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The Warwick Davis Handbook - Everything you need to know about Warwick Davis

The Warwick Davis Handbook - Everything you need to know about Warwick Davis

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Published by Emereo Publishing
Warwick Ashley Davis (born 3 February 1970) is an English actor. He played the title characters in Willow and the Leprechaun film series, and appeared in Star Wars Episode VI: Return of the Jedi and the Harry Potter films. Davis has also starred as a fictionalized version of himself in the sitcom Life's Too Short, written and directed by Ricky Gervais and Stephen Merchant. Because of his dwarfism, Davis stands 3 ft 6 in (1.07 m) tall.This book is your ultimate resource for Warwick Davis. Here you will find the most up-to-date information, photos, and much more.In easy to read chapters, with extensive references and links to get you to know all there is to know about Warwick Davis's Early life, Career and Personal life right away. A quick look inside: Warwick Davis, An Idiot Abroad, Anthony Daniels, Cambridgeshire, Caravan of Courage: An Ewok Adventure, Celebrity Scissorhands, Chinthurst School, City of London Freemen's School, David Tomblin, Epsom, Ewoks: The Battle for Endor, Gulliver's Travels (TV miniseries), Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince (film), Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix (film), Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone (film), Kenny Baker (English actor), Labyrinth (film), Leprechaun: Back 2 tha Hood, Leprechaun: In the Hood, Leprechaun (film), Leprechaun 2, Leprechaun 3, Leprechaun 4: In Space, Life's Too Short, Marvin the Paranoid Android, Prince Valiant (1997 film), Ray (film), Reepicheep, Return of the Ewok, Ricky Gervais, Skinned Deep, Spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia congenita, Star Wars, Star Wars Episode I: The Phantom Menace…and more pages!Contains selected content from the highest rated entries, typeset, printed and shipped, combining the advantages of up-to-date and in-depth knowledge with the convenience of printed books. A portion of the proceeds of each book will be donated to the Wikimedia Foundation to support their mission.
Warwick Ashley Davis (born 3 February 1970) is an English actor. He played the title characters in Willow and the Leprechaun film series, and appeared in Star Wars Episode VI: Return of the Jedi and the Harry Potter films. Davis has also starred as a fictionalized version of himself in the sitcom Life's Too Short, written and directed by Ricky Gervais and Stephen Merchant. Because of his dwarfism, Davis stands 3 ft 6 in (1.07 m) tall.This book is your ultimate resource for Warwick Davis. Here you will find the most up-to-date information, photos, and much more.In easy to read chapters, with extensive references and links to get you to know all there is to know about Warwick Davis's Early life, Career and Personal life right away. A quick look inside: Warwick Davis, An Idiot Abroad, Anthony Daniels, Cambridgeshire, Caravan of Courage: An Ewok Adventure, Celebrity Scissorhands, Chinthurst School, City of London Freemen's School, David Tomblin, Epsom, Ewoks: The Battle for Endor, Gulliver's Travels (TV miniseries), Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince (film), Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix (film), Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone (film), Kenny Baker (English actor), Labyrinth (film), Leprechaun: Back 2 tha Hood, Leprechaun: In the Hood, Leprechaun (film), Leprechaun 2, Leprechaun 3, Leprechaun 4: In Space, Life's Too Short, Marvin the Paranoid Android, Prince Valiant (1997 film), Ray (film), Reepicheep, Return of the Ewok, Ricky Gervais, Skinned Deep, Spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia congenita, Star Wars, Star Wars Episode I: The Phantom Menace…and more pages!Contains selected content from the highest rated entries, typeset, printed and shipped, combining the advantages of up-to-date and in-depth knowledge with the convenience of printed books. A portion of the proceeds of each book will be donated to the Wikimedia Foundation to support their mission.

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Published by: Emereo Publishing on Feb 25, 2013
Copyright:Traditional Copyright: All rights reservedISBN:9781486467334
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02/05/2016

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9781486467334

Sections

  • Warwick Davis
  • An Idiot Abroad
  • Anthony Daniels
  • Cambridgeshire
  • Caravan of Courage: An Ewok Adventure
  • Caravan of Courage: An Ewok Adventure
  • Celebrity Scissorhands
  • Chinthurst School
  • City of London Freemen's School
  • City of London Freemen's School [3]
  • David Tomblin
  • Epsom
  • Ewoks: The Battle for Endor
  • Gulliver's Travels (TV miniseries)
  • Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince (film)
  • Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince
  • Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix (film)
  • Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix
  • Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone (film)
  • Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone
  • Kenny Baker (English actor)
  • Labyrinth (film)
  • Leprechaun: Back 2 tha Hood
  • Leprechaun: Back 2 tha hood
  • Leprechaun: In the Hood
  • Leprechaun (film)
  • Leprechaun 2
  • Leprechaun 3
  • Leprechaun 4: In Space
  • Life's Too Short
  • Marvin the Paranoid Android
  • Prince Valiant (1997 film)
  • Ray (film)
  • Reepicheep
  • Return of the Ewok
  • Ricky Gervais
  • Skinned Deep
  • Spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia congenita
  • Star Wars
  • Star Wars Episode I: The Phantom Menace
  • Star Wars Episode I: The Phantom Menace
  • Star Wars Episode VI: Return of the Jedi
  • Star Wars Episode VI: Return of the Jedi
  • Stephen Merchant
  • The 10th Kingdom
  • The Chronicles of Narnia (TV serial)
  • The Great British Bake Off
  • The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy (film)
  • The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy
  • Val Kilmer
  • Verne Troyer
  • Yaxley, Cambridgeshire
  • Yoda
  • Zorro (1990 TV series)
  • Article Sources and Contributors
  • Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors
  • License

Topic relevant selected content from the highest rated entries, typeset, printed and shipped.

Combine the advantages of up-to-date and in-depth knowledge with the convenience of printed books. A portion of the proceeds of each book will be donated to the Wikimedia Foundation to support their mission: to empower and engage people around the world to collect and develop educational content under a free license or in the public domain, and to disseminate it e ectively and globally. e content within this book was generated collaboratively by volunteers. Please be advised that nothing found here has necessarily been reviewed by people with the expertise required to provide you with complete, accurate or reliable information. Some information in this book maybe misleading or simply wrong. e publisher does not guarantee the validity of the information found here. If you need speci c advice (for example, medical, legal, nancial, or risk management) please seek a professional who is licensed or knowledgeable in that area. Sources, licenses and contributors of the articles and images are listed in the section entitled “References”. Parts of the books may be licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. A copy of this license is included in the section entitled “GNU Free Documentation License” All used third-party trademarks belong to their respective owners.

Contents
Articles
Warwick Davis An Idiot Abroad Anthony Daniels Cambridgeshire Caravan of Courage: An Ewok Adventure Celebrity Scissorhands Chinthurst School City of London Freemen's School David Tomblin Epsom Ewoks: The Battle for Endor Gulliver's Travels (TV miniseries) Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince (film) Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix (film) Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone (film) Kenny Baker (English actor) Labyrinth (film) Leprechaun: Back 2 tha Hood Leprechaun: In the Hood Leprechaun (film) Leprechaun 2 Leprechaun 3 Leprechaun 4: In Space Life's Too Short Marvin the Paranoid Android Prince Valiant (1997 film) Ray (film) Reepicheep Return of the Ewok Ricky Gervais Skinned Deep Spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia congenita Star Wars Star Wars Episode I: The Phantom Menace 1 6 12 15 23 28 31 33 37 41 47 53 57 75 92 107 109 124 127 130 133 136 139 142 149 155 157 161 164 168 185 187 189 211

Star Wars Episode VI: Return of the Jedi Stephen Merchant The 10th Kingdom The Chronicles of Narnia (TV serial) The Great British Bake Off The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy (film) Val Kilmer Verne Troyer Yaxley, Cambridgeshire Yoda Zorro (1990 TV series)

229 240 247 252 259 271 278 288 292 294 299

References
Article Sources and Contributors Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors 304 316

Article Licenses
License 319

England Actor Occupation Years active 1983–present Spouse(s) Children Samantha Davis (m. written and directed by Ricky Gervais and Stephen Merchant.[3] . Surrey. 2003) Website warwickdavis. 1997) Harrison Davis (b. On the set of Return of the Jedi. his grandmother heard a radio advert calling for people who were 4 ft. Mark Hamill bought Davis every single Star Wars figure he did not have. Davis has also starred as a fictionalized version of himself in the sitcom Life's Too Short. and appeared in Star Wars Episode VI: Return of the Jedi and the Harry Potter films. Surrey.[4] Davis also has a younger sister. it was a dream come true.07 m) tall. 1991) Annabel Davis (b.[3] Early life Warwick Davis was born in Epsom. Davis stands 3 ft 6 in (1. to an insurance broker and his wife. tall or shorter to be in Star Wars Episode VI: Return of the Jedi. He played the title characters in Willow and the Leprechaun film series. When Davis was 11. Because of his dwarfism.Warwick Davis 1 Warwick Davis Warwick Davis Davis in 2007 Born Warwick Ashley Davis 3 February 1970 Epsom.com [1] Warwick Ashley Davis (born 3 February 1970)[2] is an English actor.[5] To Davis. He was educated at Chinthurst School and later the City of London Freemen's School. who was a fan of the Star Wars films.

In 1993.[7] Davis played a white-moustached Flitwick in the first two films. In December 2006. specifically in Prince Caspian. He then moved to television to be in the BBC Television adaptation of the classic The Chronicles of Narnia. Davis starred in the film version of The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy. but when Kenny Baker. who also starred. In 1987. titled Return of the Ewok. Davis played the role of Professor Filius Flitwick in the Harry Potter films.[10] . Davis will be returning to New Wimbledon Theatre to reprise his role in Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs.[8] In 2006. which was written with Davis specifically in mind.Warwick Davis 2 Career He was originally cast as an extra Ewok. as the "body" of Marvin the Paranoid Android (the voice was provided by Alan Rickman). who would tilt his head from side to side whenever he saw something strange. In addition to playing Flitwick. Davis played the role of the goblin Griphook in Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows. Davis was the subject of a short mockumentary film about his experience as Wicket. He also appeared as a contestant on the 2007 series of Children in Need reality show Celebrity Scissorhands. adding to his previous involvement in TV adaptations of the Chronicles of Narnia series. fell ill. brown hair and a trimmed moustache. in which he played Nikabrik the Dwarf. and The Silver Chair (as Glimfeather) and an episode of Zorro filmed in Madrid. who was originally going to be Wicket. which received a Royal Premiere before the Prince and Princess of Wales. a gambler sitting next to Watto at the Podrace. He then returned to the Star Wars universe. in an episode of BBC's comedy series Extras as a satirical version of himself. playing three roles in Star Wars Episode I: The Phantom Menace: Weazel. despite the role being played previously by fellow dwarf actor Verne Troyer. Willow was his first opportunity to act with his face visible. alongside fellow Harry Potter star Daniel Radcliffe. The unreleased film was a fictional look at his decision to become an actor and act in the film and his transformation into Wicket the Ewok. Davis appeared in The Chronicles of Narnia: Prince Caspian. Davis starred as a fictional version of himself in Life's Too Short. directed by special effects artist Gabriel Bartalos. He co-starred with Val Davis with fellow Star Wars actor Anthony Daniels in 2010 Kilmer in the film. Davis starred in the pantomime Snow White and the Seven Dwarves at the Opera House. During production on the film. Davis was called to Elstree Studios in London to meet with Ron Howard and George Lucas to discuss a new film project called Willow. Wald.[9] In December 2012. [6] who was Anakin's Rodian buddy. with short. Flitwick is younger looking. David Tomblin. Davis played the character "Plates" in the indie film Skinned Deep.[4] Davis based his Ewok movements on his dog. In 2004. George Lucas picked Warwick to be the new Wicket after seeing how he carried himself as an Ewok. The Voyage of the Dawn Treader (as Reepicheep). Davis appeared. he played the villainous Irish goblin in Leprechaun. In the fourth film. and Yoda in some scenes where Yoda was seen walking. Manchester. written by Ricky Gervais and Stephen Merchant. Davis reprised his role as Wicket in the ABC made-for-TV films Caravan of Courage: An Ewok Adventure and Ewoks: The Battle for Endor. made by Return of the Jedi's first assistant director. and then a black-haired unnamed chorus conductor (presumably Flitwick but not credited as such) for the third installment of the series. and again in 2007-08 at the New Wimbledon Theatre.

