to whatever people
want to call me. I've never really been attracted to men sexually, but I don't think I would be afraid of it if it
happened."
[45]
Both have stated that the sex scenes in the beginning were difficult to do. Lee found the first scene
difficult to film and has stated he has great respect for the two main actors for their "courage". Ledger's performance
was described by Luke Davies as a difficult and empowering portrayal given the environment of the film, stating: "In
Brokeback Mountain the vulnerability, the potential for danger, is so great – a world so masculine it might destroy
you for any aberration – that [Ledger's] real brilliance was to bring to the screen a character, Ennis Del Mar, so
fundamentally shut down that he is like a bible of unrequited desires, stifled yearnings, lost potential."
[46]
On January 3, 2006, Universal, the studio of which Focus Features is the specialty division, announced that
Brokeback Mountain was the most honored film of 2005. The independent website criticstop10.com backed that
assertion, reporting that Brokeback Mountain was the most frequently selected film on reviewers' year-end Top Ten
lists of 2005.
[47]
Entertainment Weekly put it on its end-of-the-decade, "best-of" list, saying, "Everyone called it 'The
Gay Cowboy Movie.' Until they saw it. In the end, Ang Lee's 2005 love story wasn't gay or straight, just human."
[48]
On March 9, 2006, a press release was sent to more than 400 media outlets announcing that nearly $26,000 had been
raised for an ad to be posted in the Daily Variety on March 10, 2006.
[49]
This $26,000 had been raised by just over
600 fans through an online donations site, affiliated with a non-studio-sponsored online forum which is devoted to
the film and the book.
[50]
The story was quickly picked up by several outlets including Yahoo!, The Advocate, and
The New York Times.
[51][52]
The ad served as a simple show of fan support despite its losing the Best Picture Oscar.
International reception

I think they are genuinely happy to see a Chinese director win an Academy Award with good artistic value. I think that pride is genuine, so I
would not think that's hypocritical at all.

—Ang Lee, responding to being celebrated in China for winning the Academy Award, although the film was not released there.
[53]
The title of Brokeback Mountain has been translated into several other languages. Often the foreign title is literally
The Secret(s) of Brokeback Mountain (how the French, Italian, Portuguese and Polish titles translate). In Canadian
French, the title was translated to Souvenirs de Brokeback Mountain (Memories of Brokeback Mountain). In
Hungarian, the title was Túl a barátságon (Beyond friendship). The Region 1 DVD has English, Spanish (Latin
American), French (Canadian), and on some DVDs, German audio tracks.
The film also met with mixed reactions in other nations, including China and Middle Eastern countries:
• According to news reports, the film has not been shown in theaters in China, although it was freely available in
bootleg DVD and video. The reason given by the state for not showing the film in theaters was that the
anticipated audience was too small to justify this type of release. However, foreign media advanced the argument
that this was merely a cover and that government hostility is better explained by opposition to the homosexuality
portrayed in the film.
[54][55]
Although the film opened in theaters in Lee's native Taiwan on January 20, 2006, and
Brokeback Mountain
48
Hong Kong on February 23, 2006.
[56]
In an interview with CNN, Ang Lee was asked "Brokeback Mountain has
never been shown in China, but when you won Best Director in 2005 for that film, the Chinese media said, and I
quote: "You are the pride of the Chinese people all over the world." Do you find that a little hypocritical, the fact
that you are fated by China, yet your film is not allowed to be shown there?"
[53]
Lee responded "It was, I wouldn't
say hypocritical. I think they are genuinely happy to see a Chinese director win an Academy Award with good
artistic value. I think that pride is genuine, so I would not think that's hypocritical at all. Not only in my judgment,
I literally meet people who are genuinely happy. No, no, I don't think so, it's just like they don't want homosexual
movie shown in the movies, it's hard to put American logic... It's just something else. I don't know how to
describe it, it's just something else. So what can I say?"
[53]
• In the Middle East, the film was a political issue. Homosexuality remains a serious crime in most Middle Eastern
nations and remains a taboo subject even in the few nations where it is legal. Israel was the only country in the
Middle East to show the uncensored version of the film. Lebanon was the only Arab country to show the film, but
in a censored format. The film was also released in Turkey.
[57]
The film was officially banned from cinema
screenings in the United Arab Emirates; however, the DVD release of the film was permitted to be rented from
stores such as Blockbuster Video.
[58][59]
• On December 8, 2008, the Italian state-owned television channel Rai Due aired a censored version of the film,
removing all the scenes with homoerotic references. This led to an uproar of protests from viewers lamenting that
it was impossible to follow the plot and from the Arcigay organisation, which considered it akin to an action of
homophobic censorship.
[60]
The state-owned television network RAI defended itself, stating that it was a mistake
of the Italian film distributor, and an uncensored version of the film was later shown on March 17, 2009.
[61]
Controversies
Utah theater cancellation
Miller speaking to protesters at the University of
Utah regarding his decision.
On January 6, 2006, Utah Jazz owner Larry H. Miller pulled the film
from his Jordan Commons entertainment complex in Sandy, Utah, a
suburb of Salt Lake City. The decision was made at the last minute
after entering into a contract to show the film and heavily advertising
for it. He reneged on his obligations approximately two hours before
the first scheduled showing upon learning that the plot concerned a
same-sex romance. Miller stated that the film got away from
"traditional families", something which he believes is
"dangerous".
[62][63]
Focus Features threatened to sue him and
announced it would no longer do business with him. In a statement the
company added, "You can't do business with people who break their
word."
Political pundits
Several political pundits, including commentators Bill O'Reilly, John Gibson, and Cal Thomas, accused Hollywood
of pushing an agenda with the film. On December 23, 2005, the Fox network reported that Brokeback Mountain was
facing "Brokeback Burnout", citing as evidence a fall in revenues from Sunday, December 18, 2005, to Monday, as
well as subsequent falls during the week,
[64]
despite the fact that nearly all films see smaller business during the
week compared to weekends.
Brokeback Mountain subsequently became the butt of jokes on Gibson's Fox News Radio program for months after
the film's release. After Heath Ledger died from an accidental drug overdose in January 2008, Gibson was widely
criticized for mocking the deceased actor hours after the news broke. At one point during the broadcast, Gibson
Brokeback Mountain
49
played Jake Gyllenhaal's line "I wish I knew how to quit you", before telling his listeners, "Well, I guess he found
out how to quit you."
[65]
Gibson defended himself by saying there was "no point in passing up a good joke",
[66]
but
later apologized.
[67][68]
Gene Shalit and The Today Show
The film critic for the U.S. morning show The Today Show, Gene Shalit, called Gyllenhaal's character, Jack Twist, a
"sexual predator" who "tracks Ennis down and coaxes him into sporadic trysts." This triggered complaints,
particularly from gay media watchdog group GLAAD, which argued that Shalit's characterization of the character
would be akin to calling Leonardo DiCaprio's character in Titanic a sexual predator for his romantic pursuit of the
character played by Kate Winslet. Shalit later apologized.
In a letter to GLAAD, Shalit's son Peter wrote, "He may have had an unpopular opinion of a movie that is important
to the gay community, but he defamed no one, and he is not a homophobe." He went on to say that GLAAD had
defamed his father by "falsely accusing him of a repellent form of bigotry".
[69]
U.S. social conservatives
Several conservative Christian groups, such as Concerned Women for America and Focus on the Family, lambasted
the film heavily even prior to its release. Following wins by Brokeback Mountain, Capote, and Transamerica at the
2006 Golden Globes, Janice Crouse, a Concerned Women for America member, cited these films as examples of
how "the media elites are proving that their pet projects are more important than profit" and suggested that they were
not popular enough to merit so much critical acclaim.
[70]
Conservative radio personality Rush Limbaugh has referred to the film as "Bareback Mountain" and "Humpback
Mountain".
[71]
Don Imus, another controversial radio personality, had labeled the film "Fudgepack Mountain".
[72]
Criticism of marketing
Some commentators have voiced concerns about the coverage of the film's homosexual theme in the mass media
both in advertising and in public events, such as press conferences and award ceremonies. Several journalists,
including New York Daily News writer Wayman Wong, Dave Cullen and Daniel Mendelsohn,
[73][74]
have
complained that the film's director, lead actors, and publicity team all avoided using the word gay to describe the
story and pointed out that while the film trailer does not show the two male leads kissing each other, it nevertheless
includes a clip from a heterosexual love scene.
Quaid lawsuit
On March 23, 2006, actor Randy Quaid, who played Joe Aguirre (Ennis and Jack's boss), filed a lawsuit against
Focus Features (LLC), Del Mar Productions (LLC), James Schamus, David Linde, and Does 1–10 alleging that they
intentionally and negligently misrepresented Brokeback Mountain as "a low-budget, art house film with no prospect
of making any money" in order to secure Quaid's professional acting services at below-market rates. The film had
grossed more than $160 million as of the date of his lawsuit, which sought $10 million plus punitive damages.
[75]
On
May 5, Quaid dropped his lawsuit. Quaid's publicist said he decided to drop the lawsuit after Focus Features agreed
to pay him a bonus. Focus Features denies making such a settlement.
[76]
Brokeback Mountain
50
Allegations of animal cruelty
The American Humane Association raised concerns that animals were treated improperly during filming, alleging
that sheep were handled roughly and that an elk appeared to have been "shot on cue", suggesting further that the
animal was anesthetized for this purpose, violating standard guidelines for animal handling in the film industry.
[77]
Post-Academy Awards reaction
Some critics accused the Academy of homophobia for failing to award the Oscar for Best Picture to Brokeback
Mountain and instead giving it to a rival nominee, Crash. Michael Jensen noted that prior to the Oscar ceremony,
Brokeback Mountain became "the most honored movie in cinematic history",
[78]
winning more Best Picture and
Director awards than previous Oscar winners Schindler's List and Titanic combined, and pointing out that prior to
Brokeback, no film that had won the Writer's Guild, Director's Guild, and Producer's Guild awards failed to win the
Academy Award for Best Picture, and that only four times in the previous twenty-five years had the Best Picture
winner not also been the film with the most nominations. He also noted that only once before had a film not even
nominated for the Golden Globe's Best Picture (Crash) gone on to win the Academy Award.
Some critics, notably Roger Ebert, defended the decision to award Crash Best Picture, arguing the better film won
that year. Ebert questioned why many critics weren't mentioning the other nominees and why they were bashing
Crash only because it won over their preferred film.
[79]
Film location
Like the story on which it was based, the film was set in Wyoming. Some residents of that state who objected to the
film's "homosexual content" criticised the setting. While the film was shot largely in the Alberta Rockies, the
Wyoming tourism board stated that the film "captured the spirit of Wyoming's Big Horn Mountains".
[80]
Fan fiction
Proulx, author of the original short story, says "I wish I'd never written it" because of the existence of Brokeback
Mountain fan fiction:
[81]
[The film] is the source of constant irritation in my private life. There are countless people out there who think
the story is open range to explore their fantasies and to correct what they see as an unbearably disappointing
story.
[82]
The authors, mostly straight men who claim to "understand men better than I do",
[81]
often send her their works:
[82]
They constantly send ghastly manuscripts and pornish rewrites of the story to me, expecting me to reply with
praise and applause for "fixing" the story. They certainly don't get the message that if you can't fix it you've
got to stand it. Most of these "fix-it" tales have the character Ennis finding a husky boyfriend and living
happily ever after, or discovering the character Jack is not really dead after all, or having the two men's
children meet and marry, etc., etc.
[82]
Accolades
Brokeback Mountain won 71 awards and had an additional 52 nominations.
[83]
The winners include three Academy
Awards for Best Director, Best Adapted Screenplay, and Best Score as well as four Golden Globe awards for Best
Motion Picture-Drama, Best Director, Best Song, and Best Screenplay and four BAFTA Awards for Best Film, Best
Director, Best Adapted Screenplay and Best Supporting Actor (Jake Gyllenhaal). The film also received four Screen
Actors Guild nominations for Best Actor, Best Supporting Actor, Best Supporting Actress and Best Ensemble, more
than any other film released in 2005. The film is one of several highly acclaimed LGBT-related films of 2005 to be
nominated for critical awards; others include Breakfast on Pluto, Capote, Rent, and Transamerica. Some of the most
significant awards and nominations for Brokeback Mountain are listed below:
Brokeback Mountain
51
Won
Academy Awards
1. Best Director, Ang Lee
2. Best Original Score, Gustavo Santaolalla
3. Best Adapted Screenplay, Larry McMurtry, Diana Ossana
Golden Globe Awards
1. Best Director, Ang Lee
2. Best Motion Picture — Drama
3. Best Original Song, Gustavo Santaolalla, Bernie Taupin
4. Best Screenplay, Larry McMurtry, Diana Ossana
BAFTA Awards
1. Best Direction, Ang Lee
2. Best Film, Diana Ossana, James Schamus
3. Best Supporting Actor, Jake Gyllenhaal
4. Best Adapted Screenplay, Larry McMurtry, Diana Ossana
• 78th Academy Awards: Best Director (Ang Lee), Best Adapted Screenplay (Larry McMurtry and Diana Ossana),
Best Original Score (Gustavo Santaolalla)
• 59th BAFTA Awards: Best Film (Diana Ossana and James Schamus), Best Supporting Actor (Jake Gyllenhaal),
Best Director (Ang Lee), Best Adapted Screenplay (Larry McMurty and Diana Ossana)
• Broadcast Film Critics Association Awards 2005: Best Picture (Diana Ossana and James Schamus), Best Director
(Ang Lee), Best Supporting Actress – (Tie) (Michelle Williams), Best Original Song (Emmylou Harris, Gustavo
Santaolalla, and Bernie Taupin, "A Love That Will Never Grow Old")
• Directors Guild of America Awards: Director of the Year Award — Theatrical Motion Picture (Ang Lee)
• European Film Awards: Best Director (Ang Lee)
• GLAAD Media Awards: Outstanding Film — Wide Release (Ang Lee, Diana Ossana, and James Schamus)
• 63rd Golden Globe Awards Best Motion Picture — Drama (Diana Ossana and James Schamus), Best Director —
Motion Picture (Ang Lee), Best Screenplay (Larry McMurtry and Diana Ossana), Best Song (Gustavo Santaolalla
and Bernie Taupin, "A Love That Will Never Grow Old")
• Independent Spirit Awards: Best Picture (Diana Ossana and James Schamus), Best Director (Ang Lee)
[84]
• MTV Movie Awards: Best Performance (Jake Gyllenhaal), Best Kiss (Heath Ledger & Jake Gyllenhaal)
• Producer's Guild Awards: Producer of the Year Award — Theatrical Motion Picture (Diana Ossana and James
Schamus)
• Time Magazine: TIME 100: The People Who Shape Our World (2006) (Ang Lee)
[85]
• Venice International Film Festival: "Golden Lion" for Best Film (Ang Lee)
• Writers Guild of America Awards: Best Adapted Screenplay (Larry McMurtry and Diana Ossana)
•• National Gay Pride Association: Best Motion Picture (2006) (Diana Ossana and James Schamus)
• Australian Film Institute: Best International Actor (Heath Ledger)
Brokeback Mountain
52
Nominated
• 78th Academy Awards: Best Picture (Focus Features: Diana Ossana and James Schamus), Best Actor in a
Leading Role (Heath Ledger), Best Actor in a Supporting Role (Jake Gyllenhaal), Best Actress in a Supporting
Role (Michelle Williams), Best Cinematography (Rodrigo Prieto)
• 59th BAFTA Awards: Best Actor (Heath Ledger), Best Supporting Actress (Michelle Williams), Best
Cinematography (Rodrigo Prieto), Best Score (Gustavo Santaolalla), Best Editing (Geraldine Peroni and Dylan
Tichenor)
• Broadcast Film Critics Association Awards 2005: Best Actor (Heath Ledger), Best Supporting Actor (Jake
Gyllenhaal), Best Writer (Larry McMurtry and Diana Ossana)
• European Film Awards: Screen International Award (Ang Lee)
• 63rd Golden Globe Awards: Best Actor — Motion Picture Drama (Heath Ledger), Best Supporting Actress —
Motion Picture (Michelle Williams), Best Original Score (Gustavo Santaolalla)
• 49th Grammy Awards: Best Compilation Soundtrack Album For Motion Picture, Television Or Other Visual
Media (Gustavo Santaolalla, producer)
• Independent Spirit Awards: Best Male Lead (Heath Ledger), Best Supporting Female (Michelle Williams)
• Screen Actors Guild: Outstanding Performance by a Male Actor in a Leading Role (Heath Ledger), Outstanding
Performance by a Male Actor in a Supporting Role (Jake Gyllenhaal), Outstanding Performance by a Female
Actor in a Supporting Role (Michelle Williams), Outstanding Performance by a Cast in a Motion Picture (Heath
Ledger, Jake Gyllenhaal, Michelle Williams, Anne Hathaway, Randy Quaid, Linda Cardellini, Anna Faris)
Home media
This film is the first to be released the same day as both a DVD and a download available via the Internet.
[86]
It was released in the United States on April 4, 2006. The film moved more than 1.4 million copies on its first day of
release and was the second biggest seller of the week behind Disney's The Chronicles of Narnia: The Lion, the Witch
and the Wardrobe. Though the ranking fluctuated daily, by late March and early April 2006, Brokeback Mountain
had been the top-selling DVD on Amazon.com several days running.
[87]
The Region 2 (Europe) DVD was released
on April 24, 2006, though at first only in the UK. Other release dates are much later: France on July 19, 2006, and
Poland in September, a considerable time after the theater release in both countries. The Region 4 (Australia/New
Zealand/South America) DVD was released on July 19, 2006.
[88]
Brokeback Mountain was re-released in a
collector's edition on January 23, 2007. On that same day, Brokeback Mountain was also released as a Combo
Format HD DVD/DVD.
[89]
Brokeback Mountain was released on Blu-ray Disc on September 30, 2007, but only in
the UK.
[90]
Brokeback Mountain was released on Blu-ray Disc in the United States on March 10, 2009.
[91]
References
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Sydney: Harper Perennial. ISBN 978-0-00-723430-1.
[2] Drudge, Matt (2005). "Hollywood rocked: 'Gay cowboy' movie becomes an Oscar front runner" (http:// www. drudgereport.com/ flash3bm.
htm). Drudge Report. .
[3] "How did 'Brokeback Mountain' lose?" (http:// www. msnbc.msn. com/ id/11701755). MSNBC.MSN.com. 2006. .
[4] Turan, Kenneth (March 5, 2006). "Breaking no ground" (http:/ / theenvelope.latimes. com/ awards/ oscars/ env-turan5mar05,0,5359042.
story). Los Angeles Times. .
[5] "The post-Oscars debate: Why Brokeback lost" (http:/ / oscars. movies. yahoo.com/ news/ reuters/20060306/ 765.html). Reuters. 2006. .
[6] "Top Grossing Romantic-Dramas" (http:/ / www. boxofficemojo.com/ genres/ chart/ ?id=romanticdrama.htm). Box Office Mojo. 2006. .
[7] Gorton, Don (May/Jun 2006). "The Hate Crime". Gay & Lesbian Review Worldwide 13 (3): 13–14.
[8] Nashawaty, Chris (2007-08-06). "The Strong Violent Type" (http:/ / www. ew. com/ ew/ article/0,,20049809,00.html). Entertainment
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[10] Freeman, Jan (March 5, 2006). "If it ain't broke, don't fix it" (http:/ / www.boston. com/ news/ globe/ ideas/ articles/ 2006/ 03/ 05/
if_it_aint_broke_dont_fix_it). Boston Globe. . Retrieved June 4, 2006.
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[11] "Cowboys promote Brokeback 'Alberta' in Manhattan" (http:/ / www. cbc. ca/ canada/ story/ 2006/ 02/ 24/ 20060224-albertatourism.html).
CBC News. February 24, 2006. . Retrieved June 7, 2006.
[12] Cummings, Debra (2006). "Alberta's Brokeback Mountain snags three Oscars" (http:/ / www1. travelalberta.com/ Stories/ index.
cfm?action=display& storyID=180). Travel Alberta. . Retrieved June 7, 2006.
[13] Dinoff, Dustin (February 20, 2006). "Alberta back on Oscar Mountain" (http:// www. playbackmag.com/ articles/ magazine/ 20060220/
brokeback. html). . Retrieved January 4, 2007.
[14] "Star Misses: 10 Career-Changing Roles That Almost Weren't" (http:// www. webcitation. org/ 5r4UcHFhR). Forbes. February 25, 2009.
Archived from the original (http:// movies. yahoo. com/ feature/forbes-star-misses. html) on July 8, 2010. . Retrieved July 8, 2010.
[15] Tilly, Chris. "Spielberg finally topples 'Brokeback Mountain'" (http:/ / www. timeout. com/ film/ news/ 893.html). Time Out London. .
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[16] Boschen, Paul. "Brokeback Mountain" (http:/ / www. moviemarshal.com/ rp-brokebackmountain.html). . Retrieved May 27, 2006.
[17] "Release dates for Brokeback Mountain" (http:/ / imdb. com/title/ tt0388795/releaseinfo). IMDb. . Retrieved May 27, 2006.
[18] "Hong Kong Box Office" (http:/ / www. boxofficemojo.com/ intl/ hongkong/ ?yr=2006&wk=8). Box Office Mojo. . Retrieved July 24,
2007.
[19] "Brokeback Mountain Daily Box Office" (http:/ / www.boxofficemojo.com/ movies/ ?page=daily& id=brokebackmountain.htm). Box
Office Mojo. . Retrieved May 11, 2006.
[20] "Brokeback shirts sell for more than $100K" (http:/ / www. advocate. com/ news_detail_ektid26008.asp). The Advocate. February 23, 2006.
. Retrieved July 24, 2007.
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Further reading
• Proulx, Annie (1997, 1999, 2006). Close Range: Wyoming Stories.
• Proulx, Annie; McMurtry, Larry; Ossana, Diana (2005, 2006). Brokeback Mountain: Story to Screenplay.
London, New York, Toronto and Sydney: Harper Perennial. ISBN 978-0-00-723430-1.
• Packard, Chris (2006) Queer Cowboys: And Other Erotic Male Friendships in Nineteenth-Century American
Literature. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 1-4039-7597-3.
• Cante, Richard C. (March 2008). "Introduction"; "Chapter 3". Gay Men and the Forms of Contemporary US
Culture. London: Ashgate Publishing. ISBN 0-7546-7230-1.
Brokeback Mountain
56
External links
• Official website (http:// www. brokebackmountain.com)
• Brokeback Mountain (http:/ / www. imdb. com/ title/ tt0388795/ ) at the Internet Movie Database
• Brokeback Mountain (http:/ / www. allrovi.com/ movies/ movie/ v301840) at AllRovi
• Brokeback Mountain (http:/ / www. rottentomatoes.com/ m/ brokeback_mountain/) at Rotten Tomatoes
• Brokeback Mountain (http:/ / www. metacritic.com/ movie/ brokeback-mountain) at Metacritic
• Brokeback Mountain (http:/ / www. boxofficemojo.com/ movies/ ?id=brokebackmountain.htm) at Box Office
Mojo
Bug Buster
57
Bug Buster
Bug Buster
Directed by Lorenzo Doumani
Produced by Christian E. Dirkes
Lorenzo Doumani
Steven R. Stevens
Written by Malick Khoury
Starring Randy Quaid
Brenda Epperson
Doumani
Katherine Heigl
James Doohan
George Takei
Music by Bobby Caldwell
Sidney James
Cinematography Hanania Baer
Editing by Lawrence J. Gleason
Distributed by Prism Leisure
Release date(s) 1998
Running time 93 minutes
Country United States
Language English
Bug Buster is a 1998 American comedy horror film directed by Lorenzo Doumani. It is the only known film to be
written by Malick Khoury.
[1]
In the United Kingdom, this film was released under the title Some Things Never Die.
Despite having a reputation as being a poorly made film, it has nonetheless has achieved small B movie cult status.
Plot
After the mayor uses a potentially dangerous substance to protect the local plantation, the lakeside town of
Mountview, in California, is attacked by a lethal species of large cockroach. After some of the town's inhabitants are
killed, the mayor enlists the help of eccentric pest exterminator General George S. Merlin in order to prevent further
harm to the local dwellers.
Cast
• Randy Quaid as General George S. Merlin
• Brenda Epperson Doumani as Dr. Laura Casey
• Katherine Heigl as Shannon Griffin
• James Doohan as Sheriff Carlson
• George Takei as Dr. Hiro Fujimoto
• Meredith Salenger as Veronica Hart
•• David Lipper as Steve Williams
Bug Buster
58
Reception
Bug Buster received almost universally negative reviews from audiences and critics alike. Despite this, some viewers
enjoyed it, seeing it as a throwback to fifties monster films. Robert Pardi of TV Guide said "this modestly budgeted
effort has a certain low key charm."
[2]
References
[1] Malick Khoury (http:/ / www. imdb. com/ name/ nm0451903/ ) at the Internet Movie Database
[2] Pardi, Robert. "Bug Buster: Review" (http:/ / www. webcitation. org/ 5ihdirIYx). TV Guide. Archived from the original (http:// movies.
tvguide. com/ bug-buster/ review/134010) on 2009-08-01. . Retrieved 2009-08-01.
External links
• Bug Buster (http:/ / www. imdb. com/ title/ tt0135165/ ) at the Internet Movie Database
Bye Bye Love (film)
59
Bye Bye Love (film)
Bye Bye Love
Theatrical release poster
Directed by Sam Weisman
Produced by Gary David
Goldberg
Brad Hall
Written by Gary David
Goldberg
Brad Hall
Starring Matthew Modine
Randy Quaid
Paul Reiser
Janeane Garofalo
Rob Reiner
Music by J.A.C. Redford
Cinematography Kenneth Zunder
Editing by Roger Bondelli
Distributed by 20th Century Fox
Release date(s) March 17, 1995
Running time 106 minutes
Country United States
Language English
Box office $12,096,673
Bye Bye Love is a 1995 American comedy-drama film that deals with the central issue of divorce. It was directed by
Sam Weisman and written by Gary David Goldberg and Brad Hall. It stars Matthew Modine, Randy Quaid, Paul
Reiser, Janeane Garofalo, Amy Brenneman, Eliza Dushku, Rob Reiner, Amber Benson, and Lindsay Crouse.
Production costs were heavily underwritten by McDonald's product placement
Goldberg and Hall stated that they included in the script several fictionalized accounts of events that had happened to
divorced friends of theirs.
Also acting in the film were Jayne Brook, and Ed Flanders in his last movie role. A not-yet-famous Jack Black has
one line ("Reefer?") as a disc jockey at a party.
Plot
This is a story about the breakup of the family. In particular, it focuses on the lifestyle of three divorced men in the
Los Angeles area, Dave Goldman (Matthew Modine), wrestling coach/driver's ed teacher Vic Damico (Randy
Quaid), and real estate agent Donny Carson (Paul Reiser).
The film is presented from their perspective and it reveals their relationships with their children, ex-wives,
girlfriends, male friendships, and their identities as divorced men. In addition to dealing with divorce, the film
touches on spousal loss and young adult homelessness.
Bye Bye Love (film)
60
Cast
• Matthew Modine as Dave Goldman
• Randy Quaid as Vic Damico
• Paul Reiser as Donny Carson
• Janeane Garofalo as Lucille
• Rob Reiner as Dr. David Townsend
• Amy Brenneman as Susan (formerly Goldman)
• Ross Malinger as Ben Goldman
• Mae Whitman as Michelle Goldman
• Lindsay Crouse as Grace (formerly Damico)
• Amber Benson as Meg Damico
• Cameron Boyd as Jed Damico
• Jayne Brook as Claire Carson
• Eliza Dushku as Emma Carson
• Johnny Whitworth as Max Cooper
• Maria Pitillo as Kim
• Brad Hall as Phil
• Ed Flanders as Walter Sims
• Wendell Pierce as Hector
• Danny Masterson as Mikey
• Jack Black as DJ at party
• Stephen Root (uncredited) as Awakening neighbor
Reception
The film was not considered particularly successful, grossing less than $13 million in the U.S. in its theatrical run. It
has a 19% rating on Rotten Tomatoes based on 21 reviews. Although overall critical reaction to the film was not
positive, Janeane Garofalo's performance as the "date from hell" got good reviews, and earned her a nomination for
an American Comedy Award. Many of the reviews complained that the movie played more like an episode of a
sitcom than a feature film.
It was released on DVD on March 8, 2005 through Anchor Bay Entertainment.
Soundtrack
The film's soundtrack includes performances by Linda Ronstadt, The Proclaimers, Mary Chapin Carpenter, Ben
Taylor, Everly Brothers, and Jackson Browne.
Trivia
The characters Meg and Emma are played by Amber Benson and Eliza Dushku respectively. Both these actresses
went on to play main roles on the television series Buffy the Vampire Slayer, as did Lindsay Crouse. While Benson
shared episodes with both Dushku and Crouse, the three actresses never spoke lines to or were featured in the same
scenes as each other.
Bye Bye Love (film)
61
External links
• Bye Bye, Love
[1]
at the Internet Movie Database
• Bye Bye, Love
[2]
at AllRovi
• Bye Bye, Love
[3]
at Box Office Mojo
References
[1] http:/ / www.imdb. com/ title/ tt0112606/
[2] http:/ / www.allrovi.com/ movies/ movie/ v134566
[3] http:/ / www.boxofficemojo.com/ movies/ ?id=byebyelove.htm
Caddyshack II
62
Caddyshack II
Caddyshack II
Theatrical release poster
Directed by Allan Arkush
Produced by Neil Canton
Peter Guber
Jon Peters
Screenplay by Harold Ramis
Peter Torokvei
Based on Characters by
Brian Doyle-Murray
Starring Jackie Mason
Robert Stack
Randy Quaid
Dan Aykroyd
Chevy Chase
Jessica Lundy
Jonathan Silverman
Dyan Cannon
Dina Merrill
Marsha Warfield
Music by Ira Newborn
Cinematography Harry Stradling
Editing by Bernard Gribble
Distributed by Warner Bros.
Release date(s) •• July 22, 1988
Running time 98 minutes
Country United States
Language English
Budget $20 million
Box office $11,798,302
Caddyshack II is the 1988 sequel to the 1980 golf comedy film Caddyshack. The film stars Jackie Mason, Dan
Aykroyd, Robert Stack, Dyan Cannon, Randy Quaid, Chevy Chase, Jonathan Silverman, and Jessica Lundy.
Caddyshack II
63
Plot
Kate Hartounian (Jessica Lundy) is the daughter of a wealthy and widowed real estate developer of Armenian and
Jewish descent.
[1]
Eager to improve her lot in life, she makes friends with Miffy Young (Chynna Phillips) a snooty
WASP girl, who encourages her and her father to join their country club.
Kate and her father, Jack (Jackie Mason), apply for membership at Bushwood, the club from the first movie. Jack is
a self-made millionaire, yet remains salt-of-the-earth, humble and good-hearted despite his wealth. His unpolished
personality foils him on many occasions.
When the current members meet Jack, who builds low-income housing in more upscale neighborhoods, his
application to join is rejected. The rejection is borne out of his boorish personality and an earlier confrontation with
Bushwood President (and Miffy's father) Chandler Young's (Robert Stack) wife. Cynthia Young (Dina Merrill) had
tried unsuccessfully to persuade Jack to build his housing complex away from her neighborhood, but her
less-than-subtle snobbery leads Jack to chase Cynthia with a bulldozer. It's actions like these that build a divide
between Jack and Kate.
Ty Webb (Chevy Chase) returns, this time as the club's majority owner, and while he likes Jack, he prefers to stay
out of the way of the club's day-to-day operations.
The elitist members of Bushwood reject Jack's membership application and pull strings to suspend his housing
operation. In retaliation, Jack buys the majority stock to Bushwood from Ty and turns it into an amusement park.
Chandler, incensed at the thought of a mere "nouveau-riche" individual getting the better of him, hires Captain Tom
Everett (Dan Aykroyd) (who code-names Chandler “Mrs. Esterhaus”) a shell-shocked mercenary operating out of a
lunch wagon, to "discourage" Jack from building any more structures on Bushwood property. The bumbling Everett
decides to use explosive golf balls to accomplish his task.
Meanwhile, Chandler uses his lawyers and connections to shut down Jack's housing construction site. Webb suggests
that the dispute should be resolved like gentlemen, by facing each other in a golf match. If Chandler wins, Jack loses
his construction site and the country club, and if Jack wins, he keeps the Bushwood and the housing project. Despite
Jack's poor performance early in the match, with luck he ties the match before the final hole. However, during the
hole, Jack is faced with a 50 foot putt, while Chandler faces a simple 2 foot putt. Using advice given to him by Webb
before the match, Jack manages to use spiritual chanting and the adage "be the ball" to sink the nearly impossible
putt. Chandler needs to sink the easy 2 foot putt to tie the match. Meanwhile, Everett, who foolishly shoots himself
in the buttocks with a poison dart, fails the task of eliminating Jack as a gopher steals his explosive ball. The
mischievous gopher replaces Chandler's ball with the explosive ball, and as his family encouragingly crowds around
him as he taps in his final swing, the ball bursts and Jack wins the match.
Though Kate is embarrassed by her father's actions, she is still loyal to him, as evidenced when she commiserates to
Miffy, who suggests that she change her last name from Hartounian to Hart. Bewildered at the thought of turning her
back on her family name, Kate turns her back on Miffy and makes up with her father.
Cast
• Jackie Mason as Jack Hartounian
• Robert Stack as Chandler Young
• Randy Quaid as Peter Blunt
• Dan Aykroyd as Captain Tom Everett
• Chevy Chase as Ty Webb
• Jessica Lundy as Kate Hartounian
• Dyan Cannon as Elizabeth Pearce
• Jonathan Silverman as Harry
• Dina Merrill as Cynthia Young
Caddyshack II
64
• Marsha Warfield as Royette Tyler
• Brian McNamara as Todd Young
• Chynna Phillips as Mary Frances "Miffy" Young
• Paul Bartel as Mr. Jamison
• Frank Welker (voice) as the Gopher
Reception
The film grossed USD$11,798,302 compared to the original’s $39 million gross at the box office.
[2]
Harold Ramis, who co-wrote the original Caddyshack with Brian Doyle-Murray and Douglas Kenney, described
Caddyshack II, which he co-wrote with Peter Torokvei, as "terrible."
[3]
In an interview with The A.V. Club in 1999,
Ramis said that, "with Caddyshack II, the studio begged me. They said, "Hey, we've got a great idea: 'The Shack is
Back!'" And I said "No, I don't think so." But they said that Rodney [Dangerfield] really wanted to do it, and we
could build it around Rodney. Rodney said, "Come on, do it." Then the classic argument came up which says that if
you don't do it, someone will, and it will be really bad. So I worked on a script with my partner Peter Torokvei,
consulting with Rodney all the time. Then Rodney got into a fight with the studio and backed out. We had some
success with Back to School, which I produced and wrote, and we were working with the same director, Alan Metter.
When Rodney pulled out, I pulled out, and then they fired Alan and got someone else [Allan Arkush]. I got a call
from [co-producer] Jon Peters saying, "Come with us to New York; we're going to see Jackie Mason!" I said, "Ooh,
don't do this. Why don't we let it die?" And he said, "No, it'll be great." But I didn't go, and they got other writers to
finish it. I tried to take my name off that one, but they said if I took my name off, it would come out in the trades and
I would hurt the film."
[3]
Dangerfield, after insisting on a number of script rewrites, said that he backed out of the film because he felt it would
not be successful.
[4]
Chevy Chase was the only cast member from the original movie to reprise his role (and would publicly announce
later that he regretted doing so). Although playing new characters in the sequel, Jackie Mason, Robert Stack, Dan
Aykroyd and Jonathan Silverman play roles which are analogous to those played by Rodney Dangerfield, Ted
Knight, Bill Murray, and Michael O'Keefe in the first movie. Cast reception was generally negative. At one point,
Chase murmured to the film’s director Allan Arkush during post-production, "Call me when you’ve dubbed the
laugh-track," before walking away in disgust. Warner Bros would go on to sue Dangerfield for refusing to appear in
the film,
[5]
although Dangerfield was little-affected by this.
The film received four Golden Raspberry Award nominations; it won two. It was nominated for Worst Picture and
Worst Actor (Jackie Mason), and won for Worst Supporting Actor (Dan Aykroyd) and Worst Original Song ("Jack
Fresh"). Rotten Tomatoes gives the film a score of 8% based on 12 reviews.
[6]
The theme song for Caddyshack II is "Nobody’s Fool", performed by Kenny Loggins, whose hit song "I’m Alright"
was featured in the first film. Another song off of the soundtrack, "Go For Yours", became an R&B hit for Lisa Lisa
and Cult Jam.
Caddyshack II
65
The Gopher
As in the first film, an animatronic gopher was used in Caddyshack II. This time, instead of tittering, the gopher was
able to speak. His voice was provided by Frank Welker. Because of Bill Murray's involvement in the creation of the
gopher for the first film, Murray sued producers of the film during post-production. Murray and the producers settled
out of court for an undisclosed sum.
References
[1] http:/ / www.garnersclassics. com/ qcaddy2. htm
[2] (http:/ / articles. latimes. com/ 1989-01-08/entertainment/ ca-258_1_box-office/2)
[3] "Harold Ramis Interview" (http:/ / www. avclub. com/ articles/ harold-ramis,13583/). The A.V. Club. . Retrieved 21 December 2010.
[4] Beck, Marilyn (Sep 27, 1988). "Dangerfield is picky about scripts for his movies". St. Petersburg Times.
[5] "Dangerfield Sued". Fort Lauderdale Sun Sentinel. Nov 4, 1987.
[6] http:/ / www.rottentomatoes. com/ m/ caddyshack_2/
External links
• Caddyshack II (http:/ / www. imdb. com/ title/ tt0094824/ ) at the Internet Movie Database
• Caddyshack II (http:/ / www. allrovi.com/ movies/ movie/ v7797) at AllRovi
• Caddyshack II (http:/ / www. boxofficemojo.com/ movies/ ?id=caddyshack2. htm) at Box Office Mojo
Carolina (film)
66
Carolina (film)
Carolina
German theatrical poster
Directed by Marleen Gorris
Produced by Martin Bregman
Guy Collins
Keith Cousins
Ann Dubinet
Christopher Petzel
Louis A. Stroller
Rudolf G. Wiesmeier
Written by Katherine Fugate
Starring Julia Stiles
Shirley MacLaine
Alessandro Nivola
Mika Boorem
Randy Quaid
Jennifer Coolidge
Music by Steve Bartek
Cinematography John Peters
Editing by Alan Heim
Michiel Reichwein
Release date(s) • June 5, 2003 (Russia)
• April 29, 2004 (Germany)
• February 1, 2005 (United States)
Running time 96 minutes
Country United States
Germany
Language English
Budget $15 million
Carolina is a 2003 romantic comedy film directed by Marleen Gorris, starring Julia Stiles, Shirley MacLaine,
Alessandro Nivola, Mika Boorem, Randy Quaid, and Jennifer Coolidge. Lisa Sheridan has a cameo role in the film,
and Barbara Eden has the uncredited part of Daphne. It is set in Los Angeles, California. Shot in 2003, the film failed
to find a distributor and was released direct-to-video in 2005.
Miramax Films was the domestic distributor, but failed to release it in theaters. When Harvey Weinstein screened the
film he told the producers, "You have a hit movie on your hands. We're going to blast this on MTV all over Super
Bowl Weekend." This was in December 2001. The producers never heard about it again until 2005 when it was
suddenly released Direct-to-DVD.
The film began principal photography in July 2001. Kathy Bates was originally slated to play the role of "Grandma
Millicent Mirabeau", but dropped out after make-up/hair tests due to the shut down of the original production shoot
date. Shirley MacLaine eventually stepped in to play the role of "Grandma Millicent Mirabeau".
Carolina (film)
67
Cast
• Julia Stiles as Carolina Mirabeau
• Shirley MacLaine as Grandma Millicent Mirabeau
• Alessandro Nivola as Albert Morris
• Randy Quaid as Theodore 'Ted' Mirabeau
• Jennifer Coolidge as Aunt Marilyn
• Edward Atterton as Heath Pierson
• Azura Skye as Georgia Mirabeau
• Mika Boorem as Maine Mirabeau
• Alan Thicke as Chuck McBride - Perfect Date Host
External links
• Carolina
[1]
• Carolina
[2]
at AllRovi
• Carolina
[3]
at the Internet Movie Database
References
[1] http:/ / movies. filmax.com/ carolina/
[2] http:// www.allrovi.com/ movies/ movie/ v291137
[3] http:/ / www.imdb. com/ title/ tt0289889/
Category 7: The End of the World
68
Category 7: The End of the World
Category 7: The End of the World
Cover of the DVD release of Category 7
Genre Miniseries
Distributed by CBS Television
Echo Bridge Home Entertainment
Directed by Dick Lowry
Produced by Lesley Oswald
Peter Sadowski
Robert M. Sertner
Frank von Zerneck
Written by Christian Ford
Roger Soffer
Starring Randy Quaid
Gina Gershon
Shannen Doherty
Tom Skerritt
Swoosie Kurtz
James Brolin
Robert Wagner
Adam Rodriguez
Music by Joseph Williams
Cinematography Neil Roach
Editing by Tod Feuerman
Budget $15,000,000
Country  USA
 Canada
Language English
Original channel CBS
Original run November 6, 2005 – November 13, 2005
Running time 240 minutes
Category 7: The End of the World is a 2005 four-hour television film miniseries that was broadcast in the United
States on CBS in two parts, the first part aired on November 6 and the second on November 13. A sequel to the 2004
miniseries Category 6: Day of Destruction, this film starts directly after the events shown in that film. The new
director of the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) must continue to contend with the massive storm
system that hit Chicago in the first film. The storm has continued to gain strength, spawning additional storms
around the world, with three converging over Washington, D.C. and forming a massive Category 7 hurricane.
Category 7: The End of the World
69
Plot
Following the events in Category 6: Day of Destruction, the superstorm that hit Chicago is continuing to grow in
size and strength, with tornadoes hitting Paris and destroying the Eiffel Tower. Judith Carr (Gina Gershon), the new
head of FEMA struggles to coordinate efforts to prepare for the aftermath of the storm and provide aid to ravaged
areas. She calls in her former college lover, Dr. Ross Duffy (Cameron Daddo), and her father Senator Ryan Carr
(Robert Wagner) to help her try to determine what is causing the storms and how to deal with the political issues.
Tommy Tornado (Randy Quaid), who survived his seeming death in the previous film, returns to aid in tracking the
storm in the United States, assisted by scientist Faith Clavell (Shannen Doherty). Similar storms are developing
around the country and an interaction between urban heat islands and "falling chunks of mesosphere" fuels the
storms making them more powerful. Hurricane Eduardo strikes toward Florida while the Category 6 storm hits
Buffalo and heads towards New York City.
During these catastrophic events, two Christian fundamentalists (James Brolin and Swoosie Kurtz) fake the arrival of
the plagues of Egypt to lure in new converts, culminating in their kidnapping of the first-born children of Judith Carr
and other high-ranking officials. When Tommy and Faith get their data to FEMA when in New York, Judith realizes
that Hurricane Eduardo is heading towards Washington, D.C. and the Category 6 storm in New York is heading in
the same direction. When both storms collide with the mesosphere, it turns into a "Category 7" hurricane,
obliterating anything in its path. The force of the storm is so massive, that a category 7 could potentially cause a
global catastrophe, possibly leading to the apocalypse (hence the title).
Production
The miniseries was produced by von Zerneck/Sertner Films, which also produced Category 6.
[1]
It was filmed at
various locations around Winnipeg, Canada and the Canadian air force base 17 Wing was used for the fictional
version of Biloxi, Mississippi's Keesler Air Force Base. Air force members were tapped as extra by the production
company to play the United States Air Force members seen during the film. The air force base commander noted that
the filming helped to boost the local economy, due to the $600,000 in salaries generated during filming, but did not
cause interfering with operations or security at the base.
[2]
David Price, the weather man for CBS's The Early Show who was given a cameo role in Category 6, returned for
another cameo in Category 7. In this film, Price appears in a brief scene as a reporter who questions the character
Judith Carr about bringing her former lover, Dr. Duffy, in to help with the storm issue. In an interview for his own
show, Price said it took him a lot of practice to deliver his "crucial line" just right, with it taking four hours to shoot
the brief scene. Director Dick Lowry jokingly noted that his biggest mistake in the film was giving Price the key line
in that scene.
[3]
Release
Category 7 was initially aired on CBS as a two-part, four-hour miniseries. The first part aired on Sunday, November
6, 2005. The second part aired a week later.
[4][5]
The miniseries was released to DVD by Echo Bridge Entertainment on April 4, 2006 on a single disc.
[6]
On March 4,
2008, Echo Bridge released the film as a two movie set with another disaster film, 10.5: Apocalypse.
[7]
This was
later followed by an April 2008 release of the film to Blu-ray, and a July 2008 Blu-ray release of the two movie
pack.
[8][9]
Category 7: The End of the World
70
Reception
Category 7 was the top rated network miniseries in 2006.
[1]
The first part of the miniseries came in number 16
among the top 25 network programs aired in the week of October 31-November 6, and was the second most watched
program for that Sunday with 14.7 million viewers.
[10][11]
The second part of the film was also the second most
watched program for its timeslot on November 13, with 13.85 million viewers.
[12]
The film was nominated for multiple awards in 2006, including a Primetime Emmy Award for "Outstanding Sound
Editing for a Miniseries, Movie or a Special."
[13]
It was nominated for a Saturn Award for "Best Television
Presentation",
[14]
a Cinema Audio Society Award for "Outstanding Achievement in Sound Mixing for Television
Movies and Mini-Series",
[15]
and two Golden Reel Awards for "Best Sound Editing in Television Long Form —
Dialogue and Automated Dialogue Replacement" and "Best Sound Editing in Television Long Form — Sound
Effects & Foley."
[16][17]
Before Category 7 aired, CBS was criticized for choosing to air the miniseries only months after two devastating
hurricanes, Hurricane Katrina and Hurricane Rita, hitting the United States, and a third, Hurricane Wilma, causing
destruction in Florida in the same month the film was slated to première.
[18]
The film received mixed reviews from critics, with many critics feeling that the first portion of the film was weak
and confusing due to the large number of characters being introduced at once. SciFi.com's Kathie Huddleston
considered the film to be "a pretty good disaster movie as disaster movies go", praising the overall acting,
particularly the chemistry between Shannen Doherty and Randy Quaid, while criticizing it for having a weak
opening, having a large, confusing number of characters, and for the inclusion of too many "silly things that
distract", including most of the Fundamentalist plague and kidnapping subplot.
[4]
Category 7 holds together better than either of last year's disaster minis, Category 6 or NBC's 10.5. While I'd
absolutely love it if the writers didn't feel they had to resort to kidnapped teenagers and poisonous frogs when
other storm-related drama would make so much more sense, Category 7 kind of brought me back to the good
old days of the Poseidon Adventure and Earthquake. Ah, the memories. Back then they really knew how to
make a disaster flick warm the cockles of your heart.
—Kathie Huddleston, SciFi.com, On Screen
[4]
References
[1] "About" (http:/ / www.vzsfilms. com/ About. html). von Zerneck/Sertner Films. . Retrieved September 17, 2008.
[2] "17 Wing – Stars of Stage and Screen" (http:/ / www. airforce.forces.gc. ca/ site/ newsroom/ news_e. asp?id=1453). Canada's Air Force.
October 3, 2005. . Retrieved September 17, 2008.
[3] David Price (Reporter) (November 4, 2005) (Flash). Dave Price's Starring Role (http://www.cbsnews. com/ video/ watch/
?id=1011596n?source=search_video) (Television production). Manhattan, New York: CBS. . Retrieved September 16, 2008.
[4] Huddleston, Kathie (October 31, 2005). "Category 7: The End of the World" (http:/ / web. archive.org/web/ 20080727040218/ http:/ / www.
scifi.com/ sfw/ issue445/ screen. html). On Screen (SciFi.com) 11 (445). Archived from the original (http:// www. scifi.com/sfw/ issue445/
screen. html) on July 27, 2008. . Retrieved September 2, 2008.
[5] "Category 7: The End of the World' Hits TV" (http:// www.etonline.com/ tv/ 2005/ 11/ 35687/ index.html). ET Online. CBS. November 8,
2005. . Retrieved September 2, 2008.
[6] "Category 7: The End of the World" (http:// www. amazon.com/ dp/ B000E97HXA/ ). Amazon.com. . Retrieved September 2, 2008.
[7] "10.5 Apocalypse / Category 7: The End of the World" (http:/ / www. amazon.com/ dp/ B00141VKFI/ ). Amazon.com. . Retrieved
September 2, 2008.
[8] "Category 7: The End of the World [Blu-ray]" (http:/ / www. amazon.com/ dp/ B0013DI4K6/ ). Amazon.com. . Retrieved September 2,
2008.
[9] "10. 5 Apocalypse/Category 7: The End of the World [Blu-ray]" (http:/ / www. amazon.com/ dp/ B00197XF5A/ ). Amazon.com. . Retrieved
September 2, 2008.
[10] "CBS' winning streak at 7 weeks" (http:/ / www. signonsandiego. com/ uniontrib/20051109/ news_lz1c09nielsen. html). The San Diego
Union-Tribune. November 9, 2005. . Retrieved October 4, 2008.
[11] Van Gelder, Lawrence (November 8, 2005). "Arts, Briefly" (http:// www.nytimes. com/ 2005/ 11/ 08/ arts/ 08arts.html). New York Times. .
Retrieved October 4, 2008.
Category 7: The End of the World
71
[12] Van Gelder, Lawrence (November 15, 2005). "Arts, Briefly" (http:// www. nytimes.com/ 2005/ 11/ 15/ arts/ 15arts. html). New York Times.
. Retrieved October 4, 2008.
[13] "The 58th Primetime Emmy Awards and Creative Arts Emmys Nominations" (http:// cdn.emmys. tv/ downloads/ images/ 2006emmys/
PrimetimeNoms. php). Academy of Television Arts & Sciences. . Retrieved September 2, 2008.
[14] "SITH Leads Nomination List for 32nd Annual" (http:// www. mania.com/
sith-leads-nomination-list-for-32nd-annual-saturn-awards_article_50679.html). Mania Entertainment. February 15, 2006. . Retrieved
September 2, 2008.
[15] "The Nominees for the Cinema Audio Society Awards for Outstanding Achievement in Sound Mixing for 2005" (http:// www.
cinemaaudiosociety. org/casawards/ cas2006nominees. php). Cinema Audio Society. . Retrieved September 2, 2008.
[16] "Motion Picture Sound Editors, USA: 2006 Golden Reel Award" (http:// www. imdb.com/ Sections/ Awards/
Motion_Picture_Sound_Editors_USA/ 2006). IMDB, Motion Picture Sound Editors. . Retrieved September 2, 2008.
[17] "Past Golden Reel Awards" (http:// www. mpse. org/goldenreels/ pastawards. html). Motion Picture Sound Editors. . Retrieved September
2, 2008.
[18] Jakle, Jeanne (October 20, 2005). "CBS going ahead with storm drama". San Antonio Express-News: pp. 05F.
External links
• Official site (http:// www. cbs. com/ specials/ category7/ )
• Category 7: The End of the World (http:/ / www. imdb. com/ title/ tt0468988/ ) at the Internet Movie Database
• Category 7: The End of the World (http:/ / www. allrovi.com/ movies/ movie/ v338837) at AllRovi
• Category 7: The End of the World (http:/ / www. rottentomatoes.com/ m/ category_7_the_end_of_the_world/) at
Rotten Tomatoes
• Category 7: The End of the World (http:/ / www. metacritic.com/ tv/ category7theendoftheworld) at Metacritic
Colonel Tom Parker
72
Colonel Tom Parker
Colonel Tom Parker
Colonel Tom Parker in Las Vegas at the issuing of the Elvis stamps in 1993.
Born June 26, 1909
Breda, Netherlands
Died January 21, 1997 (aged 87)
Las Vegas, Nevada, USA
Occupation Talent manager
Spouse(s) Marie Francis Mott (1935–1986)
Loanne Miller (1990–1997)
Colonel Thomas Andrew "Tom" Parker (June 26, 1909 – January 21, 1997) born Andreas Cornelis ("Dries")
van Kuijk, was a Dutch-born entertainment impresario known best as the manager of Elvis Presley.
[1]
Parker's
management of Presley defined the role of masterminding talent management, which involved every facet of his life
and was seen as central to the astonishing success of Presley's career. "The Colonel" displayed a ruthless devotion to
his client's interests and took more than the traditional 10 percent of his earnings (reaching up to 50 percent by the
end of Presley's life). Presley said of Parker: "I don't think I'd have ever been very big if it wasn't for him. He's a very
smart man."
[2][3]
For many years Parker falsely claimed to have been U.S.-born, but it eventually emerged that he
was born in Breda, Netherlands.
Early life
Parker was born Andreas Cornelis van Kuijk in Breda, the Netherlands,
[4]
the seventh of eleven children in a Jewish
family.
[4]
As a boy, he worked as a barker at carnivals in his home town, learning many of the attributes that he
would require in later life working in the entertainment industry.
[4]
At the age of 15 Parker moved to Rotterdam, gaining employment on the boats in the port town.
[4]
At age 17 he first
displayed signs of wanting to run away to America to "make his fortune,"
[4]
and a year later, with enough money to
sustain him for a short period, he entered America illegally by jumping ship from his employer's vessel.
[4]
During his
first visit there, he traveled with a Chautauqua educative tent show, before returning briefly to the Netherlands.
[4]
Alanna Nash would later write in The Colonel, her biography of him, that there were questions about a murder in
Breda in which Van Kuijk, as he was then still known, might have been a suspect or a person of interest at least.
[5]
This might have motivated Parker to avoid seeking a passport, as the Netherlands has an active extradition treaty
with the United States, and Parker might have wanted to avoid criminal arrest by Dutch authorities in that case.
[5]
Immigration to America
Parker returned to America at age 20, finding work with carnivals due to his previous experience in the
Netherlands.
[4]
He enlisted in the United States Army, taking the name "Tom Parker" from the officer who
interviewed him to disguise the fact he was an illegal alien.
[4]
He served two years in the 64th Regiment of the Coast Artillery at Fort Shafter in Hawaii, and shortly afterwards
re-enlisted at Fort Barrancas, Florida.
[4]
Although Parker had served honorably before, he went AWOL this time and
was charged with desertion.
[4]
He was punished with solitary confinement, from which he emerged with a psychosis
that led to two months in a mental hospital.
[4]
He was discharged from the Army due to his mental condition.
Colonel Tom Parker
73
Following his discharge, Parker worked at a number of jobs, including food concessions and gaming carnivals.
[4]
He
began to build up a list of contacts that would prove valuable in later years, including men of authority and
influence.
[4]
In 1935 Parker married 27-year-old Marie Francis Mott. They struggled to survive through the Great Depression,
working short cons and traveling the country to seek work.
[6]
Parker would later claim that at times they had had to
live on as little as $1 a week.
[6]
Talent management (1938–1954)
Parker's involvement in the music industry began as a music promoter in 1938, working with popular singer Gene
Austin.
[7]
Despite having sold in excess of 86 million records since 1924,
[7]
and with earnings exceeding $17
million, Austin's career had hit a bad patch. He had wasted much of his fortune on partying, cars, mansions, and
women,
[7]
and his popularity had been eclipsed by new singers such as Bing Crosby.
[7]
Parker, charged with the task
of promoting the star, found the career transition to be a smooth one, using much of his "carny" experience to sell
tickets and pack in the crowds.
[7]
He was a very good promoter, but he had his sights set on management.
[7]
Austin offered Parker the opportunity to move to Nashville, Tennessee, the place where music was becoming big
business, but for reasons unknown Parker turned him down.
[8]
Instead he decided to stay in Temple Terrace, Florida
with his family, perhaps to avoid having to fill in paperwork that could expose his illegal status.
[8]
Within a year,
however, he had the opportunity to become a legal citizen within the United States by way of the 1940 Alien
Registration Act;
[9]
a bill passed by the United States Government to allow illegal aliens the chance to become US
citizens in return for their promise to fight for the country during World War II, if required.
[9]
Parker decided against
registering, possibly to avoid his previous Army record becoming public.
Instead, he found employment as a field agent with a local animal shelter, the Hillsborough County Humane
Society.
[9]
The job not only offered him a secure wage, but it also offered a rent-free apartment above the Humane
Society in a remote part of West Tampa for him and his family.
[9]
With the Society in need of funds, Parker set about
using his promotional experience to raise money and awareness for the shelter.
[9]
Through the fund-raising, Parker found himself heading to Tennessee to find acts to perform at his charity events,
[9]
among them stars such as Minnie Pearl and Eddy Arnold.
[10]
Eventually, Parker began getting more involved in
music promotion again, this time for himself rather than the Society.
[9]
In 1945 Parker became Arnold's full-time manager, signing a contract for 25% of the star's earnings.
[10]
Over the
next few years he would help Arnold secure hit songs, television appearances and live tours.
[10]
In 1948, Parker received the rank of colonel in the Louisiana State Militia from Jimmie Davis, the governor of
Louisiana and former country singer, in return for work he did on Davis's election campaign.
[10]
Parker used the title
throughout his life, becoming known simply as "the Colonel" to many acquaintances.
[10]
A singer by the name of Tommy Sands caught Parker's eye in 1952, and he immediately set about promoting the
youngster.
[11]
He arranged live appearances and became somewhat of a father figure to the then 15 year old
Sands.
[11]
Parker had intended to mold Sands into the next Roy Rogers, but Sands had no interest in such a plan.
Instead, Parker sent demo recordings to Steve Scholes at RCA.
[11]
Scholes showed little interest in Sands, but
promised that he'd attempt to find songs he may be able to record.
[11]
Arnold fired Parker in 1953 due to Parker's growing involvement with the singer Hank Snow.
[10]
However, Parker
remained involved in many of Arnold's live tours, and demanded a buyout of $50,000 to settle their contract.
[10]
Parker and Snow worked well together and eventually formed Hank Snow Enterprises and Jamboree Attractions; a
successful promotional outfit for up and coming country singers.
[10]
Colonel Tom Parker
74
Finding Elvis
In early 1955, Parker became aware of a young singer by the name of Elvis Presley.
[10]
Presley had a singing style
that was different from the current trend, and Parker was immediately interested in the future of this musical
style.
[10]
Elvis’s first manager was guitarist Scotty Moore, who was encouraged by Sun Records owner Sam Phillips
to become his manager to protect Elvis from unscrupulous music promoters.
[12]
In the beginning, Elvis was part of a
trio named Blue Moon Boys, the other two members being Moore and bassist Bill Black. However, when Elvis
signed a recording contract with Phillips, Moore and Black were excluded from the contract. Phillips told them to
make a separate deal with Elvis.
[13]
According to Moore, Elvis agreed to take 50 percent, with Moore and Black
splitting the other 50 percent.
[13]
Moore’s one-year management contract with Elvis provided him with a 10 percent
commission, which Moore said he never took. The contract, dated July 12, 1954, eight days after their first recording
session, was signed by Elvis and his mother and father.
[13]
When the contract expired, Memphis radio personality
Bob Neal stepped in and made a deal with Phillips to become Elvis’s manager. At that point, Moore and Black had
no contractual ties to either Phillips or Elvis.
[13]
Presley's new manager, Bob Neal, was struggling at the time to
accommodate the success of his client, and in February 1955, following a meeting with Parker, he agreed to let
Colonel Tom Parker take some control of future bookings and promotions.
[10]
Parker and Neal worked together to promote Presley, using their own Hank Snow Tour to book him and tour him.
[10]
Although Neal remained Presley's official manager, Parker was becoming increasingly involved in the running of his
career, and by the summer of 1955 he had become "Special Advisor" to Presley.
[10]
As Presley was still a minor at
the time, his parents had to sign the contract with Parker on his behalf.
[14]
Part of Parker's role was to secure a new
recording contract with a bigger label.
[10]
Presley had been at Sun Records since the beginning of his career, but Sam
Phillips, the owner of Presley's current label, was aware that for Presley to have any kind of a successful future in the
business he would need the backing of a much larger label.
[10]
Despite this, Phillips was not keen to let him go
easily, advising Parker that he would require $40,000 to secure the release of Presley's contract, a completely
unheard-of sum at the time.
[10]
Parker immediately got to work on finding a new label for Presley.
[10]
Both Mercury Records and Columbia Records
showed interest, although their initial offers were nowhere near the $40,000 requirement.
[10]
RCA Victor, Hank
Snow's current label, was also showing an interest, but they were also put off by the cost of the contract.
[10]
However, RCA Victor producer Steve Sholes was convinced that Presley's style of music would be a huge hit with
the right label, and he began talks with Parker.
[10]
RCA made it very clear that they were not willing to go above
$25,000 for a practically unknown singer,
[10]
but Parker persuaded them that Presley was no ordinary unknown
singer.
[10]
Around the same time, realizing that the deal for Presley might fall through due to the cost of the contract,
Parker attempted to once again sell Tommy Sands to RCA.
[11]
He suggested to Scholes that Sands could record
material similar to the style of Presley.
[11]
Scholes, remembering his previous experience with Sands, dismissed him
as a viable replacement for Presley.
[11]
In November, Parker and Snow persuaded RCA to buy Presley out from Sun for $40,000, and on November 21
Presley's contract was officially transferred from Sun Records to RCA Victor. Snow attended the signing, thinking
that Elvis had signed a management contract with Jamboree Attractions, which he owned with Parker. However, that
was not the case since Elvis was still under contract to Bob Neal. The only document that was signed on November
21 pertained to the record label transfer.
[15]
In return for a larger financial part of the deal, Neal agreed not to renew
his management contract with Presley after it had run out in March 1956,
[16]
allowing Parker the opportunity to
claim the job for himself.
Colonel Tom Parker
75
Managing Elvis
Signing Elvis (1956–1957)
On March 26, 1956, after Elvis’s management contract with Neal had expired, the singer signed a contract with
Colonel Tom Parker that made him his exclusive representative.
[17]
Later, when Hank Snow asked Parker about the
status of their contract with Elvis, Parker told him, "You don't have any contract with Elvis Presley. Elvis is signed
exclusively to the Colonel."
[18]
With his first RCA Victor single, "Heartbreak Hotel" in 1956, Presley graduated from rumor to bona-fide recording
star. Parker began 1956 with intentions of bringing his new star to the national stage. He arranged for Presley to
appear on popular television shows such as The Milton Berle Show and The Ed Sullivan Show, acquiring fees that
would make him the highest-paid star on television.
[19]
By the summer Presley had become one of the most famous
new faces of the year, causing excitement amongst the new teenage audience and outrage amongst some older
audiences and religious groups in equal measure.
[19]
Parker signed a merchandising deal with Beverly Hills movie merchandiser Hank Saperstein for nearly $40,000 to
turn Presley into a brand name.
[19]
With over 78 different ranges, from charm bracelets to record players, Presley
merchandise had brought in $22,000,000 by the end of 1956.
[19]
Parker, with his 25% share of profits, was finding
many new ways to make money from his artist that managers before him could only have dreamed about.
[19]
He had
even come up with the idea to market "I Hate Elvis" badges to make money from those who otherwise wouldn't have
parted with their cash.
[19]
In April, Parker made his first mistake with Presley's career. He had booked him into a four-week Las Vegas
engagement, misjudging the reaction of the slightly older, more reserved audiences that Las Vegas attracted.
[20]
Whilst Presley was a hit amongst the youth of America, the middle-aged audiences found him to be something of an
oddity.
[20]
Some viewed him as a clown-like figure, wiggling his hips for screams like a monkey for peanuts, while
others found his manner of performance vulgar and more suitable for late-night gentleman's clubs. After a very cool
reception during his first few shows, Parker cut Presley's appearance to two weeks. Presley would later remember the
event as one of the worst moments of his career.
[20]
Despite this hiccup in his career, Presley was still going from strength to strength. He had expressed interest in
making films when he first met Parker, and now Parker was working to make that happen. He arranged for a screen
test with Paramount Pictures, and after impressing them with his acting ability, Presley was signed up to a
seven-picture contract.
[21]
Parker made sure that the contract allowed Presley the freedom to make at least one film a
year with another studio, and also managed to set up an office, with staff, at Paramount. Presley's acting career was
originally intended to be a serious one, but after seeing a chance to cross-promote singles and albums with the films,
Parker persuaded him to sing in his films. This proved very lucrative, especially when the single for Presley's first
film, Love Me Tender, sold over one million copies in advance sales. With 1956 coming to a close, Parker had made
Presley one of the most well-known, well-paid entertainers in the world.
[22]
In 1957, Parker finally managed to give Tommy Sands his big break by arranging for him to audition for and star in
"The Singing Idol", a drama for NBC that was loosely based on the life and career of Presley.
[11]
NBC had originally
wanted Presley for the role, but Parker had turned them down.
[11]
In the drama the role of Parker was portrayed as a
"twisted psychopath".
[11]
Critics were very positive in their reviews of both the drama and Sands, leading to Capitol
Records signing Sands within a week.
[11]
Soon after, Sands' song "Teenage Crush" reached number 3 on the pop
charts, eventually selling 800,000 copies.
[11]
Colonel Tom Parker
76
Elvis in the Army (1958-1960)
Regardless of the success that Parker and Presley had achieved, Parker was still struggling to believe that Presley's
career would last longer than a year or two.
[23]
He had seen many acts come and go during his earlier years in
management, and to think that Presley, despite being Parker's most successful act to date, would be any different was
foolish. In January 1958 Presley received his draft notice from the United States Army.
[24]
He was upset about the
possibility of it affecting his career, but Parker was secretly overjoyed.
[23]
Presley had been showing signs of
rebellion against him recently, and Parker believed that a stint in the Army would cure him of this.
[23]
Parker was looking ahead to the future when he persuaded Presley to sign up as a regular soldier.
[23]
Presley had
wanted to join Special Services, allowing him the opportunity to continue to perform while at the same time getting
an easier ride than other soldiers.
[23]
Parker, on the other hand, was fully aware that any special treatment given to
Presley would instantly be used against him in the media and by those who disliked his style of music.
[23]
If Presley
could show the world that he was just the same as any other young man, Parker told him, then more people would be
likely to accept him and his music. Parker was also afraid that any attempt to block Presley from being drafted would
result in a more detailed look into his own service record.
[23]
He also realized that it would be a great opportunity to
promote Presley by having the media witness his induction day, including the Army haircut that would see the most
famous hair style in the world destroyed.
[23]
While Presley was serving in Germany, Parker was hard at work keeping his name known to the public. He realized
that by keeping RCA, and more importantly the public, hungry for more Presley material, he would be able to
negotiate a better contract for him when he returned from active service.
[23]
He had arranged for Presley to record
five singles before his induction,
[25]
guaranteeing RCA enough material to release over a two year period. RCA was
eager for Presley to record in Germany, but Parker insisted that it would ruin his reputation as a regular soldier if he
was able to go into a recording studio and sing.
[25]
Stories appeared in the press regularly about Presley; that he
would do a live CCTV broadcast when he returned, that he had signed a deal for a series of annual television
spectaculars to be broadcast across the country.
[25]
All of these stories were fabrications, but it kept his name in view
of the public.
Parker appeared to be in complete control during Presley's time away, but he was worried about the outside influence
that he may come across in Germany.
[25]
Parker had declined to travel to Europe, denying that he spoke the
languages.
[25]
He sent Presley's friends to keep him company, arranged for business associates to watch over him
while they were working in Europe, and kept in regular contact with him via telephone and letter.
[25]
He was afraid
that Presley would realize that there were other managers available, contracts that did not require as much as 25% for
his manager. Parker was still worried that Presley would return to nothing, that the public would have found a new
star to fawn over by then, and that his golden goose would be reduced to nothing more than a "has-been."
[25]
Elvis returns (1960–1965)
For Presley's return in March 1960, Parker had arranged for a train to take him from Washington D.C. to Memphis,
with stops along the way for fans to see their idol in person.
[26]
If Parker had had any doubts about his return, they
were soon gone when he witnessed the turnout along the route.
Frank Sinatra, who had declared Presley and rock-'n'-roll a disgrace in the fifties, was keen to have him appear on his
show.
[27]
Parker, not one to forget harsh criticism, stated that the fee would be $125,000 for two songs, a total of
eight minutes on screen; Sinatra himself was receiving a lower sum for the whole show.
[28]
Sinatra agreed and it was
Presley's first national television appearance since The Ed Sullivan Show in January 1957, and titled Welcome Home,
Elvis.
After the Sinatra special, Parker decided that Presley's future lay in Hollywood.
[27]
He envisioned him as an
entertainment machine, pumping out three films and soundtracks a year, until the end of the decade.
[27]
He allowed
him to perform three live shows in 1960, all charity events, two in Memphis and one in Hawaii.
[27]
After that, until
1968, Presley gave no live performances, and had very little contact with his fans.
[27]
Parker signed long-term
Colonel Tom Parker
77
contracts with the film studios,
[29]
possibly to guarantee work and income for both him and Presley. This was, with
hindsight, a mistake on his part; if he had negotiated each deal separately based on the profits of the previous film, he
could have received more money.
[29]
Throughout the 1960s Parker would continually renegotiate Presley's film
contracts, often paying little attention to the scripts or the thoughts of his client.
[30]
These deals were sometimes so
harsh on the studios that it led producer Hal Wallis to state, "I'd rather try and close a deal with the Devil."
[30]
Presley had to do no more than provide RCA with three albums a year,
[27]
and his film soundtracks did that for him.
With no touring or public appearances to be made, Parker was able to keep costs to a minimum.
[27]
For the first few
years Presley's films were somewhat successful, his albums topped the charts, and any singles that were released
were mostly hits. But as time went on, and the worldwide phenomenon known as Beatlemania began, Presley
became less and less successful as The Beatles began their dominance of the music charts. His films still made
money and his albums still sold well, but the profits were falling. This led Parker to insist that films be made
cheaply, on a strict schedule, and with as little hassle as possible.
[29]
Dead ends (1966–1967)
For the remainder of the 1960s, Presley made films that relied heavily on exotic locations and mundane songs, and
he was tied into contracts that he could not escape. Parker did not care if the films were good or bad but only about
the profits.
[29]
When Presley complained to him that he wanted better scripts, Parker reminded him of his lavish
lifestyle and that risking $1 million a year for doing practically no work was dangerous. Elvis's career stagnated
while artists like the Beatles, the Rolling Stones, and Bob Dylan dominated the charts. Parker admitted, in 1983, that
after 1966 the income from Presley films and soundtracks was dramatically reduced.
[31]
To make up for lack of earnings, Parker arranged for Presley's gold Cadillac to go on tour.
[31]
Selling it to RCA for
$24,000, it was used to promote Presley's latest film, Frankie & Johnny.
[31]
The Cadillac tour proved to be
somewhat more successful than the film itself.
[31]
In Houston alone in one afternoon, forty thousand people paid to
see it, with one woman offering to have sex with the tour manager if he would allow her to sit in it.
[31]
On January 2, 1967, Parker renegotiated his managerial/agent contract with Presley, persuading him to increase
Parker's share from 25% to 50%. When critics questioned this arrangement, Presley quipped "I could have signed
with East Coast Entertainment where they take 70 percent!"
[32]
Parker used the argument that Presley was his only
client and was thus earning only one fee.
[32]
After Presley showed signs of rebellion again in 1966 and because of his flagging career, Parker decided that it was
time for a new approach; marriage.
[31]
Frank Sinatra had married Mia Farrow in 1966, and it had produced a good
enough amount of publicity for Parker to sit up and take notice. Presley had been living with Priscilla Beaulieu, ten
years his junior, for the past four years, but it had not been public knowledge. Jerry Lee Lewis's career had been
almost destroyed when it came out that he had married his 13-year-old cousin — and Parker was not going to let a
similar scandal happen to Presley.
Parker hoped that marriage would not only boost Presley's career but also possibly tame him.
[31]
With Priscilla's
father dropping heavy hints, and fear that their relationship might become public beforehand, Parker persuaded
Presley that he should make an honest woman of her in the very near future. However, it would not be a quiet
wedding. Parker decided that Las Vegas was the perfect place to do it,
[31]
and on May 1, 1967, the couple were
married in a ceremony that lasted only eight minutes and had a handful of guests.
[33]
A breakfast reception was
arranged, taking place after the media got their photographs of the couple.
[33]
It was, to some, nothing more than a
circus.
Colonel Tom Parker
78
The comeback (1968–1972)
It took the energetic 1968 television special Elvis, which The Singer Company sponsored, and a subsequent series of
acclaimed recording sessions in Memphis, Tennessee, to restore Elvis Presley's musical reputation. However, the
music scene and the culture in the latter part of the decade had radically changed. The "Singer Special" TV show was
not intended to turn out the way it did. Parker was adamant that Presley would wear a Santa suit and other holiday
garb and sing Christmas songs, as the show was to be broadcast in December 1968. (Several Presley historians have
noted the original title for the special was to be Elvis and the Wonderful World of Christmas.) It was the producer of
the show, Steve Binder, who put forward the idea of Presley singing his old hits and even the staged section with his
old band, Scotty Moore and DJ Fontana, the latter inspired by a post-rehearsal informal jam in Presley's dressing
room. Presley was never one to stand up against Parker, but he knew that this TV show was his one chance at a true
comeback, and with Binder backing him, Presley told Parker he was doing it "Binder's way." This was the first time
in the partnership where Presley fully rebelled against Parker.
Presley and Binder's instincts were proven right; the TV special proved an enormous hit, and the album that was
released featuring performances from the special became a best-seller. Presley historians have also said doing the
special whetted Elvis's appetite to perform live again after nearly a decade away from the stage. After the special,
Parker managed Presley's return to live performance, including a set of brief U.S. tours and many engagements in
Las Vegas. Following the success of Presley's Las Vegas return, Parker signed a contract with the International Hotel
to guarantee Presley would play a month-long engagement for $125,000 a week, an unheard-of sum at the time.
During this part of Presley's career, Parker and Presley agreed to a 50/50 "partnership," which, with Parker
controlling merchandising and other non-music related items, resulted in Parker earning more than his client.
After the success of Presley's return to live performing in Las Vegas, Parker decided it was time to take him back out
on tour for the first time in 13 years.
[34]
The tours were so popular and financially successful that it determined
Presley's workload for the remainder of his life and career. Parker's main role during these tours was to plan the
logistics and make sure tickets were sold.
[34]
He would usually fly ahead to the venues and prepare the way for
Presley's entourage to follow. Due to this, Presley and Parker would very rarely see each other, and as time
progressed it became even more difficult for Parker to get in contact with Presley.
[34]
These live performances, as
well as being very financially satisfying, also allowed Parker to fulfill Presley's recording contract with RCA.
Between 1969 and 1972 alone, RCA released three albums of live material.
[35]
By 1972, Parker had managed to increase Presley's weekly wage in Las Vegas to $150,000, and secured $50,000 a
year for himself as a "consultant to the hotel chain".
[36]
Parker had also decided that it was time for Presley to return
to New York, and had arranged for him to perform at Madison Square Garden in June.
[36]
Originally planned as
three performances, demand was so high that Parker decided to add a fourth performance, making Presley the first
performer to sell out the venue four consecutive times.
[36]
These four shows alone grossed $730,000.
[36]
On July 8, 1972, inspired by a recent visit made by President Richard Nixon to China a few months earlier,
[37]
Parker announced that there would be a worldwide satellite broadcast from Hawaii to allow the whole world the
chance to see a Presley concert "since it is impossible for us to play in every major city."
[38]
(During Presley's career,
except for a few concerts in Canada in 1957, he never performed outside the United States). Parker held another
press conference on September 4, 1972 in Las Vegas to confirm that the concert, now titled Aloha From Hawaii,
would be broadcast on January 14, 1973.
[39]
The press were told that an audience of 1 billion was expected to tune in
to see the "first entertainment special to be broadcast live around the world,"
[39]
although Parker had not taken into
account the fact that many countries, including parts of Europe and America, would not see the concert live due to
the time of the broadcast.
[39]
Two weeks after the Las Vegas press conference Parker received a letter from Honolulu
Advertiser columnist Eddie Sherman.
[40]
Sherman had read in news accounts that there was to be no charge for
admittance to the concerts, instead a donation for charity was required. He suggested to Parker that, as Presley had
recorded and was still performing the song "I'll Remember You" written by Kui Lee, the donations could go to the
Kui Lee Cancer Fund that had been set up following the death of the song writer in 1966.
[40]
Seeing the chance to
Colonel Tom Parker
79
publicize Presley's charitable nature once again, Parker eagerly agreed.
[40]
The album was released simultaneously
around the world, and went to No. 1 in the US charts; the first Presley album to do so since 1964's Roustabout
soundtrack.
[41]
Downhill (1973-1977)
1973-1974
Aloha From Hawaii proved to be the last great moment in the life of Presley and Parker. In May 1973, in an attempt
to deal with Presley's growing dependence on prescription drugs, Presley's father, Vernon, and Parker attempted to
cut off his supply.
[42]
They hired private detectives to find out where the drugs were coming from and were
successful in stopping any more reaching Presley.
[42]
However, it wasn't long before Presley was able to find other
doctors to meet his demands.
[42]
In later years, several of Presley's inner-circle would tell of how difficult it was to
persuade Presley to quit the drugs.
[42]
As well as being their employer and paying their wages, he was also their
main source of access to drugs for themselves.
[42]
Presley's main doctor, George C. Nichopoulos, would often
replace Presley's medication with placebos in an attempt to wean him off the drugs.
[42]
This would be successful for
a short time, but when Presley discovered the trick he simply found himself other doctors.
[42]
Author Alanna Nash
suggests that one of the reasons Parker didn't do more is because he may have just not known how to handle the
situation.
[43]
In her book, "The Colonel", she writes "in the days before the Betty Ford Clinic, the Colonel didn't
know where to take him for discreet, effective help and loathed risking the loss of work if the truth got out."
[43]
After the Aloha special, Parker made a deal that would later be used in court to prove that he had not acted in the best
interests of Presley (see "After Elvis").
[34]
He offered RCA the opportunity to buy Presley's entire back catalog for a
mere $5.4 million.
[34]
At the time, Presley's back catalog was not considered that important and RCA initially
calculated it at being worth much less, but in later years it would become one of the most valuable catalogs in the
music business. The sale of the catalog to RCA meant that after his death Presley's estate would not receive any
royalties for his songs prior to 1973.
[34]
To be fair to Parker, however, Presley had asked him to raise funds to pay
for his upcoming divorce settlement.
[34]
Presley, who was never one to know the full ins and outs of the music
business, would have probably had no idea how important his back catalog was, and therefore would have trusted
Parker's judgment on the matter. Parker, too, could have never known how valuable the catalog would become.
From 1974 onwards, Presley's weight gain and prescription drug abuse became too much to be controlled.
[44]
In Las
Vegas he was starting to appear drugged on stage, slurring his words and forgetting song lyrics.
[44]
During one
performance in September 1973, following news that one of the Hilton's staff that Presley was fond of had been
fired, he attacked Barron Hilton in a verbal rage on stage.
[44]
Parker was furious, and stormed into Presley's dressing
room after the show to confront him. After a heated argument between the two, Presley told Parker he was fired.
[44]
Angered by this outburst, Parker declared, "You can't fire me. I quit!"
[44]
Parker accepted that their working relationship was over, and demanded that Presley pay $2 million to end their
contract; money Parker claimed he was owed.
[44]
But Presley's father, Vernon, upon reading the bill Parker sent
itemizing each cost individually, declared that they could not afford to buy out their contract.
[44]
After nearly two
weeks of trading insults back and forth, Parker and Presley decided to bury the hatchet and put the whole situation
behind them.
[44]
Although many around Presley were worried about his worsening drug dependency, Parker appeared to ignore the
problem.
[45]
Several members of Presley's band later stated that Parker had no idea just how bad the situation was,
although others have stood by the suggestion that Parker just didn't want to admit there was such a problem because
he didn't know how to deal with it and was worried about any negative publicity it would create.
[45]
According to
Parker himself, he did attempt to talk to his client about the matter, but Presley simply told him to stay out of his
personal life.
[45]
Colonel Tom Parker
80
1975-1977
In February 1975, during his engagement in Las Vegas, Presley met with Barbra Streisand and Jon Peters
[45]
They
discussed the possibility of Presley co-starring with Streisand in a remake of the film A Star is Born.
[45]
Seeing it as
a chance to finally be taken seriously as an actor, Presley agreed to take the role if the contracts could be worked out.
According to Presley's friend, Jerry Schilling, Presley was excited about the opportunity to take on a new
challenge.
[45]
Streisand's production company, First Artists, offered Presley $500,000 and 10% of the profits.
[45]
Parker, who had always dealt with Presley's film contracts and viewed the offer as a starting bid, asked for $1
million, 50% of the profits, $100,000 for expenses, and spoke of needing to arrange details of a soundtrack deal.
[45]
First Artists, unused to such huge demands, didn't put forward a counteroffer and decided instead to offer the role to
Kris Kristofferson.
[45]
Parker later claimed that Presley had asked him to make the contract so demanding so that
they would not offer him the part, although many of Presley's friends have said he was furious at losing the role.
[45]
Later in 1975 Saudi Arabia offered Parker $5 million for Presley to perform there.
[45]
Parker turned the offer down,
and Presley was overjoyed when they retaliated with an offer of $10 million.
[45]
Yet, despite Presley's eagerness to
do the shows, Parker again turned them down.
[45]
Promoters in South America also made offers, as much as $2.5
million, again turned down by Parker; "Well, whenever I need $2.5 million I'll call you" he said to them (see #Lack
of touring abroad).
[45]
Presley was beginning to consider new management, with Concerts West co-founder Tom
Hulett the clear favorite for the job.
[45]
Hulett's company had managed tours for Presley, and he had worked with
artists such as Led Zeppelin. According to several people who knew Presley at the time, the talks with Hulett got so
far along that it seemed almost inevitable that the deal would be done. The talks had included details about European
tours, and buying out Presley's contract would not have been a problem for Hulett and his company.
[45]
Despite this,
however, the deal never materialized. According to Presley biographer Peter Guralnick, Presley and Parker "were
really like, in a sense, a married couple, who started out with great love, loyalty, respect that lasted for a considerable
period of time, and went through a number of stages until, towards the end of Presley's life, they should have walked
away. None of the rules of the relationship were operative any longer, yet neither had the courage to walk away, for a
variety of reasons." In any case, Parker remained Presley's manager without break until Presley's death in 1977.
Parker was aware that Presley needed a break from touring and the chance to deal with his addictions.
[46]
He phoned
Presley's father to suggest the break, but Vernon told him that they couldn't afford to stop touring.
[46]
Vernon also
threatened to find a new manager if Parker wouldn't continue to tour Presley.
[46]
In 1976, three of Presley's bodyguards were fired and decided to write a tell-all book about their life in his inner
circle.
[47]
Worried about the impact such details might have on his career, Presley, through his father, asked Parker
to stop the publication of the book. Parker made attempts to have it stopped, but failed to do so.
[47]
According to
Presley's friend, Larry Geller, Parker secretly wanted the book to be published, hoping that it would open Presley's
eyes to how bad he had got and persuade him to do something about it.
[47]
The book would eventually be published
in August 1977, two weeks before Presley died.
For the remainder of Presley's life, Parker would see very little of him. The two had become almost strangers to each
other, and false reports in the media suggested that Presley's contract was up for sale.
[47]
Although Parker publicly
denied these claims, he had been in talks with Peter Grant, manager of Led Zeppelin, about the possibility of him
overseeing a European tour for Presley.
[47]
As with all the talk about Presley touring overseas, Parker never followed
through with the deal.
Lack of touring abroad
Presley fans have speculated that the reason Presley only once performed abroad, which would probably have been a
highly lucrative proposition, may have been that Parker was worried that he would not have been able to acquire a
U.S. passport and might even have been deported upon filing his application. In addition, applying for the citizenship
required for a US passport would probably have exposed his carefully concealed foreign birth, even though as a US
Army veteran and spouse of an American citizen, he would have been eligible to apply for US citizenship.
Colonel Tom Parker
81
Throughout his entire career, Presley performed in only three venues outside the United States—all of them in
Canada; Toronto, Ottawa, and Vancouver, during brief tours there in 1957. However, at the time of these concerts,
crossing the US-Canada border did not require a passport. Red Robinson, Vancouver radio icon and MC of the
Presley concert in that city, said Parker did not accompany Presley to that show, but instead stayed in Washington
State. However, it should be noted that it is well-established that Parker did not accompany Presley on every tour and
every performance date, even in the US, suggesting this may not have been the only rationale for Presley not
performing abroad.
Rumors that he would play overseas for the first time were fueled in 1974 by a million-dollar bid for an Australian
tour. Parker was uncharacteristically reluctant, prompting those close to Presley to speculate about the manager's past
and the reasons for his apparent unwillingness to apply for a passport. Parker ultimately squelched any notions
Presley had of working abroad, although it must also be noted that Presley did not push the issue, either.
[48]
Other possible theories for Presley's lack of touring abroad include the following:
•• Parker's fear that security overseas was not as good as in the US
•• Parker's belief that outside influences (managers, agents etc.) would inform Presley of how unusual his contract
with Parker was.
•• Parker's claim that there was a lack of venues large enough to accommodate a star of Presley's stature. All of these
excuses were given to Presley when he would show an interest in touring abroad. Presley, who was known to
avoid confrontation, would never argue against them.
•• Some promoters wanted to charge fans the equivalent of $100 per ticket. Parker did not wish the fans to be ripped
off, and this was another reason he turned down overseas offers.
Presley's death
When Presley died in August 1977, one day before he was due to go out on tour, some accounts suggest Parker acted
as if nothing had happened.
[49]
Other accounts suggest he slumped in his chair and muttered, "Oh dear God" and
immediately contacted Vernon Presley and advised Presley's father that his son's image needed to be protected.
[50]
Asked by a journalist what he would do now, Parker responded, "Why, I'll just go right on managing him!"
[49]
Almost immediately, before even visiting Graceland, he made his way to New York to meet with merchandising
associates and RCA executives, instructing them to prepare for a huge demand in Presley products.
[49]
Shortly after,
he traveled to Memphis for Presley's funeral. Mourners recall being surprised at him wearing a Hawaiian shirt and
baseball cap and smoking his trademark cigar and purposely avoiding the casket.
[49]
At the funeral, he persuaded
Presley's father to sign over control of Presley's career in death to him.
[49]
In September 1978, shortly after the first anniversary of Presley's death, Parker arranged a fan festival, Always Elvis,
where he, Vernon, and Presley's ex-wife Priscilla, dedicated a bronze statue of him in the lobby of the Las Vegas
Hilton.
[51]
After Elvis
Following Presley's death, Parker set up a licensing operation with Factors Etc. Inc, to control Presley merchandise
and keep a steady income supporting his estate.
[52]
It was later revealed that Presley owned 22% of the company,
Parker owned 56%, and the final 22% was made up of various business associates.
[53]
Due to an ill-advised
agreement between Parker and Presley that gave RCA sole ownership of all his recording royalties prior to 1973, the
estate was relying heavily on the income from Factors Etc. Inc.
[52]
However, because Parker was still entitled to 50%
of all Presley's income, and after taxes were taken off, the overall amount going towards the upkeep of the estate was
less than $1 million a year.
[52]
In January 1979, it was discovered that Presley had lost out on royalties for songs on which he had been listed as an
author and/or composer because Parker had advised him not to sign up to the American Society of Composers,
Colonel Tom Parker
82
Authors and Publishers or its younger competitor, Broadcast Music Incorporated.
[54]
Experts in the field at the time
estimated that it had potentially cost Presley millions of dollars.
[54]
By 1980, the cost of running the estate was estimated to be as much as $500,000 a year.
[52]
Priscilla and the Trust
were prepared to let Parker continue to handle Presley's business affairs, and petitioned the court to that end.
[55]
However, Judge Joseph Evans, aware that Lisa Marie Presley was still a minor, appointed attorney Blanchard E.
Tual to investigate Parker's management.
[52][55]
Tual, once appointed as Lisa Marie's guardian ad litem, chose to
investigate the entire period of Parker's management of Presley; his preliminary finding was that Parker's
management deal of 50% was extortionate compared to the industry average of 15–20%.
[52]
He also noted that
Parker's handling of Presley's business affairs during his lifetime, including the decision to sell off past royalties to
RCA for $5.4 million in 1973, was "unethical" and poorly handled.
[55]
During a second, more detailed investigation,
Tual discovered that all earnings were paid directly to the Trust instead of Parker.
[52]
By this time, with the IRS
demanding almost $15 million in taxes, the estate was facing bankruptcy.
[52]
The truth about Parker was now known.
On August 14, 1981, Judge Evans ordered EPE to sue Parker for mismanagement.
[56]
In response to this, Parker
countersued.
[56]
The case against Parker was settled out of court in 1983, with the estate paying him $2 million,
[56]
and the termination of his involvement in any Presley related earnings for five years.
[52]
He was also ordered to hand
over any Presley audio recordings or visual images that he owned.
[52]
Parker had worked as a "consultant" for Hilton Hotels since Presley's death,
[57]
with some believing he was working
to pay off debts owed to the casino from his gambling during Presley's performances there.
[57]
Part of this role
resulted in Parker keeping the same fourth-floor suite he occupied when Presley was alive, but by 1984, with his
gambling debts reportedly rising again, he was evicted.
[57]
On the surface, however, relations between the two were
as good as ever, with Parker helping the Hilton to commemorate the tenth anniversary of Presley's death.
[57]
The disputes with the Presley estate did not terminate his association with his most high-profile client. Parker
appeared at posthumous events honoring Presley, such as the 1993 issuing of the United States Postal Service stamp
honoring the King of Rock and Roll. He also became friendly with the estate again, attending special ceremonies and
events in Memphis, invited by Priscilla.
[57]
However, he did occasionally step on their toes by commenting
negatively on some of their decisions. In 1994, following the marriage of Lisa Marie and Michael Jackson, Parker
stated that Presley would not have approved,
[57]
and in 1993, interest in Presley's enduring legend, interest that is
sometimes notable for its obsessiveness, provoked Parker to remark, "I don't think I exploited Elvis as much as he's
being exploited today."
[57]
In 1994, a Golden Palm Star on the Palm Springs, California, Walk of Stars was dedicated to him.
[58]
Personal life
As Presley's fame grew, people became interested in Parker as well. For a time, he lied about his childhood, claiming
to have been born in Huntington, West Virginia and to have run away at an early age to join a circus run by an uncle.
The truth about his early years was revealed when his family in the Netherlands recognized him in photographs of
him standing next to Presley. Parker's brother Adam "Ad" van Kuijk visited Parker in Los Angeles in 1961. Parker
acknowledged his brother and introduced him to Presley. Parker also was informed that his mother died in 1958,
never knowing what happened with her son after he left in 1929. The claim of Parker's Dutch heritage was confirmed
when Parker tried to avert a lawsuit in 1982 by asserting that he was a Dutch citizen. In 1993, Dutch TV director
Jorrit van der Kooi talked to him in Dutch about the Netherlands. Parker was not aware that his sister Adriana had
died a few years before.
Colonel Tom Parker
83
Marriage
In 1935, while traveling with a circus, Parker met and married 27-year-old Marie Francis Mott.
[59]
Marie was one of
six children
[59]
and had been married twice before, with a son from her first marriage.
[59]
Unbeknownst to Parker at
the time, she had a second son from her first marriage, but she had given him up for adoption at birth due to his
disability with a clubfoot.