In 2004. Davis published his autobiography. with a foreword by George Lucas. Willow. Labyrinth and the Harry Potter series are represented by the agency. Warrick Wicket W. Davis is married and has two children. whilst his children Annabelle (b. 1997) and Harrison (b. the agency also began representing actors over seven feet tall who had also suffered from being confined to "niche" roles. Warrick Wicket W. He has said the only real drawback to being small was the associated health problems. Davis has said. in 1995 Davis co-founded.[13] Samantha is the daughter of his business partner Peter Burroughs. In April 2010.Warwick Davis 3 Other In addition to his acting career.[11] In January 2013 he appeared in a Comic Relief episode of The Great British Bake Off. Cambridgeshire. "As you get older. the talent agency Willow Management. Warrick Goblin Corps Title Role Unreleased Notes . Of his own dwarfism. Size Matters Not: The Extraordinary Life and Career of Warwick Davis. Personal life Unlike most dwarfs (70%) who have a condition called achondroplasia. with fellow dwarf actor and father-in-law Peter Burroughs. Many of Davis's co-stars and fellow dwarf actors from Star Wars. His wife. 1971) has achondroplasia. Davis' dwarfism is caused by an extremely rare genetic condition called spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia congenita (SED). Filmography Year 1982 Return of the Ewok 1983 Star Wars Episode VI: Return of the Jedi 1984 Caravan of Courage: An Ewok Adventure 1985 Ewoks: The Battle for Endor 1986 Labyrinth 1986 The Princess and the Dwarf 1987 Conor Finan's Adventures in Naas 1988 Willow 1988 Prince Caspian 1990 The Silver Chair 1991 Zorro 1993 Leprechaun 1994 Leprechaun 2 1995 Leprechaun 3 1996 Gulliver's Travels 1996 Leprechaun 4: In Space 1997 Prince Valiant 1998 A Very Unlucky Leprechaun Willow Ufgood Reepicheep Glimfeather Don Alfonso Leprechaun Leprechaun Leprechaun Grildrig Leprechaun Pechet Lucky Episode: "The Jewelled Sword" Wicket W. winning that episode's title of "Comic Relief Star Baker". and our joints wear a lot quicker than for people of average height". you can suffer from painful hips. and the sister of actress Hayley Burroughs. 2003) also have SED. Samantha (b. [12] who live in Yaxley near Peterborough. that specialises in representing actors under five feet tall. Over 40 members of Willow Management were cast as goblins in Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows – Part 2.

Warwick Davis 1999 Star Wars Episode I: The Phantom Menace Wald Young Greedo Extra 1999 The New Adventures of Pinocchio 1999 The White Pony 2000 The 10th Kingdom 2000 Leprechaun: In the Hood 2001 Snow White 2001 Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone 2002 Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets 2003 Leprechaun: Back 2 tha Hood 2004 Ray 2004 Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban 2004 Skinned Deep 2005 The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy 2005 Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire 2005 Small Town Folk 2005 Extras 2007 Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix 2008 Agent One-Half 2008 The Chronicles of Narnia: Prince Caspian 2009 Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince 2009 Tell Him Next Year 2010 Merlin Dwarf Edgar Rod Acorn the Dwarf Leprechaun Saturday Professor Flitwick Goblin Bank Teller Professor Flitwick Leprechaun Oberon Professor Flitwick Plates Marvin the Paranoid Android Voiced by Alan Rickman Professor Flitwick Knackerman Himself Professor Flitwick Agent One-Half Nikabrik Professor Flitwick Santa's Elf Grettir [14] Short film Episode: "The Eye of the Phoenix" 4 2010 Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows – Part 1 Griphook[15] 2011 Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows – Part 2 Griphook Professor Flitwick 2011 Life's Too Short 2012 An Idiot Abroad 2012 Chingari [17] Porridge [18] Series 7. Episode 12 Himself Himself [16] [15] Best Ensemble Performance Creator Series 3 2013 Doctor Who .

[8] Skinned Deep (http:/ / www. uk/ tvshowbiz/ article-1265091/ To-play-Yoda-thrilled-I-Warwick-Davis-reveals-3ft-6in-stop-making-big-Hollywood. warwickdavis. com/ 2010/ 06/ merlin-star-colin-morgan-talks-dragons-and-guest-stars/ ). dailymail.Warwick Davis Q&A" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 24 December 2011. External links • Official website (http://warwickdavis. co.Sky1 HD" (http:/ / sky1. "'Harry Potter' Star Warwick Davis Recalls Emotional Final Day On Set" (http:/ / www.co. uk/ [2] Davis.Doctor Who . Retrieved 24 December 2011. co. . 20 May 2009. com/ title/ tt304722/ ) at the Internet Movie Database [9] 'Life's Too Short' BBC Pilot (http:/ / www. "Warwick Davis: My family values" (http:/ / www. [12] Warwick Davis takes his children and wife on day out to television studios (http:/ / www. Retrieved 24 December 2011. Josh (29 June 2010). Daily Mail. The Guardian. MCM Buzz. uk/ tvshowbiz/ article-1180837/ Spoiler-alert-Scenes-instalment-Harry-Potter-heartbreaking-farewell-faithful-friend. November 7. [11] Davis. Retrieved 2012-11-11. imdb. Warwick (2011). co. dailymail. cms [18] "BBC . com/ shows/ snow-white/ new-wimbledon-theatre/ #overview_tab). uk/ lifeandstyle/ 2012/ mar/ 31/ warwick-davis-my-family-values). [4] "Warwick Davis: the quintessential Ewok" (http:/ / news. com/ nri/ cinema/ Hollywood-actor-Warwick-Davis-shoots-for-Chingari/ articleshow/ 14668313. thrilled I was: Warwick Davis reveals how being only 3ft 6in couldn't stop him making it big in Hollywood" (http:/ / www. George (22 April 2010). Warwick. . John Wiley & Sons. MTV Movie News. com/ newspapers?id=j89JAAAAIBAJ& sjid=fgsNAAAAIBAJ& pg=3894. . 24 November 1984. [14] Truitt.com/name/nm1116/) at the Internet Movie Database • Willow Management (http://willowmanagement. Retrieved 31 March 2012.co. [17] http:/ / timesofindia. usaweekend. com/ an-idiot-abroad/ warwick-davis-joins-karl-pilkington-for-the-short-way-round). 22 April 2010 [10] "Snow White Wimbledon Tickets .uk. The News and Courier. ISBN 978-1-84513-531-7. com/ news/ articles/ 1642657/ harry-potter-star-recalls-emotional-final-day-on-set. Retrieved 2012-11-17. co. [6] Warwick Davis. html) . co. "Warwick Davis talks exclusively to MCMBUZZ!" (http:/ / www. [16] "Warwick Davis joins Karl Pilkington for Ricky Gervais' An Idiot Abroad 3: The Short Way Round . jhtml). p. [3] Swann. uk/ lifes-too-short-bbc-pilot-1). . p. Size Matters Not: The Extraordinary Life and Career of Warwick Davis. Nick (31 March 2012). ISBN 1-118-11939-8. Retrieved 2012-11-12.Blogs . Warwickdavis. 352. uk/ blogs/ doctorwho/ articles/ Confirmed-for-2013-Cybermen-and-Stellar-Cast). "'Merlin' star Colin Morgan talks dragons and guest stars" (http:/ / whosnews. "To play Yoda.2012 Pantomime New Wimbledon Theatre" (http:/ / www. guardian. Aurum Press.9100097& dq=warwick-davis& hl=en). Retrieved 24 June 2010. mtv. Lucas.uk/) . google. html). bbc. Liam (29 July 2011). com/ 2011/ 07/ 29/ warwick-davis-talks-exclusively-to-mcmbuzz/ ). 11 April 2010. html). . Brian (23 June 2010). . xv. 2012. Size Matters Not: The Extraordinary Life and Career of Warwick Davis (http:/ / books. sky. com/ books?id=wi2PvSo3AkEC& lpg=PA17& ots=wRhMOWxYGQ& dq="Warwick Davis" birth& pg=PR15#v=onepage& q=february 3& f=false).uk) • Warwick Davis (http://www.imdb. [15] "Spoiler alert! Scenes from the last instalment of Harry Potter and a heartbreaking farewell to a faithful friend" (http:/ / www. . Retrieved 24 December 2011. google. Mail Online. . timeout. co. [5] "'Star Wars' .co. uk/ tvshowbiz/ article-2084372/ Warwick-Davis-takes-children-wife-day-television-studios. Retrieved 2012-12-18. atgtickets. indiatimes. 11 September 2006.Daily Mail [13] McGrath. Retrieved 24 December 2011.Warwick Davis 5 References [1] http:/ / warwickdavis. com/ film/ news/ 1397/ ). [7] Wigler.Confirmed for 2013: Cybermen and Stellar Cast" (http:/ / www. USA Weekend. dailymail. mcmbuzz. co. Time Out London.

An Idiot Abroad 6 An Idiot Abroad An Idiot Abroad Also known as An Idiot Abroad 2: The Bucket List An Idiot Abroad 3: The Short Way Round Comedy Travel documentary Richard Yee Krishnendu Majumdar Jamie Jay Johnson Benjamin Green Luke Campbell Genre Format Directed by Starring Karl Pilkington Ricky Gervais Stephen Merchant (Series 1-2) Warwick Davis (Series 3) Theme music composer Vik Sharma Opening theme Ending theme Country of origin Language(s) No. adverts) Production company(s) Mentorn Media (Series 1) RiSK (Series 2) RiSK / Me & You Productions (Series 3) Distributor BBC Worldwide Broadcast Original channel Sky1 . of series No. of episodes "Seven Wonders" "The Wrestler" United Kingdom English 3 19 (List of episodes) Production Executive producer(s) Ricky Gervais Stephen Merchant Richard Yee Krish Majumdar Dan Goldsack Producer(s) Richard Yee Krishnendu Majumdar Luke Campbell Running time 60mins (inc.

However. but has since started airing in other countries.An Idiot Abroad Picture format Audio format Original run 16:9 (HDTV 1080i) Dolby Digital 23 September 2010 – 14 December 2012 External links Website [1] [2] 7 Production website An Idiot Abroad is a British travel documentary television series broadcast on Sky1. this is not one of Pilkington's destinations because Gervais and Merchant thought that he might feel too comfortable in Rome. suffering through a number of detours. Pilkington is starting to regret it already. The original concept. . These include training as a luchador. traveling the desert on a camel. To keep the series interesting. The camera man coaxes him along. this week. instead he visits the Great Pyramids in Egypt (which is the last of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World to remain intact). pitched by Gervais. It was authored by Pilkington and gives a deeper insight into his feelings on what he was experiencing. Gervais produced a Christmas special mini-series which aired in the UK in late 2012. Gervais said. Gervais and Merchant went behind Pilkington's back and arranged surprises for him to make him hate it even more than the first.[3] created by Ricky Gervais and Stephen Merchant and starring Karl Pilkington. "We started planning the route for An Idiot Abroad 3: The Short Way Round. We don't plan it." An Idiot Abroad 3 did not feature Stephen Merchant who was busy with other projects."[7] A book titled The Travel Diaries Of Karl Pilkington was published shortly after the series. most of each episode focuses on Pilkington’s reactions to cultural differences and idiosyncrasies in the countries he visits. Pilkington agreed to do a second series on the condition that he was to choose what he would do and that he got to use proper toilets. as well as spin-off books published by Canongate Books. Pilkington replied "I'm in a programme called Idiot Abroad. The second series shows Pilkington performing activities from a general (but not his) "bucket list". It was confirmed by the show's producers that Pilkington has no prior warning about these [7] situations. was to show Pilkington and Warwick Davis travelling around England on a bike together. Despite the stated focus of visiting the wonders.[6] An Idiot Abroad documents Karl Pilkington's journeys to foreign countries under the guise of visiting the New Seven Wonders of the World. It's only a three-part special but we've decided to make it a bit more global as opposed to 'around Kent for a few days'. To make things more interesting. Though the New Seven Wonders of the World include the Colosseum in Rome. He ends up visiting more places than he did in the first series. and dancing with a samba school in a Carnival parade. he doesn't know what's going to happen.[4][5] Overview Originally titled Karl Pilkington's Seven Wonders Of The World. When asked why he had returned for a second series after being continuously adamant that he was not going to. The show has now finished as Ricky Gervais and Karl Pilkington are now involved in a new series called Derek." Despite saying that there would not be a third series. job offers aren't wizzin' in. Gervais commented: "This is a [more real] documentary than most others you'll ever see on television. so Merchant and Gervais make him travel while they themselves stay in the UK and monitor his progress. There is also an official podcast to accompany the programme and book. to assign him tasks often not related to why he believed he was visiting the country in the first place.[4] The ongoing theme of both the television series and the books is that Pilkington has no interest in global travel. the final outcome featured the pair travelling to China from Venice via Eastern Europe and India. [8] The programme was originally broadcast in the UK on Sky1. Gervais and Merchant unexpectedly call Pilkington during each trip. loosely based on the journey of Marco Polo.