[60]
Some have suggested that Parker married Marie to disguise his illegal status in the
US;
[59]
a marriage to a US citizen with a child could help him bury his past in a "ready-made family."
[59]
However,
there is no definitive proof that it was anything other than romance that led to their marriage.
[59]
Others, however, have doubts about whether they were legally married at all.
[61]
According to interviews given by
Parker to the Associated Press many years later, he and Marie were married in Tampa, Florida during the winter of
1932,
[61]
but the Florida Office of Vital Statistics has no record of such a marriage any time between 1927 and
1946.
[61]
It is also recorded that Marie did not divorce her second husband until 1936, and her brother, Bitsy, recalls
no ceremony of marriage between the two.
[61]
Author Alanna Nash suggests that the couple may have simply placed
their hands on a bible and given themselves a "carny wedding."
[61]
In the early days of their marriage, Marie and Parker worked together in the carnivals.
[61]
As Parker's management
career began to take off, Marie became more of a housewife and mother, although she would occasionally travel with
him to different parts of the country. During the 1960s, after many years of ill health, Marie began to display signs of
dementia.
[62]
Parker began to distance himself from her, heartbroken by her rapid deterioration from the woman he
once knew.
[62]
Marie died in November 1986 of chronic brain syndrome.
[63]
In October 1990, Parker married
Loanne Miller, his secretary since 1972.
[62]
From then on, he continued living in Las Vegas, mostly avoiding contact
with the press.
Gambling
Many Parker biographers, including Dirk Vellenga and Alanna Nash, have stated that Parker's gambling really began
to get out of hand in the mid-1960s.
[64]
With his wife's health deteriorating, and Presley's career struggling, Parker
found an escape at the Las Vegas casinos.
[64]
Fans and biographers alike believe that one of the main reasons Parker
signed Presley to a Las Vegas hotel in 1969 for his live comeback was to help cover the losses he had experienced in
their casino.
[64]
He would often spend 12–14 hours at a time gambling, betting large sums of money instead of little
amounts.
[64]
At the time of Presley's death it was suspected that Parker owed the Las Vegas Hilton $30 million.
[64]
In
a lifetime that saw him earn in excess of $100 million, Parker's estate was barely worth $1 million when he died.
[64]
Death
Parker made his last public appearances in 1994.
[65]
By this point, he was a sick man who could barely even leave
his own house. On January 20, 1997, Parker's wife heard a crashing sound from the living room, and when no
response was heard from her calls, she went in to find him slumped over in his chair. He had suffered a stroke.
[65]
Parker died the following morning in Las Vegas, Nevada at the age of 87. His death certificate listed his country of
birth as the Netherlands but his citizenship as American.
[65]
His funeral was held at the Hilton Hotel, and was
attended by friends and former associates including Eddy Arnold and Sam Phillips.
[65]
Priscilla attended to represent
the Elvis Presley Estate, and gave a eulogy that, to many in the room, summed up Parker perfectly: "Elvis and the
Colonel made history together, and the world is richer, better and far more interesting because of their collaboration.
And now I need to locate my wallet, because I noticed there was no ticket booth on the way in here, but I'm sure that
the Colonel must have arranged for some toll on the way out."
[65]
For the public, Parker's passing went mostly
unnoticed.
Colonel Tom Parker
84
Portrayals and popular culture
Parker was portrayed by Pat Hingle in Elvis, the original 1979 made-for-television movie, produced by Dick Clark,
directed by John Carpenter, and starring Kurt Russell. Parker was also portrayed by Hugh Gillin in the 1988 TV film
Elvis and Me. Beau Bridges portrayed Parker in the 1993 TV movie Elvis And The Colonel: The Untold Story,
alongside Rob Youngblood; and was portrayed by Randy Quaid in the 2005 CBS miniseries Elvis, alongside
Jonathan Rhys Meyers as Elvis Presley. Quaid was nominated for a Golden Globe and an Emmy Award for best
supporting actor in the miniseries.
Parker was mentioned in the movie Scrooged, a modern day tale of the classic novel, A Christmas Carol by Charles
Dickens and also in the TV series The Simpsons, season 21 in episode number 9, which was called "Thursdays with
Abie." In the Superman TV show Lois and Clark: The New Adventures of Superman, Perry White on multiple
occasions refers to himself as being like the Colonel to Elvis in his relationship with Clark Kent.
References
[1] Strauss, Neil. "Tom Parker is Dead at 87; Controlled Presley's Career." New York Times. January 22, 1997.
[2] Osborne, Elvis: Word for Word, p.15
[3] Guralnick, Peter (1995). Last Train to Memphis: Rise of Elvis Presley. Abacus. pp. 168. ISBN 978-0-349-10651-9.
[4] Victor, Adam (2008). The Elvis Encyclopedia. Gerald Duckworth & Co Ltd. pp. 385. ISBN 978-0-7156-3816-3.
[5] Nash, Alanna (2003). The Colonel: the extraordinary story of Colonel Tom Parker and Elvis Presley. Simon & Schuster. pp. 39–51.
ISBN 978-0-7432-1301-1.
[6] Nash, Alanna (2002). The Colonel: The Extraordinary Story of Colonel Tom Parker and Elvis Presley. Aurum Press Ltd. pp. 75–78.
ISBN 978-1-85410-948-4.
[7] Nash, Alanna (2002). The Colonel: The Extraordinary Story of Colonel Tom Parker and Elvis Presley. Aurum Press Ltd. pp. 79–82.
ISBN 978-1-85410-948-4.
[8] Vellenga, Dirk (1990). Elvis and the Colonel. Grafton. pp. 54–60. ISBN 978-0-586-20595-2.
[9] Nash, Alanna (2002). The Colonel: The Extraordinary Story of Colonel Tom Parker and Elvis Presley. Aurum Press Ltd. pp. 82–90.
ISBN 978-1-85410-948-4.
[10] Victor, Adam (2008). The Elvis Encyclopedia. Gerald Duckworth & Co Ltd. pp. 384–395. ISBN 978-0-7156-3816-3.
[11] Nash, Alanna (2004). The Colonel: The Extraordinary Story of Colonel Tom Parker and Elvis Presley. Chicago Review Press. pp. 120–125.
ISBN 978-1-55652-546-9.
[12] Moore, Scotty with James L. Dickerson, That's Alright, Elvis:The Untold Story of Elvis's First Guitarist and Manager, Schirmer
Books/Simon & Schuster, 1997, p.67
[13] [13] Moore, Scotty. That's Alright, Elvis
[14] Vellenga, Dirk (1988). Elvis and the Colonel. Grafton. pp. 85–90. ISBN 978-0-246-13459-2.
[15] [15] Dickerson, James L. (2001) "Colonel Tom Parker: The Curious Life of Elvis Presley's Eccentric Manager," Cooper Square Press, p.72
[16] Doll, Susan (2009). Elvis for Dummies. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 65–70. ISBN 978-0-470-47202-6.
[17] [17] Guralnick, Peter (1994). "Last Train to Memphis," Little, Brown, p. 258
[18] [18] Dickerson, James L. Colonel Tom Parker, p. 73
[19] Nash, Alanna (2002). The Colonel: The Extraordinary Story of Colonel Tom Parker and Elvis Presley. Aurum Press Ltd. pp. 118–134.
ISBN 978-1-85410-948-4.
[20] Guralnick, Peter (1999). Elvis Day by Day. Ballantine Books Inc.. pp. 71. ISBN 978-0-345-42089-3.
[21] Guralnick, Peter (1999). Elvis Day by Day. Ballantine Books Inc.. pp. 67. ISBN 978-0-345-42089-3.
[22] Guralnick, Peter (1999). Elvis Day by Day. Ballantine Books Inc.. pp. 94. ISBN 978-0-345-42089-3.
[23] Vellenga, Dirk (1990). Elvis and the Colonel. Grafton. pp. 102–103. ISBN 978-0-586-20595-2.
[24] Guralnick, Peter (1999). Elvis Day by Day. Ballantine Books Inc.. pp. 95. ISBN 978-0-345-42089-3.
[25] Vellenga, Dirk (1990). Elvis and the Colonel. Grafton. pp. 106–108. ISBN 978-0-586-20595-2.
[26] Guralnick, Peter (1999). Elvis Day by Day. Ballantine Books Inc.. pp. 149. ISBN 978-0-345-42089-3.
[27] Vellenga, Dirk (1990). Elvis and the Colonel. Grafton. pp. 112–15. ISBN 978-0-586-20595-2.
[28] Guralnick, Peter (1999). Elvis Day by Day. Ballantine Books Inc.. pp. 140. ISBN 978-0-345-42089-3.
[29] Vellenga, Dirk (1990). Elvis and the Colonel. Grafton. pp. 118–121. ISBN 978-0-586-20595-2.
[30] Doll, Elvis for Dummies, p.139
[31] Vellenga, Dirk (1990). Elvis and the Colonel. Grafton. pp. 127–131. ISBN 978-0-586-20595-2.
[32] Worth, Fred (1992). Elvis: His Life from A to Z. Outlet. pp. 149. ISBN 978-0-517-06634-8.
[33] Vellenga, Dirk (1990). Elvis and the Colonel. Grafton. pp. 134–140. ISBN 978-0-586-20595-2.
[34] Victor, The Elvis Encyclopedia, p.384-395
Colonel Tom Parker
85
[35] Carr & Farren, The Complete Illustrated Record
[36] Nash, The Colonel, p.273-275
[37] Guralnick, Peter (1999). Careless Love: Unmaking of Elvis Presley. Abacus. pp. 477. ISBN 978-0-349-11168-1.
[38] Guralnick, Peter (1999). Elvis Day by Day. Ballantine Books Inc.. pp. 310. ISBN 978-0-345-42089-3.
[39] Guralnick, Peter (1999). Elvis Day by Day. Ballantine Books Inc.. pp. 312. ISBN 978-0-345-42089-3.
[40] Guralnick, Peter (1999). Careless Love: The Unmaking of Elvis Presley. Little Brown and Company. pp. 478. ISBN 978-0-316-33222-4.
[41] Guralnick, Peter (1999). Elvis Day by Day. Ballantine Books Inc.. pp. 322. ISBN 978-0-345-42089-3.
[42] Doll, Susan (2009). Elvis for Dummies. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 236. ISBN 978-0-470-47202-6.
[43] Nash, The Colonel, p.229
[44] Nash, Alanna (2002). The Colonel: The Extraordinary Story of Colonel Tom Parker and Elvis Presley. Aurum Press Ltd. pp. 286–295.
ISBN 978-1-84513-025-1.
[45] Nash, The Colonel, p.384-390
[46] Nash, The Colonel, p.290-295
[47] Nash, The Colonel, p.298-302
[48] Stanly & Coffey, The Elvis Encyclopedia, p.123
[49] Victor, Adam (2008). The Elvis Encyclopedia. Gerald Duckworth & Co Ltd. pp. 392–393. ISBN 978-0-7156-3816-3.
[50] Carr, Roy (1982). Elvis: The Illustrated Record. Harmony Books. pp. 124. ISBN 0-517-53979-9.
[51] Nash, The Colonel, p.315
[52] Victor, Adam (2008). The Elvis Encyclopedia. Gerald Duckworth & Co Ltd. pp. 148. ISBN 978-0-7156-3816-3.
[53] Jobe Pierce, Patricia (1994). The Ultimate Elvis. Simon & Schuster Ltd. pp. 301. ISBN 978-0-671-87022-5.
[54] Jobe Pierce, Patricia (1994). The Ultimate Elvis. Simon & Schuster Ltd. pp. 311. ISBN 978-0-671-87022-5.
[55] Gaar, Gillian G (2010). Return of The King: Elvis Presley's Great Comeback. Jawbone Press. pp. 239. ISBN 978-1-906002-28-2.
[56] Gaar, Gillian G (2010). Return of The King: Elvis Presley's Great Comeback. Jawbone Press. pp. 240. ISBN 978-1-906002-28-2.
[57] Nash, Alanna (2002). The Colonel: The Extraordinary Story of Colonel Tom Parker and Elvis Presley. Aurum Press Ltd. pp. 328–335.
ISBN 978-1-85410-948-4.
[58] Palm Springs Walk of Stars by date dedicated (http:// www. palmspringswalkofstars. com/ web-storage/ Stars/ Stars dedicated by date.pdf)
[59] Vellenga, Dirk (1990). Elvis and The Colonel. Grafton. pp. 49–51. ISBN 978-0-586-20595-2.
[60] Nash, Alanna (2002). The Colonel: The Extraordinary Story of Colonel Tom Parker and Elvis Presley. Aurum Press Ltd. pp. 71.
ISBN 978-1-85410-948-4.
[61] Nash, Alanna (2002). The Colonel: The Extraordinary Story of Colonel Tom Parker and Elvis Presley. Aurum Press Ltd. pp. 72–73.
ISBN 978-1-85410-948-4.
[62] Nash, Alanna (2002). The Colonel: The Extraordinary Story of Colonel Tom Parker and Elvis Presley. Aurum Press Ltd. pp. 276–277.
ISBN 978-1-85410-948-4.
[63] Nash, Alanna (2002). The Colonel: The Extraordinary Story of Colonel Tom Parker and Elvis Presley. Aurum Press Ltd. pp. 329.
ISBN 978-1-85410-948-4.
[64] Victor, Adam (2008). The Elvis Encyclopedia. Gerald Duckworth & Co Ltd. pp. 394. ISBN 978-0-7156-3816-3.
[65] Nash, Alanna (2002). The Colonel: The Extraordinary Story of Colonel Tom Parker and Elvis Presley. Aurum Press Ltd. pp. 340–341.
ISBN 978-1-84513-025-1.
Further reading
•• Dickerson, James L. (2001). "Colonel Tom Parker: The Curious Life of Elvis Presley's Eccentric Manager."
Cooper Square Press.
• Goldman, Albert. (1981) Elvis. London, Allen Lane (Penguin). ISBN 0-7139-1474-2
• Moore, Scotty with James L. Dickerson (1997). "That's Alright, Elvis:The Untold Story of Elvis's First Guitarist
and Manager, Scotty Moore." Schirmer Books/Simon & Schuster.
• Nash, Alanna (2003). The Colonel: The Extraordinary Story of Colonel Tom Parker and Elvis Presley. Simon and
Schuster.
• Vellenga, Dirk with Farren, Mick (1988). Elvis and the Colonel. Dell Publishing, New York ISBN 0-440-20392-9
Colonel Tom Parker
86
External links
• Colonel Tom Parker (http:// www. imdb.com/ name/ nm0662158/) at the Internet Movie Database
• "Colonel" Tom Parker at findagrave.com (http:// www. findagrave.com/ cgi-bin/fg.cgi?page=gr&
GRid=12166& pt=Tom 'Colonel' Parker)
• Interview with Loanne Parker (http:// www. elvis. com. au/ presley/interview_loanne_parker2.shtml)
• Large Col Tom Parker collection , and interviews with co workers (http:/ / www.elvis2001. net)
• Ed Bonja (http:/ / www. EdBonja/ com/ ) – Worked directly for the Colonel as Elvis's official photographer
• Colonel Tom Parker's home (former), 409 Park Ridge Avenue, Temple Terrace, Fl. (http:// virtualglobetrotting.
com/ map/ 44280/ view/ ?service=1/)
Davis Rules
87
Davis Rules
Davis Rules
Genre Sitcom
Created by Danny Jacobson
Norma Safford Vela
Written by Kim C. Friese
Danny Jacobson
Frank Mula
Fredi Towbin
Norma Safford Vela
Directed by John Bowab
Ellen Falcon
James Widdoes
Starring Randy Quaid
Jonathan Winters
Composer(s) Mark Mothersbaugh
Country of origin United States
Language(s) English
No. of seasons 2
No. of episodes 29 (List of episodes)
Production
Executive producer(s) Marcy Carsey
Danny Jacobson
Caryn Mandabach
Tom Werner
Norma Safford Vela
Douglas Wyman
Producer(s) Dale McRaven
Frank Mula
Jon Spector
Fredi Towbin
Camera setup Multi-camera
Running time 22–24 minutes
Broadcast
Original channel ABC (1991)
CBS (1992)
Original run January 27, 1991 – May 13, 1992
Davis Rules is an American sitcom broadcast on ABC in 1991 and on CBS in 1992. The series was produced by
Carsey-Werner Productions.
Davis Rules
88
Synopsis
The series stars Randy Quaid as Dwight Davis, a widowed elementary school principal who is raising his three sons
(Robbie, Charlie, and Ben) with the help of his wacky father Gunny Davis (Jonathan Winters). Winters won an
Emmy for his role as Gunny Davis,
[1]
while Trevor Bullock and Robin Lynn Heath also won Young Artist Awards
for their roles in the series.
[2]
Davis Rules was canceled by ABC after less than one season despite having premiered after Super Bowl XXV. ABC
retained the rights to the series and planned to use it as a midseason replacement. When the series wasn't used in
ABC's lineup, CBS bought the series in November 1991.
[3][4]
CBS retooled the series, adding Bonnie Hunt and Giovanni Ribisi, but canceled it after 16 episodes.
[]
Cast
Actor Role
Randy Quaid Dwight Davis
Jonathan Winters Gunny Davis
Trevor Bullock Robbie Davis
Luke Edwards Charlie Davis
Nathan Watt Ben Davis
Patricia Clarkson Cosmo Yeargin
Bonnie Hunt Gwen Davis
Debra Jo Rupp Ms. Higgins
Giovanni Ribisi Skinner Buckley
Tamayo Otsuki Mrs. Elaine Yamagami
Rigoberto Jimenez Rigo
Episode list
Season 1
Episode # Episode Title Original Airdate
1 "A Man for All Reasons" January 27, 1991
2 "Rules of the Game" January 29, 1991
3 "The Trouble With Women" February 5, 1991
4 "Guys and Dolls" February 12, 1991
5 "Pomahac Day Massacre" February 19, 1991
6 "Yes, I'm The Great Pretender" February 26, 1991
7 "Gimme The Ball" March 5, 1991
8 "Twisted Sister" March 5, 1991
9 "Take This Job and Love It" March 12, 1991
10 "Sign of the Times" March 19, 1991
11 "Habla Espanol?" March 26, 1991
Davis Rules
89
12 "Mission: Improbable" April 2, 1991
13 "Soap" April 9, 1991
Season 2
Episode # Episode Title Original Airdate
1 "They're Writing Songs of Love, But Nun for Me" December 30, 1991
2 "A Father Makes All the Difference" January 1, 1992
3 "Writing a Wrong" January 8, 1992
4 "The Moment of Youth" January 15, 1992
5 "Love at First Sighting (Part 1)" January 22, 1992
6 "Love at First Sighting (Part 2)" January 29, 1992
7 "Gunny's Ex" February 5, 1992
8 "Happy as a Clam" February 26, 1992
9 "Someone to Watch Over Them" March 4, 1992
10 "Bells, Bells, Bells" March 11, 1992
11 "Strike Down the Band" March 18, 1992
12 "Everybody Comes to Nick's" March 25, 1992
13 "A Foggy Day on Puget Sound" April 8, 1992
14 "Ferry Tale" April 22, 1992
15 "Brother Can You Spare a Dime" May 6, 1992
16 "The Girl with Someone Extra" May 13, 1992
Awards and nominations
Year Result Award Category Recipient
1991 Winner Emmy Award Outstanding Supporting Actor in a Comedy Series Jonathan Winters
1992 Nominated Outstanding Individual Achievement in Lighting Direction
(Electronic) for a Comedy Series
Jo Mayer (Lighting designer) (For episode "A
Foggy Day On Puget Sound")
1992 Nominated Young Artist
Award
Best Young Actor Co-starring in a Television Series Rigoberto Jimenez
Nominated Best New Family Television Series -
Won Best Young Actress Guest Starring or Recurring Role in a
TV Series
Robin Lynn Heath
Won Best Young Actor Starring in a New Television Series Trevor Bullock
Davis Rules
90
References
[1] Emmy Database (http:/ / www. emmys. org/ awards/ awardsearch.php)
[2] Young Artists Awards site (http:/ / www. youngartistawards. org/pastnoms13. htm)
[3] Davidson, Casey (1993-02-12). "Super Bowl Bump" (http:/ / www.ew. com/ ew/ article/ 0,,305550,00.html). Entertainment Weekly. .
Retrieved 2008-08-19.
[4] Carter, Bill (1991-11-19). "CBS Buys Show From ABC" (http:/ / query.nytimes. com/ gst/ fullpage.
html?res=9D0CE0D9163FF93AA25752C1A967958260& sec=& spon=). The New York Times. . Retrieved 2008-08-19.
External links
• Davis Rules (http:/ / www. imdb. com/ title/ tt0101078/ ) at the Internet Movie Database
• Davis Rules (http:/ / www. tv. com/ shows/ davis-rules/ ) at TV.com
Days of Thunder
91
Days of Thunder
Days of Thunder
Directed by Tony Scott
Produced by Don Simpson
Jerry Bruckheimer
Screenplay by Robert Towne
Story by Robert Towne
Tom Cruise
Starring Tom Cruise
Robert Duvall
Nicole Kidman
Randy Quaid
Cary Elwes
Michael Rooker
John C. Reilly
Music by Hans Zimmer
Cinematography Ward Russell
Editing by Chris Lebenzon
Billy Weber
Studio Simpson/Bruckheimer
Distributed by Paramount Pictures
Release date(s) •• June 27, 1990
Running time 108 minutes
Country United States
Language English
Budget
US$ 60 million
[1]
Box office $157,920,733
Days of Thunder is a 1990 American auto racing film released by Paramount Pictures, produced by Don Simpson
and Jerry Bruckheimer and directed by Tony Scott. The cast includes Tom Cruise, Nicole Kidman, Robert Duvall,
Randy Quaid, Cary Elwes and Michael Rooker. The film also features appearances by real life NASCAR racers,
such as Rusty Wallace, Neil Bonnett, and Harry Gant. Commentator Dr. Jerry Punch, of ESPN, has a cameo
appearance, as does co-producer Don Simpson.
This is the first of three films to star both Cruise and Kidman (the other two being Far and Away and Eyes Wide
Shut).
Plot
Cole Trickle (Tom Cruise) is a young racer with years of experience in open-wheel racing. He is recruited by car
dealership tycoon Tim Daland (Randy Quaid) to race for his team in the NASCAR Winston Cup Series. Daland also
convinces former crew chief and car builder Harry Hogge (Robert Duvall) to come out of retirement and lead Cole's
pit crew. During his first few races, Cole has difficulty adjusting to the larger NASCAR stock cars and
communicating with his crew while being intimidated on the track by Winston Cup Champion Rowdy Burns
(Michael Rooker); this results in Cole not finishing the races, mostly due to crashes or engine blowouts. After
Days of Thunder
92
discovering that Cole does not understand the common terminology used by NASCAR teams, Harry puts him in a
series of rigorous training. This pays off at the Darlington race, when Cole uses a slingshot maneuver from the
outside line to overtake Rowdy and win his first race.
The rivalry between Cole and Rowdy intensifies throughout the season until tragedy strikes. At the Firecracker 400
in Daytona, both drivers are seriously injured after their cars are destroyed by "The Big One". While recovering from
his injuries in Daytona Beach, Cole develops a romantic relationship with Dr. Claire Lewicki (Nicole Kidman), the
neurosurgeon attending to his health. At the same time, Cole and Rowdy change from bitter rivals to close friends.
As Cole is still undergoing therapy, Daland hires hot shot rookie Russ Wheeler (Cary Elwes) to take over his spot.
Weeks later, Cole returns to active duty, with Daland now fielding two teams – the second car driven by Russ.
Though Cole shows signs of his old self, he finds himself intimidated by his own teammate. Then, at North
Wilkesboro, Russ gets dirty on pit road and spins Cole out to win the race. In retaliation, Cole crashes his car into
Russ's car during the victory lap, resulting in Cole and Harry's team being fired by Daland.
When Rowdy discovers that he has to undergo brain surgery to fix a broken blood vessel, he asks Cole to drive his
car at the Daytona 500. Cole reluctantly agrees and convinces Harry to be his crew chief again. Hours prior to the
race, Harry discovers that the car is leaking oil, so he manages to have Daland provide him a new engine. During the
race, Cole's car suffers a malfunctioning gear shifter after being spun out by Russ, but the combined efforts of his pit
crew, as well as those working for Daland, manage to fix the problem and get him back on the lead lap. This sets the
tone for a final showdown between Cole and Russ. On the final lap, Russ predicts that Cole will attempt his
signature slingshot maneuver from outside, but Cole tricks him with a crossover, overtaking him from the inside to
win his first Daytona 500.
Cole drives into victory lane, where he celebrates with Claire and his pit-crew. As he looks around to see where
Harry is, he spots him sitting alone on a concrete barrier near the pit stop. Cole walks up to Harry and challenges him
to a foot race to victory lane.
Real-life references
While the movie was neither based on a true story, nor a biographical film, the main character Cole Trickle was very
loosely based on the career of Tim Richmond,
[2][3]
and several scenes reenacted or referenced real-life stories and
personalities from NASCAR history.
[2]
The scene where Big John tells Cole and Rowdy they will drive to dinner together is based on an actual meeting Bill
France, Sr. had in the 1980s between Dale Earnhardt and Geoff Bodine.
[2]
In another scene, Trickle is told he can not pit because the crew is too busy eating ice cream. This incident took place
with crew chief Harry Hyde and driver Benny Parsons at the 1987 Southern 500.
[4]
The scene where Cole and Rowdy destroy a pair of rental cars by racing them through the city streets loosely
referenced a real-life account. Joe Weatherly and Curtis Turner were known to rent cars, race, and crash them with
abandon.
[5][6]
Days of Thunder
93
Cast
#46 City Chevrolet used by Cole Trickle.
• Tom Cruise as Cole Trickle, a young race car driver
out to make a name for himself in NASCAR. The
character was patterned after the late Tim
Richmond, while his name is a nod to veteran racer
Dick Trickle.
[7][8]
• Nicole Kidman as Dr. Claire Lewicki, a
neurosurgeon who develops a relationship with
Cole.
• Robert Duvall as Harry Hogge, Cole's crew chief
(patterned after Harry Hyde).
• Michael Rooker as Rowdy Burns, the current Winston Cup Champion and Cole's first rival. He drives the #51
Exxon Chevrolet (patterned after Dale Earnhardt).
• Cary Elwes as Russ Wheeler, a rookie driver who fills in for Cole, but later on becomes his teammate and bitter
rival.
[9]
He drives the #18 Hardee's Chevrolet (patterned after Rusty Wallace).
• Randy Quaid as Tim Daland, a wealthy car dealership and race team owner who first recruits Cole into NASCAR
(patterned after Rick Hendrick).
• Fred Thompson as Big John, president of NASCAR (patterned after "Big Bill" France).
• John C. Reilly as Buck Bretherton, Cole's car chief. Reilly also starred in Talladega Nights.
• J. C. Quinn as Waddell, Rowdy's crew chief. The name is likely a reference to Waddell Wilson.
• Caroline Williams as Jeannie Burns, Rowdy's wife.
• Leilani Sarelle as a Female Highway Patrol Officer who is actually a stripper hired by Harry as a prank on Cole.
• Chris Ellis as Harlem Hoogerhyde, Cole's gas man (patterned after Danny "Chocolate" Myers).
• Don Simpson in a cameo as Aldo Bennedetti (patterned after Mario Andretti).
Cameos as themselves
•• Richard Petty
•• Rusty Wallace
•• Neil Bonnett
•• Harry Gant
•• Dr. Jerry Punch
Production
The cars used as those of Cole Trickle, Rowdy Burns and Russ Wheeler were provided by Hendrick Motorsports,
with racers Greg Sacks, Bobby Hamilton and Hut Stricklin as the stunt drivers. These cars actually raced during the
1989 Winston Cup Season at Phoenix, where stunt driver Bobby Hamilton officially qualified 5th and led a lap while
other cars were pitting before retiring from the race, and the 1990 Winston Cup season at Daytona, Darlington. The
cars were officially scored for the Phoenix race in 1989, but were not for the 1990 races, likely because of
Hamilton's strong run the year before.
[10]
Cole's first car in the film is sponsored by City Chevrolet, a real-life car
dealership in Charlotte, North Carolina, owned by Rick Hendrick.
[11]
Principal photography took place in early 1990 in and around Charlotte and Daytona. It was plagued with delays due
to frequent arguments on set between Simpson and Bruckheimer, Scott, and sometimes Towne over how to set up a
shot. Crewmembers sat idle for long hours; some later said they had accumulated enough overtime pay to go on
vacation for a full four months after filming was completed. The completion date was pushed back many times,
finally reaching the end of May, three months later than it had originally been scheduled. At one point, following the
Days of Thunder
94
third revision of the shooting schedule in a single day, the unit production manager, who represents the studio on the
set or location, confronted Simpson and Bruckheimer and was told bluntly that the schedule no longer mattered.
[12]
In Daytona, Simpson and Bruckheimer spent $400,000 to have a vacant storefront in their hotel converted into their
private gym, with a large neon sign reading "Days of Thunder." Simpson also kept a closet full of Donna Karan
dresses to offer the attractive women his assistants found on the beach, and held private parties with friends like
rapper Tone Lōc.
[13]
Towne also played a role in the film's increasing cost by scrapping more barn scenes when he
didn't like either of two barns built to his specifications. The film's original budget of $35 million ($62.3 million in
modern dollars
[14]
) nearby doubled; at that level it would have had to make at least $100 million, a rare gross at that
time, to break even.
[12]
Despite the budget overruns and delays, reportedly it was only after shooting was finished
that the filmmakers discovered they had neglected to film Cole Trickle's car crossing the finish line at Daytona.
[13]
Music
Coverdale at the Monsters of Rock
festival in 1990; during the "hair band"
era
The score for Days of Thunder was composed by Hans Zimmer, with Jeff
Beck making a guest appearance on guitar. This was the first of an on-going
list of films in which Zimmer composed the score for a Jerry Bruckheimer
production.
The song "Last Note of Freedom" was sung by David Coverdale of the band
Whitesnake at the request of Tom Cruise himself. Vocal parts of David
Coverdale were recorded in 1990 in Los Angeles during a day off during the
Slip of the Tongue Liquor and Poker world tour.
[15]
A score album was never released, although a bootleg was later available.
[16]
Release
The film was a financial success grossing 157,920,733.
[17][18]
Home media
The film was more successful on home video.
[19]
It grossed $40,000,000 in
rentals.
[20]
Reception
Critical response
The film received mixed reviews from critics who mostly shrugged off the sometimes over-the-top special effects
and plot in many ways resembling the earlier Bruckheimer, Simpson, Scott and Cruise vehicle Top Gun (some
calling it "Top Gun on wheels" or "Top Gun in Race Cars!"), which had been a huge success four years
earlier.
[21][22]
The film currently holds a rating of 40% on Rotten Tomatoes.
[23]
In a positive review, film critic
Roger Ebert noted:
Days of Thunder is an entertaining example of what we might as well call the Tom Cruise Picture, since it
assembles most of the same elements that worked in Top Gun, The Color of Money and Cocktail (1988 film)
and runs them through the formula once again. Parts of the plot are beginning to wear out their welcome, but
the key ingredients are still effective. They include:
1. The Cruise character, invariably a young and naive but naturally talented kid who could be the best, if ever
he could tame his rambunctious spirit.
Days of Thunder
95
2. The Mentor, an older man who has done it himself and has been there before and knows talent when he sees
it, and who has faith in the kid even when the kid screws up because his free spirit has gotten the best of him.
3. The Superior Woman, usually older, taller and more mature than the Cruise character, who functions as a
Mentor for his spirit, while the male Mentor supervises his craft.
4. The Craft, which the gifted young man must master.
5. The Arena, in which the young man is tested.
6. The Arcana, consisting of the specialized knowledge and lore that the movie knows all about, and we get to
learn.
7. The Trail, a journey to visit the principal places where the masters of the craft test one another.
8. The Proto-Enemy, the bad guy in the opening reels of the movie, who provides the hero with an opponent to
practice on. At first the Cruise character and the Proto-Enemy dislike each other, but eventually through a
baptism of fire they learn to love one another.
9. The Eventual Enemy, a real bad guy who turns up in the closing reels to provide the hero with a test of his
skill, his learning ability, his love, his craft and his knowledge of the Arena and the Arcana.
[24]
In an 1990 Siskel and Ebert special on Cruise, Ebert added one more ingredient to the formula, the "Dying Friend",
referencing how in almost all the Cruise formula films, his friend/colleague had almost ended up sick or dying in the
course of the film to present an emotional challenge for the Cruise character.
Accolades
The film was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Sound (Charles M. Wilborn, Donald O. Mitchell, Rick
Kline and Kevin O'Connell).
[25]
Legacy
Following Scott's death in 2012, film critic Stephen Metcalf argued that the film marked an important turning point
in the history of the American film industry. "The best film he made may well have been Crimson Tide," he wrote in
Slate, "but the most important film he made was Days of Thunder." The excesses of its production and its failure to
equal Top Gun's magnitude of box-office success, he argues, helped end the era that had followed the failure of
Heaven's Gate ten years earlier. The studio's willingness to indulge director Michael Cimino on that film, as other
studios had been doing up to that point, led to a backlash where studios favored producers like Simpson and
Bruckheimer whose films bore far more of their imprint than any director who worked for them. Crimson Tide, made
several years after Days of Thunder, was the critical and commercial success it was, Metcalf says, because after
similar excesses on the producers' part like those that occurred on Thunder directors were allowed to reassert
themselves.
[13]
Video games
Days of Thunder (1990)
In 1990, Mindscape released a video game adaptation of the film for multiple platforms such as the PC, NES and
Amiga. A Game Boy version was released in 1992. The game is currently available for the PlayStation Network and
iOS.
Days of Thunder (2011)
Paramount Digital Entertainment releases a new video game based on the film for the PlayStation 3, Xbox 360,
Microsoft Windows and Mac OS X. The game will include 12 NASCAR sanctioned tracks—including Daytona
Days of Thunder
96
International Speedway and Talladega Superspeedway—and the film characters Cole Trickle, Rowdy Burns, and
Russ Wheeler. The PS3 version, labeled Days of Thunder: NASCAR Edition will have more than 12 select NASCAR
Sprint Cup drivers, including Denny Hamlin, Ryan Newman and Tony Stewart.
References
[1] Citron, Alan; Easton, Nina J. (1990-11-16). "2 of Paramount's Costliest Top Guns Lose Their Jobs" (http:// articles. latimes. com/
1990-11-16/business/ fi-4799_1_top-gun). The Los Angeles Times. . Retrieved 2010-10-24.
[2] "The Summer That Nascar Received Its Close-Up" (http:/ / www. nytimes.com/2010/06/ 27/ sports/ autoracing/27nascar.html?_r=0). AP
(The New York Times). 2010-06-26. . Retrieved 2012-09-27.
[3] Hinton, Ed (2009-08-17). "More than Tim Richmond died in 1989" (http:/ / sports. espn. go.com/ rpm/nascar/ cup/ columns/
story?columnist=hinton_ed&id=4394325). ESPN.com. . Retrieved 2012-09-27.
[4] Parsons, Benny (2009). "NASCAR Scrapbook: NASCAR Legend Benny Parson Reveals Some of His Most Poignant Racing Memories"
(http:// www.circletrack.com/ thehistoryof/1821/ ). Pause that Refreshed (Circle Track Magazine). . Retrieved 2012-09-27.
[5] "Curtis Turner Story Challenges Hollywood" (http:/ / news. google.com/newspapers?nid=1798&dat=19660719&id=UAgfAAAAIBAJ&
sjid=DowEAAAAIBAJ& pg=2860,2161875). Sarasota Journal. 1966-06-19. . Retrieved 2012-09-27.
[6] "Joe Weatherly" (http:// www. taurtoisemotorsports. com/ sixties/ Weatherly.html). 2012-08-00. . Retrieved 2012-07-27.
[7] Rees, Ryan (1990-06-27). "Alan Kulwicki's View From the Cockpit" (http:/ / articles. latimes. com/ 1990-06-27/entertainment/
ca-511_1_alan-kulwicki). The Los Angeles Times. . Retrieved 2010-10-24.
[8] Mathews, Jack (1990-07-07). "Hollywood Knows Fakin', Not Racin'" (http:// articles. latimes. com/ 1990-07-07/entertainment/
ca-293_1_stock-car-racing). The Los Angeles Times. . Retrieved 2010-10-24.
[9] Loud, Lance (1990-01-06). "Going for the 'Glory'" (http:/ /articles. latimes.com/ 1990-01-06/entertainment/ca-372_1). The Los Angeles
Times. . Retrieved 2010-10-24.
[10] Glick, Shav (1990-02-17). "Motor Racing Daytona 500" (http:/ / articles. latimes. com/ 1990-02-17/sports/ sp-563_1_stock-car-racing). The
Los Angeles Times. . Retrieved 2010-10-24.
[11] Citron, Alan (1990-07-17). "Lumina Hopes to Hitch a Ride With Tom Cruise" (http:/ / articles. latimes. com/ 1990-07-17/business/
fi-228_1_chevrolet-lumina). The Los Angeles Times. . Retrieved 2010-10-24.
[12] Brady, Celia (August 1990). "Fast Cars, Fast Women, Slow Producers: Days of Thunder" (http:// books.google.com/
books?id=0OSXeiTCfLAC&pg=PA40). Spy: 40. . Retrieved September 3, 2012.
[13] Metcalf, Stephen (August 24, 2012). "How Days of Thunder Changed Hollywood" (http:// www. slate. com/ articles/ arts/ the_dilettante/
2012/ 08/ tony_scott_s_days_of_thunder_did_it_rescue_hollywood_from_the_grips_of_producers_like_don_simpson_.2. html#comments).
Slate. . Retrieved September 3, 2012.
[14] Staff. Consumer Price Index (estimate) 1800–2012 (http:// www. minneapolisfed.org/ community_education/ teacher/calc/hist1800.cfm).
Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis. Retrieved February 22, 2012.
[15] David Coverdale. (http:// www. whitesnake. com/ index-cover.asp). "It was a personal request from Mr Cruise...& when I discovered the
producer was Trevor Horn, I didn’t hesitate to get involved...I recorded the song in LA during a 2 or 3 day break on the Slip Of The Tongue
US tour...( or the Liquor & Poker Tour...ahem )..."
[16] Days of Thunder (1990) (http:/ / www. hans-zimmer. com/ fr/disco_detail. php?id=22) at Hans-Zimmer.com
[17] Broeske, Pat H. (1990-07-10). "Die Hard 2 Mows Down the Competition" (http:/ / articles. latimes. com/ 1990-07-10/entertainment/
ca-258_1_bruce-willis). The Los Angeles Times. . Retrieved 2010-10-24.
[18] Mathews, Jack (1990-07-02). "Thunder Sputters in Box-Office Race" (http:/ / articles. latimes. com/ 1990-07-02/entertainment/
ca-445_1_top-gun). The Los Angeles Times. . Retrieved 2010-10-24.
[19] Hunt, Dennis (1991-02-21). "VIDEO RENTALS : Three New Players Enter the Top Five" (http:// articles. latimes. com/ 1991-02-21/
entertainment/ca-2415_1_top-rentals). The Los Angeles Times. . Retrieved 2011-01-11.
[20] (http:// www.imdb. com/ title/ tt0099371/business) at IMDB
[21] Maslin, Janet (1990-06-27). "Review/Film; Tom Cruise and Cars, and a Lot of Them" (http:/ / www. nytimes. com/ 1990/ 06/ 27/ movies/
review-film-tom-cruise-and-cars-and-a-lot-of-them.html). The New York Times. . Retrieved 2010-10-24.
[22] Maslin, Janet (1990-06-27). "Review/Film; Tom Cruise and Cars, and a Lot of Them" (http:// www. nytimes. com/ 1990/ 06/ 27/ movies/
review-film-tom-cruise-and-cars-and-a-lot-of-them.html?scp=18& sq=days of thunder&st=cse). The New York Times. . Retrieved
2010-11-08.
[23] Rotten Tomatoes – Days of Thunder (http:/ / www. rottentomatoes.com/ m/ days_of_thunder/ )
[24] "Days Of Thunder" (http:/ / rogerebert.suntimes. com/ apps/ pbcs. dll/ article?AID=/19900627/ REVIEWS/6270301/ 1023). Chicago
Sun-Times. .
[25] "The 63rd Academy Awards (1991) Nominees and Winners" (http:/ / www. oscars. org/awards/ academyawards/ legacy/ ceremony/
63rd-winners. html). oscars.org. . Retrieved 2011-10-20.
Days of Thunder
97
External links
• Days of Thunder (http:/ / www. imdb.com/ title/ tt0099371/ ) at the Internet Movie Database
• Days of Thunder (http:/ / www. allrovi.com/ movies/ movie/ v12662) at AllRovi
• Days of Thunder (http:/ / www. rottentomatoes.com/ m/ days_of_thunder/) at Rotten Tomatoes
• Days of Thunder (http:/ / www. boxofficemojo.com/ movies/ ?id=daysofthunder.htm) at Box Office Mojo
• Days of Thunder (http:/ / www. metacritic.com/ movie/ daysofthunder) at Metacritic
• Movie stills (http:/ / film.virtual-history.com/ film.php?filmid=195)
Dead Solid Perfect
98
Dead Solid Perfect
Dead Solid Perfect
Directed by Bobby Roth
Produced by Bill Badalato
Written by Dan Jenkins
(novel)
Bobby Roth
Starring Randy Quaid
Kathryn Harrold
Jack Warden
Corinne Bohrer
Brett Cullen
Music by Tangerine Dream
Cinematography Tim Suhrstedt
Studio HBO
Distributed by HBO
Release date(s) December 18, 1988
Running time 93 minutes
Country United States
Language English
Dead Solid Perfect is a 1988 American film following the life of a professional golfer on the PGA Tour. It was
produced by HBO films and based on the novel of the same name by Dan Jenkins.
Instrumental music for the soundtrack was composed and performed by Tangerine Dream
Cast
• Randy Quaid ... Kenny Lee
• Kathryn Harrold ... Beverly T. Lee
• Jack Warden ... Hubert 'Bad Hair' Wimberly
• Corinne Bohrer ... Janie Rimmer
• Brett Cullen ... Donny Smithern
• Larry Riley ... Spec
• DeLane Matthews ... Katie Beth Smithern
• John M. Jackson ... Grover Scomer
• Bibi Besch ... Rita
• Billy Akin ... Donny's Caddy
• Linda Dona ... Blonde
• John Durbin ... Man
• Kate Finlayson ... Writer
• Bob Harrison ... Himself
• Ron Hayes ... Official
• Peter Jacobsen ... Himself
• Dixie K. Wade ... Nedra
Dead Solid Perfect
99
• Michael Laskin ... Associate Producer
• Frank Li'Bay ... Walter
• Burr Middleton ... 1st Official
• Lindy Miller ... Himself
• Don Morrow ... Golf Commentator
• Richardson Morse ... 2nd Official
• Rob Nilsson ... Writer #2
• Mac O'Grady ... Himself
• Keith Olbermann ... Golf Commentator
• Annie O'Neill ... Vera
• Dan Priest ... Official
• Kate Rodger ... Shapely Adorable (as Kathleen Rodger)
• R.J. Rudolph ... Dr. Bernie Glatzer (as Dick Rudolph)
• Henry G. Sanders ... TV Director
• David Schickele ... Bartender
• Julie Simone ... Fan
• Bill Smillie ... Official
• Ann Walker ... Waitress
• Chris Adamec ... Overzealous fan (uncredited)
• James Andrew Clark ... Spectator (uncredited)
• Riley Roden ... Teenage boy (uncredited)
• Dan Jenkins... Hotel Guest (uncredited cameo)
External links
• Dead Solid Perfect
[1]
at the Internet Movie Database
References
[1] http:/ / www.imdb. com/ title/ tt0094965/
Dennis Quaid
100
Dennis Quaid
Dennis Quaid
Quaid at the 2012 Toronto International Film Festival
Born Dennis William Quaid
April 9, 1954
Houston, Texas, U.S.
Occupation Actor
Years active 1975–present
Spouse(s) • P.J. Soles (m. 1978 – 1983)
• Meg Ryan (m. 1991 – 2001)
• Kimberly Buffington (m. 2004)
Children Jack Henry Quaid
Thomas Boone Quaid
Zoe Grace Quaid
Relatives Randy Quaid (brother)
Dennis William Quaid (born April 9, 1954) is an American actor known for his comedic and dramatic roles. First
gaining widespread attention in the 1980s, his career rebounded in the 1990s after he overcame an addiction to drugs
and an eating disorder. Some of his notable credits include Breaking Away, The Long Riders, The Right Stuff, Enemy
Mine, Great Balls of Fire!, The Big Easy, Far from Heaven, The Rookie, The Day After Tomorrow, Traffic, Vantage
Point, Footloose, Frequency, Wyatt Earp, The Parent Trap, Soul Surfer and Innerspace.
Early life
Quaid was born in Houston, Texas, the son of Juanita Bonniedale "Nita" (née Jordan), a real estate agent, and
William Rudy Quaid (November 21, 1923 – February 8, 1987), an electrician
[1]
and a third cousin of performer
Gene Autry. He is the younger brother of actor Randy Quaid. The Quaid brothers grew up in Bellaire, Texas, which
is a small city surrounded by Houston, and in southwest Houston. Quaid has English, Irish, and Cajun (French)
ancestry.
[2]
He attended Paul W. Horn Elementary School in Bellaire, and Pershing Middle School in Houston. He
studied Mandarin and dance at Bellaire High School in Bellaire, Texas, and later in college, at the University of
Houston, under drama coach Cecil Pickett, who had previously taught at Bellaire High and whose daughter is actress
Cindy Pickett. It was during his time at Bellaire High School that he developed the nickname 'Dennis Quand', (a
Dennis Quaid
101
combination of 'Quaid' and 'Bond') in relation to his obsession with the 007 film character and was regularly referred
to by this name.
Career
After his brother, Randy Quaid, was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor for his role in The
Last Detail (1973), Quaid dropped out of the University of Houston before graduating and moved to Los Angeles to
pursue an acting career of his own.
[2]
He initially had trouble finding work but began to gain notice when he
appeared in Breaking Away (1979) and earned good reviews for his role in The Right Stuff (1983).
[2]
Known for his grin,
[3]
Quaid has appeared in both comedic and dramatic roles.
[2]
Quaid had starring roles in the
films Enemy Mine (1985) and Innerspace (1987). He also achieved acclaim for his portrayal of Jerry Lee Lewis in
Great Balls of Fire! (1989).
[2]
In 1989, he also appeared throughout the Bonnie Raitt music video for the song
"Thing Called Love."
[4]
Quaid's career lost steam in the early 1990s, after he fought anorexia nervosa and kicked a cocaine addiction.
[2]
He
continued to garner positive reviews in a variety of films, however, such as Doc Holliday in Wyatt Earp (1994).
[2]
Quaid was also the guest star of a season 2 episode of Muppets Tonight (1997). He starred in the remake of The
Parent Trap (1998), playing the part of the twins' father, and as an aging pro football quarterback in Oliver Stone's
Any Given Sunday (1999). Some of Quaid's more recent film credits include Frequency (2000), The Rookie (2002),
Far from Heaven (2002), Cold Creek Manor (2003), The Flight of the Phoenix (2004), In Good Company (2004),
The Day After Tomorrow (2004), Yours, Mine and Ours (2005), Vantage Point (2008), G.I. Joe: The Rise of Cobra
(2009), and Pandorum (2009).
In 2009, Quaid guest-starred in an episode of SpongeBob SquarePants, playing Mr. Krabs' grandfather, Captain
Redbeard.
He portrayed U.S. President Bill Clinton, alongside Michael Sheen as Tony Blair and Hope Davis as Hillary Clinton,
in the 2010 film The Special Relationship.
Awards
Quaid at the 2009 Texas Film Hall of Fame
Awards
For his role in Far from Heaven (2002) he won the New York Film
Critics Circle Award for Best Supporting Actor, the Chicago Film
Critics Association Award for Best Supporting Actor, the Online Film
Critics Society Award for Best Supporting Actor and the Independent
Spirit Award for Best Supporting Male. He received nominations for
Best Supporting Actor from the Golden Globe Awards, the Phoenix
Film Critics Society Awards and the Screen Actors Guild Awards.
Quaid was also honored with a Distinguished Alumni Award from his
alma mater, the University of Houston, in April 2012.
Personal life
Dennis Quaid
102
Relationships and children
Quaid golfing in 2006
Quaid has been married three times and has three children.
Quaid and his first wife, actress P. J. Soles, were married on November
25, 1978. The couple were divorced on January 23, 1983.
On February 14, 1991, Quaid married his second wife, actress Meg
Ryan. Quaid and Ryan have a son, Jack Henry (born April 24, 1992).
They were divorced on July 16, 2001. In a 2008 interview with Insight,
Ryan stated, "Dennis was not faithful to me for a very long time, and
that was very painful. I found out more about that after I was
divorced."
[5]
Quaid dated Shanna Moakler in 2001. They were together when she
was approached by Playboy, and they discussed it before she posed
nude in the magazine.
[6]
The relationship lasted for eight months.
[7]
Quaid married his third wife, Texas real-estate agent Kimberly
Buffington, on July 4, 2004 at his ranch in Paradise Valley,
Montana.
[8]
Together they have fraternal twins, Thomas Boone and
Zoe Grace, born via gestational carrier on November 8, 2007 in Santa Monica, California.
[9][10]
On November 18, 2007, hospital staff mistakenly gave Quaid's ten-day-old twins a dosage of heparin 1,000 times the
common dosage for infants.
[11][12]
Their attorney said the newborns will "be fine now," but Quaid filed a lawsuit
against the drug manufacturer, Baxter Healthcare, claiming that packaging for the two doses of heparin are not
different enough.
[13]
In May 2008, the Quaids testified before the United States House Committee on Oversight and
Government Reform, asking U.S. Congress not to preempt the right to sue drug manufacturers for negligence under
state law.
[14]
Buffington filed for divorce from Quaid in March 2012. According to the divorce petition, the marriage had "become
insupportable because of discord or conflict of personalities."
[15]
Buffington's attorney then withdrew the divorce
papers on April 26, 2012.
[16]
In the summer of 2012, Quaid and Buffington moved to California.
[17]
In October
2012, Quaid and Buffington again decided to separate, and Buffington filed for legal separation, seeking joint legal
and sole physical custody of the twins.
[18]
After waiting to establish the required six months of residency in
California, Quaid filed for divorce on November 30, 2012, asking for joint legal and physical custody of the children
and offering to pay spousal support to Buffington.
[17]
Interests
Quaid was raised in the Baptist faith.
[19][20]
In addition to acting, Quaid is a musician and plays with his band, the Sharks. Quaid also has a pilot's license and is a
five-handicap golfer. In 2005, he was named as the top golfer among the "Hollywood set" by Golf Digest.
After the filming of The Express: The Ernie Davis Story, Quaid went to Cleveland Browns Stadium to dedicate
Davis's jersey.
Substance use
There have been extensive stories about Quaid's past abuse of cocaine. In a candid 2002 interview with Larry King
on his talk show, after King asked about his motives for using drugs, Quaid responded, "Well, you got to put it in
context. Back in the late '60s, early '70s. That was back during the time where, you know, drugs were going to
expand our minds and everybody was experimenting and everything. We were really getting high, we didn't know it.
And cocaine at that time was considered harmless. You know. I remember magazine articles in 'People' Magazine of
Dennis Quaid
103
doctors saying, it is not addicting. It is just—alcohol is worse. So I think we all fell into that. But that's not the way it
was."
When asked if he believed he had ever been addicted to the drug, he responded, "It was a gradual thing. But it got to
the point where I couldn't have any fun unless I had it. Which is a bad place to be." Later in the interview he said,
"But I saw myself being dead in about five years if I didn't stop."
[21]
In April 2011, while promoting his film, Soul Surfer, Quaid was very candid when it came to questions regarding his
past drug abuse. He blamed his sudden thrust into the Hollywood scene for his trouble with cocaine. He said,
"Coming from where I came from - lower-middle-class life, from Houston into Hollywood - and all of a sudden this
success starts happening to you, I just didn't know how to handle that." Quaid also made bold accusations about the
American film industry in the 1970s, claiming, "Cocaine was even in the budgets of movies, thinly disguised.... It
was petty cash, you know? It was supplied, basically, on movie sets because everyone was doing it." On his
addiction, Quaid said, "I'd wake up, snort a line, and swear I wasn't going to do it again that day ... but then four
o'clock rolled around, and I'd be right back down the same road like a little squirrel on one of those treadmills."
[22]
In October 2009, Dennis Quaid narrowly avoided being arrested for DUI, when a police officer managed to persuade
him to get out of his car and get a cab.
[23]
Charities
Quaid lends his name to the annual "Dennis Quaid Charity Weekend" (formerly the "Jiffy Lube/Dennis Quaid
Charity Classic") in Austin. The golf tournament attracts numerous celebrities with the proceeds split among local
children's charities. He is a member of the Bel-Air Country Club in Bel-Air, Los Angeles, California, and tries to
stay at homes on private courses when he is on the road.
Quaid works with the International Hospital for Children in New Orleans. He makes trips to Central America to help
build medical clinics and transport sick children back to the U.S. for treatment they cannot get locally.
Filmography
Year Film Role Notes
1975 Crazy Mama Bellhop (uncredited)
1977 I Never Promised You a Rose
Garden
Shark, Baseball Pitcher
1977 September 30, 1955 Frank
1978 Our Winning Season Paul Morelli
1978 The Seniors Alan
1979 Breaking Away Mike
1980 The Long Riders Ed Miller
1980 Gorp Mad Grossman
1981 All Night Long Freddie Dupler
1981 Bill Barry Morrow
1981 Caveman Lar
1981 The Night the Lights Went
Out in Georgia
Travis Child
1981 Stripes Extra at Graduation
Ceremony
(uncredited)
1983 Tough Enough Art Long
Dennis Quaid
104
1983 Jaws 3-D Michael 'Mike' Brody
1983 The Right Stuff Gordon Cooper
1984 Dreamscape Alex Gardner
1985 Enemy Mine Willis Davidge
1987 The Big Easy Det. Remy McSwain Independent Spirit Award for Best Lead Male
Valladolid International Film Festival Award for Best Actor
1987 Innerspace Lt. Tuck Pendleton
1987 Suspect Eddie Sanger
1988 D.O.A. Dexter Cornell
1988 Everybody's All-American Gavin Grey
1989 Great Balls of Fire! Jerry Lee Lewis
1990 Come See the Paradise Jack McGurn
1990 Postcards from the Edge Jack Faulkner
1993 Wilder Napalm Wallace Foudroyant/Biff
the Clown
1993 Undercover Blues Jefferson 'Jeff' Blue
1993 Flesh and Bone Arlis Sweeney
1994 A Century of Cinema Himself Documentary
1994 Wyatt Earp Doc Holliday
1995 Something to Talk About Eddie Bichon
1996 Dragonheart Bowen
1997 Gang Related Joe Doe/William
1997 Switchback Frank LaCrosse
1998 Savior Joshua Rose/Guy
1998 The Parent Trap Nick Parker
1998 Playing by Heart Hugh
1999 Any Given Sunday Jack 'Cap' Rooney
2000 Frequency Frank Sullivan Nominated — Blockbuster Entertainment Award for Favorite Actor – Suspense
Nominated — Saturn Award for Best Supporting Actor
2000 Traffic Arnie Metzger Screen Actors Guild Award for Outstanding Performance by a Cast in a Motion
Picture
2001 Dinner with Friends Gabe
2002 The Rookie Jim Morris
2002 Far from Heaven Frank Whitaker Chicago Film Critics Association Award for Best Supporting Actor
Independent Spirit Award for Best Supporting Male
New York Film Critics Circle Award for Best Supporting Actor
Online Film Critics Society Award for Best Supporting Actor
Nominated — Golden Globe Award for Best Supporting Actor – Motion
Picture
Nominated — Phoenix Film Critics Society Award for Best Supporting Actor
Nominated — Satellite Award for Best Supporting Actor - Motion Picture
Nominated — Screen Actors Guild Award for Outstanding Performance by a
Male Actor in a Supporting Role
2003 Cold Creek Manor Cooper Tilson
Dennis Quaid
105
2004 The Alamo Sam Houston
2004 The Day After Tomorrow Jack Hall
2004 In Good Company Dan Foreman
2004 Flight of the Phoenix Frank Towns
2005 Yours, Mine and Ours Frank Beardsley
2006 American Dreamz President Joseph Staton
2007 Battle for Terra Roven Voice role
2008 Vantage Point Thomas Barnes
2008 Smart People Lawrence Wetherhold
2008 The Express Ben Schwartzwalder
2009 Horsemen Aidan Breslin
2009 G.I. Joe: The Rise of Cobra General Hawk
2009 Pandorum Payton
2010 Legion Bob Hanson
2010 The Special Relationship Bill Clinton
Nominated — Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Lead Actor –
Miniseries or a Movie
[24]
Nominated — Golden Globe Award for Best Actor – Miniseries or Television
Film
Nominated—Screen Actors Guild Award for Outstanding Performance by a
Male Actor in a Miniseries or Television Movie
2011 Soul Surfer Tom Hamilton
2011 Footloose Rev. Shaw Moore
2012 Beneath the Darkness Vaughn Ely
2012 What to Expect When You're
Expecting
Ramsey
2012 The Words Clay Hammond
2012 Playing for Keeps Carl
2012 At Any Price Henry Whipple
2013 Movie 43 Charlie
Television
• Vegas as Sheriff Ralph Lamb (2012–present, also executive producer)
References
[1] "Dennis Quaid Biography (1954–)" (http:// www.filmreference.com/ film/ 22/ Dennis-Quaid.html). FilmReference.com. . Retrieved
September 3, 2011.
[2] Stated in interview at Inside the Actors Studio.
[3] Lyman, Rick (November 14, 2002). "Dennis Quaid's Second Reel: The Comeback" (http:/ /query.nytimes.com/ gst/ fullpage.
html?res=9F04E1DB1F31F937A25752C1A9649C8B63). New York Times (New York). ISSN 0362-4331. . Retrieved July 29, 2010.
[4] Bonnie Raitt - "Thing Called Love" music video on YouTube (official VEVO version) http:/ / www. youtube.com/ watch?v=krF6LpUXODc
[5] "Meg Ryan says Dennis Quaid cheated on her" (http:// today.msnbc. msn. com/ id/ 26859077/ ns/ today-entertainment). MSN. .
[6] "Shanna Moakler" (http:// telepixtvcgi. warnerbros.com/ reframe.html?http:/ / telepixtvcgi.warnerbros.com/ dailynews/ extra/10_01/
10_26b.html). Extra TV. 2001-10-26. . Retrieved 2007-04-02.
Dennis Quaid
106
[7] "Shanna Moakler is Devastated over Split" (http:/ / www.celebspin. com/ shanna-moakler-is-devastated-over-split/). CelebSpin. 2006-08-11.
. Retrieved 2007-05-08.
[8] Keeps, David A. (April 2006). "Dennis Quaid" (http:/ /books. google.com/ books?id=JscDAAAAMBAJ& pg=PA72&lpg=PA72&
dq=Dennis+ Quaid+montana& source=bl& ots=SdrQT4gJBK& sig=dF_19QnZhvb7qe5nPQKOfnQo6wc&hl=en&
ei=76M-TuG6C_OBsgLPzJ3FBw& sa=X& oi=book_result& ct=result& resnum=4& ved=0CCAQ6AEwAzgK#v=onepage& q=Dennis
Quaid montana& f=false). Best Life (Emmaus, PA) III (3): 22–25. . Retrieved August 7, 2011.
[9] "Dennis & Kimberly Quaid Welcome a Boy & Girl" (http:// www. people.com/ people/ article/0,,20159254,00.html). People. November 8,
2007. . Retrieved September 20, 2010.
[10] Haldeman, Peter (November 2008). "Dennis Quaid" (http:// www. architecturaldigest. com/ homes/ homes/ 2008/ 11/ quaid_article).
Architectural Digest. . Retrieved September 3, 2011.
[11] "Dennis Quaid's Newborn Twins Fighting for Life" (http:// www. foxnews.com/ story/ 0,2933,312357,00.html). Fox News Channel.
November 21, 2007. . Retrieved September 20, 2010.
[12] Ornstein, Charles; Gorman, Anna (November 21, 2007). "Possible medical mix-up for twins" (http:/ / articles. latimes. com/ 2007/ nov/ 21/
local/ me-twins21). Los Angeles Times. . Retrieved July 19, 2011.
[13] Dennis Quaid and wife sue drug maker (http:// www. usatoday.com/ life/ people/ 2007-12-04-quaid-lawsuit_N.htm).
[14] Quaid, Dennis; Quaid, Kimberly (May 14, 2008). "Testimony of Dennis Quaid and Kimberly Quaid Before the Committee on Oversight and
Government Reform of the United States House of Representatives" (http:/ / www. reform.democrats. house. gov/ documents/
20080514103204. pdf) (PDF). pp. 1–7. Archived from the original (http:// oversight.house.gov/ documents/ 20080514103204.pdf) on Wed,
14 May 2008 14:32:04 GMT. . Retrieved June 10, 2010.
[15] "Dennis Quaid's Wife Files for Divorce: Report" (http:/ / www. people. com/ people/ article/0,,20577281,00.html). People. March 9, 2012.
.
[16] "Dennis Quaid's Wife Withdraws Divorce Papers" (http:/ /www. people.com/ people/ article/ 0,,20593003,00.html). People. May 4, 2012.
.
[17] "Dennis Quaid Files to Divorce Wife Kimberly Buffington-Quaid" (http:// www. usmagazine. com/ celebrity-news/news/
dennis-quaid-files-to-divorce-wife-kimberly-2012112). Us Weekly. . Retrieved 13 December 2012.
[18] "Dennis Quaid's Wife Files for Separation Five Months After Pulling Plug on Divorce" (http:/ / www. eonline.com/ news/ 355575/
dennis-quaid-s-wife-files-for-separation-five-months-after-pulling-plug-on-divorce). E News. . Retrieved 19 October 2012.
[19] 'It's All God': Interview with Dennis Quaid (http:/ / www. beliefnet. com/ story/178/ story_17846_1.html)
[20] Peter T. Chattaway (November 21, 2005). "Mr. Versatile 'Christianity Today'" (http:/ / www. christianitytoday.com/ ct/ movies/ interviews/
2005/ dennisquaid. html). Christianitytoday.com. . Retrieved September 20, 2010.
[21] "CNN.com – Transcripts" (http:/ / transcripts. cnn. com/ TRANSCRIPTS/ 0203/ 12/ lkl. 00.html). Transcripts.cnn.com. March 12, 2002. .
Retrieved September 20, 2010.
[22] Gracely, Joe (April 11, 2011). "Dennis Quaid: 'Being addicted to cocaine' was 'my greatest mistake'" (http:/ /www. nydailynews. com/
gossip/ 2011/ 04/ 11/ 2011-04-11_dennis_quaid_cocaine_addiction_was_my_greatest_mistake_soul_surfer_star_opens_up.html). New York:
NYDailyNews. .
[23] "Dennis Quaid dodges DUI by taking cab" (http:// www. nydailynews.com/ gossip/ 2009/ 10/ 23/
2009-10-23_best_of_the_rest_dennis_quaid_dodges_dui_by_taking_cab.html). Daily News (New York). October 25, 2009. . Retrieved
October 22, 2010.
[24] Dennis Quaid Emmy Nominated (http:// www. emmys. com/ celebrities/ dennis-quaid)
Further reading
• Silver, Murray, 2005. When Elvis Meets the Dalai Lama, (Bonaventure Books, Savannah), in which the author
describes Quaid's participation in the film Great Balls of Fire.
External links
• Dennis Quaid (http:/ / www. imdb.com/ name/ nm598/ ) at the Internet Movie Database
• Dennis Quaid (http:/ / www. allrovi.com/ name/ p58161) at AllRovi
• Dennis Quaid at Emmys.com (http:/ / www. emmys.com/ celebrities/ dennis-quaid)
Elvis (TV miniseries)
107
Elvis (TV miniseries)
Elvis
Genre Biography, drama
Directed by James Steven Sadwith
Produced by Judy Cairo
Written by Patrick Sheane Duncan
Starring Jonathan Rhys Meyers
Rose McGowan
Randy Quaid
Tim Guinee
Camryn Manheim
Robert Patrick
Music by Steve Dorff
Editing by Sam Patterson
Katina Zinner
Country United States
Language English
Original channel CBS
Original airing May 8, 2005
Running time 173 minutes
Elvis is a 2005 biographical CBS mini-series written by Patrick Sheane Duncan and directed by James Steven
Sadwith. It chronicles the rise of American music icon Elvis Presley from his high school years to his international
superstardom.
The cast includes Irish actor Jonathan Rhys Meyers as Elvis, Rose McGowan as Ann-Margret, Randy Quaid as
"Colonel" Tom Parker, Camryn Manheim as Gladys Presley, Robert Patrick as Vernon Presley, Tim Guinee as Sam
Phillips, Jack Noseworthy as Steve Binder, Antonia Bernath as Priscilla Presley, Stuart Greer as Captain Beaulieu,
Clay Steakley as Bill Black, Mark Adam as Scotty Moore, John Boyd West as Red West and Randy McDowell as
Gene Smith.
Jonathan Rhys Meyers won a Golden Globe for his performance as Elvis Presley.
The mini-series is available on a region-free DVD. The DVD was made available August 14, 2007, the title of the
series was changed to Elvis: The Early Years.
Elvis (TV miniseries)
108
Awards and nominations
•• Emmy Award
•• Outstanding Miniseries (nominee)
•• Outstanding Lead Actor in a Miniseries or Movie (Jonathan Rhys Meyers, nominee)
•• Outstanding Supporting Actor in a Miniseries or Movie (Randy Quaid, nominee)
•• Outstanding Supporting Actress in a Miniseries or Movie (Camryn Manheim, nominee)
•• Outstanding Casting for a Miniseries, Movie, or Special (nominee)
•• Outstanding Costumes for a Miniseries, Movie, or Special (nominee)
•• Golden Globe Award
• Best Actor - Miniseries or TV Film (Jonathan Rhys Meyers, winner)
•• Best Supporting Actor - (Mini)Series or TV Film (Randy Quaid, nominee)
•• Best Supporting Actress - (Mini)Series or TV Film (Camryn Manheim, nominee)
• Directors Guild of America Award
•• Outstanding Directorial Achievement in Movies for Television (nominee)
•• Satellite Award
• Outstanding Miniseries (winner)
• Outstanding Actor - Mini-series or TV Film (Jonathan Rhys Meyers, winner)
• Outstanding Supporting Actor - (Mini)Series or TV Film (Randy Quaid, winner)
•• Outstanding Supporting Actress - (Mini)Series or TV Film (Camryn Manheim, nominee)
•• Costume Designers Guild
• Excellence in Costume Design - Miniseries or TV Film (Eduardo Castro, winner)
External links
• Official website
[1]
with very limited information
• Elvis
[2]
at the Internet Movie Database
References
[1] http:/ / www.cbs. com/ specials/ elvis/
[2] http:/ / www.imdb. com/ title/ tt0437714/
Foxes (film)
109
Foxes (film)
Foxes
Theatrical release poster
Directed by Adrian Lyne
Produced by Gerald Ayres
David Puttnam
Written by Gerald Ayres
Starring Jodie Foster
Scott Baio
Sally Kellerman
Randy Quaid
Cherie Currie
Music by Giorgio Moroder
Cinematography Leon Bijou
Michael Seresin
Editing by James Coblentz
Studio Polygram Pictures
Casablanca Records & Filmworks
Distributed by United Artists (1980, original) MGM (2003, DVD)
Release date(s) February 29, 1980
Running time 106 minutes
Country United States
Language English
Box office $7.4 million
Foxes is a 1980 American drama film directed by Adrian Lyne and written by Gerald Ayres. The film stars Jodie
Foster, Scott Baio, Sally Kellerman, Randy Quaid, and Cherie Currie. The original music score is composed by
Giorgio Moroder, and features the song On The Radio, sung by Donna Summer.
The film was generally ignored at the box office when it was first released in February 1980. At the time of its
release the film received a positive review from prominent film critic Roger Ebert, who stated, "The movie's a rare
attempt to provide a portrait of the way teen-agers really do live today in some suburban cultures."
[1]
It was also one
of Jodie Foster's last major roles before she took a four-year hiatus from acting to attend Yale University. Foxes was
Lyne's film debut as a director. He went on to direct hits such as Flashdance, 9½ Weeks and Fatal Attraction.
Plot
A group of four teenage girls in the San Fernando Valley during the late 1970s have the usual problems. Deirdre
(Kandice Stroh) is a disco queen who is fascinated by her sexuality, likes boys and has many boyfriend troubles.
Madge (Marilyn Kagan) is unhappily overweight and angry that she is a virgin. Her parents are overprotective, and
she has an annoying younger sister. Annie (Cherie Currie) is a teenage runaway who drinks and pops pills, and runs
away from her abusive father, a policeman. Jeanie (Jodie Foster) has to take care of them, is fighting with her
divorced mother, and is yearning for a closer relationship with her distant father, a tour manager for the rock band
Angel. It is implied that her mother had her when just a teenager herself.
Foxes (film)
110
The girls believe school is a waste of time, their boyfriends are immature, and that they are alienated from the adults
in their lives. All four seem immersed in the decadence of the late 1970s. (The adults in the film seem to be caught
up in the craziness of the disco era as well.) The only way for them to loosen up and forget the bad things happening
in their lives is to party and have fun. Annie is the least responsible, while Jeanie is ready to grow up and wants to
stop acting like a child. Jeanie is most worried about Annie and continually takes risks to try to keep Annie clean and
safe. Annie's unstable behavior keeps everyone on edge, and finally leads to her death in a car wreck.
Annie's death brings changes for the rest of the girls. Madge marries Jay (Randy Quaid), an older man who
deflowered her, Deirdre no longer acts boy-crazy, and Jeannie graduates from high school and is about to head off to
college. After Madge and Jay's wedding, Jeannie visits Annie's grave and smokes a cigarette. With a smile, she
muses that Annie wanted to be buried under a pear tree, "not in a box or anything", so that each year her friends
could come by, have a pear and say, "Annie's tastin' good this year, huh?"
Cast
• Jodie Foster as Jeanie
• Cherie Currie as Annie
• Marilyn Kagan as Madge
• Kandice Stroh as Deirdre
• Scott Baio as Brad
• Sally Kellerman as Mary
• Randy Quaid as Jay
• Lois Smith as Mrs. Axman
• Laura Dern as Debbie
• Robert Romanus as Scott
DVD
Foxes was released in a Region 1 DVD by MGM August 5, 2003.
Soundtrack
See Foxes (soundtrack).
Reception
Nominations
•• Young Artist Awards
Nominee: Best Young Actress Starring in a Motion Picture - Jodie Foster
Notes
[1] Roger Ebert's review of Foxes (http:// rogerebert.suntimes. com/ apps/ pbcs. dll/ article?AID=/19800101/ REVIEWS/1010315/ 1023)
External links
• Foxes (http:/ / www. imdb.com/ title/ tt0080756/ ) at the Internet Movie Database
• Foxes (http:/ / tcmdb.com/ title/ title.jsp?stid=22926) at the TCM Movie Database
• Foxes (http:/ / www. allrovi.com/ movies/ movie/ v18378) at AllRovi
• Foxes (http:/ / www. rottentomatoes.com/ m/ foxes/ ) at Rotten Tomatoes
Frank McKlusky, C.I.
111
Frank McKlusky, C.I.
Frank McKlusky, C.I.
Directed by Arlene Sanford
Produced by Robert Simonds
Screenplay by Mark Perez
Story by Dave Sheridan
Mark Perez
Starring Dave Sheridan
Cameron Richardson
Randy Quaid
Dolly Parton
Music by Randy Edelman
Cinematography Tim Suhrstedt
Jeffrey Greeley
Editing by Alan Cody
Studio Robert Simonds Productions
Distributed by Touchstone Pictures
Release date(s) •• April 26, 2002
Running time 90 minutes
Country United States
Language English
Budget $18 million
Frank McKlusky, C.I. is a 2002 comedy film written by Dave Sheridan and Mark Perez, and directed by Arlene
Sanford. The film stars Sheridan in the titular role
Plot
Frank McKlusky is an insurance claims investigator who has been zealously safety conscious since witnessing a
horrible motorcycle stunt gone awry in his childhood, an accident that left his father comatose. Frank still lives at
home under the watchful eye of his mother and wears a helmet everywhere he goes. When his partner is killed,
Frank is forced to leave his safe and secure life behind, go undercover, and crack the case, which he discovers is a
sinister conspiracy. Unfortunately for the villains, Frank turns out to be a first-class bumbler in the Inspector
Clouseau mold.
[1]
Frank McKlusky, C.I.
112
Cast
• Dave Sheridan as Frank McKlusky
• Cameron Richardson as Sharon Webber
• Randy Quaid as Madman McKlusky
• Dolly Parton as Edith McKlusky
• Enrico Colantoni as Scott Bayou
• Kevin Farley as Jimmy
• Orson Bean as Mr. Gafty
• Joanie Laurer as Freeda
• Kevin Pollak as Ronnie Rosengold
• Tracy Morgan as Reggie Rosengold
• Andy Richter as Herb
•• Josh Jacobson as Darryl McKlusky
• Adam Carolla and George Lopez as Detectives
• DeRay Davis as Basketball player
• Lou Ferrigno as Knife thrower
• Hanson as themselves
• Scott Baio (uncredited) as himself
• Gary Coleman (uncredited) as himself
• R. Lee Ermey (uncredited) as Jockey master
• Chad Everett (uncredited) as Doctor
Reception
The film received mostly negative reviews.
References
[1] Frank McKlusky, C.I. (http:/ / www. allrovi.com/ movies/ movie/ v260903) at AllRovi
External links
• Frank McKlusky, C.I. (http:/ / www. imdb.com/ title/ tt0281865/ ) at the Internet Movie Database
• Frank McKlusky, C.I. (http:/ / www. allrovi.com/ movies/ movie/ v260903) at AllRovi
• Frank McKlusky, C.I. (http:/ / www. rottentomatoes.com/ m/ frank_mcklusky_ci/) at Rotten Tomatoes
Frankenstein (1992 film)
113
Frankenstein (1992 film)
Frankenstein is a television film first aired in 1992, based on Mary Shelley's novel Frankenstein. It was produced
by Turner Pictures and directed by David Wickes.
The movie stars Patrick Bergin as Dr. Frankenstein and Randy Quaid as Dr. Frankenstein's creation. It also features
John Mills, Lambert Wilson, and Fiona Gillies. Music was composed by John Cameron.
[1]
Plot
Starting at the North Pole, a sea captain and his explorer crew encounter Dr. Frankenstein and his creature trying to
kill each other. The doctor is saved. As he warns the captain of danger, he tells how he made his creature in the
Switzerland of 1818 by way of chemical and biological construction.
External links
• Frankenstein
[2]
on IMDB
References
[1] A VHS of Frankenstein was released by Turner Home Entertainment in 1993. ISBN 0-7806-0253-6
[2] http:/ / www.imdb. com/ title/ tt0106959/
Freaked
Freaked
The US VHS cover of Freaked
Directed by Alex Winter
Tom Stern
Produced by Stephen Chiodo
Harry J. Ufland
Mary Jane Ufland
Written by Tim Burns
Tom Stern
Alex Winter
Starring Alex Winter
Michael Stoyanov
William Sadler
Megan Ward
Mr. T
Brooke Shields
Alex Zuckerman
Ray Baker
Morgan Fairchild
Patti Tippo
Lee Arenberg
John Hawkes
Derek McGrath
Jeff Kahn
Randy Quaid
Freaked
114
Music by Kevin Kiner
Paul Leary/Butthole
Surfers
Blind Idiot God
Distributed by 20th Century Fox
Release date(s) October 1, 1993 (USA)
Running time 80 min.
Language English
Budget $12,000,000 (estimated)
Box office $29,296 (USA)
Freaked
US Cover for Freaked.
Author(s) Todd Strasser
Country United States
Language English
Genre(s) Comedy, Novelization
Publisher The Trumpet Club
Publication date October 1993
Media type Paperback
Pages 88 pp
ISBN 0-440-40908-X
OCLC Number
29233587
[1]
Freaked (originally titled Hideous Mutant Freekz) is a 1993 American comedy film, directed by Tom Stern and
Alex Winter, and written by Stern, Winter and Tim Burns. All three were involved in the short-lived MTV sketch
comedy show "The Idiot Box", and Freaked retains the same brand of surrealistic and absurdist humor as seen in the
show.
Originally conceived as a low-budget horror film featuring the band Butthole Surfers,
[2]
Freaked went through a
number of rewrites, eventually developing into a black comedy set within a sideshow, which was picked up by 20th
Century Fox for a feature film. After several poor test screenings and a change in studio executives who then found
the film too "weird", the movie was pulled from a wide distribution and only played on a handful of screens in the
United States.
Freaked
115
Plot
The film starts with a breaking news report announcing that the flying gimp has been destroyed.
The news break ends to reveal "The Skye Daley Show", already in progress. Skye (Brooke Shields) is interviewing
beloved former child star Ricky Coogin (Alex Winter). Rather bluntly, Skye asks how Ricky so quickly went from
one of America's sweethearts to a name that makes children scream in terror.
It all began when he accepted a job from the slimy mega-corporation E.E.S. (the 'Everything Except Shoes
Corporation') to promote "Zygrot 24", a controversial and lethal toxic fertilizer, in South America. Although hesitant
at first, the greedy, self-centered Coogin caves in after their sleazy chairman (William Sadler) offers him $5,000,000
and he hops on the first plane to South America with his buddy Ernie (Michael Stoyanov). During their flight, the
duo have a run-in with Ricky's number one fan Stuey Gluck (Alex Zuckerman). Showing no compassion at all,
Ricky quickly brushes Stuey off, causing a series of events that ends up with Stuey falling out of the airplane and
plummeting to the ground below.
Once Ricky and Ernie arrive in the country of Santa Flan, they cross paths with a group of protesters, specifically the
hard-willed and attractive young environmentalist Julie (Megan Ward). The two con Julie into thinking they're also
environmentalists and she agrees to join them on a trip to an anti-Zygrot 24 protest. However, she soon finds out
their true identities and the three are stuck with each other for the rest of the drive. They decide to take a detour to
see Freek Land, a freak show, and they wind up in the clutches of demented proprietor Elijah C. Skuggs (Randy
Quaid) and his henchman, the long-tongued Toad (Jaime Cardriche). Skuggs introduces them to his "Tasty Freekz
Machine", a contraption powered by Zygrot 24 that morphs regular people into "Hideous Mutant Freekz" to become
part of his show. Julie and Ernie are merged into a pair of conjoined twins and Ricky is transformed into a hideous
half-man, half-monster.
Now incorporated in Elijah's freak show, Ricky meets the other freaks: Ortiz the Dog Boy (Keanu Reeves), the
self-proclaimed "Leader of the Freaks"; Worm (Derek McGrath), the half-man, half-worm; Nosey (Jeff Kahn),
whose entire head is one big nose; Cowboy (John Hawkes), the half-man, half-cow; the Bearded Lady (Mr. T);
Sockhead (Bobcat Goldthwait), who has a sock puppet for a head; The Eternal Flame (Lee Arenberg), who has
constant flaming flatulence; Rosie the Pinhead; The Hideous Frogman (Tim Burns), a Frenchman in a scuba suit;
and the skeleton of Paul Lynde. At first, Ricky wants nothing to do with any of the other freaks, but soon warms up
to them after hearing their stories of how they came to be here. Meanwhile, he discovers that he's developed a
telepathic bond with Stuey and summons him to get help. Stuey manages to sell Ricky's story to the Weekly World
News, but ends up being captured by a group of shady businessmen that presumably work for Elijah.
The night of the big show comes, and each of the freaks perform a routine for a sold-out house, including Julie and
Ernie's comedy and dance routine and Sockhead's heartfelt rendition of "The Wienerschnitzel Polka". Ricky,
encouraged by Worm, decides to turn his deformity into the acting chance of a lifetime: he performs the opening
soliloquy from Richard III (which comes with subtitles for the "culturally illiterate" that condenses the famous
speech into the more succinct "I'm ugly. I never get laid.") which moves the audience to tears and earns him a
standing ovation. An E.E.S. executive arrives and, disgusted by Ricky's new appearance, tells him he's fired, causing
the entire audience to start laughing at him. Overcome by rage, Ricky rips off the executive's head and the crowd
runs away in terror, much to Elijah's amusement, ("now that's entertainment").
The next day, Ricky attempts to escape but is caught by a pair of talking, machine-gun toting Rastafarian eyeballs
who take him to Elijah's lair. Elijah informs Ricky that at the next show, he plans to mutate him into a full beast
that'll slaughter all of the other freaks, a surefire moneymaking event. On his way back, Ricky runs into the other
freaks in the middle of their own escape attempt. He tries to warn them about the eyeballs, but none of them take him
seriously. He gets into a blade fight with Ortiz, who ends up running off to chase a squirrel, catching the attention of
the trigger-happy eyeballs who chase him out of the park. The freaks decide to elect Ricky as their new leader and
Julie admires him for his selfless act.
Freaked
116
After Ricky tells the other freaks of Elijah's plans, the group devise a scheme to get back at him by altering the
supply of Zygrot 24 to transform Ricky into a peaceful superfreak instead of a murderous one. Ricky, Ernie, Julie
and Worm tunnel into Elijah's lab and successfully concoct an altered batch of the chemical. Meanwhile, back at the
quarters, Sockhead gets nervous and tries to make a break for it, only to be fatally gunned down by the eyeballs.
Upon escaping from the lab, Ricky loses the Zygrot, but instead finds a tasty batch of macaroons, which sparks a
celebration amongst the hungry freaks.
Ricky eventually finds out that Elijah's Zygrot suppliers are none other than E.E.S., who arrive at Freek Land with a
shipment of Zygrot and an imprisoned Stuey Gluck. As they discuss their plans to mutate the world's population into
an efficient workforce, Stuey follows a telepathic tip from Rick and manages to escape, grabbing the tainted batch of
Zygrot along the way. Later that night, at the show, before he manages to deliver the Zygrot to Ricky, Stuey
accidentally gets the chemical poured on him, transforming him into a seven-foot monster. Elijah sends the eyeballs
after him, but they're quickly dispatched after the Stuey Monster throws dirt at them. Toad tries to take him out with
his tongue, but accidentally swallows a firecracker thrown by Ernie and thus explodes, splashing goo all over the
audience.
Elijah goes ahead and infects Ricky with his own Zygrot, turning him into an equally grotesque seven-foot monster.
As the Ricky Monster and Stuey Monster battle to the death onstage, Elijah catches the E.E.S. executives
double-crossing him and stealing his "Tasty Freaks Machine". Elijah soaks them all with the Zygrot, mutating them
all into a giant, fleshy shoe. Right before the Ricky Monster is about to destroy the Stuey Monster, however, a wave
of compassion comes over him, and he drops his weapon and gives Stuey a hug. Enraged, Elijah unsuccessfully tries
to fight the Ricky Monster, who bashes him in the head, paralyzing him. Pleading for his life, Elijah says that only he
can get the freaks back to normal: he baked a time-release antidote into a batch of macaroons. The Ricky Monster
knocks him into an open vat of Zygrot 24, telling him that he "skimped on the coconut", just as the FBI arrive to save
the day. Elijah dramatically rises from the vat, transformed into a hideous beast that looks exactly like Skye Daley.
The FBI agents gun him down.
Back on "The Skye Daley Show", the entire audience has fallen asleep and it's revealed that Ricky Coogin's
grotesque silhouette was nothing more than the shape of a cactus in the background. One by one, the freaks are
brought out onto the stage, each one transformed back to normal, with the exception of Worm, who bitterly states
that he's never liked macaroons. They are then joined by the still-mutated Ortiz and the Stuey Monster before it's
revealed that Skye Daley is actually Elijah C. Skuggs. Skuggs lunges after Ricky with a machete, only to be gunned
down by the now normal Julie. As she embraces Ricky, Skye rises again, this time to be gunned down by Ernie.
After Ricky and Ernie discuss what they've learned from their whole experience, they wave goodbye to the studio
audience. Before the credits roll, though, the machete-wielding Skye lunges at them one more time...
Cast
• Alex Winter as Ricky Coogin / Sensitive Audience Member
• Michael Stoyanov as Ernie
• Megan Ward as Julie
• Randy Quaid as Elijah C. Skuggs
• Mr. T as The Bearded Lady
• Bobcat Goldthwait as Sockhead
• Derek McGrath as Worm
• Keanu Reeves as Ortiz the Dog Boy (uncredited)
•• Jeff Kahn as Nosey
• John Hawkes as Cowboy
• Lee Arenberg as The Human Flame
• Patti Tippo as Rosie the Pinhead
Freaked
117
•• Tim Burns as Frogman
•• Jaime Cardriche as Toad
• William Sadler as Dick Brian
•• Alex Zuckerman as Stuey Gluck
• Brooke Shields as Skye Daley
• Morgan Fairchild as Stewardess
• Deep Roy as George Ramirez #3
• Michu Meszaros as George Ramirez #4
• Michael Gilden as Eye
• David Bowe as E.E.S. Assistant
• Gibby Haynes as Cheese Wart
• Arturo Gil as Flatulent Clown
• Larry "Bud" Melman as The President of the United States
• Tom Stern as Milkman / Sensitive Audience Member
• Sam Raimi as "Crooked Cop" (uncredited)
• Rob Tapert as "Crooked Cop" (uncredited)
• Don Stark as Editor
• Ray Baker as Bill Blazer
Release Dates
• Japan: November 8, 1993
• Australia: April 2, 1994
• New Zealand: April 9, 1994
• Spain: September 29, 1995
•• Other More
Production
Hideous Mutant Freekz was conceived around the time Winter and Stern had directed 1988's Bar-B-Que Movie, a
short film starring and featuring the music of experimental rock band Butthole Surfers. Winter, Stern and Surfers
frontman Gibby Haynes began work on the first draft of the script, envisioning it as an obscene, ultra-violent horror
film once again featuring the Butthole Surfers, costing around $100,000.
[2]
The idea was, as Alex Winter put it,
"Beach Blanket Bingo meets The Evil Dead".
[3]
The two fished the script around to various studios for years, but to
no avail.
Following the end of production on Stern and Winter's MTV sketch comedy show The Idiot Box, staff writer Tim
Burns was recruited to join the two in a number of rewrites. The film was completely revisioned, dropping the aspect
of the Butthole Surfers entirely and turning it into a full comedy in the vein of the Monty Python and MAD
Magazine-inspired humour that was present in The Idiot Box.
[4]
Winter and Stern pitched the idea to 20th Century Fox. Joe Roth, the head of the studio at that time, loved the idea
and offered the two a twelve million dollar deal to direct it, despite the fact that neither of them had any experience
directing a major Hollywood film and had never even shot on 35mm film before. The only condition was that the
film had to be rewritten and toned down to fit a PG-13 rating; therefore, most of the profanity was written out of the
final draft to fit MPAA standards. Within a month of being picked up, the film began production.
[2]
The studio had such high expectations for the film that they released a number of products based on it, including a
line of action figures, a novelization and, most notably, a comic book released by Hamilton Comics (however, since
the comic was drawn before most of the casting was completed, none of its characters look anything like their
real-life counterparts).
[3]
Freaked
118
Complications
During filming, Joe Roth was fired as studio head by Rupert Murdoch and replaced with Peter Chernin, who didn't
like the film nor the fact that twelve million dollars was being invested in it.
[3]
Chernin cut the film's post-production
budget, thus forcing a lot of the soundtrack (including a demo song that Iggy Pop had recorded for the closing
credits) and special effects to be greatly cut down or eliminated altogther.
[2]
The film's title was changed, as well,
from the poorly-received "Hideous Mutant Freekz" to the supposedly more accessible "Freaked", a title neither
Winter nor Stern much cared for.
After several poor test screenings, Fox chose to pull the film from a nation-wide release and cut its advertising
budget, leaving no money for commercials or newspaper ads.
[4]
Freaked had its official premiere at the Toronto
International Film Festival on September 11, 1993. Despite initial positive critical response, the film opened October
3, 1993 in the United States on only two screens, making a mere $6,957 in its first weekend.
[5]
It quickly dropped out
of theatres, making less than $30,000, and was released on VHS on April 20, 1994.
Reception
Freaked received a mostly mixed response from critics. Entertainment Weekly described the film as "having more
laughs than a month of Saturday Night Live",
[6]
The New York Times hailed it as one of the top comedies of the
nineties, and John Kricfalusi, the creator of The Ren & Stimpy Show, called it "the funniest movie in years".
Alternatively, Variety criticized the film, claiming "the filmmakers simply try too hard to displease",
[7]
while Time
Out New York stated "the sum is worse than it's [sic] (very ugly) parts".
[8]
The movie currently holds a 47% rating
on Rotten Tomatoes based on 15 reviews.
Freaked eventually went on to win two awards: the Grand Prize at the 1995 Gérardmer Film Festival and Best Actor
(for "The Creatures of the Film") at the 1994 Fantafestival. The film was also nominated for a Saturn Award for Best
Make-up.
Home media
Freaked (DVD)
The DVD cover of Freaked
On July 12, 2005, Anchor Bay Entertainment and 20th Century Fox released a special-edition two-disc DVD,
featuring extra material, including deleted scenes, audio commentary, behind-the-scenes footage and two short films
from Alex Winter and Tom Stern, the 15-minute film noir parody Squeal Of Death and a black-and-white skit titled
NYU Sight & Sound Project. This DVD has since gone out of print.
Soundtrack
A soundtrack release for Freaked was planned, but following the loss of their post-production budget, the idea never
came to fruition. The score was composed by Kevin Kiner, with additional music by Paul Leary and Butthole
Surfers, and Blind Idiot God. The songs featured in the film were as follows:
• "Freaked" - Henry Rollins and Blind Idiot God
• "Gumby Jack Flash" - Paul Leary
• "Rip/Stop" - Blind Idiot God
• "Butter Queen" - Butthole Surfers
• "Hideous Mutant Freekz" - Parliament Funkadelic and Bill Laswell
• "Sweat Loaf" - Butthole Surfers
• "Midget Man Skank" - Blind Idiot God
Freaked
119
• "Cha Bump" - Bald Bill Hagan and His Trocaderons
• "Gluehead Stomp" - Blind Idiot God
References
[1] http:/ / worldcat. org/oclc/ 29233587
[2] Stern, Tom; Winter, Alex (2005). DVD Commentary for 'Freaked' (DVD). Anchor Bay.
[3] Freekland.com (2005). "The Official Freekland Website" (http:// trouperproductions.com/ Freekland/ home. htm). . Retrieved 2007-09-21.
[4] Burns,Tim (2005). A Conversation with Tim Burns (DVD). Anchor Bay.
[5] IMDb.com (2005). "IMDb Business Statistics for 'Freaked'" (http:// www. imdb.com/ title/ tt0109838/ business). . Retrieved 2007-09-21.
[6] Burr, Ty (October 15, 1993). "EW review of 'Freaked'" (http:/ / www. ew. com/ew/article/ 0,,308356,00.html). Entertainment Weekly. .
Retrieved 2007-09-21.
[7] Klady, Leonard (September 13, 1993). "Variety Review of 'Freaked'" (http:/ / www. variety.com/ review/ VE1117901252.
html?categoryid=31&cs=1& p=0). Variety Magazine. . Retrieved 2007-09-21.
[8] TCH (1993). "Time Out New York review of "Freaked"" (http:/ / www. timeout.com/ film/ newyork/reviews/ 67031/ Freaked. html). Time
Out New York. . Retrieved 2007-09-21.
External links
• Official Freaked Facebook Page (http:// www. facebook.com/ FreakedMovie/ )
• Freaked (http:/ / www. imdb.com/ title/ tt0109838/ ) at the Internet Movie Database
• Freaked (http:/ / www. allrovi.com/ movies/ movie/ v121821) at AllRovi
• Freaked (http:/ / www. rottentomatoes.com/ m/ freaked/) at Rotten Tomatoes
• Freaked (http:/ / www. boxofficemojo.com/ movies/ ?id=freaked.htm) at Box Office Mojo
• Interview with David Daniels (http:/ / www. artofthetitle.com/ 2009/ 06/ 01/freaked/), creator of film's opening
credits sequence
Get on the Bus
120
Get on the Bus
Get on the Bus
Theatrical release poster
Directed by Spike Lee
Produced by Spike Lee
Written by Reggie Rock Bythewood
Starring Richard Belzer
De'aundre Bonds
Andre Braugher
Thomas Jefferson Byrd
Gabriel Casseus
Albert Hall
Hill Harper
Harry J. Lennix
Bernie Mac
Wendell Pierce
Roger Guenveur Smith
Isaiah Washington
Steve White
Ossie Davis
Charles S. Dutton
Music by Terence Blanchard
Cinematography Elliot Davis
Editing by Leander T. Sales
Studio 40 Acres & A Mule Filmworks
Distributed by Columbia Pictures
Release date(s) •• October 16, 1996
Running time 120 minutes
Country United States
Language English
Budget $2,400,000
Get on the Bus is a 1996 film about a group of African-American men who are taking a cross-country bus trip in
order to participate in the Million Man March. The film was directed by Spike Lee and premiered on the one-year
anniversary of the march.
[1][2]
Plot
Twelve disparate African American men board a bus in L.A. bound for Washington, D.C., where they plan on
attending the Million Man March. Other than their race, destination, and gender, the men have nothing in common:
Xavier is an aspiring filmmaker hoping to make a documentary of the March; Flip is an openly racist and sexist
actor; Kyle and Randall are a homosexual couple; Gary, a police officer, is the sole biracial man on the bus; Jamal is
a former gang banger who has evaded prosecution for the rapes and murders he committed; Evan Jr., is a petty
criminal who has been permitted to break probation to attend the march on the condition that he remain handcuffed
to his father, Evan Sr.
Get on the Bus
121
As the bus travels across country, Xavier conducts interviews with the various attendees, allowing them to express
their views on race, religion, and politics. The interviews often provoke outbursts from other men on the bus,
invariably leading to confrontations. Peace is kept by Jeremiah, the eldest member of the group, a former alcoholic
who has found new meaning in life by embracing his African heritage. Jeremiah's philosophies on the black
experience and stories of precolonial Africa serve to unite the men and ease tensions.
En route the bus breaks down and the men are forced to board another bus, driven by an ethnically Jewish man
named Rick. Several of the passengers harass Rick with antisemitic remarks and jokes; Rick ultimately refuses to
drive any further, citing the group's prejudice and his opposition to antisemitic remarks made by the leader of the
march, Louis Farrakhan. George, himself a bus driver, accuses Rick of racism, but begrudgingly agrees to let Rick
resign without incident. George takes over driving for the remainder of the trip, with help from Evan Sr.
As the bus passes through the American south, the men are surprised to find that they are greeted hospitably by
several white southerners at various restaurants and rest stops. At one stop, the men pick up Wendell, a wealthy
African American Lexus salesman who sees attending the march as a way to make business connections. After
Wendell makes disparaging remarks about lower-class African Americans, the rest of the men forcibly eject him
from the bus and abandon him on the side of the road.
In Knoxville, Tennessee, the bus is pulled over by a pair of racist state troopers, who accuse the men of using the bus
to smuggle drugs. The bus and its passengers are searched, turning up no evidence of drugs; the troopers reluctantly
allow the bus to progress.
As the bus nears Washington, Jeremiah passes out and is rushed to a hospital. The doctors there discover that
Jeremiah is suffering from advanced coronary artery disease, which made the stress of the trip potentially deadly for
him. Evan Sr. and Jr., Gary, Jamal, and Xavier opt to stay with Jeremiah at the hospital and watch the march on
television while the rest of the men leave in the bus to attend. Shortly after they leave, Jeremiah dies. The rest of the
group returns to the hospital, saying that, to stay true to the spirit of the March, they chose not to attend but to return
and be with Jeremiah.
As the bus prepares to return to L.A., the men find a prayer that Jeremiah wrote in honor of the March. The men
drive to the Lincoln Memorial, where George leads the men in Jeremiah's prayer and Evan Jr. and Sr. remove their
handcuffs.
Characters
• George (Charles S. Dutton) – the bus driver and trip organizer.
• Jeremiah aka "Pop" (Ossie Davis) – a downsized senior citizen who is an expert on African-American history.
• Evan & Evan Jr. aka "Smooth" (Thomas Jefferson Byrd and De'aundre Bonds) – an estranged father and son
who are court ordered to be shackled together for 72 hours after Junior's arrest for petty theft.
• Kyle & Randall (Isaiah Washington and Harry J. Lennix) – a gay couple in the midst of breaking up.
• Flip (Andre Braugher) – a narcissistic actor.
• Gary (Roger Guenveur Smith) – a police officer who is half black and half white.
• Xavier (Hill Harper) – a UCLA Film School student who is making a documentary.
• Jamal (Gabriel Casseus) – a former gangster turned Muslim seeking redemption.
• Jay (Bernie Mac) – a bubble gum company owner.
• Mike (Steve White) – a conspiracy theorist who thinks the march is a plot to gather one million black men in one
place for mass extermination.
• Craig (Albert Hall) – the original bus driver who is dealing with his teenage daughter's pregnancy.
Get on the Bus
122
Other passengers
Three additional bus passengers are shown observing the action. They are credited but are not introduced nor are
they given dialogue:
• Jadi McCurdy as Ja-Dee, a young man with dreadlocks.
• Hosea Brown III as Doc. Brown is a real-life M.D. who served as the set doctor during filming.
• Guy Margo as Khalid, a member of the Nation of Islam.
Additional cast
• Richard Belzer as Rick
• Wendell Pierce as Wendell Perry
• Kristen Wilson as Shelly
• Paula Jai Parker as Jamilia
• Gina Ravera as Gina
• Joie Lee as Jindal
• Randy Quaid as Tennessee State Trooper (uncredited)
Reception
The film received generally positive reviews. On the website Rotten Tomatoes the film scored an 87% fresh on the
tomatometer. Critic Roger Ebert gave the film a perfect four star rating, stating "What makes Get on the Bus
extraordinary is the truth and feeling that go into its episodes".
[3]
The film was entered into the 47th Berlin
International Film Festival where it won an Honourable Mention.
[4]
References
[1] New York Times (http:// movies. nytimes. com/ movie/ review?res=9502E4D61731F935A25753C1A960958260)
[2] Los Angeles Times (http:/ / articles. latimes. com/ 1996-10-16/entertainment/ca-54227_1_producer)
[3] "Get on the Bus" (http:/ /rogerebert.suntimes. com/ apps/ pbcs. dll/ article?AID=/19961018/ REVIEWS/610180301/1023). Chicago
Sun-Times. .
[4] "Berlinale: 1997 Prize Winners" (http:/ / www. berlinale.de/ en/ archiv/ jahresarchive/1997/ 03_preistr_ger_1997/03_Preistraeger_1997.
html). berlinale.de. . Retrieved 2012-01-08.
External links
• Get on the Bus (http:/ / www. imdb. com/ title/ tt0116404/) at the Internet Movie Database
• Get on the Bus (http:/ / www. allrovi.com/ movies/ movie/ v136809) at AllRovi
Goya's Ghosts
123
Goya's Ghosts
Goya's Ghosts
Promotional poster for Goya's Ghosts.
Directed by Miloš Forman
Written by Jean-Claude Carrière
Miloš Forman
Starring Natalie Portman
Javier Bardem
Stellan Skarsgård
Randy Quaid
Unax Ugalde
Music by Varhan Orchestrovič Bauer
José Nieto
Cinematography Javier Aguirresarobe
Editing by Adam Boome
Studio The Saul Zaentz Co.
Xuxa Producciones (Spain)
Distributed by Kanzaman S.A.l (Spain)
Release date(s) November 8, 2006
Running time 114 minutes
Country Spain
United States
Language English
Goya's Ghosts is a 2006 Spanish/American film directed by Miloš Forman, and produced by Xuxa Producciones
(Spain) and by Saul Zaentz, and written by Miloš Forman and Jean-Claude Carrière. The film stars Natalie Portman,
Javier Bardem and Stellan Skarsgård, and was filmed on location in Spain during late 2005. The film was written,
produced, and performed in English although it is a Spanish production.
Although the historical setting of the movie is authentic, the story itself is fictional.
[1]
Plot
In 1792, Spain reels amid the turmoil and upheaval of the French Revolution. Francisco Goya (Stellan Skarsgård) is
a renowned painter, who, among others, does portraits for the royal family as the Official Court Painter to the King
and Queen.
The Spanish Inquisition is disturbed by part of Goya's work. Brother Lorenzo Casamares (Javier Bardem) is hiring
Goya to paint a portrait and defends him, saying that his works are not evil, they just show evil. He recommends the
Church step up the fight against anti-Catholic practices. He requests and is put in charge of intensifying the
Inquisition.
When posing in Goya's studio, Lorenzo asks Goya about a young model he uses, Inés (Natalie Portman), daughter of
a rich merchant, Tomás Bilbatúa (José Luis Gómez) who also has got a son named Ángel (Unax Ugalde). Inés is
spotted by Inquisition spies (trained by Lorenzo) declining a dish of pork in a tavern. The Holy Office of the
Inquisition orders Inés to come to the office. There she is arrested and accused of "judaizing", i.e. spreading Jewish
rituals, because she did not eat pork the other evening. She is stripped naked and tortured by strappado ("put to The
Goya's Ghosts
124
Question"), confesses, and is imprisoned. Naturally, the Inquisition's archives had already revealed that one of her
father's ancestors had converted from Judaism to Christianity in 1624 upon arrival in Spain from Amsterdam.
Tomás begs Goya for help, who in turn asks Lorenzo to find out about Inés's situation. Lorenzo visits Inés in prison
telling her that he is going to help her and will pass a message to her family if she wishes. He offers to pray with
Inés, but is clearly struggling with desire for her as she prays in the nude with him. At a dinner in Tomás's home,
where he and Goya are guests, Lorenzo defends "The Question" (and brings up the subject of the father's Jewish
ancestor): he argues that if the accused is really innocent, God will give him or her the strength to deny guilt, so a
person who confesses must be guilty. Tomás does not agree: he argues that people will confess to anything under
torture, and Goya agrees. To prove this Tomás draws up a statement which says that Lorenzo confesses to being a
monkey, and, with the help of his sons, does not let Lorenzo leave unless he agrees to sign it. Goya pleads for
Lorenzo without success, and is escorted away and pushed out of the home. Tomás, his sons and servants torture
with a makeshift strappado (ropes strung on the chandelier), causing Lorenzo to break down and sign. Tomás
promises to destroy the document after Inés is released. He gives Lorenzo a large amount of gold for the Church,
hoping it will persuade the Holy Office to consider leniency.
Lorenzo pleads for Inés, but the Inquisitor General Father Gregorio, while accepting the money, refuses, since Inés
has confessed. Lorenzo again visits Inés in prison and, offering to pray with her, instead has sex with her. Tomás
brings the document to the king, Charles IV (Randy Quaid), who is highly amused at seeing it, and promises to assist
Inés. Lorenzo is now an embarrassment to the Spanish Church and they come to arrest him. He flees. Lorenzo's
portrait is confiscated by the Church, and is set on fire in public, to burn him in effigy.
Fifteen years pass, and Goya is at the height of his creativity, but has grown deaf. The French army under Napoleon
invades Spain, abolishes the Inquisition and sets the prisoners free. Lorenzo, who fled to France, where he was
introduced to the ideas of the French Revolution and became a fanatical adherent of them, is now Napoleon's chief
special prosecutor against his former Spanish colleagues in the Inquisition. (This twist in Lorenzo's allegiance might
have been inspired by the career of Juan Antonio Llorente.) A French court presides over the show trial, conviction
and sentencing to death of the Inquisitor General. Inés, who was said to be tried, has actually been left to languish in
the dungeons until now. She has given birth to a daughter in prison, and, upon visiting her old home and finding her
family killed, turns to Goya for help in finding her child, who was taken away from her immediately after birth.
Lorenzo is the father, which is embarrassing for him, and he sends Inés, whose sanity has suffered in prison, to an
insane asylum. Lorenzo questions the condemned Inquisitor General, sparing him for information about what would
happen to a child born in the Inquisition prison. The Inquisitor General tells him the child would be placed in an
orphanage. Lorenzo tracks it down, and he learns from the nuns who run it that his daughter's name is Alicia. She
had run away several years before.
In Garden Park, Goya finds a prostitute named Alicia (also played by Natalie Portman) who looks identical to Inés.
He goes to Lorenzo asking for Inés so he can reunite her with her daughter. Lorenzo goes to see Alicia, offering to
pay for her passage to America if she will agree to leave Spain, but she refuses the offer and jumps out of his
carriage. Goya finds Inés, and bribes the asylum director to release her, and tries to bring Inés to see Alicia. But as
Goya tries to persuade Alicia to see her mother, a group of soldiers (unders orders from Lorenzo)forcibly arrests the
prostitutes, including Alicia, to deport them to America. Inés, who was evidently waiting outside to meet Aicia, finds
the abandoned baby left by Alicia when she was seized, and in her delusion thinks the baby, who may well be her
granddaughter, to be her own lost daughter.
The British invade Spain from Portugal, defeating the French troops with the help of the Spanish population. The
wagons in which the prostitutes are being transported are abandoned by the French cavalry guarding them when the
British attack, with Alicia catching the eye of a British officer. Lorenzo is arrested as he is fleeing. The Spanish
reinstate the Inquisition, which now tries and sentences Lorenzo to death, the Inquisitor General condemning him in
much the same words as in Lorenzo's speech at his trial. They are willing to spare him if he repents, and they urge
Lorenzo to do so until the last moment at the site of the execution in the city center, to which he is led in the auto da
Goya's Ghosts
125
fe wearing a sanbenito with painted flames indicating he is sentenced to die. On the scaffold, Lorenzo spots his
daughter Alicia, on the arm of the British officer, scoffing at him. He also notices Goya sitting at a distance
sketching the entire ordeal. Inés is also present in the crowd and calls to Lorenzo enthusiastically to show him the
baby she believes is their daughter. Refusing to repent, despite pleas from his former colleagues the monks, Lorenzo
is garrotted. The film ends with a cart taking Lorenzo's body away, escorted by Inés, holding the hand of the dead
Lorenzo, children prancing about singing songs, and with Goya following closely behind her.
Cast
• Natalie Portman as Inés Bilbatúa and Alicia
• Javier Bardem as Lorenzo Casamares
• Stellan Skarsgård as Francisco Goya
• Randy Quaid as King Charles IV of Spain
• José Luis Gómez as Tomás Bilbatúa
• Unax Ugalde as Ángel Bilbatúa
• Michael Lonsdale as Father Gregorio
• Julian Wadham as Joseph Bonaparte
Fiction
The story is fictional apart from the historical setting. Ines Bilbatua and Brother Lorenzo are fictional characters.
Thus their relationships with Francisco Goya are also fictional.
Critical reception
Goya's Ghosts received poor reviews from critics. The review aggregator Rotten Tomatoes reported that 29% of
critics gave the film positive reviews, based on 82 reviews — with the consensus that "ornate costumes and a
talented cast can't make up for Ghosts' glacial pace and confused plot."
[2]
Metacritic reported the film had an average
score of 52 out of 100, based on 25 reviews — indicating average reviews.
[3]
Box office performance
The film has grossed $2,198,929 in Spain and $1,199,024 in Italy.
[4]
In the United States, Goya's Ghosts has grossed
$1,000,626, with a worldwide total $9,448,082.
[5]
References
[1] Director Forman stated, "There was no film ever made about this particular [historical] period." He may be referring to the invasion of Spain
specifically, as there are certainly other films about the Peninsular War (e.g. The Pride and the Passion).
[2] "Goya's Ghosts Movie Reviews, Pictures - Rotten Tomatoes" (http:/ / www. rottentomatoes.com/ m/ goyas_ghosts/ ). Rotten Tomatoes.
CNET Networks, Inc. . Retrieved November 30, 2008.
[3] "Goya's Ghosts (2007): Reviews" (http:/ / www. metacritic. com/ film/titles/ goyasghosts). Metacritic. IGN Entertainment, Inc. . Retrieved
November 30, 2008.
[4] http:/ / www.boxofficemojo.com/ movies/ ?page=intl&id=goyasghosts. htm
[5] "Goya's Ghosts (2007)" (http:// www. boxofficemojo.com/ movies/ ?id=goyasghosts. htm). Boxofficemojo.com. . Retrieved 2012-06-06.
Goya's Ghosts
126
External links
• Official website (http:// www. losfantasmasdegoya. com/ ) (Spanish)
• Hanway Films webpage (http:/ / www. hanwayfilms.com/ test/ flash_positive. htm)
• John Walker. (2009). "Goya's ghosts (Los phantasmas de Goya) (2006) film review (http:// www.artdesigncafe.
com/ Goya-ghosts-Los-Phantasmas-de-Goya). artdesigncafe.
• Goya's Ghosts (http:/ / www. imdb.com/ title/ tt0455957/ ) at the Internet Movie Database
• Goya's Ghosts (http:/ / www. allrovi.com/ movies/ movie/ v326959) at AllRovi
• Goya's Ghosts (http:/ / www. rottentomatoes.com/ m/ goyas_ghosts/ ) at Rotten Tomatoes
• Goya's Ghosts (http:// www. metacritic.com/ movie/ goyas-ghosts) at Metacritic
• Goya's Ghosts (http:/ / www. boxofficemojo.com/ movies/ ?id=goyasghosts. htm) at Box Office Mojo
• "Liberty, Equality and Torture," in Willamette Week (http:// wweek. com/ editorial/3338/ 9311/ ) By N.P.
Thompson
• Photos (http:/ / natalieportman.com/ npcom.php?page_number=834) at natalieportman.com
Grind (2003 film)
127
Grind (2003 film)
Grind
Theatrical release poster
Directed by Casey La Scala
Produced by Bill Gerber
Casey La Scala
Hunt Lowry
Written by Ralph Sall
Starring Mike Vogel
Adam Brody
Vince Vieluf
Joey Kern
Jennifer
Morrison
Bam Margera
Music by Ralph Sall
Cinematography Richard Crudo
Editing by Eric Strand
Distributed by Warner Bros.
Release date(s) August 15, 2003
Running time 105 minutes
Country United States
Language English
Grind is a 2003 American adventure, comedy film about four young aspiring amateur skaters Eric Rivers (Mike
Vogel), Matt Jensen (Vince Vieluf), Dustin Knight (Adam Brody), and Sweet Lou Singer (Joey Kern) who are trying
to make it in the world of pro skateboarding by pulling insane stunts in front of pro skater Jimmy Wilson (Jason
London). The film has developed a cult following.
Plot
While the rest of his high school graduating class is heading to the same old kind of college, skateboarder Eric
Rivers and his best friends, Dustin, a goal-oriented workaholic, and misfit slacker Matt have one last summer
roadtrip together to follow their dream of getting noticed by the professional skateboarding world—and getting paid
to skate. When skating legend Jimmy Wilson's skate demo tour hits town, the boys figure that as soon as he sees
their fierce tricks, he'll sign them up for his renowned skate team immediately, right? Unfortunately, the guys are
intercepted by Jimmy's road manager and they can't get their foot in the door, much less their boards. But they do get
some free advice: keep skating, stay true to yourself, and stay in the game—if you're good, you'll get noticed.
Following their dream—and Jimmy's national tour—Eric, Dustin and Matt start their own skate team, reluctantly
sponsored by Dustin and his college fund.
After recruiting laid-back ladies man Sweet Lou to join their crew and provide the wheels for their tour, team Super
Duper launches the ride of their lives in an outrageous road trip from Chi-town to Santa Monica. The professional
scene doesn't exactly welcome nobody skaters, but these outsiders stick together through extreme misadventures. In
their quest to go pro, they meet professional vert skating champions Bucky Lasek, Bob Burnquist and Pierre Luc
Gagnon, skate pro Bam Margera and his crew Preston Lacy, Ehren Danger McGhehey and Jason Wee Man Acuña,
Grind (2003 film)
128
as well as sexy skate chick Jamie as they grind handrails across America and force the skateboarding world to give
'em a piece of the action.
[1]
Cast
• Mike Vogel as Eric Rivers
• Vince Vieluf as Matt Jensen
• Joey Kern as Sweet Lou Singer
• Adam Brody as Dustin Knight
• Jennifer Morrison as Jamie
• Jason London as Jimmy Wilson
• Summer Altice as Winona
• Bam Margera as Himself
• Erin Murphy as Hot Mama
• Stephen Root as Cameron
• Christopher McDonald as Mr. Rivers
• Brian Posehn as Orville the Scraggly Guy
• Jason Acuña as Little Timmy (As Wee Man)
•• Donte Calarco as Buxom Girl #1
• Christine Estabrook as Sarah Jensen
• Randy Quaid as Jock Jensen
• Lindsay Felton as Dawn Jensen
•• Chad Fernandez as Rival Skater #1
•• Alfred Briere as Rival Skater #2
• Ehren McGhehey as Rival Skater #3
•• Jake Muxworthy as Pro
•• Shonda Farr as Sandy Moore
• Bob "Bobcat" Goldthwait as Bell Clerk
• Tom Green as Colorado Skate Shop Owner
• Ryan Sheckler as Rod St. James
•• Guillermo Aguilar as Himself
• Preston Lacy as Himself
Soundtrack
A soundtrack consisting of a blend of rock, hip hop and reggae music was released on August 12, 2003 by Atlantic
Records.
Critical response
The film received unfavorable reviews from critics. Review aggregate Rotten Tomatoes reports that 8% of critics
have given the film a positive review based on 71 reviews, with an average score of 3.1/10.
[2]
Metacritic gave it an
average score of 30 out of 100 from the 24 reviews it collected.
[3]
Joe Laydon, of Variety Magazine called the "Skating scenes ... unremarkable and repetitious," concluding that the
film was less than good.
Keith Phipps, for The Onion's A.V. Club, said "The film ... will gleam the cube only of viewers with an unusually
high tolerance for porta-toilet and Dutch-oven gags."
Grind (2003 film)
129
References
[1] Plot Summary for 'Grind' (2003) (http:// www. imdb. com/ title/ tt0338077/ plotsummary). IMDb. Retrieved 2009-01-18.
[2] Grind Movie Reviews, Pictures (http:/ / www. rottentomatoes. com/ m/ 1124859-grind). Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved 2010-10-23.
[3] Grind Reviews, Ratings, Credits, and More at Metacritic (http:/ / www. metacritic. com/ movie/ grind). Retrieved 2010-10-23.
External links
• Grind (http:// www2. warnerbros.com/ grind)
• Grind (http:/ / www. imdb.com/ title/ tt0338077/ ) at the Internet Movie Database
Hard Rain (film)
130
Hard Rain (film)
Hard Rain
UK Film poster
Directed by Mikael Salomon
Produced by Allison Lyon Segan
Ian Bryce
Mark Gordon
Gary Levinsohn
Written by Graham Yost
Starring Morgan Freeman
Christian Slater
Randy Quaid
Minnie Driver
Music by Christopher Young
Cinematography Peter Menzies Jr.
Editing by Amnon David
Paul Hirsch
Gillian L. Hutshing
Studio BBC
Polygram Filmed
Entertainment
The Mutual Film Company
Distributed by Paramount Pictures (US)
Mutual Film (Global)
Release date(s) 16 January 1998 (US)
3 April 1998 (UK)
Running time 97 minutes
Country United States, United Kingdom
Language English
Budget $70 million
Box office $19,870,567 (US domestic)
Hard Rain (also known as The Flood) is a 1998 American/British action thriller disaster movie, produced by Mark
Gordon, written by Graham Yost (the writer-producer team also behind the film Speed) and directed by former
cinematographer turned director Mikael Salomon. It stars Christian Slater, Morgan Freeman, Randy Quaid, Minnie
Driver and Ed Asner.
The plot centers around a heist and man-made treachery amidst a natural disaster in a small Indiana town. The
tagline is "A simple plan. An instant fortune. Just add water." The film was not a financial success in the United
States but fared better overseas and had good video sales, yet received polarized reviews.
The film is also noteworthy for its use of the song "Flood" by the Christian rock group Jars of Clay, which launched
the band into the mainstream music scene.
Hard Rain (film)
131
Production
The production of the film was a collaborative effort between numerous film studios, one of which was the British
Broadcasting Corporation.
[1]
At one point, John Woo was attached to direct the film, but he left the project to direct
Face/Off instead and the project was taken over by Mikael Salomon.
[2]
The film was originally titled "The Flood", it was changed because the film-makers didn't want audiences to assume
it was primarily a disaster movie and not a heist movie/thriller. However, the film still retained that title in numerous
other countries.
[3]
The film was shot in Huntingburg, Indiana where the film is set (although in reality there is no major river or dam
nearby – only two reservoirs near the town), as well as a $6 million set in an aircraft hangar in Palmdale, California
where the B-1 Lancer bomber was manufactured, and some exteriors in Etobicoke, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
[4]
Plot
During the worst recorded rainstorm in the history of the Midwestern United States, armored truck drivers Tom
(Christian Slater) and his uncle Charlie (Edward Asner) are collecting the money from the local banks affected by
the rising flood waters. In the small town of Huntingburg, Indiana, which has been evacuated, Tom and Charlie drive
into a ditch and become stuck, and Charlie calls dispatch to alert the National Guard. They are then ambushed by Jim
(Morgan Freeman) and his gang of armed robbers, Kenny (Michael Goorjian), Mr. Mehlor (Dann Florek) and Ray
(Ricky Harris). Kenny accidentally shoots Charlie dead, as Tom gets away with the $3 million in cash and hides it in
a cemetery.
After being chased through the local Middle School by the gang now travelling with a boat and jet skis, Tom takes
refuge in a nearby church. He is knocked out and wakes up in a cell at the local Sheriff's office. Tom tells the local
sheriff Mike Collig (Randy Quaid) about the gang and the area he hid the money, although he keeps him locked up.
He and his Deputy Wayne (Mark Rolston) then leave to investigate, whilst another officer Phil (Peter Murnik) is
ordered to take Karen (Minnie Driver), the woman who knocked Tom out and is currently restoring the church, out
of town. In protest, she pushes Phil out of the boat so she will be able to fill the water pumps at her church.
The town's dam continues to experience huge pressure from the rain and the operator Hank (Wayne Duvall) is forced
to open another levee. This causes another huge burst of water to stream through the town, resulting in even worse
flooding, especially at the church. Tom wakes in his cell, trapped as the Sheriff's building slowly fills up with water.
After filling the pumps at the church, Karen returns and saves him by opening the light fitting on the roof for him to
escape. They are then spotted by the gang, and hide before having to get out of the water because a nearby
transformer is going to blow. Kenny grabs Tom and they both fall in the water, but Tom fights him off before Kenny
is electrocuted and later dies. Tom and Karen enter a nearby house, only to discover locals Doreen (Betty White) and
Henry Sears (Richard Dysart) who believe they are looters. After explaining their story, Henry decides to give Tom
their boat so he can return to the armored truck. When he resurfaces from the now submerged truck, he finds Jim and
the gang holding the elderly couple hostage. Tom forces Jim to let them go so he'll show them where the money is.
On the way to the cemetery, Jim reveals to Tom that the National Guard were never coming because Charlie was
actually calling the gang, and was in an alliance with them. He was only killed because Kenny was never told
Charlie was on their side. Jim then sends Tom to retrieve the money but finds it has gone. When the gang are about
to shoot him in anger, they are all ambushed by Sheriff Collig and his deputies, who have found Karen, and the
money. The Sheriff now doesn't care any more about justice and intends to keep the money, splitting it between
himself, Wayne, Phil and Hank, who has now joined them from the dam. Mr. Mehlor and Ray are killed in the shoot
out, and Jim and Tom escape in a boat, finding sanctuary in the church. Wayne, not wanting any witnesses left, takes
Karen back to her house, and handcuffs her to the banister, with an intention of raping her and leaving her to drown.
The others try to force Tom and Jim out by throwing molotov cocktails on the roof, but they fail, and instead drive
into the church through the stained glass windows. At Karen's house, Karen manages to stab Wayne with her
Hard Rain (film)
132
pocketknife, killing him. In the church, a shoot out occurs where at one point Tom and Phil come face to face, but
Phil cannot bring himself to shoot him. Hank then shoots Phil, thinking he's a coward. The alarm from the dam
saying it is overflowed suddenly sounds. Offering a deal, the sheriff says he'll tell Tom and Jim where Karen is, if
they let Hank and himself go with a couple of the moneybags. Tom agrees, yet Jim does not. A dying Phil then tells
Tom where Karen is, and Tom then leaves to try to save her. Jim goes to leave with the money in the sheriff's boat,
but the sheriff shoots Jim with a revolver he was hiding, wounding his shoulder. Sheriff Collig and Hank escape in a
boat and, when they are forced to go faster to avoid the wave engulfing the town, the Sheriff pushes Hank out of the
boat, who tries to swim to safety, but is caught in a gas explosion and dies.
Tom arrives at Karen's house, to find her handcuffed to the banister. He first tries to free her with a saw, but it
breaks, and he instead uses Wayne's gun. The water is so high now they have to get onto the roof and are then caught
by Sheriff Collig. Jim, who managed to escape from the church, comes from behind them in a boat. The Sheriff
shoots at him, disabling the steering, forcing him to go over the roof. As he does so, the outboard breaks off and
collides with the sheriff, knocking him into the water. However, he is not dead, and tries to shoot Karen and grab a
moneybag, but Tom and Jim manage to shoot him dead. Tom tells Jim he should leave, just as the State Police
arrive. Jim picks up the Sheriff's moneybag and rows away, as Tom tells Karen the fire damage to her church wasn't
too bad while being picked up by State Police.
Cast
• Morgan Freeman - Jim
• Christian Slater - Tom - the main protagonist of the film
• Randy Quaid - Sheriff Mike Collig - the main antagonist of the film
• Minnie Driver - Karen
• Edward Asner - Charlie - Tom's uncle and partner
• Michael Goorjian - Kenny
• Dann Florek - Mr Mehlor
• Ricky Harris - Ray
• Mark Rolston - Wayne Bryce
• Peter Murnik - Phil
• Wayne Duvall - Hank
• Richard Dysart - Henry Sears
• Betty White - Doreen Sears
• Ray Baker as Mayor
Box office
Hard Rain opened on Martin Luther King long weekend in 1998 earning fifth place with $7,076,110 from Friday to
Sunday
[5]
and $8,009,024 including the holiday Monday.
[6]
In the end, the film only made $19,870,567 domestically
on a $70 million budget
[7]
making it one of the most expensive flops of the year.
The production costs were however remade by high VHS and DVD sales, and some overseas box offices. Due to its
poor box office performance in the US, the film was released straight to video in most countries.
Hard Rain (film)
133
Reception
The film received polarized reviews, some very positive and some very negative. One example of a positive review
was on timeout.com,
[8]
which favourably compared the plot of Hard Rain to writer Graham Yost's earlier and more
financially successful project, the acclaimed action film Speed and suggested that it could be considered a spiritual
sequel to Speed. Another review, on starpulse.com, praised the action scenes of Hard Rain yet criticized the plot,
calling it "mindless" yet "entertaining".
[9]
Hard Rain currently has a 26% rating on aggregate review site Rotten Tomatoes.
[10]
References
[1] http:/ / www.imdb. com/ title/ tt0120696/ companycredits
[2] http:/ / www.imdb. com/ title/ tt0120696/ trivia
[3] http:/ / www.imdb. com/ title/ tt0120696/ releaseinfo#akas
[4] http:/ / www.imdb. com/ title/ tt0120696/ locations
[5] http:/ / www.the-numbers.com/ charts/ weekly/ 1998/ 19980116.php
[6] http:// www.the-numbers.com/ charts/ daily/ 1998/ 19980119.php
[7] http:// www.the-numbers.com/ movies/ 1998/ HRDRN. php
[8] http:// www.timeout.com/ film/ newyork/reviews/ 71733/ Hard_Rain.html
[9] http:// www.starpulse. com/ Movies/ Hard_Rain/ Reviews/
[10] http:/ / uk. rottentomatoes. com/ m/ hard_rain/
External links
• Hard Rain (http:/ / www. imdb. com/ title/ tt0120696/ ) at the Internet Movie Database
• Hard Rain (http:/ / www. rottentomatoes.com/ m/ hard_rain/) at Rotten Tomatoes
• Hard Rain (http:/ / www. allrovi.com/ movies/ movie/ v154935) at AllRovi
• Boxoffice information (http:// www. boxofficemojo.com/ movies/ ?id=hardrain.htm)
• Movie stills (http:/ / film.virtual-history.com/ film.php?filmid=208)
Heartbeeps
134
Heartbeeps
Heartbeeps
Theatrical release poster.
Directed by Allan Arkush
Produced by Michael Phillips
Written by John Hill
Starring Andy Kaufman
Bernadette Peters
Randy Quaid
Music by John Williams
Cinematography Charles Rosher Jr.
Editing by Tina Hirsch
Distributed by Universal Pictures
Release date(s) December 18, 1981
Running time 79 min.
Language English
Budget $10,000,000 (estimated)
Box office $2,154,696
Heartbeeps (1981) is an American romantic sci-fi comedy film about two robots who fall in love and decide to strike
out on their own. It was directed by Allan Arkush, and starred Andy Kaufman and Bernadette Peters as the robots.
The film's soundtrack was composed by John Williams,
Plot summary
Val Com 17485 (Andy Kaufman), a robot designed to be a valet with a specialty in lumber commodities, meets
Aqua Com 89045 (Bernadette Peters), a hostess companion robot whose primary function is to assist at poolside
parties. At a factory awaiting repairs, they fall in love and decide to escape, stealing a van from the company to do
so. They embark on a quest to find a place to live, as well as satisfy their more immediate need for a fresh electrical
supply. They assemble a small robot, Phil, built out of spare parts, whom they treat as their child, and are joined by
Catskill, a mechanical standup comic (which is seen sitting the entire movie). A law-enforcement robot, the
Crimebuster, comes after the fugitives, but with the help of humans who run a junkyard, and using Catskill's battery
pack, they are able to resolve their problems successfully.
Heartbeeps
135
Cast
• Andy Kaufman – Val
• Bernadette Peters – Aqua
• Randy Quaid – Charlie
• Jack Carter (voice) – Catskill
• Jerry Garcia of the Grateful Dead (voice) – Phil
• Ron Gans (voice) – Crimebuster
• Kenneth McMillan – Max
• Melanie Mayron – Susan
• Christopher Guest – Calvin
• Richard B. Shull – Factory Boss
• Dick Miller – Factory Watchman
• Kathleen Freeman – Helicopter Pilot
• Mary Woronov – Party House Owner
• Paul Bartel – Party Guest
• Wally Ann Wharton – Party Guest (as Ann Wharton)
• Barry Manilow – Party Guest
• Barry Diamond – Firing Range Technician and Catskil Performer
• Stephanie Faulkner – Firing Range Technician
• Jeffrey Kramer – Party Butler Robot
Crew (selected)
• Theadora Van Runkle – costumes for Ms. Peters
• Zoltan Elek – makeup artist-Aqua
• Vince Prentice – makeup artist-Val
• Stan Winston – special makeup effects
Production
Because of a strike by the Screen Actors Guild, filming was shut down in July 1980 (along with numerous other
motion picture and television series). The strike ended at the beginning of October 1980 (filming had started in
June). (The New York Times, July 31, 1980)
The box office gross was USD $2,154,696, with an estimated budget of $10,000,000.
[1]
Adaptions
John Hill adapted the screenplay into a novel, Heartbeeps, published by Jove Publications in December 1981 (ISBN
0-515-06183-2).
Reception
Awards and nominations
•• Honored with the Winsor McCay Award [for career achievement]
Heartbeeps
136
Award Category Recipient(s) Outcome
Saturn Awards
Best Science Fiction Film Douglas Green Nominated
Academy Awards Best Make-Up Stan Winston Nominated
|+ Awards
Vincent Canby wrote, in a negative review in The New York Times, that it was "unbearable" and a "dreadfully coy
story."
[2]
Bob Zmuda, in his book Andy Kaufman: Revealed, wrote that Kaufman and Zmuda had "pitched" the screenplay of
Kaufman's The Tony Clifton Story, a movie about the life and times of his alter-ego Tony Clifton, to Universal
Studios. The Universal executives were concerned that Kaufman had not acted in films, except for a small role, and
arranged for him to star in Heartbeeps to test whether he could carry a movie. Because the movie was "a box office
disaster", plans for making the Clifton movie were cancelled.
[3][4]
Kaufman felt that the movie was so bad that he personally apologized for it on Late Night with David Letterman, and
as a joke promised to refund the money of everyone who paid to see it (which didn't involve many people).
Letterman's response was that if Kaufman wanted to issue such refunds, Kaufman had "better have change for a 20
(dollar bill)".
[5]
Awards and nominations
Heartbeeps was nominated for an Academy Award in 1982 for Best Makeup (Stan Winston). This was the first year
the award was offered, and it was actually created because the Academy was so impressed by the makeup effects in
An American Werewolf in London, which was the winning film (Rick Baker).
References
[1] Box office / business for Heartbeeps (http:/ / www. imdb. com/ title/ tt0082507/ business) from IMDb
[2] Canby, Vincent. "Robots In Love In 'Heartbeeps'" (http:/ /movies. nytimes. com/ movie/
review?res=9C05E1DF153BF93AA25751C1A967948260) New York Times, December 19, 1981
[3] Heartbeeps trivia (http:// www. imdb. com/ title/ tt0082507/ trivia) from IMDb
[4] Drees, Rich. "The Tony Clifton Story" (http:/ / www. filmbuffonline.com/ ReadingRoom/ TonyCliftonStory.htm). filmbuffonline.com,
retrieved March 20, 2010
[5] Letterman show (http:/ / www. youtube. com/ watch?v=EkKhuP3-j6E) .youtube.com
External links
• Heartbeeps (http:/ / www. imdb. com/ title/ tt0082507/ ) at the Internet Movie Database
• Heartbeeps (http:/ / www. rottentomatoes.com/ m/ heartbeeps/ ) at Rotten Tomatoes
• Heartbeeps (http:/ / www. boxofficemojo.com/ movies/ ?id=heartbeeps. htm) at Box Office Mojo
• Heartbeeps (http:/ / www. themakeupgallery.info/fantasy/ robot/heartbeeps. htm) on TheMakeupGallery
• Heartbeeps (http:/ / www. badmovies.org/ movies/ heartbeeps/ ) on BadMovies.org
Home on the Range (2004 film)
137
Home on the Range (2004 film)
Home on the Range
Directed by Will Finn
John Sanford
Produced by Alice Dewey
Written by Will Finn
John Sanford
Starring Roseanne Barr
Judi Dench
Cuba Gooding, Jr.
Randy Quaid
Jennifer Tilly
Steve Buscemi
Music by Alan Menken
Editing by Mark A. Hester
H. Lee Peterson
Studio Walt Disney Feature Animation
Distributed by Walt Disney Pictures
Release date(s) April 2, 2004
Running time 76 minutes
Country United States
Language English
Budget
$110 million
[1]
Box office
$103,951,461
[1]
Home on the Range is a 2004 American animated musical western comedy feature film produced by Walt Disney
Feature Animation and released by Walt Disney Pictures on April 2, 2004, and was named after the popular country
song "Home on the Range". The 45th feature in the Walt Disney Animated Classics, it was the last traditionally
animated Disney film until 2009's The Princess and the Frog, and the last Disney animated film to be released on
VHS.
Set in the old west, the plot centers on a mismatched trio of dairy cows – brash, adventurous Maggie, prim, proper
Mrs. Calloway and ditzy, happy-go-lucky Grace (voiced by Roseanne Barr, Judi Dench and Jennifer Tilly
respectively) – who must capture an infamous cattle rustler, for his bounty, in order to save their idyllic farm from
foreclosure. (As Grace puts it, "Who better to catch a cattle thief...than a cow?") Aiding them in their quest is Lucky
Jack, a feisty, peg-legged rabbit, but a selfish horse named Buck (Cuba Gooding Jr.), eagerly working in the service
of Rico, a famous bounty hunter, seeks the glory for himself.
Home on the Range (2004 film)
138
Plot
Maggie is the only cow left on the Dixon Ranch after Alamida Slim (a cattle rustler capable of stealing 500 in a
single night) stole all the rest of Dixon's cattle. Mr. Dixon sells Maggie to Pearl, a kind and elderly woman that runs
a small farm called Patch of Heaven.
The local Sheriff arrives to tell Pearl that her bank is cracking down on debtors. Pearl has three days to pay the bank
$750, or her farm will be sold to the highest bidder. Hearing this, Maggie convinces the other cows on the farm
(Grace, a happy-go-lucky character, and Mrs. Calloway, who has had leadership gone to her head) to go to town to
attempt winning prize money at a fair.
While the cows are in town, a bounty hunter named Rico (who Buck, the Sheriff's horse, idolizes) drops a criminal
off and collects the reward. Stating he needs a replacement horse to go after Alamida Slim while his own horse rests,
he takes Buck. When Maggie find out that the reward for capturing Slim is of exactly $750, she convinces the other
cows to try to capture him to save Patch of Heaven.
That night, they hide among a large heard of steers, when Alamida Slim appears. Before any of them can do
anything, Slim begins a yodeling song which sends all the cattle (except Grace, who is tone deaf) into a trance that
causes them to dance madly and follow Slim anywhere. Grace is able to bring Maggie and Mrs. Calloway back to
their senses just before Slim closes the path behind him with a rockslide to stop Rico and his men from chasing him.
As Rico discusses with his men what his next move will be, Buck starts talking with Maggie, Grace, and Mrs.
Calloway as old friends and miming actions. This causes Rico to believe Buck is frightened by cows, and sends
Buck back to the Sheriff. Buck escapes, determined to capture Slim for himself to prove his worth. Maggie, Grace,
and Mrs. Calloway are left behind, but they meet a peg-legged rabbit named Lucky Jack, who leads them to the
Slim's hideout mine.
At the mine, Slim reveals that he has been stealing all cattle from his former patrons. When his former patrons can't
support their land anymore, he buys the land when it is auctioned off, under the guise of the respectable-looking Mr.
O'delay, using the very money he gets from selling the cattle he stole.
After arriving to Slim's hideout, the cows capture Slim. They run off with Slim's accomplices and buyer in pursuit on
a steam train. Rico arrives. When the chase stops, Rico is revealed to work for Slim.
Slim dons his O'delay costume and leaves the cows stranded in the middle of the desert with the train, while he goes
to attend the auction. However, the cows arrive using the train to the farm and expose Slim. Slim is arrested by the
police, and Patch of Heaven is saved by the reward money.
Cast
• Roseanne Barr as Maggie. Chris Buck served as the supervising animator for Maggie.
• Judi Dench as Mrs. Calloway. Duncan Marjoribanks served as the supervising animator for Mrs. Calloway.
• Jennifer Tilly as Grace. Mark Henn served as the supervising animator for Grace.
• Cuba Gooding, Jr. as Buck. Michael Surrey served as the supervising animator for Buck.
• Randy Quaid as Alameda Slim. Dale Baer served as the supervising animator for Slim.
• Charles Dennis as Rico. Russ Edmonds served as the supervising animator for Rico.
• Charles Haid as Lucky Jack. Shawn Keller served as the lead animator for Lucky Jack.
• Carole Cook as Pearl Gesner. Bruce W. Smith served as the supervising animator for Pearl.
• Joe Flaherty as Jeb the Goat. Sandro Cleuzo served as the supervising animator of Jeb.
• Steve Buscemi as Wesley. Mark Henn served as the supervising animator for Wesley.
• Richard Riehle as Sam the Sheriff. Sandro Cleuzo served as the supervising animator of the Sheriff.
• Lance LeGault as Junior the Buffalo. Dale Baer served as the supervising animator for Junior.
• G.W. Bailey as Rusty. Mark Henn served as the supervising animator for Rusty.
• Patrick Warburton as Patrick
Home on the Range (2004 film)
139
• Estelle Harris as Audrey the Chicken
•• Sam J. Levine as the Willie Brothers. Russ Edmonds served as the supervising animator for the Willies.
• Ann Richards as Annie
Production
Prior to the film's release, Disney stated that it would be their last film in their animated features canon to use
traditional animation. Although Disney animated films have featured some computer-generated effects for many
years, Disney announced plans to move entirely to CGI animation after Home on the Range, beginning with 2005's
Chicken Little, and laid off most of its animation department. However, after the company's acquisition of Pixar in
early 2006, new leaders John Lasseter and Ed Catmull decided to revive traditional animation, and announced the
2-D animated film, The Princess and the Frog. Still, Home on the Range is the final feature in the canon to use the
CAPS system which was first fully used in The Rescuers Down Under. The film began pre-production after the
release of Pocahontas in 1995. In August 2000, the film was announced as Sweating Bullets and scheduled for a fall
2003 release. The title was changed to Home on the Range in April 2002. This film was originally slated to have
been released in November 2003, but story and production problems forced Disney to swap release dates with
Brother Bear (originally slated for spring 2004) in December 2002. The studio also broke from its own tradition of
releasing major films at either Thanksgiving or summer vacation (to maximize the family audience), releasing it on
April 2.
Release
Box office
The film had a budget of about $110 million, making a U.S. box office gross of $50,026,353, and a worldwide gross
of $76,482,461.
[2]
The film was a commercial flop, following a long string of box office disappointments to come
out from Disney at the time, following The Emperor's New Groove, Atlantis: The Lost Empire, and Treasure Planet.
Critical reception
Rotten Tomatoes reported that 55% of critics gave positive reviews based on 118 reviews. According to Metacritic,
the film's average rating was 50%, based on 30 reviews. Users gave the film a 4.2/10 approval rating based on 12
votes. The site's general consensus is: "Though Home on the Range is likeable and may keep young children
diverted, it's one of Disney's more middling titles, with garish visuals and a dull plot".
[3]
Soundtrack
Home on the Range: An Original Walt
Disney Records Soundtrack
Soundtrack album by Various Artists
Released March 30, 2004
Label Walt Disney
Producer Alan Menken
Glenn Slater
Walt Disney Animation Studios chronology
Home on the Range (2004 film)
140
Brother
Bear
(2003)
Home on the
Range
(2004)
Chicken
Little
(2005)
Home on the Range: An Original Walt Disney Records Soundtrack is the soundtrack to Disney's 2004 animated
feature Home on the Range. It contains music written by Alan Menken and Glenn Slater, and vocal songs performed
by k.d. lang, Randy Quaid, Bonnie Raitt, Tim McGraw, and The Beu Sisters along with the film's score composed by
Alan Menken. The album was released on March 30, 2004 by Walt Disney Records.
1. 1. (You Ain't) Home On The Range - Chorus
2. Little Patch of Heaven - k.d. lang
3. Yodel-Adle-Eedle-Idle-Oo - Randy Quaid and Chorus
4. Will The Sun Ever Shine Again - Bonnie Raitt
5. 5. (You Ain't) Home On The Range - Echo Mine Reprise - Chorus
6. Wherever The Trail May Lead - Tim McGraw
7. Anytime You Need A Friend - The Beu Sisters
8. 8. Cows In Town/Saloon Song (Score)
9. 9. On The Farm (Score)
10. 10. Bad News (Score)
11. 11. Storm And The Aftermath (Score)
12. 12. Cows To The Rescue (Score)
13. 13. Buck (Score)
14. 14. My Farm Is Saved/Little Patch of Heaven(Reprise) (Score)
15. Anytime You Need a Friend - Alan Menken
A Dairy Tale
A Dairy Tale is a 3-minute spinoff released in 2004. Mrs. Calloway tries to tell the story of the Three Little Pigs but
is interrupted by Maggie, Grace, Buck, Jeb, Ollie and Audery, who tell the story in their own ways. The characters
are featured in super deformed and 'storybook' style.
References
[1] "Home on the Range" (http:/ / www. boxofficemojo.com/ movies/ ?id=homeontherange.htm). Box Office Mojo. . Retrieved 2012-01-05.
[2] Home on the Range - Box Office Data, Movie News, Cast Information - The Numbers (http:/ / www. the-numbers.com/ movies/ 2004/
HMRNG. php)
[3] http:// www.rottentomatoes. com/ m/ home_on_the_range/
Home on the Range (2004 film)
141
External links
• Official website (http:// disney. go. com/ disneyvideos/ animatedfilms/ homeontherange)
• Home on the Range (http:// www. bcdb. com/ cartoons/ 23327-Home_On_The_Range) at the Big Cartoon
DataBase
• Home on the Range (http:// www. imdb. com/ title/ tt0299172/ ) at the Internet Movie Database
• Home on the Range (http:/ / www. allrovi. com/ movies/ movie/v290407) at AllRovi
• Home on the Range (http:/ / www. ultimatedisney. com/ homeontherange. html) at UltimateDisney.com
• Home on the Range (http:/ / www. rottentomatoes. com/ m/ home_on_the_range/ ) at Rotten Tomatoes
• Home on the Range (http:/ / www. metacritic.com/ movie/ home-on-the-range) at Metacritic
• Home on the Range (http:/ / www. boxofficemojo.com/ movies/ ?id=homeontherange.htm) at Box Office Mojo
Independence Day (film)
142
Independence Day (film)
Independence Day
Theatrical release poster
Directed by Roland Emmerich
Produced by Dean Devlin
Written by Dean Devlin
Roland Emmerich
Starring Will Smith
Jeff Goldblum
Bill Pullman
Margaret Colin
Vivica A. Fox
Mary McDonnell
Judd Hirsch
Robert Loggia
Randy Quaid
James Rebhorn
Music by David Arnold
Cinematography Karl Walter Lindenlaub
Editing by David Brenner
Studio Centropolis Entertainment
Distributed by 20th Century Fox
Release date(s) •• July 2, 1996
Running time 145 minutes
Country United States
Language English
Budget
$75 million
[1][2]
Box office
$817,400,891
[3]
Independence Day is a 1996 American military science fiction disaster film about an alien invasion of Earth. The
narrative focuses on a disparate group of people who converge in the Nevada desert and, along with the rest of the
human population, participate in a last-chance counterattack on July 4, the same date as the Independence Day
holiday in the United States. It was directed by German director Roland Emmerich, who co-wrote the script with
producer Dean Devlin.
While promoting Stargate in Europe, Emmerich came up with the idea for the film when fielding a question about
his own belief in the existence of alien life. He and Devlin decided to incorporate a large-scale attack when noticing
that aliens in most invasion films travel long distances in outer space only to remain hidden when reaching Earth.
Principal photography for the film began in July 1995 in New York City, and the film was officially completed on
June 20, 1996.
The film was scheduled for release on July 3, 1996, but due to its high level of anticipation, many theaters began
showing it on the evening of July 2, 1996, the same day the story of the film begins. The film's combined domestic
and international box office gross is $816,969,268, which at one point was the second-highest worldwide gross of
all-time. It is the 37th-highest-grossing film of all time and was at the forefront of the large-scale disaster film and
Independence Day (film)
143
science fiction resurgences of the mid-to-late-1990s. It won the Academy Award for Best Visual Effects, and was
also nominated for Best Sound Mixing.
Plot
On July 2, an enormous alien ship enters Earth's orbit and deploys 36 smaller saucer-shaped ships, each 15 miles
wide, which position themselves over major cities around the globe. David Levinson (Jeff Goldblum), a satellite
technician for a television network in Manhattan, discovers transmissions hidden in satellite links that he realizes the
aliens are using to coordinate an attack. David and his father Julius (Judd Hirsch) travel to the White House and warn
his ex-wife, White House Communications Director Constance Spano (Margaret Colin), and President Thomas J.
Whitmore (Bill Pullman) of the attack. The President, his daughter, portions of his Cabinet and the Levinsons
narrowly escape aboard Air Force One as the alien spacecraft destroy Washington D.C., New York City, Los
Angeles and other cities around the world.
Meanwhile, USMC Captain Steven Hiller (Will Smith) is part of a counterattack against the ships. His girlfriend
Jasmine Dubrow (Vivica A. Fox), her son, Dylan Dubrow (Ross Bagley), and their pet dog survive the destruction of
Los Angeles. The next day, July 3, Jasmine commandeers an abandoned maintenance truck to drive to Hiller's
military base. Along the way, she picks up several survivors and also finds the injured First Lady (Mary McDonnell),
who had been flying out of Los Angeles by helicopter when it was knocked down in the alien attack.
Captain Hiller leads a squadron of F/A-18 Hornets on a sortie against the spaceship over Los Angeles. The ships are
found to be guarded by force fields that repel any attack, and they also release fighters armed with similar shields
and weaponry. After the rest of his squadron is annihilated in a one-sided dogfight, Hiller captures an alien pilot after
luring an alien fighter to the Grand Canyon,
[4]
then causing it to crash into the canyon walls. While dragging the
unconscious alien across the desert, Hiller is picked up by a ragtag group of refugees driving campers and trucks to a
nearby military base. The group includes Russell Casse (Randy Quaid), an alcoholic crop-duster who claims to have
been abducted by aliens years earlier.
The refugees take the captured alien to Area 51, where Air Force One has already landed. Area 51 conceals a top
secret facility housing a recovered spacecraft and alien bodies stored since the Roswell incident in 1947. The
captured alien regains consciousness in a sealed lab and reveals that its species roams the galaxy, consuming planets'
resources before moving on. The alien tries to psychically attack President Whitmore, but is killed by the base
commander, Air Force officer Major Mitchell (Adam Baldwin). A nuclear attack against a shield protected ship over
Houston results in failure. Captain Hiller, wanting to find Jasmine, steals a helicopter and travels back to his
abandoned base where he finds Jasmine, the First Lady and other survivors. The President and his daughter, Patricia
Whitmore (Mae Whitman), later visit the First Lady in the base hospital, where she eventually dies from her internal
injuries.
On July 4, David devises a plan to use the 1947 spacecraft to sneak into the mothership and introduce a computer
virus before detonating a nuclear weapon inside the ship. The computer virus will filter down to the smaller vessels,
deactivating their shields; the plan is to simultaneously attack the 36 city ships once their shields are down. Hiller
volunteers to be the pilot, since he is the only person to have seen them in action and survive, giving him unique
knowledge of the ship's capabilities, and David decides he must go along to upload the virus. With few military
pilots left, the President, a former fighter pilot, rallies the refugees and garners a number of volunteers, including
Casse. Morse code is used to contact forces around the world in order to coordinate the attack.
After the virus is implanted and lowers the shields, Whitmore leads an attack against a ship approaching Area 51.
Although the fighters damage the alien ship, they run out of missiles without inflicting critical damage. The ship
prepares to fire its main weapon at Area 51. Casse has the last missile, but it jams. As his children are sheltering
within the Area 51 base and would likely be killed by a successful firing of the aliens' main cannon, Russell
sacrifices himself by ramming his fighter into the cannon just as it is about to fire and triggers a chain reaction that
destroys the whole ship. Other forces around the world bring down the remaining destroyers using Casse's method.
Independence Day (film)
144
David and Hiller are discovered in the mothership, but when they fire their nuclear weapon, their ship is freed and
they escape with seconds to spare. The mothership is destroyed and the 1947 spacecraft crashes in the desert near
Area 51, with David and Hiller emerging safe and sound from the wreckage. The world celebrates as the main
characters watch debris from the mothership enter the atmosphere.
Cast
• Will Smith as Captain Steven Hiller: An assured U.S. Marine Corps F/A-18 pilot with VMFA-314. Devlin and
Emmerich had always envisioned an African-American for the role,
[5]
and specifically wanted Smith after seeing
his performance in Six Degrees of Separation.
[6]
• Jeff Goldblum as David Levinson: An MIT-educated computer expert, chess enthusiast and environmentalist,
working as a satellite technician in New York City.
• Bill Pullman as President Thomas J. Whitmore: President of the United States and a former Persian Gulf War
fighter pilot. To prepare for the role, Pullman read Bob Woodward's The Commanders and watched the
documentary film The War Room.
[7]
• Margaret Colin as Constance Spano: White House Communications Director, David's ex-wife.
• Robert Loggia as General William Grey: A U.S. Marine Corps general who is the head of U.S. Space Command.
Loggia modeled the character after generals of World War II, particularly George S. Patton.
[8]
• Randy Quaid as Russell Casse: A widowed, alcoholic crop duster and veteran Vietnam War pilot who claims to
have been an alien abductee ten years prior to the film's events.
• James Duval as Miguel Casse, Russell's eldest son. Originally derisive of Russell because of his alcoholism, he
changes his mind once he sees Russell showing true concern for his children.
• Judd Hirsch as Julius Levinson: David's father. The character was based on one of producer Dean Devlin's
uncles.
[9]
• Mary McDonnell as First Lady Marilyn Whitmore.
• Vivica A. Fox as Jasmine Dubrow: A single mother, Steven's girlfriend (later wife), and exotic dancer.
• James Rebhorn as Albert Nimzicki: The U.S. Secretary of Defense and former director of the CIA. Rebhorn
described the character as being much like Oliver North.
[10]
The character's eventual firing lampoons Joe
Nimziki,
[11]
MGM's head of advertising and reportedly accounted for unpleasant experiences for Devlin and
Emmerich when studio executives forced recuts of Stargate.
[12]
• Harvey Fierstein as Marty Gilbert: David's boss.
• Adam Baldwin as Major Mitchell: A U.S. Air Force officer who is Area 51's commanding officer.
• Brent Spiner as Dr. Brackish Okun: The unkempt and highly excitable scientist in charge of research at Area 51.
Devlin, who is open to the idea of bringing Dr. Okun back in the event of a sequel, later implied the character is
merely in a coma.
[13]
The character's appearance and verbal style are based upon those of visual effects supervisor
Jeffrey A. Okun, with whom Emmerich had worked on Stargate.
[14]
• Harry Connick, Jr. as Captain Jimmy Wilder: Steve's best friend and fellow pilot. Connick took over the part for
Matthew Perry, originally cast in the role.
[15]
• Kiersten Warren as Tiffany: Jasmine's exotic dancer friend.
• Mae Whitman as Patricia, the President's daughter. She is called 'Munchkin' by her parents.
• Frank Welker as Alien vocal effects
Independence Day (film)
145
Production
F/A-18 Hornets of VMFA-314, "Black Knights"
The idea for the film came when Emmerich and Devlin were in Europe
promoting their film Stargate. A reporter asked Emmerich why he
made a film with content like Stargate if he did not believe in aliens.
Emmerich stated he was still fascinated by the idea of an alien arrival,
and further explained his response by asking the reporter to imagine
what it would be like to wake up one morning and discover
15-mile-wide spaceships were hovering over the world's largest cities.
Emmerich then turned to Devlin and said "I think I have an idea for our
next film."
[9][16][17]
Emmerich and Devlin decided to expand on the idea by incorporating a
large-scale attack, with Devlin saying he was bothered by the fact that "for the most part, in alien invasion movies,
they come down to Earth and they're hidden in some back field ...[o]r they arrive in little spores and inject
themselves into the back of someone's head."
[18]
Emmerich agreed by asking Devlin if arriving from across the
galaxy, "would you hide on a farm or would you make a big entrance?"
[18]
The two wrote the script during a
month-long vacation in Mexico,
[16]
and just one day after they sent it out for consideration, 20th Century Fox
chairman Peter Chernin greenlit the screenplay.
[12]
Pre-production began just three days later in February 1995.
[9][16]
The U.S. military originally intended to provide personnel, vehicles, and costumes for the film; however, they
backed out when the producers refused to remove the script's Area 51 references.
[9]
A then-record 3,000-plus special effects shots would ultimately be required for the film.
[17]
The shoot utilized on-set,
in-camera special effects more often than computer-generated effects in an effort to save money and get more
authentic pyrotechnic results.
[9]
Many of these shots were accomplished at Hughes Aircraft in Culver City,
California, where the film's art department, motion control photography teams, pyrotechnics team, and model shop
were headquartered. The production's model-making department built more than twice as many miniatures for the
production than had ever been built for any film before by creating miniatures for buildings, city streets, aircraft,
landmarks, and monuments.
[19]
The crew also built miniatures for several of the spaceships featured in the film,
including a 30-foot (9.1 m) destroyer model
[20]
and a version of the mother ship spanning 12 feet (3.7 m).
[21]
City
streets were recreated, then tilted upright beneath a high-speed camera mounted on a scaffolding filming downwards.
An explosion would be ignited below the model, and flames would rise towards the camera, engulfing the tilted
model and creating the rolling "wall of destruction" look seen in the film.
[22]
A model of the White House was also
created, covering 10 feet (3 m) by 5 feet (1.5 m), and was used in forced-perspective shots before being destroyed in
a similar fashion for its own destruction scene.
[23]
The detonation took a week to plan
[12]
and required 40 explosive
charges.
[23]
A World War II training aircraft with a camera
mounted on its front navigated through the walls
of the Little Colorado River canyon, and the
footage was used as pilot point-of-view shots.
[24]
The film's aliens were designed by production designer Patrick
Tatopoulos. The actual aliens of the film are diminutive and based on a
design Tatopoulos drew when tasked by Emmerich to create an alien
that was "both familiar and completely original".
[25]
These creatures
wear "bio-mechanical" suits that are based on another design
Tatopoulos pitched to Emmerich. These suits were 8 feet (2.4 m) tall,
equipped with 25 tentacles, and purposely designed to show it could
not sustain a person inside so it would not appear to be a "man in a
suit".
[26]
Principal photography began in July 1995 in New York City. A second unit gathered plate shots and establishing
shots of Manhattan, Washington D.C., an RV community in Flagstaff, Arizona, and the Very Large Array on the
Plains of San Agustin, New Mexico.
[26]
The main crew also filmed in nearby Cliffside Park, New Jersey before
Independence Day (film)
146
moving to the former Kaiser Steel mill in Fontana, California to film the post-attack Los Angeles sequences.
[27]
The
production then moved to Wendover, Utah and West Wendover, Nevada,
[28]
where the deserts doubled for Imperial
Valley and the Wendover Airport doubled for the El Toro and Area 51 exteriors.
[29]
It was here where Pullman
filmed his pre-battle speech. Immediately before filming the scene, Devlin and Pullman decided to add "Today, we
celebrate our Independence Day!" to the end of the speech. At the time, the production was nicknamed "ID4"
because Warner Bros. owned the rights to the title Independence Day, and Devlin had hoped if Fox executives
noticed the addition in dailies, the impact of the new dialogue would help them win the rights to the title.
[9]
The right
to use the title was eventually won two weeks later.
[12]
The production team moved to the Bonneville Salt Flats to film three scenes, then returned to California to film in
various places around Los Angeles, including Hughes Aircraft where sets for the cable company and Area 51
interiors were constructed at a former aircraft plant. Sets for the latter included corridors containing windows that
were covered with blue material. The filmmakers originally intended to use the chroma key technique to make it
appear as if activity was happening on the other side of the glass; but the composited images were not added to the
final print because production designers decided the blue panels gave the sets a "clinical look".
[30]
The attacker
hangar set contained an attacker mock-up 65 feet (20 m) wide
[19]
that took four months to build.
[12]
The White
House interior sets used had already been built for The American President and had previously been used for
Nixon.
[23]
Principal photography completed on November 3, 1995.
[12]
The film originally depicted Russell Casse being rejected as a volunteer for the July 4 aerial counteroffensive
because of his alcoholism. He then uses a stolen missile tied to his red biplane to carry out his suicide mission.
According to Dean Devlin, test audiences responded well to the scene's irony and comedic value.
[9]
However, the
scene was re-shot to include Russell's acceptance as a volunteer, his crash course in modern fighter aircraft, and him
flying an F-18 instead of the biplane. Devlin preferred the alteration because the viewer now witnesses Russell
ultimately making the decision to sacrifice his life,
[9]
and seeing the biplane keeping pace and flying amongst F-18s
was "just not believable".
[31]
The film was officially completed on June 20, 1996.
[12]
Music
The score was composed by David Arnold and has received two official CD releases. RCA released a 50-minute
album at the time of the film's release. Then in 2010, La-La Land Records
[32]
released a limited edition
[33]
(5000
units) 2-CD set that comprised the complete score plus 12 alternate cues. As of October 2011, the 2-CD set is still
available. Tracks marked with an asterisk were not previously available.
RCA, 2 July 1996
1. "1969 – We Came in Peace" – 2:04 (later pressings contain the film version of this track, while earlier ones
contain an alternate composition)
2. "S.E.T.I. – Radio Signal" – 1:52
3. "The Darkest Day" – 4:13
4. "Cancelled Leave" – 1:45
5. "Evacuation" – 5:47
6. "Fire Storm" – 1:23
7. "Aftermath" – 3:35
8. "Base Attack" – 6:11
9. "El Toro Destroyed" – 1:30
10. "International Code" – 1:32
11. "The President's Speech" – 3:10
12. "The Day We Fight Back" – 4:58
13. "Jolly Roger" – 3:15
14. "End Titles" – 9:08
Independence Day (film)
147
LaLaLand Records, 27 April 2010
CD 1 (65:31)
1. "1969: We Came in Peace" – 2:01
2. "S.E.T.I. – Radio Signal" – 1:53
3. "Mysto Bridge/Satellite Collision/Destroyers Disengage/Russell Casse – Pilot" – 2:17 *
4. "First Sighting/AWAC Attack" – 2:18 *
5. "The Darkest Day" – 4:14
6. "Moving Day/Countdown" – 2:12 *
7. "Cancelled Leave" – 1:46
8. "Commence Lift-Off/Parabolic Indenwhat?" – 1:17 *
9. "Evacuation" – 5:48
10. "Firestorm" – 1:24
11. "Aftermath" – 3:36
12. "Base Attack" – 6:11
13. "Marilyn Found" – 1:29 *
14. "Area 51/The Big Tamale/Formaldehyde Freak Show" – 4:12 *
15. "El Toro Destroyed" – 1:31
16. "Slimey Wakes Up" – 5:24 *
17. "Target Remains/Rescue" – 5:56 *
18. "The Death of Marilyn/Dad's a Genius" – 3:34 *
19. "Alien Ship Powers Up" – 1:46 *
20. "International Code" – 1:32
21. "Wedding" – 1:50 *
22. "The President's Speech" – 3:11
CD 2 (63:34)
1. "Just in Case/Attacker Fires Up" – 3:10 *
2. "The Launch Tunnel/Mutha Ship/Virus Uploaded" – 8:27 *
3. "Hide!/Russell's Packin' (The Day We Fight Back)" – 4:44 *
4. "He Did It" – 1:33 *
5. "Jolly Roger" – 3:17
6. "Victory" – 3:40 *
7. "End Credits" – 9:07
Bonus tracks:
1. "1969: We Came in Peace" (alternate version) – 2:11 *
2. "Destroyers Disengage" (no choir) – 0:34 *
3. "Cancelled Leave" (alternate version) – 1:43 *
4. "Commence Lift-Off" (alternate version) – 0:55 *
5. "Base Attack" (segment; film version) – 2:27 *
6. "Marilyn Found" (no choir) – 1:28 *
7. "Target Remains/Rescue" (alternate version) – 2:40 *
8. "Dad's a Genius" (alternate version) – 0:45 *
9. "Attacker Fires Up" (original version; no choir) – 2:01 *
10. "Virus Uploaded" (alternate version) – 2:35 *
11. "The Day We Fight Back" (original version) – 5:48
12. "Jolly Roger" (alternate version) – 3:22 *
13. "End Credits" (segment; no choir) – 2:47 *
Independence Day (film)
148
Distribution
While the film was still in post-production, 20th Century Fox began a massive marketing campaign to help promote
the film, beginning with the airing of a dramatic commercial during Super Bowl XXX, for which Fox paid $1.3
million.
[34]
The film's subsequent success at the box office resulted in the trend of using Super Bowl air time to kick
off the advertising campaign for potential blockbusters.
[35][36]
Fox's Licensing and Merchandising division also entered into co-promotional deals with Apple Inc. The
co-marketing project was dubbed "The Power to Save the World" campaign, in which the company used footage of
David using his PowerBook laptop in their print and television advertisements.
[37]
Trendmasters entered a
merchandising deal with the film's producers to create a line of tie-in toys.
[38]
In exchange for product placement,
Fox also entered into co-promotional deals with Molson Coors Brewing Company and Coca-Cola.
[39]
The film was marketed with several taglines, including: "We've always believed we weren't alone. On July 4, we'll
wish we were", "Earth. Take a good look. It could be your last", and "Don't make plans for August". The weekend
before the film's release, the Fox Network aired a half-hour special on the film, the first third of which was a spoof
news report on the events that happen in the film. Roger Ebert attributed most of the film's early success to its teaser
trailers and marketing campaigns, acknowledging them as "truly brilliant".
[40]
The film had its official premiere held at Los Angeles' now-defunct Mann Plaza Theater on June 25, 1996.
[41]
It was
then screened privately at the White House for President Bill Clinton and his family
[42]
before receiving a
nationwide release in the United States on July 2, 1996, a day earlier than its previously scheduled opening.
[43]
After a six-week, $30 million marketing campaign, Independence Day was released on VHS on November 22,
1996.
[44]
It became available on DVD on June 27, 2000, and has been re-released on DVD under several different
versions with varying supplemental material ever since, including one instance where it was packaged with a
lenticular cover.
[45]
Often accessible on these versions is a special edition of the film, which features eight minutes
of additional footage not seen in the original theatrical release.
[46]
Independence Day became available on Blu-ray
discs in the United Kingdom on December 24, 2007,
[47]
and in North America on March 11, 2008.
[48]
The Blu-ray
edition does not include the deleted scenes.
In other media
Books
Author Stephen Molstad wrote a tie-in novel to help promote the film shortly before its release. The novel goes into
further detail on the characters, situations, and overall concept not explored in the film. The novel presents the film's
finale as originally scripted, with the character played by Randy Quaid stealing a missile and roping it to his crop
duster biplane.
Following the film's success, a prequel novel entitled Independence Day: Silent Zone was written by Molstad in
February 1998.
[49]
The novel is set in the late 1960s and early 1970s, and details the early career of Dr. Brackish
Okun.
[50]
Molstad wrote a third novel, Independence Day: War in the Desert in July 1999. The novel is both a midquel and
sequel to the film. Set in Saudi Arabia on July 3, it centers around Captain Cummins and Colonel Thompson, the two
Royal Air Force officers seen receiving the Morse code message in the film.
A Marvel comic book was also written based on the first two novelizations.
Independence Day (film)
149
Radio
On August 4, 1996, BBC Radio 1 broadcast the one-hour play Independence Day UK, written, produced, and
directed by Dirk Maggs, a spin-off depicting the alien invasion from a British perspective.
[51]
None of the original
cast was present. Dean Devlin gave Maggs permission to produce an original version, on the condition he did not
reveal certain details of the movie's plot and the British were not depicted as saving the day.
[51]
Independence Day
UK was set up to be similar to the 1938 radio broadcast of The War of the Worlds; the first 20 minutes were set as
being live.
[51]
Computer games
An Independence Day video game was released in February 1997 for the PlayStation, Sega Saturn, and PC, each
version receiving mostly tepid reviews.
[52][53]
The multi-view shooter game contains various missions to perform,
with the ultimate goal of destroying the aliens' primary weapon. A wireless mobile version was released in 2005. A
computer game entitled ID4 Online was released in 2000.
3D re-release
20th Century Fox had announced the film would be converted to 3D. It is expected to be released on July 4, 2013.
[54]
[55]
Reception
Box office
Independence Day was the highest-grossing film of 1996.
[1]
In the United States, Independence Day earned $104.3
million in its first full week,
[56]
including $96.1 million during its five-day holiday opening, and $50.2 million during
its opening weekend.
[57]
All three figures broke records set by Jurassic Park three years earlier.
[56]
That film's
sequel, The Lost World: Jurassic Park, claimed all three records when it was released the following year.
Independence Day stayed in the number-one spot for three weeks, and grossed $306,169,268 in the domestic
market
[1]
and $510,800,000 in foreign markets during its theatrical run.
[1]
The combined total of $816,969,268 once
trailed only the worldwide earnings of Jurassic Park as the highest of all-time.
[58]
It has been surpassed by several
21st century films since, and currently holds the 34th highest worldwide gross all-time for a film. Hoping to
capitalize in the wake of the film's success, several studios released more large-scale disaster films,
[59]
and the
already rising interest in science fiction-related media was further increased by the film's popularity.
[42]
A month after the film's release, jewelry designers and marketing consultants reported an increased interest in
dolphin-themed jewelry, since the character of Jasmine in the film wears dolphin earrings and is presented with a
wedding ring featuring a gold dolphin.
[60]
Critical reaction
Independence Day is ranked as "fresh" on Rotten Tomatoes with a 61% positive rating, with 34 out of 56 critics
giving it positive reviews.
[61]
Also, it has a score of 59 (based on 18 reviews) on Metacritic, indicating "mixed or
average reviews".
[62]
Critics acknowledged the film had "cardboard" and "stereotypical" characters,
[5][43][63][64][65]
and weak dialogue.
[59][65][66][67]
Yet the shot of the White House's destruction has been declared a milestone in
visual effects and one of the most memorable scenes of the 1990s.
[68][69]
In a 2010 poll, the readers of Entertainment
Weekly rated it the second-greatest summer film of the previous 20 years, ranking only behind Jurassic Park.
[70]
Mick LaSalle of the San Francisco Chronicle gave the film his highest rating, declaring it the "apotheosis" of Star
Wars.
[43]
Lisa Schwarzbaum of Entertainment Weekly gave it a B+ for living up to its massive hype, adding "charm
is the foremost of this epic's contemporary characteristics. The script is witty, knowing, cool."
[64]
Eight years later,
Independence Day (film)
150
Entertainment Weekly would rate the film as one of the best disaster films of all-time.
[59]
Kenneth Turan of the Los
Angeles Times felt that the film did an "excellent job conveying the boggling immensity of [the] extraterrestrial
vehicles [...] and panic in the streets" and the scenes of the alien attack were "disturbing, unsettling and completely
convincing".
[5]
However, the film's nationalistic overtones were widely criticized by reviewers outside the U.S. Movie Review UK
described the film as "A mish-mash of elements from a wide variety of alien invasion movies and gung-ho American
jingoism."
[71]
The speech in which Whitmore states that victory in the coming war would see the entire world
henceforth describe July 4 as its Independence Day, was described as "the most jaw-droppingly pompous soliloquy
ever delivered in a mainstream Hollywood movie" in a BBC review.
[72]
In 2003, readers of the United Kingdom's
most popular film magazine, Empire, voted the scene that contained the speech as the "Cheesiest Movie Moment of
All-Time".
[73]
Conversely, Empire critic Kim Newman gave the film a five-star rating in the magazine's original
review of the film.
[62]
Several prominent critics expressed disappointment with the quality of the film's special effects. Newsweek's David
Ansen claimed the special effects were of no better caliber than those seen nineteen years earlier in Star Wars.
[65]
Todd McCarthy of Variety felt the production's budget-conscious approach resulted in "cheesy" shots that lacked in
quality relative to the effects present in films directed by James Cameron and Steven Spielberg.
[41]
Roger Ebert took
note of a lack of imagination in the spaceship and creature designs, despite his marginally positive 2½ (out of 4) star
review.
[74]
Gene Siskel expressed the same sentiments in their on-air review of the film.
[40]
American Film Institute lists
• AFI's 100 Years...100 Thrills – Nominated
[75]
• AFI's 10 Top 10 – Nominated Science Fiction Film
[76]
Awards and nominations
Award Subject Nominee Result
CAS Awards
[77] Best Sound Mixing Chris Carpenter, Bob Beemer, Bill W.
Benton and Jeff Wexler
Nominated
Academy Awards
[77] Nominated
Best Visual Effects Volker Engel, Douglas Smith, Clay Pinney
and Joe Viskocil
Won
Saturn Awards
[77] Best Special Effects Won
Best Science Fiction Film Won
Best Director Roland Emmerich Won
Best Writer Roland Emmerich and Dean Devlin Nominated
Best Costumes Joseph A. Porro Nominated
Best Supporting Actor Brent Spiner Nominated
Best Supporting Actress Vivica A. Fox Nominated
Best Young Actor James Duval Nominated
Best Music David Arnold Nominated
Best Actor Jeff Goldblum Nominated
Will Smith Nominated
Kids' Choice Awards
[77] Favorite Movie Actor Nominated
Favorite Movie Won
Hugo Awards
[77] Best Dramatic Presentation
Nominated
Independence Day (film)
151
Young Artist Awards
[77] Best Young Actor – Age 10 or Under Ross Bagley
Nominated
People's Choice Awards
[77] Favorite Dramatic Motion Picture
Won
MTV Movie Awards
[77] Best Action Sequence Aliens blow up cities Nominated
Best Movie Nominated
Best Male Performance Will Smith Nominated
Best Breakthrough Performance Vivica A. Fox Nominated
Best Kiss Will Smith and Vivica A. Fox Won
Grammy Awards
[77] Best Instrumental Composition Written for a Motion
Picture or for Television
David Arnold
Won
Satellite Awards
[77] Outstanding Visual Effects Volker Engel, Douglas Smith, Clay Pinney
and Joe Viskocil
Won
Outstanding Film Editing David Brenner Won
Mainichi Film Awards
[77] Best Foreign Language Film
Won
Japanese Academy
Awards
[77]
Nominated
Amanda Awards
[77]
Nominated
Blockbuster Entertainment
Awards
[77]
Favorite Actor – Sci-Fi Will Smith
Won
Universe Reader's Choice
Awards
[77]
Best Actor Won
Best Supporting Actress Vivica A. Fox Won
Best Science Fiction Film Won
Best Special Effects Volker Engel, Douglas Smith, Clay Pinney
and Joe Viskocil
Won
Best Director Roland Emmerich Won
Best Score David Arnold Won
Best Cinematography Karl Walter Lindenlaub Won
Best Writing Roland Emmerich and Dean Devlin Won
Golden Raspberry
Awards
[77]
Worst Written Film Grossing Over $100 Million
Nominated
Sequels
The possibility of a sequel had long been discussed,
[78]
and Devlin once stated the world's reaction to the September
11 attacks influenced him to strongly consider making a sequel to the film.
[79][80]
Devlin began writing an outline for
a script with Emmerich,
[81]
but in May 2004, Emmerich said he and Devlin had attempted to "figure out a way how
to continue the story", but that this ultimately did not work, and the pair abandoned the idea.
[82]
In October 2009, Emmerich said he once again had plans for a sequel,
[83]
and has since considered the idea of
making two sequels to form a trilogy.
[84]
On June 24, 2011, Devlin confirmed that he and Emmerich have found an
idea for the sequels and have written a treatment for it, with both Emmerich and Devlin having the desire for Will
Smith to return for the sequels.
[85]
In October 2011, however, discussions for Smith returning were halted, due to
Fox's refusal to provide the $50 million salary demanded by Smith for the two sequels. Emmerich, however, made
assurances that the films would be shot back-to-back, regardless of Smith's involvement.
[86]
In July 2012, Devlin
Independence Day (film)
152
reiterated that the Independence Day sequel is still in development, and the script currently takes place 16 years after
the original film's events (matching up to real world time passed).
[87]
In September 2012, Emmerich stated that the
sequels' working titles would be Independence Day Forever – Part 1 and Independence Day Forever – Part 2 until
further notice.
[88]
Notes
[1] "Independence Day." (http:/ / www. boxofficemojo.com/ movies/ ?id=independenceday.htm) Box office mojo.com. Retrieved on September
25, 2007.
[2] Independence Day (1996) Synopsis (http:/ / www. rottentomatoes. com/ m/ 1071806-independence_day/ ) Rotten tomatoes. Retrieved on
September 25, 2007.
"With a $71 million budget and mind-blowing special effects..."
[3] "Independence Day (1996)" (http:/ / www. boxofficemojo.com/ movies/ ?id=independenceday.htm). Box Office Mojo. . Retrieved February
5, 2009.
[4] Whitty, Stephen (July 2, 1996). "'Independence Day' Explodes with Action, Aliens". Mercury News: p. 1E.
[5] Kenneth Turan (July 2, 1996). "Independence Day review" (http:/ / web. archive.org/ web/ 20080619051208/ http:/ / www.calendarlive.
com/movies/ reviews/ cl-movie960716-1,2,1312906.story). Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original (http:// www. calendarlive. com/
movies/ reviews/ cl-movie960716-1,2,1312906.story) on June 19, 2008. . Retrieved July 8, 2008.
[6] [6] Aberly and Engel 1996, p. 36.
[7] [7] Aberly and Engel 1996, p. 32.
[8] [8] Aberly and Engel 1996, p. 42.
[9] [9] DVD commentary
[10] [10] Aberly and Engel 1996, p. 44.
[11] Stephen Galloway (July 4, 2001). "Affleck's Schedule Busies After 'Harbor'" (http:/ / web.archive. org/web/ 20060320090432/ http:/ /
www. findarticles. com/ p/ articles/ mi_m5072/ is_23_23/ ai_75648237). bnet.com. Archived from the original (http:// findarticles. com/ p/
articles/ mi_m5072/ is_23_23/ ai_75648237) on March 20, 2006. . Retrieved September 6, 2008.
[12] Rebecca Ascher-Walsh (July 12, 1996). "SPACE UNDER FIRE" (http:/ / www. ew. com/ ew/ article/0,,293332,00.html). Entertainment
Weekly. . Retrieved July 8, 2008.
[13] "Brent Spiner in Pasadena" (http:/ / www. classicscifi. org.uk/ brent/okie-con.htm). classicscifi.org.uk. April 25, 1999. . Retrieved January
30, 2009.
[14] [14] Aberly and Engel 1996, p. 45.
[15] Independence Day (1996) (http:// www.digitallyobsessed. com/ showreview.php3?ID=204) digitallyobsessed.com. Retrieved on July 8,
2008.
[16] [16] Aberly and Engel 1996, p. 8.
[17] The 1996 Summer Movie Preview: July (http:/ / www. ew. com/ ew/ article/ 0,,292721,00.html) Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved on July 8,
2008.
[18] [18] Aberly and Engel 1996, p. 93.
[19] [19] Aberly and Engel 1996, p. 72.
[20] [20] Aberly and Engel 1996, p. 54.
[21] [21] Aberly and Engel 1996, p. 121.
[22] [22] Aberly and Engel 1996, p. 78.
[23] [23] Aberly and Engel 1996, p. 82.
[24] [24] Aberly and Engel 1996, p. 112.
[25] [25] Aberly and Engel 1996, p. 86.
[26] [26] Aberly and Engel 1996, p. 91.
[27] [27] Aberly and Engel 1996, p. 62.
[28] [28] Aberly and Engel 1996, p. 104.
[29] [29] Aberly and Engel 1996, p. 96.
[30] [30] Aberly and Engel 1996, p. 98.
[31] "Independence Day." (http:/ / www. amazon. ca/ dp/ B00003Q43A) amazon.ca. Retrieved on March 4, 2008.
[32] http:/ / www.lalalandrecords. com
[33] http:/ / www.lalalandrecords. com/ IndependenceDay.html
[34] "UW-Eau Claire Marketing Researchers Study Super Bowl Ad Successes." (http:// www. uwec.edu/ newsreleases/ highlights/
011205superbowl. htm) University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire. Retrieved on October 1, 2007.
[35] Analysis: Super Bowl Movie Ads Lack Luster (http:// www. boxofficemojo.com/ news/ ?id=1703& p=.htm) boxofficemojo.com. Retrieved
on July 8, 2008.
[36] Rick Romell (January 27, 2007). "Ads the real stars of Super Bowl" (http:/ / www. jsonline. com/ story/ index.aspx?id=557839). Milwaukee
Journal Sentinel. . Retrieved July 8, 2008.
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[37] Apple Ties in With 20th Century Fox "Independence Day (http:/ / www. informedusa.com/ t/ independanceday.html) The online Macinstuff
Times. Retrieved on July 8, 2008.
[38] Kenneth M. Chanko (July 12, 1996). "Independence Play" (http:/ / www. ew. com/ ew/ article/ 0,,293331,00.html). Entertainment Weekly. .
Retrieved July 8, 2008.
[39] Top Ten: Most Shameless Uses Of Product Placement In Film (http:/ / www.movie-moron.com/ ?p=544) movie-moron.com. Retrieved on
July 8, 2008.
[40] Ebert & Roeper. (http:// bventertainment.go. com/ tv/ buenavista/ ebertandroeper/index2.html?sec=6& subsec=independence+ day)
atthemovies.tv. Retrieved on July 8, 2008.
[41] Todd McCarthy (July 1, 1996). "Independence Day Review" (http:/ / www. variety.com/ review/ VE1117905388.html?categoryid=31&
cs=1). Variety. . Retrieved July 8, 2008.
[42] Richard Corliss (July 8, 1996). "THE INVASION HAS BEGUN!" (http:/ / www.time. com/ time/ magazine/ article/ 0,9171,984815,00.
html). TIME. . Retrieved July 8, 2008.
[43] Mick LaSalle (July 2, 1996). "Declaration of "Independence"" (http:/ / www. sfgate. com/ cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/ a/ 1996/ 07/ 02/
DD57773. DTL). San Francisco Chronicle. . Retrieved March 4, 2008.
[44] Independence Day blitz. (http:// findarticles. com/ p/ articles/ mi_hb4360/ is_199609/ ai_n15228087) HighBeam Research. Retrieved on
July 8, 2008.
[45] "DVD details for Independence Day." (http:/ / www. imdb.com/ title/ tt0116629/dvd#B000O76T86) IMDb. Retrieved on March 4, 2008.
[46] "Alternate Versions of Independence Day" (http:/ / www.imdb.com/ title/ tt0116629/ alternateversions)
[47] "Independence Day Blu-ray" (http:/ / www. amazon. co. uk/ dp/ B000WBZZB6) Amazon UK Retrieved on July 6, 2008.
[48] "Independence Day (Blu-ray)." (http:/ / www. blu-ray.com/ movies/ movies.php?id=199) Blu-ray. Retrieved on July 5, 2008.
[49] "Independence Day: Silent Zone Product Details." (http:/ / www. amazon.com/dp/ 0061058270) Amazon.com. Retrieved on October 8,
2007.
[50] "Independence Day: Silent Zone by Stephen Molstad Publisher's Notes." (http:/ / www. biblio.com/ isbn/ 0061058270.html) Biblio.com.
Retrieved on October 8, 2007.
[51] "Independence Day UK." (http:/ / www. dswilliams. co. uk/ dirk maggs/ Independence Day Dirk Maggs.htm) dswilliams.co.uk. Retrieved
on September 25, 2007.
[52] "Search results for 'independence day'." (http:// www. gamespot. com/ search. html?type=11& stype=all& tag=search;button&
om_act=convert& om_clk=gssearch& qs=independence+ day) GameSpot. Retrieved on July 8, 2008.
[53] Independence Day (http:/ / search.ign. com/ products?query=independence+day) IGN. Retrieved on July 8, 2008.
[54] http:// movieline. com/ 2012/ 06/ 01/ independence-day-getting-3-d-re-release-in-2013/?_r=true
[55] http:/ / collider. com/ fox-wont-release-independence-day-3d/212788/
[56] A.J. Jacobs (July 19, 1996). "The Day After" (http:// www. ew. com/ ew/ article/ 0,,293427,00.html). Entertainment Weekly. . Retrieved
July 8, 2008.
[57] "Independence Day Box Office Data." (http:/ /www. the-numbers.com/ movies/ 1996/ 0ID4.php) the-numbers.com. Retrieved on March 4,
2008.
[58] "William Fay Bio." (http:/ / www. 10000bcmovie. com/ ) www.10000bcmovie.com. Retrieved on March 4, 2008.
[59] Gary Susman (May 25, 2004). "Apocalypse Wow" (http:// www. ew. com/ ew/ article/ 0,,641738_7,00.html). Entertainment Weekly. .
Retrieved July 8, 2008.
[60] Degen Pener (August 9, 1996). "Day of the Dolphin" (http:// www. ew. com/ ew/ article/0,,293634,00.html). Entertainment Weekly. .
Retrieved July 8, 2008.
[61] "Independence Day (1996) Also known as: "ID4"." (http:/ / www. rottentomatoes.com/ m/ 1071806-independence_day/ ) Rotten Tomatoes.
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[62] "Independence Day." (http:/ / www. metacritic.com/ video/ titles/ independenceday?q=Independence Day) Metacritic. Retrieved on October
16, 2007.
[63] Kevin McManus (July 5, 1996). "A Sci-Fi Flash in the Pan" (http:/ / www. washingtonpost. com/ wp-srv/style/ longterm/review96/
independencedaymcman.htm). Washington Post. . Retrieved July 8, 2008.
[64] Schwarzbaum (July 12, 1996). "Independence Day (1996)" (http:// www. ew. com/ ew/ article/0,,293279,00.html). Entertainment Weekly.
. Retrieved July 8, 2008.
[65] David Ansen (July 8, 1996). "Independence Day" (http:/ / web. archive.org/ web/ 20080522202447/ http:/ / www. msnbc. com/ m/ nw/ a/
m/ mv_i. asp#Independence Day). Newsweek. Archived from the original (http:// www. msnbc.com/ m/ nw/ a/ m/ mv_i.asp#Independence
Day) on May 22, 2008. . Retrieved July 8, 2008.
[66] Barbara Shulgasser (July 2, 1996). "THESE SCENES ARE SELF-EVIDENT" (http:// www. sfgate. com/ cgi-bin/article. cgi?f=/e/ a/ 1996/
07/02/ STYLE6573.dtl). San Francisco Examiner. . Retrieved July 8, 2008.
[67] Marc Savlov (July 8, 1996). "Independence Day" (http:/ / www. austinchronicle.com/ gyrobase/ Calendar/ Film?Film=oid:138121). Austin
Chronicle. . Retrieved July 8, 2008.
[68] Visual and Special Effects Film Milestones. (http:/ / www.filmsite. org/visualeffects16.html) filmsite.org. Retrieved on July 8, 2008.
[69] Film History of the 1990s (http:/ / www. filmsite. org/90sintro3.html) filmsite.org. Retrieved on July 8, 2008.
[70] [70] "Summer Blockbusters: The New Generation," Entertainment Weekly, Page 32, Issue #1112, July 23, 2010.
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[72] Smith, Neil (December 18, 2000). "Independence Day (1996)" (http:// www. bbc.co. uk/ films/ 2000/ 12/ 18/
independence_day_1996_review.shtml). BBC. . Retrieved September 6, 2008.
[73] Top 10 Worst Quotes or Lines From the Movies (http:// www. filmsite. org/worstquotes. html) filmsite.org. Retrieved on July 8, 2008.