locations and events that Pilkington experiences over both series one and two of An Idiot Abroad. On 21 December. and China is the only country that appears in all three series. It featured Karl and Warwick Davis travelling around the Marco Polo route. and series two is due to be released on DVD on 8 January 2013. a fourth episode entitled "A Commentary" was broadcast. The first series was released on DVD on 10 January 2012. China.Bethlehem (Episode 3) West Bank – The Dead Sea (Episode 3) .Jerusalem (Episode 3) West Bank . Series 3 A three-part Christmas special was shown from 30 November 2012 to 14 December 2012 on Sky1.850. The third series was released on DVD in the UK on 24 December 2012. Karl and Ricky commentating Episode 3.659.000 viewers.000 viewers.000 viewers based on BARB.241. it featured Warwick. locations and events featured This is a list of countries. as well as a box set featuring series 1.An Idiot Abroad 8 Reception Series 1 The very first episode of An Idiot Abroad aired on 23 September 2010 at 9:00pm on Sky1 and achieved an official audience figure of 1. Transmissions Series 1 2 3 Start date End date Episodes 8 8 3 23 September 2010 11 November 2010 23 September 2011 11 November 2011 30 November 2012 14 December 2012 DVD release The first series was released in the UK on 15 November 2010 for DVD and Blu-ray. Series 1 – The Eight Wonders: • • • • • China – Great Wall of China (Episode 1) India – Taj Mahal (Episode 2) Israel . making An Idiot Abroad the fourth most popular non-terrestrial program that day. 2 and 3.918. The second series was released on 21 November 2011. India and the USA are the only countries that he visits more than once. The first series was released on Blu-ray in the US on 16 November 2010. making it the most watched Sky1 and non-terrestrial programme since 2005. These audience figures were Sky1's best viewer numbers for a debuting show since Terry Pratchett's Going Postal four months earlier. as well as a box set featuring series 1 and 2. and a Blu-ray box set of the first and second series on 29 November 2011. List of countries. The program has increased its viewing figures throughout its run with episode 3 attracting 1. Series 2 The show returned on 23 September 2011 at 9:00pm on Sky1 with 2.000 viewers and episode 7 attracted 1.

it’s nearly impossible not to fall apart laughing.Macao (Episode 3) 9 Series 2 – The Bucket List: Series 3 – The Short Way Round:[9] Books An Idiot Abroad: The Travel Diaries of Karl Pilkington is the fourth book written by Karl Pilkington. it’s nearly impossible not to fall apart laughing at poor Pilkington’s fate. An Idiot Abroad is ridiculously funny and even when it’s clear that Gervais and Merchant – pulling the strings back home in England and communicating with Pilkington via cell phone (some of these exchanges are scripted and sound added post-production.S. A second book entitled The Further Adventures of An Idiot Abroad was released on 20 September 2012 by Canongate Books. Route 66 (Episode 6) Japan – Climbing Mount Fuji (Episode 7) Italy – Venice (Episode 1) Republic of Macedonia (Episode 1) India (Episode 2) China (Episode 3) Hong Kong . heart and unique insights into other cultures. Critical reception The show has received widespread acclaim. Tim Goodman of The Hollywood Reporter praised the show."[11] WhatCulture responded positively to the first series saying "It’s the funniest documentary I have ever seen and maybe even the best. I will say that An Idiot Abroad has the potential to be a very memorable TV travel series. packed full of humour. This book is an accompaniment to the television series An Idiot Abroad."[12] TV Shows on DVD gave the first series a positive review saying "I've been to places featured in three of the episodes. saying "At times. It was released through Canongate Books."[13] . since cell coverage is not available in remote areas) – are having a cruel laugh.An Idiot Abroad • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Jordan – Petra (Episode 3) Mexico – Chichen Itza (Episode 4) Egypt – Great Pyramid of Giza (Episode 5) Brazil – Christ the Redeemer (Episode 6) Peru – Machu Picchu (Episode 7) New Zealand – Bungee jumping (Episode 1) Vanuatu – Visit a desert island (Episode 1) Vanuatu – Land diving (Episode 1) Russia – Trans-Siberian Railway (Episode 2) Mongolia – Mongolian wrestling (Episode 2) China – Kingdom of the Little People (Episode 2) Thailand – Songkran (Episode 3) Australia – Swimming with sharks (Episode 3) United States of America – Whale watching in Alaska (Episode 4) South Africa – Safari (Episode 5) Uganda – Bwindi Impenetrable Forest (Episode 5) United States of America – U. but it is unclear if a third book will be released.[10] The second book features a conclusion where An Idiot Abroad 3 is featured. and it was a blast watching Karl experience them.

the series airs on Discovery Channel. the series airs on NRK as Ein idiot på tur (A Travelling Idiot). In Spain. the series airs on Discovery Channel."[16] Ricky Gervais believes the third series to be the show's best. In Iceland. In Estonia. If you miss it. saying "Despite my initial fears that this looked like the sort of unwelcome meddling that could kill off a brilliant TV show for good. the series airs on Discovery Channel and Discovery Science In the Czech Republic. The laughter he inevitably provokes. the series airs on Discovery Channel as Idiota za granicą. In Slovakia. .[18] In Finland. In Italy." Ian Hyland of The Daily Mail praised the third series and Warwick Davis joining. the series airs on Canal+ Spain. you'll miss out. In France. Sometimes he complements Pilkington perfectly and they make a wonderful double act. the series airs on Discovery Channel as Prostak za granitsey. In the Netherlands. the series airs on Discovery Channel. the series airs on Planete No Limite as Stupide Touriste (Stupid Tourist). In New Zealand. In Norway. In Bulgaria. the series airs on TV3. the series airs on Discovery Channel. the series airs on Discovery Channel. Far from cramping Pilkington’s style Davis greatly enhances it. In Germany.An Idiot Abroad MSN gave the second series a positive review: "An Idiot Abroad 2 may dress up its premise as 'bucket list. In South Africa. In Hungary."[15] Shiny Potato said 10 "Warwick Davis is a welcome addition to the series. In Romania.[17] International broadcast • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • In Australia." and gave the first episode four stars. long may Ricky and Steven continue to torture the wonderful Mr. the series airs on Discovery Channel as Egy idióta külföldön. the series airs on TLC. the series airs on Discovery Channel In Russia. the series airs on GNT as Um Turista Idiota (An Idiotic Tourist). regardless of the situation. In Indonesia.5 stars saying "While the Seven Wonders presented a limited supply of seven episodes. In Latvia. the series airs on ITC Skjarinn.[14] WhatCulture gave the first episode of the second series 4. the series airs on Discovery Channel. And if the quality continues to remain at the standard demonstrated in episode one of this new series. the bucket seems to offer a wide plethora of material that could cover several seasons. Because this first episode accounted for five of the ten laugh-out-loud moments available on TV this week. the series airs on Discovery Channel as Scemo di viaggio. In Denmark. the series airs on DMAX as Die wundersamen Reisen des Karl Pilkington (The miraculous journeys of Karl Pilkington).' but it's really a fish-out-of-water presentation of Karl Pilkington's idiot-savant credentials. In Canada. the series airs on TV3+. make this a must-see. In Slovenia. the series airs on Discovery Channel. the series airs on Travel and Living Channel (TLC). the series airs on Discovery Channel. I have to accept that Gervais may have known what he was doing all along. the series airs on Sveriges Television as En idiot på resa (An Idiot on the Road). the series airs on YLE Teema as Ääliö Ulkomailla (A Moron Abroad). Pilkington. In Serbia. the series airs on Discovery Channel. the series airs on Sky1. In Brazil. In Sweden. the series airs on Discovery Channel. the series airs on One HD and Network Ten.[19] In Ireland. In India. as he only seems to make Karl’s reactions worse. In Belgium. In Poland.

co.sky. uk/ home/ moslive/ article-2240347/ An-Idiot-Abroad-reviewed-Ian-Hyland-What-perfect-pair-idiots. uk/ culture/ tvandradio/ 8009209/ An-Idiot-Abroad-Ricky-Gervais-and-Stephen-Merchants-tour-from-hell. [19] http:/ / www. com/ watch?v=nP2qSpj-0M8 [18] "Figaro TV – Programmes TV – Fiche programme – Stupide touriste ! – 24/05/2011 – 20H40 – Docu-info – Découverte – Planète+ NO LIMIT" (http:/ / tvmag. html [21] http:/ / www.com/an-idiot-abroad) • An Idiot Abroad (http://www. . dailymail. BBC. com [3] An Idiot Abroad. msn. the series airs on Discovery Channel. co. archived (http:/ / web. . com/ WhatsOnTV/ ProgramDetailsView.sky. com/ an-idiot-abroad-short-way-round/ warwick-davis-joins-karl-pilkington-for-the-short-way-round [10] http:/ / www. infinito. org/ web/ 20100924024501/ http:/ / www. co. sky. com/ review/ tv-review-ricky-gervais-idiot-74530 [12] http:/ / whatculture. guardian. anidiotabroad.com/title/tt1702042/) at the Internet Movie Database . la. • In the United States. retrieved 24 September 2010 [8] "An Idiot Abroad Podcast" (http:/ / sky1. hollywoodreporter. lefigaro. co. php [11] http:/ / www. [4] Naughton.An Idiot Abroad • In Turkey. bbc. whatsonindia. • In Latin America.com. sky. discovery. . com/ tv/ an-idiot-abroad/ episodes. 2010. com/ sky1hd-shows/ an-idiot-abroad [2] http:/ / www. Tvmag. Sky1.[20] • In Southeast Asia and Taiwan. php [13] http:/ / www. youtube.sky. com/ asombro External links • An Idiot Abroad Homepage (http://sky1. html). html [16] http:/ / shinypotato. uk/ newsbeat/ 11326209). archived (http:/ / web. ISBN 978-1-84767-926-0. com/ features/ articles. aspx?cp-documentid=159209049 [15] http:/ / www. co. sky. the series airs on TLC. Retrieved 3 June 2011.lefigaro. uk/ newsbeat/ 11326209) from the original on 18 September 2010. archive. uk/ culture/ tvandradio/ 8009209/ An-Idiot-Abroad-Ricky-Gervais-and-Stephen-Merchants-tour-from-hell. com/ tv/ tv-review-an-idiot-abroad-packed-with-humour-heart-and-unique-insights-on-the-world. 29 September 2010. London: Daily Telegraph. archive. aspx?_=7+ qI/ 9lth8XqUQdgLbwKnjmsk/ 8Y+ 1hPZ8njZI2UYeVosDu6HO+ 0qqugqG84nAbetEY3tzTNOouWaPyLO0zUTA== [20] http:/ / science.com. org/ web/ 20100918225945/ http:/ / www. An Idiot Abroad (http:/ / www. bbc. Sky1. the series airs on Science Channel. telegraph. rickygervais.imdb. html). co. com/ an-idiot-abroad-about). com/ an-idiot-abroad-subscribe-to-the-official-podcast). . Retrieved 3 June 2011. the series airs on Infinito [21] as Un Tonto en el Extranjero (A Fool Abroad). [6] http:/ / www.fr. [9] http:/ / sky1. com/ reviews/ Idiot-Abroad-Season-1/ 11708 [14] http:/ / tv. . tvshowsondvd. retrieved 24 September 2010 [5] "About An Idiot Abroad" (http:/ / sky1. uk. telegraph. com/ 2012/ 12/ 01/ an-idiot-abroad-3-episode-1-review/ [17] http:/ / www. sky. 24 May 2011. fr/ programme-tv/ fiche/ planete-no-limit/ documentaire/ 44100749/ stupide-touriste-. 11 References [1] http:/ / sky1. Pete (21 September 2010). com/ thissideofthetruth. Cannongate Books. html) from the original on 24 September 2010. Retrieved 3 June 2011. uk/ media/ 2009/ dec/ 08/ pilkington-ricky-gervais-merchant-travel [7] Ricky Gervais says show with Karl Pilkington is real (http:/ / www.

Anthony Daniels 12 Anthony Daniels Anthony Daniels Anthony Daniels. anthonydaniels. 2005 Born 21 February 1946 Salisbury. Wiltshire. UK Mime artist. England. actor Occupation Years active 1976–present Website http:/ / www. com/ Anthony Daniels (born 21 February 1946) is an English actor. . He is best known for his role as the droid C-3PO in the Star Wars series of films made between 1977 and 2008.

[2] Career Star Wars Daniels has played C-3PO in all six of the Star Wars feature films. as their author Brian Daley died just as the episodes were being recorded. but all these scenes were cut. as both the body and voice of the golden robot. for appearances on The Muppet Show and Sesame Street and an anti-smoking public service announcement. the only science fiction film he had ever gone to see in a theatre was 2001: A Space Odyssey in 1968. with the droid's first appearance in the film being Daniels in costume. Other C-3PO voicework by Daniels includes: the Christmas-themed Christmas in the Stars album. In Star Wars Episode I: The Phantom Menace. published by Dark Horse Comics.[1] Never a science fiction fan. He contributed the foreword to the collected scripts of the Return of the Jedi radio drama. In this film and 2005's Star Wars: Episode III: Revenge of the Sith. Star Wars Connections and The Science of Star Wars. Daniels in May 2011 He controlled the puppet for 2002's Star Wars: Episode II: Attack of the Clones. Daniels with fellow Star Wars actor Warwick Davis in 2010 . He is the only cast member of the original Star Wars trilogy to voice his character in all three parts of NPR's dramatisations of the trilogy. and the related TV series. Star Wars: Clone Wars and Star Wars: The Clone Wars. Daniels has said that before his role in Star Wars. Daniels hosted the Star Wars: In Concert North [3] American tour. Daniels is the only actor to act in the original six films. Wiltshire. the multiple Walt Disney theme park attractions. he wore a blue Spandex costume so that during editing of the movie his body could be turned into many different wires and circuits. the fan film/show Raiders of the Lost Jedi Temple of Doom: A Fan Film of Epic Proportions and the Star Tours shutdown ceremony as a part of the Disney's Hollywood Studios' "Last Tour to Endor" event at Star Wars Celebration V in Orlando. England. He voiced C-3PO for three animated series: Droids.Anthony Daniels 13 Early life Daniels was born in Salisbury. in advertising for Star Wars licensed products such as Kenner toys and even a breakfast cereal based on the character. he also performed the vocal tracks for scenes that featured a computer-generated C-3PO. Star Tours and Star Tours: The Adventures Continue. Daniels has reprised the role for various promotional work such as hosting The Making of Star Wars. He also provided the narration and all character voices for the audio books Dark Force Rising and The Last Command. Daniels' other Star Wars-related writings include the Wonder Column for Star Wars Insider magazine and a comic book adventure for C-3PO and R2-D2 entitled The Protocol Offensive. the 2008 Clone Wars film. for The Star Wars Holiday Special. He was so dissatisfied with the film that he walked out after only ten minutes and demanded his money back. Florida. Daniels voiced C-3PO in the Star Wars radio serial based on the original trilogy. the son of a plastics company executive.

He has appeared intermittently on British television in various dramas. Carnegie Mellon University. edu/ global_news/ ?q=node/ 286).co.com/name/nm355/) at the Internet Movie Database Multimedia Q&A with Daniels (http://www. 21 March 2009. html). [3] MaryCatherine (15 September 2009). He also played the priest in the 1990 British spoof horror film I Bought a Vampire Motorcycle. vol.imdb. albeit in modified form. He has also appeared at Disney’s Hollywood Studios in Orlando.anthonydaniels. People. The character appears in the Outlander nightclub scene early in Star Wars Episode II: Attack of the Clones as a man in blue uniform who can be seen in a cutaway reaction shot after Obi-Wan disarms the bounty hunter Zam Wesell.. 14 Other acting roles Daniels was the voice of Legolas in Ralph Bakshi’s 1978 animated adaptation of The Lord of the Rings. 8 August 1983. com/ people/ archive/ article/ 0. Florida for the Star Wars Weekends as he gave his “inside the saga” story. [2] Dermot O'Leary Show.[3] References [1] Lubow. to the Outer Limits" (http:/ / www. His character. Faytonni can also be seen at the Galaxies Opera House in Star Wars Episode III: Revenge of the Sith. 20. cmu.Anthony Daniels Daniels also makes cameo appearances as a humanoid in two scenes of the feature films.20085640.com/ADaniels3PO) on Twitter Anthony Daniels (http://www. notably in a recurring role in Prime Suspect starring Helen Mirren. ETC Global News.00. "Adjunct Professor Anthony Daniels to Narrate North American tour of Star Wars: In Concert" (http:/ / www. "The Forces Behind Jedi: Making Movie History Took Lucas & Co. is named as a tribute to his own name. Arthur.bbc.com/) Anthony Daniels (https://twitter. 6. . BBC Radio 2. Other work Daniels is an Adjunct Professor at Carnegie Mellon University's Entertainment Technology Center. External links • • • • Official website (http://www. Lieutenant Dannl Faytonni.uk/cult/ghosts/interviews/daniels/) from the BBC website for the Ghosts of Albion . no. people. etc.

Total .Admin.Admin.700 2 238 /km (620 /sq mi) Ranked 18th 622.Total () . council .Admin. Ethnicity Ranked 28th 806. pop.389 km (1. council .Admin.6% White 2.Asian Politics .309 sq mi) Ranked 15th 2 3.6% S.Density .200 94.046 km (1. area Admin HQ ISO 3166-2 ONS code NUTS 3 Ceremonial and (smaller) non-metropolitan county East of England [1] Ranked 15th 2 3.176 sq mi) Cambridge GB-CAM 12 UKH12 Demography Population .Cambridgeshire 15 Cambridgeshire Cambridgeshire Flag of Cambridgeshire County Council Geography Status Region Area .

also known. archaically.) is a county in England. Cambridge South Cambridgeshire Huntingdonshire Fenland East Cambridgeshire Peterborough (Unitary) Cambridgeshire (pron.Cambridgeshire 16 Cambridgeshire County Council [2] Executive Conservative • • • • • • Members of Parliament • Jonathan Djanogly (C) Julian Huppert (LD) Stewart Jackson (C) Andrew Lansley (C) Stephen Barclay (C) James Paice (C) Shailesh Vara (C) Districts 1. . Suffolk to the east. The principal settlement is the city of Cambridge. Cambridgeshire is twinned with Kreis Viersen in Germany. Norfolk to the northeast. 2. 4. and Bedfordshire and Northamptonshire to the west.: /ˈkeɪmbrɪdʒʃər/ or /ˈkeɪmbrɪdʒʃɪər/. Essex and Hertfordshire to the south. 5. Modern Cambridgeshire was formed from the historic counties of Cambridgeshire and Huntingdonshire. 3. 6. it contains most of the region known as Silicon Fen. together with the Isle of Ely and the Soke of Peterborough. as the County of Cambridge. bordering Lincolnshire to the north. abbreviated Cambs.

the City of Peterborough has been a separately administered area. as a unitary authority. and South East Cambridgeshire. Cambridgeshire was recorded in the Domesday Book as "Grantbridgeshire" (or rather Grentebrigescire) (cf the river Granta). North East Cambridgeshire. A great quantity of archaeological finds from the Stone Age. Due to its flat terrain and proximity to the continent. The highest point is in the village of Great Chishill at 146 m (480 ft) above sea level. Politics Cambridgeshire contains seven Parliamentary constituencies: Cambridge. these two administrative counties were merged to form Cambridgeshire and the Isle of Ely. for • the area in the south around Cambridge. . Huntingdon and Peterborough (which had itself been created in 1965 by the merger of Huntingdonshire with the Soke of Peterborough – previously a part of Northamptonshire which had its own county council). the traditional nicknames for people from Cambridgeshire are 'Cambridgeshire Camel' or 'Cambridgeshire Crane'. In 1888 when county councils were introduced. Peterborough.[3] Under the Local Government Act 1972 this merged with the county to the west. In 1965. North West Cambridgeshire. and • the liberty of the Isle of Ely. the Bronze Age and the Iron Age were made in East Cambridgeshire. Most items were found in Isleham. referring to the wildfowl which were once abundant in the fens. Other prominent hills are Little Trees Hill and Wandlebury Hill in the Gog Magog Downs. however in recent times this term is considered to be abusive and its use is now less widespread.[5] In 2002. South Cambridgeshire.Cambridgeshire 17 History Cambridgeshire is noted as the site of some of the earliest known Neolithic permanent settlements in the United Kingdom. The Cambridgeshire Regiment (or Fen Tigers) county based army unit fought in South Africa.[4] Since 1998. Huntingdon. The term 'Fenners' has been applied to those who come from the flat country to the north of Cambridge. the conservation charity Plantlife unofficially designated Cambridgeshire's county flower as the Pasqueflower. WWI and WWII. RAF Fighter Command. In recognition of this. Cambridgeshire today is the result of several local government unifications. following the traditional division of Cambridgeshire. the only American WW2 burial ground in England is located in Madingley Cambridge American Cemetery and Memorial. Rivey Hill above Linton. along with sites at Fengate and Balbridie. separate councils were set up. many airfields were built for RAF Bomber Command. and functions such as policing and the fire service. Most English counties have nicknames for their people. Original historical documents relating to Cambridgeshire are held by Cambridgeshire Archives and Local Studies. but is associated with Cambridgeshire for ceremonial purposes such as Lieutenancy. The resulting county was called simply Cambridgeshire. Geography Large areas of the county are extremely low-lying and Holme Fen is notable for being the UK's lowest physical point at 2. and the USAAF during WW2. Covering a large part of East Anglia.75 m (9 ft) below sea level. such as a Tyke from Yorkshire and a Yellowbelly from Lincolnshire. Rowley's Hill and the Madingley Hills.

Tertiary Cambridgeshire is home to a number of institutes of higher education: • The University of Cambridge . with activities at Upwood and Molesworth being transferred there. institutions unique to Cambridgeshire.752 [10] 1995 5. 3 miles north of Huntingdon.second-oldest university in the English-speaking world.154 AWG plc is based in Huntingdon.801 7. Close to Cambridge is the so-called Silicon Fen area of high-technology (electronics.195 [9] Services 4. not including sixth form colleges. located in Peterborough • The College of West Anglia has a campus at Milton.022 5. is a former RAF airfield.029 2.996 2003 10.has a campus located in Cambridge and a base at Fulbourn • The Open University . computing and biotechnology) companies. now used as an army barracks. Most of Cambridgeshire is agricultural. For example Bottisham Village College.has a regional centre located in Cambridge • The University Centre Peterborough . .operated by Anglia Ruskin University and Peterborough Regional College. The RAF has several stations in the Huntingdon and St Ives area.896 2000 7. RAF Waterbeach. on the northern outskirts of Cambridge In addition.646 2. Cambridge Regional College and Huntingdonshire Regional College both offer a limited range of higher education courses in conjunction with partner universities. is being reorganised after a period of obsolescence following the departure of the USAF. to be the focus of RAF/USAFE intelligence operations. RAF Alconbury. ARM Limited is based in Cherry Hinton. 240–253) by Office for National Statistics with figures in millions of English Pounds Sterling. and regarded as one of the most prestigious academic institutions in the world • Anglia Ruskin University . Some of the secondary schools act as Village Colleges. Year Regional Gross Value Added [7] Agriculture 228 166 207 [8] Industry 1. 6 miles north of Cambridge.Cambridgeshire 18 Economy This is a chart of trend of regional gross value added of Cambridgeshire at current basic prices published [6] (pp. Education Primary and secondary Cambridgeshire has a completely comprehensive education system with 12 independent schools and over 240 state schools.

In Summer. for a complete list of settlements see list of places in Cambridgeshire. city status or a population over 5. and is comparable to parts of Kent and East Anglia. due to its dryness. Snowfall is slightly less rare than in Western areas. Temperatures are often cooler than the English average in winter.658 dwellings created from 2001-2011 dwellings between now and 2021. similar to the rest of the United Kingdom.Cambridgeshire 19 Settlements These are the settlements in Cambridgeshire with a town charter. . Cambridgeshire has seen 30. being connected by a narrow strip of land to the rest of Suffolk. • • • • • • • • • • Burwell Cambridge Chatteris Cottenham Ely Godmanchester Huntingdon Littleport March Peterborough (no longer part of the administrative county) • Sawston • Sawtry • Soham • • • • • St Ives St Neots Wisbech Whittlesey Yaxley Map of the Cambridgeshire area (1904) The town of Newmarket is surrounded on three sides by Cambridgeshire. due to Easterly winds bringing occasional snow from the North Sea.681 planned new Climate Cambridgeshire has a Maritime Temperate climate. due to its position in the East of England and its sheltered area from the prevailing winds. It has substantially less rainfall than the average as it is often sheltered by the core of Westerly and South Westerly winds.[12] [11] and there are a further 38. temperatures are average or slightly above. It reaches 25C on around 10 days each year.000.