[74] Roger Ebert (July 2, 1996). "Independence Day" (http:/ / rogerebert.suntimes. com/ apps/ pbcs. dll/ article?AID=/19960702/REVIEWS/
607020301/1023). Chicago Sun-Times. . Retrieved July 8, 2008.
[75] AFI's 100 Years...100 Thrills Nominees (http:// www. afi. com/ Docs/ 100Years/ thrills400. pdf)
[76] AFI's 10 Top 10 Ballot (http:/ / www. afi.com/drop/ballot.pdf)
[77] "Awards for Independence Day." (http:/ / www. imdb. com/ title/ tt0116629/ awards) IMDb. Retrieved on September 4, 2012.
[78] "ID4 II Is In The Works." (http:/ / www. scifi.com/ scifiwire/ art-main.html?2002-05/06/ 13.00.film) Sci Fi.com. Retrieved on November
5, 2007.
[79] "Saturn Exclusive: Dean Devlin on Independence Day 2." (http:/ /www. mania. com/
saturn-exclusive-dean-devlin-independence-day-2_article_34986.html) Mania Movies. Retrieved on November 5, 2007.
[80] "An Interview with Dean Devlin." (http:// movies. ign. com/ articles/ 365/ 365034p1.html) ign.com. Retrieved on November 18, 2007
[81] ID4 II Script In Works (http:// www. scifi. com/ scifiwire/ art-main.html?2003-05/ 01/ 12.15.film) Sci Fi.com. Retrieved on November 11,
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[82] "Emmerich Nixes ID4 Sequel." (http:/ / www. scifi.com/ scifiwire/ art-main.html?2004-05/06/ 10. 00.film) Sci-Fi Wire, May 6, 2004.
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[83] Parfitt, Orlando (October 13, 2009). "Independence Day 2 News" (http:/ / movies. ign. com/ articles/ 103/ 1034494p1.html). IGN
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[84] "ID4 2...ID4 3...so says Emmerich" (http:/ / www.movietome.com/ news/ 30446/ id4-2id4-3so-says-emmerich?tag=top_stories;story;2).
Movie Tome. November 12, 2009. . Retrieved November 13, 2009.
[85] "Exclusive: Producer Dean Devlin Talks INDEPENDENCE DAY Sequels, STARGATE Movie Sequels, GODZILLA and More at the
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[86] "Independence Day 2 and 3 Could Happen Without Will Smith" (http://www. movieweb. com/ news/
independence-day-2-and-3-could-happen-without-will-smith). Movieweb. 2011-10-27. . Retrieved 2012-05-29.
[87] "More comments from Devlin on hopes for Stargate sequel" (http://www. gateworld.net/ news/ 2012/ 07/
more-comments-from-devlin-on-hopes-for-stargate-sequel/ ). Gateworld. 2012-07-28. . Retrieved 2012-08-14.
[88] "Titles for the Independence Day Sequels Revealed? - ComingSoon.net" (http:// www. comingsoon.net/ news/ movienews. php?id=94653).
CraveOnline Media, LLC. 2012-09-12. . Retrieved 2012-09-12.
References
• Aberly, Rachel and Volker Engel. The Making of Independence Day. New York: HarperPaperbacks, 1996. ISBN
0-06-105359-7.
External links
• Independence Day (http:/ / www. imdb. com/ title/ tt0116629/ ) at the Internet Movie Database
• Independence Day (http:/ / www. allrovi.com/ movies/ movie/ v136197) at AllRovi
• Independence Day (http:/ / www. rottentomatoes. com/ m/ 1071806-independence_day/ ) at Rotten Tomatoes
Independent Spirit Award for Best Male Lead
155
Independent Spirit Award for Best Male Lead
The Film Independent's Spirit Award for Best Male Lead is one of the annual Independent Spirit Awards.
Notes
• "†" indicates an Academy Award-winning performance.
• "‡" indicates an Academy Award nomination
Winners and nominees
1980s
Year Winner and nominees Film Role
1985 M. Emmet Walsh Blood Simple Loren Visser
Rubén Blades Crossover Dreams Rudy Veloz
Tom Bower Wildrose Rick Ogaard
Treat Williams Smooth Talk Arnold Friend
1986 James Woods Salvador Richard Boyle ‡
Roberto Benigni Down by Law Roberto
Willem Dafoe Platoon Sgt. Elias ‡
Dennis Hopper Blue Velvet Frank Booth
Victor Love Native Son Bigger Thomas
1987 Dennis Quaid The Big Easy Det. Remy McSwain
Spalding Gray Swimming to Cambodia Himself
Terry O'Quinn The Stepfather Jerry Blake
Mickey Rourke Barfly Henry Chinaski
James Woods Best Seller Cleve
1988 Edward James Olmos Stand and Deliver Jaime Escalante ‡
Eric Bogosian Talk Radio Barry Champlain
Harvey Fierstein Torch Song Trilogy Arnold Beckoff
Chris Mulkey Patti Rocks Billy Regis
James Woods The Boost Lenny Brown
1989 Matt Dillon Drugstore Cowboy Bob Hughes
Nicolas Cage Vampire's Kiss Peter Loew
Charles Lane Sidewalk Stories Artist
Randy Quaid Parents Nick Laemle
James Spader Sex, Lies, and Videotape Graham Dalton
Independent Spirit Award for Best Male Lead
156
1990s
Year Winner and nominees Film Role
1990 Danny Glover To Sleep with Anger Harry
Martin Priest The Plot Against Harry Harry Plotnick
Christopher Reid House Party Kid
Michael Rooker Henry: Portrait of a Serial Killer Henry
Christian Slater Pump Up the Volume Mark Hunter
1991 River Phoenix My Own Private Idaho Mike Waters
Doug E. Doug Hangin' with the Homeboys Willie
Robert Duvall Rambling Rose Daddy Hillyer
Gary Oldman Rosencrantz & Guildenstern Are Dead Rosencrantz
William Russ Pastime Roy Dean Bream
1992 Harvey Keitel Bad Lieutenant The Lieutenant
Craig Chester Swoon Nathan Leopold Jr.
Laurence Fishburne Deep Cover Russell Stevens / John Hull
Peter Greene Laws of Gravity Jimmy
Michael Rapaport Zebrahead Zack
1993 Jeff Bridges American Heart Jack Kelson
Vincent D'Onofrio Household Saints Joseph Santangelo
Mitchell Lichtenstein The Wedding Banquet Simon
Matthew Modine Equinox Henry Petosa / Freddy Ace
Tyrin Turner Menace II Society Caine
1994 Samuel L. Jackson Pulp Fiction Jules Winnfield ‡
Sihung Lung Eat Drink Man Woman Chu
William H. Macy Oleanna John
Campbell Scott Mrs. Parker and the Vicious Circle Robert Benchley
Jon Seda I Like It Like That Chino Linares
1995 Sean Penn Dead Man Walking Matthew Poncelet ‡
Nicolas Cage Leaving Las Vegas Ben Sanderson †
Tim Roth Little Odessa Joshua Shapira
Jimmy Smits My Family Jimmy Sánchez
Kevin Spacey Swimming with Sharks Buddy Ackerman
1996 William H. Macy Fargo Jerry Lundegaard ‡
Chris Cooper Lone Star Sheriff Sam Deeds
Chris Penn The Funeral Chez
Tony Shalhoub Big Night Primo
Stanley Tucci Big Night Secondo
Independent Spirit Award for Best Male Lead
157
1997 Robert Duvall The Apostle Euliss 'Sonny' Dewey - The Apostle E.F. ‡
Peter Fonda Ulee's Gold Ulee Jackson ‡
Christopher Guest Waiting for Guffman Corky St. Clair
Philip Baker Hall Hard Eight Sydney Brown
John Turturro Box of Moon Light Al Fountain
1998 Ian McKellen Gods and Monsters James Whale ‡
Dylan Baker Happiness Bill Maplewood
Nick Nolte Affliction Wade Whitehouse ‡
Sean Penn Hurlyburly Eddie
Courtney B. Vance Blind Faith John Williams
1999 Richard Farnsworth The Straight Story Alvin Straight ‡
John Cusack Being John Malkovich Craig Schwartz
Terence Stamp The Limey Wilson
David Strathairn Limbo 'Jumpin' Joe Gastineau
Noble Willingham The Corndog Man Ace Barker
2000s
Year Winner and nominees Film Role
2000 Javier Bardem Before Night Falls Reinaldo Arenas ‡
Adrien Brody Restaurant Chris Calloway
Billy Crudup Jesus' Son FH
Hill Harper The Visit Alex Waters
Mark Ruffalo You Can Count on Me Terry Prescott
2001 Tom Wilkinson In the Bedroom Matt Fowler ‡
Brian Cox L.I.E. Big John Harrigan
Ryan Gosling The Believer Danny Balint
Jake Gyllenhaal Donnie Darko Donnie Darko
John Cameron Mitchell Hedwig and the Angry Inch Hansel Schmidt / Hedwig Robinson
2002 Derek Luke Antwone Fisher Antwone "Fish" Fisher
Graham Greene Skins Mogie Yellow Lodge
Danny Huston Ivans Xtc Ivan Beckman
Jeremy Renner Dahmer Jeffrey Dahmer
Campbell Scott Roger Dodger Roger Swanson
2003 Bill Murray Lost in Translation Bob Harris ‡
Peter Dinklage The Station Agent Finbar McBride
Paul Giamatti American Splendor Harvey Pekar
Ben Kingsley House of Sand and Fog Behrani ‡
Lee Pace Soldier's Girl Calpernia Addams / Scottie
Independent Spirit Award for Best Male Lead
158
2004 Paul Giamatti Sideways Miles Raymond
Kevin Bacon The Woodsman Walter
Jeff Bridges The Door in the Floor Ted Cole
Jamie Foxx Redemption Stan Tookie Williams
Liam Neeson Kinsey Alfred Kinsey
2005 Philip Seymour Hoffman Capote Truman Capote †
Jeff Daniels The Squid and the Whale Bernard Berkman
Terrence Howard Hustle & Flow DJay ‡
Heath Ledger Brokeback Mountain Ennis Del Mar ‡
David Strathairn Good Night, and Good Luck Edward R. Murrow ‡
2006 Ryan Gosling Half Nelson Dan Dunne ‡
Aaron Eckhart Thank You for Smoking Nick Naylor
Edward Norton The Painted Veil Walter Fane
Ahmad Razvi Man Push Cart Ahmad
Forest Whitaker American Gun Carter
2007 Philip Seymour Hoffman The Savages Jon Savage
Pedro Castaneda August Evening Jaime
Don Cheadle Talk to Me Petey Greene
Frank Langella Starting Out in the Evening Leonard Schiller
Tony Leung Lust, Caution Mr. Yee
2008 Mickey Rourke The Wrestler Randy 'The Ram' Robinson ‡
Javier Bardem Vicky Cristina Barcelona Juan Antonio Gonzalo
Richard Jenkins The Visitor Walter Vale ‡
Sean Penn Milk Harvey Milk †
Jeremy Renner The Hurt Locker SFC. William James ‡
2009 Jeff Bridges Crazy Heart Bad Blake †
Colin Firth A Single Man George Falconer ‡
Joseph Gordon-Levitt (500) Days of Summer Tom Hansen
Souleymane Sy Savane Goodbye Solo Solo
Adam Scott The Vicious Kind Caleb Sinclaire
2010s
Independent Spirit Award for Best Male Lead
159
Year Winner and nominees Film Role
2010 James Franco 127 Hours Aron Ralston ‡
Ronald Bronstein Daddy Longlegs Lenny Sokol
Aaron Eckhart Rabbit Hole Howie Corbett
John C. Reilly Cyrus John Kilpatrick
Ben Stiller Greenberg Roger Greenberg
2011 Jean Dujardin The Artist George Valentin †
Demián Bichir A Better Life Carlos Galindo ‡
Ryan Gosling Drive Driver
Woody Harrelson Rampart Dave Brown
Michael Shannon Take Shelter Curtis LaForche
2012 TBA TBA TBA
Jack Black Bernie Bernie Tiede
Bradley Cooper Silver Linings Playbook Pat
John Hawkes The Sessions Mark
Thure Lindhardt Keep the Lights On Erik
Matthew McConaughey Killer Joe "Killer" Joe Cooper
Wendell Pierce Four Joe
External links
• Full list of all Nominees and Winners
[1]
References
[1] http:/ / spiritawards. com/ files/ SA-09_noms-winners.pdf
Jack Quaid
160
Jack Quaid
Jack Quaid
Born Jack Henry Quaid
April 24, 1992
Los Angeles, California, US
Occupation Actor
Years active 2011–present
Jack Henry Quaid (born April 24, 1992)
[1]
is an American actor, the son of actors Meg Ryan and Dennis Quaid and
the nephew of Randy Quaid. His recent films include The Hunger Games and a short film, Sitting Babies. The
Hunger Games was his first major role.
Quaid was born in Los Angeles, California. In April 2011, it was announced that Quaid had been cast as the District
One tribute Marvel in the much-anticipated film The Hunger Games.
[2]
The movie was released internationally on
March 23, 2012.
He is currently studying Drama in the Experimental Theatre Wing at New York University.
Filmography
Year Title Role Notes
2013 Running Wild Eric Movie
2012 The Hunger Games Marvel Movie
2012 Just 45 Minutes from Broadway Danny Movie
2011 Sitting Babies Doug Short Movie
References
[1] Richter, Erin (February 16, 2001). "Her Funny Valentine: Dennis Quaid and Meg Ryan tied the knot 10 years ago" (http:// www. ew. com/
ew/ article/0,,279774,00. html). EW.com. Entertainment Weekly. . Retrieved March 8, 2012.
[2] Ng, Philiana (April 19, 2011). "'Hunger Games' Casts Two More Tributes: Jack Quaid and Leven Rambin join Lionsgate's film adaptation of
Suzanne Collins' trilogy." (http:/ / www. hollywoodreporter.com/ heat-vision/ hunger-games-casts-two-more-179842). The Hollywood
Reporter. . Retrieved March 8, 2012.
External links
• Jack Quaid (http:/ / www. imdb.com/ name/ nm4425051/ ) at the Internet Movie Database
John Steinbeck
161
John Steinbeck
John Steinbeck
Steinbeck in Sweden during his trip to accept the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1962
Born John Ernst Steinbeck, Jr.
February 27, 1902
Salinas, California
Died December 20, 1968 (aged 66)
New York City, United States
Occupation Novelist, short story writer, war correspondent
Notable work(s)
Of Mice and Men (1937)
The Grapes of Wrath (1939)
East of Eden (1952)
[1]
Notable award(s) Pulitzer Prize for Fiction (1940)
Nobel Prize in Literature (1962)
Signature
John Ernst Steinbeck, Jr. (February 27, 1902 – December 20, 1968) was an American writer. He is widely known
for the Pulitzer Prize-winning novel The Grapes of Wrath (1939) and East of Eden (1952) and the novella Of Mice
and Men (1937). As the author of twenty-seven books, including sixteen novels, six non-fiction books, and five
collections of short stories, Steinbeck received the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1962.
Life
The Steinbeck House at 132 Central Avenue,
Salinas, California, the Victorian home where
Steinbeck spent his childhood.
John Ernst Steinbeck, Jr. was born on February 27, 1902, in Salinas,
California. He was of German, English, and Irish descent.
[2]
Johann
Adolf Großsteinbeck, Steinbeck's paternal grandfather, had shortened
the family name to Steinbeck when he emigrated to the United States.
The family farm in Heiligenhaus, Mettmann, North Rhine-Westphalia,
Germany, is still today named "Großsteinbeck."
His father, John Ernst Steinbeck, served as Monterey County treasurer.
John's mother, Olive Hamilton, a former school teacher, shared
Steinbeck's passion of reading and writing.
[3]
The Steinbecks were
members of the Episcopal Church.
[4]
Steinbeck lived in a small rural
town that was essentially a frontier settlement, set amid some of the
world's most fertile land.
[5]
He spent his summers working on nearby ranches and later with migrant workers on
Spreckels ranch. He became aware of the harsher aspects of migrant life and the darker side of human nature, which
supplied him with material expressed in such works as Of Mice and Men.
[5]
He also explored his surroundings,
walking across local forests, fields, and farms.
[5]
Steinbeck graduated from Salinas High School in 1919 and went from there to Stanford University in Palo Alto
where he stayed for five years until 1925, leaving without a degree. He traveled to New York City where he took odd
John Steinbeck
162
jobs while trying to write. When he failed to have his work published, he returned to California and worked in 1928
as a tour guide and caretaker at the fish hatchery in Tahoe City, where he met Carol Henning, his first wife.
[3][6][7]
Steinbeck and Henning were married in January 1930. For most of the Great Depression and during his marriage to
Carol, Steinbeck lived in a cottage owned by his father in Pacific Grove, California, on the Monterey Peninsula a
few blocks from the border of the city of Monterey, California. The elder Steinbecks gave him free housing, paper
for his manuscripts, and beginning in 1928, loans that allowed him to give up a warehouse job in San Francisco, and
focus on writing.
[7]
The Steinbeck family graves in the Hamilton plot
at the Salinas Cemetery
His 1935 novel Tortilla Flat, set in post-war Monterey, California,
became his first commercially-successful work. With some of the
proceeds he built a summer ranch-home in Los Gatos. His next works
were the California farm-worker depression-era novels In Dubious
Battle, Of Mice and Men, and The Grapes of Wrath. The allusive titles
were suggested by his wife after reading the manuscripts.
In 1940, Steinbeck went on a voyage around the Gulf of California
with his friend Ed Ricketts, to collect biological specimens, described
in The Log from the Sea of Cortez. Although Carol accompanied
Steinbeck on the trip, their marriage was beginning to suffer, and
would end in 1941, even as Steinbeck worked on the manuscript for
the book.
[7]
In 1942, Steinbeck's divorce from Carol became final and later that month he married Gwyndolyn
"Gwyn" Conger.
[8]
With his second wife Steinbeck had his only children—Thomas ("Thom") Myles Steinbeck (born
1944) and John Steinbeck IV (1946–1991).
In 1943, Steinbeck served as a World War II war correspondent. Steinbeck accompanied the commando raids of
Douglas Fairbanks, Jr.'s Beach Jumpers program, which launched small-unit diversion operations against
German-held islands in the Mediterranean. In 1944, wounded by a close munitions explosion in North Africa, the
war-weary author resigned from his work and returned home.
In 1947, Steinbeck made the first of many trips to the Soviet Union, this one with renowned photographer Robert
Capa. They visited Moscow, Kiev, Tbilisi, Batumi and Stalingrad, becoming some of the first Westerners to visit
many parts of the USSR since the communist revolution. Steinbeck's book about their experiences, A Russian
Journal, was illustrated with Capa's photos. In 1948, the year the book was published, Steinbeck was elected to the
American Academy of Arts and Letters.
In May, 1948 Steinbeck traveled to California on an emergency trip to be with his friend Ed Ricketts, who had been
seriously injured when his car was struck by a train. Ricketts died hours before Steinbeck arrived. Upon returning
home from this devastating trip, Steinbeck was confronted by Gwyn, who told him she wanted a divorce for various
reasons related to estrangement. She could not be dissuaded, and the divorce became final in August. Steinbeck
spent the year after Ricketts' death in deep depression, by his own account.
In June, 1949, Steinbeck met stage-manager Elaine Scott at a restaurant in Carmel, California. Steinbeck and Scott
eventually began a relationship and in December, 1950, Steinbeck and Scott married, within a week of the finalizing
of Scott's own divorce from actor Zachary Scott. This third marriage for Steinbeck lasted until his death in 1968.
[9]
In 1966, Steinbeck traveled to Tel Aviv to visit the site of Mount Hope, a farm community established in Israel by
his grandfather, whose brother, Friedrich Grosssteinbeck, was murdered by Arab marauders in 1858.
[10]
John Steinbeck died in New York City on December 20, 1968 of heart disease and congestive heart failure. He was
66, and had been a lifelong smoker. An autopsy showed nearly complete occlusion of the main coronary arteries.
[9]
In accordance with his wishes, his body was cremated, and an urn containing his ashes was eventually interred
(March 4, 1969)
[11]
at the Hamilton family gravesite at Garden of Memories Memorial Park in Salinas, with those of
his parents and maternal grandparents. His third wife, Elaine, was buried in the plot in 2004. He had earlier written
John Steinbeck
163
to his doctor that he felt deeply "in his flesh" that he would not survive his physical death, and that the biological end
of his life was the final end to it.
[12]
Literary career
Steinbeck's first novel, Cup of Gold, published in 1929, is based on the life and death of privateer Henry Morgan. It
centers on Morgan's assault and sacking of the city of Panama, sometimes referred to as the 'Cup of Gold', and on the
woman, fairer than the sun, who was said to be found there.
[9]
After Cup of Gold, between 1931 and 1933 Steinbeck produced three shorter works. The Pastures of Heaven,
published in 1932, comprised twelve interconnected stories about a valley near Monterey, which was discovered by
a Spanish corporal while chasing runaway Indian slaves. In 1933 Steinbeck published The Red Pony, a 100-page,
four-chapter story weaving in memories of Steinbeck's childhood.
[9]
To a God Unknown follows the life of a
homesteader and his family in California, depicting a character with a primal and pagan worship of the land he
works.
Steinbeck achieved his first critical success with Tortilla Flat (1935), a novel that won the California
Commonwealth Club's Gold Medal.
[9]
It portrays the adventures of a group of classless and usually homeless young
men in Monterey after World War I, just before U.S. prohibition. They are portrayed in ironic comparison to mythic
knights on a quest and reject nearly all the standard mores of American society in enjoyment of a dissolute life
centered around wine, lust, camaraderie and petty theft. In presenting the 1962 Nobel Prize to Steinbeck, the
Swedish Academy cited "spicy and comic tales about a gang of paisanos, asocial individuals who, in their wild
revels, are almost caricatures of King Arthur's Knights of the Round Table. It has been said that in the United States
this book came as a welcome antidote to the gloom of the then prevailing depression."
[1]
Tortilla Flat was adapted as
a 1942 film of the same name, starring Spencer Tracy, Hedy Lamarr and John Garfield, a friend of Steinbeck's.
Steinbeck began to write a series of "California novels" and Dust Bowl fiction, set among common people during the
Great Depression. These included In Dubious Battle, Of Mice and Men and The Grapes of Wrath.
Of Mice and Men was a drama about the dreams of a pair of migrant agricultural laborers in California. It was
critically acclaimed
[9]
and Steinbeck's 1962 Nobel Prize citation called it a "little masterpiece".
[1]
Its stage
production was a hit, starring Broderick Crawford as the mentally childlike but physically powerful itinerant
farmhand Lennie, and Wallace Ford as Lennie's companion George. However, Steinbeck refused to travel from his
home in California to attend any performance of the play during its New York run, telling director George S.
Kaufman that the play as it existed in his own mind was "perfect" and that anything presented on stage would only
be a disappointment. Steinbeck would write two more stage plays (The Moon Is Down and Burning Bright).
Of Mice and Men was also adapted as a 1939 Hollywood film, with Lon Chaney, Jr. as Lennie (he had filled the role
in the Los Angeles stage production) and Burgess Meredith as George.
[13]
Steinbeck followed this wave of success with The Grapes of Wrath (1939), based on newspaper articles about
migrant agricultural workers that he had written in San Francisco. It is commonly considered his greatest work.
According to The New York Times, it was the best-selling book of 1939 and 430,000 copies had been printed by
February 1940. In that month it won the National Book Award, favorite fiction book of 1939, voted by members of
the American Booksellers Association.
[14]
Later that year it won the Pulitzer Prize for Fiction
[15]
and it was adapted
as a film directed by John Ford, starring Henry Fonda as Tom Joad; Fonda was nominated for the best actor
Academy Award.
Grapes was controversial. Steinbeck's New Deal political views, negative portrayal of aspects of capitalism, and
sympathy for the plight of workers, led to a backlash against the author, especially close to home.
[16]
Claiming the
book was both obscene and misrepresented conditions in the county, the Kern County Board of Supervisors banned
the book from the county's publicly funded schools and libraries in August 1939. This ban lasted until January
1941.
[17]
John Steinbeck
164
Of the controversy, Steinbeck wrote, "The vilification of me out here from the large landowners and bankers is pretty
bad. The latest is a rumor started by them that the Okies hate me and have threatened to kill me for lying about them.
I'm frightened at the rolling might of this damned thing. It is completely out of hand; I mean a kind of hysteria about
the book is growing that is not healthy."
The film versions of The Grapes of Wrath and Of Mice and Men (by two different movie studios) were in production
simultaneously, allowing Steinbeck to spend a full day on the set of The Grapes of Wrath and the next day on the set
of Of Mice and Men.
Ed Ricketts
In the 1930s and 1940s, Ed Ricketts strongly influenced Steinbeck's writing. Steinbeck frequently took small trips
with Ricketts along the California coast to give Steinbeck time off from his writing
[12]
and to collect biological
specimens, which Ricketts sold for a living. Their joint book about a collecting expedition to the Gulf of California
in 1940, which was part travelogue and part natural history, published just as the U.S. entered World War II, never
found an audience and did not sell well.
[12]
However, in 1951, Steinbeck republished the narrative portion of the
book as The Log from the Sea of Cortez, under his name only (though Ricketts had written some of it). This work
remains in print today.
[18]
Ricketts was Steinbeck's model for the character of "Doc" in Cannery Row (1945) and Sweet Thursday (1954),
"Friend Ed" in Burning Bright, and characters in In Dubious Battle (1936) and The Grapes of Wrath (1939).
Ecological themes recur in Steinbeck's novels of the period.
[19]
Steinbeck's close relations with Ricketts ended in 1941 when Steinbeck moved away from Pacific Grove and
divorced from his wife Carol.
[12]
Ricketts' biographer Eric Enno Tamm notes that, except for East of Eden (1952),
Steinbeck's writing declined after Ricketts' untimely death in 1948.
[19]
World War II
His novel The Moon Is Down (1942), about the Socrates-inspired spirit of resistance in an occupied village in
Northern Europe, was made into a film almost immediately. It was presumed that the unnamed country of the novel
was Norway and the occupiers the Nazis, and in 1945 Steinbeck received the Haakon VII Cross of freedom for his
literary contributions to the Norwegian resistance movement.
In 1943, Steinbeck served as a World War II war correspondent for the New York Herald Tribune and worked with
the Office of Strategic Services (predecessor of the CIA).
[20]
It was at that time he became friends with Will Lang,
Jr. of Time/Life magazine. During the war, Steinbeck accompanied the commando raids of Douglas Fairbanks, Jr.'s
Beach Jumpers program, which launched small-unit diversion operations against German-held islands in the
Mediterranean. Some of his writings from this period were incorporated in the documentary Once There Was a War
(1958).
Steinbeck returned from the war with a number of wounds from shrapnel and some psychological trauma. He treated
himself, as ever, by writing. He wrote Alfred Hitchcock's Lifeboat (1944), and the film A Medal for Benny (1945)
with screenwriter Jack Wagner about paisanos from Tortilla Flat going to war. He later requested that his name be
removed from the credits of Lifeboat because he believed the final version of the film had racist undertones. In 1944,
suffering from homesickness for his Pacific Grove/Monterey life of the 1930s, he also wrote Cannery Row (1945)
which became so famous that Ocean View Avenue in Monterey, the location of the book, was eventually renamed
Cannery Row in 1958.
After the end of the war, he wrote The Pearl (1947), already knowing it would be filmed. The story first appeared in
the December 1945 issue of Woman's Home Companion magazine as "The Pearl of the World." It was illustrated by
John Alan Maxwell. The novel is an imaginative telling of a story which Steinbeck had heard in La Paz in 1940, as
related in The Log From the Sea of Cortez, which he described in Chapter 11 as being "so much like a parable that it
almost can't be". Steinbeck traveled to Mexico for the filming with Wagner who helped with the script; on this trip
John Steinbeck
165
he would be inspired by the story of Emiliano Zapata, and subsequently wrote a film script (Viva Zapata!) directed
by Elia Kazan and starring Marlon Brando and Anthony Quinn.
New York
Steinbeck married for the last time in 1950. Soon after, he began work on East of Eden (1952), which he considered
his best work.
In 1952, John Steinbeck appeared as the on-screen narrator of 20th Century Fox's film, O. Henry's Full House.
Although Steinbeck later admitted he was uncomfortable before the camera, he provided interesting introductions to
several filmed adaptations of short stories by the legendary writer O. Henry. About the same time, Steinbeck
recorded readings of several of his short stories for Columbia Records; despite some stiffness, the recordings provide
a record of Steinbeck's deep, resonant voice.
Following the success of Viva Zapata!, Steinbeck collaborated with Kazan on East of Eden, James Dean's film
debut.
Rocinante, camper truck in which Steinbeck
traveled across the United States in 1960
Travels with Charley (subtitle: In Search of America) is a travelogue of
his 1960 road trip with his poodle Charley. Steinbeck bemoans his lost
youth and roots, while dispensing both criticism and praise for
America. According to Steinbeck's son Thom, Steinbeck went on the
trip because he knew he was dying and wanted to see the country one
last time.
[21]
Steinbeck's last novel, The Winter of Our Discontent (1961), examines
moral decline in America. The protagonist Ethan grows discontented
with his own moral decline and that of those around him.
[22]
The book
is very different in tone from Steinbeck's amoral and ecological stance
in earlier works like Tortilla Flat and Cannery Row. It was not a
critical success. Many reviewers recognized the importance of the novel but were disappointed that it was not
another Grapes of Wrath.
[22]
In the Nobel Prize presentation speech next year, however, the Swedish Academy cited
it most favorably: "Here he attained the same standard which he set in The Grapes of Wrath. Again he holds his
position as an independent expounder of the truth with an unbiased instinct for what is genuinely American, be it
good or bad."
[1]
Apparently taken aback by the critical reception of this novel, and the critical outcry when he was awarded the Nobel
Prize for Literature in 1962,
[23]
Steinbeck published no more fiction in the next six years before his death.
Nobel Prize
In 1962, Steinbeck won the Nobel Prize for literature for his "realistic and imaginative writing, combining as it does
sympathetic humor and keen social perception." The selection was heavily criticized, and described as "one of the
Academy's biggest mistakes" in one Swedish newspaper.
[23]
The New York Times asked why the Nobel committee
gave the award to an author whose "limited talent is, in his best books, watered down by tenth-rate philosophising",
adding; "we think it interesting that the laurel was not awarded to a writer ... whose significance, influence and sheer
body of work had already made a more profound impression on the literature of our age".
[23]
Steinbeck himself,
when asked if he deserved the Nobel on the day of the announcement, replied: "Frankly, no."
[7][23]
In his acceptance
speech later in the year in Stockholm, he said:
the writer is delegated to declare and to celebrate man's proven capacity for greatness of heart and spirit—for
gallantry in defeat, for courage, compassion and love. In the endless war against weakness and despair, these
are the bright rally flags of hope and of emulation. I hold that a writer who does not believe in the
perfectibility of man has no dedication nor any membership in literature.
John Steinbeck
166
—Steinbeck Nobel Prize Acceptance Speech
[24]
In 2012 (50 years later), the Nobel Prize opened its archives and it was revealed that Steinbeck was a "compromise
choice" among a shortlist consisting of Steinbeck, British authors Robert Graves and Lawrence Durrell, French
dramatist Jean Anouilh and Danish author Karen Blixen.
[23]
The declassified documents showed that he was chosen
as the best of a bad lot,
[23]
"There aren't any obvious candidates for the Nobel prize and the prize committee is in an
unenviable situation," wrote committee member Henry Olsson.
[23]
Although the committee believe Steinbeck's best
work was behind him by 1962, committee member Anders Österling believed the release of his new novel The
Winter of Our Discontent in 1961 showed that "after some signs of slowing down in recent years, [Steinbeck has]
regained his position as a social truth-teller [and is an] authentic realist fully equal to his predecessors Sinclair Lewis
and Ernest Hemingway."
[23]
Although modest about his own talent as a writer, Steinbeck talked openly of his own admiration of certain writers.
In 1953, he wrote that he considered cartoonist Al Capp, creator of the satirical Li'l Abner, "possibly the best writer
in the world today."
[25]
At his own first Nobel Prize press conference he was asked his favorite authors and works
and replied: "Hemingway's short stories and nearly everything Faulkner wrote."
[7]
In September 1964, Steinbeck was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom by President Lyndon B. Johnson.
In 1967, at the behest of Newsday magazine, Steinbeck went to Vietnam to report on the war there. Thinking of the
Vietnam War as a heroic venture, he was considered a hawk for his position on that war. His sons both served in
Vietnam prior to his death, and Steinbeck visited one son in the battlefield (at one point being allowed to man a
machine-gun watch position at night at a firebase, while his son and other members of his platoon slept).
[26]
After Steinbeck's death, his incomplete novel based on the King Arthur legends of Malory and others, The Acts of
King Arthur and His Noble Knights, was finally published in 1976.
Legacy
The day after Steinbeck's death in New York City, reviewer Charles Poore wrote in the New York Times: "John
Steinbeck's first great book was his last great book. But Good Lord, what a book that was and is: The Grapes of
Wrath." Poore noted a "preachiness" in Steinbeck's work, "as if half his literary inheritance came from the best of
Mark Twain— and the other half from the worst of Cotton Mather." But he asserted that "Steinbeck didn't need the
Nobel Prize— the Nobel judges needed him."
Many of Steinbeck's works are on required reading lists in American high schools. In the United Kingdom, Of Mice
and Men is one of the key texts used by the examining body AQA for its English Literature GCSE. A study by the
Center for the Learning and Teaching of Literature in the United States found that Of Mice and Men was one of the
ten most frequently read books in public high schools.
[27]
At the same time, The Grapes of Wrath has been banned by school boards: in August 1939, Kern County Board of
Supervisors banned the book from the county's publicly funded schools and libraries.
[17]
It was burned in Salinas on
two different occasions.
[28][29]
In 2003, a school board in Mississippi banned it on the grounds of profanity.
[30]
According to the American Library Association Steinbeck was one of the ten most frequently banned authors from
1990 to 2004, with Of Mice and Men ranking sixth out of 100 such books in the United States.
[31][32]
Literary influences
Steinbeck grew up in California's Salinas Valley, a culturally diverse place with a rich migratory and immigrant
history. This upbringing imparted a regionalistic flavor to his writing, giving many of his works a distinct sense of
place.
[5][9]
Salinas, Monterey and parts of the San Joaquin Valley were the setting for many of his stories. The area is
now sometimes referred to as "Steinbeck Country".
[12]
Most of his early work dealt with subjects familiar to him
from his formative years. An exception was his first novel, Cup of Gold, which concerns the pirate Henry Morgan,
whose adventures had captured Steinbeck's imagination as a child.
John Steinbeck
167
In his subsequent novels, Steinbeck found a more authentic voice by drawing upon direct memories of his life in
California. His childhood friend, Max Wagner, a brother of Jack Wagner and who later became a film actor, served
as inspiration for The Red Pony. Later he used real American historical conditions and events in the first half of the
20th century, which he had experienced first-hand as a reporter. Steinbeck often populated his stories with struggling
characters; his works examined the lives of the working class and migrant workers during the Dust Bowl and the
Great Depression.
His later work reflected his wide range of interests, including marine biology, politics, religion, history and
mythology. One of his last published works was Travels with Charley, a travelogue of a road trip he took in 1960 to
rediscover America.
Commemoration
Cannery Row in Monterey
National Steinbeck Center in Salinas, California
Steinbeck's boyhood home, a turreted Victorian building in downtown
Salinas, has been preserved and restored by the Valley Guild, a
nonprofit organization. Fixed menu lunches are served Monday
through Saturday, and the house is open for tours during the summer
on Sunday afternoons.
[33]
The National Steinbeck Center, two blocks away at 1 Main Street is the
only museum in the U.S. dedicated to a single author. Dana Gioia
(chair of the National Endowment for the Arts) told an audience at the
center, "This is really the best modern literary shrine in the country,
and I've seen them all." Its "Steinbeckiana" includes "Rocinante," the
camper-truck in which Steinbeck made the cross-country trip described
in "Travels with Charley."
His father's cottage on Eleventh Street in Pacific Grove, where
Steinbeck wrote some of his earliest books, also survives.
[12]
In Monterey, Ed Ricketts' laboratory survives (though it is not yet open
to the public) and at the corner which Steinbeck describes in Cannery
Row, also the store which once belonged to Lee Chong, and the
adjacent vacant lot frequented by the hobos of Cannery Row. The site
of the Hovden Sardine Cannery next to Doc's laboratory is now
occupied by the Monterey Bay Aquarium. However, the street that
Steinbeck described as "Cannery Row" in the novel, once named
Ocean View Avenue, was renamed Cannery Row in honor of the novel, in 1958. The town of Monterey has
commemorated Steinbeck's work with an avenue of flags depicting characters from Cannery Row, historical plaques,
and sculptured busts depicting Steinbeck and Ricketts.
[12]
On February 27, 1979 (the 77th anniversary of the writer's birth), the United States Postal Service issued a stamp
featuring Steinbeck, starting the Postal Service’s Literary Arts series honoring American writers.
[34]
On December 5, 2007 California Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger and First Lady Maria Shriver inducted Steinbeck
into the California Hall of Fame, located at the California Museum for History, Women and the Arts.
[35]
His son,
author Thomas Steinbeck, accepted the award on his behalf.
John Steinbeck
168
Political views
John Steinbeck with 19 year-old son John (left),
visits his friend, President Johnson, in the Oval
Office, May 16, 1966. John Jr. is shortly to leave
for active duty in Vietnam.
Steinbeck's contacts with leftist authors, journalists, and labor union
figures may have influenced his writing and he joined the League of
American Writers, a Communist organization, in 1935. Steinbeck was
mentored by radical writers Lincoln Steffens and his wife Ella Winter.
Through Francis Whitaker, a member of the United States Communist
Party’s John Reed Club for writers, Steinbeck met with strike
organizers from the Cannery and Agricultural Workers' Industrial
Union.
[36]
Steinbeck was a close associate of playwright Arthur Miller. In June
1959, Steinbeck took a personal and professional risk by standing up
for him when Miller refused to name names in the House Un-American
Activities Committee trials.
[28]
Steinbeck called the period one of the
"strangest and most frightening times a government and people have
ever faced."
[28]
In 1967, when he was sent to Vietnam to report on the war, his
sympathetic portrayal of the United States Army led the New York Post
to denounce him for betraying his liberal past. Steinbeck's biographer,
Jay Parini, says Steinbeck's friendship with President Lyndon B.
Johnson influenced his views on Vietnam.
[9]
Steinbeck may also have
been concerned about the safety of his son serving in Vietnam.
Government harassment
Steinbeck complained publicly about government harassment. Thomas Steinbeck, the author's eldest son, said that J.
Edgar Hoover, director of the FBI at the time, could find no basis for prosecuting Steinbeck and therefore used his
power to encourage the U.S. Internal Revenue Service to audit Steinbeck's taxes every single year of his life, just to
annoy him. According to Thomas, a true artist is one who "without a thought for self, stands up against the stones of
condemnation, and speaks for those who are given no real voice in the halls of justice, or the halls of government. By
doing so these people will naturally become the enemies of the political status quo."
[37]
In a 1942 letter to United States Attorney General Francis Biddle, he wrote: "Do you suppose you could ask Edgar's
boys to stop stepping on my heels? They think I am an enemy alien. It is getting tiresome."
[38]
The FBI denied that
Steinbeck was under investigation.
John Steinbeck
169
Major works
In Dubious Battle
In 1936 Steinbeck published the first of what came to be known as his Dustbowl trilogy, which included Of Mice
and Men and The Grapes of Wrath. This first novel tells the story of a fruit pickers' strike in California which is both
aided and damaged by the help of "the Party," generally taken to be the Communist Party, although this is never
spelled out in the book.
Of Mice and Men
Of Mice and Men is a tragedy that was written in the form of a play in 1937. The story is about two traveling ranch
workers, George and Lennie, trying to work up enough money to buy their own farm/ranch. As it is set in 1930's
America, it provides an insight into The Great Depression, encompassing themes of racism, loneliness, prejudice
against the mentally ill, and the struggle for personal independence. Along with Grapes of Wrath, East of Eden, and
The Pearl, Of Mice and Men is one of Steinbeck's best known works. It was made into a movie three times, in 1939
starring Burgess Meredith, Lon Chaney Jr., and Betty Field, in 1982 starring Randy Quaid, Robert Blake and Ted
Neeley, and in 1992 starring Gary Sinise and John Malkovich.
The Grapes of Wrath
The Grapes of Wrath is set in the Great Depression and describes a family of sharecroppers, the Joads, who were
driven from their land due to the dust storms of the Dust Bowl. The title is a reference to the Battle Hymn of the
Republic. Some critics found it too sympathetic to the workers' plight and too critical of capitalism but it found quite
a large audience in the working class. It won both the National Book Award and Pulitzer Prize for fiction (novels)
and was adapted as a film starring Henry Fonda and directed by John Ford.
East of Eden
Steinbeck deals with the nature of good and evil in this Salinas Valley saga. The story follows two families: the
Hamiltons – based on Steinbeck's own maternal ancestry – and the Trasks, reprising stories about the Biblical Adam
and his progeny. The book was published in 1952. It was made into a movie in 1955 directed by Elia Kazan starring
James Dean.
Travels with Charley
In 1960, Steinbeck bought a pickup truck and had it modified with a custom-built camper top – which was rare at the
time – and drove across the United States with his faithful 'blue' standard poodle, Charley. Steinbeck nicknamed his
truck Rocinante after Don Quixote's "noble steed". In this sometimes comical, sometimes melancholic book,
Steinbeck describes what he sees from Maine to Montana to California, and from there to Texas and Louisiana and
back to his home on Long Island. The restored camper truck is on exhibit in the National Steinbeck Center in
Salinas.
John Steinbeck
170
Bibliography
• Cup of Gold (1929)
• The Pastures of Heaven (1932)
• The Red Pony (1933)
• To a God Unknown (1933)
• Tortilla Flat (1935)
• In Dubious Battle (1936)
• Of Mice and Men (1937)
• The Long Valley (1938)
• The Grapes of Wrath (1939)
• The Forgotten Village (1941)
• Sea of Cortez: A Leisurely Journal of Travel and Research (1941)
• The Moon Is Down (1942)
• Bombs Away: The Story of a Bomber Team (1942)
• Cannery Row (1945)
• The Wayward Bus (1947)
• The Pearl (1947)
• A Russian Journal (1948)
• Burning Bright (1950)
• The Log from the Sea of Cortez (1951)
• East of Eden (1952)
• Sweet Thursday (1954)
• The Short Reign of Pippin IV: A Fabrication (1957)
• Once There Was A War (1958)
• The Winter of Our Discontent (1961)
• Travels with Charley: In Search of America (1962)
• America and Americans (1966)
• Journal of a Novel: The East of Eden Letters (1969)
• Viva Zapata! (1975)
• The Acts of King Arthur and His Noble Knights (1976)
• Working Days: The Journals of The Grapes of Wrath (1989)
• Steinbeck in Vietnam: Dispatches from the War (2012), Thomas E. Barden (Editor)
Filmography
• 1939—Of Mice and Men—directed by Lewis Milestone, featuring Burgess Meredith, Lon Chaney, Jr., and Betty
Field
• 1940—The Grapes of Wrath—directed by John Ford, featuring Henry Fonda, Jane Darwell and John Carradine
• 1941—The Forgotten Village—directed by Alexander Hammid and Herbert Kline, narrated by Burgess Meredith,
music by Hanns Eisler
• 1942—Tortilla Flat—directed by Victor Fleming, featuring Spencer Tracy, Hedy Lamarr and John Garfield
• 1943—The Moon is Down—directed by Irving Pichel, featuring Lee J. Cobb and Sir Cedric Hardwicke
• 1944—Lifeboat—directed by Alfred Hitchcock, featuring Tallulah Bankhead, Hume Cronyn, and John Hodiak
• 1944—A Medal for Benny—directed by Irving Pichel, featuring Dorothy Lamour and Arturo de Cordova
• 1947—La Perla (The Pearl, Mexico)—directed by Emilio Fernández, featuring Pedro Armendáriz and María
Elena Marqués
• 1949—The Red Pony—directed by Lewis Milestone, featuring Myrna Loy, Robert Mitchum, and Louis Calhern
John Steinbeck
171
• 1952—Viva Zapata!—directed by Elia Kazan, featuring Marlon Brando, Anthony Quinn and Jean Peters
• 1955—East of Eden—directed by Elia Kazan, featuring James Dean, Julie Harris, Jo Van Fleet, and Raymond
Massey
• 1957—The Wayward Bus—directed by Victor Vicas, featuring Rick Jason, Jayne Mansfield, and Joan Collins
• 1961—Flight—featuring Efrain Ramírez and Arnelia Cortez
• 1962—Ikimize bir dünya (Of Mice and Men, Turkey)
• 1972—Topoli (Of Mice and Men, Iran)
• 1982—Cannery Row—directed by David S. Ward, featuring Nick Nolte and Debra Winger
• 1992—Of Mice and Men—directed by Gary Sinise and starring John Malkovich and Gary Sinise
Notes
[1] The Swedish Academy cited The Grapes of Wrath and The Winter of Our Discontent most favorably.
"The Nobel Prize in Literature 1962: Presentation Speech by Anders Österling, Permanent Secretary of the Swedish Academy" (http://
nobelprize.org/ nobel_prizes/ literature/laureates/ 1962/ press. html). NobelPrize.org. . Retrieved April 21, 2008.
[2] "Okie Faces & Irish Eyes: John Steinbeck & Route 66" (http:/ / irishamerica.com/ 2007/ 06/ okie-faces-irish-eyes-john-steinbeck-route-66/).
Irish America. . Retrieved 2012-10-23.
[3] John Steinbeck Biography (http:/ / web. archive.org/ web/ 20100305004150/ http:/ /www. steinbeck.org/ Bio. html). National Steinbeck
Centre
[4] Alec Gilmore. John Steinbeck's View of God (http:// www. gilco. org.uk/ papers/ john_steinbecks_view_of_god. html). gilco.org.uk
[5] Introduction to John Steinbeck, The Long Valley, pp. 9–10, John Timmerman, Penguin Publishing, 1995
[6] [6] Introduction to 'The Grapes of Wrath' Penguin edition (1192) by Robert DeMott
[7] Jackson J. Benson, The True Adventures of John Steinbeck, Writer New York: The Viking Press, 1984. ISBN 0 14 01.4417X, pp. 147, 915a,
915b, 133
[8] Fensch, Thomas (2002). Steinbeck and Covici (http:/ / books. google.com/ ?id=yXE_v1etBjMC& pg=PA33). New Century exceptional lives.
New Century Books. p. 33. ISBN 978-0-930751-35-7. .
[9] Jay Parini, John Steinbeck: A Biography, Holt Publishing, 1996
[10] Yaron Perry – John Steinbeck's Roots in Nineteenth-Century Palestine – Steinbeck Studies 15:1 (http:/ / muse.jhu. edu/ journals/
steinbeck_studies/v015/ 15. 1perry.html). Muse.jhu.edu. Retrieved on August 26, 2011.
[11] Burial in timeline at this site, taken from '''Steinbeck: A Life in Letters''' (http:// www. steinbeck. org/About.html). Steinbeck.org.
Retrieved on August 26, 2011.
[12] Susan Shillinglaw (2006). A Journey into Steinbeck's California. Roaring Forties Press
[13] "Of Mice and Men (1939)" (http:// www. imdb. com/ title/ tt0031742/ ). The Internet Movie Database. . Retrieved October 10, 2007.
[14] "1939 Book Awards Given by Critics: Elgin Groseclose's 'Ararat' is Picked as Work Which Failed to Get Due Recognition", The New York
Times, February 14, 1940, p. 25. ProQuest Historical Newspapers The New York Times (1851–2007).
[15] "Novel" (http:/ / www. pulitzer.org/ bycat/ Novel) (Winners 1917–1947). The Pulitzer Prizes. Retrieved January 28, 2012.
[16] Keith Windschuttle (2002-06-02). Steinbeck's myth of the Okies (http:// web.archive.org/web/20040204193303/ http:/ / www.
newcriterion.com/ archive/20/ jun02/ steinbeck. htm), The New Criterion.
[17] Steinbecks works banned (http:// web. archive.org/ web/ 20061005171237/ http:// home. pacific.net. au/ ~greg.hub/ banned. html).
pacific.net.au
[18] A website devoted to Sea of Cortez literature, with information on Steinbeck's expedition. (http:// www. seaofcortez. org/) Retrieved July 6,
2009.
[19] Bruce Robison, "Mavericks on Cannery Row," American Scientist, vol. 92, no. 6 (November–December 2004, p. 1: a review of Eric Enno
Tamm, Beyond the Outer Shores: The Untold Odyssey of Ed Ricketts, the Pioneering Ecologist who Inspired John Steinbeck and Joseph
Campbell (http:// www. americanscientist. org/ bookshelf/ pub/ mavericks-on-cannery-row), Four Walls Eight Windows, 2004.
[20] Introduction to The Moon Is Down (Penguin) published 1995, by Donald V. Coers
[21] Steinbeck knew he was dying (http:/ / www. commonties. com/ blog/ 2006/ 09/ 13/ steinbeck-knew-he-was-dying/)," September 13, 2006.
Audio interview with Thom Steinbeck
[22] Cynthia Burkhead, The students companion to John Steinbeck, Greenwood Press, 2002, p. 24 ISBN 0313314578
[23] Alison Flood (3 January 2013). "Swedish Academy reopens controversy surrounding Steinbeck's Nobel prize" (http:/ / www. guardian.co.
uk/ books/ 2013/ jan/ 03/ swedish-academy-controversy-steinbeck-nobel). The Guardian. . Retrieved January 03, 2013.
[24] Steinbeck Nobel Prize Banquet Speech (http:// nobelprize. org/nobel_prizes/ literature/laureates/ 1962/ steinbeck-speech. html).
Nobelprize.org (December 10, 1962). Retrieved August 26, 2011.
[25] ASIFA-Hollywood Animation Archive: Biography: Al Capp 2- A CAPPital Offense (http:// web. archive.org/ web/ 20090324000815/
http:// www.animationarchive.org/ 2008/ 05/ biography-al-capp-2-cappital-offense_08.html). animationarchive.org (May 2008).
[26] Steinbeck, A Life in Letters.
John Steinbeck
172
[27] Books taught in Schools (http:/ / www. ericdigests. org/ pre-9214/book.htm), Center for the Learning and Teaching of Literature. Retrieved
2007.
[28] Jackson J. Benson, John Steinbeck, Writer: A Biography, Penguin, 1990 ISBN 014014417X
[29] The Grapes of Wrath Burnt in Salinas (http:/ / www. steinbeck. org/Grapes. html), National Steinbeck Centre. Retrieved 2007.
[30] Steinbecks work banned in Mississippi 2003 (http:// www. ala. org/ala/ alonline/ currentnews/ newsarchive/ 2003/ january2003/
vietnambooks. cfm), American Library Association. Retrieved 2007.
[31] Steinbeck 10 most banned list (http:// web. archive. org/web/ 20040715050633/ http:/ / www. ala. org/ ala/ oif/bannedbooksweek/
challengedbanned/challengedbanned. htm), American Library Association.
[32] 100 Most Frequently banned books in the U.S. (http:/ / web. archive.org/web/ 20080323063845/ http:/ / www. ala. org/ala/oif/
bannedbooksweek/bbwlinks/ 100mostfrequently.cfm), American Library Association. Retrieved 2007.
[33] John Steinbeck's Home and Birthplace (http:/ / web.archive.org/ web/ 20061016102852/ http:/ / www. infopoint.com/ mry/orgs/
steinbeck/), Information Point. Retrieved 2007.
[34] "Pulitzer Prize-Winning Author Gets ‘Stamp of Approval’" (http:// www. usps. com/ communications/ newsroom/ 2008/ sr08_015.htm).
United States Postal Service. February 21, 2008. . Retrieved March 15, 2008.
[35] Steinbeck inducted into California Hall of Fame (http:// www. californiamuseum.org/Exhibits/ Hall-of-Fame/inductees. html), California
Museum. Retrieved 2007.
[36] Steinbeck and radicalism (http:/ / www. newcriterion.com/ archive/ 20/ jun02/ steinbeck. htm) New Criterion. Retrieved 2007.
[37] Huffington Post, September 27, 2010, John Steinbeck, Michael Moore, and the Burgeoning Role of Planetary Patriotism (http://www.
huffingtonpost. com/ thomas-steinbeck/ michael-moore-steinbeck-award_b_738727.html)
[38] Steinbeck Political Beliefs (http:/ / www. thesmokinggun. com/ archive/ steinbeck1.html), Smoking Gun Part 1. Retrieved 2007.
References
• DeMott, Robert and Steinbeck, Elaine A., eds. John Steinbeck, Novels and Stories 1932–1937 (Library of
America, 1994) ISBN 978-1-883011-01-7
• DeMott, Robert and Steinbeck, Elaine A., eds. John Steinbeck, The Grapes of Wrath and Other Writings
1936–1941 (Library of America, 1996) ISBN 978-1-883011-15-4
• DeMott, Robert, ed. John Steinbeck, Novels 1942–1952 (Library of America, 2002) ISBN 978-1-931082-07-5
• DeMott, Robert and Railsback, Brian, eds. John Steinbeck, Travels With Charlie and later novels, 1947–1962
(Library of America, 2007) ISBN 978-1-59853-004-9
• Benson, Jackson J. (ed.) The Short Novels Of John Steinbeck: Critical Essays with a Checklist to Steinbeck
Criticism (http:/ / books. google.com/ books?id=h9sujGBX070C& printsec=frontcove). Durham: Duke UP, 1990
ISBN 0-8223-0994-7.
• Davis, Robert C. The Grapes of Wrath: A Collection of Critical Essays. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall,
1982. PS3537 .T3234 G734
• French, Warren. John Steinbeck's Fiction Revisited. NY: Twayne, 1994 ISBN 0-8057-4017-1.
• Hughes, R. S. John Steinbeck: A Study of the Short Fiction. R.S. Hughes. Boston : Twayne, 1989. ISBN
0-8057-8302-4.
• Meyer, Michael J. The Hayashi Steinbeck Bibliography, 1982–1996. Lanham, MD: Scarecrow, 1998 ISBN
0-8108-3482-0.
• Benson, Jackson J. Looking for Steinbeck's Ghost (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=BBkkI19cXE8C&
printsec=frontcover). Reno: U of Nevada P, 2002 ISBN 0-87417-497-X.
• Ditsky, John. John Steinbeck and the Critics (http:/ /books. google. com/ books?id=QSl37-sUfAMC&
printsec=frontcover). Rochester, NY: Camden House, 2000 ISBN 1-57113-210-4.
• Heavilin, Barbara A. John Steinbeck's The Grapes of Wrath: A Reference Guide. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 2002
ISBN 0-313-31837-9.
• Li, Luchen. ed. John Steinbeck: A Documentary Volume. Detroit: Gale, 2005 ISBN 0-7876-8127-X.
• Steinbeck, John Steinbeck IV and Nancy (2001). The Other Side of Eden: Life with John Steinbeck Prometheus
Books. ISBN 1-57392-858-5
• Tamm, Eric Enno (2005) Beyond the Outer Shores: The Untold Odyssey of Ed Ricketts, the Pioneering Ecologist
who Inspired John Steinbeck and Joseph Campbell (http:/ / www. americanscientist. org/bookshelf/ pub/
mavericks-on-cannery-row) Thunder's Mouth Press. ISBN 978-1-56025-689-2.
John Steinbeck
173
External links
• National Steinbeck Center in Salinas, CA (http:/ /www. steinbeck. org/ )
• at Ball State University Archives and Special Collections (http:/ / cms. bsu. edu/ Academics/ Libraries/
CollectionsAndDept/Archives/ Collections/ RareBooks/ SpecialCollections/ JohnSteinbeck. aspx)
• The Martha Heasley Cox Center for Steinbeck Studies (http:// www. steinbeck. sjsu. edu/ ) at the San José State
University
• searchable database of secondary Steinbeck materials (http:// www. steinbeckbibliography. org/ )
• Nathaniel Benchley (Fall 1969). "John Steinbeck, The Art of Fiction No. 45" (http:// www. theparisreview.org/
interviews/ 3810/ the-art-of-fiction-no-45-john-steinbeck). The Paris Review.
• George Plimpton and Frank Crowther (Fall 1975). "John Steinbeck, The Art of Fiction No. 45 (Continued)"
(http:// www. theparisreview.org/ interviews/ 4156/ the-art-of-fiction-no-45-continued-john-steinbeck). The
Paris Review.
• John Steinbeck (http:/ / www. americanwriters.org/ writers/steinbeck. asp) at C-SPAN's American Writers: A
Journey Through History
• FBI file on John Steinbeck (http:/ / vault.fbi.gov/ John Steinbeck)
• Works by or about John Steinbeck (http:/ / worldcat.org/ identities/ lccn-n79-81460) in libraries (WorldCat
catalog)
• Nobel Laureate page (http:/ / nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/ literature/laureates/ 1962/ steinbeck-speech. html)
• Homepage for the Steinbeck House (http:/ / www.steinbeckhouse. com/ )
• Steinbeck’s Summer Home (http:// www. nytimes. com/ slideshow/ 2010/ 09/ 23/nyregion/
20100924_STEINBECK.html?ref=multimedia) – slideshow by The New York Times
• John Steinbeck Collection, 1902–1979 (http:/ / www. oac. cdlib. org/ findaid/ark:/13030/ tf3c6002vx)(call
number M0263; 8.50 linear ft.) and Wells Fargo John Steinbeck Collection, 1870–1981 (http:/ / www. oac. cdlib.
org/ findaid/ark:/ 13030/ tf9d5nb3p0)(call number M1063; 5 linear ft.) are housed in the Department of Special
Collections and University Archives at Stanford University Libraries
• Steinbeck Monograph Series (http:/ / libx. bsu. edu/ cdm4/ collection.php?CISOROOT=/StnbckMngrp), a
full-text searchable collection of works related to Steinbeck and his writings published by the Steinbeck Society
of America and the English Department of Ball State University
• The Steinbeck Quarterly journal (http:/ / libx. bsu. edu/ cdm4/ collection. php?CISOROOT=/steinbeck), a
full-text searchable journal published from 1968–1993 by the John Steinbeck Society of America that focuses on
Steinbeck criticism and scholarship.
Kart Racer
174
Kart Racer
Kart Racer
Directed by Stuart Gillard
Produced by Leif Bristow
Written by Nicholas DiBella
Starring Randy Quaid,
Will Rothhaar,
Jennifer Wigmore,
David Gallagher
Distributed by Alliance Atlantis, MGM
Release date(s) May 16, 2003 (premiere)
Running time 94 min
Language English
Kart Racer is a 2003 Canadian feature film starring Will Rothhaar, David Gallagher and Randy Quaid. In the United
States, it premiered on television on ABC Family in 2005.
The film centers on a boy named Watts "Lightbulb" Davies (Will Rothhaar) who likes to race go-karts. Unable to
come up with enough funds to purchase his own kart, Watts convinces his father, Vic Davies (Randy Quaid) (a
former kart racer himself), to help him build a cart and teach him how to drive. As he follows his dream, he then has
to race against his enemy and idol, Baggims.
External links
• Kart Racer
[1]
at the Internet Movie Database
References
[1] http:/ / www.imdb. com/ title/ tt0300069/
Kingpin (1996 film)
175
Kingpin (1996 film)
Kingpin
Theatrical release poster
Directed by Peter Farrelly
Robert Farrelly
Produced by Brad Krevoy
Steve Stabler
Bradley Thomas
Written by Barry Fanaro
Mort Nathan
Starring Woody Harrelson
Randy Quaid
Vanessa Angel
Bill Murray
Music by Freedy Johnston
Cinematography Mark Irwin
Editing by Christopher Greenbury
Studio Motion Picture Corporation of
America
Rysher Entertainment
Distributed by Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer
Release date(s) •• July 4, 1996
Running time 113 minutes
117 minutes (R-rated cut)
Country United States
Language English
Budget $27 million
Box office $25,023,434
Kingpin is a 1996 American slapstick comedy film directed by the Farrelly brothers and starring Woody Harrelson,
Randy Quaid, Vanessa Angel, and Bill Murray. It was filmed in and around Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
[1]
as a stand-in
for Scranton, Amish country and Reno, Nevada.
Plot
Roy Munson (Woody Harrelson) is a bowling prodigy who wins the 1979 Iowa state amateur championship and
plans to leave his tiny (fictional) hometown of Ocelot, Iowa, to go on the Professional Bowlers Tour. He wins his
first tournament, defeating an established pro named Ernie McCracken (Bill Murray). Soon after, McCracken
convinces Munson to help him hustle some bowlers. The con goes badly, and McCracken flees while the bowlers
they swindled cut off Munson's hand in revenge.
In present day, a down-and-out Munson sports a prosthetic hook covered with a fake rubber hand and sells bowling
alley supplies for a living, with little success. Roy resides in a seedy apartment building in Scranton, Pennsylvania,
where an unpleasant landlady (Lin Shaye) is constantly after him to pay overdue rent. On a sales call, Munson
catches sight of an Amish man, Ishmael Boorg (Randy Quaid), rolling a respectable game. Munson tries to convince
Kingpin (1996 film)
176
Ishmael to turn pro, with him acting as manager. Ishmael declines the offer as he has little interest in worldly affairs
– bowling is his only vice. After having unwanted sex with his repulsive landlady in lieu of rent, Roy sees a headline
on a bowling magazine advertising a $1,000,000 winner-take-all tournament in Reno, Nevada. Posing as an Amish
man, Roy visits the Boorg family home to try and convince Ishmael to enter the tournament. Ishmael reluctantly
agrees when he receives news that the Amish community will lose their land unless a $500,000 payment can be
raised. Roy discovers that Ishmael is not as skilled as he first thought, as Ishmael's self-proclaimed 270 average is
based on a 15-frame game, instead of the standard 10 frames – based on the notion that the Amish are obligated by
tradition to do everything "half-again" as much as everyone else. A disgruntled Roy decides to take Ishmael home,
but Ishmael convinces Roy to give him another chance and take him to Reno. Roy reluctantly agrees and after some
coaching along the way Ishmael's game steadily improves.
During the road trip, Roy introduces Ishmael to worldly vices. The pair wind up at a mansion owned by a hoodlum
named Stanley (Rob Moran) whom they plan to hustle. When Stanley discovers their ploy, he threatens them with
violence, but his girlfriend Claudia (Vanessa Angel), tired of Stanley's abuse, helps the pair escape and they all
continue on the road to Reno. When Claudia disapproves of Roy's exploitation of Ishmael, Roy tries to abandon her
but she thwarts his plan and they begin to fight, at which point Ishmael abandons them both. As they search for him,
they make a stop in Ocelot, and Claudia's attitude towards Roy softens when she learns that he was too ashamed of
his failure to return home even for his father's funeral. They finally reunite with Ishmael and make their way to
Reno. At a Reno hotel, Roy runs into McCracken, who is now a bowling celebrity entered in the $1,000,000
tournament. McCracken insults Roy, and infuriates Ishmael to the point where he takes a swing at him. McCracken
ducks and Ishmael hits a wall and breaks his hand, leaving him unable to bowl. To make matters worse, Stanley
tracks Claudia to Reno, steals the trio's bankroll and forces Claudia to leave with him. Hurt and confused by
Claudia's apparent abandonment, Ishmael tries to convince Roy that they still have a chance to win the $1,000,000 –
if Roy will bowl. Roy finally agrees and enters the tournament, rolling the ball with his prosthetic rubber hand.
Despite all odds, Roy has a Cinderella run through the tournament, defeating both pro bowlers Mark Roth and Randy
Pedersen on his way to face McCracken in the final. The two competitors are closely matched heading into the final
frame, until Ishmael's brother arrives and orders Ishmael to return home with him immediately. Distracted by his
friend's sudden absence, Roy rolls the most difficult of splits (7-10 split) but is miraculously able to convert it,
thereby forcing McCracken to roll three strikes to beat him. McCracken ultimately does so, and wins the tournament.
The next day, Stanley violently approaches Roy, accusing him of stealing his gambling winnings. Roy tells him that
he does not have the money, but reluctantly blames McCracken for his hand mishap. Ultimately, the blame switches
to McCracken, with Stanley seeking to find and kill him for stealing his bankroll.
Roy returns to his seedy apartment where he is surprised by an unexpected visitor at his door. Claudia has returned
with the bankroll she had taken from Stanley, now doubled since Stanley bet against Roy in the final. She proposes
the cash be split three-ways between Roy, Ishmael and herself, but instead Roy produces a $500,000 check he has
received from Trojan condoms for an endorsement deal – thanks to his fake hand which earned him the nickname
"Rubber Man" during the ESPN-televised tournament. Roy pointedly states that the money is going to be split
"one-way". The story ends with Roy sitting together with Claudia in the Boorg household after giving the $500,000
to the Amish so their community can be saved. Roy has also covered for Ishmael's indiscretions on the road and
portrays him as a hero to his family. As the credits roll, Roy and Claudia happily drive away together.
Kingpin (1996 film)
177
Cast
• Woody Harrelson as Roy Munson
• Randy Quaid as Ishmael
• Vanessa Angel as Claudia
• Bill Murray as Ernie "Big Ern" McCracken
• Chris Elliott as The Gambler
• William Jordan as Mr. Boorg
• Richard Tyson as Stiffy's owner
• Lin Shaye as Landlady
• Zen Gesner as Thomas
•• Prudence Wright Holmes as Mrs. Boorg
• Steve Tyler as Gas Station Attendant
• Rob Moran as Stanley Osmanski
• Danny Greene as Calvert Munson
• Willie Garson as Purse snatcher
• Will Rothhaar as Young Roy Munson
• Chris Schenkel as Himself
Reception
The film received mixed reviews from critics; Rotten Tomatoes gives the film a score of 50% based on 35 reviews,
with an average rating of 5.8 out of 10.
[2]
Roger Ebert had one of the more noteworthy positive reviews, giving it 3.5 out of 4 stars.
[3]
Gene Siskel
enthusiastically endorsed the film, putting it on his list of the ten best films of the year.
The film is ranked #67 on Bravo's "100 Funniest Movies".
[4]
References
[1] "City lands good share of movies" (http:/ / news. google. com/ newspapers?id=V19cAAAAIBAJ& sjid=s1YNAAAAIBAJ& dq=sharon-stone
pittsburgh& pg=1397,300980). The Vindicator. December 10, 1995. Archived at Google News. Retrieved November 21, 2012.
[2] "Kingpin (1996)" (http:// www. rottentomatoes. com/ m/ 1072385-kingpin/ ). Rotten Tomatoes. . Retrieved 2011-02-03.
[3] Roger Ebert. "Kingpin" (http:/ / rogerebert.suntimes. com/ apps/ pbcs. dll/ article?AID=/19960126/REVIEWS/601260302/ 1023). Chicago
Sun-Times. .
[4] http:/ / www.listsofbests. com/ list/ 7092/ compare/ GBrady?page=2
External links
• Kingpin - The Full Movie (http:// www. glbtglobal. com/ apps/ videos/ videos/ show/
17454453-kingpin-full-movie)|
• Kingpin (http:// www. imdb.com/ title/ tt0116778/ ) at the Internet Movie Database
• Kingpin (http:/ / www. boxofficemojo.com/ movies/ ?id=kingpin.htm) at Box Office Mojo
• Kingpin (http:/ / www. rottentomatoes.com/ m/ 1072385/ ) at Rotten Tomatoes
LBJ: The Early Years
178
LBJ: The Early Years
LBJ: The Early Years
Directed by Peter Werner
Produced by John Brice, Sandra Saxon Brice
Starring Randy Quaid
Patti LuPone
Morgan Brittany
Pat Hingle
Barry Corbin
Jack Blessing
Cinematography John Lindley
Editing by Steve Cohen
Distributed by National Broadcasting Company (NBC)
Release date(s) 1 February 1987
Running time 155 minutes
Country  United States
Language English
LBJ: The Early Years was a television movie that appeared on the NBC network in February 1987, depicting the
life of former President of the United States Lyndon B. Johnson from 1934 until 1973. Actor Randy Quaid won a
Golden Globe award for his portrayal of Johnson.
Plot
Then clerk for Texas Congressman Richard Kleberg, Lyndon Johnson (Randy Quaid) runs up the steps of the
Capitol to meet with future Speaker of the House Sam Rayburn (Pat Hingle), who is sure he will work beside
Johnson in the future. Johnson then runs off with his boss's Cadillac, driving all night to pick up his fiancee Lady
Bird Johnson (Patti LuPone) at the home of her father in Texas. They both drive back to Washington, D.C., and have
a bad run-in with Kleberg's standoffish wife, who thinks he is sabotaging her husband for his own political gain.
After being fired by the Congressman (through his wife's intervention), Johnson wakes up one morning to find that
another Congressman has died, leaving the seat vacant. He prods a local judge who is very politically connected,
Judge Alvin Wirtz (Barry Corbin), into giving him a chance to run for Congress. Judge Wirtz tells Johnson that the
former Congressman's widow might run for the seat, and that he'll need $10,000 just to make it a contest. Lady Bird
Johnson's father provides the $10,000, and gets confirmation that the widow will not run. Johnson then tours the hill
country of Texas, bringing along his father and his wife to campaign. He promises that he shall provide services such
as power and running water to the people, and goes stumping, pushing harder and harder. It is after a gruelling
schedule and many, many cigarettes and Milk of Magnesia bottles later that the pain is so great in his abdominal area
that Johnson collapses. Lady Bird appears at the bedside of her husband, who had an operation to remove a ruptured
appendix and is now recuperating. When he awakens, she tell him that he had won the election and calls him
'Congressman'. Johnson is then shown inside the Capitol, taking an elevator ride up with his friend Sam Rayburn,
leaving his wife as the elevator doors close.
Johnson receives a phone call that his father had died, and he goes to Texas for his funeral, when he discovers that
his father left his mother in thousands of dollars worth of debt. This revelation, combined with the high cost of
running a campaign, forces LBJ to becoming a friend to lobbyists in order to find money. These new connections
LBJ: The Early Years
179
mean that not only he can begin to get financial help, but his stalled hydroelectric project gets the help it needs in
order to happen. At a party held by his largest backer, Johnson meets a vivacious and attractive woman, Alice Glass
(Morgan Brittany), who becomes a lightning rod for his ambition. Despite the threat of another woman, Lady Bird is
determined to keep her husband and to help him become even more successful.
It is now 1948, and Johnson now is vying for a Senate seat soon to be vacated by a retiring Senator. His promises
kept to the people of the hill country, he still must defeat Governor Coke Stevenson, who battles him for a Texas
Democratic caucus vote amid rumors of corruption in the form of vote fixing. A 28-28 deadlock is broken when
Johnson's staffers pull onto the floor a drunk member (despite goons under the control of Stevenson trying to prevent
it), who votes LBJ into the Senate with the 29th vote.
An ebullient Johnson starts his tenure as United States Senator by parking in the Senate Majority Leader reserved
parking spot, much to the chagrin of the parking attendant. The same lot is shown again in the future, and Johnson's
name is now fixed on the parking spot. Johnson is now working tirelessly with all of the members of the Senate,
battling the troublesome Joseph McCarthy, making amendments to the Taft-Hartley Act, and pressing for civil rights
legislation. A new face in Washington, Senator John F. Kennedy, is told under no uncertain terms that a committee
spot on the Foreign Relations Committee in the Senate would be his if he stayed for a crucial labor vote. This
meeting proved important as time moves forward to 1959, when Kennedy is one of the nominees for the Presidential
campaign for the Democratic Party. A visit by JFK's brother Robert Kennedy to Texas is arranged as father Joseph
Kennedy, who along with his sons, wish to know if LBJ is running for President or not. Johnson refers to Robert
Kennedy as a "Harvard man" in a derisive tone while he discovers Robert's true intentions, and goes out of his way
to try to embarrass him while hunting.
The lack of action by Johnson in responding to Kennedy in a timely fashion allows John Kennedy to build up a very
strong support network, essentially shoving Johnson out of any real chance at the Presidential nomination. Promised
votes by Wyoming, now going over to Kennedy to send him over the top to win the nomination, puts Johnson and
his family off. Johnson says that his father was right, and that he made a big mistake by not doing something sooner.
An offer of the Vice Presidency by John Kennedy is at first rejected by Johnson because of the advice of Sam
Rayburn. The next day, Rayburn tells Johnson that he changed his mind, and LBJ accepts the offer, despite Robert
Kennedy's attempt at squashing the idea.
After JFK is elected in 1960, Johnson soon regrets his decision, and he is made to fill the most benign of roles while
the President and his brother shut him out of meetings. This position changes drastically when John Kennedy is shot
in Dallas in 1963, and Lyndon Johnson becomes the new President of the United States. He accompanies now
widow Jacqueline Kennedy, along with his wife, on Air Force One on a trip back to Washington. He takes the Oath
of Office by Texas federal district judge Sarah T. Hughes on board the aircraft, and a still of the moment along with
a short audio summary of the events after ends the movie.
References
External links
• LBJ: The Early Years (http:/ / www. imdb.com/ title/tt0093377/) at the Internet Movie Database
• LBJ: The Early Years (http:/ / www. allrovi.com/ movies/ movie/v64031) at AllRovi
Last Dance (1996 film)
180
Last Dance (1996 film)
Last Dance
Movie poster
Directed by Bruce Beresford
Produced by Steven Haft
Written by Steven Haft
Ron Koslow
Starring Sharon Stone
Rob Morrow
Randy Quaid
Peter Gallagher
Music by Mark Isham
Cinematography Peter James
Editing by John Bloom
Distributed by Touchstone Pictures
Release date(s) •• May 3, 1996
Running time 103 minutes
Country United States
Language English
Box office $5,939,449 (USA sub-total)
Last Dance is a 1996 film starring Sharon Stone, Rob Morrow, Randy Quaid and Peter Gallagher. The prison where
the film was shot is in Ridgeland, South Carolina.
Plot
Cindy Liggett (Sharon Stone) is waiting on death row for a brutal double murder she committed in her teens, 12
years earlier. Clemency lawyer Rick Hayes (Rob Morrow) tries to save her, based on the argument that she was
under the influence of crack cocaine when she committed the crime of which she was found guilty and that she is no
longer the same person she had been at the time of the murder.
Cast
• Sharon Stone as Cindy Liggett
• Rob Morrow as Rick Hayes
• Randy Quaid as Sam Burns
• Peter Gallagher as John Hayes
• Jack Thompson as The Governor
• Jayne Brook as Jill
• Pamala Tyson as Linda, Legal Aid Attorney
• Skeet Ulrich as Billy, Cindy's Brother
• Don Harvey as Doug
• Diane Sellers as Inmate Reggie
• Patricia French as Guard Frances
Last Dance (1996 film)
181
• Ralph Wilcox as Warden Rice
• Buck Ford as D.A. Rusk
• Dave Hager as Detective Vollo
• Christine Cattell as Louise
• Peg Allen as Helen
• Meg Tilly as stripper
Reception
The film was panned by critics.
[1][2]
Box office
The film performed poorly.
[3]
References
[1] "FILM REVIEW;Death Row Diva: A Raw Sharon Stone" (http:// movies. nytimes. com/ movie/
review?res=9800E2D71739F930A35756C0A960958260&pagewanted=print). Movies.nytimes.com. . Retrieved 2012-07-15.
[2] "Last Dance :: rogerebert.com :: Reviews" (http:// rogerebert.suntimes. com/apps/ pbcs. dll/ article?AID=/19960503/ REVIEWS/
605030306/ 1023). Rogerebert.suntimes.com. . Retrieved 2012-07-15.
[3] "Weekend Box Office : 'Craft's' Magical Start Surprises Experts" (http:// articles. latimes. com/ 1996-05-07/entertainment/
ca-1253_1_weekend-box). Los Angeles Times. . Retrieved 2012-06-03.
External links
• Last Dance (http:/ / www. imdb. com/ title/ tt0116827/ ) at the Internet Movie Database
• Last Dance (http:/ / www. allrovi.com/ movies/ movie/ v135900) at AllRovi
Lolly-Madonna XXX
182
Lolly-Madonna XXX
Lolly-Madonna XXX
Alternative movie poster
Directed by Richard C. Sarafian
Produced by Rodney Carr-Smith
Screenplay by Rodney Carr-Smith &
Sue Grafton
Based on The Lolly-Madonna
War by
Sue Grafton
Starring Jeff Bridges
Rod Steiger
Robert Ryan
Music by Fred Myrow
Cinematography Philip H. Lathrop
Distributed by Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer
Release date(s) February 21, 1973 (USA)
Running time 103 min.
Country United States
Language English
Lolly-Madonna XXX (aka The Lolly-Madonna War) is a 1973 film directed by Richard C. Sarafian. The film was
co-written by Rodney Carr-Smith and Sue Grafton, based on the novel The Lolly-Madonna War by Grafton.
[1]
Plot
Two families in rural Tennessee, headed by patriarchs Laban Feather (Rod Steiger) and Pap Gutshall (Robert Ryan)
are at odds with each other. The sons of the two families play harmless tricks on each other but soon the Feather
boys decide to kidnap a girl, escalating the rivalry. She turns out to be innocent bystander Roonie Gill (Season
Hubley), not the made-up girlfriend "Lolly Madonna." As events escalate, Zack Feather (Jeff Bridges) and Roonie
fall in love and try to bring the others to their senses.
Principal cast
Lolly-Madonna XXX
183
Actor Role
Rod Steiger Laban Feather
Robert Ryan Pap Gutshall
Jeff Bridges Zack Feather
Scott Wilson Thrush
Katherine Squire Chickie Feather
Joan Goodfellow Sister E Gutshall
Tresa Hughes Elspeth Gutshall
Gary Busey Zeb
Randy Quaid Finch Feather
Season Hubley Lolly Madonna
Critical reception
The film had a mixed reception from the critics. Vincent Canby of The New York Times starts his review:

Lolly-Madonna XXX is a disaster, but I can't tell whether it's because hillbillies make rotten metaphors or because Richard C. Sarafian has
made a rotten movie.
[2]

On the other hand, Variety had this to say:

Sue Grafton's novel, The Lolly-Madonna War, has been handsomely and sensitively filmed. Excellent performances abound by older and
younger players in a mountain-country clan feud story which mixes extraordinary human compassion with raw but discreet violence.
[3]

References
[1] "'Lolly-Madonna' changed lives" (http:// news.google. com/ newspapers?id=1MwhAAAAIBAJ& sjid=bp4FAAAAIBAJ&
pg=1920,1280100& dq=sue-grafton+lolly-madonna&hl=en). Anchorage Daily News: p. 14. July 8, 1973. . Retrieved May 4, 2010.
[2] Canby, Vincent (February 22, 1973). "'Lolly-Madonna' Appears on Screen" (http:/ / movies. nytimes.com/ movie/ review?_r=2&
res=9903E1DB1231EF34BC4A51DFB4668388669EDE). The New York Times. . Retrieved May 4, 2010.
[3] "Lolly-Madonna XXX - The Lolly-Madonna War (U.K.)" (http:// www. variety. com/ review/VE1117792676/). Variety. . Retrieved 2 July
2012.
External links
• Lolly-Madonna XXX (http:// www. imdb. com/title/ tt0070332/) at the Internet Movie Database
• Lolly-Madonna XXX (http:/ / www. allrovi.com/ movies/ movie/ v99976) at AllRovi
• Original New York Times review (http:/ / movies. nytimes. com/ movie/ review?_r=1&
res=9903E1DB1231EF34BC4A51DFB4668388669EDE)
Lone Star Love
184
Lone Star Love
Lone Star Love
Music Jack Herrick
Lyrics Jack Herrick
Book John L. Haber
Robert Horn
Basis Shakespeare play, The Merry Wives of Windsor
Productions 2004 Off-Broadway
2007 Broadway cancelled
Lone Star Love, or, The Merry Wives of Windsor, Texas is a musical based on Shakespeare's The Merry Wives of
Windsor. The score is by Jack Herrick (of the Red Clay Ramblers), and the book is by John L. Haber and Robert
Horn. The setting of the piece has been moved to the Wild West shortly after the American Civil War, and the
musical features country and bluegrass music.
Productions
After a long development process beginning in Houston Texas in the 1980s,
[1]
Lone Star Love had an Off-Broadway
run in the 2004-05 season at the John Houseman Theatre directed by Michael Bogdanov, which featured Beth Leavel
and Jay O. Sanders.
[2]
The musical started pre-Broadway try-outs at the 5th Avenue Theatre, Seattle, on September 8, 2007, and had an
official run from September 19 through September 30. The 2007 version included several new songs and significant
modifications to the book.
[3]
Randy Skinner was the director and choreographer, John Rando was creative
supervisor, and the cast featured Randy Quaid, Robert Cuccioli, Dee Hoty, and Lauren Kennedy. The Red Clay
Ramblers band was featured on stage.
[4]
The Seattle production has been reviewed as lacking pace.
[5]
On September 24, 2007, it was announced that the Broadway engagement, which had been scheduled to begin in
November at the Belasco Theatre, had been cancelled. The press release noted that plans for a Broadway run "will be
announced when they are available."
[6]
The New York Times reported that there was disagreement about the
interpretation of the Falstaff character between one of the producers and Quaid and his wife (who is his manager),
and that the producers felt that the show is not ready for Broadway.
[7]
Synopsis
"Colonel" John Falstaff travels to Windsor, Texas, after being dishonorably discharged from the Confederate Army.
Upon his arrival, the rascally Falstaff woos the wives of two wealthy and pre-occupied cattle ranchers in order to
gain their husbands' land and money. But the ladies are wise to Falstaff's scheme.
Characters and cast
•• Col. John Falstaff - Randy Quaid
•• Frank Ford - Robert Cuccioli
•• Agnes Ford - Lauren Kennedy
•• George Page - Dan Sharkey
•• Margaret Anne Page - Dee Hoty
•• Miss Anne Page - Kara Lindsay
Lone Star Love
185
•• Miss Quickly - Ramona Keller
Recording
The cast recording for the Off-Broadway production is available through PS Classics.
References
[1] Background information about the musical (http:// www.seattlepi. com/ theater/330597_fanf07.html)
[2] Review of the Off-Broadway production (http:/ / www. talkinbroadway.com/ ob/ 12_08_04.html)
[3] Information about the Seattle production (http:/ / www. redclayramblers.com/ foolmoon/ lonestar. htm)
[4] "Quaid Is Falstaff as Bard-Inspired Musical Lone Star Love Opens in Seattle Sept. 19", playbill article, 9/19/07 (http:/ / www. playbill.com/
news/ article/111132. html)
[5] Review of the Seattle production (http:/ / www. seattlepi. com/ theater/332501_theater21q.html?source=rss)
[6] "Breaking News: LONE STAR LOVE Cancels Broadway Engagement", 9/24/07 (http:/ / www. broadwayworld.com/ viewcolumn.
cfm?colid=21618)
[7] "No Broadway Outing for ‘Lone Star Love’", 9/25/07 (http:// www.nytimes. com/ 2007/ 09/ 25/ theater/25arts-NOBROADWAYOU_BRF.
html?ref=theater)
External links
• Official Show Page (http:// web.archive.org/*/ http:/ / www. lonestarlovethemusical. com/ ) at the Wayback
Machine
• Lortel listing (http:/ / www. lortel.org/LLA_archive/index. cfm?search_by=show& id=3895)
• *http:/ / www. psclassics. com/ cd_lonestarlove.html - Cast Recording Link (http:// www. psclassics. com/
cd_lonestarlove.html)
• The Guide to Musical Theatre - Lone Star Love (http:// www.guidetomusicaltheatre. com/ shows_l/ lonestarlove.
html)
Major League II
186
Major League II
Major League II
Film poster
Directed by David S. Ward
Produced by Gary Barber,
James G. Robinson,
Susan Vanderbeek,
David S. Ward,
Ted Winterer,
Julia Miller
Written by David S. Ward,
R.J. Stewart,
Tom S. Parker,
Jim Jennewein
Starring Charlie Sheen
Tom Berenger
Corbin Bernsen
Dennis Haysbert
Omar Epps
David Keith
Margaret Whitton
Bob Uecker
Music by Michel Colombier
Editing by Donn Cambern
Kimberly Ray
Paul Seydor
Frederick Wardell
Studio Morgan Creek Productions
Distributed by Warner Bros.
Release date(s) •• March 30, 1994
Running time 105 minutes
Language English
Budget $25 million
Box office $30,626,182
Major League II is a 1994 sequel to the 1989 film Major League. Major League II stars most of the same cast from
the original, including Charlie Sheen, Tom Berenger, and Corbin Bernsen. Absent from this film is Wesley Snipes,
who played Willie Mays Hayes in the first film and who by 1994 had become a film star in his own right. Omar
Epps took over his role.
Major League II also welcomes some new faces to the team. David Keith plays Jack Parkman, a selfish superstar
catcher who is looking to replace the aging Jake Taylor (Tom Berenger) as the starter. Takaaki Ishibashi of Japanese
comedic duo Tunnels is a new outfielder, Isuro "Kamikazi" Tanaka, who helps excite the team. Eric Bruskotter is the
rookie catcher Rube Baker who is getting used to the MLB life.
Randy Quaid makes a cameo appearance in the film as an extremely loyal fan of the team.
Major League II
187
Background
The film was directed by David S. Ward, who also directed the first installment of the Major League series, in
addition to other films, such as The Program and Down Periscope. In addition to Sheen, Berenger, Bernsen, Epps,
Keith, and Takaaki, Major League II has an additional cast of Dennis Haysbert, James Gammon, Bob Uecker, and
Margaret Whitton, all of whom returned from the first film.
The film touches on the follow-up season of the Cleveland Indians successful season in the first film. Success has
spoiled the team and many of its players. Roger Dorn has retired and purchased the team. New relationships are
revealed that have affected play on the field.
The film was released in March 1994 and eventually grossed over $30 million at the U.S. box office. The film and its
sequel Major League: Back to the Minors were not as well received as the first film, which is considered by many
now to be a classic. The film has many cameo appearances by current and former MLB players such as Steve Yeager
and Kevin Hickey, as well as several entertainers such as Jesse Ventura and Randy Quaid.
The film was shot at various locations in Baltimore, Maryland, Chicago, Illinois, Cleveland, Ohio, and Harrisburg,
Pennsylvania. Various sports stadiums were also used in filming, including Memorial Stadium, Oriole Park at
Camden Yards, Metro Bank Park and U.S. Cellular Field (then called Comiskey Park) in Chicago.
Because the film was made between the Indians last season at Cleveland Stadium and before the opening of
Progressive Field, (originally Jacobs Field) Oriole Park at Camden Yards was used. The producers felt that the
Orioles' new stadium could stand in as a close likeness for the Indians' new home.
Coincidentally, a year after this film was released, the actual Cleveland Indians team made it to the 1995 World
Series, which was the team's first playoff appearance in 41 years. The Indians ended up losing in 6 games to the
Atlanta Braves. In the lead-up to Game 3, the first World Series game played in Cleveland in 41 years, the PA
system played "The House Is Rockin," the song from the end of Major League II. In another coincidence, Bob
Uecker (Harry Doyle) served as a commentator for the 1995 World Series television coverage on NBC.
Plot
Last season, the Cleveland Indians won the division title by beating the New York Yankees in a one-game playoff,
but they were defeated in the ALCS by the Chicago White Sox.
The success of last season has changed the attitudes of the Indians. Pitching sensation Ricky "Wild Thing" Vaughn
(Charlie Sheen) is now a bland yuppie concerned about his endorsement potential, causing him to lose the edge on
his fastball. Home run hitter Pedro Cerrano (Dennis Haysbert) underwent a spiritual conversion, from aggressive
voodoo to placid Buddhism, which affects his competitive spirit. Conceited player Roger Dorn (Corbin Bernsen)
retired and bought the team from Rachel Phelps (Margaret Whitton). Aging catcher Jake Taylor (Tom Berenger) has
also retired to become one of the coaches who work for manager Lou Brown (James Gammon). And Willie Mays
Hayes (Omar Epps) is still as fast as ever, but he has added some power to his hitting and a sprained knee from
performing stunts in his new movie. However, Dorn signs arrogant power hitting catcher Jack Parkman (David
Keith) as an offseason free agent, and minor league catcher Rube Baker (Eric Bruskotter) makes the team out of
spring training, despite his throwing problem.
The Indians get off to another slow start, as egos clash. The signing of Jack Parkman has put Dorn in a financially
tough spot, as well as putting a strain on the clubhouse, so Dorn trades Parkman to the Chicago White Sox, the team
that defeated the Indians in the playoffs last season, keeping them from the World Series. In return, the Indians
receive Isuro "Kamikaze" Tanaka (Takaaki Ishibashi), a gifted left fielder with a penchant for crashing into the
walls.
Dorn, still short on money, sells the team back to Rachel, but is retained as General Manager. He then announces his
comeback to the majors and returns to the team, but cannot regain his former form. Rachel sees this as an
opportunity to get revenge on the Indians for what happened last season, so she tries to find ways to make them have
Major League II
188
a losing season this time. When Lou has a heart attack, he gets Jake to take over as the Indians' interim manager.
Baker and Tanaka aid Hayes and Cerrano (respectively) regain their competitiveness, and the Indians begin to win
again. A notable turning point to the season comes after an emotional victory in Game 2 of a double-header against
the Boston Red Sox.
The Indians clinch the division on the last game of the year against the Toronto Blue Jays, giving the team their
second consecutive division title. They go on to face the Chicago White Sox in the ALCS. The Indians take a 3-0
lead in the ALCS against the White Sox, but in the next three games Jack Parkman scorches the Indians forcing a
Game 7. In Game 7, Vaughn finds the "Wild Thing," and retires Parkman for the final out, as the Indians would go
on to defeat the White Sox sending them to the World Series.
Cast
Rick 'Wild Thing' Vaughn (Charlie Sheen)
The star pitcher of the Cleveland Indians in the first film has lost his edge and has become more business-like
and professional in both appearance and personality. His new girlfriend and agent, Flannery (Alison Doody)
aids this transformation. Vaughn has lost his distinct haircut, endorses products such as Right Guard deodorant
and General Cereals, and he even names his pitches (his signature fastball as 'The Terminator'), including his
new, ineffective breaking balls ('The Eliminator' and 'The Humiliator'). This change affects his game
negatively and his old girlfriend (Michelle Burke) helps him regain his former edge and he, eventually, ends
up dumping Flannery, telling her he "doesn't get up in time to eat breakfast anyway" and to "take a hike." As
before, his signature entrance is set to a hard rock cover of The Troggs' hit song "Wild Thing", performed by
the Los Angeles-area punk band X.
Jake Taylor (Tom Berenger)
The aging catcher in the first film returns in the same spot he was in during the previous one, trying to make
the team one last time. He indeed makes the team, but when questioning manager Lou Brown about his
intentions to carry three catchers, finds out he made the Indian's coaching staff. He becomes the leader of the
club when the manager, Lou Brown, falls ill and is stationed in the hospital.
Roger Dorn (Corbin Bernsen)
The third baseman in the first film is now the new owner of the Cleveland Indians, having recently purchased
the team from Rachel Phelps. He is unsuccessful as the owner trading away great talent and posting billboards
in the outfield to save money and make the payroll. He ends up selling the team back to Phelps after he no
longer can afford to run the team. So, he becomes the General Manager. He then becomes the last man on the
roster, activating himself. When he asks new manager, Jake Taylor when he's getting a start, Taylor
sarcastically replies, "There's an Old-Timer's Game coming up soon.".