7 (38.8 (49.6 (58. Nine miles west of Cambridge next to the village of Bourn is Wysing Arts Centre.1 (57.752) (2.287) (1.8 (46) 2.1 (43) 45.008) (2.1) Jun 19.1 (44.6 (54.2 48.7 (44.5 (61. Tebbutt was instrumental in spreading the sport to many countries. now an IOC accepted sport.9 (53.634) (1.3 (36.9 (49.5 53. wrote down the first official rules in 1882.0 (44.6) Aug 22.9) 9.5 43.0 (53.8 51.0 (39.7) Dec 7. A member of the club.3) 1. Charles Tebbutt.7) 4.504) (1.012) (1.8 51.6) Jul 22.Cambridgeshire 20 Climate data for Cambridge 1971–2000 average Month Average high °C (°F) Average low °C (°F) Jan 7.969) (21.9 (66) 10.4) 2.[15] Bandy Federation of England is based in Cambridgeshire.6) 1.2 (50.0 32.[14] According to documents from 1813 Bury Fen Bandy Club was undefeated for 100 years.3) Feb 7.118) (2.3 (34.4) Sep 18.2 (72) 12.772) (1.4) 6.1) Year 14.9 (37.1 50.4 (66.5 Rainfall mm (1.7) 6.[16] Contemporary Art Cambridge is home to the Kettle's Yard gallery and the artist run Aid and Abet project Space.0 553.2) Apr 12.3 (72.2) May 16.697) (1.8) Nov 9.4 (45.3) 7.791) (inches) Source: Met Office [13] Culture Sports Cambridgeshire is the birthplace of bandy.2) Oct 14.8) 3.921) (2.[17] Places of interest Key Abbey/Priory/Cathedral Accessible open space Amusement/Theme Park Castle Country Park English Heritage Forestry Commission Heritage railway Historic House Museum (free/not free) National Trust Theatre Zoo .118) (1.1 44.1) 11.1 (50.8 38.0 53.1 (34) Mar 10.7 41.

Roger Waters and Roger Keith "Syd" Barrett of Pink Floyd. keyboardist in the rock band Deep Purple. or associated with. Andy Bell. and Nobel laureate Harold Kroto. Jeremy Irvine and Warwick Davis are all associated with film. comedian Rory McGrath. Keith Palmer. and economist John Maynard Keynes. lead singer of The Sisters of Mercy. . cartoonist Ronald Searle. and Hereward the Wake are from Cambridgeshire. Sir Jack Hobbs. Louis Smith and Marty Scurll are also from the county. Cambridge RSPB Nene Washes RSPB Ouse Washes Stretham Old Engine Three Shires Bridleway University of Cambridge Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology Wandlebury Country Park Wicken Fen Wimpole Hall Wisbech and March Bramley Line WWT Welney Wysing Arts Centre Cambridge American Cemetery and Memorial • Famous people from Cambridgeshire As well as those born in the county there are many notable people from. Paul Nicholas. social reformers Octavia Hill and Thomas Clarkson. founding member of The Art Of Sound and well known Keytar player. businessmen Henry Royce and Peter Boizot. lead singer for Erasure. Richard Garriott. and radio sports presenter Adrian Durham are all from Cambridgeshire. Olaudah Equiano. Athletes Joe Bugner. Cambridge Flag Fen Fowlmere RSPB reserve Gamsey Wood Nature Reserve Gog Magog Downs Grafham Water Nature Reserve Great Gransden Post Mill Hereward Way Hinchingbrooke House Houghton Mill Icknield Way Imperial War Museum Duxford Kettle's Yard Kimbolton Castle Kings College.Cambridgeshire 21 • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Anglesey Abbey Brampton Wood Buckden Towers Cambridge University Museum of Zoology Castor Hanglands NNR Denny Abbey Devil's Dyke Down Field Windmill Duxford Chapel Duxford Airfield Elton Hall Ely Cathedral Fitzwilliam Museum. singer Aston Merrygold of JLS. Cambridgeshire who moved there. Cambridge. Nigel Sixsmith. Scientists include Brian J. In entertainment. Ford and Stephen Hawking. Darren Jeffery. Matt Bellamy and Operatic Bass-Baritone. Lucy M. while musicians include Andrew Eldritch. Richard Attenborough. Don Airey. trombonist Don Lusher. Boston. David Gilmour. Prime Minister John Major. birthplace of modern football Paxton Pits Nature Reserve Peckover House & Garden Peterborough Cathedral Prickwillow Drainage Engine Museum Ramsey Abbey River Cam River Great Ouse Round Church. televangelist Peter Foxhall. Cambridgeshire lays claim to Lord Protector Oliver Cromwell. and Douglas Adams. Jeffrey Archer. of dance music band The Prodigy. Samuel Pepys. the members of Britain's Got Talent Popera band The Arrangement. Literary figures who hail from Cambridgeshire include John Clare. television presenter Sarah Cawood. Cambridge Lattersey Nature Reserve • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Lode Watermill Nene Park Nene Valley Railway Nene Way New Bedford River Octavia Hill Birthplace Museum Old Bedford River Ouse Valley Way Ouse Washes Parker's Piece. particularly due to the presence of Cambridge University.

cultunet.com) Cambridge Market Place Webcam (http://www.1967).cfhs.org/Regional/Europe/United_Kingdom/England/Cambridgeshire/) at the Open Directory Project • Images of Cambridgeshire (http://viewfinder. Broxtowe.co. Cambridgeshire Churches website (http://www. gov. Final Recommendations for the Future Local Government of Cambridgeshire.fenlandlincs. com/ es/ recursos-culturales/ convocatorias/ wysing-arts-centre-programme-of-artists-residencies-cambridge).3). gov. cultunet. 2006-02-21. europa. see Local Government Commission for England (1958 .org. shtml).History . cambridgeshire. uk/ uksi/ 1996/ 1878) (SI 1996/1878). cfm?list=nuts) The European Commission. 2012-12-03. 2004-08-12. uk/ climate/ uk/ averages/ 19712000/ sites/ cambridge. October 1994 and Final Recommendations on the Future Local Government of Basildon & Thurrock.com. bbc.uk/) Cambridgeshire.com. co. pdf [13] http:/ / www. 7 May 1965 [4] The English Non-metropolitan Districts (Definition) Order 1972 (SI 1972/2039) Part 5: County of Cambridgeshire [5] The Cambridgeshire (City of Peterborough) (Structural.Cambridgeshire 22 References [1] Hierarchical list of the Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics and the statistical regions of Europe (http:/ / ec. Gedling & Rushcliffe.cambridgetimetraveller. .A handy Bandy guide" (http:/ / www. English Heritage . [16] http:/ / www. Huntingdonshire & Peterborough. Gloucester. metoffice. gov. uk/ cambridgeshire/ content/ articles/ 2006/ 02/ 15/ bandy_sport_feature. gov. internationalbandy. BBC. Boundary and Electoral Changes) Order 1996 (http:/ / www. statistics.net community directory (http://www. Northampton. gov. Cambridgeshire (http://www. html [14] "Federation of International Bandy-Olympic" (http:/ / www.aspx?index=0& mainQuery=&searchType=all&form=basic&theme=&county=CAMBRIDGESHIRE&district=& placeName=) at the National Monuments Record. Halton & Warrington.uk/) Local News for Cambridgeshire (http://cambridgeshire-news. internationalbandy.uk/search/results. do?menuID=124 [17] "cultunet" (http:/ / www. . eu/ comm/ eurostat/ ramon/ nuts/ codelist_en. December 1995 [6] http:/ / www.ccan.cambridgeshire.9).gov. 31 July 1961 and Report and Proposals for the Lincolnshire and East Anglia General Review Area (Report No. Internationalbandy.net/) The Fens of North Cambridgeshire (http://www. com/ viewNavMenu. pdf [12] http:/ / www. Retrieved 2010-09-25. uk/ NR/ rdonlyres/ 892D5EAA-5258-42C5-A116-EC2EE7285BBA/ 0/ ReportHousingDevelopmentInCambridgeshire2011. gov. Retrieved 6 January 2008.uk) The Cambridge Time Traveller Group History Website (http://www.htm) Cambridgeshire Family History Society (http://www.uk).english-heritage.co. pdf [7] Components may not sum to totals due to rounding [8] includes hunting and forestry [9] includes energy and construction [10] includes financial intermediation services indirectly measured [11] http:/ / www.org/camchurch/).uk/webcam. uk/ NR/ rdonlyres/ BAF41F67-D954-4D80-AD12-A644BCC83FF3/ 0/ TableH21housingcommitmentsbydistrict.camplus. . Gillingham & Rochester upon Medway.co. cambridgeshire.druidic.org. [15] "Cambridgeshire . Statistical Office of the European Communities . com/ viewNavMenu. Dartford & Gravesham. External links • • • • • • • • • • Cambridgeshire County Council (http://www.cambridgeshire.com/). see Local Government Commission for England (1992). Retrieved 2010-09-25. do?menuID=4). Spelthorne and the Wrekin. legialtion.dmoz. Report and Proposals for the East Midlands General Review Area (Report No. Blackburn & Blackpool. uk/ downloads/ theme_economy/ RegionalGVA. Retrieved 2013-02-03. Norwich. [2] http:/ / www. Exeter. Cambridgeshire Community Archive Network (http://www. uk/ [3] The Cambridgeshire and Isle of Ely Order 1964 (SI 1964/366). cambridgeshire.

and is known by that title today. which resides in a deserted. Plot On the forest moon of Endor. United States English Music by Distributed by Release date(s) Running time Country Language The Ewok Adventure (later re-released on home videos as Star Wars: Ewok Adventures – Caravan of Courage) is a 1984 American made-for-TV film based in the Star Wars setting. the Ewoks subdue him and take both children to the Ewoks’ home. Cindel and Wicket become friends. the Towani family's starcruiser has crashed on the forest moon of Endor.Caravan of Courage: An Ewok Adventure 23 Caravan of Courage: An Ewok Adventure Caravan of Courage: An Ewok Adventure You'll live the adventure. The Towani family (Catarine. in locating their parents. They . stranded on the forest moon of Endor. 1984 96 min. the Ewoks kill a beast only to find a life-monitor from one of the Towani parents with the creature. It was released theatrically in Europe as Caravan of Courage: An Ewok Adventure. Mace and Cindel. It is the first of two spin-off films featuring the Ewoks from Star Wars Episode VI: Return of the Jedi. Directed by Produced by Written by Narrated by Starring John Korty Thomas G. As the film opens. The film focuses on the struggles of a brother and sister. Smith George Lucas (story) Bob Carrau Burl Ives Eric Walker Warwick Davis Fionnula Flanagan Guy Boyd Aubree Miller Peter Bernstein ABC November 25. There. the starcruiser of the Towani family lies wrecked. You'll love its heroes. Jeremitt and Catarine cannot locate their children. A caravan of Ewoks is formed to help the children find their parents. Shortly thereafter. dangerous area. and Cindel) are stranded. and the Towani parents... The film is set sometime between the fifth and sixth episodes of the Star Wars saga. When Catarine and Jeremitt vanish. Setting The film is set sometime between Star Wars Episode V: The Empire Strikes Back and Star Wars Episode VI: Return of the Jedi and approximately six months before the film's sequel Ewoks: The Battle for Endor. After Mace tries to kill them. Mace. Jeremitt. who have been kidnapped by a monster known as the Gorax. They seek out the Ewok Logray who informs them that the parents have been taken by the monstrous Gorax. the children are found by the Ewok Deej.

and prevented the commercial from airing. . acted as production designer. and says something to the effect of "Don't forget to tune in to The Ewok Adventure. which was set in the 50's.Jeremitt Aubree Miller . The production crew had prepared a script and shot a TV advertisement for the upcoming release. Prior to this movie.Narrator (voice) Eric Walker . Lucas assumed full control over the content and production of the film. but this was eventually expanded into two hours. where they ordered milkshakes. an art director at Industrial Light & Magic for years and one of the key concept artists of the classic Star Wars trilogy. Lucas had allowed his Star Wars universe to be produced for television six years earlier with The Star Wars Holiday Special which. One such event during production which exemplifies this need for creative control was around the time when the film neared completion.Deej (voice) Production Inspiration and creative control The original impetus for The Ewok Adventure was an idea George Lucas had for a one-hour television special dealing with the Ewoks. freeing Jeremitt and Catarine." When Lucas was shown the commercial for his personal approval.Cindel Daniel Frishman .Logray Darryl Henriques . The Gorax is thought destroyed when it is knocked into a chasm. Thus reunited. and a screenplay by Bob Carrau. and Izrina leaves to go back to her family. but Chukha-Trok is killed. the Towanis decide to stay with the Ewoks until they can repair the starcruiser. Joe Johnston. Mace turns to the camera. had proved an embarrassment to Lucas.Catarine Guy Boyd . Johnston had written and illustrated a book about Ewoks.Weechee Tony Cox . This gave him a background to the arboreal aliens that was crucial in designing new Ewoks and their surroundings.Wicket (voice) (as Daryl Henriquez) Sydney Walker . They engage the Gorax in battle. he disliked the idea.Kaink Pam Grizz . although economically successful for the most part.Chukha-Trok Margarita Fernández . Crew Working from a story written by George Lucas. 24 Cast • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Burl Ives .Widdle Kevin Thompson .Shodu Bobby Bell . The Adventures of Teebo: A Tale of Magic and Suspense.Caravan of Courage: An Ewok Adventure meet up with a wistie named Izrina and a boisterous Ewok named Chukha-Trok before finally reaching the lair of the Gorax. to ensure a film of good quality.Mace Warwick Davis . which tries to climb back up after them.Wicket Fionnula Flanagan . on November 25. but it takes a final blow from Mace (using Chukha-Trok’s axe) to kill the creature. The ad featured Mace. With The Ewok Adventure. and Wicket walking into a diner. director John Korty transformed the scenic northern California redwood forests into the forest moon of Endor.Deej Debbie Lee Carrington . Cindel.