Pedro Cerrano (Dennis Haysbert)
The voodoo practicing slugger found peace within himself and the world thanks to his conversion to
Buddhism and refuses to get angry at others for whatever mistakes they may make. When Isuro Tanaka is
introduced to the team he helps spark Cerrano by constantly taunting him. He later finds a happy medium,
wherein he introduces his Buddha and Jobu icons to each other, finishing with "Now I don't want trouble out
of you two!".
Lou Brown (James Gammon)
Lou returns as the manager of the team, the same nonchalant person who gives in to no player on the team. He
experiences a heart attack when yelling at players in the locker room and Jake Taylor takes over the managing
duties while he is in the hospital.
Willie 'Mays' Hayes (Omar Epps)
Major League II
189
Epps reprises the role that Snipes played in the first film. In the first film, Hayes was somewhat narcissistic
and has only become worse. He has begun an acting career, he hits for power instead of speed, and has an
entourage. He gets a leg injury during the season which keeps him on the bench. People begin to question the
injury and a fight ensues between members of the team. It is after this that Hayes returns to old form. (Hayes'
desire to be an action movie star may in fact be a reference to Wesley Snipes' inability to return for the sequel.
After the original movie, Snipes went on to star in action movies like Passenger 57, Rising Sun, and
Demolition Man.) In one scene of this movie, character Willie 'Mays' Hayes recreates Willie Mays' famous
catch in the 1954 World Series.
Harry Doyle (Bob Uecker)
Doyle returns as quick-witted Indians radio announcer who enjoys drinking Jack Daniel's whiskey while
calling the games, often getting drunk during losing streaks. He constantly makes fun of the team and its
actions with sarcasm, one-liners and occasional on-air swearing.
Jack Parkman (David Keith)
Parkman is a superstar catcher that the Indians acquired through free agency from the Oakland Athletics. He is
very cocky and brash and not afraid of smoking cigarettes in the dugout during games. He believes he is the
best player on the team and that everyone else are losers by choice or birth and is not afraid to reveal this to the
media or other members of the team. He is traded to the Chicago White Sox during the season and ends up
facing his old team in the ALCS.
Isuro Tanaka (Takaaki Ishibashi)
Tanaka is acquired in part of the deal that sent Parkman to Chicago. He speaks very little English and uses a
dictionary to look up certain translations. He's full of energy and provides a spark for the Indians eventually,
most notably Pedro Cerrano.
His name, Isuro, was unnatural as a Japanese name. Therefore, his name became Taka Tanaka in the
Japanese dubbed version after Takaaki Ishibashi's nickname. Taka appeared in the sequel. (see: Major League:
Back to the Minors)
Rachel Phelps (Margaret Whitton)
Phelps returns as the owner of the team. It is revealed during the beginning of the film she sold the team to
Roger Dorn but she buys it back once the Indians begin to struggle. She is very interested in her original plan
of relocating the team to Florida, so she indeed wants them to fail.
Rube Baker (Eric Bruskotter)
Baker is a new rookie catcher on the Indians. Baker is sensitive, and, at times, clueless. He is from small town
America and is not accustomed to the major league baseball life. Jake Taylor is in charge of guiding his career.
Baker is made the starter when Parkman is traded away to the White Sox. His problem involves not being able
to throw the ball back to the mound properly (this was based in part on the real-life problems that plagued
former New York Mets catcher Mackey Sasser). This problem was solved with the aid of Playboy and a
Frederick's of Hollywood catalog.
Rebecca Flannery (Alison Doody)
Vaughn's new girlfriend. She is high-class and determined to make the "Wild Thing" respectable, much to the
disappointment of his fans. It also has the unfortunate side-effect of ruining his pitching abilities.
Nikki Reese (Michelle Burke)
Reese is an old girlfriend of Vaughn. She is in charge of a program for under-privileged children. She
eventually helps Vaughn get his edge back and abandon his new look.
• Rene Russo makes a cameo for one scene (lasting less than 2 minutes) as Lynn, Jake's love interest from the first
film. They are wearing rings implying that they have married in the time since the original.
Major League II
190
• Jay Leno also makes a cameo when Vaughn is a guest on The Tonight Show.
• Randy Quaid plays an extremely loyal fan in the outfield stands.
• Richard Schiff has a cameo as a director for a Right Guard commercial starring Vaughn.
• Jesse Ventura plays himself in a cameo as a movie-star opposite Hayes in the action film "Black Hammer, White
Lightning".
Box office
The movie debuted at No. 1, knocking out D2: The Mighty Ducks, another sports comedy featuring Major League
star Charlie Sheen's brother, Emilio Estevez.
[1]
In the United States, the movie made a total of $30,626,182 in the
box office.
[2]
Reception
Major League II received extremely negative reviews from critics, leaving the film with just a 5% rating on Rotten
Tomatoes based on 21 reviews.
[3]
Sequel
David S. Ward has announced that he is working on new film, which he calls Major League 3, and hopes to cast the
original stars Charlie Sheen, Wesley Snipes and Tom Berenger. The plot would see Sheen's character Ricky 'Wild
Thing' Vaughn coming out of retirement to work with a young player.
[4]
The film is being seen as the third film in
the series, despite the fact that a third film, Major League: Back to the Minors, was released in 1998.
On April 6, 2011 in Cleveland Ohio, Charlie Sheen during his "violent torpedoes of truth" tour announced to the
audience that he's in the process of doing a Major League 3, and said "We are gonna shoot it right here in
Cleveland!". He opened the show wearing a "Rick Vaughn" #99 Cleveland Indians jersey.
References
[1] "Weekend Box Office : A Good Turnout for 'Four Weddings'" (http:// articles. latimes. com/ 1994-04-12/entertainment/
ca-45151_1_weekend-box-office). The Los Angeles Times. . Retrieved 2011-01-01.
[2] "Major League II (1994)- Movie Info- Yahoo! Movies" (http:// movies.yahoo.com/ movie/ 1800204320/ info). .
[3] "MOVIE REVIEW : 'Major League's' High Spirits" (http:/ / articles.latimes. com/ 1994-03-30/entertainment/ca-39918_1_major-league-ii).
Los Angeles Times. . Retrieved 2012-05-14.
[4] Published Wednesday, Jun 23 2010, 14:41 BST (2010-06-23). "Sheen returning for third 'Major League'? - Movies News" (http:/ / www.
digitalspy.co. uk/ movies/ news/ a232046/ sheen-returning-for-third-major-league.html?rss). Digital Spy. . Retrieved 2012-07-08.
External links
• Major League II (http:/ / www. imdb. com/ title/ tt0110442/ ) at the Internet Movie Database
• Major League II (http:/ / www. rottentomatoes.com/ m/ major_league_2/ ) at Rotten Tomatoes
Martians Go Home (film)
191
Martians Go Home (film)
Martians Go Home
Directed by David Odell
Written by Charles S. Haas
(screenplay)
Fredric Brown (novel)
Starring Randy Quaid
Margaret Colin
Anita Morris
John Philbin
Ronny Cox
Timothy Stack
Rob Schneider
Barry Sobel
Vic Dunlop
Music by Allan Zavod
Cinematography Peter Deming
Editing by Kathryn Campbell
Release date(s) 20 April 1990 (USA)
Running time 89 minutes
Country United States
Language English
Box office $129,778 (USA)
Martians Go Home is a 1990 comedy film starring Randy Quaid. It was directed by David Odell and written by
Charles S. Haas based on the novel by science fiction author Fredric Brown.
[1][2]
Quaid plays a song writer who accidentally invites a billion Martians (all portrayed by stand-up comedians from the
late eighties and early nineties) to planet Earth.
These Martians become a nuisance to the planet by constantly playing practical jokes and refusing to allow anyone
to get away with lying or deception of any kind.
References
[1] Meehan, Paul (1998). Saucer movies: a UFOlogical history of the cinema. Scarecrow Press. p. 255. ISBN 0-8108-3573-8.
[2] James, Caryn. "Martians Go Home (1990)" (http:/ / movies. nytimes.com/ movie/ 31596/ Martians-Go-Home/ overview). The New York
Times. . Retrieved 2009-06-26.
External links
• Martians Go Home (http:/ / www. imdb.com/ title/ tt0100116/ ) at the Internet Movie Database
Midnight Express (film)
192
Midnight Express (film)
For the 1924 silent film, see The Midnight Express (film).
Midnight Express
French theatrical poster
Directed by Alan Parker
Produced by Alan Marshall
David Puttnam
Written by Oliver Stone
Story by Billy Hayes (book)
William Hoffer (book)
Starring Brad Davis
Randy Quaid
John Hurt
Paul L. Smith
Irene Miracle
Music by Giorgio Moroder
Cinematography Michael Seresin
Editing by Gerry Hambling
Distributed by Columbia Pictures
Release date(s) •• October 6, 1978
Running time 121 minutes
Country United States
United Kingdom
Language English
Budget $2.3 million
Box office
$35,000,000
[1]
Midnight Express is a 1978 American/British film directed by Alan Parker and produced by David Puttnam. It is
based on Billy Hayes' 1977 book Midnight Express and was adapted into the screenplay by Oliver Stone. It starred
Brad Davis, Irene Miracle, Bo Hopkins, Paolo Bonacelli, Paul L. Smith, Randy Quaid, Norbert Weisser, Peter
Jeffrey and John Hurt. Hayes was a young American student sent to a Turkish prison for trying to smuggle hashish
out of Turkey. The movie deviates from the book's accounts of the story — especially in its portrayal of Turks —
and some have criticized the movie version, including Billy Hayes himself. Later, both Stone and Hayes expressed
their regret on how Turkish people were portrayed in the movie.
[2][3]
The film's title is prison slang for an inmate's
escape attempt. The Motion Picture Association of America (MPAA) rated the film "R".
[4]
Plot
On October 6, 1970, while on holiday in Istanbul, Turkey, American college student Billy Hayes straps 2kg of
hashish blocks to his chest. While attempting to board a plane back to the United States with his girlfriend, Billy is
arrested by Turkish police on high alert due to fear of terrorist attacks. He is strip-searched, photographed and
questioned. After a while, a shadowy American (who is never named, but is nicknamed "Tex" by Billy due to his
thick Texan accent) arrives, takes Billy to a police station and translates for Billy for one of the detectives. On
questioning Billy tells them that he bought the hash from a taxicab driver, and offers to help the police track him
Midnight Express (film)
193
down in exchange for his release. Billy goes with the police to a nearby market and points out the cab driver, but
when the police go to arrest the cabbie Billy sees an opportunity and makes a run for it. He gets cornered in a
building and is recaptured by the mysterious American.
During his first night in holding, Billy, freezing cold, sneaks out of his cell and steals a blanket. Later that night he is
rousted from his cell and brutally beaten by the chief of guards, Hamidou.
He wakes a few days later in Sağmalcılar prison, surrounded by fellow western prisoners Jimmy (an American - in
for stealing two candlesticks from a mosque), Max (an English heroin addict) and Erich (a Swede) who help him to
his feet. Jimmy tells Billy that the prison is a dangerous place for foreigners like themselves and that no-one can be
trusted, not even the young children.
In the ensuing weeks following his arrest, Billy attempts to gain his release through the Turkish justice system. On
the advice of Max, he hires a Turkish attorney, Yesil, who has a reputation for having successfully defended another
prisoner also arrested with a large quantity of hashish. Billy’s father arrives from the United States and the two share
an emotional reunion. The courtroom scene at Billy’s trial is disorienting to both father and son as the prosecutor
rapidly hurls accusations at Billy in Turkish. As the two ask their lawyer for an explanation, Yesil reassures them the
remarks were just technical and not to worry, that the judge likes him. The judge returns a verdict of 4 years in
prison angering the prosecutor and devastating Billy and his father. Yesil assures them it is an excellent outcome and
that Billy could have received a lifetime sentence for smuggling, a sentence the prosecutor was vehemently arguing
for. Father and son retreat to a small holding area where they tearfully share their devastation. Billy is hauled off to
begin his sentence.
In the next several years, Billy settles into life as a prisoner in this strange and horrible place. He begins a close
relationship with Erich. Erich is gay and wishes to consummate the relationship but Billy refuses. Shortly after, Erich
is released. Billy actually settles into some sense of normalcy engaging in long conversations with Max, smoking the
cheap and awful drugs sold in the prison by chief snitch and prison trustee Rifki and counting the days until his
release. Rifki is despised by all and routinely taunts the English speaking prisoners. Eighteen months before his
release, Jimmy tries to get Max and Billy to go along with an escape plan. Billy refuses essentially putting his faith
in the justice system due to release him in a year and a half. Jimmy tries on his own, is caught, and is severely
beaten, nearly to death.
In 1974, 53 days before his original term in prison is to expire, Billy's sentence is overturned by the Turkish High
Court in Ankara after a prosecution appeal (the prosecutor originally wished to have him found guilty of smuggling
and not possession), and he is ordered to serve at least a 30-year life term for his crime. His stay becomes a living
hell: terrifying scenes of physical and mental torture follow one another culminating in Billy having a breakdown
and beating to near death his fellow prisoner Rifki, biting out Rifki's tongue in the process. Following this
breakdown he is sent to the prison's ward for the insane where he wanders in a daze among the other disturbed and
catatonic prisoners. He meets fellow prisoner Ahmet whilst participating in the regular inmate activity of walking in
a circle around a pillar. Ahmet claims to be a philosopher from Oxford University and engages him in conversation
to which Billy is unresponsive.
In 1975, Billy's girlfriend, Susan, comes to see him and is devastated at what has happened to him. She tells him that
he has to escape or else he will die in there and leaves him a scrapbook with money hidden inside as "a picture of
your good friend Mr. Franklin from the bank," hoping Billy can use it to help him escape. Her visit moves Billy
strongly, and he begins to regain some of his senses. He says goodbye to Max, telling him not to die and to wait for
Billy to come back for him. He attempts to bribe Hamidou to release him. Instead he takes a horrified Billy to the
sanitarium. As Hamidou unclasps his belt buckle and pants, Billy realizes he's going to be raped. He charges at
Hamidou who loses his balance due to his pants being entangled around his ankles. He staggers backwards against
the wall onto a coat hook that pierces the back of his neck killing him instantly. Billy approaches the guard's lifeless
form cautiously and retrieves his gun. He seizes the opportunity to escape by putting on a guard's uniform and
managing to walk out of the front door. In the epilogue it is explained that on the night of October 4, 1975 he
Midnight Express (film)
194
successfully crossed the border to Greece, and arrived home three weeks later.
Cast
• Brad Davis as Billy Hayes
• Irene Miracle as Susan
• Bo Hopkins as "Tex"
• Paolo Bonacelli as Rifki
• Paul L. Smith as Hamidou
• Randy Quaid as Jimmy Booth
• Norbert Weisser as Erich
• John Hurt as Max
• Kevork Malikyan as the Prosecutor
• Yashaw Adem as the Airport police chief
• Mike Kellin as Mr. Hayes
•• Franco Diogene as Yesil
• Michael Ensign as Stanley Daniels
• Gigi Ballista as the Judge
• Peter Jeffrey as Ahmet
Production
Although the story is set largely in Turkey, the movie was filmed almost entirely at Fort Saint Elmo in Valletta,
Malta, after permission to film in Istanbul was denied. Ending credits of the movie state: "Made entirely on location
in Malta and recorded at EMI Studios, Borehamwood by Columbia Pictures Corporation Limited 19/23 Wells Street,
London, W1 England."
The making of the film, I'm Healthy, I'm Alive, and I'm Free, was released in 1977.
Differences between the book and the film
•• In the movie, Billy Hayes is in Turkey with his girlfriend when he is arrested, whereas in the original story he is
alone.
•• The attempted rape scene was fictionalized. Billy Hayes never claimed to have suffered any sexual violence at the
hands of his Turkish wardens. He did engage in consensual sex while in prison, but the film depicts Hayes gently
rejecting the advances of a fellow prisoner.
•• The scene where Billy attempts to escape from the Turkish police and is recaptured by "Tex", the shadowy
American agent, did not happen. 'Tex' was a real person Billy encountered after his arrest, who indeed pulled a
gun on him, but that was when they were riding in the police car from the Istanbul airport to the police station
after Billy attempted to sneak out of the car while it was stopped at a red traffic light. In the book's account, Tex
drove Billy to the police station where he dropped him off and Billy never saw him again. It was a Turkish
policeman who translated for Billy during his interrogation with the Turkish detective.
•• Although Billy Hayes did spend seventeen days in the prison's psychiatric hospital in 1972, Hayes never bit out
anyone's tongue, which led to him being committed to the section for the criminally insane in the film.
• In the book's ending, Hayes was moved to another prison on an island from which he escapes eventually, by
swimming across the lake and then traveling by foot as well as on a bus to Istanbul and then crossing the border
into Greece.
[5]
In the movie this passage is replaced by a violent scene in which he unwittingly kills the head
guard who is preparing to rape him. In reality, Hamidou, the chief guard, was killed in 1973 by a recently paroled
prisoner, who spotted him drinking tea at a café outside the prison and shot him eight times.
Midnight Express (film)
195
Soundtrack
Midnight Express – Music From The Original Motion Picture Soundtrack
Soundtrack album by Giorgio Moroder
Released October 6, 1978
Genre Disco
Length 37:00
Label Casablanca Records
Producer Giorgio Moroder
Giorgio Moroder chronology
From Here to
Eternity
(1977)
Midnight
Express
(1978)
Music from "Battlestar Galactica" and Other Original
Compositions
(1978)
Soundtrack
Review scores
Source Rating
Allmusic
link
[6]
Released on October 6, 1978, the soundtrack to Midnight Express was composed by Italian synth-pioneer Giorgio
Moroder. The score won the Academy Award for Best Original Score of 1978.
Side A:
1. Chase – Giorgio Moroder (8:24)
2. Love's Theme – Giorgio Moroder (5:33)
3. Theme from Midnight Express (Instrumental) – Giorgio Moroder (4:39)
Side B:
1. Istanbul Blues (Vocal) – David Castle (3:17)
2. The Wheel – Giorgio Moroder (2:24)
3. Istanbul Opening – Giorgio Moroder (4:43)
4. Cacophoney – Giorgio Moroder (2:58)
5. Theme from Midnight Express (Vocal) – Chris Bennett (4:47)
Reception
Midnight Express received both critical acclaim and box office success. On the film review aggregate site Rotten
Tomatoes, 95% of film critics gave the film positive reviews, based on 20 reviews.
[7]
Negative criticisms focused mainly on its unfavorable portrayal of Turkish people. In Mary Lee Settle's 1991 book
Turkish Reflections, she writes, "The Turks I saw in Lawrence of Arabia and Midnight Express were like cartoon
caricatures, compared to the people I had known and lived among for three of the happiest years of my life."
[8]
When
the Lights Go Down criticizes the film as well, saying, "This story could have happened in almost any country, but if
Billy Hayes had planned to be arrested to get the maximum commercial benefit from it, where else could he get the
advantages of a Turkish jail? Who wants to defend Turks? (They don’t even constitute enough of a movie market for
Columbia Pictures to be concerned about how they are represented)".
[9]
One reviewer writing for World Film
Midnight Express (film)
196
Directors wrote, "Midnight Express is 'more violent, as a national hate-film than anything I can remember', 'a
cultural form that narrows horizons, confirming the audience’s meanest fears and prejudices and resentments'".
[10]
David Denby of New York criticized the film as "merely anti-Turkish, and hardly a defense of prisoners' rights or a
protest against prison conditions".
[11]
Denby said also that all Turks in the movie – guardian or prisoner – were
portrayed as "losers" and "swine" and that "without exception [all the Turks] are presented as degenerate, stupid
slobs".
[11]
Turkish Cypriot film director Dervis Zaim wrote a thesis at Warwick University on the representation of Turks in the
film, where he concluded that the one-dimensional portrayal of the Turks as "terrifying" and "brutal" served merely
to reinforce the sensational outcome and was likely influenced by such factors as Orientalism and Capitalism.
[12]
Awards and nominations
Midnight Express won Academy Awards for Best Music, Original Score (Giorgio Moroder) and Best Writing,
Screenplay Based on Material from Another Medium (Stone). It was also nominated for Best Actor in a Supporting
Role (John Hurt), Best Director, Best Film Editing and Best Picture.
The film was also entered into the 1978 Cannes Film Festival.
[13]
Legacy
An amateur interview with Hayes appeared on YouTube,
[14]
recorded during the 1999 Cannes Film Festival, in
which he described his experiences and expressed his disappointment with the film adaptation.
[15]
In an article for
the Seattle Post-Intelligencer, Hayes was reported as saying that the film "depicts all Turks as monsters."
[16]
When he visited Turkey in 2004, screenwriter Oliver Stone, who won an Academy Award for the film, made an
apology for the portrayal of the Turkish people in the film.
[2]
He "eventually apologised for tampering with the
truth."
[17]
Alan Parker, Oliver Stone and Billy Hayes were invited to attend a special film screening with prisoners in the
garden of an L-type prison in Döşemealtıas, Turkey as part of the 47th Antalya Golden Orange Film Festival in
October 2010.
[18]
References
[1] "Midnight Express, Box Office Information" (http:// boxofficemojo.com/ movies/ ?id=midnightexpress. htm). Box Office Mojo. . Retrieved
January 27, 2012.
[2] Smith, Helena (16 December 2004). "Stone sorry for Midnight Express" (http:// www. guardian.co. uk/ world/ 2004/ dec/ 16/ turkey.film).
The Guardian. . Retrieved 14 January 2012.
[3] Flinn, John (9 January 2004). "The real Billy Hayes regrets 'Midnight Express' cast all Turks in a bad light" (http:/ / www. seattlepi. com/ ae/
movies/article/The-real-Billy-Hayes-regrets-Midnight-Express-1134196.php). San Francisco Chronicle. . Retrieved 14 January 2012.
[4] Ratings (http:/ / www. mpaa. org/FilmRatings. asp). MPAA.
[5] http:/ / www.manolith.com/ 2010/ 06/ 30/ billy-hayes-and-the-real-midnight-express/
[6] http:/ / www.allmusic. com/ album/ r1935517
[7] Midnight Express (http:/ / www. rottentomatoes. com/ m/ midnight_express/ ). Rotten Tomatoes.
[8] Mary Lee Settle (1991). Turkish Reflections. New York: Prentice Hall Press. ISBN 0-13-917675-6.
[9] Pauline Kael (1980). When the Lights Go Down. New York: Hall Rinehart and Winston. ISBN 0-03-042511-5.
[10] John Wakeman(ed) (1988). World Film Directors. New York: T.H. W. Wilson Co.
[11] Denby, D. (1978, October 16). One Touch of Mozart. New York Magazine, 11(42), 123.
[12] "Representation of the Turkish People in Midnight Express". Zaim, Dervis. Published in Örnek literary journal, 1994. A copy can be found
at http:/ / www.tallarmeniantale. com/ MidExp-academic.htm
[13] "Festival de Cannes: Midnight Express" (http:// www. festival-cannes. com/ en/ archives/ ficheFilm/ id/ 1973/ year/1978. html).
festival-cannes.com. . Retrieved 2009-05-20.
[14] Part 1 (http:// www. youtube. com/ watch?v=pHjLMnGkedU), Part 2 (http:// www. youtube.com/ watch?v=_JTRs8e-FRk)
[15] "Interview with Billy Hayes about 'Midnight Express' on YouTube" (http:// www. youtube.com/ watch?v=WMsNPCVbNhw).
Youtube.com. . Retrieved 2010-05-20.
Midnight Express (film)
197
[16] "The real Billy Hayes regrets 'Midnight Express' cast all Turks in a bad light – Seattle Post Intelligencer" (http:// www. seattlepi. com/
movies/ 156011_midnightexpress. html). Seattlepi.com. 2004-01-10. . Retrieved 2010-05-20.
[17] Walsh, Caspar. The 10 best prison films (http:/ / www. guardian.co. uk/ culture/ 2010/ may/ 30/ ten-best-prison-films). The Observer. May
30, 2010
[18] "'Midnight Express' team to watch film with Turkish prisoners" (http:/ / www. hurriyetdailynews.com/ n.
php?n=geceyarisi-ekspresi-ekibi-cezaevinde-mahkumlarla-film-izleyecek-2010-05-20). Hürriyet Daily News. 2010-05-20. . Retrieved
2010-07-31.
External links
• Midnight Express (http:/ / www. imdb.com/ title/ tt0077928/ ) at the Internet Movie Database
• Midnight Express truth revealed by Alinur ( Part 1 (http:/ / www. youtube. com/ watch?v=pHjLMnGkedU) – Part
2 (http:// www. youtube. com/ watch?v=_JTRs8e-FRk)): Interview with Hayes about the movie at YouTube.
• Script of movie by Oliver Stone (pdf) (http:// www.dailyscript. com/ scripts/ Expressfinal. PDF#search="script
Midnight Express")
National Lampoon's Christmas Vacation
198
National Lampoon's Christmas Vacation
National Lampoon's Christmas
Vacation
Theatrical release poster
Directed by Jeremiah Chechik
Produced by John Hughes
Matty Simmons
Written by John Hughes
Starring Chevy Chase
Beverly D'Angelo
Randy Quaid
Juliette Lewis
Johnny Galecki
John Randolph
Diane Ladd
E.G. Marshall
Doris Roberts
William Hickey
Mae Questel
Miriam Flynn
Nicholas Guest
Julia Louis-Dreyfus
Music by Angelo Badalamenti
Cinematography Thomas E. Ackerman
Editing by Jerry Greenberg
Studio John Hughes Entertainment
Distributed by Warner Bros.
Release date(s) •• December 1, 1989
Running time 97 minutes
Country United States
Language English
Budget
$25 million
[1]
Box office $71,319,546
Christmas Vacation is a 1989 Christmas comedy film directed by Jeremiah S. Chechik. It is the third installment in
National Lampoon's Vacation film series, and was written by John Hughes, based on his short story in National
Lampoon Magazine, Christmas ‘59. The film stars Chevy Chase, Beverly D'Angelo and Randy Quaid, with Juliette
Lewis and Johnny Galecki as the Griswold children Audrey and Rusty, respectively.
Since its release in 1989, Christmas Vacation has often been labeled as a modern Christmas classic.
[2][3][4]
National Lampoon's Christmas Vacation
199
Plot
With Christmas only a few weeks away, long-time Chicago resident Clark Griswold (Chevy Chase) decides it's time
to get a Christmas tree. He gathers his wife Ellen (Beverly D'Angelo), daughter Audrey (Juliette Lewis) and son
Russ (Johnny Galecki) into the family station wagon and drives out to the country where he finds the perfect tree.
Since Clark has brought neither axe nor saw, the tree is pulled from the frozen ground.
Soon after, both Clark's and Ellen's parents arrive to spend Christmas with the Griswolds and almost immediately
start getting on everyone's nerves. Clark, however, is determined to have a "good old-fashioned family Christmas"
and stays in a positive mood. He decorates the house with up to 25,000 imported Italian twinkle lights, which
temporarily causes all of Chicago to have a power shortage requiring nuclear energy backup (though he accidentally
wired them through his garage light, causing him much distress in trying to fix them every time it is turned off).
While standing on the front lawn admiring the lights, Clark is shocked to see Ellen's cousin Catherine (Miriam
Flynn) and her sleazy but bighearted husband Eddie (Randy Quaid), who've arrived unannounced from Kansas in a
broken down RV. Eddie later admits that he's broke and had to sell his home. Clark offers to help Catherine and
Eddie give their children a good Christmas. Eddie then gives Clark a list of gift ideas and tells Clark to throw in a
gift for himself.
With Christmas approaching quickly, Clark begins to wonder why his boss, Frank Shirley (Brian Doyle-Murray)
hasn't given him his yearly bonus, which he needs in order to put in a swimming pool once the ground thaws. After a
disastrous Christmas Eve dinner, he finally receives the assumed bonus from a company messenger who had
overlooked the item during his earlier deliveries. The bonus instead turns out to be free membership for the Jelly of
the Month Club for one year. This sends Clark into a violent verbal rage about his boss, Frank Shirley. Along with
his outbursts he has one "last-minute Christmas gift idea": having his boss here, with a big ribbon on his head. Eddie
takes his RV, drives to Mr. Shirley's house and kidnaps him. He brings him back to the Griswold house where Clark
confronts him about the Christmas bonus. Meanwhile, Frank's wife has alerted the authorities of her husband's
abduction and a SWAT team shows up, pointing their guns at Clark and his family. Frank decides to drop the
charges and reinstates Clark's bonus, adding twenty percent to last year's amount, causing Clark to faint.
The little cousins Ruby Sue and Rocky are drawn outside believing to see Santa Claus in the distance and the
grown-ups follow, with Clark telling them it's actually the Christmas Star and that this was "all that matters tonight
and not trees, turkeys or gifts." However, uncle Lewis classifies the light coming from the sewage treatment plant.
As Clark is reminded of the hazardous gas building in the storm sewer that Eddie had filled with sewage earlier, a
tossed match causes an explosion, sending him flying and the entire family to the ground. Aunt Bethany (Mae
Questel) proceeds to sing the Star Spangled Banner and the whole family joins in, gazing at the also still flying and
burning Santa Claus and his Reindeer-Set, ignited by the explosion. The entire Griswold family, Mr. and Mrs.
Shirley and the SWAT team members are singing and dancing inside, with Clark standing outside, happily smiling
towards the stars saying: "I did it."
Cast
• Chevy Chase as Clark W. "Sparky" Griswold, Jr.
• Beverly D'Angelo as Ellen Smith Griswold
• Randy Quaid as Cousin "Eddie" Johnson
• Juliette Lewis as Audrey Griswold
• Johnny Galecki as Rusty "Russ" Griswold
• John Randolph as Clark Wilhelm Griswold, Sr.
• Diane Ladd as Nora Griswold
• E. G. Marshall as Arthur "Art" Smith
• Doris Roberts as Frances Smith
• Miriam Flynn as Cousin Catherine Johnson
National Lampoon's Christmas Vacation
200
• Cody Burger as Cousin Rocky Johnson
• Ellen Hamilton Latzen as Cousin Ruby Sue Johnson
• William Hickey as Uncle Lewis
• Mae Questel as Aunt Bethany
• Sam McMurray as Bill
• Nicholas Guest as Todd Chester
• Julia Louis-Dreyfus as Margo Chester
• Brian Doyle-Murray as Mr. Frank Shirley
• Natalia Nogulich as Helen Shirley
• Traci Kochendorfer as Downtown Shopper
•• Nicolette Scorsese as Mary, the lingerie counter girl
•• Devin Bailey as Clark Griswold, Jr. (age 9)
Reception
Box office
The movie debuted at #2 at the box-office while grossing $11,750,203 during the opening weekend, behind Back to
the Future Part II. The movie eventually topped the box-office charts in its third week of release and remained #1
the following weekend. It went on to gross a total of $71,319,546 in the United States while showing in movie
theaters.
[5]
Critical response
The film received mixed to positive reviews. Review aggregator Rotten Tomatoes reports that 63% of 35 film critics
have given the film a positive review, with a rating average of 6.2 out of 10.
[6]
Entertainment magazine Variety responded positively to the film stating, "Solid family fare with plenty of yocks,
National Lampoon's Christmas Vacation is Chevy Chase and brood doing what they do best. Despite the title, which
links it to previous pics in the rambling Vacation series, this third entry is firmly rooted at the Griswold family
homestead, where Clark Griswold (Chase) is engaged in a typical over-reaching attempt to give his family a perfect,
old-fashioned Christmas."
[7]
Rita Kempley of The Washington Post gave the film a positive review explaining that
"it will prove pater-familiar to fans of the 1983 original and the European Vacation sequel. Only it's a bit more
whimsical."
[8]
Janet Maslin of The New York Times gave the film a mediocre review explaining that the "third look at the
quintessentially middle-American Griswold family, led by Clark and the very patient Ellen is only a weary shadow
of the original National Lampoon's Vacation." Maslin went on to say that "the best thing the new film does is to
bring back Cousin Eddie, the wily, scene-stealing slob whose disgusting habits are a source of considerable
amusement."
[9]
Roger Ebert of the Chicago Sun-Times gave the film two out of four stars saying, "The movie is
curious in how close it comes to delivering on its material: Sequence after sequence seems to contain all the
necessary material, to be well on the way toward a payoff, and then it somehow doesn't work."
[10]
National Lampoon's Christmas Vacation
201
Music
The film's musical score was composed by Angelo Badalamenti. It is the only installment of the Vacation film series
not to include Lindsey Buckingham's "Holiday Road". In its place is a song entitled "Christmas Vacation" that was
written for the movie by the husband-wife songwriting team of Barry Mann and Cynthia Weil and was performed by
Mavis Staples of The Staple Singers fame.
Despite several popular songs being present in the film, no soundtrack album was released. In 1999, bootleg copies
of a "10th Anniversary Limited Edition" began to appear on Internet auction sites with the claim that Warner
Brothers and RedDotNet had pressed 20,000 CD's for Six Flags Magic Mountain employees to give to customers
entering the park. The discs were individually numbered out of "20,000" and were sold with most of the music
featured in the film along with select cuts of dialogue. Forums on movie music sites such as SoundtrackCollector and
Movie Music have declared the disc to be a bootleg put together by a fan due to its inaccuracies. For instance, the
cut, "Christmas Vacation Medley" (claiming to be the work of composer Angelo Badalamenti), is really a track
called, "Christmas at Carnegie Hall" from Home Alone 2: Lost in New York by composer John Williams and does not
actually contain any of Badalamenti's Christmas Vacation score.
Sequels
This is the only sequel in the Vacation series to have spawned its own direct sequel: a direct to video 2003 release
entitled National Lampoon's Christmas Vacation 2: Cousin Eddie's Island Adventure. Randy Quaid and Miriam
Flynn returned as Eddie and Catherine, along with Dana Barron again appearing as Audrey, whom she played in
National Lampoon's Vacation, and Eric Idle, who played "The Bike Rider" in European Vacation reprises the role,
only this time being credited as "British Man on Plane". Christmas Vacation is preceded in the Vacation series by:
• National Lampoon's Vacation (1983)
• National Lampoon's European Vacation (1985)
Christmas Vacation is followed in the series by:
• Vegas Vacation (1997)
• National Lampoon's Christmas Vacation 2 (2003)
• Hotel Hell Vacation (2010)
Chevy Chase, Beverly D'Angelo, and Juliette Lewis reprised their roles as the Griswolds in three Old Navy
commercials which aired during the 2012 holiday season. In the second commercial, Anthony Michael Hall and
Jason Lively also reprised their roles as 'Rusty' and Barron returned as Audrey.
References
[1] Harmetz, Ajean (December 07, 1989). "It's Fade-Out for the Cheap Film As Hollywood's Budgets Soar" (http:// www. nytimes.com/ 1989/
12/07/ movies/ it-s-fade-out-for-the-cheap-film-as-hollywood-s-budgets-soar.html?pagewanted=all&src=pm). The New York Times. .
Retrieved December 20, 2012.
[2] "Yule Love 'Em" (http:// www. ew. com/ ew/ article/0,,832658,00.html). Entertainment Weekly. November 29, 2004. . Retrieved December
20, 2012.
[3] Durrett, Mike. "Top 10 Christmas and New Year's Comedy Movies" (http:/ / humor.about. com/ od/ moviecommentary/tp/ xmas_movies.
htm). About.com. . Retrieved December 20, 2012.
[4] Leo, Alex (December 16, 2012). "The 10 Funniest Christmas Movies Of All Time" (http:// www. huffingtonpost.com/ 2009/ 12/ 03/
funniest-christmas-movies_n_378863. html). The Huffington Post. . Retrieved December 20, 2012.
[5] "Christmas Vacation (1989)" (http:// www. boxofficemojo.com/ movies/ ?page=weekend& id=christmasvacation. htm). Box Office Mojo. .
Retrieved December 20, 2012.
[6] "National Lampoon's Christmas Vacation (1989)" (http:/ / www. rottentomatoes. com/ m/ national_lampoons_christmas_vacation/ ). Rotten
Tomatoes. . Retrieved December 20, 2012.
[7] "National Lampoon's Christmas Vacation" (http:/ / www. variety.com/ review/VE1117793425/?refCatId=31). Variety. 1989. . Retrieved
December 20, 2012.
National Lampoon's Christmas Vacation
202
[8] Kempley, Rita (December 1, 1989). "'National Lampoon's Christmas Vacation' (PG-13)" (http:// www. washingtonpost. com/ wp-srv/ style/
longterm/movies/ videos/ nationallampoonschristmasvacation. htm). The Washington Post. . Retrieved December 20, 2012.
[9] Maslin, Janet (December 1, 1989). "Reviews/Film; On Vacation Once Again" (http:/ / movies. nytimes. com/ movie/
review?res=950DE0DD1738F932A35751C1A96F948260&partner=Rotten Tomatoes). The New York Times. . Retrieved December 20,
2012.
[10] Ebert, Roger (December 1, 1989). "National Lampoon's Christmas Vacation" (http:// rogerebert.suntimes. com/ apps/ pbcs. dll/
article?AID=/ 19891201/ REVIEWS/912010301). Chicago Sun-Times. . Retrieved December 20, 2012.
External links
• National Lampoon's Christmas Vacation (http:/ /www. imdb.com/ title/ tt0097958/ ) at the Internet Movie
Database
• National Lampoon's Christmas Vacation (http:/ /www. allrovi.com/ movies/ movie/ v120048) at AllRovi
National Lampoon's Vacation
203
National Lampoon's Vacation
National Lampoon's Vacation
Theatrical poster, illustrated by Boris Vallejo
Directed by Harold Ramis
Produced by Matty Simmons
Written by John Hughes
Starring Chevy Chase
Beverly D'Angelo
Anthony Michael Hall
Dana Barron
Randy Quaid
Imogene Coca
Music by Score:
Ralph Burns
Songs:
Lindsey Buckingham
Cinematography Victor J. Kemper, ASC
Editing by Pembroke J. Herring
Distributed by Warner Bros.
Release date(s) •• July 29, 1983
Running time 99 minutes
Country United States
Language English
Budget $15 million
Box office $61,399,552
National Lampoon's Vacation, sometimes referred to as Vacation, is a 1983 comedy film directed by Harold Ramis
and starring Chevy Chase, Beverly D'Angelo, Randy Quaid, Dana Barron and Anthony Michael Hall. The film
features numerous others, such as comedians John Candy and Imogene Coca, model Christie Brinkley, and Jane
Krakowski, in smaller roles.
The screenplay was written by John Hughes, based on his short story in National Lampoon Magazine, Vacation '58
(the screenplay changes the year to 1983). The original story is a (reportedly) fictionalized account of his own
family's ill-fated trip to Disneyland (changed to Walley World for the film) when Hughes was a boy. The success of
the film helped advance his screenwriting career.
National Lampoon's Vacation was a significant box-office hit, earning more than $61 million in the United States
with an estimated budget of $15 million. In 2000, readers of Total Film magazine voted National Lampoon's
Vacation the 46th greatest comedy film of all time. It is widely considered to be the best film in National Lampoon's
series of Vacation films, and continues to be a popular film and a staple on cable television channels. It also
currently garners a 94% "fresh" rating on Rotten Tomatoes.
[1]
National Lampoon's Vacation
204
Plot
Clark Griswold (Chase), wanting to spend more time with his wife Ellen (D'Angelo) and children Rusty and Audrey
(Hall and Barron), decides to lead the family on a cross-country expedition from Chicago to the Los Angeles
amusement park "Walley World", billed as "America's Favorite Family Fun Park". Although Ellen wants to fly,
Clark insists on driving, so he can bond with his family. In preparation, he has ordered a new sports wagon for the
trip, but when the dealer pulls a bait-and-switch, insisting the sports wagon won't be ready for 6 weeks, Clark is
forced to take a failing behemoth Wagon Queen Family Truckster.
As the family travels, they have several mishaps, such as being tagged by vandals while in a rundown part of St.
Louis, while Clark is tempted several times by an attractive young woman (Brinkley) driving a flashy red Ferrari 308
GTS. They stop in Coolidge, Kansas to visit Ellen's cousin Catherine (Miriam Flynn) and her husband Eddie
(Quaid), but this creates more tension among the Griswolds. Catherine and Eddie foist crotchety old Aunt Edna
(Coca) and her dog Dinky on the Griswolds, asking them to drop her off at her son Normy's home in Phoenix. After
stopping at a campground in South Fork, Colorado for the night, Clark forgets to untie Dinky from the car's bumper
before leaving, killing the dog.
While Ellen and Clark argue, they become stranded in the desert, and Clark eventually finds a mechanic that scams
him out of the rest of his cash to fix the car. Frustrated, they stop at the Grand Canyon; when Clark cannot convince
a hotel clerk to take a check, he takes cash from the hotel's cash register but leaves behind the check. Leaving the
Canyon, they find that Aunt Edna died in her sleep. When they reach Normy's home, they discover he is out of town,
and leave Edna's rigor mortised body in the backyard.
Despite all the events and the begging of Ellen and the kids, Clark is more determined to get to Walley World. They
finally arrive the next day to find the park closed for repairs. Clark, slipping into madness realizing that all his efforts
have been for nothing, buys a realistic-looking BB gun pistol and demands a park security guard named Russ Lasky
(John Candy) to take them through the park at gunpoint; Ellen and kids follow him, attempting to placate their
husband and father. Eventually the SWAT team arrives along with park owner Roy Walley (Eddie Bracken). Roy
understands Clark's impassioned epitome of the American Vacation, bringing back memories of his own childhood
years ago. Roy does not file charges against the Griswolds and lets the family enjoy the park as his guests. The
credits show various photographs of the Griswolds enjoying the rest of their vacation, including returning to Chicago
via plane.
Cast
• Chevy Chase as Clark Griswold
• Beverly D'Angelo as Ellen Griswold
• Imogene Coca as Aunt Edna
• Anthony Michael Hall as Russell "Rusty" Griswold
• Dana Barron as Audrey Griswold
• Randy Quaid as Cousin Eddie
• Christie Brinkley as Girl in Red Ferrari
• John Candy as Officer Russ Lasky
• Eddie Bracken as Roy Walley
• Brian Doyle-Murray as Kamp Komfort Clerk
• Miriam Flynn as Cousin Catherine
• James Keach as Motorcycle Cop
• Eugene Levy as Ed the Car Salesman
• Gerry Black as Davenport
• Frank McRae as Officer Grover
• Jane Krakowski as Cousin Vicki
National Lampoon's Vacation
205
• John P. Navin Jr. as Cousin Dale
• Nathan Cook as Man Giving Directions
• Mickey Jones as Mechanic
• John Diehl as Assistant Mechanic
• Michael Talbott as Cowboy
• Henry Gibson as El Tovar hotel clerk (uncredited)
• Randy Lowell as Wyatt Earp (as Randolph Dreyfuss)
• James Staley as Motel Desk Clerk
Production
Walley World
In John Hughes' original short story, the theme park was Disneyland. Because of this, all of the names were altered
to soundalikes.
[2]
Walt Disney's Disneyland became Walley World, itself a good-natured parody of the Anaheim
location. The name of the mascot, Marty Moose, is reminiscent of Disney's Mickey Mouse and the "Marty Moose
theme song" that the family sings in the car is a parody of the Mickey Mouse Club theme song. Roy Walley himself
is a pastiche of both Walt Disney and Roy O. Disney, right down to the thin mustache.
Walley World is represented in the film by Santa Anita Park in Arcadia, California and Six Flags Magic Mountain in
Valencia, California. Santa Anita Park's large parking lot and blue-tinged fascia serve as the introduction scenes,
while all park interior scenes were shot at Magic Mountain. The two roller coasters seen in the film are Revolution,
which can be recognized by the vertical loop, and Colossus, the double-track wooden roller coaster.
Music
The film's music was composed by Ralph Burns, featuring original songs by Lindsey Buckingham. A soundtrack
album was released in 1983. While it did not chart, Buckingham's single "Holiday Road" reached number 82 on the
Billboard Hot 100.
Side one
1. "Holiday Road" – Lindsey Buckingham
2. "Mister Blue" – The Fleetwoods
3. "Blitzkrieg Bop" – Ramones
4. "Deep River Blues" – Ralph Burns
5. "Summer Hearts" – Nicolette Larson
Side two
1. "Little Boy Sweet" – June Pointer
2. "The Trip (Theme from Vacation)" – Ralph Burns
3. "He's So Dull" – Vanity 6
4. "Christie's Song" – Ralph Burns
5. "Dancin' Across the USA" – Lindsey Buckingham
National Lampoon's Vacation
206
Sequels
National Lampoon's Vacation spawned a number of sequels:
• National Lampoon's European Vacation (1985)
• National Lampoon's Christmas Vacation (1989)
• Vegas Vacation (1997)
• National Lampoon's Christmas Vacation 2: Cousin Eddie's Island Adventure (2003)
• Hotel Hell Vacation (2010)
• New Vacation (2013)
With the exception of National Lampoon's Christmas Vacation 2: Cousin Eddie's Island Adventure, each sequel saw
Chevy Chase and Beverly D'Angelo reprise their roles as Clark and Ellen Griswold, enduring their unique and
unenviable brand of vacation misadventure in various locales. However, the children Rusty and Audrey are played
by a different set of actors in each film (except for Audrey in the last sequel). This fact is joked about early in Vegas
Vacation: when we first see the kids again, Clark tells them that he "hardly recognizes" them anymore. The various
actors were Anthony Michael Hall and Dana Barron in Vacation, Jason Lively and Dana Hill in European Vacation,
Johnny Galecki and Juliette Lewis in Christmas Vacation, and Ethan Embry and Marisol Nichols in Vegas Vacation.
Dana Barron again plays Audrey in Christmas Vacation 2, but Rusty, like his parents, could not make it for Cousin
Eddie's Island Adventure, an NBC TV movie. However, Miriam Flynn and Randy Quaid reprise their roles as
cousins Catherine and Eddie, as they did in each film aside from European Vacation. Christie Brinkley reprised her
role as The girl in the red Ferrari in the 1997 sequel Vegas Vacation
[3]
and later spoofed it in a 2008 DirecTV
commercial interspliced with footage from Vacation, recreating the famous swimming pool scene.
[4]
Each sequel also manages to reference Walley World in some way.
In July 2012, it was announced that Ed Helms would star as Rusty Griswold in the upcoming film, New Vacation.
The new version of the vacation adventures will follow Rusty, who now has his own family misadventures on the
road. John Francis Daley and Jonathan Goldstein will write and direct the film. It is currently unknown if Chevy
Chase or Beverly D'Angelo will reprise their roles in the new film or if any of the other cast members from past
films will appear.
[5]
Legacy
• HomeAway, Inc. hired Chevy Chase and Beverly D'Angelo to reprise their roles once again in an advertisement
campaign to be aired during Super Bowl XLIV.
[6]
• The teaser to Episode 2 of Scooby-Doo! Mystery Incorporated, "The Creeping Creatures", consisted of an homage
to the scene from the movie where the Griswold family is lost in a rundown area of St. Louis. In the teaser, a
family consisting of a Dad, Mom (voiced by Beverly D'Angelo), daughter and dog are lost on their way to
Manhattan. They stop to refuel what is clearly a Wagon Queen Family Truckster when they encounter the gator
monster central to the episode's mystery.
• Wally [sic] World Water Park opened in Canada several years after the release of the film.
• In the Family Guy episode Blue Harvest, a parody of the first Star Wars film, Chevy Chase and Beverly D'Angelo
reprised their roles from National Lampoon's Vacation, in a cameo as Clark and Ellen Griswold.
• In the November 27th, 2011 Family Guy episode Amish Guy, a spoof of National Lampoon's Vacation final
rollercoaster shot, then it goes on to parody its end credit sequence with "Dancin' Across the USA" being played
by Lindsey Buckingham.
• During the time Wally Joyner was playing for the California Angels, the club was sometimes jokingly referred to
as "Wally World".
National Lampoon's Vacation
207
References
[1] "" (http:/ / www. rottentomatoes. com/ m/ national_lampoons_vacation/ ). Rottentomatoes.com. 2011-11-20. . Retrieved 2012-01-05.
[2] Hughes, John. "Vacation '58 / Foreword '08" (http:/ / www.all-story. com/ issues. cgi?action=show_story& story_id=389). American
Zoetrope. . Retrieved December 18, 2012.
[3] "Christie Brinkley filmography in The New York Times" (http:/ / movies.nytimes. com/ person/ 8503/ Christie-Brinkley/ filmography). New
York Times. . Retrieved 2009-09-16.
[4] "Christie Brinkley Takes It Off For DirecTV" (http:// www.etonline.com/ news/ 2008/ 05/ 61799/ ). .
[5] http:// www.comingsoon. net/ news/ movienews. php?id=92434
[6] "HomeAway Brings Back Griswolds" (http:/ / news. cnet. com/ 8301-13577_3-10441653-36.html). .
External links
• Vacation (1983) (http://www. imdb. com/ title/tt0085995/ ) at the Internet Movie Database
• National Lampoon's Vacation (http:/ / www. allrovi.com/ movies/ movie/ v34585) at AllRovi
• National Lampoon's Vacation at the 80s Movie Gateway (http:/ / www. fast-rewind.com/ vacation. htm)
• "Vacation '58" by John Hughes ( online text (http:/ / www. bizbag. com/ Vacation/ Vacation 58. htm))
Next Door (1994 film)
208
Next Door (1994 film)
Next Door
1995 VHS cover
Directed by Tony Bill
Produced by Jay Benson, Barney Cohen
Written by Barney Cohen
Starring James Woods
Randy Quaid
Kate Capshaw
Lucinda Jenney
Music by Van Dyne Parks
Cinematography Thomas Del Ruth
Editing by Axel Hubert
Studio Showtime Networks
Tristar Television
Running time 95 min.
Country USA
Language English
Next Door is a 1994 American black comedy television movie starring James Woods, Randy Quaid, Kate Capshaw
and Lucinda Jenney. It originally aired September 4, 1994 on the Showtime network and was made available on
VHS January 17, 1995. As of January 2009, the film has yet to find a DVD release.
Plot
Matt (Woods), a sophisticated college professor and Karen (Capshaw), his schoolteacher wife, have inconsiderate
neighbours (a loutish beer-swilling butcher and his wife, played by Quaid and Jenney) whose lawn sprinkler drowns
their flowers. A feud erupts and as a series of tit-for-tat actions escalate, they also start to get crueler and more
destructive.
Cast
• James Woods as Matt Coler
• Randy Quaid as Lenny Benedetti
• Kate Capshaw as Karen Coler
• Lucinda Jenney as Marci Benedetti
•• Miles Fuelner as Bucky
Next Door (1994 film)
209
External links
• Next Door
[1]
at the Internet Movie Database
References
[1] http:/ / www.imdb. com/ title/ tt0110656/
No Man's Land (1987 film)
210
No Man's Land (1987 film)
No Man's Land
Theatrical release poster
Directed by Peter Werner
Produced by Joseph Stern
Dick Wolf
Written by Dick Wolf
Starring D. B. Sweeney
Charlie Sheen
Randy Quaid
Lara Harris
Music by Basil Poledouris
Cinematography Hiro Narita
Editing by Steven Cohen
Distributed by Orion Pictures Corporation
Release date(s) October 23, 1987
Running time 106 min.
Country United States
Language English
Box office $2,877,571
No Man's Land is a 1987 crime film written by Dick Wolf and directed by Peter Werner, starring D. B. Sweeney,
Charlie Sheen and Randy Quaid. Brad Pitt made his acting debut in this film as an uncredited extra.
The basic plotline (undercover policeman falls in love with prime suspect's sister and can't bring himself to make an
arrest) is frequently cited as inspiring the film The Fast and the Furious.
Plot
When an undercover detective is gunned down while investigating a string of Porsche 911 thefts, Lieutenant Vincent
Bracey (Randy Quaid) assigns 22-year-old San Diego officer Benjamin "Benjy" Taylor (D. B. Sweeney) to infiltrate
a Porsche garage suspected to be a front for the grand theft auto scheme. Benjy is chosen because of his extensive
mechanical knowledge of German cars and his rookie status, which dissuades others from suspecting that he is a cop.
Bracey wants Benjy to obtain evidence that millionaire playboy Ted Varrick (Charlie Sheen) is the mastermind
behind the thefts and the murder of the detective.
Using the alias "Billy Ayles", Benjy moves to Los Angeles and gets a job at Technique Porsche as a mechanic. After
Benjy fixes Ted's Porsche one night, the two men become close friends, and Benjy becomes romantically attached to
Ted's sister Ann (Lara Harris). Benjy also discovers the presence of a rival syndicate led by Frank Martin (R. D.
Call), which leads him to believe that Ted is not the prime suspect despite Bracey's insistence.
Eventually, Ted brings Benjy into his side business of stealing Porsches, with garage manager Malcolm (Bill Duke)
coordinating the operations. Benjy's first few attempts at stealing cars fail miserably, with Martin's syndicate
catching on and slashing his hand as a warning. While doing a job at the mall, Benjy and Ted are confronted by
Martin's thugs, but they manage to lose them in a lengthy car chase. Ted rewards Benjy with a red Porsche that night.
The next day, Ted goes to Technique Porsche and finds Malcolm has been murdered. In retaliation, he kills Frank at
No Man's Land (1987 film)
211
a night club.
During a phone conversation at a party, corrupt police Lieutenant Curtis Loos (Arlen Dean Snyder) - who was hired
by Ted to take out the detective in the film's opening - tells Ted about Benjy's real identity. The next night, Ted has
Benjy meet Loos at a warehouse for a payoff. When Loos tries to kill Benjy, Ted runs him over to save his friend.
Later, Benjy stops at Bracey's house to inform him of what happened with Loos, and accuses the Lieutenant of
conspiring with him. Bracey kicks Benjy out, but tells him to call in the morning so they can work things out. Benji
drives off, unaware that Ted was nearby, spying on him.
The next day, Benjy's cover is blown in front of Ann when his uncle Mike (George Dzundza) pays him a visit at his
apartment. He goes to Bracey's house, only to find that Ted has murdered him. Ted is preparing to flee the country
when Benjy convinces him to meet up at the mall, where he tries to arrest Ted for the murders. Ted refuses to go
quietly and a gunfight breaks out; Benjy is wounded, but manages to shoot and kill Ted.
Cast
• D. B. Sweeney as Benjamin "Benjy" Taylor a.k.a. Billy Ayles
• Charlie Sheen as Ted Varrick
• Lara Harris as Ann Varrick
• Randy Quaid as Lieutenant Vincent Bracey
• Bill Duke as Malcolm
• R. D. Call as Frank Martin
•• Arlen Dean Snyder as Lieutenant Curtis Loos
• M. Emmet Walsh as Captain Haun
•• Al Shannon as Danny
•• Bernie Pock as Ridley
•• Kenny Endoso as Leon
•• James F. Kelly as Brandon
•• Lori Butler as Suzanne
• Clare Wren as Deborah
•• George Dzundza as Uncle Mike
•• Linda Carol as Party Girl
•• Danitza Kingsley as Margot
• Peggy McCay as Benjy's Mom
•• Linda Shayne as Peggy
•• Robert Pierce as Jim
•• Claude Earl Jones as Uncle Roy
•• Jan Burrell as Aunt Rhea
•• Channing Chase as Aunt Fran
•• Jessica Puscas as Mary Jean
•• Molly Carter as Colleen
• Guy Boyd as Jaws
•• Henry G. Sanders as Heath
• Gary Riley as Cal
• Jenny Gago as Tory Bracey
•• Scott Lincoln as Bailey
•• Tom Santo as Juio
• Michael Riley as Horton
•• Denis Hartigan as Duncan
No Man's Land (1987 film)
212
Production
During filming, Charlie Sheen was knocked unconscious when a squib that hardened overnight detonated at the
wrong time. He sustained lacerations to his face and a loss of hearing on one ear that lasted four weeks.
[1][2]
Soundtrack
The original music score was composed by Basil Poledouris. Ska band The Untouchables performed live in the first
party scene.
Reception
The film has received mixed reviews, with a score of 50% on Rotten Tomatoes.
[3]
Roger Ebert gave the film three
out of four stars, saying the movie "has lots of scenes of Sheen and Sweeney stealing cars, and it dwells on the
details of their crimes, and the reckless way they risk capture. This is a movie about how money and excitement
generate a seduction that can change personal values; it's better and deeper than you might expect."
[4]
References
[1] "Behind the Scenes of No Man's Land" (http:/ / www.fast-rewind.com/ making_nomansland.htm). The '80s Rewind. . Retrieved
2013-02-02.
[2] Flynn, Mike (2013-01-09). "Movie of the Day: No Man's Land (1987)" (http:/ / www. chud.com/122588/
movie-of-the-day-no-mans-land-1987/). CHUD.com. . Retrieved 2013-02-02.
[3] No Man's Land (http:// www. rottentomatoes. com/ m/ 1015196-no_mans_land/ ) at Rotten Tomatoes
[4] Roger Ebert - No Man's Land (http:/ / rogerebert.suntimes. com/ apps/ pbcs. dll/ article?AID=/19871023/ REVIEWS/710230301)
External links
• No Man's Land (http:/ / www. imdb.com/ title/ tt0093638/ ) at the Internet Movie Database
• No Man's Land (http:/ / www. rottentomatoes.com/ m/ 1015196-no_mans_land/ ) at Rotten Tomatoes
Not Another Teen Movie
213
Not Another Teen Movie
Not Another Teen Movie
Theatrical release poster
Directed by Joel Gallen
Produced by Neal H. Moritz
Phil Beauman
Mike Bender
Buddy Johnson
Written by Mike Bender
Adam Jay Epstein
Andrew Jacobson
Phil Beauman
Buddy Johnson
Starring Chyler Leigh
Chris Evans
Jaime Pressly
Eric Christian Olsen
Eric Jungmann
Mia Kirshner
Deon Richmond
Cody McMains
Sam Huntington
Samm Levine
Cerina Vincent
Ron Lester
Lacey Chabert
Riley Smith
Music by Theodore Shapiro
Cinematography Reynaldo Villalobos
Editing by Steven Welch
Studio Original Film
Distributed by Columbia Pictures
Release date(s) •• December 14, 2001
Running time 89 minutes
99 minutes (unrated director's cut)
Country United States
Language English
Budget $15 million
Box office
$66,468,332
[1]
Not Another Teen Movie is a 2001 American comedy film directed by Joel Gallen, released on December 14, 2001
by Columbia Pictures. It is a parody of teen movies which have accumulated in Hollywood over the last few
decades. While the general plot is based on Pretty in Pink, She's All That, and 10 Things I Hate About You, the film
is also filled with allusions to numerous other films including Bring It On, American Pie, Cruel Intentions, American
Beauty, Never Been Kissed, and The Breakfast Club. A single was released alongside the movie titled "Prom
Tonight" and reached #86 on the Billboard Hot 100.
Not Another Teen Movie
214
Plot
In the stereotypical high school community of John Hughes High in Southern California, sexy Priscilla (Jaime
Pressly), a popular cheerleader, separates from her football star boyfriend, Jake Wyler (Chris Evans). After Jake
discovers that Priscilla is now dating peculiar Les (Riley Smith) just to spite him, one of Jake's friends, Austin (Eric
Christian Olsen), suggests seeking retribution by making Janey Briggs (Chyler Leigh), a "uniquely rebellious girl",
the prom queen. Jake attempts to court Janey's love, but faces adversity from his own sister, Catherine (Mia
Kirshner), who is sexually attracted to him; Janey’s unnoticed admirer and best friend, Ricky (Eric Jungmann); and
memories from his past football career. Catherine eventually helps her brother by slightly altering Janey’s
appearance (taking away her glasses and ponytail), instantly making her drop dead gorgeous.
Meanwhile, Janey's little brother, Mitch (Cody McMains), and his friends, Ox (Sam Huntington) and Bruce (Samm
Levine), make a pact to lose their virginity by Graduation even though they are still in their Freshmen year. Mitch
tries to impress his longtime crush, the beautiful yet perverted Amanda Becker (Lacey Chabert) with a letter
professing his love for her. Bruce says that he does not have a chance with her mockingly stating, "Keep dreaming!".
As the prom draws near, Jake draws infamy among his peers after he fails to lead his football team to victory at the
state championship game the year before. The situation is further worsened when Austin tricks Jake into telling
Janey about his plan to spite Priscilla by pretending to whisper the secret bet in Janey's ear, causing her to
immediately leave Jake. During prom night, Austin and Janey go together; a jealous Jake and Catherine have a dance
off with Austin and Janey, with Catherine dancing in a sexual manner. Janey runs off crying.
Meanwhile, Mitch and his friends are having a lousy time at the prom until Amanda Becker arrives and Mitch gives
her the letter and Ox later hooks up with Catherine.
Jake is awarded prom king and the principal reads out that the votes for prom queen are tied. Everyone thinks that it
is between Janey and Priscilla, but they are shocked to find that Kara and Sara Fratelli (Samaire Armstrong and
Nectar Rose), twins conjoined at the head, win prom queen. During the traditional prom king and queen dance, Janey
supposedly left with Austin to go to a hotel. Jake goes to the hotel room where he finds Austin having wild sex with
a girl but is shocked to find that it is Priscilla not Janey while the weird Les videotapes with his pants down
supposedly having an erection, Austin tells Jake that Janey "ran home to her daddy". Jake angrily punches Austin
and Priscilla for what they had done to Janey, then punches Les for "being really weird" (he also punches a plastic
bag that happens to be floating next to Les); afterwards he runs to Janey's house only to learn from her father (Randy
Quaid) that she is going to Paris for art school.
Jake arrives at the airport and confronts her before she can board the plane, and uses a plethora of clichéd lines from
other movies (such as She's All That, Cruel Intentions, American Pie, The Breakfast Club and Pretty in Pink) to
convince her to stay in America. His final (and first original) speech suggests they would be better off apart, but
Janey mistakenly believes he is quoting The Karate Kid, and she decides to stay with him.
List of movies parodied
Not Another Teen Movie
215
•• 10 Things I Hate About You •• Jawbreaker
•• Almost Famous •• The Karate Kid
•• American Beauty •• Lucas
•• American Pie •• Never Been Kissed
•• Better Off Dead •• Porky's
•• The Breakfast Club •• Pretty in Pink
•• Bring It On •• Risky Business
•• Can't Buy Me Love •• Road Trip
•• Can't Hardly Wait •• Rudy
•• Clueless •• Save the Last Dance
•• Cruel Intentions •• She's All That
•• Dazed and Confused •• Sixteen Candles
•• Detroit Rock City •• Unbreakable
•• Election •• Varsity Blues
•• Fast Times at Ridgemont High
•• Ferris Bueller's Day Off
•• Footloose
Cast of characters
• Chyler Leigh as Janey Briggs ("The Pretty Ugly Girl")
• Chris Evans as Jake Wyler ("The Popular Jock")
• Jaime Pressly as Priscilla ("The Nasty Cheerleader")
• Eric Christian Olsen as Austin ("The Cocky Blond Guy")
• Mia Kirshner as Catherine Wyler ("The Cruelest Girl in School")
• Deon Richmond as Malik Token ("The Token Black Guy")
• Eric Jungmann as Ricky Lipman ("The Obsessed Best Friend")
• Ron Lester as Reggie Ray ("The Stupid Fat Guy")
• Cody McMains as Mitch Briggs ("The Desperate Virgin")
• Sam Huntington as Ox ("The Sensitive Guy")
• Samm Levine as Bruce ("The Wannabe")
• Lacey Chabert as Amanda Becker ("The Perfect Girl")
• Cerina Vincent as Areola ("The Naked Foreign Exchange Student")
• Riley Smith as Les ("The Beautiful Weirdo")
• Samaire Armstrong as Kara Fratelli
• Nectar Rose as Sara Fratelli
• Ed Lauter as The Coach
• Randy Quaid as Mr. Briggs
• Joanna García as Sandy Sue
• Beverly Polcyn as Sadie Agatha Johnson
• Robert Patrick Benedict as Preston Wasserstein
• Josh Radnor as Tour Guide
• Paul Goebel as The Chef Who Ejaculated Into Mitch's French Toast
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216
Cameos
Many stars of recent teen movies, as well as teen films from the 1980s, make credited and uncredited appearances.
These include:
• Molly Ringwald as "The Rude, Hot Flight Attendant" - Ringwald starred in many '80s teen movies such as Pretty
in Pink, Sixteen Candles and The Breakfast Club.
• Mr. T as "The Wise Janitor" - The A-Team's opening sequence music is playing at the end of his speech.
• Kyle Cease as "The Slow Clap Guy" - Cease played Bogey Lowenstein in 10 Things I Hate About You.
• Melissa Joan Hart as "Slow Clapper's Instructor" - Hart can also be seen in the teen movies Can't Hardly Wait and
Drive Me Crazy. The commentator at the football game praises Hart and Sabrina the Teenage Witch.
• Lyman Ward as Mr. Wyler - Ward played Ferris Bueller's father in Ferris Bueller's Day Off.
• Paul Gleason as Richard "Dick" Vernon - Gleason played Vernon in The Breakfast Club.
• Sean Patrick Thomas as "The Other Token Black Guy" - Thomas appeared in teen movies Can't Hardly Wait,
Cruel Intentions and Save the Last Dance.
• Good Charlotte as "The Band" - The band playing at the prom.
Extra footage
Alternate footage
• Three scenes that appear on the R-rated trailer are not included in the film: a scene that spoofs Save the Last
Dance where a girl is dancing at the big party, a scene that spoofs Never Been Kissed during the football game
with Sadie standing on the football field with a microphone before the entire football team runs her down (the
person she was waiting for - one of the school teachers - gets up out of the bleachers just before she is run down
and then sits immediately after she is trampled), and a small scene with Areola asking the principal if her breasts
are perky (this scene does appear in the unrated cut of the film).
•• In the trailer for the film, Jake wears boxer shorts during the whipped cream bikini scene, whereas during that
same scene in the film, he wears no shorts; his bare crotch is covered with whipped cream instead.
Footage during credits
The film has three extra scenes at the end:
•• Mitch, Ox and Bruce talking about what they learned from the whole experience. (This scene comes only in the
unrated cut.)
• Mr. Briggs, in a parody of a scene from American Pie, talks about a "three-way" while holding two pies. (This
scene comes only in the rated cut.)
•• The albino folk singer sings about being blind, and her corneas being burned out by the sun. (This scene comes
after all the credits have finished.)
Not Another Teen Movie
217
Box office
The film opened at number 3 at the US box office taking $12,615,116 in its opening weekend behind Vanilla Sky's
opening weekend and Ocean's Eleven (2001 film)'s second weekend.
DVD release
The R-rated version of the film was released on DVD on April 30, 2002 with the original 89-minute cut with special
features including:
• School's in Session: 3 behind-the-scenes featurettes
• "Tainted Love" unrated music video by Marilyn Manson
• Car Ride: Director Joel Gallen's first short film
• Test Your Teen Movie IQ trivia game with the cast and crew
•• Auditions montage
•• Meet the cast promos
• The Yearbook: The cast looks back at their high school years
•• 9 bonus previews
The Unrated Extended Director's Cut was released July 26, 2005 with all of the original special features including an
added 11 minutes to the film adding up to 100 minutes.
Reception
The film received generally negative reviews from critics, despite being well-received by audiences. On Rotten
Tomatoes, the film received a 28% rating based on the scores of 96 critics at an average of 4 out of 10. Indicating a
"rotten" score on the site's Tomatometer, its critical consensus was that "NATM has some funny moments, but the
movie requires the audience to have familiarity with the movies being spoofed and a tolerance for toilet and sexual
humor to be truly effective."
[2]
On Metacritic, the film received a 32% rating based on the scores of 22 critics,
indicating a "generally unfavorable" Metascore. In Metacritic's audience poll, the film came in at an average 6.8 out
of 10 from a total of 60 scores, indicating "generally favorable reviews."
[3]
Soundtrack listing
The soundtrack for the film features metal, punk and rock artists from the 1990s and 2000s, mostly covering songs
from the 1980s, and this CD was released by Maverick Records in 2001.
1. "Tainted Love" (Gloria Jones) - Marilyn Manson - 3:21
2. "Never Let Me Down Again" (Depeche Mode) - The Smashing Pumpkins - 4:01
3. "Blue Monday" (New Order) - Orgy
4. "The Metro" (Berlin) - System of a Down
5. "But Not Tonight" (Depeche Mode) - Scott Weiland
6. "Message of Love" (The Pretenders) - Saliva
7. "Bizarre Love Triangle" (New Order) - Stabbing Westward
8. "99 Red Balloons" (Nena) - Goldfinger
9. "I Melt with You" (Modern English) - Mest
10. "If You Leave" (OMD) - Good Charlotte
11. "Please, Please, Please, Let Me Get What I Want" (The Smiths) - Muse
12. "Somebody's Baby" (Jackson Browne) - Phantom Planet
13. "Let's Begin" - Bad Ronald
14. "Prom Tonight" - Not Another Teen Movie cast
Not Another Teen Movie
218
References
[1] "Not Another Teen Movie" (http:/ / www. boxofficemojo.com/ movies/ ?id=notanotherteenmovie.htm). Box Office Mojo. . Retrieved August
7, 2010.
[2] "Not Another Teen Movie Reviews, Pictures" (http:/ / www. rottentomatoes.com/ m/ not_another_teen_movie/ ). Rotten Tomatoes. .
Retrieved December 10, 2012.
[3] "Not Another Teen Movie at Metacritic" (http:/ / www. metacritic.com/ movie/ not-another-teen-movie). Metacritic. . Retrieved December
19, 2010.
External links
• Not Another Teen Movie (http:/ / www. imdb.com/ title/ tt0277371/) at the Internet Movie Database
• Not Another Teen Movie (http:/ / www. allrovi.com/ movies/ movie/v255993) at AllRovi
• Not Another Teen Movie (http:/ / www. boxofficemojo.com/ movies/ ?id=notanotherteenmovie.htm) at Box
Office Mojo
• Not Another Teen Movie (http:/ / www. rottentomatoes. com/ m/ not_another_teen_movie/) at Rotten Tomatoes
• Not Another Teen Movie (http:/ / www. metacritic.com/ movie/ not-another-teen-movie) at Metacritic
Of Mice and Men
219
Of Mice and Men
Of Mice and Men
First edition cover
Author(s) John Steinbeck
Cover artist Ross MacDonald
Country United States
Language English
Genre(s) Novel
Publisher Covici Friede
Publication date 1937
Pages 187 (First Edition)
Of Mice and Men is a novel written by Nobel Prize-winning author John Steinbeck. Published in 1937, it tells the
tragic story of George Milton and Lennie Small, two displaced migrant ranch workers, who move from place to
place in search of new job opportunities during the Great Depression in California, USA.
Based on Steinbeck's own experiences as a bindlestiff in the 1920s (before the arrival of the Okies he would vividly
describe in The Grapes of Wrath), the title is taken from Robert Burns' poem "To a Mouse", which read: "The best
laid schemes o' mice an' men / Gang aft agley." (The best laid schemes of mice and men / Often go awry.)
Required reading in many schools,
[1]
Of Mice and Men has been a frequent target of censors for vulgarity and what
some consider offensive and racist language; consequently, it appears on the American Library Association's list of
the Most Challenged Books of 21st Century.
[2]
Plot summary
Two migrant field workers in California on their plantation during the Great Depression—George Milton, an
intelligent but uneducated man, and Lennie Small, a man of large stature and great strength but limited mental
abilities—are on their way to another part of California in Soledad. They hope to one day attain their shared dream
of settling down on their own piece of land. Lennie's part of the dream is merely to tend to (and touch) soft rabbits on
the farm. This dream is one of Lennie's favorite stories, which George constantly retells. They are fleeing from their
previous employment in Weed, California, where they were run out of town after Lennie's love of stroking soft
things resulted in an accusation of attempted rape when he touched a young woman's dress, and would not let go. It
soon becomes clear that the two are close friends and George is Lennie's protector. The theme of friendship is
constant throughout the story.
At the ranch, the situation appears to be menacing and dangerous, especially when the pair are confronted by
Curley—the boss's small-statured aggressive son with an inferiority complex who dislikes larger men—leaving the
gentle giant Lennie potentially vulnerable. Curley's flirtatious and provocative wife, to whom Lennie is instantly
attracted, poses a problem as well. In sharp contrast to these two characters, the pair also meets Slim, the kind,
intelligent and intuitive jerkline skinner whose dog has recently had a litter of puppies. Slim gives a puppy to Lennie.
In spite of the potential problems on the ranch, their dream leaps towards reality when Candy, the aged, one-handed
ranch hand, offers to pitch in with George and Lennie so that they can buy a farm at the end of the month in return
for permission to live with them on it. The trio are ecstatic, but their joy is overshadowed when Curley attacks
Lennie. In response, Lennie, urged on by George, catches Curley's fist and crushes it, reminding the group there are
Of Mice and Men
220
still obstacles to overcome before their goal is reached.
Nevertheless, George feels more relaxed, since the dream seems just within their grasp, to the extent that he even
leaves Lennie behind on the ranch while he goes into town with the other ranch hands. Lennie wanders into the
stable, and chats with Crooks, the bitter, yet educated stable buck, who is isolated from the other workers because he
is black. Candy finds them and they discuss their plans for the farm with Crooks, who cannot resist asking them if he
can hoe a garden patch on the farm, despite scorning the possibility of achieving the dream. Curley's wife makes
another appearance and flirts with the men, especially Lennie. However, her spiteful side is shown when she belittles
them and is especially harsh towards Crooks because of his race, threatening to have him lynched.
Lennie accidentally kills his puppy while stroking it. Curley's wife enters the barn and tries to speak to Lennie,
admitting that she is lonely and how her dreams of becoming a movie star are crushed, revealing the reason she flirts
with the ranch hands. After finding out that Lennie loves stroking soft things, she offers to let him stroke her hair,
but panics and begins to scream when she feels his strength. Lennie becomes frightened, and in the scuffle,
unintentionally breaks her neck. When the other ranch hands find the corpse, George unhappily realizes that their
dream is at an end. George hurries away to find Lennie, hoping he will be at the meeting place they designated at the
start of the novel in case Lennie got into trouble, knowing that there is only one thing he can do to save Lennie from
the painful death that Curley's lynch mob intends to deliver.
George meets Lennie at the designated place, the same spot they camped in the night before they came to the ranch.
The two sit together and George retells the beloved story of the bright future together that they will have, knowing it
is something they will never share. He then shoots Lennie in the back of the head, so that his death will be painless
and happy. Curley, Slim, and Carlson find George seconds after the shooting. Only Slim realizes that George killed
Lennie out of love, and gently and consolingly leads him away, while Curley and Carlson look on, unable to
comprehend the subdued mood of the two men.
Characters
I was a bindlestiff myself for quite a spell. I worked in the same country that the story is laid in. The characters are composites to a
certain extent. Lennie was a real person. He's in an insane asylum in California right now. I worked alongside him for many weeks.
He didn't kill a girl. He killed a ranch foreman. Got sore because the boss had fired his pal and stuck a pitchfork right through his
stomach. I hate to tell you how many times I saw him do it. We couldn't stop him until it was too late.
John Steinbeck, interview by The New York Times, 1937
[3][4]
• George Milton: A quick-witted man who is Lennie's guardian and best friend. His friendship with Lennie helps
sustain his dream of a better future.
• Lennie Small: A mentally disabled, but physically strong man who travels with George and is his constant
companion.
[4]
He dreams of "living off the fatta' the lan'" and being able to tend to rabbits. His love for soft things
conspires against him, mostly because he doesn't know his own strength, and eventually becomes his undoing.
• Candy: An aging ranch handyman, Candy lost his hand in an accident and worries about his future on the ranch.
Fearing that his age is making him useless, he seizes on George’s description of the farm he and Lennie will have,
offering his life’s savings if he can join George and Lennie in owning the land. The fate of Candy’s ancient dog,
which Carlson shoots in the back of the head in an alleged act of mercy, foreshadows the manner of Lennie’s
death.
• Slim: A "jerkline skinner," the main driver of a mule team and the "prince of the ranch". Slim is greatly respected
by many of the characters and is the only character whom Curley treats with respect. His insight, intuition,
kindness and natural authority draw the other ranch hands automatically towards him, and he is significantly the
only character to fully understand the bond between George and Lennie.
• Curley: The Boss' son, a young, pugnacious character, once a semi-professional boxer. He is described by others,
with some irony, as "handy", partly because he likes to keep a glove filled with vaseline on his left hand, and
Of Mice and Men
221
partly because of Steinbeck's use of foreshadowing. He is very jealous and protective of his wife and immediately
develops a dislike toward Lennie. At one point, Curley loses his temper after he sees Lennie appear to laugh at
him, and ends up with his hand horribly damaged after Lennie fights back against him.
• Curley's wife: A young, pretty woman, who is mistrusted by her husband. The other characters refer to her only
as "Curley's wife". This lack of personal definition underscores this character's purpose in the story: Steinbeck
explained that she is "not a person, she's a symbol. She has no function, except to be a foil – and a danger to
Lennie."
[4]
Curley's wife's preoccupation with her own beauty eventually helps precipitate her death: She allows
Lennie to stroke her hair as an apparently harmless indulgence, only for her to upset Lennie when she yells at him
to stop him 'mussing it'. Lennie tries to stop her yelling and eventually kills her by recklessly breaking her neck.
• Crooks: Crooks, the black stable-hand, gets his name from his crooked back. Proud, bitter, and cynical, he is
isolated from the other men because of the color of his skin. Despite himself, Crooks becomes fond of Lennie,
and though he claims to have seen countless men following empty dreams of buying their own land, he asks
Lennie if he can go with them and hoe in the garden.
• Candy's dog: A blind dog who is described as "old", "stinky", and "crippled", and is killed by Carlson. The death
of Candy's dog foreshadows Lennie's fate.
• Carlson: A "thick bodied" ranch hand, he kills Candy's dog with little sympathy.
• Whit: A "young laboring man" who works on the ranch.
• Whitey: A blacksmith; "hell of a nice fella and as clean a guy as you want to meet." He has left the ranch prior to
the start of the action, and does not otherwise enter into the story.
• The Boss: Curley's father, the superintendent of the ranch. The ranch is owned by "a big land company"
according to Candy.
• Aunt Clara: Lennie's Aunt, who raised Lennie; she is recently deceased. She appears in Lennie's head after he
kills Curely's wife, scolding him,
• The Girl in Weed: Since Lennie likes patting soft things, he patted her dress a little too hard and she screamed,
declaring it as rape. George and Lennie then ran out of Weed to Soledad in search of a new job.
Themes
In every bit of honest writing in the world there is a base theme. Try to understand men, if you understand
each other you will be kind to each other. Knowing a man well never leads to hate and nearly always leads to
love. There are shorter means, many of them. There is writing promoting social change, writing punishing
injustice, writing in celebration of heroism, but always that base theme. Try to understand each other.
— John Steinbeck in his 1938 journal entry
[5]
Steinbeck emphasizes dreams throughout the book. George aspires to independence, to be his own boss, to have a
homestead, and most importantly to be "somebody". Lennie aspires to be with George on his independent
homestead, and to quench his fixation on soft objects. Candy aspires to reassert his responsibility lost with the death
of his dog, and for security for his old age — on George's homestead. Crooks aspires to a small homestead where he
can express self-respect, security, and most of all, acceptance. Curley's wife dreams to be an actress, to satisfy her
desire for fame lost when she married Curley, and an end to her loneliness.
Loneliness is a significant factor in several characters' lives. Candy is lonely after his dog is gone. Curley's wife is
lonely because her husband is not the friend she hoped for —- she deals with her loneliness by flirting with the men
on the ranch, which causes Curley to increase his abusiveness and jealousy. The companionship of George and
Lennie is the result of loneliness. Crooks states the theme candidly as "A guy goes nuts if he ain't got anybody. Don't
make any difference who the guy is, long's he's with you."
[6]
The author further reinforces this theme through subtle
methods by situating the story near the town of Soledad, which means "solitude" in Spanish.
[7]
Of Mice and Men
222
Despite the need for companionship, Steinbeck emphasizes how loneliness is sustained through the barriers
established from acting inhuman to one another. The loneliness of Curley's wife is upheld by Curley's jealousy,
which causes all the ranch hands to avoid her. Crooks's barrier results from being barred from the bunkhouse by
restraining him to the stable; his bitterness is partially broken, however, through Lennie's ignorance.
Steinbeck's characters are often powerless, due to intellectual, economic, and social circumstances. Lennie possesses
the greatest physical strength of any character, which should therefore establish a sense of respect as he is employed
as a ranch hand. However, his intellectual handicap undercuts this and results in his powerlessness. Economic
powerlessness is established as many of the ranch hands are victims of the Great Depression. As George, Candy and
Crooks are positive, action- oriented characters, they wish to purchase a homestead, but because of the Depression,
they are unable to generate enough money. Lennie is the only one who is basically unable to take care of himself, but
the other characters would do this in the improved circumstances they seek. Since they cannot do so, the real danger
of Lennie's mental handicap comes to the fore.
Regarding human interaction, evil of oppression and abuse is a theme that is illustrated through Curley and Curley's
wife. Curley uses his aggressive nature and superior position in an attempt to take control of his father's farm. He
constantly reprimands the farm hands and accuses some of fooling around with his wife. Curley's Napoleon complex
is evidenced by his threatening of the farm hands for minuscule incidents. Curley's wife, on the other hand, is not
physically but verbally manipulative. She uses her sex appeal to gain some attention, flirting with the farm hands.
According to the Penguin Teacher's Guide for Of Mice and Men, Curley and Curley's wife represent evil in that both
oppress and abuse the migrants in different ways.
[8]
Fate is felt most heavily as the characters' aspirations are destroyed when George is unable to protect Lennie (who is
a real danger). Steinbeck presents this as "something that happened" or as his friend coined for him "non-teleological
thinking" or "is thinking", which postulates a non-judgmental point of view.
[5]
Animal imagery
Of Mice and Men was noted to be a great example of the use of animal imagery. Throughout the course of the novel
Steinbeck often uses animal imagery to emphasise the key themes of mental illness, racism and the inevitable
tragedy of the ending.
Development
Of Mice and Men was Steinbeck's first attempt at writing in the form of novel-play termed a "play-novelette" by one
critic. Structured in three acts of two chapters each, it is intended to be both a novella and a script for a play. He
wanted to write a novel that could be played from its lines, or a play that could be read like a novel.
[9]
Steinbeck originally titled it Something That Happened (referring to the events of the book as "something that
happened" because nobody can be really blamed for the tragedy that unfolds in the story), however, he changed the
title after reading Robert Burns's poem To a Mouse.
[10]
Burns's poem tells of the regret the narrator feels for having
destroyed the home of a mouse while plowing his field.
Steinbeck wrote this book and The Grapes of Wrath in what is now Monte Sereno, California. An early draft of the
novel was eaten by Steinbeck's dog, named Max.
[11]
Of Mice and Men
223
Reception
Attaining the greatest positive response of any of his works up to that time, Steinbeck's novel was chosen as a Book
of the Month Club selection before it was published. Praise for the work came from many notable critics, including
Maxine Garrard (Enquirer-Sun),
[12]
Christopher Morley, and Harry Thornton Moore (New Republic).
[13]
New York
Times critic Ralph Thompson described the novel as a "grand little book, for all its ultimate melodrama."
[14][15]
The novel has been banned from various US public and school libraries or curricula for allegedly "promoting
euthanasia", "condoning racial slurs", being "anti-business", containing profanity, and generally containing "vulgar"
and "offensive language".
[16]
Many of the bans and restrictions have been lifted and it remains required reading in
many other American, Australian, Irish, British, New Zealand and Canadian high schools. As a result of being a
frequent target of censors, Of Mice and Men appears on the American Library Association's list of the Most
Challenged Books of 21st Century (number 4).
[17]
Although this book is widely popular there are many controversies surrounding its content that have led Of Mice and
Men to become censored in school districts around the country. Of Mice and Men has been challenged 54 times since
it was published in 1936.
[18]
However, scholars like Thomas Scarseth have fought to protect the book by citing its
literary value. According to Scarseth "in true great literature the pain of Life is transmuted into the beauty of Art",
[19]
thus it is through the controversy that people can begin to appreciate.
Cultural Influence
The character of Lennie Small is used as the standard for legal mental retardation for executing a prisoner in Texas.
If a person appears smarter than Lennie Small in an interview then he may be executed. If he does not then he cannot
understand his crime(s).
[20]
John Steinbeck's son, Thomas Steinbeck, who is personally against the death penalty, has protested that this legal
practice is a misappropriation and insult of his father's work.
[21]
Adaptations
Cinema
Of Mice and Men was adapted for the screen several times.
The first adaptation was in 1939, two years after the publication of the novel, and starred Lon Chaney Jr. as Lennie,
with Burgess Meredith as George, and was directed by Lewis Milestone.
[22]
It was nominated for four Oscars.
[22]
A TV version, produced by David Susskind in 1968, starred George Segal as George, Nicol Williamson as Lennie,
Will Geer as Candy, Moses Gunn as Crooks, and Don Gordon and Joey Heatherton as Curley and his wife.
[23]
In 1981 a TV movie version was made, starring Randy Quaid as Lennie, and Robert Blake as George, and directed
by Reza Badiyi.
[24]
Another theatrical film version was made in 1992, directed by Gary Sinise, who was nominated for the Palme d'Or at
Cannes.
[25]
Sinise also played George in the film, and the role of Lennie was played by John Malkovich. For this
adaptation, both men reprised their roles from the 1980 Steppenwolf Theatre Company production.
[26]
Stage
The first stage production was written by Steinbeck, produced by Sam H. Harris and directed by George S.
Kaufman. It opened on November 23, 1937, in the Music Box Theatre on Broadway.
[27]
Running for 207
performances, it starred Wallace Ford as George and Broderick Crawford as Lennie.
[27]
The role of Crooks was
performed by Leigh Whipper, the first African-American member of the Actors' Equity Association.
[28]
Whipper
repeated this role in the 1939 film version.
[22]
Of Mice and Men
224
The production was chosen as Best Play in 1938 by the New York Drama Critics' Circle.
[29]
In 1939 the production was moved to Los Angeles, still with Wallace Ford in the role of George, but with Lon
Chaney, Jr., taking on the role of Lennie. Chaney's performance in the role resulted in his casting in the movie.
The play was revived in a 1974 Broadway production in the Brooks Atkinson Theatre starring Kevin Conway as
George and James Earl Jones as Lennie.
[30]
Noted stage actress Pamela Blair played Curley's Wife in this
production.
In 1970 Carlisle Floyd wrote an opera based on this novel. One departure between Steinbeck's book and Floyd's
opera is that the opera features The Ballad Singer, a character not found in the book.
[31]
Radio
Of Mice and Men was adapted by Donna Franceschild as a radio play directed by Kirsty Williams starring David
Tennant broadcast on BBC Radio 4 on 7 March 2010.
[32]
Other references
Numerous works have referred to or parodied aspects of the book, perhaps most notably the Looney Tunes and
Merrie Melodies cartoons, which often had one character asking another, à la Lon Chaney's characterization of
Lennie, "which way did he go, George; which way did he go?",
[33]
References
Notes
[1] Stephen Maunder (March 25, 2011). "Who, what, why: Why do children study Of Mice and Men?" (http:/ / www. bbc. co. uk/ news/
magazine-12829392). BBC News. . Retrieved March 26, 2011.
[2] "American Library Association Top 100 Banned/Challenged Books: 2000-2009" (http:/ / www. ala. org/ala/ issuesadvocacy/ banned/
frequentlychallenged/ challengedbydecade/ 2000_2009/ index.cfm). web page. American Library Association. 2011. . Retrieved July 1, 2011.
[3] "Mice, Men, and Mr. Steinbeck". The New York Times: 7. 1937-12-05
[4] Parini, Jay (1992-09-27). "FILM; Of Bindlestiffs, Bad Times, Mice and Men" (http:/ / query.nytimes. com/ gst/ fullpage.
html?res=9E0CE6DD1F3AF934A1575AC0A964958260& sec=& spon=& pagewanted=all). The New York Times. . Retrieved June 17, 2008
[5] Tracy Barr, Greg Tubach,, ed. (2001) [2001]. Cliff Notes: On Steinbeck's Of Mice and men. 909 Third Avenue, New York City, New York:
Wiley Publishing. ISBN 0-7645-8676-9.
[6] [6] Of Mice and Men, p. 71
[7] Kirk, Susan Van (2001) [2001]. Tracy Barr, Greg Tubach,. ed. Cliff Notes: On Steinbeck's Of Mice and men. 909 Third Avenue, New York
City, New York: Wiley Publishing. ISBN 0-7645-8676-9.
[8] Reed, Ph.D, Arthea J.S.. A Teacher's Guide to the Penguin Edition of John Steinbeck's Of Mice and Men (http:/ / us. penguingroup.com/
static/pdf/teachersguides/ ofmiceandmen.pdf). Penguin Group (USA). .
[9] Burning Bright – in the foreword Steinbeck states that Of Mice and Men and The Moon Is Down were his first two play yo man Shillinglaw
"John Steinbeck, American Writer" (http:// web. archive. org/web/ 20060908113639/ http:/ / steinbeck. sjsu. edu/ biography/briefbiography.
jsp). The Martha Heasley Cox Center for Steinbeck Studies. January 18, 2004. Archived from the original (http:// www. steinbeck.sjsu. edu/
biography/briefbiography.jsp) on September 8, 2006. . Retrieved December 28, 2006.
[10] Dr. Susan Shillinglaw (January 18, 2004). "John Steinbeck, American Writer" (http:// web. archive.org/web/ 20060908113639/ http:/ /
steinbeck. sjsu. edu/ biography/briefbiography.jsp). The Martha Heasley Cox Center for Steinbeck Studies. Archived from the original (http:/
/www.steinbeck. sjsu. edu/ biography/briefbiography.jsp) on September 8, 2006. . Retrieved December 28, 2006.
[11] Robert McCrum (January 18, 2004). "First drafts" (http:/ / books. guardian.co. uk/ news/ articles/ 0,6109,1125534,00.html). The Guardian
(UK). . Retrieved December 27, 2006.
[12] "John Steinbeck – The Contemporary Reviews" (http:// www. books. google.com/ books?isbn=052141038X)
[13] "John Steinbeck and His Novels – an appreciation by Harry Thornton Moore" (http:/ / www. goldenbooksgroup.co.uk/ index.
php?target=products& product_id=100627)
[14] McElrath, Joseph R.; Jesse S. Crisler, Susan Shillinglaw (1996). John Steinbeck: The Contemporary Reviews (http:// books.google.com/
?id=uFSfYMpUyokC&pg=PA85&lpg=PA85& dq="mice+and+ men"+ "christopher+ morley"). Cambridge University Press. pp. 71–94.
ISBN 978-0-521-41038-0. . Retrieved October 8, 2007.
[15] CliffNotes: Of Mice and Men : About the Author (http:// www. cliffsnotes.com/ WileyCDA/ LitNote/Of-Mice-and-Men.
id-101,pageNum-2. html). Wiley Publishing, Inc.. 2000-2007. pp. 71–94. . Retrieved October 8, 2007.
Of Mice and Men
225
[16] "Banned and/or Challenged Books from the Radcliffe Publishing Course Top 100 Novels of the 20th Century" (http:/ / www.ala. org/
Template.cfm?Section=bbwlinks&Template=/ ContentManagement/ ContentDisplay. cfm&ContentID=136590). American Library
Association. 2007. . Retrieved October 8, 2007.
[17] "American Library Association list of the Most Challenged Books of 21st Century" (http:/ / www. ala. org/ ala/newspresscenter/ news/
pressreleases2006/ september2006/ harrypottermostchallenge.cfm). American Library Association. 2007. . Retrieved August 25, 2009.
[18] Doyle, Robert. "Banned And/or Challenged Books from the Radcliffe Publishing Course Top 100 Novels of the 20th Century." ALA.org.
American Library Association, 2010. Web. <http://www.ala.org/advocacy/banned/frequentlychallenged/challengedclassics/reasonsbanned>.
[19] [19] Scarseth, Thomas. "A Teachable Good Book: Of Mice and Men." Censored Books: Critical Viewpoints. Ed. Nicholas J. Karolides, Lee
Burress, and John M. Kean. Scarecrow Press, 1993. 388-394. Rpt. in Novels for Students. Ed. Diane Telgen. Vol. 1. Detroit: Gale, 1998.
Literature Resource Center. Web.
[20] Pilkington, Ed (5 August 2012). "Texas set to execute death row inmate diagnosed as 'mentally retarded'" (http:/ / www. guardian.co. uk/
world/2012/ aug/ 05/ texas-death-row-mentally-retarded?newsfeed=true). Guardian. . Retrieved 6 August 2012.
[21] Grissom, Brandi (8 August 2012). "Steinbeck: Lennie Shouldn't Bolster Execution Argument" (http:// myhighplains.com/
fulltext?nxd_id=289512). The Texas Tribune. . Retrieved 9 August 2012.
[22] "Of Mice and Men (1939)" (http:/ / www. imdb. com/ title/ tt0031742/ ). Internet Movie Database Inc.. 1990-2007. . Retrieved October 8,
2007.
[23] "Of Mice and Men (1968)" (http:/ / www. tcm. com/ tcmdb/ title/ 470253/ Of-Mice-and-Men/). Turner Entertainment Networks, Inc.. .
Retrieved January 21, 2012.
[24] "Of Mice and Men (1981)" (http:// www. imdb. com/ title/ tt0082838/ ). Internet Movie Database Inc.. 1990-2007. . Retrieved October 8,
2007.
[25] "Of Mice and Men (1992)" (http:/ / www. imdb. com/ title/ tt0105046/ ). Internet Movie Database Inc.. 1990-2007. . Retrieved October 8,
2007.
[26] "Of Mice and Men (1992)" (http:/ / www. rottentomatoes. com/ m/ 1040322-of_mice_and_men/). Rotten Tomatoes / IGN Entertainment,
Inc.. 1998-2007. . Retrieved October 8, 2007.
[27] "Internet Broadway Database: Of Mice and Men" (http:/ /www. ibdb.com/ production.asp?ID=12320). The League of American Theatres
and Producers. 2001-2007. . Retrieved October 8, 2007.
[28] "Internet Broadway Database: Leigh Whipper" (http:/ / www. ibdb. com/ person.asp?id=7209). 2001-2007. . Retrieved October 8, 2007.
[29] "National Steinbeck Center: About John Steinbeck : Facts, Awards, & Honors" (http://www. steinbeck. org/ ). National Steinbeck Center. .
Retrieved October 8, 2007.
[30] "Internet Broadway Database: Of Mice and Men (1974)" (http:// www. ibdb. com/ production.asp?ID=3709). The League of American
Theatres and Producers. 2001-2007. . Retrieved October 8, 2007.
[31] Henahan, Donal (www.nytimes.com, October 14, 1983). "NY Times Review of 1983 City Opera production" (http:/ / www. nytimes. com/
1983/ 10/ 14/ arts/ opera-mice-and-men.html?& pagewanted=all). The New York Times. . Retrieved July 17, 2009.
[32] BBC – Classic Serial – Of Mice and Men (http:// www. bbc.co. uk/ programmes/b00r33y7)
[33] Interview with artist "Joe" on Pixar.com (http:/ / www. pixar. com/ artistscorner/joe/ interview. html). Accessed June 17, 2008.
Bibliography
• "Of Mice and Men Factsheet" (http:/ / web. archive.org/web/ 20070916000942/http:// www. newi. ac. uk/
englishresources/ workunits/ ks4/ fiction/ofmicemen/llshort/ factsheet. html). English Resources. 2002. Archived
from the original (http://www. newi. ac.uk/ englishresources/ workunits/ ks4/ fiction/ofmicemen/ llshort/
factsheet. html) on September 16, 2007. Retrieved October 8, 2007.
External links
• Photos of the first edition of Of Mice and Men (http:// www. mansionbooks. com/ BookDetail. php?bk=200)
• Book Summary of Of Mice and Men (http:// www. free-book-summary.com/ of-mice-and-men.html)
Out Cold (1989 film)
226
Out Cold (1989 film)
Out Cold
Directed by Malcolm Mowbray
Produced by George G. Braunstein
Ron Hamady
Written by Leonard Glasser
George Malko
Starring Teri Garr
Bruce McGill
Randy Quaid
John Lithgow
Music by Michel Colombier
Cinematography Tony Pierce-Roberts
Editing by Dennis M. Hill
Distributed by Hemdale Film Corporation
Release date(s) March 3, 1989
Running time 91 min.
Country  United States
Language English
Box office $294,266
Out Cold is a 1989 'murder comedy', directed by Malcolm Mowbray (who made 1984's A Private Function), and
stars Teri Garr, Randy Quaid and John Lithgow.
The film is set in and around San Pedro, Los Angeles, California - 'the Edward Hopper streets and storefronts create
a world where the script plays itself out in all its linear precision.'
[1]
Sunny, (Teri Garr), hires a private detective,
(Randy Quaid) to trail her husband Ernie, (Bruce McGill), whom she believes is lavishing time and money on other
women. She wants all the details so she can clean him out in a divorce action. But she is impatient, and kills Ernie,
taking a chance to make his business partner, Dave (John Lithgow), think he did it. Ernie and Dave worked as
butchers in the Army and when they got out they ran a butchers shop together. Dave has always been in love with
Sunny - now he is convinced he has killed Ernie by accidentally locking him in a freezer. Lester Atlas, the private
detective, thinks he has pictures of Ernie's lover visiting him at the shop but has actually photographed Sunny on the
night she killed him.
The film was reviewed, favourably, by the eminent critic Pauline Kael in her final collection of movie reviews,
Movie Love. "Teri Garr plays her role with a savage, twinkling joy. Why doesn't her skill get more recognition? This
small, disingenuous comedy has been buffed to shine like a jewel; the smoothness of it keeps you giggling."
Out Cold (1989 film)
227
References
[1] [1] Pauline Kael ; Movie Love, ISBN 0-7145-2953-2 p.93
External links
• Out Cold (http:/ / www. imdb. com/ title/ tt0098042/ ) at the Internet Movie Database
• Out Cold (http:/ / www. allrovi.com/ movies/ movie/ v36784) at AllRovi
P.U.N.K.S.
228
P.U.N.K.S.
P.U.N.K.S.
P.U.N.K.S. DVD Cover
Directed by Sean McNamara
Produced by
Bill Barnett
Harel Goldstein
Patrick Peach
[1]
Written by Mark Cramer
Sean McNamara
Starring Tim Redwine
Jessica Alba
Brandon Baker
Kenneth A.
Brown
Patrick Renna
Randy Quaid
Cathy Moriarty
Louan Gideon
Roger Clinton
Henry Winkler
Megan Blake
Release date(s) January 5, 1999
Running time 115 minutes
Country United States
Language English
P.U.N.K.S. is a 1999 movie about a group of bullied teens who find a suit created by a scientist. The suit provides
whoever wears it superhuman strength, as well as leaving the wearer open to having their body controlled by
someone else via wireless computer signals.
[2]
After learning that Drew's father, who has a serious heart condition, is
required to present the prototype to investors, and after soon discovering that the suit would cause Drew's father to
die of massive heart failure, the group goes on a mission to save his father and shut down the company responsible
for building the incomplete and dangerous device.
Plot
A research and production company is performing a live human trial for a machine called the “Augmentor 1,000.”
The device is designed for medical use, with an ancillary benefit of enhanced strength. The machine’s creator,
workaholic Pat Utley, objects due to potentially lethal side effects. Edward Crow, the company owner, overrules
him. The Augmentor is successfully activated but the subject suddenly goes berserk until Pat literally pulls the plug
on the device.
Drew, Pat’s teenage son, meets up with friends Miles and Lanny after school. All three are bullied by jocks; they
later commiserate at Drew’s house and decide to form a club to defend themselves. The next day, Drew and Miles
hang out at Pat’s work, and hack into the computer systems for fun. While Miles browses classified files, Drew
overhears Crow demanding that Pat prepare for a motion control Augmentor demonstration. To ensure his
compliance, Pat is ordered to wear the machine for the test or be taken off the project. Pat reluctantly agrees, despite
a problematic heart condition. Drew concludes they’re trying to get rid of his dad, so Miles tries to find out more
P.U.N.K.S.
229
about the machine, but they need Crow’s superuser password.
To get it, the three of them recruit Jonny, the school hustler, for their club. Together, they trick a system supervisor
out of the superuser password and download the Augmentor schematics. Miles determines that an Augmentor user
will fry their nervous system in 20 minutes, but Drew’s dad would be dead in only five. They determine the best way
to save Pat is to steal the machine. To help break into the building, Jonny’s cousin Samantha, a skilled car boost and
lockpick, is enlisted. The team calls themselves the “P.U.N.K.S.,” an acronym formed by the first letters of their
surnames. During a night raid, they successfully infiltrate the building. Miles copies and deletes the Augmentor files
while Drew and Sam plant an audio bug and tap into a camera feed for surveillance from their “master control.” A
silent alarm attracts guards, and Miles crashes the system with a virus before the teens narrowly escape with the
Augmentor.
The day after, they learn from their audio/video feed that Crow has file backups and an Augmentor prototype. They
attempt two public meets to obtain the prototype, but both fail. Crow organizes an impromptu demonstration for an
important investor with Middle Eastern buyer connections which Crow needs, as he has secretly put all of his
company’s financial hopes on black market trade. Frustrated with Pat, Crow decides to test out the prototype
Augmentor with the remote control unit personally. Jonny uses a second motion control suit to embarrass Crow by
making him do ridiculous antics. Furious, Crow threatens to fire Pat unless the real demo goes perfectly.
The victory celebration is cut short when Crow is overheard talking about eliminating them, and mentioning a
troublesome FBI agent named “Houlihan.” Everyone panics and bails except Drew. He meets Houlihan, falling into a
trap set by Crow. The other P.U.N.K.S. save him at the last minute by radio, and he escapes. Pat tries to resign, but is
drugged and forcibly suited up for the buyer presentation. Drew returns to “master control,” only to find Crow
kidnapped his friends. He rides in during the demo and rescues his friends and saves his dad. Crow puts on the
Augmentor and fights Drew. The boy has the upper hand, but runs past his twenty minute limit and starts losing
consciousness. As Crow prepares to pummel him, Sam intervenes in the motion control suit and has Crow beat
himself up. The police arrive and arrest the criminals.
Back at school, the jocks pick on Miles, but the P.U.N.K.S. unite, and Lanny literally tosses them across the
courtyard by using the Augmentor. On their way home together, Miles reads an article detailing the exposure of
Crow’s operation, the arrests, and crediting the “covert team of operatives,” the P.U.N.K.S., for bringing them to
justice.
Cast
• Tim Redwine as Drew Utley
• Jessica Alba as Samantha Swoboda
• Brandon Baker as Jonny Pasiotopolis
• Kenneth A. Brown as Miles Kitchen
• Patrick Renna as Lanny Nygren
• Randy Quaid as Pat Utley
• Cathy Moriarty as Mrs. Utley
• Louan Gideon as Mrs. Grimes
• Roger Clinton as Carlson
• Henry Winkler as Edward Crow
• Megan Blake as FBI Agent Houlihan
• Kim Morgan Greene as Woman in bar
•• Gregory Mortensen as Bartender
P.U.N.K.S.
230
References
[1] "Punks-Movie (1999)" (http:/ / www. locatetv. com/ movie/ punks/ 814724). LocateTV. . Retrieved 18 December 2008.
[2] "P.U.N.K.S. (1999)" (http:/ / www. imdb. com/ title/ tt0130172/ ). IMDB. . Retrieved 18 December 2008.
External links
• P.U.N.K.S. (http:// www. imdb.com/ title/ tt0130172/ ) at the Internet Movie Database
Paper Moon (film)
231
Paper Moon (film)
Paper Moon
Theatrical poster
Directed by Peter Bogdanovich
Produced by Frank Marshall
Peter Bogdanovich
Screenplay by Alvin Sargent
Based on Addie Pray by
Joe David Brown
Starring Ryan O'Neal
Tatum O'Neal
Cinematography László Kovács
Editing by Verna Fields
Studio The Directors Company
Distributed by Paramount Pictures
Release date(s) •• May 9, 1973
Running time 102 minutes
Country United States
Language English
Box office
$30,933,743
[1]
Paper Moon is a 1973 American crime drama film directed by Peter Bogdanovich and released by Paramount
Pictures. Screenwriter Alvin Sargent adapted the script from the novel Addie Pray by Joe David Brown. The film,
shot in black-and-white, is set in Kansas and Missouri during the Great Depression. It stars the real-life father and
daughter pairing of Ryan and Tatum O'Neal, as Moze and Addie, who may be father and daughter.
Plot
Con man Moses Pray (Ryan O'Neal) meets 10-year-old Addie Loggins (Tatum O'Neal) at Addie's mother's graveside
service. Because Moses is one of many men who had a relationship with her mother (and because the girl "has his
jaw"), there is speculation that he is a relative and possibly Addie's father, which he denies. However, Moses is
reluctantly persuaded to deliver the orphaned Addie to her aunt's home in St. Joseph, Missouri.
The pair stop at a local grain mill and Moses convinces the brother of the man who drove his car into a tree, killing
Addie's mother, into giving him two hundred dollars for the newly-orphaned Addie. Addie overhears this
conversation and, after seeing Moses spend nearly half the money fixing up his used Model A convertible, later
demands the money. Moses agrees to travel with Addie until he has raised two hundred dollars to give to her. Addie
soon learns how Moses makes his money: he visits recently widowed women, pretending he is a Bible salesman who
recently sold an expensive, personalized Bible to the deceased husband. The widows usually pay him the claimed
"balance owed" for the bibles inscribed with their names. Addie joins in the scam, pretending she is his daughter, and
exhibits a talent for confidence tricks. As time passes, Moses and Addie become a formidable team and seem to
forget about Addie joining her aunt.
One night, Addie and "Moze" (as Addie now refers to him) stop at a local carnival, where Moze becomes enthralled
with an "exotic dancer" named Miss Trixie Delight (Madeline Kahn). Because of her, Moze puts off joining Addie at
Paper Moon (film)
232
a photo booth and Addie ends up having her photograph - taken sitting on a crescent moon - by herself. Much to
Addie's chagrin, Moze invites "Miss Trixie" - and her downtrodden, 15-year-old black maid, Imogene (P.J. Johnson)
- to join him and Addie on their way. Although Addie becomes friends with Imogene, she becomes jealous of how
Moze begins to focus more and more of his attention on the gold-digging Miss Trixie. When Addie subsequently
discovers that Moze has spent all of their money on a brand new car to impress Miss Trixie, she quickly devises a
plan to get rid of her, which includes giving Imogene enough money to get back home to her mother. An elaborate
series of maneuvers on Addie's and Imogene's part results in Moze catching Miss Trixie in bed with another man.
Devastated, Moze leaves Miss Trixie and Imogene behind.
At a hotel in Kansas, Moze is able to find a bootlegger's store of whiskey, steals some of it, and sells it back to the
bootlegger. Unfortunately, the bootlegger's brother is the sheriff, who quickly arrests Moze and Addie. Addie hides
their money, steals back the key to their car, and the pair escape, trading their new car for an old, used Model T farm
truck after Moze beats a hillbilly in a "wrasslin' match." The pair then makes their way across the state line to
Missouri, where the Kansas law can't follow them. The sheriff finds them in Missouri, and unable to arrest Moze, he
and his cohorts chase, beat and rob him. Humiliated, Moze drops Addie at her aunt's house in St Joseph.
Back on the road, Moze stops to let his overheating truck cool down and discovers the envelope that Addie left for
him in the truck. Inside is the photo of her sitting by herself on the crescent moon at the carnival. As he contemplates
the photo, he glances into the rear-view mirror and sees a small figure running toward the stopped truck. It is Addie;
she has fled her aunt's house and hopes to rejoin Moze. Angry, Moze tells Addie that he does not want her traveling
with him anymore. She matter-of-factly reminds him that he still owes her two hundred dollars, and they drive off
together.
Cast
• Ryan O'Neal as Moses "Moze" Pray
• Tatum O'Neal as Addie Loggins
• Madeline Kahn as Trixie Delight
• John Hillerman as Deputy Hardin/Jess Hardin
• P.J. Johnson as Imogene
• Burton Gilliam as Floyd
• James N. Harrell as The Minister
• Noble Willingham as Mr. Robertson
• Yvonne Harrison as The Widow Bates (Marie)
• Randy Quaid as Leroy
• Hugh Gillin as 2nd Deputy
Production
Director
The film project was originally associated with John Huston and was to star Paul Newman and his daughter, Nell
Potts. However, when Huston left the project, the Newmans became dissociated from the film as well.
[2]
Peter
Bogdanovich had just completed What's Up, Doc? and was looking for another project when his ex-wife and
frequent collaborator Polly Platt recommended filming Joe David Brown's script for the novel Addie Pray.
Bogdanovich, a fan of period films, and having two young daughters of his own, found himself drawn to the story,
and selected it as his next film.
[3]
Paper Moon (film)
233
Casting
At the suggestion of Polly Platt, Bogdanovich approached eight-year-old Tatum O'Neal to audition for the role
although she had no acting experience. Bogdanovich had recently worked with Tatum's father Ryan O'Neal on
What's Up, Doc?, and decided to cast them as the leads.
[3]
Screenplay
Various changes were made in adapting the book to film. Addie's age was reduced from twelve to nine to
accommodate young Tatum, several events from the book were combined for pacing issues, and the last third of the
novel, when Moses and Addie graduate to the big leagues as con artists after going into partnership with a fake
millionaire, was dropped. The location was also changed from the rural south of the novel – primarily Alabama – to
midwestern Kansas and Missouri.
[3]
Filming locations
The film was shot in the small towns of Hays, Kansas; McCracken, Kansas; Wilson, Kansas; and St. Joseph,
Missouri. Various shooting locations include the Midland Hotel at Wilson, Kansas; the railway depot at Gorham,
Kansas; storefronts and buildings on Main Street in White Cloud, Kansas; Hays, Kansas; sites on both sides of the
Missouri River; Rulo Bridge; and Saint Joseph, Missouri.
Props
The car Moses buys after he agrees to take Addie home is a 1930 Ford Model A convertible; the car Moses buys to
impress Miss Trixie is a 1936 Ford V8 De Luxe convertible.
[4]
The whiskey being sold by the bootlegger shown
toward the end of the film is Three Feathers blended whiskey, a label introduced by Oldtyme Distilling Corp. in
1882 and still produced up to the 1980s.
[5]
Title
Peter Bogdanovich also decided to change the name of the film from Addie Pray. While selecting music for the film,
he heard the song It's Only a Paper Moon (by Billy Rose, Yip Harburg, and Harold Arlen). Seeking advice from his
close friend and mentor Orson Welles, Bogdanovich listed Paper Moon as a possible alternative. Welles responded –
"That title is so good, you shouldn't even make the picture, you should just release the title!"
[3]
Cinematography and editing
Director of photography László Kovács used a red filter on the camera on Orson Welles' advice. Bogdanovich also
used deep focus cinematography and extended takes in the film.
[3]
Reception
The movie earned an estimated $13 million in North American rentals in 1973.
[6]
Reviews
It currently holds a 90 percent approval rating from critics, based on 22 reviews, at Rotten Tomatoes. While Vincent
Canby of the New York Times found the juxtaposition of the saccharin-sweet plot with Laszlo Kovacs' stark
black-and-white images of Depression-era poverty unsettling,
[7]
Roger Ebert, who gave the film his top rating, found
the mix to be the film's greatest virtue.
[8]
Paper Moon (film)
234
Awards
Tatum O'Neal won an Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress for her role as Addie. She is the youngest
winner in the history of the Academy Awards. Co-star Madeline Kahn was also nominated for that award that year
but lost to Tatum. The film itself was nominated for Best Sound (Richard Portman, Les Fresholtz)
[9]
and Best
Adapted Screenplay (Alvin Sargent).
In September 1974, a television series called Paper Moon, based on the film, premiered on the ABC television
network, with Jodie Foster cast as Addie and Christopher Connelly (who had appeared as O'Neal's brother in the
earlier ABC series, Peyton Place) playing Moses. However, it was not a ratings success and the series was canceled
after four months.
References
[1] "Paper Moon, Box Office Information" (http:// www. the-numbers.com/ movies/ 1973/ 0PMON. php). The Numbers. . Retrieved
2012-01-17.
[2] Jeff Stafford, Paper Moon (http:// www. tcm. com/ thismonth/ article.jsp?cid=88938& mainArticleId=144330), Turner Classic Movies
article, October 2006
[3] Bogdonavitch, Peter. Paper Moon (Special Features) (DVD). 1973: Paramount Pictures.
[4] The Internet Movie Car Database: Entry for Paper Moon (http:/ / www. imcdb.org/movie_70510-Paper-Moon.html)
[5] TIME Magazine Liquor: The Schenley Reserves Monday, September 29, 1952. (http:// www.time.com/time/magazine/ article/
0,9171,935789,00. html)
[6] "Big Rental Films of 1973", Variety, 9 January 1974 p 19
[7] Canby review (http:// movies. nytimes. com/ movie/ review?_r=1&res=9804E6DA1238EF3ABC4F52DFB3668388669EDE)
[8] Ebert review (http:/ / rogerebert.suntimes. com/ apps/ pbcs. dll/ article?AID=/19730615/ REVIEWS/306150301/ 1023)
[9] "The 46th Academy Awards (1974) Nominees and Winners" (http:/ /www. oscars.org/awards/ academyawards/ legacy/ ceremony/
46th-winners. html). oscars.org. . Retrieved 2011-10-02.
External links
• Paper Moon (http:/ / www. imdb.com/ title/ tt0070510/ ) at the Internet Movie Database
• Paper Moon (http:/ / www. rottentomatoes.com/ m/ paper_moon/ ) at Rotten Tomatoes
• Paper Moon (https:/ / www. facebook.com/ 361149563906290) on Facebook
• Paper Moon (http:/ / www. allrovi.com/ movies/ movie/ v37203) at AllRovi
• http:/ / www. yoursdaily. com/ culture_media/ movies/ bogdanovich_receives_visionary_award
Parents (film)
235
Parents (film)
Parents
Theatrical release poster
Directed by Bob Balaban
Produced by Mitchell Cannold
Bonnie Palef
Steven Reuther
Written by Christopher Hawthorne
Starring Randy Quaid
Mary Beth Hurt
Sandy Dennis
Bryan Madorsky
Music by Jonathan Elias
Editing by Bill Pankow
Studio Great American Films Limited
Partnership
Vestron Pictures
Distributed by Vestron Pictures
Release date(s) 27 January 1989 (USA)
Running time 81 min.
Country Canada
United States
Language English
Box office $870,532 (USA)
Parents is a 1989 American black comedy horror film directed by Bob Balaban and written by Christopher
Hawthorne. It stars Randy Quaid, Mary Beth Hurt, Sandy Dennis and Bryan Madorsky. The film is about a suburban
boy in the 1950s who suspects his parents of cannibalism.
Background
Although the film is primarily in the horror genre (it can also be categorized as surrealistic horror, and the film has
sometimes been compared to the work of David Lynch), it features many comic moments, including the use of
sitcom-like music in its soundtrack.
The production of the film spared no expense in creating each detail, reproducing accurately the modern style of the
1950s, right down to the clothing, wallpaper and carpeting.
Parents was filmed in Ontario, Canada.
Parents (film)
236
Plot
Michael Laemle is a ten year old boy living in 1954 suburban Massachusetts. He has new friends at his school, a
father with a great job at a chemical plant named Toxico, and a mother who is the perfect homemaker, both always
smothering him with kindness. However, when he questions where the huge cuts of meat come from that his parents
serve every night, his parents aren't so kind. They are short tempered, and refuse to answer his questions. He quickly
begins to fear both of his parents when he begins to suspect his "perfect" family of keeping dark secrets from him.
Why isn't he allowed in the basement? Michael knows his parents are engaging in cannibalism, and that he is in
danger. Michael grows more hysterical and disturbed every time his parents try to feed him their "choice cuts". He
confesses to the school counselor why he is afraid of his parents. She doesn't believe him, and if she doesn't, who
will?
Cast
• Randy Quaid as Nick Laemle
• Mary Beth Hurt as Lily Laemle
• Sandy Dennis as Millie Dew
• Bryan Madorsky as Michael Laemle
•• Juno Mills-Cockell as Sheila Zellner
• Kathryn Grody as Miss Baxter
• Deborah Rush as Mrs. Zellner
• Graham Jarvis as Mr. Zellner
•• Helen Carscallen as Grandmother
•• Warren Van Evera as Grandfather
• Wayne Robson as Lab Attendant
•• Uriel Byfield as Little Boy
•• Mariah Balaban as Little Girl
•• Larry Palef as Announcer
Release
Parents had an estimated budget of $3,000,000, according to the Internet Movie Database, but grossed only
$870,532 in the United States.
[1]
Since its initial box office failure, however, the film has developed a cult following
on home video.
Critical reception
The film received a generally negative response from critics, with criticism mainly aimed at the film's tone.
[2]
It
currently holds a 45% 'rotten' rating on movie review aggregator website Rotten Tomatoes based on eleven
reviews.
[2]
Home video
The film was released on DVD on 25 May 1999 in its unmatted full screen format. The original DVD went out of
print for a brief period of time before the film was re-released in the DVD format as a double feature with the film
Fear, presented for the first time in widescreen since its original theatrical release.
Parents (film)
237
References
[1] "Parents (1989) - Box office / business" (http:/ / www. imdb.com/ title/ tt0098068/ business). Internet Movie Database. . Retrieved 11
August 2012.
[2] "Parents - Rotten Tomatoes" (http:/ / www. rottentomatoes. com/ m/ parents/ ). Rotten Tomatoes. . Retrieved 11 August 2012.
External links
• Parents (http:/ / www. imdb.com/ title/ tt0098068/ ) at the Internet Movie Database
Pershing Middle School (Houston)
238
Pershing Middle School (Houston)
Pershing Middle School
Pershing middle school.jpg
Address
3838 Bluebonnet
Houston, Texas, 77025
USA
Information
Type Public
Established 1928
Principal Kim Heckman
Grades 6-8
Enrollment 1,724  (2006-2007)
Color(s) Red, black, and white
Mascot Panda
Website
Pershing Middle School
[1]
John J. Pershing Middle School is a secondary school located at 3838 Bluebonnet in Houston, Texas with a zip
code of 77025.
Pershing, located in the Braeswood Place neighborhood, serves grades 6 through 8 and is a part of the Houston
Independent School District.
Pershing has a neighborhood program, a Pre-AP Gifted and Talented program, and a fine arts program.
History
West University Place Pershing Junior High School, which was named after John J. Pershing, was established in
1928. Pershing originally was connected to West University Elementary School (which was located in the city of
West University Place after the city incorporated in 1938); the school moved to its own campus at 7000 Braes
Boulevard in Houston in 1949.
[2]
The campus was worth $2 million. This relieved West University Elementary. An
arson incident occurred in August 1958.
[3]
In September 1991 Pershing was one of 32 HISD schools that had capped enrollments; in other words the school was
filled to capacity and excess students had to attend other schools.
[4]
Originally, Houston ISD planned to remodel Pershing's 1949 campus. When HISD found that building a new
campus from scratch would be more cost-effective, HISD decided to pursue that goal.
[2]
Construction started on
Pershing's brand new two-story 216,000-square-foot (20,100 m
2
) campus at 3838 Bluebonnet (on the same site as
the old campus) during the summer of 2005. Construction was expected to end in Summer 2007, and the new
campus was originally expected to open in Fall 2007 [5]. The lead architect for the campus was PGAL, with Gilbane
as the lead project manager. The original budget was $16,900,000 United States dollars. The construction costs
totaled $24.4 million, and the final costs, including books, computers, and architect engineers, totaled $31 million.
The new building opened on Thursday, January 18, 2007; originally the building was slated to open the previous
day, but weather conditions lead to the temporary closing of all HISD schools for January 17.
[2]
Pershing Middle School (Houston)
239
Pershing Middle School's campus prior to the
addition of lettering
Portions of the former Pershing building remain because many
chimney swift birds appeared in the chimney. The Migratory Bird Act
makes the act of tearing down the Pershing chimney illegal.
[6]
Campus as seen from Stella Link
back of the campus
Neighborhoods served by Pershing
Pershing, which is located in the Braeswood Place neighborhood,
serves several areas of Houston that are in and out of the 610 Loop,
[7]
including Braeswood Place, Linkwood, Knollwood Village,
Woodshire, Woodside, Westridge, Southgate, Old Braeswood,
Morningside Place, Westwood, Link Valley, a portion of Meyerland,
[8]
a portion of Maplewood, and Sunset Terrace/Montclair.
[9]
In addition
to portions of Houston, Pershing also serves the cities of Bellaire,
[10]
Southside Place,
[11]
and West University Place.
[12]
Rice Village Apartments and Morningside Square, two Rice University
graduate housing complexes that admit families, are zoned to this
school. are within the Houston Independent School District.
[13]
Academics
As of 2010, teacher Charles Coursey requires students to do gardening
before their instructional time and during afternoons. During class he
allows students to eat portions of the vegetables that were harvested in
the garden. On Saturdays the organizers sell the rest of the produce at
the Rice University farmers' market. The proceeds go to purchasing
supplies for the gardening program.
[14]
Student body
During the 2006-2007 school year, Pershing had 1,732 students.
[15]
• 35% were White American
• 30% were African American
• 26% were Hispanic American
• 10% were Asian American
• Less than 1% were Native American
Approximately 39% of the students qualified for free or reduced lunch.
In 2008 Pershing had a large number of immigrant students.
[16]
Pershing Middle School (Houston)
240
Feeder patterns
Elementary schools that feed into Pershing
[7]
include:
• Condit
[17]
• Mark Twain
[18]
• West University
[19]
(partial)
• Horn
[20]
• Longfellow
[21]
• Lovett
[22]
• Red
[23]
• Roberts
[24]
• Shearn
[25]
The majority of students who are zoned to Pershing either go to Bellaire High School
[26]
or Lamar High School.
[27]
A few areas zoned to Pershing feed into Madison High School,
[28]
Westbury High School,
[29]
and Lee High
School
[30]
(all pupils zoned to Lee may also choose to go to Lamar or Westside High School
[31]
).
All students zoned to Pershing have the option to attend Pin Oak Middle School.
[32]
Notable alumni
• Dennis Quaid, actor
[2]
• Randy Quaid, actor
[2]
• Farrah Fawcett
[2]
• Phylicia Rashād,actor
[2]
• Thomas Schlamme, Emmy award-winning TV director
• Debbie Allen,American actress, dancer, choreographer, television director, television producer, and a member of
the President's Committee on the Arts and Humanities.
[2]
• A. J. Foyt, Jr. (also attended Hamilton Middle School and Lamar and San Jacinto high schools)
[33]
• Marvin Zindler, KTRK-TV ABC-13 news reporter who ended the Chicken Ranch in La Grange, Texas. He
appeared at the school's 75th anniversary in 2003.
[2][33]
References
[1] http:/ / www.pershingms. org/
[2] Viren, Sarah. " It won't be strictly `old school' at Pershing now / Emotions mixed as students leave vintage campus for all-new digs (http://
www.chron.com/ CDA/ archives/ archive.mpl?id=2007_4265447)." Houston Chronicle. Sunday January 14, 2007. B1 MetFront. Retrieved
on November 14, 2011.
[3] Gonzales, J.R. " John J. Pershing Middle School (http:/ / blog.chron.com/ bayoucityhistory/ 2010/ 03/ john-j-pershing-middle-school/)."
Houston Chronicle. March 4, 2010. Retrieved on November 14, 2011.
[4] Markley, Melanie. " 32 schools hit enrollment cap (http:// www. chron.com/ CDA/ archives/ archive.mpl?id=1991_812119)." Houston
Chronicle. Thursday September 26, 1991. A17. Retrieved on April 24, 2009.
[5] http:/ / www.houstonisd. org/HISDPortal/departments/ ContentPage/ 0,3099,45555309_59997080_64872295,00.html
[6] " Flight of the chimney swifts (http:// www.examinernews. com/ articles/ 2007/ 07/ 25/ west_university/ community/ comm01.txt)." West
University Examiner, July 17, 2007
[7] " Pershing Middle Attendance Zone (http:/ / dept. houstonisd. org/ab/ schoolboundarymaps/ PershingMS.pdf)." Houston Independent School
District
[8] " Map of Meyerland Sections (http:// www. meyerland. net/ images/ Map-of-Meyerland-Sections.gif)." Meyerland. Retrieved on December
15, 2009.
[9] " Block Book Map Search (http:/ / www. tax.co. harris.tx.us/ blockbooks/ default.asp#SSearch)." Harris County Tax Office. Retrieved on
February 27, 2009.
[10] " Bellaire City (http:/ / factfinder.census. gov/servlet/ MapItDrawServlet?geo_id=16000US4807300&_bucket_id=50& tree_id=420&
context=saff& _lang=en& _sse=on)." United States Census Bureau. Retrieved on February 27, 2009.
Pershing Middle School (Houston)
241
[11] " Southside Place City (http:/ / factfinder.census. gov/ servlet/ MapItDrawServlet?geo_id=16000US4869272&_bucket_id=50&
tree_id=420& context=saff&_lang=en& _sse=on)." United States Census Bureau. Retrieved on February 27, 2009.
[12] " City Map (http:/ / www. westu. org/ upload/ images/ CityMap. pdf)." City of West University Place. Retrieved on February 27, 2009.
[13] " Property Comparison (http:// campushousing. rice.edu/ GradContent.aspx?id=579)." Rice University Graduate Housing. Retrieved on
October 2, 2011. "Morningside Square Apartments Updated Oct 26, 2010 2401 & 2409 Shakespeare St Houston, TX 77030" and " Rice
Village Apartments Updated Oct 26, 2010 2410 Shakespeare St Houston, TX 77030"
[14] Johnson, Ruthie. " Local Spotlight: Pershing Middle School (http:/ / blogs. houstonpress. com/eating/ 2010/ 09/
local_spotlight_pershing_middl. php)." Houston Press. Wednesday September 1, 2010, Retrieved on December 7, 2011.
[15] " Pershing Middle School (http:// dept. houstonisd. org/ profiles/Pershing_MS.pdf)" Profile. Houston Independent School District.
[16] Garza, Cynthia Leonor. " School a haven for new arrivals / Leader helps his immigrant HISD students feel at home at charter campus (http:/
/ www.chron.com/ CDA/ archives/ archive.mpl?id=2006_4227528)." Houston Chronicle. Saturday October 1, 2008. B1 MetFront.
Retrieved on December 13, 2008.
[17] " Condit Elementary Attendance Zone (http:/ / dept. houstonisd. org/ab/ schoolboundarymaps/ ConditES. pdf)." Houston Independent
School District.
[18] " Twain Elementary Attendance Zone (http://dept.houstonisd. org/ab/ schoolboundarymaps/ TwainES.pdf)." Houston Independent School
District.
[19] " West University Elementary Attendance Zone (http:/ / dept. houstonisd. org/ab/ schoolboundarymaps/ WestUniversityES.pdf)." Houston
Independent School District.
[20] " Horn Elementary Attendance Zone (http:// dept. houstonisd. org/ ab/ schoolboundarymaps/ HornES.pdf)." Houston Independent School
District.
[21] " Longfellow Elementary Attendance Zone (http:/ / dept. houstonisd. org/ab/ schoolboundarymaps/ LongfellowES.pdf)." Houston
Independent School District.
[22] " Lovett Elementary Attendance Zone (http:/ /dept. houstonisd. org/ab/ schoolboundarymaps/ LovettES.pdf)." Houston Independent
School District.
[23] " Red Elementary Attendance Zone (http:/ / dept. houstonisd. org/ab/ schoolboundarymaps/ RedES. pdf)." Houston Independent School
District.
[24] " Roberts Elementary Attendance Zone (http:/ / dept. houstonisd. org/ ab/ schoolboundarymaps/ RobertsES.pdf)." Houston Independent
School District.
[25] " Shearn Elementary Attendance Zone (http:// dept.houstonisd. org/ ab/ schoolboundarymaps/ ShearnES.pdf)." Houston Independent
School District.
[26] " Bellaire High School Attendance Zone (http:/ / dept. houstonisd. org/ ab/ schoolboundarymaps/ BellaireHS. pdf)." Houston Independent
School District.
[27] " Lamar High School Attendance Zone (http:// dept. houstonisd. org/ab/ schoolboundarymaps/ LamarHS.pdf)." Houston Independent
School District.
[28] " Madison High School Attendance Zone (http:/ / dept. houstonisd. org/ ab/ schoolboundarymaps/ MadisonHS. pdf)." Houston Independent
School District.
[29] " Westbury High School Attendance Zone (http:// dept.houstonisd. org/ ab/ schoolboundarymaps/ WestburyHS. pdf)." Houston
Independent School District.
[30] " Lee High School Attendance Zone (http:// dept. houstonisd. org/ ab/ schoolboundarymaps/ LeeHS. pdf)." Houston Independent School
District.
[31] Home Page (http:/ / web. archive.org/web/ 20050509100740/ hs. houstonisd. org/leehs/ home2. htm) as of May 9, 2005. Lee High School.
[32] " Pin Oak Middle School (http:/ / web. archive.org/ web/ 20020214054405/ http:/ / dist.houstonisd. org/ southwest/ schools/ pin_oak/
letter5. htm)." The Southwest District. Houston Independent School District.
[33] " Distinguished HISD Alumni (http:// www. houstonisd. org/HISDConnectDS/ v/ index.
jsp?vgnextoid=c3783acb02efc010VgnVCM10000052147fa6RCRD)," Houston Independent School District
External links
• Pershing Middle School home page (http:/ / www. pershingms. org/ )
Peter Bogdanovich
242
Peter Bogdanovich
Peter Bogdanovich
Peter Bogdanovich at the Castro Theatre in San Francisco in 2008
Born July 30, 1939
Kingston, New York, United States
Spouse(s)
Polly Platt (1962–1971)
[1]
Louise Stratten (1988–2001)
Partner(s) Cybill Shepherd (1971–1978)
Peter Bogdanovich (Serbian: Петар Богдановић, Petar Bogdanović, born July 30, 1939) is an American film
historian, director, writer, actor, producer and critic. He was part of the wave of "New Hollywood" directors, which
included William Friedkin, Brian De Palma, George Lucas, Martin Scorsese, Michael Cimino and Francis Ford
Coppola. His most critically acclaimed film is The Last Picture Show (1971).
Early life
Bogdanovich was conceived in Europe and born in the United States in Kingston, New York, the son of Herma (née
Robinson) and Borislav Bogdanovich, a painter and pianist. His Austrian-born mother was Jewish, while his father
was Serbian and an Eastern Orthodox Christian.
[2]
He was an actor in the 1950s, studying his craft with acting
teacher Stella Adler, and appeared on television and in summer stock. In the early 1960s, Bogdanovich was known
as a film programmer at the Museum of Modern Art in New York City. An obsessive cinema-goer, seeing up to 400
movies a year in his youth, Bogdanovich showcased the work of American directors such as Orson Welles and John
Ford—whom he later wrote a book about, based on the notes he had produced for the MoMA retrospective of the
director—and Howard Hawks. Bogdanovich also brought attention to such forgotten pioneers of American cinema
as Allan Dwan.
Bogdanovich was influenced by the French critics of the 1950s who wrote for Cahiers du Cinéma, especially
critic-turned-director François Truffaut. Before becoming a director himself, he built his reputation as a film writer
with articles in Esquire. These articles were collected in Pieces of Time (1973). In 1968, following the example of
Cahiers du Cinéma critics Truffaut, Jean-Luc Godard, Claude Chabrol and Éric Rohmer who had created the
Nouvelle Vague ("New Wave") by making their own films, Bogdanovich decided to become a director. With his
wife Polly Platt, he headed for Los Angeles, skipping out on the rent in the process. Intent on breaking into the
industry, Bogdanovich would ask publicists for movie premiere and industry party invitations. At one screening,
Peter Bogdanovich
243
Bogdanovich was viewing a film and director Roger Corman was sitting behind him. The two struck up a
conversation when Corman mentioned he liked a cinema piece Bogdanovich wrote for Esquire. Corman offered him
a directing job which Bogdanovich accepted immediately. He worked with Corman on Targets, which starred Boris
Karloff, and Voyage to the Planet of Prehistoric Women, under the pseudonym Derek Thomas. Bogdanovich later
said of the Corman school of filmmaking, "I went from getting the laundry to directing the picture in three weeks.
Altogether, I worked 22 weeks – preproduction, shooting, second unit, cutting, dubbing – I haven't learned as much
since."
[3]
Returning to journalism, Bogdanovich struck up a lifelong friendship with Orson Welles while interviewing him on
the set of Mike Nichols's Catch-22 (1970). Bogdanovich played a major role in elucidating Welles and his career
with his writings on the actor-director, most notably his book This is Orson Welles (1992). In the early 1970s, when
Welles was having financial problems, Bogdanovich let him stay at his Bel Air mansion for a couple of years.
In 1970, Bogdanovich was commissioned by the American Film Institute to direct a documentary about John Ford
for their tribute, Directed by John Ford (1971). The resulting film included candid interviews with the likes of John
Wayne, James Stewart and Henry Fonda, and was narrated by Orson Welles. Out of circulation for years due to
licensing issues, Bogdanovich and TCM released it in 2006, featuring newer, pristine film clips, and additional
interviews with Clint Eastwood, Walter Hill, Harry Carey, Jr., Martin Scorsese, Steven Spielberg and others.
Emergence as a director
Much of the inspiration which led Bogdanovich to his cinematic creations came from early viewings of the film
Citizen Kane. In an interview with Robert K. Elder, author of The Film That Changed My Life,
[4]
Bogdanovich
explains his appreciation of Orson Welles' work:
It’s just not like any other movie you know. It’s the first modern film: fragmented, not told straight
ahead, jumping around. It anticipates everything that’s being done now, and which is thought to be so
modern. It’s all become really decadent now, but it was certainly fresh then.
[5]
The 32-year-old Bogdanovich was hailed by critics as a "Wellesian" wunderkind when his best-received film, The
Last Picture Show, was released in 1971. The film gained eight Academy Awards nominations, including Best
Director, and won two statues, for Cloris Leachman and Ben Johnson in the supporting acting categories.
Bogdanovich co-wrote the screenplay with Larry McMurtry, and it won the 1971 BAFTA award for Best
Screenplay. Bogdanovich cast the 21-year-old model Cybill Shepherd in a major role in the film and fell in love with
her, an affair that eventually led to his divorce from Polly Platt, his longtime artistic collaborator and the mother of
his two daughters. The affair was referenced, tongue-in-cheek, in an episode of Moonlighting where Bogdanovich,
being interviewed as himself, claims to have had an affair with Maddie Hayes, Shepherd's character.
Bogdanovich followed up The Last Picture Show with the popular comedy What's Up, Doc? (1972), starring Barbra
Streisand and Ryan O'Neal, a screwball comedy indebted to Hawks's Bringing Up Baby (1938) and His Girl Friday
(1940). Despite his reliance on homage to bygone cinema, Bogdanovich solidified his status as one of a new breed of
A-list directors that included Academy Award winners Francis Ford Coppola and William Friedkin, with whom he
formed The Directors Company. The Directors Company was a generous production deal with Paramount Pictures
that essentially gave the directors carte blanche if they kept within budget limitations. It was through this entity that
Bogdanovich's Paper Moon (1973) was produced.
Paper Moon, a Depression-era comedy starring Ryan O'Neal that won his 10-year-old daughter Tatum O'Neal an
Oscar as Best Supporting Actress, proved the high-water mark of Bogdanovich's career. Forced to share the profits
with his fellow directors, Bogdanovich became dissatisfied with the arrangement. The Directors Company
subsequently produced only two more pictures, Coppola's The Conversation (1974), which was nominated for Best
Picture in 1974 alongside The Godfather, Part II, and Bogdanovich's Daisy Miller, which had a lackluster critical
reception.
Peter Bogdanovich
244
Later years
Bogdanovich turned back to writing as his directorial career sagged, beginning with The Killing of the Unicorn:
Dorothy Stratten (1960–1980), a memoir published in 1984. Teresa Carpenter's "Death of a Playmate" article about
Dorothy Stratten's murder was published in The Village Voice and won the 1981 Pulitzer Prize, and while
Bogdanovich did not criticize Carpenter's article in his book, she had lambasted both Bogdanovich and Playboy
mogul Hugh Hefner, claiming that Stratten was a victim of them as much as of her husband, Paul Snider, who killed
her and himself. Carpenter also criticized Bogdanovich for his "puerile preference for ingenues".
[6]
Carpenter's
article served as the basis of Bob Fosse's film Star 80 (1983), in which Bogdanovich, for legal reasons, was
portrayed as the fictional director "Aram Nicholas," a sympathetic but possibly misguided and naive character.
On December 30, 1988, the 49-year-old Bogdanovich married 20-year-old Louise Stratten, Dorothy's younger sister,
whom he had begun dating a few years after Dorothy's death. The couple divorced in 2001. The marriage was
viewed as a scandal because of his previous engagement to her sister.
Though he achieved success with Mask in 1985, Bogdanovich's 1990 sequel to The Last Picture Show, called
Texasville was a critical and box-office disappointment. Both films occasioned major disputes between
Bogdanovich, who still demanded a measure of control over his films, and the studios, which controlled the
financing and final cut of both films. Mask was released with a song score by Bob Seger against Bogdanovich's
wishes (he favored Bruce Springsteen), and Bogdanovich has often complained that the version of Texasville that
was released was not the film he had intended. A director's cut of Mask, slightly longer and with Springsteen's songs,
was belatedly released on DVD in 2006. A director's cut of Texasville was released on laserdisc, and was released on
DVD by MGM in 2005. Around the time of the release of Texasville, Bogdanovich also revisited his earliest success,
The Last Picture Show, and produced a slightly modified director's cut. Since that time, his recut has been the only
available version of the film.
Bogdanovich directed two more theatrical films in 1992 and 1993, but their failure kept him off the big screen for
several years. One, Noises Off..., based on the Michael Frayn play, has subsequently developed a strong cult
following, while the other, The Thing Called Love, is better known as one of River Phoenix's last roles before his
untimely drug-related death.
Bogdanovich, drawing from his encyclopedic knowledge of film history, authored several critically lauded books,
including Peter Bogdanovich's Movie of the Week, which offered the lifelong cinephile's commentary on 52 of his
favorite films, and Who The Devil Made It: Conversations with Legendary Film Directors and Who the Hell's in It:
Conversations with Hollywood's Legendary Actors, both based on interviews with directors and actors.
In 2001, Bogdanovich resurfaced with The Cat's Meow. Returning once again to a reworking of the past, this time
the supposed murder of director Thomas Ince by Orson Welles's bête noire William Randolph Hearst, The Cat's
Meow was a modest critical success but made little money at the box office. Bogdanovich says he was told the story
of the alleged Ince murder by Welles, who in turn said he heard it from writer Charles Lederer.
[7]
In addition to directing some television work, Bogdanovich has returned to acting with a recurring guest role on the
cable television series The Sopranos, playing Dr. Melfi's psychotherapist. Bogdanovich directed a fifth-season
episode of the series. In an homage to his Sopranos character, he also voiced the analyst of Bart Simpson's therapist
in an episode of The Simpsons, and appeared as himself in the "Robots Versus Wrestlers" episode of How I Met Your
Mother along with Arianna Huffington and Will Shortz. Quentin Tarantino also cast Bogdanovich as a disc jockey in
Kill Bill Volume 1 and Kill Bill Volume 2. "Quentin knows, because he's such a movie buff, that when you hear a disc
jockey's voice in my pictures, it's always me, sometimes doing different voices," said Bogdanovich. "So he called me
and he said, 'I stole your voice from The Last Picture Show for the rough cut, but I need you to come down and do
that voice again for my picture...'"
[8]
Bogdanovich hosted The Essentials on Turner Classic Movies, but was replaced in May 2006 by TCM host Robert
Osborne and film critic Molly Haskell. Bogdanovich is also frequently featured in introductions to movies on
Peter Bogdanovich
245
Criterion Collection DVDs, and has had a supporting role as a fictional version of himself in the Showtime comedy
series Out of Order. He will next appear in The Dream Factory.
In 2006, Bogdanovich joined forces with ClickStar, where he hosts a classic film channel, Peter Bogdanovich's
Golden Age of Movies. Bodganovich also writes a blog for the site.
[9]
In 2003 he appeared in the BBC documentary,
Easy Riders, Raging Bulls and in 2006 he appeared in the documentary Wanderlust.
In 2007, Bogdanovich was presented with an award for outstanding contribution to film preservation by The
International Federation of Film Archives (FIAF) at the Toronto International Film Festival.
[10]
In 1998, the National Film Preservation Board of the Library of Congress named The Last Picture Show to the
National Film Registry, an honor awarded only to culturally significant films.
In 2010, Bogdanovich joined the directing faculty at the School of Filmmaking at the University of North Carolina
School of the Arts. On April 17, 2010, he was awarded the Master of Cinema Award at the 12th Annual RiverRun
International Film Festival. In 2011, he was given the Auteur Award by the International Press Academy, which is
awarded to filmmakers whose singular vision and unique artistic control over the elements of production give a
personal and signature style to their films.
[11]
In 2012, Bogdanovich made news with an essay in the Hollywood Reporter, published in the aftermath of the
Aurora, Colorado theater shooting, in which he argued against excessive violence in the movies:
Today, there’s a general numbing of the audience. There’s too much murder and killing. You make people
insensitive by showing it all the time. The body count in pictures is huge. It numbs the audience into thinking
it’s not so terrible. Back in the ’70s, I asked Orson Welles what he thought was happening to pictures, and he
said, “We’re brutalizing the audience. We’re going to end up like the Roman circus, live at the Coliseum.” The
respect for human life seems to be eroding.
[12]
Filmography
Directing credits
• Targets (aka Before I Die) (1968) (Also Writer/Producer/Editor)
• Voyage to the Planet of Prehistoric Women (aka The Gill Women of Venus and The Gill Women) (1968)
• The Last Picture Show (1971) (Also Co-Writer, with Larry McMurtry)
• Directed by John Ford (1971) (Documentary)
• What's Up, Doc? (1972) (Also Co-Writer, with Buck Henry, David Newman and Robert Benton/Producer)
• Paper Moon (1973) (Also Producer)
• Daisy Miller (1974) (Also Producer)
• At Long Last Love (1975) (Also Writer/Producer)
• Nickelodeon (1976) (Also Co-Writer, with W.D. Richter)
• Saint Jack (1979) (Also Co-Writer, with Howard Sackler and Paul Theroux)
• They All Laughed (1981) (Also Writer)
• Mask (1985)
• Illegally Yours (1988) (Also Producer)
• Texasville (1990) (Also Writer/Producer)
• Noises Off (1992) (Also Executive Producer)
• The Thing Called Love (1993)
• To Sir, with Love II (1996) (TV)
• A Saintly Switch (1999) (TV)
• The Cat's Meow (2001)
• Hustle (2004) (TV)
• Runnin' Down A Dream (2007) (Documentary)
Peter Bogdanovich
246
• Squirrel to the Nuts (2013)
Acting credits
• Targets (aka Before I Die) (1968)...
• Voyage to the Planet of Prehistoric Women (aka The Gill Women of Venus and The Gill Women) (1968)...
Narrator (Voice Only)
• The Last Picture Show (1971)... Disc Jockey (Voice Only)
• The Other Side of the Wind (1970-6)... Brookes Otterlake (Never Released)
• Saint Jack (1979)... Eddie Schuman
• They All Laughed (1981)... Disc Jockey (Uncredited)
• Moonlighting (1986) [Himself]
• Northern Exposure (1993, TV)... Himself (1 Episode)
• Cybill (1995, TV)... Himself (1 Episode) (Uncredited)
• Highball (1997)... Frank
• Bella Mafia (1997)... Vito Giancamo
• Mr. Jealousy (1998)... Dr. Howard Poke
• 54 (1998)... Elaine's Patron
• Lick the Star (1998, Short Film)... The Principal
• Coming Soon... Bartholomew
• The Sopranos (2000–2007, TV)... Dr. Elliot Kupferberg (15 Episodes)
• Rated X (2000, TV)... Film Professor
• Festival in Cannes (2001)... Milo
• Kill Bill Volume 1 (2003)... Disc Jockey (Voice Only, Credited with "Special Thanks")
• Kill Bill Volume 2 (2004)... Disc Jockey (Voice Only, Credited with "Special Thanks")
• 8 Simple Rules for Dating My Teenage Daughter (2004, TV)... Dr. Lohr (1 Episode)
• Law and Order: Criminal Intent (2005–2007, TV)... George Merritt (2 Episodes)
• Infamous (2006)... Bennett Cerf
• The Simpsons (2007, TV)... Psychologist (Voice Only) (1 Episode)
• Dedication (2007)... Roger Spade
• The Dukes (2007)... Lou
• The Fifth Patient (2007)... Edward Birani
• Broken English (2007)... Iriving Mann
• Humboldt County (2008)... Professor Hadley
• Abandoned (2010)... Dr. Markus Bensley
• How I Met Your Mother (2010, TV)... Himself (1 episode)
Books
Books by Peter Bogdanovich:
• 1961: The Cinema of Orson Welles
• 1962: The Cinema of Howard Hawks
• 1963: The Cinema of Alfred Hitchcock
• 1967: John Ford (expanded 1978)
• 1969: Fritz Lang in America
• 1970: Allan Dwan: The Last Pioneer
• 1973: Pieces of Time (expanded 1985)
Peter Bogdanovich
247
• 1984: The Killing Of The Unicorn - Dorothy Stratten 1960-1980. - William Morrow and Company. - ISBN
0-688-01611-1.
• 1992: This is Orson Welles. - HarperPerennial. - ISBN 0-06-092439-X.
• 1995: A Moment with Miss Gish. - Santa Barbara: Santa Teresa Press.
[13]
• 1997: Who The Devil Made It: Conversations with Legendary Film Directors. Alfred A. Knopf. - ISBN
0-679-44706-7.
• 1999: Peter Bogdanovich's Movie of the Week.
• 2004: Who the Hell's in It: Conversations with Hollywood's Legendary Actors. - Alfred A. Knopf. - ISBN
0-375-40010-9.
Audio commentaries
Director's commentaries
•• Targets
• The Last Picture Show (one solo commentary, and one with actors Cybill Shepherd, Randy Quaid, Cloris
Leachman and Frank Marshall)
• The Sopranos (TV series) (episode "Sentimental Education")
•• What's Up, Doc?
•• Paper Moon
•• Daisy Miller
•• Nickelodeon
•• Saint Jack
•• They All Laughed
•• Mask
•• The Thing Called Love
•• The Cat's Meow
Scholarly commentaries
•• Bringing Up Baby
•• Citizen Kane
• Clash by Night, with audio interview excerpts of director Fritz Lang
•• El Dorado
• Fury, with audio interview excerpts of director Fritz Lang
•• The Lady from Shanghai
• Land of the Pharaohs, with audio interview excepts of director Howard Hawks
• M, with digital transfer supervisor Torsten Kaiser and restoration supervisor Martin Koerber, plus audio interview
excerpts of director Fritz Lang
• Othello, with Orson Welles scholar Myron Meisel
• The Rules of the Game, reading commentary written by film scholar Alexander Sesonske
•• The Searchers
• The Sopranos (TV series) (episode "Pilot") with Sopranos creator David Chase
• Strangers on a Train, with Psycho screenwriter Joseph Stefano, Patricia Highsmith biographer Andrew Wilson
and other participants
• To Catch a Thief, with film historian Laurent Bouzereau
• The Third Man, on the Criterion Edition of the film
• Make Way for Tomorrow, on the Criterion Edition of the film
Peter Bogdanovich
248
References
[1] Margalit Fox "Polly Platt, Producer and Production Designer, Dies at 72", (http:// www. nytimes.com/ 2011/ 07/ 29/ movies/
polly-platt-producer-and-production-designer-is-dead-at-72.html?_r=1&ref=obituaries) New York Times, 29 July 2011
[2] (http:// books. google. ca/ books?id=4_gZAAAAYAAJ& q=Herma+robinson+Bogdanovich& dq=Herma+robinson+Bogdanovich&
hl=en& redir_esc=y)
[3] "What They Learned From Roger Corman" (http:// www. moviemaker.com/ issues/ 42/ corman-learned.html), by Beverly Gray,
MovieMaker Magazine, Spring 2001, retrieved April 29, 2006
[4] http:/ / www.amazon. com/ dp/ 1556528256
[5] [5] Bogdanovich, Peter. Interview by Robert K. Elder. The Film That Changed My Life. By Robert K. Elder. Chicago: Chicago Review Press,
2011. N. p56. Print.
[6] Grace, Kevin Michael (2011-06-22) Happiness Implosion (http:/ / www. amconmag.com/ blog/ happiness-implosion/ ), The American
Conservative
[7] Interview with Peter Bogdanovich from March 9, 2008 (http:/ / www. wellesnet. com/ ?p=213)
[8] ESPN interview with Peter Bogdanovich (http:// sports. espn. go.com/ espn/ page3/ story?page=10bqs/ bogdanovich)
[9] http:// community. cstar. com/ thread.jspa?threadID=400000020
[10] "TIFF '07 - Films & Schedules La Grand Illusion:" (http:// www. tiff07.ca/ filmsandschedules/ filmdetails. aspx?ID=707112015001386),
by Sylvia Frank, Toronto International Film Festival Guide, September 2007, retrieved September 09, 2007
[11] 2011 Satellite Winners (http:/ / www. pressacademy. com/ award_cat/current-nominees/), December 2011.
[12] http:/ / www. hollywoodreporter.com/ news/ dark-knight-rises-shooting-peter-bogdanovich-353774
[13] A Moment with Miss Gish (http:// worldcat. org/oclc/ 34316185?tab=details). - WorldCat.
External links
• Peter Bogdanovich (http:// www. imdb.com/ name/ nm953/ ) at the Internet Movie Database
• Peter Bogdanovich (http:/ / www. allrovi.com/ name/ p82288) at AllRovi
• "The Films of Peter Bogdanovich" (http:/ / www.youtube. com/ watch?v=Qbl-NEZo1aQ), movie clip
compilation, 4 minutes
• Bogdanovich Receives Visionary Award (http:/ / www. yoursdaily.com/ culture_media/movies/
bogdanovich_receives_visionary_award)
• Bogdanovich's Who the Hell's in It reviewed in Seattle Weekly (http:// www. seattleweekly. com/ 2005-03-30/
arts/ the-kid-stays-in-the-picture/)
• Bogdanovich's blog at indiwire (http:/ / blogs. indiewire.com/ peterbogdanovich/ ).
Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Lead Actor in a Miniseries or a Movie
249
Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Lead
Actor in a Miniseries or a Movie
Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Lead Actor in
a Miniseries or a Movie
Awarded for Outstanding Lead Actor in a Miniseries or a Movie
Presented by Academy of Television Arts & Sciences
Country United States
Currently held by Kevin Costner,
Hatfields & McCoys (2011)
Official website http:/ / www. emmys.com/
This is a list of winners of the Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Lead Actor in a Miniseries or a Movie.
Award winners
1950s
• 1952: Thomas Mitchell
• 1953: no award
• 1954: Robert Cummings – 12 Angry Men
• 1955: Lloyd Nolan – Caine Mutiny Court Marshal
• 1956: Jack Palance – Requiem for a Heavyweight
• 1957: Peter Ustinov – The Life of Samuel Johnson
• 1958: no award
• 1959: Fred Astaire – An Evening With Fred Astaire
1960s
• 1960: Laurence Olivier – The Moon and Sixpence
• 1961: Maurice Evans – Macbeth
• 1962: Peter Falk – The Price of Tomatoes
• 1963: Trevor Howard – The Invincible Mr. Disraeli
• 1964: Jack Klugman – The Blacklist
• 1965: Alfred Lunt – The Magnificent Yankee
• 1966: Cliff Robertson – The Game
• 1967: Peter Ustinov – Barefoot in Athens
• 1968: Melvyn Douglas – Do Not Go Gentle into That Good Night
• 1969: Paul Scofield – Male of the Species
Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Lead Actor in a Miniseries or a Movie
250
1970s
• 1970: Peter Ustinov – A Storm in Summer
• 1971: George C. Scott – The Price
• 1972: Keith Michell – The Six Wives of Henry VIII
• 1973: Laurence Olivier – Long Day's Journey into Night
• 1973: Anthony Murphy – Tom Brown's Schooldays
• 1974: Hal Holbrook – Pueblo
• 1974: William Holden – The Blue Knight
• 1975: Laurence Olivier – Love Among the Ruins
• 1975: Peter Falk – Columbo
• 1976 - TV Movie: Anthony Hopkins – The Lindbergh Kidnapping Case
• William Devane - Fear on Trial
• Jack Lemmon - The Entertainer
• Edward Herrmann - Eleanor and Franklin
• Jason Robards - A Moon for the Misbegotten
• 1976 - Limited Series: Hal Holbrook – Sandburg's Lincoln
• Nick Nolte - Rich Man, Poor Man
• Peter Strauss - Rich Man, Poor Man
• George Grizzard - The Adams Chronicles
• 1977 - TV Movie: Ed Flanders – Harry S. Truman Plain Speaking
• Peter Boyle - Tail Gunner Joe
• Peter Finch - Raid on Entebbe
• Edward Herrmann - Eleanor and Franklin: The White House Years
• George C. Scott - Beauty and the Beast
• 1977 - Limited Series: Christopher Plummer – The Moneychangers
• Stanley Baker - How Green Was My Valley
• Richard Jordan - Captains and the Kings
• Steven Keats - Seventh Avenue
• 1978 - TV Movie: Fred Astaire – A Family Upside Down
• Alan Alda - Kill Me If You Can
• Hal Holbrook - Our Town
• Martin Sheen - Taxi!!! - Hallmark Hall of Fame
• James Stacy - Just a Little Inconvenience
• 1978 - Limited Series: Michael Moriarty – Holocaust
• Hal Holbrook - The Awakening Land
• Jason Robards - Washington: Behind Closed Doors
• Fritz Weaver - Holocaust
• Paul Winfield - King
• 1979: Peter Strauss – The Jericho Mile
• Ned Beatty - Friendly Fire
• Louis Gossett, Jr. - Backstairs at the White House
• Kurt Russell - Elvis
Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Lead Actor in a Miniseries or a Movie
251
1980s
• 1980: Powers Boothe – Guyana Tragedy: The Story of Jim
Jones as Jim Jones
• Tony Curtis - Moviola: The Scarlett O'Hara War as David
O. Selznick
• Henry Fonda - Gideon's Trumpet as Clarence Earl Gideon
• Jason Robards - F.D.R.: The Last Year as Franklin Delano
Roosevelt
• 1981: Anthony Hopkins – The Bunker as Adolf Hitler
• Richard Chamberlain - Shogun
• Toshirō Mifune - Shogun
• Peter O'Toole - Masada
• Peter Strauss - Masada
• 1982: Mickey Rooney – Bill
• Anthony Andrews - Brideshead Revisited
• Philip Anglim - The Elephant Man
• Anthony Hopkins - The Hunchback of Notre Dame
• Jeremy Irons - Brideshead Revisited
• 1983: Tommy Lee Jones – The Executioner's Song as Gary
Gilmore
• Robert Blake - Blood Feud as Jimmy Hoffa
• Richard Chamberlain - The Thorn Birds
• Alec Guinness - Smiley's People
• Roger Rees - The Life and Adventures of Nicholas Nickleby
• 1985: Richard Crenna – The Rape of Richard Beck as Richard Beck
• Richard Chamberlain - Wallenberg: A Hero's Story
• James Garner - Heartsounds
• Richard Kiley - Do You Remember Love
• George C. Scott - A Christmas Carol as Ebenezer Scrooge
• 1986: Dustin Hoffman – Death of a Salesman as Willy Loman
• Kirk Douglas - Amos
• Ben Gazzara - An Early Frost
• John Lithgow - Resting Place
• Aidan Quinn - An Early Frost
• 1987: James Woods – Promise
• Alan Arkin - Escape from Sobibor
• James Garner - Promise
• Louis Gossett, Jr. - A Gathering of Old Men
• Randy Quaid - LBJ: The Early Years as Lyndon B. Johnson
• 1988: Jason Robards – Inherit the Wind as Henry Drummond
• Hume Cronyn - Foxfire as Hector Nations
• Danny Glover - Mandela as Nelson Mandela
• Stacy Keach - Hemingway as Ernest Hemingway
• Jack Lemmon - The Murder of Mary Phagan as Gov. John Marshall
Slaton
• 1984: Laurence Olivier – King Lear as King Lear
• Ted Danson - Something About Amelia
• Louis Gossett, Jr. - Sadat
• Mickey Rooney - Bill: On His Own
• Daniel J. Travanti - Adam as John Walsh
• 1989: James Woods – My Name Is Bill W. as Bill Wilson
• Robert Duvall - Lonesome Dove as Gus McCrae
• John Gielgud - War and Remembrance as Aaron Jastrow
• Tommy Lee Jones - Lonesome Dove as Woodrow F. Call
• Ben Kingsley - Murderers Among Us: The Simon Wiesenthal Story as
Simon Wiesenthal
1990s
Year Actor Program Role Network
1989-1990
(42nd)
Hume Cronyn Age-Old Friends Cooper HBO
Michael Caine Jekyll & Hyde Henry Jekyll/Harry Hyde ABC
Art Carney Where Pigeons Go to Die Da NBC
Albert Finney The Image Jason Cromwell HBO
Tom Hulce Murder in Mississippi Mickey Schwerner NBC
1990-1991
(43rd)
John Gielgud Summer's Lease Haverford Downs PBS
James Garner Decoration Day Albert Sidney Finch NBC
Dennis Hopper Paris Trout Paris Trout Showtime
Sidney Poitier Separate But Equal Thurgood Marshall ABC
Christopher Walken Sarah, Plain and Tall Jacob Witting CBS
Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Lead Actor in a Miniseries or a Movie
252
1991-1992
(44th)
Beau Bridges Without Warning: The James Brady Story James Brady HBO
Rubén Blades Crazy from the Heart Ernesto Ontiveros TNT
Hume Cronyn Christmas on Division Street Cleveland Merriweather CBS
Brian Dennehy To Catch a Killer John Wayne Gacy Syndication
Maximilian Schell Miss Rose White Mordechai Weiss NBC
1992-1993
(45th)
Robert Morse Tru Truman Capote PBS
Robert Blake Judgment Day: The John List Story John List CBS
Robert Duvall Stalin Joseph Stalin HBO
James Garner Barbarians at the Gate F. Ross Johnson HBO
James Woods Citizen Cohn Roy Cohn HBO
1993-1994
(46th)
Hume Cronyn To Dance with the White Dog Sam Peek CBS
Michael Caine World War II: When Lions Roared Joseph Stalin NBC
James Garner Breathing Lessons Ira Moran CBS
Matthew Modine And the Band Played On Don Francis HBO
Sam Waterston I'll Fly Away: Then and Now Forrest Bedford PBS
1994-1995
(47th)
Raúl Juliá The Burning Season Chico Mendes HBO
Charles S. Dutton The Piano Lesson Boy Willie Charles CBS
John Goodman Kingfish: The Story of Huey P. Long Huey P. Long TNT
John Lithgow My Brother's Keeper Tom Bradley/Bob Bradley CBS
James Woods Indictment: The McMartin Trial Danny Davis HBO
1995-1996
(48th)
Alan Rickman Rasputin Grigori Rasputin HBO
Alec Baldwin A Streetcar Named Desire Stanley Kowalski CBS
Beau Bridges Kissinger and Nixon Richard Nixon TNT
Laurence Fishburne The Tuskegee Airmen Hannibal Lee HBO
Gary Sinise Truman Harry Truman HBO
1996-1997
(49th)
Armand Assante Gotti John Gotti HBO
Beau Bridges Hidden in America Bill Januson Showtime
Robert Duvall The Man Who Captured Eichmann Adolf Eichmann TNT
Laurence Fishburne Miss Evers' Boys Caleb Humphries HBO
Sidney Poitier Mandela and De Klerk Nelson Mandela Showtime
1997-1998
(50th)
Gary Sinise George Wallace George Wallace TNT
Jack Lemmon 12 Angry Men Juror #8 Showtime
Sam Neill Merlin Merlin NBC
Ving Rhames Don King: Only in America Don King HBO
Patrick Stewart Moby Dick Captain Ahab USA
Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Lead Actor in a Miniseries or a Movie
253
1998-1999
(51st)
Stanley Tucci Winchell Walter Winchell HBO
Don Cheadle A Lesson Before Dying Grant Wiggins HBO
Ian Holm King Lear King Lear PBS
Jack Lemmon Inherit the Wind Henry Drummond Showtime
Sam Shepard Dash and Lilly Dashiell Hammett A&E
2000s
Year Actor Program Role Network
1999-2000
(52nd)
Jack Lemmon Tuesdays with Morrie Morrie Schwartz ABC
Beau Bridges P.T. Barnum P.T. Barnum A&E
Brian Dennehy Death of a Salesman Willy Loman Showtime
William H. Macy A Slight Case of Murder Terry Thorpe TNT
Liev Schreiber RKO 281 Orson Welles HBO
2000-2001
(53rd)
Kenneth Branagh Conspiracy Reinhard Heydrich HBO
Andy García For Love or Country: The Arturo Sandoval Story Arturo Sandoval HBO
Gregory Hines Bojangles Bill Robinson Showtime
Ben Kingsley Anne Frank: The Whole Story Otto Frank ABC
Barry Pepper 61* Roger Maris HBO
2001-2002
(54th)
Albert Finney The Gathering Storm Winston Churchill HBO
Kenneth Branagh Shackleton Ernest Shackleton A&E
Beau Bridges We Were the Mulvaneys Michael Mulvaney Lifetime
James Franco James Dean James Dean TNT
Michael Gambon Path to War Lyndon B. Johnson HBO
2002-2003
(55th)
William H. Macy Door to Door Bill Porter TNT
Brad Garrett Gleason Jackie Gleason CBS
Paul Newman Our Town Stage Manager Showtime
Tom Wilkinson Normal Roy Applewood HBO
James Woods Rudy: The Rudy Giuliani Story Rudy Giuliani USA
2003-2004
(56th)
Al Pacino Angels in America Roy Cohn HBO
Antonio Banderas And Starring Pancho Villa as Himself Pancho Villa HBO
James Brolin The Reagans Ronald Reagan Showtime
Mos Def Something the Lord Made Vivien Thomas HBO
Alan Rickman Something the Lord Made Dr. Alfred Blalock HBO
Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Lead Actor in a Miniseries or a Movie
254
2004-2005
(57th)
Geoffrey Rush The Life and Death of Peter Sellers Peter Sellers HBO
Kenneth Branagh Warm Springs Franklin D. Roosevelt HBO
Ed Harris Empire Falls Miles Roby HBO
William H. Macy The Wool Cap Gigot TNT
Jonathan Rhys
Meyers
Elvis Elvis Presley CBS
2005-2006
(58th)
Andre Braugher Thief Nick Atwater FX
Charles Dance Bleak House Mr. Tulkinghorn PBS
Ben Kingsley Mrs. Harris Herman Tarnower HBO
Donald Sutherland Human Trafficking Bill Meehan Lifetime
Jon Voight Pope John Paul II Pope John Paul II CBS
2006-2007
(59th)
Robert Duvall Broken Trail Prentice "Prent" Ritter AMC
Jim Broadbent Longford Lord Longford HBO
William H. Macy Nightmares and Dreamscapes: From the Stories of Stephen
King
Det. Clyde Umney / Sam
Landry
TNT
Matthew Perry The Ron Clark Story Ron Clark TNT
Tom Selleck Jesse Stone: Sea Change Det. Jesse Stone CBS
2007-2008
(60th)
Paul Giamatti John Adams John Adams HBO
Ralph Fiennes Bernard and Doris Bernard Lafferty HBO
Ricky Gervais Extras: The Extra Special Series Finale Andy Millman HBO
Kevin Spacey Recount Ron Klain HBO
Tom Wilkinson Recount James Baker HBO
2008-2009
(61st)
Brendan Gleeson Into the Storm Winston Churchill HBO
Kevin Bacon Taking Chance Michael Strobl HBO
Kenneth Branagh Wallander: One Step Behind Kurt Wallander PBS
Kevin Kline Cyrano de Bergerac Cyrano de Bergerac PBS
Ian McKellen King Lear King Lear PBS
Kiefer Sutherland 24: Redemption Jack Bauer Fox
2010s
Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Lead Actor in a Miniseries or a Movie
255
Year Actor Program Role Network
2009-2010
(62nd)
Al Pacino You Don't Know Jack Dr. Jack Kevorkian HBO
Jeff Bridges A Dog Year Jon Katz HBO
Ian McKellen The Prisoner Number Two / Curtis AMC
Dennis Quaid The Special Relationship Bill Clinton HBO
Michael Sheen The Special Relationship Tony Blair HBO
2010-2011
(63rd)
Barry Pepper The Kennedys Robert F. Kennedy ReelzChannel
Idris Elba Luther Det. John Luther BBC One
Laurence Fishburne Thurgood Thurgood Marshall HBO
William Hurt Too Big to Fail Hank Paulson HBO
Greg Kinnear The Kennedys John F. Kennedy ReelzChannel
Édgar Ramírez Carlos Ilich Ramírez Sánchez Sundance Channel
2011-2012
(64th)
Kevin Costner Hatfields & McCoys William "Devil Anse" Hatfield History
Benedict Cumberbatch Sherlock: A Scandal in Belgravia Sherlock Holmes BBC One
Idris Elba Luther Det. John Luther BBC One
Woody Harrelson Game Change Steve Schmidt HBO
Clive Owen Hemingway & Gellhorn Ernest Hemingway HBO
Bill Paxton Hatfields & McCoys Randall McCoy History
Most wins
2 wins
•• Fred Astaire
•• Hume Cronyn
•• Hal Holbrook
•• Anthony Hopkins
•• Al Pacino
•• James Woods
4 wins
•• Laurence Olivier
Multiple nominations
2 nominations
•• Robert Blake
•• Michael Caine
•• Brian Dennehy
•• Idris Elba
•• Albert Finney
•• Louis Gossett, Jr.
•• Tommy Lee Jones
•• Al Pacino
Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Lead Actor in a Miniseries or a Movie
256
•• Barry Pepper
•• Sidney Poitier
•• Alan Rickman
•• Jason Robards
•• Gary Sinise
•• Tom Wilkinson
3 nominations
•• Richard Chamberlain
•• Laurence Fishburne
•• Ben Kingsley
4 nominations
•• Kenneth Branagh
•• Hume Cronyn
•• Robert Duvall
•• Jack Lemmon
•• William H. Macy
5 nominations
•• Beau Bridges
•• James Garner
•• James Woods
Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Supporting Actor in a Miniseries or a Movie
257
Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding
Supporting Actor in a Miniseries or a Movie
Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Supporting Actor in
a Miniseries or a Movie
Awarded for Outstanding Supporting Actor in a Miniseries or a Movie
Presented by Academy of Television Arts & Sciences
Country United States
Currently held by Tom Berenger,
Hatfields & McCoys (2012)
Official website http:// www. emmys.com/
This is a list of winners of the Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Supporting Actor in a Miniseries or
Movie. Prior to 1975, supporting actors in miniseries and movies were included in either the comedy or drama
categories along with regular series. From 1975 to 1978, the award was called Outstanding Single Performance by
a Supporting Actor in a Comedy or Drama Special. Despite the category's name, appearances in multiple
episodes of miniseries, such as first winner Anthony Quayle's in QB VII, were included. In 1979, the award was
renamed Outstanding Supporting Actor in a Limited Series or a Special, then Outstanding Supporting Actor
in a Miniseries or a Special in 1986, then the current name in 1998.
Award winners and nominations
1970s
• 1975: Anthony Quayle - QB VII
• Ralph Bellamy - The Missiles of October
• Jack Hawkins - QB VII
• Trevor Howard - The Count of Monte Cristo
• 1976: Ed Flanders - A Moon for the Misbegotten
• Ray Bolger - The Entertainer
• Art Carney - Katherine
• 1977: Burgess Meredith - Tail Gunner Joe
• Martin Balsam - Raid on Entebbe
• Mark Harmon - Eleanor and Franklin: The White House Years
• Yaphet Kotto - Raid on Entebbe
• Walter McGinn - Eleanor and Franklin: The White House Years
• 1978: Howard Da Silva - Verna: USO Girl
• James Farentino - Jesus of Nazareth
• Burgess Meredith - The Last Hurrah
• Donald Pleasence - The Defection of Simas Kudirka
• Efrem Zimbalist, Jr. - A Family Upside Down
• 1979: Marlon Brando - Roots: The Next Generations
• Ed Flanders - Backstairs at the White House
• Al Freeman, Jr. - Roots: The Next Generations
• Robert Vaughn - Backstairs at the White House
• Paul Winfield - Roots: The Next Generations
Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Supporting Actor in a Miniseries or a Movie
258
1980s
• 1980: George Grizzard - The Oldest Living Graduate
• Ernest Borgnine - All Quiet on the Western Front
• John Cassavetes - Flesh & Blood
• Charles Durning - Attica
• Harold Gould - Moviola: The Scarlett O'Hara War
• 1981: David Warner - Masada
• Andy Griffith - Murder in Texas
• Yuki Meguro - Shogun
• Anthony Quayle - Masada
• John Rhys-Davies - Shogun
• 1982: Laurence Olivier - Brideshead Revisited
• Jack Albertson - My Body, My Child (posthumously)
• John Gielgud - Brideshead Revisisted
• Derek Jacobi - Inside the Third Reich
• Leonard Nimoy - A Woman Called Golda
• 1983: Richard Kiley - The Thorn Birds
• Ralph Bellamy - The Winds of War
• Bryan Brown - The Thorn Birds
• Christopher Plummer - The Thorn Birds
• David Threlfall - The Life and Adventures of Nicholas Nickleby
• 1985: Karl Malden - Fatal Vision
• Richard Burton - Ellis Island (posthumously)
• John Gielgud - Romance on the Orient Express
• Richard Masur - The Burning Bed
• Rip Torn - The Atlanta Child Murders
• 1986: John Malkovich - Death of a Salesman as Biff Loman
• Charles Durning - Death of a Salesman
• John Glover - An Early Frost
• Harold Gould - Mrs. Delafield Wants to Marry
• Pat Morita - Amos
• 1987: Dabney Coleman - Sworn to Silence
• Stephen Collins - The Two Mrs. Grenvilles
• John Glover - Nutcracker: Money, Madness and Murder
• Laurence Olivier - Lost Empires
• Eli Wallach - Something in Common
• 1988: John Shea - Baby M
• Dabney Coleman - Baby M
• Anthony Quinn - Onassis: The Richest Man in the World
• Ron Silver - Billionaire Boys Club
• Bruce Weitz - Baby M
• 1984: Art Carney - Terrible Joe Moran
• Keith Carradine - Chiefs
• John Gielgud - The Master of Ballantrae
• John Lithgow - The Day After
• Randy Quaid - A Streetcar Named Desire as Harold Mitchell
• David Ogden Stiers - The First Olympics - Athens 1896
• 1989: Derek Jacobi - The Tenth Man
• Armand Assante - Jack the Ripper
• James Garner - My Name is Bill W.
• Danny Glover - Lonesome Dove
• Corin Nemec - I Know My First Name is Steven
Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Supporting Actor in a Miniseries or a Movie
259
1990s
• 1990: Vincent Gardenia - Age-Old Friends as Aylott
• Ned Beatty - Last Train Home as Cornelius Van Horne
• Brian Dennehy - A Killing in a Small Town as Ed Reivers
• Anthony Hopkins - Great Expectations as Magwitch
• James Earl Jones - By Dawn's Early Light as Alice
• Max von Sydow - Red King, White Knight as Szaz
• 1991: James Earl Jones - Heat Wave as Junius Jackson
• Ruben Blades - The Josephine Baker Story as Count Giuseppe Pepito
Abatino
• David Dukes - The Josephine Baker Story as Jo Bouillon
• Richard Kiley - Separate But Equal as Earl Warren
• Leon Russom - Long Road Home as Titus Wardlow
• 1992: Hume Cronyn - Broadway Bound as Ben
• Brian Dennehy - The Burden of Proof as Dixon Hartnell
• Hector Elizondo - Mrs. Cage as Lieutenant Angel
• Jerry Orbach - Broadway Bound as Jack
• Ben Vereen - Intruders as Gene Randall
• 1993: Beau Bridges - The Positively True Adventures... as Terry Harper
• Brian Dennehy - Murder in the Heartland as John McArthur
• Jonathan Pryce - Barbarians at the Gate as Henry Kravis
• Peter Riegert - Barbarians at the Gate as Peter Cohen
• Maximilian Schell - Stalin as Vladimir Lenin
• 1995: Donald Sutherland - Citizen X as Fetisov
• Jeffrey DeMunn - Citizen X as Chikatillo
• Sam Elliott - Buffalo Girls as Wild Bill Hickok
• Ben Kingsley - Joseph as Potiphar
• Edward James Olmos - The Burning Season as Wilson
Pinheiro
• 1996: Tom Hulce - The Heidi Chronicles as Peter Patrone
• Andre Braugher - The Tuskegee Airmen as Benjamin O.
Davis
• John Goodman - A Streetcar Named Desire as Harold
Mitchell
• Ian McKellen - Rasputin as Nicholas
• Treat Williams - The Late Shift as Michael Ovitz
• 1997: Beau Bridges - The Second Civil War as Jim Farley
• Obba Babatundé - Miss Evers' Boys as Willie Johnson
• Michael Caine - Mandela and De Klerk as F.W. de Klerk
• Ossie Davis - Miss Evers' Boys as Mr. Evers
• Joe Mantegna - The Last Don as Pippi De Lena
• 1998: George C. Scott - 12 Angry Men as Juror #3
• Hume Cronyn - 12 Angry Men as Juror #9
• Gregory Peck - Moby Dick as Father Mapple
• Martin Short - Merlin as Frik
• J.T. Walsh - Hope as Ray Percy (posthumously)
• 1994: Michael Goorjian - David's Mother as David Goodson
• Alan Alda - And the Band Played On as Dr. Robert Gallo
• Matthew Broderick - A Life in the Theatre as John
• Richard Gere - And the Band Played On as The Choreographer
• Ian McKellen - And the Band Played On as Bill Kraus
• 1999: Peter O'Toole - Joan of Arc as Bishop Cauchon
• Beau Bridges - Inherit the Wind as E.K. Hornbeck
• Don Cheadle - The Rat Pack as Sammy Davis, Jr.
• Peter Fonda - The Passion of Ayn Rand as Frank O'Connor
• Joe Mantegna - The Rat Pack as Dean Martin
Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Supporting Actor in a Miniseries or a Movie
260
2000s
• 2000: Hank Azaria – Tuesdays with Morrie as Mitch Albom
• Klaus Maria Brandauer – Introducing Dorothy Dandridge as Otto Preminger
• James Cromwell – RKO 281 as William Randolph Hearst
• Danny Glover – Freedom Song as Will Walker
• John Malkovich – RKO 281 as Herman Mankiewicz
• 2001: Brian Cox – Nuremberg as Herman Wilhelm Goering
• Alan Alda – Club Land as Willie Walters
• Colin Firth – Conspiracy as Stuckart
• Victor Garber – Life with Judy Garland: Me and My Shadows as Sidney Luft
• Ian Holm – The Last of the Blonde Bombshells as Patrick
• Stanley Tucci – Conspiracy as Adolf Eichmann
• 2002: Michael Moriarty – James Dean as Winton Dean
• Alec Baldwin – Path to War as Robert McNamara
• Jim Broadbent – The Gathering Storm as Desmond Morton
• Don Cheadle – Things Behind the Sun as Chuck
• Jon Voight – Uprising as Jurgen Stroop
• 2003: Ben Gazzara – Hysterical Blindness as Nick
• Alan Arkin – The Pentagon Papers as Harry Rowen
• Chris Cooper – My House in Umbria as Thomas Riversmith
• John Malkovich – Napoleon as Talleyrand
• Peter O'Toole – Hitler: The Rise of Evil as Hindenburgh
• 2005: Paul Newman – Empire Falls as Max
Roby
• Brian Dennehy – Our Fathers as Father
Dominic Spagnolia
• Philip Seymour Hoffman – Empire Falls as
C.B. Whiting/Charlie Mayne
• Christopher Plummer – Our Fathers as
Cardinal Bernard Law
• Randy Quaid – Elvis as Colonel Tom Parker
• 2006: Jeremy Irons – Elizabeth I as Earl of
Leicester
• Robert Carlyle – Human Trafficking as Sergei
Karpovich
• Clifton Collins, Jr. – Thief as Jack "Bump"
Hill
• Hugh Dancy – Elizabeth I as Earl of Essex
• Denis Lawson – Bleak House as John
Jarndyce
• 2007: Thomas Haden Church – Broken Trail
as Tom Harte
• Edward Asner – The Christmas Card as Luke
Spelman
• Joe Mantegna – The Starter Wife as Lou
Manahan
• Aidan Quinn – Bury My Heart at Wounded
Knee as Senator Dawes
• August Schellenberg – Bury My Heart at
Wounded Knee as Sitting Bull
• 2008: Tom Wilkinson – John Adams as
Benjamin Franklin
• Bob Balaban – Recount as Ben Ginsberg
• Stephen Dillane – John Adams as Thomas
Jefferson
• Denis Leary – Recount as Michael Whouley
• David Morse – John Adams as George
Washington
• 2004: Jeffrey Wright – Angels in America as Mr. Lies / Norman "Belize" Ariaga /
Homeless Man / The Angel Europa / The Antarctic Eskimo
• Justin Kirk – Angels in America as Prior Walter / Leatherman in Park
• William H. Macy – Stealing Sinatra as John Irwin
• Ben Shenkman – Angels in America as Louis Ironson / The Angel Oceania
• Patrick Wilson – Angels in America as Joe Pitt
• 2009: Ken Howard – Grey Gardens as Phelan
Beale
• Len Cariou – Into the Storm as Franklin D.
Roosevelt
• Tom Courtenay – Little Dorrit as Mr. Dorrit
• Bob Newhart – The Librarian: Curse of the
Judas Chalice as Judson
• Andy Serkis – Little Dorrit as Rigaud
Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Supporting Actor in a Miniseries or a Movie
261
2010s
Year Actor Program Role Network
2009-2010
(62nd)
David Strathairn Temple Grandin Dr. Carlock HBO
Michael Gambon Emma Mr. Woodhouse PBS
John Goodman You Don't Know Jack Neal Nicol HBO
Jonathan Pryce Return to Cranford Mr. Buxton PBS
Patrick Stewart Hamlet King Claudius/Ghost PBS
2010-2011
(63rd)
Guy Pearce Mildred Pierce Monty Beragon HBO
Paul Giamatti Too Big to Fail Ben Bernanke HBO
Brían F. O'Byrne Mildred Pierce Bert Pierce HBO
Tom Wilkinson The Kennedys Joseph Kennedy ReelzChannel
James Woods Too Big to Fail Richard Fuld HBO
2011-2012
(64th)
Tom Berenger Hatfields & McCoys Jim Vance History
Martin Freeman Sherlock: A Scandal in Belgravia Dr. John Watson PBS
Ed Harris Game Change John McCain HBO
Denis O'Hare American Horror Story Larry Harvey FX
David Strathairn Hemingway & Gellhorn John Dos Passos HBO
Most wins
2 wins
•• Beau Bridges
Multiple nominations
2 nominations
•• Alan Alda
•• Ralph Bellamy
•• Art Carney
•• Don Cheadle
•• Dabney Coleman
•• Hume Cronyn
•• Charles Durning
•• Ed Flanders
•• Danny Glover
•• John Glover
•• John Goodman
•• Derek Jacobi
•• James Earl Jones
•• Richard Kiley
•• Burgess Meredith
•• Peter O'Toole
Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Supporting Actor in a Miniseries or a Movie
262
•• Laurence Olivier
•• Christopher Plummer
•• Jonathan Pryce
•• Randy Quaid
•• Anthony Quayle
•• David Strathairn
•• Tom Wilkinson
3 nominations
•• Beau Bridges
•• John Gielgud
•• John Malkovich
•• Joe Mantegna
4 nominations
•• Brian Dennehy
Purgatory (1999 film)
263
Purgatory (1999 film)
Purgatory
Directed by Uli Edel
Produced by Dan Schneider
Written by Gordon T. Dawson
Starring Sam Shepard
Eric Roberts
Randy Quaid
Brad Rowe
J. D. Souther
Amelia Heinle
Music by Brad Fiedel
Country United States
Language English
Original channel TNT
Running time 94 minutes
Purgatory is a 1999 western fantasy film directed by Uli Edel.
Plot
An outlaw band led by Blackjack Britton (Eric Roberts) and second man Cavin Guthrie (Peter Stormare) robs a
bank. A woman is shot and dies in the arms of Sonny, a young member of the gang who is the lookout and appears
to still have a conscience. The gang flees and is pursued by a posse. After passing through a dust storm they see and
enter a tunnel, emerging at the other end into verdant pastures around the town of Refuge.
In this town no one carries a gun, drinks, or swears (except in the saloon). Also, whenever the town's church bell
sounds, all of the residents immediately flock to the church without question.
Sonny seems to think he has seen some of the residents before, but is unable to remember where. He becomes very
puzzled when a stagecoach arrives at night with a woman who is identical to the one who died in his arms when they
robbed the bank. Meanwhile the rest of the outlaw gang begin to cause mayhem and threaten the destruction of the
town but the men of Refuge seem unwilling to resist them. At one point a young woman, who has become the object
of Sonny's love, is threatened by the gang and he is seen by the men of Refuge as willing to lay down his life to save
her.
Sonny finds out that the town of Refuge is actually a kind of purgatory and the faces that he thought he recognized
were in fact well known people such as Doc Holliday, Wild Bill Hickok, Jesse James and Billy the Kid, all of whom
had previously died but who must now spend ten years in Refuge before being admitted into Heaven. During this
time they must avoid all violence and resist the temptations they succumbed to in life. The penalty is to enter Hell if
they fail. In fact, the movie shows a farmer being sent to Hell for murdering one of Blackjack's henchmen when he
caused wanton destruction in his garden. In particular, Wild Bill Hickok - the current sheriff - has only 24 hours to
go until his ten year sentence is up, explaining as to why there was no resistance to the gang.
Inspired by the example Sonny has set, the townspeople nonetheless decide to take up arms to save the town rather
than see evil triumph, even though this apparently means they abandon all hope of heaven. The evil outlaws who had
viewed the men of the town as cowards are now amazed to confront these famous names. Though outnumbered, the
men of Refuge triumph after a classic shoot-out during which Sonny is mortally wounded and in turn becomes a
Purgatory (1999 film)
264
resident of Refuge; Blackjack and his men are all thrown into Hell.