the budgets of the Ewok films were such that go-motion was simply too expensive for the projects. Eric Walker and Warwick Davis stated in interviews that they would be happy to record a cast commentary for another future DVD release. a second sequel. When the film was released on DVD in 2004 it contained nothing but the film itself. In this technique. However. The plot of the film. This technique. Adaptations In 1985. Eric Walker (Mace) and Warwick Davis (Wicket). eliminating the harsh staccato movement often associated with stop-motion. was never published. the children in the cast had to balance their school work with acting in the film. and selections from the score were released on LP by Varèse Sarabande in 1986. . along with stills from the film. a more advanced form with motorized articulated puppets that moved while the camera shutter was open. So. Soundtrack Peter Bernstein composed the film's music. was in at least the planning stages around the late eighties. if one was ever developed. there would be no generational quality loss. and the painting photographed. titled The Ewoks and the Lost Children. and also contained cues from Bernstein's score to Ewoks: The Battle for Endor. calling themselves W&W Productions. the blocked areas reversed. The film would then be rewound. the blurrgs. to be given their own camera to use between takes. The release was known simply as Ewoks. remaining unexposed. during live action photography. Random House released a children's book adaptation of The Ewok Adventure by Amy Ehrlich. the technique was being replaced by go-motion animation. but the documentary was never publicly released. and the boar-wolves. it was released as Ewoks: The Battle for Endor. known only as Ewoks III. and utilized the story presented in the film. but the project has been shown to have never come through. The Ewok movies proved an opportunity for ILM to hone a technique from 2001: A Space Odyssey. and exists now as private home movies to the two. According to an interview with Warwick Davis. so stop-motion was used to realize creatures such as the condor dragon. Sequels A sequel to this movie released in 1985. is called latent image matte painting. a section of the camera's lens blocked off. During their time on the set. Since the painting now existed on the original film. used in photographing matte paintings. and a painting would be crafted to occupy that space. Lucasfilm decided that it might be an educational and rewarding experience for the older children. Documentaries and commentary During the production of The Ewok Adventure.Caravan of Courage: An Ewok Adventure 25 Effects Both Ewok films were some of the last intensive stop-motion animation work Industrial Light & Magic (ILM) produced. as in the early 80s. While the sequel's working title was simply Ewoks II. if Lucasfilm someday allowed a more detailed release of the films. capturing motion blur in the otherwise static puppet. Eric and Warwick shot a documentary of the making of the film.

Caravan of Courage: An Ewok Adventure

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Later Expanded Universe appearances
Since the release of The Ewok Adventure in 1984, several elements from the film have gone on to appear in other works from the Star Wars Expanded Universe. Many of the characters, locations, or other elements are elaborated on in greater detail. • Return of the Ewok (1982) - Shot during production of Return of the Jedi, this film deals with actor Warwick Davis' transformation into Wicket, as he decides to become an actor. • Star Wars Episode VI: Return of the Jedi (1983) featured the introduction of Wicket and the other Ewoks, in which they help defeat the Imperial Stormtroopers and the Empire, who are guarding a shield generator on the Endor moon. The generator is important in that it protects the second Death Star, which was currently being built in orbit around the Endor moon. • Ewoks: The Battle for Endor (1985) was the second of the two made-for-TV Ewok films. It dealt with the orphanage of Cindel, after her family was killed by Sanyassan Marauders. The marauders also kidnap many of the Ewoks. After meeting and being taken in by Noa Briqualon, Cindel, along with the Ewoks, must team up to defeat the marauders and free the others from their grasp. • Star Wars: Ewoks (1985–1987) was an ABC animated series featuring the Ewoks that ran for two seasons. A follow-up to the two films, it incorporated several elements introduced in the two Ewok films, such as the appearance of Queen Izarina of the fairies. • Tyrant's Test (1996) - According to the official continuity of the Star Wars Expanded Universe, the character of Cindel Towani went on to appear in Tyrant's Test, the third book of Michael P. Kube-McDowell's Star Wars book series, The Black Fleet Crisis Trilogy. In the novel, set over ten years after The Battle for Endor, Cindel is shown to have grown to become a reporter on Coruscant. During the Yevethan crisis, Cindel received the so-called Plat Mallar tapes from Admiral Drayson, and leaked the story of the only survivor of the Yevethan attack of Polneye. The report was meant to garner sympathy among the people of the New Republic and the Senate. It worked. The Expanded Universe claims Cindel decided to join the New Republic and go into journalism after witnessing the Battle of Endor. • Star Wars Galaxies: An Empire Divided (2003) is an MMORPG. In the game, the player has the opportunity to encounter the Gorax and the Gorax species, as seen in The Ewok Adventure.

Release
The Ewok Adventure was first shown on American television November 25, 1984. In its overseas theatrical release, it was rechristened Caravan of Courage: An Ewok Adventure. The film was released on VHS and Laserdisc in 1990 through MGM under the original title. The film was released on DVD as a double feature collection with its sequel, Ewoks: The Battle for Endor, on November 23, 2004. The release was a single double-sided disc, with one film on each side. For this release, the film bore theatrical release title, Caravan of Courage. Features: • • • • Presented in its original 1.33:1 aspect ratio Available Subtitles: English Available Audio Tracks: English (Dolby Digital 2.0 Surround) DVD includes both Caravan of Courage (aka The Ewok Adventure) and The Battle for Endor

Caravan of Courage: An Ewok Adventure

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References
Bibliography
• • • • • • Caravan of Courage: An Ewok Adventure, 2004 DVD release Ewoks: The Battle for Endor, 2004 DVD release Return of the Ewok, 1982, David Tomblin Star Wars Episode VI: Return of the Jedi, 1983, Richard Marquand Star Wars: Ewoks, 1985–1987, Nelvana/Lucasfilm Tyrant's Test, (Book 3 of The Black Fleet Crisis), first paperback printing, 1996. Michael P. Kube-McDowell, ISBN 0-553-57275-X • The Essential guide to Characters (Star Wars), 1st edition, 1995. Andy Mangels, ISBN 0-345-39535-2 • Endor and the Moddell Sector, article from Star Wars Gamer #9 magazine • Star Wars Episode VI: Return of the Jedi junior novelization, 2004, Ryder Windham

External links
• Caravan of Courage: An Ewok Adventure (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Wikiasite:starwars:caravan_of_courage:_an_ewok_adventure) on Wookieepedia: a Star Wars wiki • Caravan of Courage: An Ewok Adventure (http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0087225/) at the Internet Movie Database • Caravan of Courage: An Ewok Adventure (http://www.allrovi.com/movies/movie/v16276) at AllRovi • Caravan of Courage: An Ewok Adventure (http://www.rottentomatoes.com/m/ewok_adventure/) at Rotten Tomatoes • A review of the DVD (http://www.genreonline.net/SWCaravanBattleEwoks_DVD.html)

Celebrity Scissorhands

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Celebrity Scissorhands
Celebrity Scissorhands
Presented by Starring Voices of Alex Zane (2006) George Lamb (2007-2008) Lee Stafford Sarah Cawood

Country of origin United Kingdom Language(s) No. of series English 3 Production Producer(s) Running time Endemol 60 minutes Broadcast Original channel Original airing BBC Three 5 November 2006 Chronology Related shows The Salon External links Website [1]

Celebrity Scissorhands is a reality show that is part of the BBC's Children in Need charity campaign, in which celebrities attempt to cut people's hair to raise money for the campaign while trained and watched by professional hairdresser Lee Stafford. It is produced by Endemol, and the format is similar to their previous production The Salon.

Series 1
The first series began airing on BBC Three on 5 November 2006; BBC One began airing it in late night on 12 November; and it ran for two weeks, culminating on 17 November, the annual Children in Need night, when it aired as part of the Children in Need telethon on BBC One. It was hosted by Alex Zane. The celebrities were trained by Lee Stafford, a leading hairdresser, at a hair and beauty academy set up at the BBC TV Centre in London which was opened to the public on 4 November. BBC stars and ordinary people had makeovers performed at the academy. On 17 November, five of the celebrities, chosen by a public telephone and text message vote, appeared live in the salon during the Children in Need show. These were Steve Strange, Scott Mills, Darren Day, Michelle Dewberry and Ortis Deley. Series 1 contestants were:

Contestants (in alphabetical order) are:[5] . with series 1 winner Steve Strange back as assistant manager[3] and George Lamb again hosting the show. [2] Lee Stafford returned as manager of the salon. Sabrina and Scott. The winner was Sabrina and the runner-up was Jeff. George Lamb presented the show. Series contestants (in alphabetical order): Celebrity Occupation Aled Haydn Jones (Runner up) Radio producer (The Chris Moyles Show) Ben Nicholas Brandon Block Carley Stenson Lil' Chris Javine Hylton Ninia Benjamin (Winner) Tamara Beckwith Warwick Davis Actor (Neighbours) DJ Actress (Hollyoaks) Singer Singer Comedienne It girl Actor Series 3 The third series began on 26 October 2008.Celebrity Scissorhands 29 Celebrity Sarah Cawood Darren Day Ortis Deley Michelle Dewberry Richard Fairbrass Scott Mills Emma Samms Rowetta Satchell Steve Strange (Winner) Occupation Television presenter Actor. it was announced that the 3 people that would be going through to the final. singer & TV presenter Television presenter The Apprentice winner Singer (Right Said Fred) BBC Radio 1 presenter Actress The X Factor contestant Singer (Visage) Series 2 The second series was shown on BBC Three from 25 October to 15 November 2007. Lee Stafford returned as manager of the salon and first series winner Steve Strange also returned as assistant manager. were Jeff. that went on to take place on 14 November on BBC One.[4] In early November. airing on BBC Three in aid of Children in Need.

co. co.Celebrity Scissorhands (http://www. uk/ scissorhands/ presenter/ http:/ / www. html http:/ / www. uk/ scissorhands http:/ / www. co. uk/ realitytv/ a131442/ scissorhands-contestants-unveiled.co.uk/entertainment/entertainment-catch-all/2007/10/ 13/the-razz-celebs-hope-to-make-cut-86908-19944829/) . glamour model and TV presenter (The Real Hustle).bbc. digitalspy.co. co. uk/ realitytv/ news/ a131442/ scissorhands-contestants-unveiled. html External links • Children in Need (http://www. Singer Ex-actor (Grange Hill) The Apprentice contestant Singer (Mis-Teeq) Singer (Five) Actress (EastEnders) Singer (Five Star) • *Jay Sean was confirmed for the series but withdrew before it was aired for unconfirmed reasons[6] References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] http:/ / www.shtml) • Celebrity Scissorhands 2007 (http://www. bbc.Celebrity Scissorhands returns for 2007 (http://www. co.co.bbc.co. uk/ scissorhands/ get-involved/ http:/ / www.uk/scissorhands/) • BBC . uk/ realitytv/ a133452/ full-scissorhands-lineup-confirmed.dailyrecord. bbc.uk/pudsey) at BBC Online • BBC . digitalspy. digitalspy.Celebrity Scissorhands 30 Celebrity Chris Perry-Metcalf Jay Sean* (Withdrew) Jeff Leach (Runner Up) Jessica-Jane Clement Kym Mazelle Lee MacDonald (referred to as 'Zammo') Lucinda Ledgerwood Sabrina Washington (Winner) Scott Robinson Shana Swash Stedman Pearson Occupation Actor (Grange Hill) Singer Television presenter Actress. co.uk/pudsey/cinnews/news/2007/09/21/ 49017.bbc. bbc. html http:/ / www.

[4] The School is a member of the Independent Association of Preparatory Schools (IAPS). Pre-Preparatory and Preparatory School for Boys aged 2½ to 13. who first used the grounds of an old perfume factory and later moved the school to a farm field bought some two years later. England Information Type Independent Preparatory School Established 1908 Headmaster Ian Thorpe Website [1] Chinthurst School is an independent Nursery.Chinthurst School 31 Chinthurst School Chinthurst School Location Tadworth.[7] Head teachers • • • • • Miss Thwaites (1910s)[8] Ronald Kelly (1953 – 1976)[6][9] The Rev. archaeologist[8] • Warwick Davis. Brian Batty (1976 – 1982)[6] Trevor Egan (1983 – 2009) Ian Thorpe (2009 – present)[10][7] Sport Chinthurst's Under 11 Rugby team qualified for the South East Regional Finals in the National School Rugby Tournament in 2009.[11] Notable Alumni • Aileen Fox.[5] School history The school was founded in 1908 by Miss Alice Katherine Atkins.[2][3] It is a charitable trust. Surrey.[6] In 2011 Chinthurst was shortlisted for Outstanding Financial/Commercial Initiative in the independent Schools Awards. based in Tadworth Surrey. actor[12] External links • School Web site [1] .

yourlocalguardian. charitycommission.07 m) tall. Retrieved 2 May 2012. fisawards. uk/ edubase/ establishment/ summary. Retrieved 2 May 2012. He was educated at Chinthurst School and later the City of London Freemen's School. with the first Tough Girls Challenge after our move to co-education this April. chinthurstschool. . Gareth A (16 February 2009). Retrieved 2 May 2012. 2012. . 2012. Chinthurst School in Tadworth opened in 1908 as a co-educational school but was transformed into a boy’s only preparatory in the 1950s by incoming headmaster. uk/ scriptsisuk/ schools. Retrieved 14 November. chinthurstschool. uk/ ShowCharity/ RegisterOfCharities/ searchresulthandler. a small private establishment at Tadworth" [9] May. Next year. "A boy's preparatory school is set to open its doors to girls for the first time in 50 years. uk/ Chinthurst-School-pupils-tough-guy-competition/ story-14985734-detail/ story. . "Mr Thorpe approached Cisco and explained how Chinthurst was using ICT and outlined his vision for the future for school technology. "Spectators were treated to a high-class exhibition of running rugby from preparatory school teams throughout the region. 2012. This Is Surrey Today. FIS Magazine. 271160 (http:/ / www. . the event will take on another new feel. under 10s and under 11s). [3] "Chinthurst School" (http:/ / www.Telegraph" (http:/ / www. "National Schools Rugby Tournament south-east qualifying round gets off to a flier . Retrieved 2 May 2012. isuk.Independent School Awards 2010" (http:/ / www. p. written and directed by Ricky Gervais and Stephen Merchant. 25.Chinthurst School 32 References [1] http:/ / www. Davis also has a younger sister. Independent Schools Council. [6] "Steeped in History" (http:/ / www. gov. co. uk/ news/ local/ topstories/ 9429797. thisissurreytoday. Retrieved 2 May 2012. Davis currently stars in the sitcom Life's Too Short. He is most notable for playing the title characters in Willow and the Leprechaun film series. Retrieved 14 November. co. Davis stands 3 ft 6 in (1. isc." [12] "Warwick Davis Video" (http:/ / www. . Chinthurst School (under 11s) and Danes Hill (under 11s). telegraph. dll/ detail?SID=428625& ID=1914). education. org." . "Head Ian Thorpe said: "It was hugely impressive to see such determination from the boys and support from so many parents. co. Online Video Guide. co. com/ warwick-davis-9202a8c04000641f8000000000278375#). html). 20 January 2012. "Boy's school welcomes girls for first time in 50 years (From Your Local Guardian)" (http:/ / www. The Daily Telegraph. aspx?chyno=271160) at the Charity Commission [5] "Chinthurst School" (http:/ / www. England to an insurance broker and his wife. ovguide. "I went to school ay Chinthurst. Aileen (August 2002). uk/ schools/ england/ surrey/ tadworth/ chinthurst-school). Feltonfleet School (under 9s). . Among local schools to qualify for the NSRT finals – to be held at Epsom College on March 1 – were Cumnor House (under 9s and under 11s). Cisco created a network capable of supporting the improvements and offered a support package in return for training opportunities for its apprentices. uk/ sport/ othersports/ schoolsports/ 4640455/ National-Schools-Rugby-Tournament-south-east-qualifying-round-gets-off-to-a-flier. [7] "Outstanding Financial/Commercial Initiative . Boy_s_school_welcomes_girls_for_first_time_in_50_years/ ). ISBN 0852445237. uk/ the_2011_shortlist/ outstanding_financial/ ). [4] Chinthurst School. while Shrewsbury House had three teams qualify (under 9s. Retrieved 14 November." [8] Fox. Because of his dwarfism. Lauren (21 December 2011). . co. uk/ [2] "Establishment: Chinthurst School" (http:/ / www. Aileen: The Life of a Pioneering Archaeologist (http:/ / books. . gov. google. Warwick Davis was born in Surrey." [10] "Kusasa Project to benefit from Tadworth school's fundraiser" (http:/ / www."" [11] Davies. uk/ books?id=ipASGXC0nEkC& pg=PA25& lpg=PA25& dq="school+ at+ Chinthurst"& source=bl& ots=zUH9o64Ci_& sig=ZtDEPpOf0cenRFpYnWj9H5NtL0U& hl=en& sa=X& ei=E7KhT9XNMOjH0gWeoczqBw& redir_esc=y#v=onepage& q="school at Chinthurst"& f=false). co. The Independent Schools of the United Kingdom. co. Your Local Guardian. co. Retrieved 2 May 2012. . Retrieved 2 May 2012. Registered Charity no. Gracewing. Ronald Kelly. html). "Warwick Ashley Davis (born 3 February 1970) is an English actor. Department for Education. xhtml?urn=125394). uk/ history/ ). as well as for his roles in Star Wars Episode VI: Return of the Jedi and the Harry Potter movies. .

The Good Schools Guide described the school as "A traditional academic and sporty school in a stunning setting with impressive facilities but not at all elitist – in fact quite the opposite. which are both independent single-sex schools located within the City of London itself."[4] . Gresham and Whittington Red & White City of London Freemen's School [3] [1] Tables [2] Headmaster Location DfE URN Students Gender Ages Houses Colours Website City of London Freemen's School (CLFS) is a coeducational Public school for day and boarding pupils.City of London Freemen's School 33 City of London Freemen's School City of London Freemen's School Motto Established Type Domine Dirige Nos 1854 Public school Day and boarding school Mr. It is the sister school of the City of London School and the City of London School for Girls. England. MacDonald Ashtead Park Surrey KT21 1ET England 125349 842 Mixed 6–18 Hale. located at Ashtead Park in Surrey. The school is a member of the Headmasters' and Headmistresses' Conference.

with a variety of uses. multi-purpose Sports Hall complex that incorporates a multi-activity fitness suite.These are named after the influential Londoners and school benefactors Sir Thomas Gresham. Warren Stormes Hale and Richard Whittington. in 1908. The school has a large. The system was also shared by Livery Companies. Sports The School has a very strong sporting reputation and the impressive grounds include rugby.City of London Freemen's School 34 History The school was founded by the Corporation of London and was originally located in London to educate orphans of the Freemen of the City. and founded on the triple bases of commerce. and other privileges conceded by royal charters. associations of craftsmen developed to control the admission to the trade by apprenticeship. benevolence. cricket nets and athletics facilities. for the purposes of charity. Pupils are assigned to a House as they start at the school. Paul’s Cathedral attended by the whole School (now numbering over 800) and culminated in the School being represented with a float in the annual Lord Mayor’s Show. The tradition of Freemen goes back many centuries. to bring together free men and women. The 25 m indoor swimming pool has recently been modernised and refurbished and is used by local swimming clubs. It is still possible for such orphan children to be educated as “Foundationers” at the school with the costs of their education borne by the Corporation of London. Canterbury. The School celebrated its 150th Anniversary in 2004 with a year long series of events. he or she would be assigned to the same house. though are still important for Inter-House Competitions and weekly House Assemblies. of the Guild of Freemen of the City of London. red and blue respectively). both of which are floodlit. This led to the foundation. and this created the need for an organisation to which all Freemen could belong to pursue the interests of the City. However in the nineteenth century it became possible for people to apply for the Freedom of the City of London without belonging to a Livery Company. Houses The School has three Houses: Gresham. The King's School. King's College School and The Oratory School. hockey and cricket pitches. which they stay in throughout their school career. education and social interaction. having moved from London to Ashtead in 1926. St Mary's Ascot. The Anniversary started with a Service of Thanksgiving at St. Since it is now predominantly a day school and there are limited numbers of boarders. City of London Freemen’s School is set in 57 acres (230. Sporting fixtures are played in a wide range of sports against other independent schools such as Sevenoaks School. The School tends to achieve superior results at the Public Schools Fencing Championship.000 m2) of Ashtead Park in the heart of Surrey. benevolence and religion. Hale and Whittington (colors green. when the citizens of towns and cities would be granted valuable rights to trade. If a sibling of a City of London Freemen's pupil were to join the school. Houses do not have the same connotations as in similar independent schools. . modern. There are also tennis courts. From mediaeval times the City of London worked together with Livery Companies to control acceptance of Freemen. as well as two all-weather pitches.

Les Misérables and Into the Woods. including an annual dinner and visits to places of interest.City of London Freemen's School 35 Boarding Houses There are Girls’ and Boys’ boarding houses. Oxshott Downsend School. Both the Junior School and the Senior School (Haywood Centre) also house common rooms which come equipped with tea and fresh coffee making facilities. Oklahoma!. The main house may also be seen as the hub of operations as it houses the catering facilities offices.co. The latest addition to this list is Sweeney Todd: The Demon Barber of Fleet Street. Old Freemen's Once pupils leave school they become part of Old Freemen’s Association. a Georgian mansion built in 1790 by Sir Thomas Wyatt.The school also gives the pupils a chance to learn instruments inside school. Esher Aberdour School. and retired staff. throughout the year. offers a choice of hot and cold meals and snacks to all those who choose not to subscribe to school lunches. aged only fourteen. at the age of 21. located in the sports hall. The senior school musical for 2011 is "Evita". Annual events are organised to promote fellowship among the members. The main dining hall. They will then be entitled.uk/awebsite/rfc-home. lunch and dinner being served from here. CLFS was one of the first schools in the country to obtain rights to Cameron Mackintosh's Les Misérables. Catering is provided for the pupils and staff through a number of outlets. Ashtead Kingswood House School. with breakfast. and some pupils have even gone on to doing the diploma. Burgh Heath . The Tuck Shop. which was formed to encourage former pupils from the three ‘City Schools’ to develop links with The City of London. which was performed in December 2009 and received well by independent critics.oldfreemens. and these have included Oliver!. In addition any pupil aged 14–17. The Main House remains the focal point of the School. Membership is open to all former pupils. The Girl's Boarding House is Main House. Drama and music The school organises a number of performances each year. Feeder schools • • • • • Danes Hill School. both internal and external. located in the main house. who must have obtained their ‘Freedom of the City of London’ but there is no subscription. which includes the Old Freemen's Rugby Football Club http://www. The dining hall is also employed for a number of private dinners. and most go on to do ABRSM exams. to apply for the Freedom of the City and membership of the Guild of Scholars. This Apprenticeship will be of particular interest to those who wish to pursue a career in the City. staff. Catering The catering is currently provided by the contract caterers Sodexo. Cabaret.htm and the Old Freemen's Cricket Club. is the focal point of catering operations. Epsom Milbourne Lodge School. There is also a Guild of Scholars of the City of London. who is still at school may apply to become an Apprentice to a Freeman of the City at little cost and minimal commitment.

Kes and the Channel 4 show Sugar Rush.MBE. uk/ school/ city-of-london-freemens-school.surrey. pl?urn=125349 http:/ / www. uk/ cgi-bin/ schools/ performance/ school. html) • Theatre Dreams (http://www. 2002) Guy Spier . Some better known Old Freemen include: • • • • • • • Tommy Bastow .one of the Young British Artists Gustav Wood .BAFTA award winning actor who recently appeared in the films Red Riding. uk/ http:/ / goodschoolsguide.uk/Corporation/media_centre/files+2004/35_04. Boy A and Lions for Lambs as well as the plays Romeo & Juliet. gov.racing driver currently competing in the FIA Formula Two Championship Simon Cowell (presenter) .gov. education.theatredreams.Rory Burns profile (http:/ / www.uk/) . surrey.City of London Freemen's School 36 Notable former pupils Former pupils are known as Old Freemen. html Cricinfo . cricinfo.uk/) • Profile at the Good Schools Guide (http://goodschoolsguide. education. sch.Investor Gavin Turk . uk/ edubase/ establishment/ summary. also appeared in the Star Wars and Harry Potter movie series Andrew Garfield .Lead singer of The Clash.Surrey cricketer [5] Jack Clarke . xhtml?urn=125349 http:/ / www. Thongs and Perfect Snogging and lead singer of UK band FranKo Laurence Belcher . Presenter of Animal Planet and Wildlife SOS Warwick Davis . com/ england/ content/ player/ 398778.Actor.Frontman of British rockband Young Guns • • • • References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] http:/ / www.Website maintained by the Head of Drama .uk/school/city-of-london-freemens-school. clfs. The Laramie Project.Actor from Angus. Joe's real name was John Mellor (deceased Dec.Actor Rory Burns . co. gov.co.co.sch. star of Willow.clfs.cityoflondon. html) • http://www. he recently played a main role in The Social Network and the title role in the 2012 release of The Amazing Spider Man Joe Strummer .htm External links • Official website (http://www.