The men of Refuge are now convinced they will also be condemned to Hell. As they are led away by the gatekeeper,
a stagecoach arrives from Heaven. The Driver (R.G. Armstrong) explains to them that "the Creator may be tough,
but He ain't blind"; what they had done in standing up to evil is respectable, and rather than being condemned to Hell
they will be taken to Heaven. Sonny asks to remain in Refuge, in order to be with the woman he loves. Wild Bill
gives Sonny the sheriff's star and bids him farewell. The final scene is the stagecoach being bathed in light as it
approaches Heaven.
Cast
• Sam Shepard as Sheriff Forrest/Wild Bill Hickok
• Eric Roberts as Blackjack Britton
• Randy Quaid as Doc Woods/Doc Holliday
• Peter Stormare as Cavin Guthrie
• Brad Rowe as Leo 'Sonny' Dillard
• Donnie Wahlberg as Deputy Glen/Billy The Kid
• J. D. Souther as Brooks/Jesse James
• Amelia Heinle as Rose/Betty McCullough
• Shannon Kenny as Dolly Sloan/Ivy
• John Dennis Johnston as Lamb/'Lefty' Slade
External links
• Purgatory
[1]
at the Internet Movie Database
References
[1] http:/ / www.imdb. com/ title/ tt0158131/
Quick Change
265
Quick Change
Quick Change
Quick Change movie poster
Directed by Howard Franklin
Bill Murray
Produced by Bill Murray
Robert Greenhut
Written by Howard Franklin
Jay Cronley (book)
Starring Bill Murray
Geena Davis
Randy Quaid
Jason Robards
Music by Randy Edelman
Cinematography Michael Chapman
Editing by Alan Heim
Distributed by Warner Bros.
Release date(s) July 13, 1990
Running time 89 min.
Language English
Box office
$15,260,154
[1]
Quick Change is a 1990 comedy film starring Bill Murray, who also co-directed with the film's screenwriter Howard
Franklin. Geena Davis, Randy Quaid, and Jason Robards co-star. Other cast members include Tony Shalhoub,
Stanley Tucci, Phil Hartman, Victor Argo, Kurtwood Smith, Bob Elliott, and Philip Bosco. It is based on a book of
the same name by Jay Cronley.
The film is set in New York City, particularly in Manhattan and Queens, with scenes taking place on the New York
City Subway and within John F. Kennedy International Airport. Times Square, the Empire State Building, and the
Statue of Liberty are also briefly seen.
Quick Change is the only directorial credit of Bill Murray's career.
Plot
Grimm, dressed as a clown, robs a bank in midtown Manhattan. He ingeniously sets up a hostage situation and then
slips away with an enormous sum of money and his accomplices: girlfriend Phyllis and best friend Loomis.
The heist itself is comparatively straightforward and easy, but the getaway turns into a nightmare. The relatively
simple act of getting to the airport to catch a flight out of the city is complicated by the fact that fate, luck and all of
New York City appears to be conspiring against their escape.
For starters, the trio is seeking the Brooklyn-Queens Expressway to get the airport, but the signs were taken during
construction work, resulting in the three robbers becoming lost in an unfamiliar part of the city. Then, a
con-artist/thief robs the trio of everything they have (except the bank money, which they have taped under their
clothes).
Quick Change
266
When changing into new clothes, they are almost gunned down by the stressed incoming tenant of Phyllis'
apartment, as members of the fire department respond to a call by pushing their hydrant-blocking car out of the way
only to make it roll into a ditch.
When the three crooks eventually manage to flag down a cab, the driver is hopelessly non-fluent in English. This
leads Loomis to jumping out of the moving cab to grab another, but he runs into a newsstand and the driver leaves,
thinking he's killed Loomis. An anal-retentive bus driver, a run-in with mobsters and Phyllis' increasing desperation
to tell Grimm the news that she is pregnant with his child add further complications.
All the while, Rotzinger, a world-weary but relentless chief of the New York City Police Department, is doggedly
attempting to nab the fleeing trio. A final confrontation on board an airliner at the airport occurs between the robbers
and the chief, who gets the added prize of having a major crime-boss dropped in his lap.
Cast
• Bill Murray as Grimm
• Geena Davis as Phyllis Potter
• Randy Quaid as Loomis
• Jason Robards as Chief Walt Rotzinger
• Tony Shalhoub as Cab Driver
• Philip Bosco as Bus Driver
• Phil Hartman as Edison
• Jamey Sheridan as Mugger
• Stanley Tucci as Johnny
• Kurtwood Smith as Lombino
Critical reaction
This little-known film features what critics
[2]
claim is one of Murray's finest performances: a jaded man who has
just had too much of The Big Apple. The film also features strong performance by the supporting cast, particularly
Robards as the police chief Rotzinger, who, while almost as burned out as Murray, is still determined to capture the
robbers as a swan song to his long career.
Roger Ebert in his July 13, 1990 Chicago Sun-Times review wrote: "'Quick Change' is a funny but not an inspired
comedy. It has two directors...and I wonder if that has anything to do with its inability to be more than just efficiently
entertaining."
Home media
Quick Change has been released on VHS in both NTSC and PAL regions in 1991, on Region 1 (NTSC) DVD in
2003 and on Region 2 (PAL) DVD in 2006.
References
[1] http:/ / www.boxofficemojo.com/ movies/ ?id=quickchange.htm
[2] DVD Verdict review (http:/ / www. dvdverdict.com/ reviews/ quickchange.php) Chicago Reader review (http:// www. chicagoreader.com/
chicago/ quick-change/ Film?oid=1054868) TV Guide review (http:// movies. tvguide.com/ quick-change/review/ 128056)
External links
• Quick Change (http:/ / www. imdb. com/ title/ tt0100449/ ) at the Internet Movie Database
• Erasing Clouds retrospective article (http:// www. erasingclouds. com/ 1008quickchange. html)
Real Time (film)
267
Real Time (film)
Real Time
Theatrical release poster
Directed by Randall Cole
Produced by Paula Devonshire
Ari Lantos
Robert Lantos
Tyler Levine
Brian Mosoff
Julia Rosenberg
Pete Soltesz
Written by Randall Cole
Starring Randy Quaid
Jay Baruchel
Music by Jim Guthrie
Cinematography Rudolf Blahacek
Editing by Michael Pacek
Gareth C. Scales
Studio APB Pictures
Devonshire Productions
January Films
Serendipity Point Films
Distributed by Maximum Film Distribution
(Canada)
Image Entertainment (USA)
Release date(s) January 18, 2008
Running time 75 minutes
Country Canada
Language English
Real Time is a 2008 comedy drama which premiered on 18 January 2008 at the Slamdance Film Festival.
Synopsis
The film is about a hit man (Randy Quaid) who gives a compulsive gambler (Jay Baruchel) one hour to live. The
movie takes place in real time and its ultimate subject is what we do with the time we have in this world. The film
begins when Andy, a hyperactive compulsive gambler, is plucked off the street by the calm yet imposing hit man,
Reuban. Reuban tells Andy that he has been dispatched to kill him. Andy does not believe him at first. He figures it
is just another one of Reuban’s scare tactics to get him to pay off his gambling debt.
Andy soon learns Reuban is not bluffing. Reuban gives Andy just one hour to do whatever he wishes. In his one hour
Andy is educated about his mistakes, visits his former workplace, visits his old school, visits his grandmother, gets
shot at, and learns about luck, love, and choices.
Real Time (film)
268
Soundtrack listing
•• "Since Birth" - Triznian
• "One of Us Is Dead" - The Earlies
•• "The Cigarette" - Jake Wilkinson
• "What Time Is It" - The Jive Five
•• "Goodbye Farewell" - Abraham's Children
• "One Fine Morning" - Lighthouse
• "Sweet City Woman" - The Stampeders
• "Fly at Night" - Chilliwack (band)
• "Two for the Show" - Trooper
• "Gymnopédies #1" - Composed by Erik Satie and performed by Mary Kenodi
• "Without You" - Harry Nilsson
• "Scared" - The Tragically Hip
Festivals
Real Time has played at many festivals including:
•• Slamdance Film Festival
•• Shanghai International Film Festival
•• Toronto International Film Festival
•• Atlantic Film Festival
•• Mill Valley Film Festival
•• Turin Film Festival
•• Kingston Canadian Film Festival
•• Mississauga Independent Film Festival
External links
• Real Time
[1]
at the Internet Movie Database
References
[1] http:/ / www.imdb. com/ title/ tt0983909/
Screen Actors Guild Award for Outstanding Performance by a Cast in a Motion Picture
269
Screen Actors Guild Award for Outstanding
Performance by a Cast in a Motion Picture
The Screen Actors Guild Award for Outstanding Performance by a Cast in a Motion Picture is an award given
by the Screen Actors Guild to honor the finest acting achievements in film.
Winners and nominees
1990s
Year Winners Cast members
1995 Apollo 13 Kevin Bacon, Tom Hanks, Ed Harris, Bill Paxton, Kathleen Quinlan, Gary Sinise
Get Shorty Danny DeVito, Dennis Farina, James Gandolfini, Gene Hackman, Delroy Lindo, David Paymer, Rene Russo, John
Travolta
How to Make an
American Quilt
Maya Angelou, Anne Bancroft, Ellen Burstyn, Samantha Mathis, Kate Nelligan, Winona Ryder, Jean Simmons, Lois
Smith, Alfre Woodard
Nixon Joan Allen, Brian Bedford, Powers Boothe, Kevin Dunn, Fyvush Finkel, Annabeth Gish, Tony Goldwyn, Larry
Hagman, Ed Harris, Edward Herrmann, Anthony Hopkins, Bob Hoskins, Madeline Kahn, E. G. Marshall, David
Paymer, David Hyde Pierce, Paul Sorvino, Mary Steenburgen, J. T. Walsh, James Woods
Sense and
Sensibility
Hugh Grant, Alan Rickman, Emma Thompson, Kate Winslet
1996 The Birdcage Hank Azaria, Christine Baranski, Dan Futterman, Gene Hackman, Nathan Lane, Dianne Wiest, Robin Williams
The English Patient Naveen Andrews, Juliette Binoche, Willem Dafoe, Ralph Fiennes, Colin Firth, Jürgen Prochnow, Kristin Scott
Thomas, Julian Wadham
Marvin's Room Hume Cronyn, Robert De Niro, Leonardo DiCaprio, Dan Hedaya, Diane Keaton, Hal Scardino, Meryl Streep, Gwen
Verdon
Shine John Gielgud, Armin Mueller-Stahl, Lynn Redgrave, Geoffrey Rush, Noah Taylor, Googie Withers
Sling Blade Lucas Black, Natalie Canerday, Robert Duvall, James Hampton, John Ritter, Billy Bob Thornton, J. T. Walsh, Dwight
Yoakam
1997 The Full Monty Mark Addy, Paul Barber, Robert Carlyle, Deirdre Costello, Steve Huison, Bruce Jones, Lesley Sharp, William Snape,
Hugo Speer, Tom Wilkinson, Emily Woof
Boogie Nights Don Cheadle, Heather Graham, Luis Guzmán, Philip Baker Hall, Philip Seymour Hoffman, Thomas Jane, Ricky Jay,
William H. Macy, Alfred Molina, Julianne Moore, Nicole Ari Parker, John C. Reilly, Burt Reynolds, Robert Ridgely,
Mark Wahlberg, Melora Walters
Good Will Hunting Ben Affleck, Matt Damon, Minnie Driver, Stellan Skarsgård, Robin Williams
L.A. Confidential Kim Basinger, James Cromwell, Russell Crowe, Danny DeVito, Guy Pearce, Kevin Spacey, David Strathairn
Titanic Suzy Amis, Kathy Bates, Leonardo DiCaprio, Frances Fisher, Bernard Fox, Victor Garber, Bernard Hill, Jonathan
Hyde, Danny Nucci, Bill Paxton, Gloria Stuart, David Warner, Kate Winslet, Billy Zane
Screen Actors Guild Award for Outstanding Performance by a Cast in a Motion Picture
270
1998 Shakespeare in
Love
Ben Affleck, Simon Callow, Jim Carter, Martin Clunes, Judi Dench, Joseph Fiennes, Colin Firth, Gwyneth Paltrow,
Geoffrey Rush, Antony Sher, Imelda Staunton
Life Is Beautiful
(La vita è bella)
Roberto Benigni, Nicoletta Braschi, Horst Buchholz, Sergio Bini Bustric, Giorgio Cantarini, Giustino Durano,
Amerigo Fontani, Giuliana Lojodice, Marisa Paredes
Little Voice Annette Badland, Brenda Blethyn, Jim Broadbent, Michael Caine, Jane Horrocks, Philip Jackson, Ewan McGregor
Saving Private
Ryan
Edward Burns, Matt Damon, Jeremy Davies, Vin Diesel, Adam Goldberg, Tom Hanks, Barry Pepper, Giovanni Ribisi,
Tom Sizemore
Waking Ned
Devine
Ian Bannen, Fionnula Flanagan, David Kelly, Susan Lynch, James Nesbitt
1999 American Beauty Annette Bening, Wes Bentley, Thora Birch, Chris Cooper, Peter Gallagher, Allison Janney, Kevin Spacey, Mena
Suvari
Being John
Malkovich
Orson Bean, John Cusack, Cameron Diaz, Catherine Keener, John Malkovich, Mary Kay Place, Charlie Sheen
The Cider House
Rules
Jane Alexander, Erykah Badu, Kathy Baker, Michael Caine, Delroy Lindo, Tobey Maguire, Kate Nelligan, Paul Rudd,
Charlize Theron
The Green Mile Patricia Clarkson, James Cromwell, Jeffrey DeMunn, Michael Clarke Duncan, Graham Greene, Tom Hanks, Bonnie
Hunt, Doug Hutchison, Michael Jeter, David Morse, Barry Pepper, Sam Rockwell, Harry Dean Stanton
Magnolia Jeremy Blackman, Tom Cruise, Melinda Dillon, April Grace, Luis Guzmán, Philip Baker Hall, Philip Seymour
Hoffman, Ricky Jay, William H. Macy, Alfred Molina, Julianne Moore, John C. Reilly, Jason Robards, Melora
Walters
2000s
Year Winners Cast members
2000 Traffic Steven Bauer, Benjamin Bratt, James Brolin, Don Cheadle, Erika Christensen, Clifton Collins Jr., Benicio del Toro,
Michael Douglas, Miguel Ferrer, Albert Finney, Topher Grace, Luis Guzmán, Amy Irving, Tomas Milian, D. W.
Moffett, Dennis Quaid, Peter Riegert, Jacob Vargas, Catherine Zeta-Jones
Almost Famous Fairuza Balk, Billy Crudup, Patrick Fugit, Philip Seymour Hoffman, Kate Hudson, Jason Lee, Frances McDormand,
Anna Paquin, Noah Taylor
Billy Elliot Jamie Bell, Jamie Draven, Gary Lewis, Julie Walters
Chocolat Juliette Binoche, Leslie Caron, Judi Dench, Johnny Depp, Alfred Molina, Carrie-Anne Moss, Hugh O'Conor, Lena
Olin, Peter Stormare, John Wood
Gladiator Russell Crowe, Richard Harris, Djimon Hounsou, Derek Jacobi, Connie Nielsen, Joaquin Phoenix, Oliver Reed
2001 Gosford Park Eileen Atkins, Bob Balaban, Alan Bates, Charles Dance, Stephen Fry, Michael Gambon, Richard E. Grant, Tom
Hollander, Derek Jacobi, Kelly Macdonald, Helen Mirren, Jeremy Northam, Clive Owen, Ryan Phillippe, Maggie
Smith, Geraldine Somerville, Kristin Scott Thomas, Sophie Thompson, Emily Watson, James Wilby
A Beautiful Mind Paul Bettany, Jennifer Connelly, Russell Crowe, Adam Goldberg, Jason Gray-Stanford, Ed Harris, Judd Hirsch, Josh
Lucas, Austin Pendleton, Christopher Plummer, Anthony Rapp
In the Bedroom William Mapother, Sissy Spacek, Nick Stahl, Marisa Tomei, Celia Weston, Tom Wilkinson, William Wise
The Lord of the
Rings: The
Fellowship of the
Ring
Sean Astin, Sean Bean, Cate Blanchett, Orlando Bloom, Billy Boyd, Ian Holm, Christopher Lee, Ian McKellen,
Dominic Monaghan, Viggo Mortensen, John Rhys-Davies, Andy Serkis, Liv Tyler, Hugo Weaving, Elijah Wood
Moulin Rouge! Jim Broadbent, Nicole Kidman, John Leguizamo, Ewan McGregor, Richard Roxburgh
Screen Actors Guild Award for Outstanding Performance by a Cast in a Motion Picture
271
2002 Chicago Christine Baranski, Ekaterina Chtchelkanova, Taye Diggs, Denise Faye, Colm Feore, Richard Gere, Deidre
Goodwin, Queen Latifah, Lucy Liu, Susan Misner, Mýa, John C. Reilly, Dominic West, Renée Zellweger, Catherine
Zeta-Jones
Adaptation. Nicolas Cage, Chris Cooper, Brian Cox, Cara Seymour, Meryl Streep, Tilda Swinton
The Hours Toni Collette, Claire Danes, Jeff Daniels, Stephen Dillane, Ed Harris, Allison Janney, Nicole Kidman, Julianne
Moore, John C. Reilly, Miranda Richardson, Meryl Streep
The Lord of the
Rings: The Two
Towers
Sean Astin, Cate Blanchett, Orlando Bloom, Billy Boyd, Brad Dourif, Bernard Hill, Christopher Lee, Ian McKellen,
Dominic Monaghan, Viggo Mortensen, Miranda Otto, John Rhys-Davies, Andy Serkis, Liv Tyler, Karl Urban, Hugo
Weaving, David Wenham, Elijah Wood
My Big Fat Greek
Wedding
Gia Carides, Michael Constantine, John Corbett, Joey Fatone, Lainie Kazan, Andrea Martin, Nia Vardalos
2003 The Lord of the
Rings: The Return
of the King
Sean Astin, Sean Bean, Cate Blanchett, Orlando Bloom, Billy Boyd, Bernard Hill, Ian Holm, Ian McKellen, Dominic
Monaghan, Viggo Mortensen, John Noble, Miranda Otto, John Rhys-Davies, Andy Serkis, Liv Tyler, Karl Urban,
Hugo Weaving, David Wenham, Elijah Wood
In America Emma Bolger, Sarah Bolger, Paddy Considine, Djimon Hounsou, Samantha Morton
Mystic River Kevin Bacon, Laurence Fishburne, Marcia Gay Harden, Laura Linney, Sean Penn, Tim Robbins
Seabiscuit Elizabeth Banks, Jeff Bridges, Chris Cooper, William H. Macy, Tobey Maguire, Gary Stevens
The Station Agent Paul Benjamin, Bobby Cannavale, Patricia Clarkson, Peter Dinklage, Raven Goodwin, Michelle Williams
2004 Sideways Thomas Haden Church, Paul Giamatti, Virginia Madsen, Sandra Oh
The Aviator Alan Alda, Alec Baldwin, Kate Beckinsale, Cate Blanchett, Leonardo DiCaprio, Ian Holm, Danny Huston, Jude
Law, John C. Reilly, Gwen Stefani
Finding Neverland Julie Christie, Johnny Depp, Freddie Highmore, Dustin Hoffman, Radha Mitchell, Joe Prospero, Nick Roud, Luke
Spill, Kate Winslet
Hotel Rwanda Don Cheadle, Nick Nolte, Sophie Okonedo, Joaquin Phoenix
Million Dollar Baby Clint Eastwood, Morgan Freeman, Hilary Swank
Ray Aunjanue Ellis, Jamie Foxx, Terrence Howard, Regina King, Harry J. Lennix, Clifton Powell, Larenz Tate, Kerry
Washington
2005 Crash Christopher "Ludacris" Bridges, Sandra Bullock, Don Cheadle, Matt Dillon, Jennifer Esposito, William Fichtner,
Brendan Fraser, Terrence Howard, Thandie Newton, Ryan Phillippe, Larenz Tate
Brokeback Mountain Linda Cardellini, Anna Faris, Jake Gyllenhaal, Anne Hathaway, Heath Ledger, Randy Quaid, Michelle Williams
Capote Bob Balaban, Marshall Bell, Clifton Collins Jr., Chris Cooper, Bruce Greenwood, Philip Seymour Hoffman,
Catherine Keener, Mark Pellegrino
Good Night, and
Good Luck
Rose Abdoo, Alex Borstein, Robert John Burke, Patricia Clarkson, George Clooney, Jeff Daniels, Reed Diamond,
Tate Donovan, Robert Downey Jr., Grant Heslov, Peter Jacobson, Frank Langella, Thomas McCarthy, Dianne
Reeves, Matt Ross, David Strathairn, Ray Wise
Hustle & Flow Anthony Anderson, Christopher "Ludacris" Bridges, Isaac Hayes, Taraji P. Henson, Terrence Howard, Taryn
Manning, Elise Neal, Paula Jai Parker, DJ Qualls
Screen Actors Guild Award for Outstanding Performance by a Cast in a Motion Picture
272
2006 Little Miss Sunshine Alan Arkin, Abigail Breslin, Steve Carell, Toni Collette, Paul Dano, Greg Kinnear
Babel Adriana Barraza, Gael García Bernal, Cate Blanchett, Rinko Kikuchi, Brad Pitt, Koji Yakusho
Bobby Harry Belafonte, Joy Bryant, Nick Cannon, Emilio Estevez, Laurence Fishburne, Brian Geraghty, Heather Graham,
Anthony Hopkins, Helen Hunt, Joshua Jackson, David Krumholtz, Ashton Kutcher, Shia LaBeouf, Lindsay Lohan,
William H. Macy, Svetlana Metkina, Demi Moore, Freddy Rodriguez, Martin Sheen, Christian Slater, Sharon Stone,
Jacob Vargas, Mary Elizabeth Winstead, Elijah Wood
The Departed Anthony Anderson, Alec Baldwin, Matt Damon, Leonardo DiCaprio, Vera Farmiga, Jack Nicholson, Martin Sheen,
Mark Wahlberg, Ray Winstone
Dreamgirls Hinton Battle, Jamie Foxx, Danny Glover, Jennifer Hudson, Beyoncé Knowles, Sharon Leal, Eddie Murphy, Keith
Robinson, Anika Noni Rose
2007 No Country for Old
Men
Javier Bardem, Josh Brolin, Garret Dillahunt, Tess Harper, Woody Harrelson, Tommy Lee Jones, Kelly Macdonald
American Gangster Armand Assante, Josh Brolin, Russell Crowe, Ruby Dee, Chiwetel Ejiofor, Idris Elba, Cuba Gooding Jr., Carla
Gugino, John Hawkes, Ted Levine, Joe Morton, Lymari Nadal, John Ortiz, RZA, Yul Vasquez, Denzel Washington
Hairspray Nikki Blonsky, Amanda Bynes, Paul Dooley, Zac Efron, Allison Janney, Elijah Kelley, Queen Latifah, James
Marsden, Michelle Pfeiffer, Brittany Snow, Jerry Stiller, John Travolta, Christopher Walken
Into the Wild Brian Dierker, Marcia Gay Harden, Emile Hirsch, Hal Holbrook, William Hurt, Catherine Keener, Jena Malone,
Kristen Stewart, Vince Vaughn
3:10 to Yuma Christian Bale, Russell Crowe, Peter Fonda, Ben Foster, Logan Lerman, Gretchen Mol, Dallas Roberts, Vinessa
Shaw, Alan Tudyk
2008 Slumdog Millionaire Rubina Ali, Tanay Hemant Chheda, Ashutosh Lobo Gajiwala, Azharuddin Mohammed Ismail, Anil Kapoor, Irrfan
Khan, Ayush Mahesh Khedekar, Tanvi Ganesh Lonkar, Madhur Mittal, Dev Patel, Freida Pinto
The Curious Case of
Benjamin Button
Mahershalalhashbaz Ali, Cate Blanchett, Jason Flemyng, Jared Harris, Taraji P. Henson, Elias Koteas, Julia Ormond,
Brad Pitt, Phyllis Somerville, Tilda Swinton
Doubt Amy Adams, Viola Davis, Philip Seymour Hoffman, Meryl Streep
Frost/Nixon Kevin Bacon, Rebecca Hall, Toby Jones, Frank Langella, Matthew Macfadyen, Oliver Platt, Sam Rockwell, Michael
Sheen
Milk Josh Brolin, Joseph Cross, James Franco, Victor Garber, Emile Hirsch, Diego Luna, Denis O'Hare, Sean Penn,
Alison Pill
2009 Inglourious Basterds Daniel Brühl, August Diehl, Julie Dreyfus, Michael Fassbender, Sylvester Groth, Jacky Ido, Diane Kruger, Mélanie
Laurent, Denis Menochet, Mike Myers, Brad Pitt, Eli Roth, Til Schweiger, Rod Taylor, Christoph Waltz, Martin
Wuttke
An Education Dominic Cooper, Alfred Molina, Carey Mulligan, Rosamund Pike, Peter Sarsgaard, Emma Thompson, Olivia
Williams
The Hurt Locker Christian Camargo, Brian Geraghty, Evangeline Lilly, Anthony Mackie, Jeremy Renner
Nine Marion Cotillard, Penélope Cruz, Daniel Day-Lewis, Judi Dench, Fergie, Kate Hudson, Nicole Kidman, Sophia
Loren
Precious: Based on
the Novel 'Push' by
Sapphire
Mariah Carey, Lenny Kravitz, Mo'Nique, Paula Patton, Sherri Shepherd, Gabourey Sidibe
Screen Actors Guild Award for Outstanding Performance by a Cast in a Motion Picture
273
2010s
Year Winners Cast members
2010 The King's Speech Anthony Andrews, Helena Bonham Carter, Jennifer Ehle, Colin Firth, Michael Gambon, Derek Jacobi, Guy Pearce,
Geoffrey Rush, Timothy Spall
Black Swan Vincent Cassel, Barbara Hershey, Mila Kunis, Natalie Portman, Winona Ryder
The Fighter Amy Adams, Christian Bale, Melissa Leo, Jack McGee, Mark Wahlberg
The Kids Are All
Right
Annette Bening, Josh Hutcherson, Julianne Moore, Mark Ruffalo, Mia Wasikowska
The Social Network Jesse Eisenberg, Andrew Garfield, Armie Hammer, Max Minghella, Josh Pence, Justin Timberlake
2011 The Help Jessica Chastain, Viola Davis, Bryce Dallas Howard, Allison Janney, Chris Lowell, Ahna O'Reilly, Sissy Spacek,
Octavia Spencer, Mary Steenburgen, Emma Stone, Cicely Tyson, Mike Vogel
The Artist Bérénice Bejo, James Cromwell, Jean Dujardin, John Goodman, Penelope Ann Miller
Bridesmaids Rose Byrne, Jill Clayburgh, Ellie Kemper, Matt Lucas, Melissa McCarthy, Wendi McLendon-Covey, Chris
O'Dowd, Maya Rudolph, Kristen Wiig
The Descendants Beau Bridges, George Clooney, Robert Forster, Judy Greer, Matthew Lillard, Shailene Woodley
Midnight in Paris Kathy Bates, Adrien Brody, Carla Bruni, Marion Cotillard, Rachel McAdams, Michael Sheen, Owen Wilson
2012 Argo Ben Affleck, Alan Arkin, Kerry Bishé, Kyle Chandler, Rory Cochrane, Bryan Cranston, Christopher Denham, Tate
Donovan, Clea DuVall, Victor Garber, John Goodman, Scoot McNairy, Chris Messina
The Best Exotic
Marigold Hotel
Judi Dench, Celia Imrie, Bill Nighy, Dev Patel, Ronald Pickup, Maggie Smith, Tom Wilkinson, Penelope Wilton
Les Misérables Isabelle Allen, Samantha Barks, Sacha Baron Cohen, Helena Bonham Carter, Russell Crowe, Anne Hathaway,
Daniel Huttlestone, Hugh Jackman, Eddie Redmayne, Amanda Seyfried, Aaron Tveit, Colm Wilkinson
Lincoln Daniel Day-Lewis, Sally Field, Joseph Gordon-Levitt, Hal Holbrook, Tommy Lee Jones, James Spader, David
Strathairn
Silver Linings
Playbook
Bradley Cooper, Robert De Niro, Anupam Kher, Jennifer Lawrence, Chris Tucker, Jacki Weaver
External links
• SAG Awards official site
[1]
References
[1] http:/ / www.sagawards. com
Sweet Country
274
Sweet Country
Directed by Michael Cacoyannis
Starring Jane Alexander
Music by Stavros Xarchakos
Cinematography Andreas Bellis
Sweet Country is a 1987 American drama film directed by Michael Cacoyannis.
[1]
It is based on the 1979 novel with the same name by Caroline Richards and it is set in Chile during the military
takeover of 1973.
[2]
Cast
• Jane Alexander as Anna
• John Cullum as Ben
• Franco Nero as Paul
• Carole Laure as Eva
• Joanna Pettet as Monica
• Randy Quaid as Juan
• Irene Papas as Mrs. Araya
• Jean-Pierre Aumont as Mr. Araya
• Pierre Vaneck as Father Venegas
References
[1] Michael Wilmington (September 30, 1987). "MOVIE REVIEWS `SWEET COUNTRY': PAINFULLY FLAWED" (http:// pqasb.
pqarchiver.com/ latimes/ access/ 58710175. html?dids=58710175:58710175& FMT=ABS& FMTS=ABS:FT& type=current&date=Sep+
30,+1987& author=MICHAEL+WILMINGTON&pub=Los+Angeles+ Times+ (pre-1997+Fulltext)&desc=MOVIE+ REVIEWS+
`SWEET+COUNTRY':+PAINFULLY+FLAWED&pqatl=google). Los Angeles Times. . Retrieved 30 July 2012.
[2] Vincent Canby (January 23, 1987). "Movie Review - Sweet Country" (http:/ / movies. nytimes.com/ movie/
review?res=9B0DEFDC1F30F930A15752C0A961948260). The New York Times. . Retrieved 30 July 2012.
External links
• Sweet Country (http:/ / www. imdb. com/ title/ tt0092034/ ) at the Internet Movie Database
Texas Ranch House
275
Texas Ranch House
Texas Ranch House
Genre Historical reality television
Narrated by Randy Quaid
Country of origin United States
No. of seasons 1
No. of episodes 8
Production
Running time 60 min.
Broadcast
Original channel Channel 4/PBS
Picture format 480i (SDTV)
Original run May 1, 2006 – May 4, 2006
External links
Website
[1]
Texas Ranch House is an PBS American reality television series that premiered in May 2006. Produced by
Thirteen/WNET New York, Wall to Wall Media Limited, and PBS, the show placed fifteen modern day people in
the context of 1867 Texas. Show participants attempted to run a ranch for two and a-half months using 19th century
tools and techniques.
The historian Alwyn Barr, professor emeritus at Texas Tech University in Lubbock, was the consultant on the
program.
[2]
Participants
•• Robby Cabezuela
•• Bill Cooke
•• Hannah Cooke
•• Lacey Cooke
•• Lisa Cooke
•• Vienna Cooke
•• Johnny Ferguson
•• Jared Ficklin
Jared is a descendant of Ben Ficklin, general manager of the original Pony Express and namesake of the
ghost town of Ben Ficklin, Texas.
•• Maura Finkelstein
•• Anders Heintz
•• Stan Johnston
•• Ignacio (Nacho) Quiles
•• Ian Roberts
•• Shaun Terhune
•• Rob Wright
Texas Ranch House
276
Episodes
•• "A Home on the Range" - The series opens with the vaqueros, or cowboys, arriving at their new 1867 living
quarters, the bunkhouse, and meeting the ranch family (the Cookes) for the first time. As the vaqueros get
acclimated to the taxing manual labor of ranch life, digging postholes and hammering fencing, they meet their
foreman, Stan, nicknamed "The Colonel," and begin to understand the difficult tasks ahead of them.
• "The Good, the Bad & the Colonel" - The cowboys travel farther out on the range and slowly begin to gather
cows, while back at the ranch, Mrs. Cooke, her three daughters, and family servant Maura begin to understand the
drudgery of domestic life. Rising tensions among the group at large lead to various confrontations, including the
firing of foreman Stan, but relief comes with a Fourth of July celebration that brings friends and neighbors to the
ranch and gives everyone a chance to blow off some steam.
• "The Cookie Crumbles" - The cowboys awake to discover that 10 horses were stolen from the ranch overnight.
Although they manage to retrieve five, they're still short five horses—ones that they'll need for the cattle drive.
Meals become a focal point of interaction between the vaqueros and the Cookes—first a mysterious stomach
ailment brings the ranch to a grinding halt, ranch cook Nacho is fired, and finally, the food shortage reaches a
critical point.
• "The Great Divide" - Having only claimed one quarter of the required cattle so far, the viability of the Cooke
Ranch is in question. The vaqueros' bunkhouse welcomes cowboy Shaun as the new cook, and a freighter finally
arrives with food and mail. A visit from U.S. Army soldiers delivers promising news for Mr. Cooke—the U.S.
Army will be buying cattle in the weeks ahead, providing him with a much-needed buyer. During this episode,
Ian receives a letter stating that a close friend had died in a motorcycle accident, and leaves the show as a result.
•• "Showdown at the Cooke Corral" - Mr. Cooke delivers a surprising midway assessment of the cowboys'
performance, while a new cowhand arrives, throwing another personality into the mix. Mr. Cooke also sends "girl
of all work" Maura off to cowboy training, but his revelation that she will be joining the upcoming cattle drive
angers the vaqueros.
•• "Lords of the Plains" - A run-in with a camp of Comanche Native Americans and the spotting of several stolen
horses leads to one vaquero being held captive and negotiations between Mr. Cooke and the Comanche leader.
The birth of five baby goats excites the Cooke girls, who find themselves nursing the runt rejected by its mother,
while Maura and new foreman Robby come to an agreement about her role as a cowhand.
•• "Blazing Trails" - After a final round-up, 131 head are culled from the herd for the big cattle drive, the rest held
back to re-stock the ranch. After spending 12 solid hours in the saddle on their first day of the drive, the cowboys'
spirits flag at the prospect of eight more days on the trail. Robby and his men have a confrontation with an ornery
steer that teaches them just how dangerous cowboy work can be. Back at the ranch, the Cooke women are dealing
with a massive fly infestation that is driving them nearly insane.
•• "The Reckoning" - It's nearly the end of the drive and Ft. Santiago, the cowboys' destination, is in sight. After
nine days on the trail the vaqueros count and deliver their herd to the army, but the buying agent's offer shocks
Mr. Cooke. Overall the drive is a success, but tensions finally boil over upon the group's return to the ranch. The
episode concludes with the assessment team reviewing the performance of all the participants and answering the
ultimate question: would the ranch have survived another year?
Texas Ranch House
277
External links
• Official show site at PBS
[1]
• American Heritage article
[3]
• Yahoo Discussion Forum
[4]
• iMDb Article and Discussion Forum
[5]
• Texas Ranch House
[6]
at TV.com
References
[1] http:/ / www.pbs. org/wnet/ ranchhouse/
[2] "Alwyn Barr" (http:/ / www. depts. ttu.edu/ historydepartment/ faculty/profiles/ barr_alwyn.php). depts.ttu.edu. . Retrieved October 16,
2010.
[3] http:// www.americanheritage.com/ entertainment/ articles/ web/
20060501-texas-ranch-house-pbs-reality-tv-cattle-drive-john-wayne-randy-quaid. shtml
[4] http:// tv.groups. yahoo. com/ group/ Texas_Ranch_House/
[5] http:/ / www.imdb. com/ title/ tt0784948/
[6] http:/ / www.tv. com/ shows/ texas-ranch-house/
The Adventures of Pluto Nash
278
The Adventures of Pluto Nash
The Adventures of Pluto Nash
Theatrical release poster
Directed by Ron Underwood
Produced by Martin Bregman
Michael Scott Bregman
Louis A. Stroller
Written by Neil Cuthbert
Starring Eddie Murphy
Randy Quaid
Rosario Dawson
Joe Pantoliano
Jay Mohr
Luis Guzmán
James Rebhorn
Peter Boyle
Pam Grier
John Cleese
Music by John Powell
Cinematography Oliver Wood
Editing by Alan Heim
Paul Hirsch
Studio Castle Rock Entertainment
Village Roadshow Pictures
Distributed by Warner Bros.
Release date(s) •• August 16, 2002
Running time 95 minutes
Country United States
Australia
Language English
Budget
$100 million
[1]
Box office $7.1 million
The Adventures of Pluto Nash is a 2002 science fiction comedy film directed by Ron Underwood and starring Eddie
Murphy as the titular protagonist. The film is considered one of the worst box office flops,
[2]
grossing only around
$7.1 million on its reported $100 million budget.
Plot
In 2080, on a lunar Moon colony called Little America, a retired smuggler called Pluto Nash (Eddie Murphy) buys a
nightclub, thus attempting to fulfill a longtime wish of his and additionally preventing the murder by ingesting
battery acid of the club's previous owner Anthony Frankowski (Jay Mohr) by mobsters Gino (Burt Young) and Larry
(Lillo Brancato) whom Anthony owed money to. Seven years later, "Club Pluto" has become a successful business,
frequented by many socialites. Its staff consists of Pluto himself, a Hispanic assistant, and an anthropomorphic,
android robot named Bruno (Randy Quaid).
The Adventures of Pluto Nash
279
One night, Pluto is approached by a young woman called Dina Lake (Rosario Dawson), who has become stranded on
the Moon and desires to earn some money by which to pay for transport to Earth. Because her father "Nicky Sticks"
was a friend of Pluto's, she seeks help from Pluto offering her skills as a singer. Pluto, instead, gives her a job as
server at his club and allows her to remain after its nightly closure to the public. During the same night, Pluto is
accosted thrice by Mogan (Joe Pantoliano) and Kelp (Victor Varnado), messengers of a mysterious entrepreneur
called Rex Crater. They tell Pluto that Rex wishes to buy Club Pluto and convert it into a gambling casino. Pluto
refuses, and Rex Crater's minions destroy the club. Pluto, Dina, and Bruno escape.
Determined to get his club back, Pluto decides to investigate Rex Crater, of whom very few people know anything.
From Rowland (Peter Boyle), a retired police officer who is a friend of his mother's, Pluto learns that Rex Crater is
never seen outside of a penthouse in the city of Moon Beach, and that he has been involved with a geneticist called
Runa Pendankin, who specialized in cloning before her death.
Pluto and Dina visit Doctor Runa Pendankin's apprentice Mona Zimmer (Illeana Douglas), who operates a cosmetic
surgery station. They pose as a married couple attempting to revive their infatuation for one another by having their
figures altered; after having seen, and adapted to their liking, several examples of commonly preferred bodily shapes
and contours, they reveal that they have come for information regarding Doctor Pendankin's death. Mona Zimmer,
having been intimidated by Pluto's bluffs, reveals that shortly prior to her death, Doctor Pendankin had worked for or
with a Terrestrial criminal whose initials, inscribed on his briefcase, appear to have been "WZW".
Pluto and Dina return to the hotel and meet Pluto's mother Flura Nash (Pam Grier), who was just smoking pot and
being with Bruno, who was filling his battery. They are attacked by Rex Crater's assassins, who have tracked them to
the hotel. Upon hijacking a limo with a holographic chauffer named James (John Cleese) Pluto takes Dina and Bruno
to an old refugee of Pluto's from his day when he was a smuggler.
At the hideout, Pluto searches for any Terrestrial criminal with the initials "WZW". When this yields nothing, Dina
suggests that the initials are in fact "MZM", having been seen upside-down by Mona Zimmer. Pluto searches for
"MZM" and discovers a criminal called Michael Zoroaster Marucci (Alec Baldwin). Pluto suspects that Michael
Marucci and Rex Crater are one and the same. Abruptly, he is contacted by his mother, who tells him that Rowland
has been killed by a fellow police officer and the hideout is attacked by Rex Crater's agents. A chase ensues, and the
heroes escape, but their car is damaged and explodes, causing them to be presumed dead by the agents. They manage
to get out in their astronaut suits, but they soon run out of oxygen and pass out. Bruno carries them through the
Moon desert, but soon, his battery runs out.
They are eventually rescued and taken to Moon Beach by Felix Laranga (Luis Guzmán), a smuggler who idolizes
Pluto Nash. They infiltrate Rex Crater's casino/hotel. Bruno ends up running afoul of a robot slot machine whose
lever he accidentally breaks. When Bruno is taken away by security, Pluto sends Dina to get Bruno out and pay for
the damages to the robot slot machine. Pluto meets with Anthony, who is now going under the name Tony Francis, a
famous intergalactic singer. Pluto asks Tony if there was a way up to Rex Crater's penthouse. Upon talking in an
elevator, Pluto is told that the only way up is to climb the elevator ropes to the penthouse.
When they leave the elevator, Rex's assistant Belcher (James Rebhorn) and some men hint surrender. Tony is
knocked out while Pluto is stunned. Meanwhile, Dina approaches the security at the place where the robots are
locked up. When the guard tells Dina that the repairs on the robot slot machine aren't done yet, Bruno manages to
trick the guard into letting him out and ends up knocking out the guard. Just then, Dina and Bruno are captured by
Mogan, Kelp, and some of Rex's men.
Upon being unstunned by Belcher, Pluto accuses Rex Crater of being Michael Marucci. At this, Rex Crater reveals
himself to be a clone of Pluto. Rex and Belcher explain that Rex was created by Runa Pendankin from Pluto's
removed appendix to act as public face of Michael Marucci's illegal activities. However, Rex has killed Marucci and
Runa and also stated that he was the one who told his henchmen where Pluto was hiding out due to him also
inheriting Pluto's memories. When his henchmen arrive and see both Rex and Pluto, Rex kills Mogan and Kelp and
has their bodies removed. He and Pluto fight while the others are uncertain which was which. Pluto shoots Bruno
The Adventures of Pluto Nash
280
and Belcher (who assumes that Pluto would not damage his own robot) shoots Rex. Pluto orders Belcher and his
men to leave and reveals his identity to Dina by speaking of her employment to him; Bruno was wearing a
bulletproof shirt. Rex comes back to life also having worn a bulletproof shirt. He attempts to garotte Pluto, but is
thrown through a window and dies upon hitting the card table below.
The movie ends with the heroes celebrating in the rebuilt Club Pluto with Nash as the owner, Dina as the lead singer,
and Bruno as the new club manager, as Pluto bought new 78 robot models as bodyguards. Pluto looks at Dina at the
stage, and smiles, smoking a cigar.
Cast
• Eddie Murphy as Pluto Nash. Born on the Moon, as a young man, he was a professional smuggler and he
dreamed of having his own club. After years of smuggling and making a name for himself, he managed to buy
himself a club from Anthony. He was still an aspiring club owner when Rex wanted to buy it and turn it into a
casino. After Rex's death, he reopened it and turned it into a even more successfull club.
• Eddie Murphy as Rex Crater. A gangster from Earth, he moved to Moon and became a respected mafioso and
worked with Marucci and Zimmer. He is actually a clone of Pluto created from the DNA of his removed appendix
to serve as a public face and then he tried to kill Pluto and take over his identity.
• Randy Quaid as Bruno, Pluto's android bodyguard. He is a 63 Model Plus, making him a very old robot, and he is
very slow. He has mounted upgraded Desert Eagles and wears a silver suit.
• Rosario Dawson as Dina Lake. She is an aspiring singer from Salt Lake City, and she was a victim of a fraud,
ending up stuck on the Moon. She initially worked in Pluto's club as a waiter to earn money to return back to
Earth. In the end, she decided to stay as a singer in his club, becoming Pluto's love interest.
• Joe Pantoliano as Mogan, one of Rex Crater's henchmen.
• Jay Mohr as Anthony Frankowski/Tony Francis. He is an Polish immigrant who arrived on the Moon, and he
owned money to a local Moon mobster, which he borrowed to open up his club. He ran a poor Bavarian-styled
polka club before Pluto bought it. After that, he redeemed himself and took a new name of Tony Francis, altering
his voice and becoming a intergalactic pop star.
• Luis Guzmán as Felix Laranga. He is an local smuggler and he idolized Pluto, since Pluto was known in the
underground as the best Moon smuggler.
• James Rebhorn as Belcher, Rex Crater's right-hand man.
• Peter Boyle as Rowland, a retired police officer that is friends with Pluto.
• Pam Grier as Flura Nash, Pluto's mother.
• John Cleese as James, the AI of a limousine that Pluto hijacks.
• Burt Young as Gino, a mob boss that Tony had owed money to.
• Lillo Brancato as Larry, an underling of Gino.
• Victor Varnado as Kelp, one of Rex Crater's henchmen.
• Miguel A. Núñez, Jr. as Miguel
• Illeana Douglas as Dr. Mona Zimmer, the owner of a cosmetic surgery station.
• Richard Raybourne as Bartender Phil
• Alec Baldwin as Michael Zoroaster Marucci (uncredited)
[3]
The Adventures of Pluto Nash
281
Production history
The film originated in the mid-1980s. The script went through numerous revisions and, upon completion of filming,
sat on the shelf for two years, finally being released in August 2002.
Production began in April 2000, and wrapped up in September 2000. At one point, Jennifer Lopez was cast for the
role of Dina in this film, but eventually turned it down. Rosario Dawson was cast in her place.
Reception
The Adventures of Pluto Nash did very poorly at the box office; Its budget was estimated at $100 million, with
marketing costs of $20 million and domestic box office $4,420,080 and $2,683,893 overseas. It had a total
worldwide gross of $7,103,973, making the film a huge box office bomb -- in fact, one of the worst of all time.
[4]
The film was also a failure in terms of critical reception, being panned by critics and moviegoers alike. Rotten
Tomatoes ranked the film 79th in the 100 worst 2000's decade movies list, with a rating of 6% on the Tomatometer
[5]
The majority of critics lambasted the movie for its acting, dialogue, lack of humor and crude special effects. Pluto
Nash was nominated for five Golden Raspberry Awards in 2003, including Worst Picture, and was later nominated
for Worst Comedy of Our First 25 Years at the 25th Golden Raspberry Awards.
Eddie Murphy poked fun at himself in an interview with Barbara Walters, saying: "I know the two or three people
that liked this movie."
The film performed better on DVD, with US DVD rental gross of $24,983,000.
[6]
Popular culture
• The box office flop of "The Adventures of Pluto Nash" was parodied in the Robot Chicken episode "I'm Trapped."
On Friday August 16 2002, a movie patron leaves the theatre where "The Adventures of Pluto Nash" was
showing. When an usher asks him if he enjoyed the movie, the patron punched the usher. On Monday August 19
2002, 57 people at FOX committed suicide in various ways due to the movie's poorness. When the FOX CEO
receives the box office numbers, he runs out the window and crashes right through Eddie Murphy's limo
frightening his children whom he was taking to work. The ending narration states that the box office returns from
"The Adventures of Pluto Nash" had claimed 57 lives. In 2003, the United States Congress memorialized the
terrible tragedy by establishing August 16 as "Pluto Nash Day." Yet Robot Chicken incorrectly identifies 20th
Century Fox as the studio that released the film.
[7]
References
[1] Pluto Nash (http:/ / www. boxofficemojo.com/ movies/ ?id=plutonash. htm) at Box Office Mojo
[2] The 15 Biggest Box Office Bombs (http:/ / www. cnbc. com/ id/ 38815985?slide=15) at CNBC
[3] Jones, Beth (August 17, 2002). "'Pluto Nash': The future isn't funny" (http:// www. roanoke.com/ roatimes/ news/ story135117.html). The
Roanoke Times (Roanoke, Virginia). Archived (http:// web. archive.org/ web/ 20031227131615/http:// www. roanoke. com/ roatimes/ news/
story135117.html) from the original on December 27, 2003. . Retrieved April 9, 2012.
[4] "The Adventures Of Pluto Nash" (http:// www. boxofficemojo.com/ movies/ ?id=plutonash. htm). Box Office Mojo. . Retrieved 2007-11-22.
[5] Worst of the Worst (http:/ / www.rottentomatoes. com/ guides/ worst_of_the_worst/3/ ) at Rotten Tomatoes
[6] "Top United States DVD Rentals for the week ending 2 March 2003" (http:/ / www. imdb.com/boxoffice/rentals?date=2003-03-02&
region=us). Internet Movie Database. . Retrieved 2007-11-22.
[7] Pluto Nash Day (http:/ / video. adultswim. com/ robot-chicken/pluto-nash-day.html) from Robot Chicken
The Adventures of Pluto Nash
282
External links
• The Adventures of Pluto Nash (http:/ / www. imdb. com/ title/ tt0180052/) at the Internet Movie Database
• The Adventures of Pluto Nash (http:/ / www. allrovi.com/ movies/ movie/ v260296) at AllRovi
• The Adventures of Pluto Nash (http:/ / www. boxofficemojo.com/ movies/ ?id=plutonash.htm) at Box Office
Mojo
• The Adventures of Pluto Nash (http:/ / www. rottentomatoes. com/ m/ adventures_of_pluto_nash/ ) at Rotten
Tomatoes
The Adventures of Rocky and Bullwinkle
283
The Adventures of Rocky and Bullwinkle
The Adventures of Rocky and Bullwinkle
Theatrical release poster
Directed by Des McAnuff
Produced by Robert De Niro
Jane Rosenthal
Written by Kenneth Lonergan
Based on The Rocky and Bullwinkle
Show by
Jay Ward
Narrated by Keith Scott
Starring Rene Russo
Jason Alexander
Piper Perabo
Randy Quaid
Robert De Niro
June Foray
Keith Scott
Music by Mark Mothersbaugh
Cinematography Thomas E. Ackerman
Editing by Dennis Virkler
Studio Wildbrain
TriBeCa Productions
Jay Ward Productions
Classic Media
Capella International
Distributed by Universal Pictures
Momentum Pictures (UK)
Release date(s) •• June 30, 2000
Running time 91 minutes
Country United States
Language English
Budget $76 million
Box office $35,143,820
The Adventures of Rocky and Bullwinkle is a 2000 fantasy comedy film produced by Universal Pictures, based on
the television cartoon The Rocky and Bullwinkle Show by Jay Ward. The animated characters Rocky and Bullwinkle
shared the screen with live actors portraying Fearless Leader (Robert De Niro), Boris Badenov (Jason Alexander),
Natasha Fatale (Rene Russo), and FBI agent Karen Sympathy (Piper Perabo).
[1]
June Foray reprised her role as
Rocky, whilst Keith Scott voices Bullwinkle and the film's narrator.
This film is also notable for its ensemble cast featuring guest appearances by Billy Crystal, Janeane Garofalo,
Whoopi Goldberg, John Goodman, David Allen Grier, Kenan Thompson, Kel Mitchell, Don Novello, Jon Polito,
Carl Reiner, and Jonathan Winters, along with many fourth wall breakages.
The Adventures of Rocky and Bullwinkle
284
Released in 2000, The Adventures of Rocky and Bullwinkle was the third film in four years to have been a Jay Ward
cartoon adaptation (George of the Jungle (1997), and Dudley Do-Right (1999) having preceded it).
Plot
1964 saw the cancellation of The Rocky and Bullwinkle Show and life became rather miserable and melancholy for
Rocket "Rocky" J. Squirrel and Bullwinkle J. Moose. Their home, Frostbite Falls, has been destroyed in
deforestation, Rocky has lost his ability to fly, and the show's unseen Narrator lives with his mother, spending his
time narrating everything that she does. Bullwinkle and Rocky head out to address the President of the United States
regarding their situation, but are stopped for six months by red tape. Meanwhile, their enemies, Fearless Leader,
Boris Badenov, and Natasha Fatale lose power over Pottsylvania and dig to a Hollywood film studio where they
convince Minnie Mogul, an executive, to sign a contract giving her rights to the show, and the villains are
transformed from their two-dimensional cel animation origins, and become live-action characters. FBI agent Karen
Sympathy and her boss, Cappy von Trapment inform President Signoff that Fearless Leader intends to make himself
the President by brainwashing the American public with his cable television network, "RBTV" or "Really Bad
Television". Karen is sent to a special lighthouse to bring Rocky and Bullwinkle to the real world. She succeeds, the
Narrator being brought along as well but never being physically seen.
Fearless Leader is informed of Rocky and Bullwinkle's return and sends Boris and Natasha to destroy them. The two
take a laptop with them called the CDI (standing for Computer Degenerating Imagery) which can specifically
destroy CGI-animated cartoon characters, and send them to the Internet. Karen manages to steal their truck after they
drive her car off a cliff, but she is then arrested by the Oklahoma state police when Natasha claims to be Karen.
Natasha and Boris steal a helicopter to pursue Rocky and Bullwinkle. Rocky and Bullwinkle are given a ride by
"Martin and Lewis",
[2]
two students at Bullwinkle's old university, Wossamotta U. Boris and Natasha get there first,
and make a large donation to the university in Bullwinkle's name. In return, the head of the university gives
Bullwinkle an honorary "Mooster's Degree", and Bullwinkle addresses the student body, whilst Boris attempts to kill
him with the CDI upon the water tower which they built in the park. Rocky recovers his lost ability to fly and saves
the oblivious Bullwinkle. Martin and Lewis lend the two their car, but Bullwinkle goes on a wild ride through
Chicago. Boris and Natasha once again attempt to kill the two but instead destroy their helicopter. Karen escapes
prison with help from a lovestruck Swedish guard named Ole.
Karen, Rocky, and Bullwinkle are reunited but then arrested and put on trial. However the presiding Judge Cameo
dismisses their case upon recognizing Rocky and Bullwinkle. The three then obtain an old biplane from a man
named Old Jeb, and escape Boris and Natasha again. Boris and Natasha consider quitting their evil occupations and
getting married, but then Fearless Leader calls on the phone. Afraid to admit they failed, they lie to Fearless Leader
that they killed Rocky and Bullwinkle. Meanwhile, the plane the heroes fly in is unable to fly with all three aboard.
Rocky flies Karen to New York City to stop Fearless Leader, while Bullwinkle flies the plane to Washington, D.C.
and lands at the White House. The villains capture Karen and Rocky, whilst Cappy faxes Bullwinkle to RBTV's
headquarters to free them. A battle follows, with the heroes winning and convincing the American public to vote for
whoever they want but to replant Frostbite Falls' trees. Bullwinkle fiddles with the CDI and inadvertently zaps the
villains back to their two-dimensional cartoon forms, and ultimately to the internet. At the film's end, RBTV
becomes "Rocky and Bullwinkle Television" and Karen dates Ole to see the Rocky and Bullwinkle movie. Returning
to Frostbite Falls, the narrator reunites with his mother, the trees are replanted, and Rocky ends the movie by flying
in the air leaving "The End" in steam. Rocky and Bullwinkle also wave goodbye to the audience.
The Adventures of Rocky and Bullwinkle
285
Cast
• Robert De Niro as Fearless Leader
• Rene Russo as Natasha Fatale
• Jason Alexander as Boris Badenov
• Piper Perabo as FBI agent Karen Sympathy
• Randy Quaid as Cappy von Trapment
• June Foray as Rocky, Natasha Fatale, Narrator's Mother (voice)
• Keith Scott as Bullwinkle, Fearless Leader, Boris Badenov, Narrator (voice)
• Carl Reiner as P.G. Biggershot
• Jonathan Winters as Whoppa Chopper Pilot, Ohio Cop with Bullhorn, Old Jeb
• John Goodman as Oklahoma Cop
• Kenan Thompson as Lewis
• Kel Mitchell as Martin
• James Rebhorn as President Signoff
• David Alan Grier as Measures
• Jon Polito as Schoentell
• Don Novello as Fruit Vendor Twins
• Phil Proctor as RBTV Floor Director
• Dian Bachar as RBTV Studio Tech
• Wesley Mann as Clerk
• Jeffrey Ross as District Attorney
•• Ed Gale as Mole
• Billy Crystal (uncredited) as Mattress Salesman
• Whoopi Goldberg (uncredited) as Judge Cameo
Songs
In the film, there are several songs, including:
• "Dreamer" - Supertramp
•• "Be Ya Self" - Tarsha Vega
• "Hooray for Hollywood"
• "The Blue Danube" - Johann Strauss II
• "Secret Agent Man" - Johnny Rivers
•• "The Child in You"
• "Through the Eyes of a Child" - Lisa McClowry
There was also a soundtrack for the film to be released by New Line Records, but was later canceled.
Reception
Rocky and Bullwinkle received lukewarm reviews from critics. Roger Ebert gave the film three stars out of four,
saying, "It was a funny movie for kids and it was a funny movie for adults, too, and it has an attitude towards itself
and it's in on the joke, and I really was surprised how much I liked it!" However, on $76 million budget the film
grossed $35 million worldwide.
[3]
The critical consensus on Rotten Tomatoes stated [that] "Though the film stays
true to the nature of the original cartoon, the script is disappointing and not funny."
[4]
The Tomatometer rating for
the film at Rotten Tomatoes is at 42%.
The film was nominated for two Saturn Awards, Alexander for Best Supporting Actor and Russo for Best
Supporting Actress but Russo was also nominated for a Razzie as Worst Supporting Actress. Jason Alexander issued
The Adventures of Rocky and Bullwinkle
286
a public apology for the film and his appearance in it, despite getting more critical acclaim for his performance than
Russo; the apology was replayed a number of times on the Howard Stern Show.
References
[1] Roos, John (1999-04-12). "Keeping Her Father's Legacy Alive" (http:// articles. latimes. com/ 1999/ apr/12/ entertainment/ ca-26562). The
Los Angeles Times. . Retrieved 2010-11-07.
[2] The name is an apparent play on the 1950s comedy duo of Martin and Lewis; Mitchell and Thompson were also a famous comedy duo in
their own right.
[3] "The Adventures of Rocky and Bullwinkle (2000) - Box Office Mojo" (http:// www. boxofficemojo.com/ movies/ ?id=rockyandbullwinkle.
htm). Box Office Mojo. . Retrieved 2010-06-04.
[4] Goldstein, Patrick (2000-07-11). "The Misadventures of Rocky and Bullwinkle and Other Tales From Remake Hell" (http:// articles. latimes.
com/ 2000/ jul/ 11/ entertainment/ ca-50726). The Los Angeles Times. . Retrieved 2010-12-07.
External links
• Official website (http:// www. rockyandbullwinkle.com/ )
• The Adventures of Rocky and Bullwinkle (http:/ / www. imdb. com/ title/ tt0131704/ ) at the Internet Movie
Database
• The Adventures of Rocky and Bullwinkle (http:/ / www. allrovi. com/ movies/ movie/ v186751) at AllRovi
• The Adventures of Rocky and Bullwinkle (http:/ / www. boxofficemojo.com/ movies/ ?id=rockyandbullwinkle.
htm) at Box Office Mojo
• The Adventures of Rocky and Bullwinkle (http:/ / www. rottentomatoes.com/ m/
adventures_of_rocky_and_bullwinkle/) at Rotten Tomatoes
The Apprenticeship of Duddy Kravitz (film)
287
The Apprenticeship of Duddy Kravitz (film)
The Apprenticeship of Duddy Kravitz
Directed by Ted Kotcheff
Produced by John Kemeny
Screenplay by Lionel Chetwynd
Based on The Apprenticeship of Duddy Kravitz by
Mordecai Richler
Starring Richard Dreyfuss
Micheline Lanctôt
Jack Warden
Randy Quaid
Music by Stanley Myers
Andrew Powell
Cinematography Brian West
Editing by Thom Noble
Studio Astral Bellevue Pathé
Canadian Film Development Corporation
Distributed by Paramount Pictures
Release date(s) April 11, 1974
Running time 120 minutes
Country Canada
Language English
Budget $911,000 (Canadian)
The Apprenticeship of Duddy Kravitz is a 1974 Canadian comedy-drama film directed by Ted Kotcheff and starring
Richard Dreyfuss. It is based on the 1959 novel of the same name by Mordecai Richler.
Plot
Duddy Kravitz (Richard Dreyfuss) is a brash, restless young Jewish man growing up poor in Montreal, Canada. His
taxi driver father Max (Jack Warden) and his rich uncle Benjy (Joseph Wiseman) are very proud of Duddy's older
brother Lenny, whom Benjy is putting through medical school. Only his grandfather (Zvee Scooler) shows the
motherless Duddy any attention.
Duddy gets a summer job as a waiter at a Jewish resort hotel in the Laurentian Mountains. His hustle, energy and
coarse manners irritate condescending college student and fellow waiter Irwin. Irwin gets his girlfriend Linda, the
daughter of the hotel's owner, to persuade Duddy to stage a clandestine roulette game. Unbeknownst to Duddy, the
roulette wheel is crooked, and he loses his entire $300 earnings to Irwin and some hotel guests. Fortunately for
Duddy, the other waiters find out and make Irwin give back the money. Unaware of this, the hotel guests, led by
Farber, feel bad and give him a further $500.
Duddy starts a serious relationship with another hotel employee, French-Canadian Yvette (Micheline Lanctôt). One
day, she takes him on a picnic beside a lake. Duddy is stunned by the beauty of the setting, and his ambition
crystallizes: taking to heart his grandfather's maxim that "a man without land is nobody", he decides he will buy all
the property around the lake and develop it. Because the current owners might not want to sell to a Jew, he gets
The Apprenticeship of Duddy Kravitz (film)
288
Yvette to front for him.
Duddy sets out to raise the money he needs. He hires blacklisted, alcoholic American director Friar (Denholm
Elliott) to film weddings and bar mitzvahs. His first customer is Farber, who drives a hard bargain. If he does not
like the result, he will not pay. Despite Friar's artistic pretensions, the film is a success, and more orders are quickly
forthcoming.
However, when a piece of land comes up for sale, Duddy does not have enough money. He begs his father to get him
an appointment with his friend Dingleman, "the Boy Wonder," a rich, successful gangster who had equally humble
beginnings. Dingleman turns down his request for a loan but later invites him to discuss his scheme on a train to
New York. It turns out that Dingleman just wants a dupe to take unknowingly the risk of smuggling heroin, but
Duddy gets a loan out of it.
On the train, Duddy meets good-natured Virgil (Randy Quaid) and, ever open to a deal, offers to buy his pinball
machines, which are illegal in the United States. When Virgil shows up, Duddy does not have enough money to pay
him, so Duddy hires Virgil as a truck driver, even though he has epilepsy. Tragedy strikes when Virgil has a seizure
while driving and crashes; he is left permanently paralyzed from the waist down. Duddy is distraught and
guilt-ridden. Blaming Duddy, Yvette leaves him to care for Virgil.
Duddy becomes alarmed when Dingleman finds out about his lake. When the last piece of property Duddy needs
comes on the market, Dingleman bids for it. Desperate, Duddy forges Virgil's signature on a check to buy the land,
leading to a final rupture with Yvette and Virgil.
Undeterred, Duddy proudly takes Max, Lenny and his grandfather to see his property. When Dingleman shows up to
offer to raise the financing for its development, Duddy tells him to get off his land. However, Duddy's grandfather
refuses to pick out a plot for his farm; Yvette told him what Duddy did to get it.
Cast
• Richard Dreyfuss as Duddy Kravitz
• Micheline Lanctôt as Yvette
• Jack Warden as Max Kravitz, Duddy's father
• Randy Quaid as Virgil, Duddy's friend. He also plays Duddy's brother, Lenny.
• Joseph Wiseman as Benjy Kravitz, Max's brother and Duddy's and Lenny's uncle
• Denholm Elliott as Friar
•• Henry Ramer as Dingleman
•• Joe Silver as Farber
• Zvee Scooler as Grandfather, Max's and Benjy's father and Duddy's and Lenny's grandfather.
Production
The film was actually Kotcheff's second adaptation of Richler's 1959 novel. In 1961, he had directed a television
play for ITV's Armchair Theatre based on Kravitz, with Hugh Futcher in the title role.
The film was shot in Montreal, including the Wilensky's lunch counter, and in the Ontario village of Elora.
Legacy
Duddy Kravitz has an important place in Canadian film history because it was the most commercially successful
Canadian film ever made at the time of its release, and has thus been described as a 'coming of age' for Canadian
cinema.
[1]
The film has been designated and preserved as a "masterwork" by the Audio-Visual Preservation Trust of
Canada, a charitable non-profit organization dedicated to promoting the preservation of Canada’s audio-visual
heritage. [2]
The Apprenticeship of Duddy Kravitz (film)
289
Richard Dreyfuss was initially horrified at his performance in the film, and fearing it would end his career, jumped at
the role of Matt Hooper in Jaws.
[3]
Prizes
• Berlin International Film Festival – Golden Bear Award
[4]
• Canadian Film Awards - Film of the Year
• Writers Guild of America Award for Best Comedy Adapted from Another Medium – (Mordecai Richler & Lionel
Chetwynd)
Nominations
• Academy Award for Writing Adapted Screenplay – (Mordecai Richler & Lionel Chetwynd)
•• Golden Globe Award for Best Foreign Film
Stage adaptation
In 1987, The Apprenticeship of Duddy Kravitz was adapted into a musical for the New York stage, directed by
Austin Pendleton.
References
[1] George Melnyk, One Hundred Years of Canadian Cinema (University of Toronto Press, 2004), p. 118.
[2] http:/ / avtrust.ca/ masterworks/ 2002/ en_film_1. htm
[3] Spotlight on Location: The Making of Jaws, Jaws 30th Anniversary DVD documentary, [2005]
[4] "Berlinale 1974: Prize Winners" (http:/ / www. berlinale.de/ en/ archiv/ jahresarchive/1974/ 03_preistr_ger_1974/03_Preistraeger_1974.
html). berlinale.de. . Retrieved 2010-07-02.
External links
• The Apprenticeship of Duddy Kravitz (http:/ / www. imdb.com/ title/ tt0071155/ ) at the Internet Movie Database
• Canadian Film Encyclopedia (http:// www. filmreferencelibrary.ca/ index.asp?layid=44& csid1=3& navid=46)
• Video clip for selection as MasterWorks Recipient of 2002 by the Audio-Visual Preservation Trust of Canada
(http:/ / avtrust. ca/ masterworks/ 2002/ en_film_1.htm)
The Brotherhood of Poland, New Hampshire
290
The Brotherhood of Poland, New Hampshire
The Brotherhood of Poland, New
Hampshire
Format Drama
Created by David E. Kelley
Starring Mare Winningham
Randy Quaid
Ann Cusack
Christopher Penn
Elizabeth McGovern
John Carroll Lynch
Opening theme The Brotherhood of Poland, New Hampshire
Country of origin United States
No. of seasons 1
No. of episodes 8 (3 unaired) plus original pilot
Production
Executive producer(s) David E. Kelley
Michael Pressman
Camera setup Single-camera
Running time 45–48 minutes
Production company(s) David E. Kelley Productions
20th Century Fox Television
Broadcast
Original channel CBS
Original run September 24 – October 22, 2003
The Brotherhood of Poland, New Hampshire is an American drama series created by David E. Kelley that aired on
CBS. The show offers the typical quirkiness and eccentric humor that have become synonymous with David E.
Kelley's shows. The Brotherhood of Poland, New Hampshire has been described as "Northern Exposure with
middle-aged angst and populated with the sort of oddball supporting characters so typical of the Kelley oeuvre."
[1]
The show was canceled after five episodes due to poor ratings.
[2]
Plot
The show focuses on the families of three brothers in fictional Poland, New Hampshire, one the sheriff, one the
mayor, and one out of work. Local heroes in their youth, they are now tackling grown-up problems such as the
economy, their children's educations, and their families. As in most families, the brothers know they'll always have
each other to help weather the storms of their changing lives. The show has been compared to Picket Fences, another
show by creator David E. Kelley.
[3]
The Brotherhood of Poland, New Hampshire
291
Cast
• Randy Quaid – Hank Shaw, the police chief.
• John Carroll Lynch – Garrett Shaw, the mayor of Poland, NH.
• Chris Penn – Waylon Shaw, the brother down on his luck.
• Mare Winningham – Dottie Shaw, wife of Hank. She does not enjoy living in Poland, NH.
• Elizabeth McGovern – Helen Shaw, wife of Garrett.
• Ann Cusack – Julie Shaw, wife of Waylon.
• Angela Goethals – Katie Shaw, daughter of Waylon and Julie.
• Megan Henning – Monica Shaw, daughter of Garrett and Helen.
• Cleo King – Francine Hill, a police officer in Poland who works with Hank.
Production
The unaired pilot was filmed in Plymouth, New Hampshire in 2003, as were the exterior establishing shots and main
title scenes. Filming of the series was then relocated to Pasadena, California. Brian Haley was originally cast in the
role of Waylon Shaw, but was replaced with Chris Penn after filming the pilot episode.
Episodes
Series # Title Director(s) Writer Original airdate Code
0 "Pilot" Michael Pressman &
Ron Lagomarsino
David E. Kelley Unaired 1AHQ01
Hank is troubled when his wife confesses that she hates living in Poland; Garrett is blackmailed by a former lover who threatens to expose their past
affair if he doesn't pay her; Waylon is convinced that his wife is cheating on him.
1 "Falling Acorns" Michael Pressman &
Ron Lagomarsino
David E. Kelley September 24, 2003 1AHQ02
Garrett is blackmailed by a former lover and Dottie tries to get enough money to buy the town's closed movie theater.
2 "Secrets and Lies" Ron Lagomarsino &
Michael Pressman
David E. Kelley October 1, 2003 1AHQ03
Hank does not support Dottie as he begins to blackmail Sharon Ropers about her affair with Garret. Garrett considers telling Helen about his affair
with Sharon, now that their daughter knows the truth; Dottie holds early auditions in the theater for the spring Easter pageant but they don't go as
planned.
3 "Tough Love" Ron Lagomarsino David E. Kelley October 8, 2003 1AHQ04
Because of the compliments she keeps getting from a handsome young banker Dottie thinks he wants to sleep with her, but she can't convince Julie.
Waylon goes into business for himself selling ice cream from a truck, but encounters hostile opposition from an unexpected source. Monica shocks
her parents when she tells them that she wants to have sex with her boyfriend.
4 "Sleeping Lions" Bill D'Elia David E. Kelley October 15, 2003 1AHQ05
The Shaw brothers are shocked when their minister, who is also a lifelong friend, tells them that he is gay. The minister ask for their support when
he gives the news to his congregation. Each brother refuses to support their friend, which stirs controversy at home with their wives.
5 "Little Girl Lost" Ron Lagomarsino David E. Kelley October 22, 2003 1AHQ06
The parents of a teenage girl fear that their daughter has been the victim of foul play when she goes missing after a fight with her boyfriend. The
brothers adopt strange methods to help find her, including a crime-sniffing Chihuahua. Meanwhile, talk of the girl's sex life leads the women to
wonder about their own children's possible sexual activities.
6 "The Song of Poland" Bill D'Elia David E. Kelley unaired 1AHQ07
Waylon asks Hank to help find out the truth about Julie's possible indiscreet relations. Hank punches Haggis and breaks his nose. Their beloved
music teacher's death brings the brothers together in song, but Hank thinks the man may have been murdered. Garrett is busy making deals to
improve his chances of re-election as mayor. Dottie considers turning the old movie theater into a nightclub.
The Brotherhood of Poland, New Hampshire
292
7 "Shaw-Shank
Redemption"
David E. Kelley unaired 1AHQ08
Waylon hurts his leg, but he won't explain how he injured himself. Garrett prepares for a mayoral debate against a candidate whose popularity is
rapidly increasing. Helen considers an outpatient surgical procedure that will supposedly enhance her love life. Hank takes away the driver's license
of an elderly man who drove his car into a restaurant.
8 "Thanksgiving" David E. Kelley unaired 1AHQ09
A basketball tournament keeps Poland on its toes. Hank arrests a woman for drunken driving and Waylon invites her over for Thanksgiving dinner.
Garrett wins re-election but his excitement is tempered when his brothers tell him that he's not a good mayor. Waylon tries to get Julie to dress
sexier.
References
[1] Erickson, Hal. "The Brotherhood of Poland, New Hampshire (TV Series)" (http:// allmovie.com/ work/
the-brotherhood-of-poland-new-hampshire-tv-series-295887). Allmovie. . Retrieved 20 October 2009.
[2] "CBS puts 'Brotherhood' on hiatus" (http:/ / jam. canoe. ca/ Television/ TV_Shows/ B/ Brotherhood_of_Poland_NH/2003/ 10/ 24/ 734995.
html). canoe.ca. . Retrieved 20 October 2009.
[3] Stanley, Alessandra (24 September 2003). "TELEVISION REVIEW; 3 New England Brothers, With Sow's Ear and Silk" (http:// www.
nytimes.com/ 2003/ 09/ 24/ arts/ television-review-3-new-england-brothers-with-sow-s-ear-and-silk.html). The New York Times. . Retrieved
20 October 2009.
External links
• The Brotherhood of Poland, New Hampshire (http:/ / www. imdb.com/ title/ tt0367298/ ) at the Internet Movie
Database
• The Brotherhood of Poland, New Hampshire (http:/ / www. tv. com/ shows/ the-brotherhood-of-poland-nh/) at
TV.com
The Choirboys (film)
293
The Choirboys (film)
The Choirboys
Directed by Robert Aldrich
Produced by Merv Adelson (producer)
William Aldrich (executive
producer)
Mario Bregni (executive producer)
Pietro Bregni (executive producer)
Mark Damon (executive producer)
Lee Rich (producer)
Written by Jennifer Miller
Starring Charles Durning
Louis Gossett, Jr.
Perry King
Music by Frank De Vol
Cinematography Joseph F. Biroc (as Joseph Biroc)
Editing by William Martin
Irving Rosenblum
Maury Winetrobe
Distributed by Universal Pictures
Release date(s) December 23, 1977
Running time 119 min.
Country United States
Language English
Budget $6,500,000 (estimated)
Box office ITL 126,400,000 (Italy) (1980)
The Choirboys is a 1977 American comedy-drama film directed by Robert Aldrich, written by Christopher Knopf
and Joseph Wambaugh based on Wambaugh's novel. It features an ensemble cast including Randy Quaid and James
Woods. The film was released to theaters by Universal Pictures on December 23, 1977.
Los Angeles police officers experiencing various pressures at work unwind at night with drunken get-togethers (or
Choir Practice) at MacArthur Park, where their pranks often go too far: among those there are a retiring cop, a small
number of young cops, a bigoted one and a Vietnam vet with Panic Disorder.
The film attracted negative reviews and is considered Aldrich's weakest film. Vincent Canby's review in the Dec. 24,
1977 New York Times described the film as "cheap and nasty" as well as "a stylistic and narrative mess."
Wambaugh, after seeing the film, sued and got his name taken off the credits of the final print.
While the original showed scenes not shown on TV, the TV version took major edits. Unused scenes were added for
the broadcast.
The Choirboys (film)
294
Cast
• Charles Durning ... Spermwhale Whalen
• Louis Gossett, Jr. ... Calvin Motts
• Perry King ... Baxter Slate
• Clyde Kusatsu ... Francis Tanaguchi
• Stephen Macht ... Spencer Van Moot
• Tim McIntire ... Roscoe Rules
• Randy Quaid ... Dean Proust
• Chuck Sacci ... 'Father' Sartino
• Don Stroud ... Sam Lyles
• James Woods ... Harold Bloomguard
• Burt Young ... Scuzzi
• Phyllis Davis ... Foxy
• Barbara Rhoades ... No Balls Hadley
• Cheryl Rainbeaux Smith ... Tammy
External links
• The Choirboys (film)
[1]
at the Internet Movie Database
• Movie stills
[2]
References
[1] http:/ / www.imdb. com/ title/ tt0075845/
[2] http:/ / film. virtual-history.com/film.php?filmid=210
The God of Hell
295
The God of Hell
The God of Hell is a play by American playwright Sam Shepard. The play was written in part as a response to the
events of September 11, 2001, and has been described by Shepard as "a take-off on Republican fascism." The plot
concerns Wisconsin dairy farmer Frank and his wife Emma, and how their peaceful middle-American life is
destroyed by Mr. Welch, a mysterious, ultra-patriotic government employee in pursuit of Frank's old friend, Haynes.
The God of Hell was first produced at The Actors Studio Drama School Theater in New York City. It was directed
by Lou Jacob, and starred Tim Roth as Welch, Randy Quaid as Frank, J. Smith-Cameron as Emma, and Frank Wood
as Haynes. Previews began October 29, 2004, with the official opening on November 16, 2004. The show closed on
November 28, 2004.
In October 2005, the play received its European premiere at the Donmar Warehouse in London, and featured Lesley
Sharp as Emma, Ben Daniels as Welch, Stuart McQuarrie as Frank and Ewen Bremner as Haynes.
[1]
The play received its Australian premiere on April 7 2007. Directed by Robyn Mclean, it was acted by Russel
Newman as Frank, Paul Bertram as Haynes, Ripely Hood as Mr. Welch and Annie Cossins as Emma and stage
managed by Simon Fox.
Notes
[1] God of Hell, a CurtainUp London review (http:// www. curtainup.com/ godofhelllond.html)
The Ice Harvest
296
The Ice Harvest
The Ice Harvest
Theatrical release poster
Directed by Harold Ramis
Produced by Albert Berger
Ron Yerxa
Screenplay by Richard Russo
Robert Benton
Based on The Ice Harvest by
Scott Phillips
Starring John Cusack
Billy Bob Thornton
Connie Nielsen
Music by David Kitay
Cinematography Alar Kivilo
Editing by Lee Percy
Distributed by Focus Features
Release date(s) September 3, 2005
(Deauville)
November 25, 2005
Running time 92 minutes
Country United States
Language English
Budget $16 million
Box office $9,016,782
The Ice Harvest is a 2005 dark comedy-drama film directed by Harold Ramis and written by Richard Russo and
Robert Benton, based on the novel of the same name by Scott Phillips. It stars John Cusack, Billy Bob Thornton, and
Connie Nielsen, with Randy Quaid and Oliver Platt in supporting roles. It was distributed by Focus Features, and the
DVD was released on February 28, 2006.
Plot
On Christmas Eve in Wichita, Kansas, mob lawyer Charlie Arglist (John Cusack) and crooked businessman and
pornographer Vic Cavanaugh (Billy Bob Thornton) gather together the $2 million they have stolen from their mob
boss Bill Guerrard (Randy Quaid). While it initially appears that there will be an easy getaway for the pair, they
learn that the roads in and out of the city are too icy to drive on. Vic takes the cash for safe-keeping and they split up
and try their best to evade being captured by Guerrard and his men, who have discovered their scheme.
Charlie visits Sweet Cage, a local strip-club, owned by Renata Crest (Connie Nielsen), a woman whom Charlie has
long lusted for, and she quickly deciphers that he's hiding something. He hints at the existence of the money, and she
suggests they go off together. Before they can do that, however, she tasks Charlie to find an incriminating picture of
a local politician, at a hotel. Charlie goes there and runs into his friend Pete (Oliver Platt), who is married to Charlie's
beautiful ex-wife. Pete is very drunk, and tags along with Charlie for as long as it takes for Pete to pass out.
The Ice Harvest
297
Charlie goes back to Renata and gives her the photo, and she tells him that Vic had called her earlier and said that
Charlie had been right about mob enforcer Roy Gelles (Mike Starr) tailing the two of them. Charlie goes to Vic's
house and finds Vic's wife dead. Vic arrives and reveals that he's locked Roy in an industrial trunk. The two stuff
Roy, in the trunk, in Charlie's ex-wife's Mercedes (which Charlie borrows after Pete vomits in Charlie's Lincoln) and
head for a local lake. On the way, Roy continues yelling at the two of them, and Vic gets annoyed and shoots at the
trunk. Charlie and Vic get the trunk down to the dock, but it's shot open from the inside and Roy gets out, shooting
Vic in the process. A shootout ensues, ending with Roy dead and Vic fallen into the frozen lake. Charlie realizes that
Vic was going to kill Charlie and take the money for himself, and leaves Vic to die.
Returning to Sweet Cage, Charlie finds that Bill Guerrard himself has come and tied Renata up. Charlie finds a
shotgun in the bar and turns it on Guerrard. Another shootout ensues, with Charlie being injured and Guerrard killed.
Charlie and Renata go back to her house, and Charlie finds the money hidden there. It's revealed via flashback that
Vic and Renata were planning to go off together after Vic had killed Charlie. Charlie kills Renata just before she can
kill him.
Charlie and Pete then drive off together, deciding to make new names for themselves.
Cast
• John Cusack as Charlie Arglist, a mob lawyer.
• Billy Bob Thornton as Vic Cavanaugh, a gangster, Charlie's partner.
• Connie Nielsen as Renata Crest, a strip-club owner whom Charlie has long lusted after.
• Randy Quaid as Bill Guerrard, a gangster/mob boss in Kansas.
• Oliver Platt as Pete Van Heuten, Charlie's drunk friend, who is currently married to Charlie's ex-wife
• Mike Starr as Roy Gelles, an enforcer for Bill Guerrard.
• Ned Bellamy as Sidney, the bartender at Sweet Cage, the strip-club Renata owns.
• T.J. Jagodowski as Officer Tyler, a brown-nosing local officer.
• David Pasquesi as Councilman Williams, a local politician.
Production
Frequent Harold Ramis collaborator Bill Murray was reportedly offered a role. Monica Bellucci was originally set to
play the role of Renata, but had to leave due to her pregnancy. Ramis almost had to close production for a day due to
the weather, which would have spoiled his tradition of never losing a shooting day.
The film is based on the Scott Phillips novel The Ice Harvest. Filming took place exclusively in Illinois, on a
$16,000,000 budget.
Reception
The Ice Harvest grossed $US10,156,968, of which $US9,016,782 was from the United States.
[1]
It has a 46% rating
on Rotten Tomatoes.
[2]
James Bernadelli of ReelReviews gave the film 2 and a half stars out of four, saying, "Despite its brevity, it seems
padded, with all sorts of irrelevant scenes and dead-end subplots taking up time. [...] Next time, Ramis should work
to his strengths, and film noir isn't one of them. The Ice Harvest will have melted away long before the turkey
leftovers are polished off."
Roger Ebert gave the film 3 out of 4 stars and said: "I liked the movie for the quirky way it pursues humor through
the drifts of greed, lust, booze, betrayal and spectacularly complicated ways to die. I liked it for Charlie's essential
kindness, as when he pauses during a getaway to help a friend who has run out of gas. And for the scene-stealing
pathos of Oliver Platt's drunk, who like many drunks in the legal profession achieves a rhetorical grandiosity during
the final approach to oblivion. And I liked especially the way Roy, the man in the trunk, keeps on thinking
The Ice Harvest
298
positively, even after Vic puts bullets through both ends of the trunk because he can't remember which end of the
trunk Roy's head is at. Maybe it's in the middle."
References
[1] "The Ice Harvest" (http:// www. boxofficemojo.com/ movies/ ?id=iceharvest. htm). boxofficemojo.com. Retrieved 2011-02-06.
[2] "The Ice Harvest" (http:/ / www. rottentomatoes. com/ m/ ice_harvest/ ). rottentomatoes.com. Retrieved 2011-02-06.
External links
• Official website (http:// www. theiceharvest.com)
• The Ice Harvest (http:/ / www. imdb.com/ title/ tt0400525/ ) at the Internet Movie Database
• The Ice Harvest (http:/ / www. allrovi.com/ movies/ movie/v305102) at AllRovi
• The Ice Harvest (http:/ / www. rottentomatoes. com/ m/ ice_harvest/ ) at Rotten Tomatoes
• The Ice Harvest (http:// www. metacritic.com/ movie/ iceharvest) at Metacritic
• The Ice Harvest (http:/ / www. boxofficemojo.com/ movies/ ?id=iceharvest.htm) at Box Office Mojo
The Last Detail
299
The Last Detail
The Last Detail
Theatrical poster
Directed by Hal Ashby
Produced by Gerald Ayres
Screenplay by Robert Towne
Based on The Last Detail by
Darryl Ponicsan
Starring Jack Nicholson
Randy Quaid
Otis Young
Clifton James
Carol Kane
Music by Johnny Mandel
Cinematography Michael Chapman
Editing by Robert C. Jones
Distributed by Columbia Pictures
Release date(s) • December 12, 1973 (United States)
Running time 103 mins.
Country United States
Language English
Budget $2.6 million
Box office
$10,000,000
[1]
The Last Detail is a 1973 American comedy-drama film directed by Hal Ashby and starring Jack Nicholson, with a
screenplay adapted by Robert Towne from a novel of the same name by Darryl Ponicsan. The film became known
for its frequent use of profanity. It was nominated for three Academy Awards.
Plot
U.S. Navy petty officers Billy "Badass" Buddusky (Jack Nicholson) and Richard "Mule" Mulhall (Otis Young), are
awaiting orders in Norfolk, Virginia when they are assigned a shore patrol detail escorting young sailor Larry
Meadows (Randy Quaid) to Portsmouth Naval Prison near Portsmouth, New Hampshire. Meadows has drawn a stiff
eight-year sentence for the petty crime of trying to steal $40 from a collection box of his C.O.'s wife's favorite
charity. Despite their initial resentment of the detail, the oddly likeable Meadows begins to grow on the two Navy
"lifers" as they escort him on a train ride through the wintry north-eastern states; particularly as they know what the
Marine guards are like at Portsmouth and the grim reality facing their young prisoner. As the pair begin to feel sorry
for Meadows and the youthful experiences he will lose being incarcerated, they decide to show him a good time
before delivering him to the authorities.
With several days to spare before they are due in Portsmouth, the trio stop off at the major cities along their route to
provide bon-voyage adventures for Meadows. However, in Washington, their first endeavor ends in failure when
they are denied drinks at a bar as Meadows is too young. Instead Buddusky gets a few six-packs allowing them all to
get drunk in a hotel room. When Meadows passes out on the room's only real bed, the other two let him stay there
The Last Detail
300
and take the uncomfortable roll-away beds for themselves. In Philadelphia they seek out Meadows's mother, only to
find her away for the day and the house a pigsty, cluttered with empty whiskey bottles. They take him ice skating at
Rockefeller Center in New York City and then to a brothel in Boston to lose his virginity. In between, they brawl
with Marines in a public restroom, dine on "the world's finest" Italian sausage sandwiches, chant with Nichiren
Shōshū Buddhists, and open intimate windows for each other in swaying train coaches. Meadows pronounces his
several days with Badass and Mule to be the best of his whole life.
When they finally arrive in frozen Portsmouth, Meadows has a final request – a picnic – so they buy some hot dogs
and attempt a frigid barbecue in the crunching snow. With time running out, the docile Meadows then gets up and
slowly walks out across the park, as if he's stretching his legs. But suddenly he bolts in a last-ditch effort to run
away, forcing Buddusky to chase after him. On catching the young sailor, Buddusky pistol-whips him fiercely.
Buddusky and Mulhall then brusquely take Meadows to the naval prison, where he is suddenly taken off their hands
and marched off to be processed without a word. Ironically, given Buddusky's expectation of the brutality awaiting
Meadows at the hands of the Marine guards, the duty officer at the prison, while executing the paperwork for the
prisoner transfer, angrily berates Buddasky and Mulhall for beating Meadows (his facial wounds from Buddusky's
pistol-whipping being plainly visible), telling them that such conduct may be all right for the Navy but wouldn't be
tolerated in the Marines. The duty officer asks if Meadows had tried to escape, and they say no since they don't want
to get Meadows in more trouble.
With their duty completed, the pair stride away, angrily complaining about the duty officer's incompetence – in the
wake of his rebuke, he'd momentarily forgotten to keep his copy of the paperwork – and hoping that their orders will
come through when they get back to Norfolk.
Cast and characters
• Jack Nicholson as Signalman 1st Class Billy L. "Badass" Buddusky
• Otis Young as Gunner's Mate 1st Class Richard "Mule" Mulhall
• Randy Quaid as Seaman Laurence M. "Larry" Meadows
• Clifton James as M.A.A.
• Carol Kane as Young Whore
• Michael Moriarty as Marine Duty Officer
• Nancy Allen as Nancy
• Gilda Radner as Nichiren Shoshu Member
•• Jim Hohn as Nichiren Shoshu Member
• Luana Anders as Donna
Production
Producer Gerry Ayres had bought the rights to Darryl Ponicsan's novel in 1969.
[2]
After returning from the set of
Drive, He Said, Robert Towne began adapting the novel.
[3]
The screenwriter tailored the script for close friends Jack
Nicholson and Rupert Crosse.
[3]
In adapting the novel, Towne removed Buddusky's "closet intellectualism and his
beautiful wife".
[4]
The screenwriter also changed the ending so that Buddusky lives instead of dying as he does in the
book.
[4]
Ayres convinced Columbia Pictures to produce the film based on his consultant's credit on Bonnie & Clyde
but had difficulty getting it made because of the studio's concern about the bad language in Townes's script.
[2]
Peter
Guber recalls, "The first seven minutes, there were 342 'fucks'".
[5]
The head of Columbia asked Towne to reduce the
number of curse words to which the writer responded, "This is the way people talk when they're powerless to act;
they bitch".
[5]
Towne refused to tone down the language and the project remained in limbo until Nicholson, by then a
bankable star, got involved.
[2]
Ayres sent the script to Robert Altman and then Hal Ashby. Ayres remembers, "I thought that this was a picture that
required a skewed perspective, and that's what Hal had".
[5]
Ashby was coming off the disappointing commercial and
The Last Detail
301
critical failure of Harold and Maude and was in pre-production on Three Cornered Circle at MGM when Jack
Nicholson told him about The Last Detail, his upcoming film at Columbia.
[6]
The director had actually been sent the
script in the fall of 1971 and the reader's report called it "lengthy and unimaginative", but he now he found it very
appealing.
[7]
He wanted to do it but it conflicted with his schedule for Three Cornered Circle. However Ashby
pulled out of his deal with MGM and Nicholson suggested that they team up on Last Detail.
[2]
Columbia did not like
Ashby because he had a reputation of distrusting authority and made little effort to communicate with executives.
The budget was low enough, at $2.6 million, for him to get approved.
[5][8]
Casting
Nicholson was set to play Buddusky and so the casting of The Last Detail focused mainly on the roles of Mule and
Meadows.
[9]
Bud Cort met with Ashby and begged to play Meadows but the director felt that he was not right for the
role.
[8]
Casting director Lynn Stalmaster gave Ashby a final selection of actors and the two that stood out were
Randy Quaid and John Travolta. As originally written, the character of Meadows was a "helpless little guy", but
Ashby wanted to cast Quaid, who was 6'4".
[10]
He had offbeat and vulnerable qualities that Ashby wanted.
[8]
Towne
remembers thinking, "There's a real poignancy to this huge guy's helplessness that's great. I thought it was a fantastic
choice, and I'd never thought of it."
[10]
Rupert Crosse was cast as Mule.
Pre-production
The project stalled for 18 months while Nicholson made The King of Marvin Gardens.
[5]
Guber told Ayres that he
could get Burt Reynolds, Jim Brown, and David Cassidy and a new writer and he would approve production
immediately. Ayres rejected this proposal and the studio agreed to wait because they were afraid that the producer
would take the film to another studio.
[5]
Ashby and Ayres read navy publications and interviewed current and
ex-servicemen who helped them correct minor errors in the script.
[2]
The director wanted to shoot on location at the
naval base in Norfolk, Virginia and the brig at Portsmouth, New Hampshire but was unable to get permission from
the United States Navy. However, the Canadian Navy was willing to cooperate and in mid-August 1972, Ashby and
his casting director Stalmaster traveled to Toronto, Ontario to look at a naval base and meet with actors.
[2]
The base
suited their needs and Ashby met Carol Kane whom he would cast in a small role.
[9]
Ashby was busted for possession of marijuana while scouting locations in Canada. This almost changed the studio's
mind about backing the project but the director's drug bust was not widely reported and Nicholson remained fiercely
loyal to him, which was a deciding factor.
[11]
Just as the film was about to go into production, Crosse was diagnosed
with terminal cancer. Ashby postponed principal photography for a week to allow Crosse to deal with the news and
decide if he still wanted to do the film.
[12]
The actor decided not to do the film and Ashby and Stalmaster scrambled
to find a replacement. They cast Otis Young.
[8]
Principal photography
Ashby decided to shoot the film chronologically in order to help the inexperienced Quaid and recently cast Young
ease into their characters.
[13]
With the exception of Toronto doubling as Norfolk, the production shot on location,
making the same journey as the three main characters.
[14]
Early on, Quaid was very nervous and wanted to make a
good impression. Ashby kept a close eye on the actor but allowed him to develop into the role.
[14]
Haskell Wexler
was supposed to shoot The Last Detail but he could not get a union card for an East Coast production
[12]
and so
Ashby asked Nestor Almendros and Gordon Willis but they were both unavailable.
[14]
Ashby promoted Michael
Chapman, his camera operator on The Landlord, to director of photography. They worked together to create a
specific look for the film that involved using natural light to create a realistic, documentary-style.
[14]
Ashby let
Nicholson look through the camera's viewfinder as a shot was being set up so he knew the parameters of a given
scene and how much freedom he had within the frame.
[15]
The actor said, "Hal is the first director to let me go, to let
me find my own level".
[16]
The Last Detail
302
Post-production
The day after principal photography was completed, Ashby had his editor send what he had cut together so far.
[17]
The director was shocked at the results and fired the editor. He was afraid that he would have to edit the film
himself. Ayres recommended bringing in Robert C. Jones, one of the fastest editors in the business who had been
nominated for an Academy Award for Guess Who's Coming to Dinner.
[17]
Jones put the film back into rushes and
six weeks later had a first cut ready that ran four hours. Ashby was very impressed with his abilities and trusted him
completely.
[18]
Jones cut the film with Ashby at the filmmaker's home and the process took an unusually long time
as the director agonized over all the footage he had shot.
[19]
Ashby would ignore phone calls from Columbia and
eventually executives higher and higher up the corporate ladder tried to contact him.
[19]
Ashby was in London,
England meeting with Peter Sellers about doing Being There when he received a phone call from Jones who told him
that Columbia was fed up with the time it was taking for the film to be assembled.
[20]
The head of the studio's editing
department called Jones to say that a representative was coming to take the film. Jones refused to give up the film
and Ashby called the studio and managed to calm them down.
[20]
Towne occasionally visited Ashby's house to check
in and did not like the pacing of the film. According to Towne, Ashby "left his dramatizing to the editing room, and
the effect was a thinning out of the script".
[19]
During the editing process, Columbia hated the jump cuts Ashby
employed.
[21]
The studio was also concerned about the number of expletives. It needed a commercial hit as they
were in major financial trouble.
[20]
By August 1973, the final cut of The Last Detail was completed and submitted to
the MPAA which gave it an R rating. Columbia was still not happy with the film and asked for 26 lines with the
word "fuck" in them to be cut.
[22]
The theatrical release of The Last Detail was delayed for six months while
Columbia fought over the profanity issue.
[21]
Ashby convinced Columbia to let him preview the film as it was to see
how the public would react. It was shown in San Francisco and the screening was a huge success.
[23]
Release
Ayres persuaded Columbia to submit The Last Detail to the Cannes Film Festival. After Nicholson won Best Actor
there, it shamed the studio into releasing the film.
[21]
The studio decided to give the film a limited release to qualify
for Oscar consideration with a wide release planned for the spring of 1974.
[23]
By the time of its wide release, any
pre-Oscar hype that was generated was now gone.
[24]
When the film was released for a week in Los Angeles, it received very positive reviews. In his review for The New
York Times, Vincent Canby wrote, "It's by far the best thing he's ever done", referring to Nicholson's
performance.
[25]
Variety magazine also praised Nicholson, writing that he was "outstanding at the head of a superb
cast".
[26]
Andrew Sarris praised Ashby's "sensitive, precise direction".
[27]
Time magazine's Richard Schickel wrote,
"there is an unpretentious realism in Towne's script, and director Ashby handles his camera with a simplicity
reminiscent of the way American directors treated lower-depths material in the '30s".
[28]
Awards and nominations
The Last Detail was nominated for the Palme d'Or at the 1974 Cannes Film Festival and Nicholson was awarded
Best Actor.
[29]
It was also nominated for three Academy Awards – Jack Nicholson for Best Actor in a Leading Role,
Randy Quaid for Best Actor in a Supporting Role, and Robert Towne for Best Writing, Screenplay Based on
Material from Another Medium with none of them winning.
[30]
In addition, The Last Detail was nominated for two
Golden Globes Awards – Nicholson for Best Motion Picture Actor – Drama and Quaid for Best Supporting Actor –
Motion Picture.
[31]
Nicholson did win a BAFTA award for his role in the film.
[31]
Nicholson won the Best Actor
awards from the National Society of Film Critics and the New York Film Critics Circle. However, he was
disappointed that he failed to win an Oscar for his performance. "I like the idea of winning at Cannes with The Last
Detail, but not getting our own Academy Award hurt real bad. I did it in that movie, that was my best role".
[32]
The Last Detail
303
Sequel
In 2006, filmmaker Richard Linklater expressed an interest in adapting Last Flag Flying, a sequel to The Last Detail,
into a film.
[33]
He wrote a screenplay and sent a copy to Quaid but said that he would not do it unless Nicholson was
involved.
[33]
In the novel, Buddusky runs a bar and is reunited with Larry Meadows after his son is killed in the Iraq
War. It was rumored that Morgan Freeman was interested in taking over the role of Mule from Otis Young, who died
in 2001.
[33]
Notes
The drumming in the background of this film is known as Rudimental Drum Solos".
[1] "The Last Detail, Box Office Information" (http:// www.the-numbers.com/ movies/ 1973/ 0LADE.php). The Numbers. . Retrieved January
17, 2012.
[2] [2] Dawson 2009, p. 137.
[3] [3] Biskind 1998, p. 174.
[4] Berg, Charles Ramírez. "Robert Towne" (http:/ / www. filmreference.com/ Writers-and-Production-Artists-Ta-Vi/Towne-Robert.html).
Film Reference. . Retrieved 2007-12-03.
[5] [5] Biskind 1998, p. 175.
[6] Dawson 2009, pp. 136–7.
[7] [7] Dawson 2009, p. 136.
[8] [8] Dawson 2009, p. 139.
[9] [9] Dawson 2009, p. 138.
[10] Rabin, Nathan (March 14, 2006). "Robert Towne" (http:/ / www. avclub.com/ content/ node/ 46322). The A.V. Club. . Retrieved
2007-12-03.
[11] [11] Biskind 1998, p. 169.
[12] [12] Biskind 1998, p. 178.
[13] [13] Dawson 2009, p. 140.
[14] [14] Dawson 2009, p. 141.
[15] [15] Dawson 2009, p. 142.
[16] Starr, T (June/July 1973). "High on the Future". Ticketron Entertainment: pp. 9.
[17] [17] Dawson 2009, p. 144.
[18] [18] Dawson 2009, p. 145.
[19] [19] Biskind 1998, p. 180.
[20] [20] Dawson 2009, p. 147.
[21] [21] Biskind 1998, p. 183.
[22] [22] Dawson 2009, p. 148.
[23] [23] Dawson 2009, p. 149.
[24] [24] Biskind 1998, p. 193.
[25] Canby, Vincent (February 11, 1974). "Last Detail a Comedy of Sailors on Shore" (http:/ / movies.nytimes. com/ movie/ review?_r=2&
res=9A0CE5DA133FEF34BC4952DFB466838F669EDE& oref=slogin&oref=login). The New York Times. . Retrieved 2007-12-05.
[26] "The Last Detail" (http:// www. variety.com/ review/ VE1117792458.html?categoryid=31&cs=1& p=0). Variety. January 1, 1973. .
Retrieved 2007-12-05.
[27] Sarris, Andrew (February 7, 1975). "Salty Way to Naval Prison". Village Voice.
[28] Schickel, Richard (February 18, 1974). "Not Fancy, Not Free" (http:// www. time.com/ time/ magazine/ article/0,9171,942781,00.html).
Time. . Retrieved 2010-08-26.
[29] "Festival de Cannes: The Last Detail" (http:// www. festival-cannes.com/ en/ archives/ ficheFilm/id/ 2227/ year/ 1974.html).
festival-cannes.com. . Retrieved 2009-04-26.
[30] [30] Dawson 2009, p. 150.
[31] [31] Dawson 2009, p. 159.
[32] [32] Wiley 1996, p. 493.
[33] Carroll, Larry (August 24, 2006). "Movie File: Snoop Dogg, Ocean's Thirteen, Jack Nicholson, Richard Linklater & More" (http:// www.
mtv. com/ movies/ news/ articles/ 1539249/ story.jhtml). MTV. . Retrieved 2007-12-03.
The Last Detail
304
References
• Biskind, Peter (1998) Easy Riders, Raging Bulls. New York: Simon & Schuster.
• Dawson, Nick (2009) Being Hal Ashby. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky.
• Wiley, Mason and Damien Bona (1996) Inside Oscar. New York: Ballentine
Further reading
• "The Last Detail" (http:/ / www. sensesofcinema. com/ 2003/cteq/ last_detail/ ) by Richard Armstrong, Senses of
Cinema, April 2003.
• "The Last Detail: Beyond the call of duty" (http:// www. ejumpcut. org/archive/ onlinessays/ JC01folder/
LastDetail.html) by John and Judith Hess, Jump Cut, no. 2, 1974.
External links
• The Last Detail (http:/ / www. imdb.com/ title/ tt0070290/ ) at the Internet Movie Database
• The Last Detail (http:/ / tcmdb.com/ title/ title.jsp?stid=20066) at the TCM Movie Database
• The Last Detail (http:/ / www. allrovi.com/ movies/ movie/ v28312) at AllRovi
• The Last Detail (http:/ / www. rottentomatoes.com/ m/ last_detail/ ) at Rotten Tomatoes
The Last Picture Show
305
The Last Picture Show
The Last Picture Show
Theatrical release poster by Richard Amsel
Directed by Peter Bogdanovich
Produced by Stephen J. Friedman
Screenplay by Larry McMurtry
Peter Bogdanovich
Starring Timothy Bottoms
Jeff Bridges
Ellen Burstyn
Ben Johnson
Cloris Leachman
Cybill Shepherd
Clu Gulager
Cinematography Robert Surtees
Editing by Donn Cambern
Studio BBS Productions
Distributed by Columbia Pictures
Release date(s) •• October 22, 1971
Running time 118 minutes
Country United States
Language English
Budget $1.3 million
Box office
$29,133,000
[1]
The Last Picture Show is a 1971 American drama film directed by Peter Bogdanovich, adapted from a
semi-autobiographical 1966 novel of the same name by Larry McMurtry.
Set in a small town in north Texas during the year November 1951 – October 1952, it is about the coming of age of
Sonny Crawford (Timothy Bottoms) and his friend Duane Jackson (Jeff Bridges). The cast includes Cybill Shepherd
in her film debut, Ben Johnson, Eileen Brennan, Ellen Burstyn, Cloris Leachman, Clu Gulager, Randy Quaid in his
film debut and John Hillerman. For aesthetic and technical reasons it was shot in black and white, which was unusual
for its time.
The film was nominated for eight Academy Awards, including Best Picture, Best Director, and four nominations for
acting: Ben Johnson and Jeff Bridges for Best Supporting Actor, and Ellen Burstyn and Cloris Leachman for Best
Supporting Actress. It won two: Johnson and Leachman.
Plot
In 1951, Sonny Crawford (Bottoms) and Duane Jackson (Bridges) are small-town Texas high-school seniors. They
are friends and co-captains of Anarene High School's football team and share a rooming house home and a battered
old pickup truck. Duane is good-looking, amusing and popular, and dates Jacy Farrow (Shepherd), the prettiest (and
wealthiest) girl in town. Sonny is sensitive and caring, with a dumpy, unpleasant girlfriend, Charlene Duggs (Sharon
Taggart), whom he does not love; she shares his indifference, and they decide to call it quits.
The Last Picture Show
306
At Christmastime, Sonny stumbles into an affair with Ruth Popper (Leachman), the depressed, middle-aged wife of
his high-school coach, Coach Popper (Bill Thurman). At the sad little town Christmas dance, Jacy is invited by
unsavory Lester Marlow (Quaid) to a naked indoor pool party at the home of Bobby Sheen (Gary Brockette), a
wealthy boy who seems to offer better prospects than Duane. Since Bobby is not interested in her as long as she is a
virgin, she must get someone to have sex with her first.
Duane and Sonny go on a road trip to Mexico — which happens entirely off-screen — and return to discover that
Sam the Lion (Johnson), their mentor and father-figure in town, has died of a stroke, leaving a will that bequeaths the
town's movie theater to the woman who ran the concession stand, the café to its waitress, Genevieve (Brennan), and
the pool hall to Sonny.
Jacy invites Duane to a motel for sex, but he is unable to perform; it takes a second attempt to alter her virginity
status. Having got what she wants from Duane, she breaks up with him by phone, and he eventually joins the Army.
When Bobby elopes with another girl, Jacy is alone again, and out of boredom has sex with Abilene (Gulager), her
mother's lover. When Jacy hears of Sonny's affair with Ruth, she sets her sights on him and Ruth gets nudged out
very quickly. Sonny gets injured with a broken bottle in a fight with Duane, who still considers Jacy "his" girl. Jacy
pretends to be impressed that Sonny would fight over her and suggests they elope. On their way to their honeymoon,
they are stopped by an Oklahoma state trooper — apparently Jacy left a note telling her parents all about their plan.
The couple is fetched back to Anarene by her father and mother in separate automobiles. On the trip back, Jacy's
mother Lois (Burstyn) admits to Sonny she was Sam the Lion's erstwhile paramour and tells him he was much better
off with Ruth Popper than with Jacy.
Duane returns to town for a visit before shipping out for Korea. He and Sonny are among the meager group attending
the final screening at Sam's old movie house, which is no longer a viable business. The next morning, after Sonny
sees Duane off on the Trailways bus, young Billy (Sam Bottoms), another of the town's innocents protected over the
years by Sam the Lion, is run over and killed as he sweeps the street. Sonny flees back to Ruth, whom he has been
ignoring since Jacy stole him away months earlier. Her first reaction is to show her hurt and anger, then the two slip
into a haunting, beatific calm in her familiar kitchen.
Casting
• Ben Johnson as Sam the Lion, the owner of the town's café, movie theater, and pool hall. According to
Bogdanovich, Tex Ritter was almost cast in the role (he was introduced to Bogdanovich by John Ritter, who was
being considered for the part of Sonny). Johnson was not keen on the part because of the wordiness of the script;
Eileen Brennan recalled that he hated to talk, saying he would rather ride his horse a "thousand miles than say any
of these goddamn words." But Bogdanovich had his heart set on Johnson. He called director John Ford, whom he
knew well, having previously completed a documentary on him, and Ford persuaded Johnson into the role by
asking him "Do you want to be the Duke's sidekick forever?"
[2]
Johnson continued to find reasons not to do the
film, and finally Bogdanovich told him, "You, in this role, are going to get an Academy Award," and finally
Johnson accepted, "All right, I'll do the damn thing."
[3]
Johnson did indeed win the Academy Award for Best
Supporting Actor.
• Jeff Bridges as Duane Jackson, one of the popular kids in the school, who dates Jacy at the beginning of the
picture. Bridges got the role because in the book he is not a particularly likeable character; Bogdanovich thought
that Bridges's naturally fun personality would give the character extra depth and warmth, and make him less
disagreeable.
[3]
• Timothy Bottoms as Sonny Crawford, Duane's buddy, who begins the picture with a girlfriend he does not like
and ends up in an affair with Ruth. Bogdanovich liked Bottoms for his sad eyes, and recalled that he was
convinced to cast him when he learned that he was being highly touted at the time by his agent who said he had
been given the lead in a Dalton Trumbo movie Johnny Got His Gun (1971); "I guess that's what convinced me" he
said.
[3]
Bottoms did indeed have the lead in Johnny Got His Gun, although he was playing a quadriplegic and
The Last Picture Show
307
terribly mutilated World War I soldier who could not see, hear, move or speak.
• Cybill Shepherd as Jacy Farrow, a pretty and popular girl who learns about life through her experiments with
sexual attraction. Shepherd was a model whom Bogdanovich spotted on the cover of an issue of Glamour
magazine (probably June 1970). "There was something about her expression that was very piquant," he later said.
He arranged to meet her with her agent in a hotel in New York. She was, Bogdanovich says, interested in going
through college and not particularly interested in being in movies, but she liked the script and thought it was an
interesting part. She was playing with a rose on the table, and Bogdanovich kept expecting the rose to keel over
and collapse; he recognised in that gesture the way Jacy Farrow plays with guys in the movie, and this convinced
him that he had found Jacy. Bert Schneider, the producer, found a screen test Shepherd had done with Roger
Vadim about a year before in which she was playing scenes from Cat on a Hot Tin Roof with no sound, and
dancing silently to a Rolling Stones song. After filming had finished Bogdanovich admitted to Shepherd that the
only time he ever doubted his decision was when he saw that screen test.
[3]
Shepherd went to Los Angeles and
read with John Ritter, and with Robert Mitchum's son as well as Jeff Bridges and Timothy Bottoms. Bogdanovich
was married to Polly Platt but began an affair with Shepherd during the filming.
• Cloris Leachman as Ruth Popper, Coach Popper's wife, who has a romantic affair with Sonny. Leachman wanted
the role and Bogdanovich was impressed enough with her read-through to offer the part she wanted for a
performance that ultimately earned her an Oscar.
• Ellen Burstyn as Lois Farrow, Jacy's mother, who romped with Sam in her younger days and has an off-and-on
affair with Abilene. Burstyn was asked to read for the part of Genevieve, but she liked the part of Lois Farrow and
asked if she could read for that and ended up reading for all three parts, including Coach Popper's wife.
Bogdanovich thought she would be good as any one of them and decided he wanted her in the picture for any role
she selected. She chose to be Jacy's mother because she thought the part interesting.
[3]
• Eileen Brennan as Genevieve, the café waitress, who inherits the café after Sam dies. Bogdanovich had seen
Brennan on the stage in Little Mary Sunshine in the 1960s and thought she had the perfect face for the tired
waitress. When she read the script, Brennan thought it so powerful she wanted very much to be a part of the film
and gladly accepted the role.
[3]
• Randy Quaid as Lester Marlow, an unsavory character. Quaid was asked to read for the part of Bobby, the rich
kid from Wichita Falls, but Bogdanovich thought he would be better as Marlow; it was Quaid's debut role.
[3]
• Clu Gulager as Abilene, a man the same age as Sam, who sleeps with both Jacy and Lois. Bogdanovich's first
choice was the country singer Jimmy Dean, but his producers did not like that idea; his next choice was Gulager,
whom he had seen give a great performance in Don Siegel's The Killers (1964). Gulager played hitman Lee with
what Bogdanovich described as, "good regional quality."
[3]
•• Bill Thurman as Coach Popper, the high school's athletic coach and Ruth Popper's husband; it is implied that he is
homosexual, and he is confirmed as such in the director's commentary.
• Frank Marshall as Tommy Logan, a high school student. Marshall had been a production manager on
Bogdanovich's earlier film, Targets, and they had such fun working together that Bogdanovich had promised him
something on his next film. He came along as assistant production manager working with Polly Platt on location
scouting and played a small part as the student who is smacked on the backside by Coach Popper during
basketball practice. He shows up again later as a football player in a scene near the end.
[3]
• Sam Bottoms as Billy the street-sweeper. Timothy Bottoms's younger brother Sam came along to stay with his
brother for a few days as rehearsals started in Archer City. Seeing Sam sitting on some stairs, Bogdanovich asked
him if he could act. Sam, who had appeared in productions of Santa Barbara Youth Theater since he was 10 years
old, shrugged, and despite having previously cast the part to an actor from Dallas, Bogdanovich signed Sam
up.
[3][4]
•• Sharon Taggart as Charlene Duggs, Sonny's dumpy, unpleasant girlfriend in the first act.
The Last Picture Show
308
Production
Peter Bogdanovich was a 31-year-old stage actor, film essayist and critic with two small films — Targets (1968)
(also known as Before I Die) and Voyage to the Planet of Prehistoric Women (1968) — to his directorial credit. One
day while waiting in a cashier's line in a drugstore he happened to look at the rack of paperbacks and his eye fell on
an interesting title, The Last Picture Show. The back of the book said it was "kids growing up in Texas," and
Bogdanovich decided that it did not interest him and put it back. A few weeks later actor Sal Mineo handed
Bogdanovich a copy of the book, "I always wanted to be in this," he said, "but I'm a little too old now," and
recommended that Bogdanovich make it into a film. At the time Bogdanovich was married to Polly Platt and he
asked her to read it, and her response was, "I don't know how you make it into a picture, but it's a good book."
[3]
Bogdanovich, McMurtry and some sources suggest
[5]
an uncredited Polly Platt went through the book and wrote a
script that tells the story chronologically.
Stephen Friedman was a lawyer with Columbia Pictures, but keen to break into film production and he had bought
the film rights to the book, so Bogdanovich hired him as producer.
[6]
After discussing the film with Orson Welles, his houseguest at the time, Bogdanovich decided to shoot the film in
black and white.
[3]
Larry McMurtry was born in the small North Texas town of Archer City. In writing about his hometown he renamed
it "Thalia" and in order to film "Thalia" Bogdanovich went back to Archer City. But for the film he renamed it
Anarene, a name chosen to provide correspondence to the cow-town of Abilene in Howard Hawks's Red River
(1948).
[7]
After shooting the film, Bogdanovich went back to Los Angeles to edit the film on a Moviola. Bogdanovich has
said
[3]
he edited the entire film himself, but refused to credit himself as editor, reasoning that director and co-writer
was enough. When informed that the Motion Picture Editors Guild required an editor credit, he suggested Donn
Cambern who had been editing another film, Drive, He Said (1971) in the next office and had helped Bogdanovich
with some purchasing paperwork concerning the film's opticals.
[3]
Cambern disputes this, stating that Bogdanovich
did do an edit of the film, which he screened for a selection of guests, including Jack Nicholson, Bob Rafelson and
himself. The consensus was the film was going to be great but needed further editing to achieve its full potential.
Bogdanovich invited Cambern to edit the film further, and Cambern made significant contributions to the film's final
form.
In 1973, largely because of the skinny-dipping party scene, the film was banned in Phoenix, Arizona when the city
attorney notified a drive-in theater manager that the film violated a state obscenity statute. Eventually, a federal court
decided that the film was not obscene.
[8][9]
Reception
The Last Picture Show won Academy Awards for Best Supporting Actor (Ben Johnson) and Best Supporting Actress
(Cloris Leachman). It was also nominated in the categories for Best Supporting Actor (Jeff Bridges), Best
Supporting Actress (Ellen Burstyn), Best Cinematography (Robert L. Surtees), Best Director (Peter Bogdanovich),
Best Picture (Stephen J. Friedman), and Best Adapted Screenplay (Larry McMurtry and Peter Bogdanovich).
In 1998, The Last Picture Show was deemed "culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant" by the United
States Library of Congress and selected for preservation in the National Film Registry. It also ranked number 19 on
Entertainment Weekly's list of the 50 Best High School Movies.
[10]
In 2007, the film was ranked #95 on the
American Film Institute's 10th Anniversary Edition of the 100 greatest American films of all time.
In April 2011, The Last Picture Show was re-released in UK and Irish cinemas, distributed by Park Circus. Total
Film magazine gave the film a five-star review, stating: "Peter Bogdanovich's desolate Texan drama is still as
stunning now as it was in 1971."
[11]
The Last Picture Show
309
Stephen King's novel Lisey's Story makes repeated references to The Last Picture Show as the main character Scott
Landon frequently watches the film throughout the novel during flashbacks.
Home media
The film was released by The Criterion Collection in November 2010 as part of their box set, America Lost and
Found: The BBS Story. It included a high-definition digital transfer of Peter Bogdanovich’s director’s cut, two audio
commentaries, one from 1991, featuring Bogdanovich and actors Cybill Shepherd, Randy Quaid, Cloris Leachman,
and Frank Marshall; the other from 2009, featuring Bogdanovich “The Last Picture Show”: A Look Back, (1999) and
Picture This (1990), documentaries about the making of the film, A Discussion with Filmmaker Peter Bogdanovich,
a 2009 Q&A, screen tests and location footage, and excerpts from a 1972 television interview with director François
Truffaut about the New Hollywood.
[12]
Director's cut
In 1992, Bogdanovich re-edited the film to create a "director's cut". This version restores seven minutes of footage
that Bogdanovich trimmed from the 1971 release because Columbia imposed a firm 119-minute time limit on the
film.
[3]
With this requirement removed in the 1990s, Bogdanovich used the 127-minute cut on laserdisc, VHS and
DVD releases. The original 1971 cut is not currently available on home video, though it was released on VHS and
laserdisc through Columbia Tristar home video.
There are two substantial scenes restored in the director's cut. The first is a sex scene between Jacy and Abilene that
plays in the poolhall after it has closed for the night; it precedes the exterior scene where he drops her off home and
she says "Whoever would have thought this would happen?" The other major insertion is a scene that plays in Sam's
café, where Genevieve watches while an amiable Sonny and a revved-up Duane decide to take their road trip to
Mexico; it precedes the exterior scene outside the poolhall when they tell Sam of their plans, the last time they will
ever see him.
Several shorter scenes were also restored. One comes between basketball practice in the gym and the exterior at The
Rig-Wam drive-in; it has Jacy, Duane and Sonny riding along in her convertible (and being chased by an enthusiastic
little dog), singing an uptempo rendition of the more solemn school song sung later at the football game. Another
finds Sonny cruising the town streets in the pick-up, gazing longingly into Sam's poolhall, café and theater, from
which he has been banished. Finally, there is an exterior scene of the auto caravan on its way to the Senior Picnic; as
it passes the fishing tank where he had fished with Sam and Billy, Sonny sheds a tear for his departed friend and his
lost youth.
Two scenes got slightly longer treatments: Ruth's and Sonny's return from the doctor, and the boys' returning Billy to
Sam after his encounter with Jemmie Sue — both had added dialogue. Also, a number of individual shots were put
back in, most notably a handsome Gregg Toland-style deep focus shot in front of the Royal Theatre as everyone gets
in their cars.
[3]
The Last Picture Show
310
Sequel
Texasville is the 1990 sequel to The Last Picture Show, based on McMurtry's 1987 novel of the same name, also
directed by Bogdanovich, from his own screenplay, without McMurtry this time. The film reunites actors Jeff
Bridges, Cybill Shepherd, Timothy Bottoms, Cloris Leachman, Eileen Brennan, Randy Quaid, Sharon Ullrick (née
Taggart) and Barc Doyle.
References
[1] "The Last Picture Show, Box Office Information" (http:// boxofficemojo.com/ movies/ ?id=lastpictureshow. htm). Box Office Mojo. .
Retrieved January 30, 2012.
[2] Biskind, Peter, 1998. Easy Riders, Raging Bulls. New York: Simon and Schuster. ISBN 0-684-80996-6
[3] Peter Bogdanovich (2001) The Last Picture Show: A Look Back [DVD]
[4] LA Times (http:// www. latimes. com/ news/ obituaries/ la-me-bottoms18-2008dec18,0,6453698.story)-18 December 2008 Sam Bottoms's
Obituary
[5] Jigsaw Lounge (http:/ / www. jigsawlounge. co. uk/ film/lastpictureshow. html) - Neil Young
[6] Kings Road Entertainment (http:// www. kingsroadentertainment.net/ history.php)-Company History
[7] Filmsite (http:/ / www. filmsite. org/ lastp. html) - Tim Dirks
[8] "Censored Films and Television at University of Virginia online" (http:/ / www2.lib. virginia.edu/ exhibits/ censored/ film.html).
.lib.virginia.edu. . Retrieved 2012-04-05.
[9] "Most Controversial Films of All Time" (http:// www. filmsite. org/controversialfilms6.html). Filmsite.org. . Retrieved 2012-04-05.
[10] Countdown: The 50 best high school movies | Photo Gallery | News | Entertainment Weekly (http:/ / www. ew. com/ew/ report/
0,6115,1532588_1_0_,00. html)
[11] "The Last Picture Show Review" (http:// www. totalfilm.com/ reviews/ cinema/ the-last-picture-show-1). Total Film. . Retrieved April 5,
2011.
[12] "The Last Picture Show" (http:/ / www. criterion.com/ films/ 27533-the-last-picture-show). The Criterion Collection. .
External links
• The Last Picture Show (http:/ / www. imdb.com/ title/ tt0067328/ ) at the Internet Movie Database
• The Last Picture Show (http:/ / www. allrovi.com/ movies/ movie/ v28358) at AllRovi
• The Last Picture Show (http:/ / www. boxofficemojo.com/ movies/ ?id=lastpictureshow. htm) at Box Office
Mojo
• The Last Picture Show (http:/ / www. rottentomatoes. com/ m/ last_picture_show/ ) at Rotten Tomatoes
• Criterion Collection Essay (http:// www. criterion.com/ current/posts/
1669-the-last-picture-show-in-with-the-old) by Graham Fuller
• Criterion Collection Essay (http:/ / www. criterion.com/ current/posts/ 905-the-last-picture-show) by Danny
Peary
• Criterion Collection Essay (http:/ / www. criterion.com/ current/posts/
1671-one-big-real-place-bbs-from-head-to-hearts) by J. Hoberman
The Long Riders
311
The Long Riders
The Long Riders
Theatrical release poster
Directed by Walter Hill
Produced by Tim Zinnemann
Stacy Keach
James Keach
Written by Bill Bryden
Steven Phillip Smith
Stacy Keach
James Keach
Starring James Keach
Stacy Keach
David Carradine
Robert Carradine
Keith Carradine
Dennis Quaid
Randy Quaid
Christopher Guest
Nicholas Guest
Savannah Smith Boucher
Music by Ry Cooder
Cinematography Ric Waite
Editing by Freeman A. Davies
David Holden
Studio Huka Productions
Distributed by United Artists
Release date(s) May 16, 1980
Running time 99 minutes
Country United States
Language English
Box office
$15,795,189.00
[1]
The Long Riders is a 1980 western film directed by Walter Hill. It was produced by James Keach, Stacy Keach and
Tim Zinnemann and featured an original soundtrack by Ry Cooder. Cooder won the Best Music award in 1980 from
the Los Angeles Film Critics Association Awards for this soundtrack. The film was entered into the 1980 Cannes
Film Festival.
[2]
The Long Riders
312
Plot
During the years following the Civil War, banks and trains become the targets of the James-Younger gang, outlaws
who terrorize the American Midwest. The band of robbers is led by Jesse James and Cole Younger, along with
several of their brothers.
A detective named Rixley from the Pinkerton's agency remains on their trail. By the time the James-Younger gang
rides far north in September 1876 to rob a bank in Northfield, Minnesota, word is out about them and the town has
been warned.
The holdup goes wrong in every way. The bank's vault has been set on a timer and cannot be opened. A cashier and
another citizen are shot and killed. While trying to escape, the gang is fired upon by the townspeople, who have
barricaded both ends of the main street. Two outlaws are killed and all of the Youngers are badly wounded.
Jesse and Frank James are forced to leave the Youngers behind when they return home to Missouri. An attempt is
made by Rixley to make the Youngers reveal where the Jameses can be found by offering them a more lenient
sentence, but the Youngers remain loyal. Former gang members Bob and Charlie Ford, however, go to Jesse James'
home and shoot him in the back. Frank James turns himself in to Rixley, but only on the condition that he can first
attend his brother's funeral.
Cast
The Long Riders is a notable film in part due to Hill's decision to cast four sets of actor brothers as the real-life sets
of brothers:
• The Keaches: Jesse James (James) and Frank James (Stacy)
• The Carradines: Cole Younger (David), Jim Younger (Keith) and Bob Younger (Robert)
• The Quaids: Ed Miller (Dennis) and Clell Miller (Randy)
• The Guests: Charley Ford (Christopher) and Robert Ford (Nicholas)
It also features an uncredited appearance by Ever Carradine, daughter of Robert Carradine and niece to David and
Keith Carradine. Additionally James Keach's son, Kalen Keach, is cast as little Jesse James. Savannah Smith
Boucher played Zee, or Jesse James' wife, Zerelda.
• James Whitmore, Jr. as Rixley
• Kevin Brophy as John Younger
• Harry Carey, Jr. as George Arthur
• Shelby Leverington as Annie Ralston
• Felice Orlandi as Mr. Reddick
• Pamela Reed as Belle Starr
• Lin Shaye as Kate
• James Remar as Sam Starr
The Long Riders
313
Production
Some of the movie, especially the Northfield scene was shot in Parrott, Georgia.
References
[1] The Long Riders (1980) - Box Office Mojo (http:// www.boxofficemojo.com/movies/ ?id=longriders.htm)
[2] "Festival de Cannes: The Long Riders" (http:/ /www. festival-cannes.com/ en/ archives/ ficheFilm/id/ 1835/ year/ 1980.html).
festival-cannes.com. . Retrieved 2009-05-28.
External links
• The Long Riders (http:/ / www. imdb.com/ title/ tt0081071/ ) at the Internet Movie Database
• The Long Riders (http:/ / www. allrovi.com/ movies/ movie/ v29942) at AllRovi
• The Long Riders (http:/ / tcmdb.com/ title/ title.jsp?stid=17639) at the TCM Movie Database
• Koller, Michael. " The Long Riders and Wild Bill (http:// archive.sensesofcinema. com/ contents/ cteq/ 02/20/
wild_bill.html)", Sense of Cinema.
• Film review (http:// dvdtimes. co. uk/ content.php?contentid=4011)
The Magical Legend of the Leprechauns
314
The Magical Legend of the Leprechauns
The Magical Legend of the
Leprechauns
Directed by John Henderson
Produced by Paul Lowin
Written by Peter Barnes
Starring Randy Quaid
Whoopi Goldberg
Roger Daltrey
Colm Meaney
Caroline Carver
Music by Richard Harvey
Cinematography Clive Tickner
Editing by Paul Endacott
Pamela Power
Distributed by Lions Gate
Release date(s) 1999
Running time 139 min. (2 parts)
Language English
The Magical Legend of the Leprechauns is a 1999 Hallmark Entertainment made-for-TV fantasy movie. It stars
Randy Quaid, Colm Meaney, Kieran Culkin, Roger Daltrey, Caroline Carver and Whoopi Goldberg.
[1]
The film
contains two main stories that eventually intertwine: the first being the story of an American businessman who visits
Ireland and encounters magical leprechauns and the second, a story of a pair of star-crossed lovers who happen to be
a fairy and a leprechaun, belonging to opposing sides of a magical war. It contains many references to Romeo and
Juliet such as two lovers taking poison and feuding clans.
Emma Townshend's song "We Can Fly Away" was the theme song for the film.
[2]
Plot
An American businessman, Jack Woods (Randy Quaid), ostensibly wants to spend a calm holiday in the sleepy Irish
town Kerry and rents a little cottage there. He is overworked and wants to use his holiday to relax. During a hike, he
sees Irish beauty Kathleen Fitzpatrick (Orla Brady) swimming naked. Kathleen catches him and chases him off, but
Jack is smitten with her beauty. That evening, Jack tries to drown his sorrows in Irish whiskey, when he has an
encounter with an invisible leprechaun. They struggle for the bottle of whiskey, and Jack falls, knocking himself
unconscious. The next morning, he sees the little man again and chases him to a nearby river, where the leprechaun
falls in. Jack jumps in after him, saving his life (because water is the only thing that can kill the immortal
leprechauns), then Seamus Muldoon (Colm Meaney), the saved leprechaun, becomes Jack's new friend. Seamus
introduces Jack to his wife Mary (Zoë Wanamaker) and his son, Mickey (Daniel Betts), and shows him the mystical
world of the leprechauns.
The "solitary fairies" (which includes leprechauns) are a happy people, who love to play tricks on others—most of
all on the snobbish "trooping" fairies. The leprechauns and the trooping fairies have been enemies for ages, but the
Grand Banshee (Whoopi Goldberg) has decreed that they must stop fighting each other. Jack gets used to the little
people he shares the house with, because they help him to get to know Kathleen.
The Magical Legend of the Leprechauns
315
While out taking photographs of the houses in this sleepy town, Jack comes upon Kathleen hanging out her laundry
and playing with her dog. He accidentally takes a picture of her and she sicks her four brothers on him. He runs
away, finally taking refuge in a church. Later, Jack offers to drive Kathleen's cart for her in a beach race because
she's not allowed to on account of her gender. Jack wins and convinces Kathleen to take him on a tour of the local
environs. While on their walk together, they share a kiss.
Meanwhile Mickey, along with his friends Sean Devine (Tony Curran) and the brothers Jericho (Kevin McKidd) and
Barney O’Grady (Kieran Culkin) sneak into a masked party in the flying castle of the trooping fairies. There Mickey
sees the pretty fairy-princess, Jessica (Caroline Carver), the daughter of the fairy-king Boric (Roger Daltrey) and
queen Morag (Harriet Walter). Jessica eventually finds out that Mickey is a leprechaun, but they have already fallen
in love. Jessica's cousin, Count Grogan (Jonathan Firth), discovers their presence, and the leprechauns flee.
Later Count Grogan seeks out Mickey and attempts to fight with him, but Mickey declines. Sean steps in and battles
Count Grogan, eventually losing. The Grand Banshee appears and takes Sean's life as punishment for breaking her
decree. Micky attacks Count Grogan, killing him, too. After Jessica’s parents learn that Mickey has killed Count
Grogan, they send her with her governess, Lady Margaret (Phyllida Law), to a hidden underwater-castle. Mickey
eventually finds her, rescues her, and flies with her to his uncle Sir Jantee (Stephen Moore), the butter-fairy. Jessica’s
parents think Mickey kidnapped her and they start a war with the leprechauns. The Grand Banshee continues to take
their lives.
Jack and Kathleen have a problem too, because she finds out that he is in Ireland to buy up homes in Carrick for his
company to build a holiday-park. Jack does not want to do that anymore (and loses his job because of it), but
Kathleen does not believe a word he says.
In the human-world nature starts to collapse: in the summer it starts snowing and there is torrential rain. This
happens because the fairies aren't taking care of nature anymore because of the war. If things don't change, Kathleen
claims that they'll be done for. Jack and Kathleen decide to help Jessica and Mickey to seek out the Grand Banshee
and ask her to help them end the war. The Grand Banshee reveals to them that Nature is dying because of the war
and if it doesn't stop, soon, everything will be destroyed. She also says she cannot stop the leprechauns and trooping
fairies from doing what they really wanted to do.
As the war escalates, Mickey and Jessica decide to do something radical: they obtain a poison from the
butter-fairies(after they bribed them with English butter) and threaten to take it if their parents won’t stop the war.
Their parents took them seriously but were unable to make peace, so they take the poison. Their bodies are brought
before their parents who immediately become distraught. Jack convinces the warring parties to make peace. Both
Muldoon and Boric agree. Kathleen immediately rushes to give an antidote to the lovers but an attack-tunnel dug by
general Bulstrode (Frank Finlay) collapses. Kathleen brakes her carriage to avoid the pit. The vial with the antidote
flies from her hands and breaks. Jack runs to help and falls into the pit, knocking himself out. Kathleen panics until
she learns that he's okay. The Grand Banshee says she can still save them, but only if everyone agrees to peace.
Eventually they all do. The Grand Banshee then brings back not only Jessica and Mickey, but all of the lost
leprechauns and fairies (with the exception of Count Grogan who the Great Banshee decides to keep so there
wouldn't be trouble caused because of him). In the end Mickey and Jessica marry, Jack and Kathleen are reconciled,
and the long-lasting war is finally over. It contains a number of references to Romeo and Juliet such as the two
lovers taking poison and rival clans feuding with each other
The Magical Legend of the Leprechauns
316
External links
• The Magical Legend of the Leprechauns
[3]
at the Internet Movie Database
References
[1] http:/ / www.imdb. com/ title/ tt0205214
[2] http:/ / www.imdb. com/ title/ tt0205214/ soundtrack
[3] http:/ / www.imdb. com/ title/ tt0205214/
The Missouri Breaks
317
The Missouri Breaks
The Missouri Breaks
Directed by Arthur Penn
Produced by Elliott Kastner
Robert M. Sherman
Written by Thomas McGuane
Starring Marlon Brando
Jack Nicholson
Randy Quaid
Kathleen Lloyd
Frederic Forrest
Harry Dean Stanton
Music by John Williams
Cinematography Michael Butler
Editing by Dede Allen
Gerald B.
Greenberg
Steven A. Rotter
Distributed by United Artists
Release date(s) •• May 18, 1976
Running time 126 minutes
Country United States
Language English
The Missouri Breaks is a 1976 American western film starring Marlon Brando and Jack Nicholson. The film was
directed by Arthur Penn, with supporting performances by Randy Quaid, Harry Dean Stanton, Frederic Forrest, John
McLiam and Kathleen Lloyd. The score was composed by John Williams.
The title of the movie refers to a forlorn and very rugged area of north central Montana, where over eons the
Missouri River has made countless deep cuts or "breaks" in the land.
Plot
Tom Logan is a rustler experiencing hard times. He and his gang are particularly upset by the hanging of a friend by
Braxton, a land baron who takes the law into his own hands.
Logan's men pull off a daring train robbery, only to lose much of the money. They decide to seek vengeance against
Braxton by killing his foreman Pete Marker and by buying a small property close to Braxton's ranch, then rustling
his stock. First the gang, without Logan, rides off across the Missouri River and north of the border to steal horses
belonging to the Royal Canadian Mounted Police. In their absence, Logan plants crops and enters into a relationship
with Braxton's virginal daughter, Jane.
Braxton is obsessed with both his rustling problem and his daughter. He sends for Robert E. Lee Clayton, a notorious
"regulator" who, for a price, will take care of rustlers personally. Clayton arrives with a fancy wardrobe, a perfumed
scent, an Irish brogue and a Creedmoor rifle with which he is deadly accurate from a very long distance.
Quickly suspicious of Logan, who doesn't strike him as a farmer, Clayton dons a variety of disguises and begins to
pick off Logan's gang, one by one. Identifying himself as "Jim Ferguson," he kills Logan's young friend Little Tod
The Missouri Breaks
318
by dragging him with a rope through the raging Missouri.
Clayton spies on Logan with binoculars and taunts Braxton about his daughter's affair with a horse thief. Braxton
attempts to discharge him but Clayton is determined to finish what he starts. He amuses himself by shooting two
more of Logan's partners, Cary and Cy, from a distance and then by wearing a "granny" dress while brutally killing
Logan's closest friend, Cal, with a handmade weapon.
Logan knows it's kill or be killed. He also wants vengeance against Braxton for having hired the regulator in the first
place, despite his feelings for Jane. One night after a campfire goes dark with Clayton serenading his horse, Logan
slits his throat. He then comes after Braxton, who has lost his mind as well as his daughter. He pulls a weapon on
Logan and is shot in the chest.
Logan abandons his farm and packs up to leave. He acknowledges to Jane the possibility that they can renew their
relationship another time, another place.
Production
In a May 24, 1976 Time magazine interview it was revealed that Brando "changed the entire flavor of his character
— a bounty hunter called Robert E. Lee Clayton — by inventing a deadly hand weapon resembling both a harpoon
and a mace that he uses to kill. He said, "I always wondered why in the history of lethal weapons no one invented
that particular one. It appealed to me because I used to be very expert at knife throwing."
[1]
The filming was marked by Brando's erratic behavior, which included catching grasshoppers after the day's shooting
and taking a bite out of a live frog.
[2]
After one horse drowned and several others were injured, including one by American Humane Association
(AHA)-prohibited tripwire, this film was placed on the AHA's "unacceptable" list.
[3]
Cast
• Marlon Brando ... Robert E. Lee Clayton
• Jack Nicholson ... Tom Logan
• Randy Quaid ... Little Tod
• Kathleen Lloyd ... Jane Braxton
• Frederic Forrest ... Cary
• Harry Dean Stanton ... Cal
•• John McLiam ... David Braxton
• John P. Ryan ... Cy (as John Ryan)
•• Sam Gilman ... Hank Rate
• Steve Franken ... Lonesome Kid
• Richard Bradford ... Pete Marker
•• James Greene ... Hellsgate rancher
• Luana Anders ... Rancher's wife
• Danny Goldman ... Baggage clerk
• Hunter von Leer ... Sandy
The Missouri Breaks
319
Reaction
Considered perhaps the most anticipated film of 1976, being Brando's followup to The Godfather and Last Tango in
Paris and one of Nicholson's first films since Chinatown and One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest, the film became a
notorious critical and commercial failure.
Vincent Canby's review in the May 20, 1976 New York Times cited "an out-of-control performance" by Brando.
Despite its two stars, Missouri Breaks reportedly earned a domestic box-office gross of a mere $14 million.
References
[1] "The Private World of Marlon Brando" (http:// www. time.com/ time/ magazine/ article/ 0,9171,879746,00.html) from TIME magazine
[2] Silva, Robert. "Dustin Hoffman in Spurs? Method Actors Show the Old West Who's Boss" (http://blogs.amctv. com/ future-of-classic/
2009/06/ method-actors-in-westerns.php) Future of Classic, 2009-06-20. Retrieved on 2009-06-22
[3] "Are animals really killed in movie and TV death scenes?" (http:/ /www. straightdope.com/ classics/ a1_370b.html) from The Straight Dope
External links
• The Missouri Breaks (http:/ / www. imdb. com/ title/tt0074906/ ) at the Internet Movie Database
• The Missouri Breaks (http:/ / tcmdb.com/ title/ title. jsp?stid=17658) at the TCM Movie Database
The Paper
320
The Paper
The Paper
Theatrical release poster
Directed by Ron Howard
Produced by Brian Grazer
David Koepp
Written by David Koepp
Stephen Koepp
Starring Michael Keaton
Glenn Close
Marisa Tomei
Randy Quaid
Robert Duvall
Music by Randy Newman
Cinematography John Seale
Editing by Daniel P. Hanley
Mike Hill
Studio Imagine Entertainment
Distributed by Universal Pictures
Release date(s) March 25, 1994
Running time 112 min.
Country United States
Language English
Budget $6 million
Box office $48,424,341
The Paper is a 1994 American comedy-drama film directed by Ron Howard and starring Michael Keaton, Glenn
Close, Marisa Tomei, Randy Quaid and Robert Duvall. The film depicts 24 hours in a newspaper editor's
professional and personal life. Received an Academy Award nomination for Best Original Song "Make Up Your
Mind", written and performed by Randy Newman.
Plot
Henry Hackett (Michael Keaton) is the metro editor of the New York Sun, a fictional
[1]
New York City tabloid. He is
a workaholic who loves his job, but the long hours and low pay are leading to discontent. He is at risk of
experiencing the same fate as his publisher, Bernie White (Robert Duvall), who put his work first at the expense of
his family.
The paper's owner, Graham Keighley (Jason Robards), faces dire financial straits, so he has Alicia Clark (Glenn
Close), the managing editor and Henry's nemesis, impose unpopular cutbacks. Henry's wife Martha (Marisa Tomei),
a reporter on leave and about to give birth, is fed up because Henry seems to have less and less time for her, and she
really dislikes Alicia Clark. She urges him to seriously consider an offer to leave the Sun and become an assistant
managing editor at the New York Sentinel, a fictional newspaper based on The New York Times, which would mean
more money, shorter hours, more respectability... but might also be a bit boring for his tastes.
The Paper
321
In addition to Henry's life, minor subplots involve Alicia, Bernie and Sun columnist Michael McDougal (Randy
Quaid). McDougal is threatened by an angry and drunk city official named Sandusky (Jason Alexander) that
McDougal's column had been tormenting for the past several weeks. Their drunken confrontation in a bar leads to
gunfire, which gets Alicia shot in the leg through the wall. Alicia is revealed to be having an affair with fellow Sun
reporter Carl (Bruce Altman), to which she decides she either needs to quit the paper altogether in order to end it, or
have a raise in her salary in order to keep it going (she claims that getting hotel rooms to be with Carl is costing too
much money, and her husband is at risk of finding out). Finally, Bernie reveals to Henry early on that he has recently
been diagnosed with prostate cancer, which causes him to spend part of the film tracking down his estranged
daughter Deanne White (Jill Hennessey), in an attempt to reconcile with her before his time is up.
Meanwhile, a hot story is circulating the city, involving the murder of two businessman in Brooklyn and two African
American teenagers arrested for the crime, which both Henry and McDougal discover to be false charges. Because of
this story, Henry is wrought with tough decisions, deadlines and personal crises (including his interpersonal issues
with Alicia). He becomes obsessed with getting to the bottom of the case, and spends the day getting the entire Sun
staff to investigate along with him. He goes so far as to blow his job offer at the Sentintal after he steals information
about the case from the editor's desk notes and reports it during a Sun staff meeting. Martha does some investigating
for him and discovers (through a friend in the Justice Department) that the businessmen murdered were bankers who
stole a large sum of money from their largest investor: a trucking company that happened to have ties to the Mafia.
With all this new evidence, Henry begins to believe that it was all a setup and the Brooklyn boys were likely just
caught in the midst of it somehow. He is so determined to get the correct story that he leaves a dinner with Martha
and his parents that evening to go to the police station with McDougal (as they need police confirmation that the
boys were not responsible for the murder before printing the story).
They corner McDougal's police contact, an officer named Richie, in the station bathroom and through repeated
interrogation (and the promise of his anonymity in the story) get him to admit that the kids were indeed innocent and
just happened to be walking by the scene of the crime when they were caught. Henry and McDougal race back to the
Sun, excited about their exclusive for the paper.
Upon returning to the Sun, they discover that Alicia had okay-ed the front-page headline and story stating that the
teens were guilty, despite Henry and McDougal having just returned with evidence proving otherwise. Regardless of
his proof, Alicia is too stubborn to let him take over the front page news. This results in a physical fight between her
and Henry, after he tries to stop the pressing machine, already printing the papers with the wrong information.
Later, Martha is rushed to the hospital for an emergency C-section due to fetal hemorrhaging, and Alicia (before
getting accidentally shot by Sandusky in the bar), having a change of heart, calls the Sun and has them change her
original headline to Henry's story. Immediately following her call, the scene cuts to the press room workers stopping
the run and the Sun staff replacing the headline and story to Henry/McDougal's, proving the innocence of the boys.
The new papers with the correct story are printed just in time for the following morning circulation. The movie ends
with Martha giving birth to a healthy baby boy, and the morning news radio report states that because of the Sun's
exclusive story, the Brooklyn teens were released from jail with no charges pressed, closing out a wild 24 hours.
The Paper
322
Cast
• Michael Keaton as Henry Hackett
• Robert Duvall as Bernie White
• Glenn Close as Alicia Clark
• Marisa Tomei as Martha Hackett
• Randy Quaid as Michael McDougal
• Jason Robards as Graham Keightley
• Jason Alexander as Marion Sandusky
• Spalding Gray as Paul Bladden
• Catherine O'Hara as Susan
• Lynne Thigpen as Janet
• Jack Kehoe as Phil
• Roma Maffia as Carmen
• Amelia Campbell as Robin
• Clint Howard as Ray Blaisch
• Geoffrey Owens as Lou
• Jill Hennessey as Deanne White
• William Prince as Howard Hackett
• Augusta Dabney as Augusta Hackett
• Bruce Altman as Carl
Production
Screenwriter Stephen Koepp, a senior editor at Time magazine, collaborated on the screenplay with his brother
David and together they initially came up with "A Day in the Life of a Paper" as their premise. David said, "We
wanted a regular day, though this is far from regular."
[2]
They also wanted to “look at the financial pressures of a
paper to get on the street and still tell the truth.”
[2]
After writing the character of a pregnant reporter married to the
metro editor (that Marisa Tomei ended up playing in the film), both of the Koepps' wives became pregnant. Around
this time, Universal Pictures greenlighted the project.
For his next project, Ron Howard was looking to do something on the newspaper industry. Steven Spielberg
recommended that he get in touch with David Koepp. Howard intended to pitch an idea to the writer who instead
wanted to talk about how much he loved the script for Parenthood. The filmmaker remembers, “I found that pretty
flattering, of course, so I asked about the subject of his work-in-progress. The answer was music to my ears: 24
hours at a tabloid newspaper."
[3]
Howard read their script and remembers, “I liked the fact that it dealt with the
behind-the-scenes of headlines. But I also connected with the characters trying to cope during this 24-hour period,
desperately trying to find this balance in their personal lives, past and present.”
[4]
To prepare for the film, Howard made several visits to the New York Post and Daily News (which would provide the
inspiration for the fictional newspaper in the film). He remembers, “You'd hear stuff from columnists and reporters
about some jerk they'd worked with ... I heard about the scorned female reporter who wound up throwing hot coffee
in some guy's crotch when she found out he was fooling around with someone else."
[5]
It was these kinds of stories
that inspired Howard to change the gender of the managing editor that Glenn Close would later play. Howard felt the
Koepps' script featured a newsroom that was too male-dominated.
[6]
The writers agreed and changed the character's
name from Alan to Alicia but keep the dialogue the same. According to David Koepp, "Anything else would be
trying to figure out, 'How would a woman in power behave?' And it shouldn't be about that. It should be about how a
person in power behaves, and since that behavior is judged one way when it's a man, why should it be judged
differently if it's a woman?"
[6]
The Paper
323
Howard met with some of the top newspapermen in New York, including former Post editor Pete Hamill and
columnists Jimmy Breslin and Mike McAlary (who inspired Randy Quaid’s character in the movie). They told the
filmmaker how some reporters bypass traffic jams by putting emergency police lights on their cars (a trick used in
the movie). Hamill and McAlary also can be seen in cameos.
[5]
Howard wanted to examine the nature of tabloid journalism. "I kept asking, 'Are you embarrassed to be working at
the New York Post? Would you rather be working at the Washington Post or the New York Times?' They kept
saying they loved the environment, the style of journalism.”
[5]
The model for Keaton’s character was the Daily News'
metro editor Richie Esposito. Howard said, “He was well-dressed but rumpled, mid-to-late 30s, overworked, very
articulate and fast-talking. And very, very smart. When I saw him, I thought, that's Henry Hackett. As written."
[3]
The director also was intrigued by the unsavory aspect of these papers. "They were interested in celebrities who were
under investigation or had humiliated themselves in some way. I could see they would gleefully glom onto a story
that would be very humiliating for someone. They didn't care about that. If they believed their source, they would go
with it happily.”
[5]
In addition to being influenced by Ben Hecht and Charles MacArthur’s famous stage play The Front Page, Howard
studied old newspaper movies from the 1930s and 1940s. Howard said, “Every studio made them, and then they kind
of vanished. One of the reasons I thought it would make a good movie today is that it feels fresh and different.”
[7]
One of Howard’s goals was to cram in as much information about a 24-hour day in the newspaper business as
humanly possible. He said, “I'm gonna get as many little details right as possible: a guy having to rewrite a story and
it bugs the hell out of him, another guy talking to a reporter on the phone and saying, 'Well, it's not Watergate for
God's sake.' Little, tiny - you can't even call them subplots - that most people on the first screening won't even notice,
probably. It's just sort of newsroom background.’”
[8]
Reception
Box office
The Paper was given a limited release in five theaters on March 18, 1994 where it grossed $175,507 on its opening
weekend. It later expanded its release to 1,092 theaters where it made $7 million over that weekend. The film went
on to gross $38.8 million in North America and $9.6 million in the rest of the world for a total of $48.4 worldwide.
[9]
Critical response
The Paper received positive reviews from critics and holds an 88% rating on Rotten Tomatoes based on 32 reviews
with the consensus stating: "Fast and frenetic, The Paper captures the energy of the newsroom thanks to its cast and
director on first-rate form." In his review for the Boston Globe, Jay Carr wrote, "It takes a certain panache to
incorporate the ever-present threat of your own extinction into the giddy tradition of the newspaper comedy, but The
Paper pulls it off. There's no point pretending that I'm objective about this one. I know it's not Citizen Kane, but it
pushes my buttons".
[8]
Peter Stack of the San Francisco Chronicle wrote, “In the end, The Paper offers splashy
entertainment that's a lot like a daily newspaper itself -- hot news cools fast.”
[10]
Entertainment Weekly gave the film
a "B" rating and Owen Gleiberman praised Michael Keaton's performance: "Keaton is at his most urgent and
winning here. His fast-break, neurotic style-owlish stare, motor mouth-is perfect for the role of a compulsive news
junkie who lives for the rush of his job", but felt that the film was "hampered by its warmed-over plot, which seems
designed to teach Henry and the audience lessons".
[11]
However, in her review for The New York Times, Janet Maslin was critical of the film. "Each principal has a problem
that is conveniently addressed during this one-day interlude, thanks to a screenplay (by David Koepp and Stephen
Koepp) that feels like the work of a committee. The film's general drift is to start these people off at fever pitch and
then let them gradually unveil life's inner meaning as the tale trudges toward resolution."
[12]
Rita Kempley, in her
review for the Washington Post, wrote, "Ron Howard still thinks women belong in the nursery instead of the
The Paper
324
newsroom. Screenwriters David Koepp of Jurassic Park and his brother Stephen (of Time magazine) are witty and
on target in terms of character, but their message in terms of male and female relations is a prehistoric one."
[13]
References
[1] The real New York Sun merged with another paper in 1950, but the film version shares the same masthead. Since the film's release, a new
incarnation of the Sun has appeared, also using the masthead.
[2] Schaefer, Stephen (March 27, 1994). "New edition competes with small screen, too". Boston Herald.
[3] Arnold, Gary (March 27, 1994). "Tabloid press gets the Ron Howard touch in The Paper". Washington Times.
[4] Uricchio, Marylynn (March 25, 1994). "Opie’s Byline: Paper Director Ron Howard was drawn to Keaton’s Style, Newsroom’s Buzz".
Pittsburgh Post-Gazette.
[5] Kurtz, Howard (March 27, 1994). "Hollywood's Read on Newspapers; For Decades, a Romance With the Newsroom". Washington Post.
[6] Schwager, Jeff (August 13, 1994). "Out of the Shadows" (http:// www. moviemaker.com/ magazine/ editorial.php?id=213). Moviemaker. .
Retrieved 2007-04-16.
[7] Dowd, Maureen (March 13, 1994). "The Paper Replates The Front Page for the 90’s" (http:/ /www. nytimes. com/ 1994/ 03/ 13/ movies/
film-the-paper-replates-the-front-page-for-the-90-s.html?scp=2& sq="Ron+ Howard"& st=nyt). The New York Times. . Retrieved
2010-03-05.
[8] Carr, Jay (October 10, 1993). "Director Ron Howard goes to press with The Paper". Boston Globe.
[9] "The Paper" (http:/ / www. boxofficemojo.com/ movies/ ?id=paper.htm). Box Office Mojo. . Retrieved 2010-03-05.
[10] Stack, Peter (March 25, 1994). "Extra! Extra! Paper Really Delivers!". San Francisco Chronicle.
[11] Gleiberman, Owen (March 18, 1994). "The Paper" (http:/ / www. ew. com/ ew/ article/ 0,,301442,00.html). Entertainment Weekly. .
Retrieved 2010-03-05.
[12] Maslin, Janet (March 18, 1994). "A Day With the People Who Make the News" (http:/ / movies. nytimes.com/ movie/ review?_r=2&
res=9E0DE1DF163CF93BA25750C0A962958260). The New York Times. . Retrieved 2010-03-05.
[13] Kempley, Rita (March 25, 1994). "Stop the Presses! Roll The Cameras! It's The Paper" (http:/ / www. washingtonpost. com/ wp-srv/ style/
longterm/ movies/ videos/ thepaperrkempley_a0a41b.htm). Washington Post. . Retrieved 2007-05-08.
External links
• The Paper (http:/ / www. imdb.com/ title/ tt0110771/ ) at the Internet Movie Database
• The Paper (http:/ / www. allrovi.com/ movies/ movie/ v131178) at AllRovi
• The Paper (http:/ / www. rottentomatoes.com/ m/ paper/) at Rotten Tomatoes
• The Paper (http:/ / www. boxofficemojo.com/ movies/ ?id=paper.htm) at Box Office Mojo
The Siege at Ruby Ridge
325
The Siege at Ruby Ridge
The Siege at Ruby
Ridge
Directed by Roger Young
Starring Randy Quaid
Laura Dern
Kirsten Dunst
Running time 175 minutes
Country United States
Language English
The Siege at Ruby Ridge is a 1996 television film directed by Roger Young.
The footage originally aired as a two-part CBS miniseries entitled Ruby Ridge: An American Tragedy on May 19
and May 21, 1996.
[1]
It was based on the book Every Knee Shall Bow by reporter Jess Walter.
[1]
The miniseries was
edited together to become the film, The Siege at Ruby Ridge.
The film is a docudrama about the confrontation between the Weaver family and the US federal government at Ruby
Ridge in 1992.
Cast
• Laura Dern as Vicki Weaver
• Randy Quaid as Randy Weaver
• Kirsten Dunst as Sara Weaver
• Darren E. Burrows as Kevin Harris
• G.W. Bailey as Ralph Coulter
• Bradley Pierce as Sammy Weaver
• Gary Graham as Brian Jackson
Awards
Year Group Award Nominee Result
1996
Satellite Award
[2] Best Miniseries or TV Film The Siege at Ruby Ridge Nominated
Best Actress – Miniseries or Television Film Laura Dern Nominated
1997 YoungStar Award Best Young Actress in a Mini-Series/Made for TV Film Kirsten Dunst Won
The Siege at Ruby Ridge
326
References
[1] Suprynowicz, Vin (1999). "The Courtesan Press, Eager Lapdogs to Tyranny (Chapter 6)". Send in the Waco Killers – Essays on the Freedom
Movement, 1993–1998. Mountain Media. p. 288.
[2] "1997 Awards" (http:/ / www. pressacademy. com/ award_cat/1997/). pressacademy.com. . Retrieved January 3, 2013.
External links
• The Siege at Ruby Ridge (http:// www. imdb.com/ title/ tt0117523/ ) at the Internet Movie Database
• The Siege at Ruby Ridge (http:/ / www. allrovi.com/ movies/ movie/ v227776) at AllRovi
• Siege at Ruby Ridge (1996) (http:// www. rottentomatoes. com/ m/ siege_at_ruby_ridge/) at Rotten Tomatoes
The Slugger's Wife
327
The Slugger's Wife
The Slugger's Wife
Directed by Hal Ashby
Produced by Ray Stark
Written by Neil Simon
Starring Michael O'Keefe
Rebecca De
Mornay
Randy Quaid
Cleavant Derricks
Martin Ritt
Cinematography Caleb Deschanel
Distributed by Columbia Pictures
Release date(s) March 29, 1985
Running time 105 min.
Language English
Budget $16 million
Box office $1,878,561
The Slugger's Wife is a 1985 romantic comedy film about a baseball star who falls for a singer. Written by Neil
Simon, directed by Hal Ashby and produced by Ray Stark, the film stars Michael O'Keefe, Rebecca De Mornay and
Randy Quaid. It was distributed by Columbia Pictures and released on March 29, 1985.
Plot summary
Darryl Palmer is a baseball player for the Atlanta Braves. He enjoys the fame and fringe benefits of bachelor life
until he meets rock singer Debby Huston, falls in love and decides to settle down.
Debby isn't ready to put her professional hopes on hold. But from the moment Darryl meets her, his own career takes
off. He begins a full assault on baseball's single-season home run record of 61 (at that time) and considers Debby a
good-luck charm, wanting her to be there at his games.
Manager Burly DeVito appreciates that Darryl has found a settling influence in his life, but teammates Moose
Granger and Manny Alvarado become increasingly aware of how obsessed Darryl is with Debby and how unhappy
she has become. She feels smothered by her husband, who interferes with her career ambitions and goes into a
jealous funk whenever she goes on the road.
The happy couple breaks up, to the detriment of Darryl's game and his pursuit of one of baseball's greatest feats. He
begins to fail on a regular basis and the team's playoff chances could be in jeopardy. Burly and his players concoct a
plan to have another woman, hidden by shadows, pretend to be Darryl's wife, telling him everything he wants to
hear. It works temporarily, then backfires.
Debby comes back to try to work things out. Darryl does indeed hit his record-breaking home run, but it remains
uncertain whether the couple's relationship can ever be what it once was.
The Slugger's Wife
328
Cast
• Michael O'Keefe as Darryl Palmer
• Rebecca De Mornay as Debby Huston
• Randy Quaid as Moose Granger
• Cleavant Derricks as Manny Alvarado
• Martin Ritt as Burly DeVito
• Lisa Langlois as Aline Cooper
• Loudon Wainwright III as Gary
• Georgann Johnson as Marie DeVito
• Danny Tucker as Coach O'Brien
• Lynn Whitfield as Tina Alvarado
Reaction
The Slugger's Wife was a total critical and commercial failure.
A New York Times review of March 28, 1985 written by Janet Maslin began: "It's a shock to find Neil Simon's name
attached to something as resoundingly unfunny as this."
According to the web site AllMovie.com, the film earned $1,300,000 in box-office receipts.
The film has a 0% favorable rating on the Rotten Tomatoes web site.
External links
• The Slugger's Wife
[1]
at the Internet Movie Database
• The Slugger's Wife
[2]
at Rotten Tomatoes
References
[1] http:/ / www.imdb. com/ title/ tt0090036/
[2] http:/ / www.rottentomatoes. com/ m/ sluggers_wife/
The Wild Life (film)
329
The Wild Life (film)
The Wild Life
The Wild Life movie poster
Directed by Art Linson
Produced by Cameron Crowe
Art Linson
Written by Cameron Crowe
Starring Chris Penn
Ilan Mitchell-Smith
Eric Stoltz
Lea Thompson
Jenny Wright
Rick Moranis
Sherilyn Fenn
Hart Bochner
Music by Eddie Van Halen
Donn Landee
Cinematography James Glennon
Editing by Michael Jablow
Distributed by Universal Pictures
Release date(s) September 28, 1984
Running time 96 min.
Country  United States
Language English
Budget $6 million
Box office $11,020,375
The Wild Life is a 1984 comedy-drama film, written by Cameron Crowe and directed by Art Linson. The film is
only available on VHS and Laserdisc in pan and scan with stereo analog tracks. No DVD version has been released
due to music rights issues. Eddie Van Halen wrote and performed the film's score.
Plot summary
The plot revolves around the characters of three teenagers living in the suburbs of Los Angeles. Bill (Eric Stoltz), has
just graduated from high school and got his first apartment. His younger brother Jim (Ilan Mitchell-Smith), spends a
lot of time practicing with his Nunchakus, getting high, listening to heavy metal on his boombox, and hanging out
with Vietnam vet Charlie (Randy Quaid). Other important characters include Tom (Chris Penn), a hedonistic
high-school wrestling champ who works with Bill at a bowling alley, a trendy department store manager named
Harry (Rick Moranis), Anita (Lea Thompson) who works at a donut shop, and her friend Eileen (Jenny Wright) who
works at the department store with Harry. Anita has a fling with a cop named David (Hart Bochner) who, unknown
to Anita, is married. The three boys set out for a night of fun and craziness at a strip bar and later on have a party at
Bill's apartment.
The Wild Life (film)
330
Cast
• Chris Penn - Tom Drake
• Ilan Mitchell-Smith - Jim Conrad
• Eric Stoltz - Bill Conrad
• Jenny Wright - Eileen
• Lea Thompson - Anita
•• Brin Berliner - Tony
• Rick Moranis - Harry
• Hart Bochner - David Curtiss
•• Susan Rinell - Donna
•• Cari Anne Warder - Julie
• Robert Ridgely - Craig Davis
• Jack Kehoe - Mr. Parker
•• Simone White - Brenda
•• Beth McKinley - Robin
• Michael Bowen - Vince
• Ángel Salazar - Benny
• Randy Quaid - Charlie
• Dick Rude - Eddie
•• Robert Chestnut - Eddie's Friend
•• Reginald Farmer - Reggie
• Sherilyn Fenn - Penny Harlin
• Leo Penn - Tom's Dad
•• Hildy Brooks - Mrs. Conrad
• Lee Ving - Installer
• Dean Devlin - Liquor Store Clerk
• Nancy Wilson - David's Wife
• Ben Stein - Surplus Salesman
• Keone Young - Japanese Bowler
• Kevin Peter Hall - Bouncer
• Kitten Natividad - Stripper
• Cameron Crowe - Cop
• Ronnie Wood - Refrigerator Raider
•• Tommy Swerdlow - Dork
• Tony Epper - Redneck Drunk #1
• Ted White - Redneck Drunk #2
• Gary Riley - Kid #1
The Wild Life (film)
331
References
External links
• The Wild Life (film) (http:// www. imdb. com/ title/ tt0088402/) at the Internet Movie Database
• The Wild Life (film) (http:/ / www. allrovi.com/ movies/ movie/v54558) at AllRovi
• The Wild Life (film) (http:/ / www. rottentomatoes. com/ m/ 1023668-wild_life/) at Rotten Tomatoes
• The Wild Life (film) (http:/ / www. boxofficemojo.com/ movies/ ?id=wildlife.htm) at Box Office Mojo
The Wraith
332
The Wraith
The Wraith
The Wraith film poster
Directed by Mike Marvin
Produced by John Kemeny
Written by Mike Marvin
Starring Charlie Sheen
Sherilyn Fenn
Nick Cassavetes
Randy Quaid
Music by Michael Hoenig
J. Peter Robinson
Cinematography Reed Smoot
Editing by Scott Conrad
Gary Rocklen
Distributed by New Century Vista Film Company
Release date(s) November 21, 1986
Running time 93 min.
Country  United States
Language English
Box office $3,500,000
The Wraith is a 1986 action/science fiction film, directed and written by Mike Marvin.
[1]
The film was later featured
in an episode of Cinema Insomnia.
[2]
The movie is dedicated to the memory of Bruce Ingram, a camera operator who died during the filming of one of the
car chases.
[1]
Plot summary
Packard Walsh (Nick Cassavetes) is the ruthless leader of a gang that steals the cars of people they intimidate into
racing. The entire town fears him, including his girlfriend, Keri Johnson (Sherilyn Fenn), whom he sees as his own
property. She actually doesn't love him and stays with him out of fear so he won't harm her. The town knows he
killed Jamie Hankins, Keri's former boyfriend, but the police cannot solve the murder due to the absence of Jamie's
body. Packard controls the town with his power.
As Packard organizes the races in the outskirts of the town, his tyrannical control of the races is suddenly at risk
when a black Dodge M4S Turbo Interceptor called The Wraith arrives in town. The driver of this car is covered from
head to toe in a racing helmet and black body armor that conceals his identity. The armor is adorned with metal
braces resembling those worn by victims recovering from severe physical trauma. He starts to appear at Packard's
races, where he kills gang members, starting with Oggie (Griffin O'Neal), and then Skank (David Sherrill). Sheriff
Loomis (Randy Quaid) tries to investigate the Turbo Interceptor, but the unidentified driver is impossible to find,
showing only on races organized by Packard.
Meanwhile, a young visitor named Jake Kesey (Charlie Sheen) shows up on his dirt bike to stay in town for a while.
He quickly befriends Keri and also Billy Hankins (Matthew Barry), Jamie's brother, who works at Big Kay's, the
The Wraith
333
local burger shack. Jake has multiple scars around his neck and body, which he keeps as a secret. Keri becomes
interested in him.
As Packard's gang grows smaller with each death, Rughead (Clint Howard), the gang's tech-geek who organizes
races and who did not participate in Jamie's murder, realizes that the gang is being targeted because of the murder
and quits the gang in fear of his life. Keri herself is suspicious of who Jake is. When she confronts him over this, he
tells her to ask Packard, explaining that Packard knows why Jake is here. Jake says that he has come a long way for
Keri and his time is just about over.
Packard, now the last member of his disbanded gang, confronts Keri at Big Kay's over her association with Jake and
forces her to leave with him. When Billy attempts to intervene, Packard beats him and kidnaps Keri, telling her that
they're going to flee to California. When she confronts him with the knowledge that it was him who murdered Jamie,
he becomes physically abusive and tells her that she belongs to him. As he stops the car and pulls a switchblade on
her, they are confronted by the Turbo Interceptor, who challenges Packard to a race. As with the others, Packard dies
in a fiery explosion. No members of Packard's gang are left alive (except Rughead), and Sheriff Loomis abandons
both the investigation and the pursuit of the Turbo Interceptor.
As Keri arrives home that night, the Turbo Interceptor pulls up to the curb and a driver emerges, who reveals himself
to be Jake. Jake tells an incredulous Keri that his new body was the closest he could get to being Jamie again and
tells her that they were destined to be together. He then asks her to wait for him because he has one last thing to take
care of.
Jake goes to Big Kay's, accidentally scaring Billy. He calms Billy down and gives him the keys to the Turbo
Interceptor, the only one of its kind, telling him that his work here is finished, and that "there are instructions in the
glove compartment." When Billy asks, "Who are you, bro?", Jake replies, "You said it, Billy." As Jake rides off on
his dirt bike, Billy comes to the realization that Jake is, in fact, his older brother Jamie.
Jake picks up Keri, who was being watched by Sheriff Loomis, and together they ride off into the night on his dirt
bike.
Cast
• Charlie Sheen as Jake Kesey / The Wraith
• Matthew Barry as Billy Hankins
• Sherilyn Fenn as Keri Johnson
• Randy Quaid as Sheriff Loomis
• Clint Howard as Rughead
• Nick Cassavetes as Packard Walsh
• David Sherrill as Skank
• Jamie Bozian as Gutterboy
• Griffin O'Neal as Oggie
•• Chris Nash as Minty
•• Christopher Bradley as Jamie Hankins
The Wraith
334
Soundtrack
• Tim Feehan – "Where's the Fire"
• Ozzy Osbourne – "Secret Loser"
• Stan Bush – "Hearts vs. Heads"
• Ian Hunter – "Wake Up Call"
• Mötley Crüe – "Smokin' in the Boys Room"
• Robert Palmer – "Addicted to Love"
• Nick Gilder – "Scream of Angels"
• Lion – "Power Love"
• Honeymoon Suite – "Those Were the Days"
• Lion – "Never Surrender"
• Bonnie Tyler – "Matter of the Heart"
• LaMarca – "Hold on Blue Eyes"
• Billy Idol – "Rebel Yell"
• Jill Michaels – "Young Love, Hot Love"
• James House – "Bad Mistake"
Release
The movie was released on VHS by Lightning Video and on LaserDisc by Image Entertainment in 1987. In 2003,
the movie was released on DVD by Platinum Disc Corporation (now Echo Bridge Home Entertainment). In spite of
having no special features and only being shown in pan and scan, there is some footage that was missing from the
original VHS and LaserDisc releases. Lionsgate released a special edition DVD on March 2, 2010.
[3]
References
[1] "After All These Years ... Mike Marvin Talks The Wraith" (http:// www. dreadcentral.com/ news/ 36462/
after-all-these-years-mike-marvin-talks-the-wraith). Dread Central. March 17, 2010. .
[2] "Cinema Insomnia, with your Horror Host, Mister Lobo! – SHOW INFORMATION" (http:// www.cinemainsomnia. com/ show.php). .
Retrieved 20 November 2010.
[3] "The Wraith Roars Back to DVD Courtesy of Lionsgate!" (http:/ / www. dreadcentral.com/ news/ 34871/
the-wraith-roars-back-dvd-courtesy-lionsgate). Dread Central. December 8, 2009. .
External links
• The Wraith (http:/ /www. imdb.com/ title/ tt0092240/ ) at the Internet Movie Database
• The Wraith (http:/ /www. rottentomatoes.com/m/ wraith/) at Rotten Tomatoes
• The Wraith (http:/ /www. allrovi.com/ movies/ movie/ v55553) at AllRovi
• The Wraith Car (http:/ / www. thewraithcar.com/ ) – Official Restoration website (loads slowly)
• The Wraith Facebook site (http:/ / www. facebook.com/ pages/ David-Sherrills-Official-Wraith-Fan-Page/
108419442513963?ref=nf#!/pages/ David-Sherrills-Official-Wraith-Fan-Page/108419442513963)
• The Wraith Website (http:/ / www. freewebs.com/ thewraithmovie/) – The Wraith Fan Site (Details About
DVD/VHS Releases, Photos, Soundtrack and more!)
• The Wraith Music (http:/ / www. youtube.com/ watch?v=9r0SHZ5jlsc) – The Wraith Music Fan Site
The Wraith
335
Notes
True West (play)
True West
Written by Sam Shepard
Characters Austin
Lee
Mom
Saul Kimmer
Date premiered July 10, 1980
Place premiered Magic
Theatre
San Francisco
Original language English
Genre Drama
True West is a play by American playwright Sam Shepard. Like most of his works it is inspired by myths of
American life and popular culture. The play is a more traditional narrative than most of the plays that Shepard has
written.
Some critics consider it the third of a Family Trilogy which includes Curse of the Starving Class (1976) and Buried
Child (1979).
[1]
Others consider it part of a quintet which includes Fool for Love (1983) and A Lie of the Mind
(1985).
[2]
Plot
True West is about the sibling rivalry between two estranged brothers who have reconnected. Austin, the younger
brother, is a Hollywood screenwriter working on a screenplay while house sitting for his mother, who is vacationing
in Alaska. His older brother, Lee, appears at the house after the two have not seen each other for years. Lee is a
drifter and a thief and has been living in the desert. The two are not on good terms, but Austin attempts to appease
his older brother, who is more dominant.
The play begins with brothers, Austin and Lee, sitting in their mother's house. This is the first time they've seen one
another in five years. We learn that their mother is on vacation in Alaska and that Austin is house-sitting. Austin is
trying to work on his screenplay but Lee continually distracts him with nonsense questions. The two brothers seem
on edge with one another. When Austin suggests that Lee leave, Lee threatens to steal things from the neighborhood.
Austin calms him down and the night ends with the two of them on neutral terms.
Lee talks about the security level of their mother’s house, and how Lee went into the desert to find their dad. Austin
then tells Lee to leave the house because a film producer, Saul, is coming by to look at Austin’s screenplay about a
“period piece”. Lee agrees to leave in exchange for Austin's car keys. Austin is reluctant at first but eventually relents
and Lee promises that he will have it back by six. Lee departs.
Saul and Austin are discussing their agreement when Lee enters with a stolen television set. Saul and Lee discuss
golf and make plans to play the next day, excluding Austin because he doesn't play, despite his desire that Lee have
nothing to do with Saul.
Lee proposes a script idea to Saul and Saul reacts positively. Austin begins writing Lee’s story out loud, but stops
saying it doesn't resemble real life. The two brothers fight and eventually Austin asks Lee for his car keys back. Lee
True West (play)
336
assumes Austin is trying to make him leave, and Lee says he can’t be kicked out. Austin says he wouldn't kick him
out because he’s his brother. Lee counters that being brothers means nothing because in-family murders are most
common. Austin assures him they won't be driven to murder over a movie script. The two admit to being jealous of
each other’s lives, Austin kindly returns the car keys and the scene closes with Austin typing Lee’s story.
Lee returns from his golf game with Saul. He tells Austin that Saul has promised him an advance for his story idea
outline that Austin wrote. They celebrate until Lee informs Austin that he expects Austin to write the screenplay.
Austin questions this knowing he has his own work, but Lee continues to inform him that Saul has chosen to drop
Austin's screenplay. Austin warns Lee that he needs to be careful with messing with in this line of work and that he
has a lot at stake on his own project. The scene ends with Austin threatening to leave and go to the desert as Lee tries
to calm him down.
Austin confronts Saul about his decision to buy Lee’s screenplay. He argues that Saul only offered to buy the
screenplay because he lost a bet. Saul wants Austin to write both his and Lee’s story but Austin refuses. Austin
thinks that Lee’s story is illegitimate and not relevant to the time period. Due to Austin’s rejection to the job, Saul
decides to drop Austin’s story and to find a different writer for Lee’s story. The scene ends with Saul making plans
for lunch with Lee.
Austin is drunk and annoying Lee, who is now the one trying to concentrate on a screenplay. Lee makes a bet with
Austin and Austin appears to be going crazy. Austin resolves to leave the house and they continue to bicker about
Lee's ability as a screenwriter. Lee finally asks for Austin's help writing the script and starts drinking with him.
Austin is polishing toasters that he stole while Lee is smashing a typewriter early in the morning. The two continue
to do this while they are carrying on a conversation. Austin is proud of what he has done. Lee wants to see a woman,
but Austin refuses because he is married. Lee throws a fit while on the phone with the operator because he cannot
find a pen to write down what the operator is saying. Austin begs Lee to go to the desert with him because he thinks
there is nothing for him where he is. The brothers make a deal that Austin will write the play for Lee if Lee takes him
to the desert.
In the final scene, the house is ransacked and Lee and Austin are working vigorously on their script. Their mother
returns and Lee first takes notice to her. She is confused by her sons' appearances and the state of her house. Austin
tells her that he and Lee are going to take off into the desert, but Lee says they might have to postpone the trip
because he doesn't think Austin is cut out for the desert life-style. Austin responds by attempting to strangle Lee and
their mother storms out of the house in disarray. Austin finally lets go of Lee, and is worried for a second that he’s
killed his brother. As Austin moves for the door, Lee rises. The two brothers face one another as the lights fade.
Performances
True West was first performed at the Magic Theatre in San Francisco, where Shepard was the resident playwright. It
had its world premiere there on July 10, 1980.
[3]
It was originally directed by Robert Woodruff and starred Peter
Coyote as Austin, Jim Haynie as Lee, Tom Dahlgren as Saul Kimmer, and Carol McElheney as Mom. The
production later moved to Joseph Papp's The Public Theater in New York City, where it starred Tommy Lee Jones
and Peter Boyle.
It was revived by the Steppenwolf Theatre Company, with then fairly unknown actors Gary Sinise (who also
directed the production) and John Malkovich playing the leads. With Shepard's approval, this production made a big
splash when it transferred to New York, where it opened at Cherry Lane Theatre. It ran for 762 performances and,
later in the run, the leads were taken over by James Belushi, Gary Cole, Erik Estrada, Dennis Quaid and Randy
Quaid. The production was so successful that a television recording (featuring Sinise and Malkovich) aired on PBS.
In 2000, Philip Seymour Hoffman and John C. Reilly played the leads on Broadway, where they switched parts
every so often during the run. They solicited to share a single joint Tony Award nomination for Best Actor in a Play
for the production, but were instead each nominated individually. This revival was also nominated for Best Play and
True West (play)
337
Best Director (Matthew Warchus).
In 2002 Bruce Willis and Chad Smith starred in a television movie version staged as a play, filmed in front of a live
audience and directed by Gary Halvorson with Andrew Alburger and Danielle Kennedy in supporting roles.
In 2003, Wilson Milam took a lavish and updated production (replacing the smashing of a typewriter with a modern
working laptop, and using 20 working toasters) to the Bristol Old Vic with Phil Daniels as Lee and Andrew Tiernan
as Austin. The production caused the Bristol Old Vic to remove the first 3 rows of seats for fear that the audience
would be harmed and installed a Perspex shield for safety reasons. It did however receive much critical acclaim from
the British National Press and was cited as Pick of the Week in The Guardian newspaper (October 27, November 2,
2003).
In 2013, Soulpepper, Toronto's largest theatre company, will present Patricia Hamilton, Stuart Hughes and Mike
Ross in a production directed by Nancy Palk, who has many television credits, at the Young Centre for the
Performing Arts.
References
[1] Simard, Rodney. “American Gothic: Sam Shepard's Family Trilogy.” Theatre Annual 41 (1986): 21-36.
[2] Roudané, Matthew (2002). The Cambridge Companion to Sam Shepard. Cambridge University Press, ISBN 9780521777667
[3] True West page from Sam Shepard Website (http:// www. sam-shepard.com/ truewest. html)
Texts
• Shepard, Sam (1984). Seven Plays. New York: Bantam Books. ISBN 0-553-34611-3.
External links
• True West (http:/ / www. ibdb. com/ show. asp?id=8908) at the Internet Broadway Database
• True West (http:// www. lortel.org/LLA_archive/index. cfm?search_by=show& title=True+West) at the
Internet off-Broadway Database
University of Houston
338
University of Houston
The University of Houston
Motto In Tempore (Latin)
Motto in English In Time
Established 1927
Type State university
Endowment
US$589.8 million
[1]
Budget
US$1.01 billion
[2]
President Renu Khator, PhD
Provost John J. Antel, PhD
Academic staff
3,624
[3]
Students
40,747
[3]
Undergraduates
31,367
[3]
Postgraduates
9,380
[3]
Location Houston, Texas (USA)
Campus Main: Urban, 667 acres (2.70 km²)
Sugar Land: Suburban, 250 acres (1.0 km²)
Energy Research Park: Urban, 74 acres (.299 km²)
Former names University of Houston–University Park (1983–1991)
Colors Scarlet red and albino white
Athletics NCAA Division I, Conference USA
Sports Houston Cougars
Nickname Cougars
Mascot Shasta
Affiliations University of Houston System, URA, ORAU, GCU
Website
uh.edu
[4]
The University of Houston (UH
[5]
) is a state research university and the flagship institution of the University of
Houston System.
[6]
Founded in 1927, it is Texas's third-largest university with nearly 41,000 students.
[3]
Its campus
spans 667 acres in southeast Houston, and was known as University of Houston–University Park from 1983 to
1991.
[7][8]
The Carnegie Foundation classifies UH as a Tier One research university.
[9][10][11]
The U.S. News &
World Report ranks the university No. 184 (Tier 1) in its National University Rankings, and No. 103 among top
public universities.
[12][13]
University of Houston
339
The university offers over 300 degree programs through its 12 academic colleges on campus—including programs
leading to professional degrees in law, optometry, and pharmacy.
[14][15][16][17]
The institution conducts nearly
$130 million annually in research, and operates more than 40 research centers and institutes on campus.
[18][19]
Interdisciplinary research includes superconductivity, space commercialization and exploration, biomedical sciences
and engineering, energy and natural resources, and artificial intelligence. Awarding more than 8,200 degrees
annually, UH's alumni base exceeds 260,000.
[3][20]
The economic impact of the university contributes over $3 billion
annually to the Texas economy, while generating about 24,000 jobs.
[21]
The University of Houston hosts a variety of theatrical performances, concerts, lectures, and events. It has over 400
student organizations and 16 intercollegiate sports teams.
[22]
Annual UH events and traditions include The Cat's
Back, Homecoming, and Frontier Fiesta. The university's varsity athletic teams, known as the Houston Cougars, are
members of Conference USA and compete in the NCAA's Division I in all sports. The football team regularly makes
bowl game appearances, and the men's basketball team has made 19 appearances in the NCAA Division I
Tournament—including five Final Four appearances. The men's golf team has won 16 national championships—the
second-most of any NCAA golf program.
History
Founding
The University of Houston began as Houston Junior College (HJC). On March 7, 1927, trustees of the Houston
Independent School District (HISD) Board of Education unanimously passed a resolution that authorized the
founding and operating of a junior college. The junior college was operated and controlled by HISD.
[23][24]
Originally HJC was located in San Jacinto High School and offered only night courses.
[25]
Its first session began
March 7, 1927, with an enrollment of 232 students and 12 faculty.
[23]
This session was primarily held to educate the
future teachers of the junior college, and no freshmen were allowed to enroll. A more accurate date for the official
opening of HJC is September 19, 1927, when enrollment was opened to all persons having completed the necessary
educational requirements.
[26]
The first president of HJC was Edison Ellsworth Oberholtzer, who was the dominant
force in establishing the junior college.
[23][27]
University beginnings
The junior college became eligible to become a university in October 1933 when Governor Miriam A. Ferguson
signed House Bill 194 into law. On April 30, 1934, HISD's Board of Education adopted a resolution to make the
school a four-year institution, and Houston Junior College changed its name to the University of Houston.
[26]
UH's first session as a four-year institution began June 4, 1934, at San Jacinto High School with an enrollment of
682. In 1934, the first campus of the University of Houston was established at the Second Baptist Church at Milam
and McGowen. The next fall, the campus was moved to the South Main Baptist Church on Main Street—between
Richmond Avenue and Eagle Street—where it stayed for the next five years.
[26]
In May 1935, the institution as a
university held its first commencement at Miller Outdoor Theatre.
[28]
University of Houston
340
Built in 1938, the Roy G. Cullen Building is the
first building on campus
In 1936, philanthropists Julius Settegast and Ben Taub donated 110
acres (0.45 km
2
) to the university for use as a permanent location.
[29]
At this time, there was no road that led to the land tract, but in 1937,
the city added Saint Bernard Street, which was later renamed to
Cullen Boulevard.
[28]
It would become a major thoroughfare of the
campus. As a project of the National Youth Administration, workers
were paid fifty cents an hour to clear the land. In 1938, Hugh Roy
Cullen donated $335,000 for the first building to be built at the
location. The Roy Gustav Cullen Memorial Building was dedicated on
June 4, 1939, and classes began the next day. The first full semester of
classes began officially on Wednesday, September 20, 1939.
[26]
In a year after opening the new campus, the university had about 2,500 students. As World War II approached,
enrollment decreased due to the draft and enlistments. The university proposed to be in a new, highly unusual
training activity of the United States Navy, and was one of six institutions selected to give the Primary School in the
Electronics Training Program.
[30]
By the fall of 1943, there were only about 1,100 regular students at UH; thus, the
300 or so servicemen contributed in sustaining the faculty and facilities of the Engineering College. This training at
UH continued until March 1945, with a total of 4,178 students.
[31]
On March 12, 1945, Senate Bill 207 was signed into law, removing the control of the University of Houston from
HISD and placing it into the hands of a board of regents.
[26]
In 1945, the university—which had grown too large and
complex for the Houston school board to administer—became a private university.
University of Houston, circa 1950
In March 1947, the regents authorized creation of a law school at the
university. In 1949, the M.D. Anderson Foundation made a
$1.5 million gift to UH for the construction of a dedicated library
building on the campus. By 1950, the educational plant at UH
consisted of 12 permanent buildings. Enrollment was more than 14,000
with a full-time faculty of more than 300.
[23]
KUHF, the university
radio station, signed on in November. By 1951, UH was the
second-largest university in the State of Texas and was the fastest
growing university in the United States.
[32]
State university
A.D. Bruce Religion Center, named after the
university's third president
In 1953, the university established KUHT—the first educational
television station in the nation—after the four-year long Federal
Communications Commission's television licensing freeze ended.
[23]
During this period, however, the university as a private institution was
facing financial troubles. Tuition failed to cover rising costs, and in
turn, tuition increases caused a drop in enrollment.
After a lengthy battle between supporters of the University of Houston,
led by school president A.D. Bruce,
[33]
and forces from state
universities geared to block the change, Senate Bill 2 was passed on
May 23, 1961, enabling the university to enter the state system in
1963.
[23]
As the University of Houston celebrated its 50th anniversary, the Texas Legislature formally established the
University of Houston System in 1977. Philip G. Hoffman resigned from his position as president of UH and became
University of Houston
341
the first chancellor of the University of Houston System. The University of Houston became the oldest and largest
me