[1] The Prisoner After working with Patrick McGoohan on Danger Man.[1] He worked on numerous productions.[1] He subsequently worked as first assistant director for Lucasfilm on Star Wars Episode VI: Return of the Jedi and the first three Indiana Jones films Raiders of the Lost Ark. Tomblin often maintained multi-film working relationships with directors. During production of Return of the Jedi. assistant director. he was best known for The Prisoner TV series. including William Tell. Hertfordshire. screenwriter Died Occupation Years active 1944 – 98 David Tomblin (October 18.[1] Tomblin later worked with Kershner again when Kershner directed 1983's Never Say Never Again. he worked on a number of British-made TV series. The Adventures of the Scarlet Pimpernel. and with commercially and critically successful directors including Richard Attenborough.[1] Tomblin was producer of the series. Lucasfilm. Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom and Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade. The Protectors and Space: 1999. He began working in film as a runner at the age of 14. For . director. Tomblin worked on Attenborough's major multinational productions A Bridge Too Far. One Step Beyond. The Count of Monte Cristo. Early life and career Tomblin was born in Borehamwood. The Prisoner. Tomblin was invited by Kershner to be first assistant director on Star Wars Episode V: The Empire Strikes Back. never-finished film about Warwick Davis who played the Ewok Wicket W. 2005) was a film and television producer. and wrote and directed several episodes.[1] As well as films. Gerry Anderson productions Tomblin worked as a director on Gerry Anderson's live-action productions UFO. England July 20. He worked with Richard Donner on The Omen. he was best known for work on Gerry Anderson's productions including Space: 1999. with story editor George Markstein. 1930 Borehamwood. directed by Irvin Kershner. As a producer. a short. when it filmed for a few days in England. Superman and those parts of Superman II directed by Donner. Gandhi. 1930–July 20. Steven Spielberg and Sydney Pollack. Tomblin directed Return of the Ewok. Presents and The Invisible Man. and director. became a First Assistant Director in 1954. England. As a first assistant director. 2005 (aged 74) Producer. he worked on a number of high profile films including the Star Wars and Indiana Jones series and the 1978 Superman. Warrick. Cry Freedom and Chaplin.David Tomblin 37 David Tomblin David Tomblin David Tomblin Born October 18. As a director. and with Spielberg on Empire of the Sun. Jr. With Richard Attenborough. Superman and Gandhi Having worked on The Return of a Man Called Horse.. and (with an interruption for National Service in the Royal Marines). McGoohan and Tomblin decided to set up a company to make their own series. Hertfordshire. Douglas Fairbanks. assistant director.

Empire of the Sun (1987) (assistant director) 10. Ever After (1998) (second unit director) 2. involving the direction of 250.[1] With Sydney Pollack. Indiana Jones and the Last Crusade (1989) (first assistant director: UK) 9. Out of Africa (1985) (first assistant director) . to which the general public were invited. Chaplin (1992) (first assistant director) 7. a production designer. 1970-1971) Baleia! Baleia! (1971) The Prisoner (2 episodes. Hearst Castle: Building the Dream (1996) (first assistant director) 4. Braveheart (1995) (first assistant director) 5. Return of the Ewok (1982) (V) (producer) 3.[5] but in 1982 he himself estimated he had already worked on around 500 films.[4] a film make-up department chief hairdresser."[6] Director 1. and to get permission to work in the States I had to write down every film I'd been on. The Adventures of Baron Munchausen (1988) (line producer) 2. Tomblin supervised the reconstruction of Gandhi's funeral in Delhi. 4. I got to 478 and then decided that was probably enough to convince them that I had a reasonable amount of experience.[2] With Richard Attenborough. The Prisoner (producer) Assistant director 1. 6. Cry Freedom (1987) (first assistant director) 11.[1] including Lisa Tomblin. Havana (1990/I) (first assistant director) 8. The Man in the Iron Mask (1998/I) (first assistant director) 3.000 extras. Tomblin worked on Out of Africa and Havana. Return of the Ewok (1982) (V) Space: 1999 (4 episodes. Filmography IMDb lists around 200 unique credits for Tomblin.David Tomblin Gandhi. 38 Awards Tomblin was presented with BAFTA's Michael Balcon Award (now known as The Outstanding British Contribution to Cinema Award) in 2003. 1968) Producer 1.[3] Personal life Tomblin had four children. Tomblin told an interviewer for a programme broadcast in 1984: "I only know that because I've just worked on a George Lucas film called Return Of The Jedi. 2. and Jane Tomblin. 5. 3. he was named as a winner of the 1982 DGA Award for Outstanding Directorial Achievement in Feature Film for Gandhi. 1975-1976) The Protectors (1 episode. 1974) UFO (2 episodes. The Three Musketeers (1993) (first assistant director) 6.

1960-1961) Taste of Fear (1961) (assistant director) Invisible Man (assistant director) (21 episodes. 27. 29. 33. 47. 48. 46. 40. 1966) The Liquidator (1965) (assistant director) The Alphabet Murders (1965) (assistant director) Murder Ahoy (1964) (assistant director) Murder Most Foul (1964) (assistant director) Night Must Fall (1964) (assistant director) The Haunting (1963/I) (assistant director) I Thank a Fool (1962) (assistant director) (as Dave Tomblin) Reach for Glory (1962) (assistant director) We Joined the Navy (1962) (assistant director) Alcoa Presents: One Step Beyond (assistant director) (13 episodes. 1956) The Elusive Pimpernel (1950) (third assistant director) (uncredited) My Brother Jonathan (1948) (third assistant director) (uncredited) 39 . 43. 36. 38. 1958-1959) The New Adventures of Charlie Chan (assistant director) (4 episodes. 28.David Tomblin 12. 20. 45. 1964-1965) (second unit director) (6 episodes. 16. 22. 39. 42. 24. 1957) The Count of Monte Cristo (assistant director) (1 episode. 32. 17. 15. 25. 1959) William Tell (assistant director) (21 episodes. 34. 18. 14. 1961) Danger Man (assistant director) (39 episodes. 30. 13. 23. 35. King David (1985) (assistant director) (second unit director) Indiana Jones and the Temple of Doom (1984) (assistant director: UK) Never Say Never Again (1983) (first assistant director) Star Wars Episode VI: Return of the Jedi (1983) (first assistant director) (second unit director) Gandhi (1982) (first assistant director) Ivanhoe (1982) (TV) (assistant director) Raiders of the Lost Ark (1981) (first assistant director) Superman II (1980) (second unit director) Star Wars Episode V: The Empire Strikes Back (1980) (first assistant director) The Prisoner of Zenda (1979) (second unit director) Zulu Dawn (1979) (second unit director) Superman (1978) (assistant director) (second unit director) A Bridge Too Far (1977) (first assistant director) The Omen (1976) (assistant director) Barry Lyndon (1975) (assistant director) The Adventure of Sherlock Holmes' Smarter Brother (1975) (assistant director) Shaft in Africa (1973) (second unit director) A Warm December (1973) (first assistant director) Danger Man (assistant director) (10 episodes. 41. 49. 21. 1957-1958) Hawkeye and the Last of the Mohicans (assistant director) (8 episodes. 31. 19. 37. 44. 26.

[3] "DGA Awards | Film 1980's" (http:/ / stage. Retrieved 27 August 2012. External links • David Tomblin (http://www.Lisa Tomblin (http:/ / a.D.imdb. to Indy Jones". go. IMDb.BA. com/ name/ nm0866563/ ).David Tomblin 40 References [1] Pirani. Retrieved 7 September 2012.44-46. The Prisoner TV series starring Patrick McGoohan .3164. [2] "The Outstanding British Contribution to Cinema Award . html). imdb.Awards" (http:/ / www. the-prisoner-6.58. oscar. bafta. pdf) [5] "David Tomblin . [4] 84th Academy Awards Nominee Questionnaire . freeserve. Starlog #86 pp. htm). php3). com/ media/ 2012/ pdf/ nominees/ makeup-harrypotterdeathlyhallows2-lisatomblin. uk/ shampan_tomblin.IMDb" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 7 September 2012. "An interview with Jack Shampan and David Tomblin" (http:/ / www. co. The BAFTA site. Retrieved 27 August 2012. dga. September 1984. org/ thedga/ aw_film80s.com/name/nm0866563/) at the Internet Movie Database . [6] Chris Rodley. 6 March 2012.com. org/ awards/ the-outstanding-british-contribution-to-cinema-award. Adam "David Tomblin A.home page.

065 TQ205605 Epsom and Ewell Surrey South East England United Kingdom EPSOM KT17 KT18 KT19 01372 Surrey Surrey South East Coast South East England Epsom and Ewell Epsom is a town in the borough of Epsom and Ewell in Surrey.Epsom 41 Epsom Epsom High Street. which holds the world-famous Epsom Derby every year. within the Greater London Urban Area. Some parts of Epsom are in the Borough of Reigate and Banstead and Mole Valley District. and is home to the eponymous racecourse. The town lies on the chalk downland in the valley of Epsom Downs. .6 miles (21. England. Epsom Epsom  Epsom shown within Surrey Population OS grid reference District Shire county Region Country Sovereign state Post town Postcode district Dialling code Police Fire Ambulance EU Parliament UK Parliament 27.9 km) south-south-west of Charing Cross. The town is located 13.

was sent down (expelled) from the University of Oxford in 1869 for buying a racehorse and entering it in the Derby − it finished last. commemorated in the names of Rosebery Park and Rosebery School. along the northern slopes of the Downs. It rendered £17. and Langley Vale. and at Epsom Court. and Cheam. Historically. Bookham. a public school located in Epsom. Epsom salt (magnesium sulfate) was originally prepared by boiling down mineral waters at Epsom. Lord Rosebery Epsom salts are named after the town. Epsom were first run in 1780 and 1779 respectively.000 m ) of meadow. 1821. 24 acres (97. The name of Epsom derives from Ebba's ham. Lord Rosebery remained closely associated with the town throughout his life. many ending in -ham. a militant women's suffrage activist. other small settlements grew up at the town pond (now the Market in the High Street). an administrative division devised by the Saxons. Emily Davison. including Effingham. The races St Martin of Tours. Horton. A house was also named after him at Epsom College. Epsom appears in Domesday Book of 1086 as Evesham. Martin's Church.Epsom 42 History Epsom lies within the Copthorne hundred. 2 churches. Lord Rosebery. Epsom was known as a spa town. On 4 June 1913. although there is little to see nowadays apart from a water pump. There were entertainments at the Assembly Rooms (built c. . the Derby and the Oaks. Woodcote. sustaining fatal injuries. woodland worth 20 hogs. stepped in front of King George V's horse running in the Epsom Derby. It was held by Chertsey Abbey. painting by Théodore Géricault. The early history of the area is bound up with the Abbey of Chertsey. leaving land to the borough. The town is near the world famous Epsom Downs Racecourse which features two of the five English Classic horse races. Later. The British Prime Minister and first chairman of the London County Council.[1] The town at the time of Domesday Book had 38 peasant households grouped near St. Its domesday assets were: 11 hides. Ebba was a Saxon landowner. whose ownership of Ebbisham was confirmed by King Athelstan in 933. 1690 and now a pub). Epsom is famous for the Epsom Downs Racecourse which hosts the Epsom Derby. 2 mills 2 worth 10 shillings. A housing estate has now been built upon the wells. There were a string of settlements. The only relic from this period is a 7th century brooch found in Epsom and now in the British Museum. 18 ploughs.

replacing the watchhouse which stood from the 17th century. Epsom Library. West Park. was built in the early 1980s and subsequently parts of the high street were pedestrianised as part of the construction of the town's one-way system. Ebba's and Manor Hospital sites. Epsom Downs Racecourse. The Derby Square expanded and includes a number of franchise chain pubs/bars. A bell was added in 1867. The University for the Creative Arts has one of its five campuses in Epsom. who currently groundshare with Merstham F.[6] The Ashley Centre. Laine Theatre Arts. Students have included Victoria Beckham. Most of the hospitals closed in the 1990s and early 2000s. The late 1990s saw the development of the Ebbisham Centre.C. (which were replaced by the current globe lights in 1920) and the toilet buildings added either side of the tower.Epsom 43 Town Owing partly to its position in the London commuter belt allowing easy access to the Greater London conurbation to the north and the rolling Surrey countryside to the south. the town is twinned with Chantilly in northern France. a cafe and a health and fitness centre. St. Leisure facilities in and around the town include a leisure centre (the Rainbow Centre) on East Street. an independent performing arts college.. Major employers in the town include Epsom and Ewell Borough Council and WS Atkins. The Parade Epsom Clock Tower was built in 1847. By 1902 the lions had been replaced by lanterns.C.[4] The Epsom Playhouse was opened in 1984 and is run by Epsom and Ewell Borough council. is based in the town. Location as the "Best Place to Live" in the United Kingdom. including a doctors' surgery. as they sold their original ground off West Street. As part of Epsom and Ewell. commonly known as the Epsom Cluster.[2][3] Epsom and Ewell was ranked in the top ten of the Halifax Quality of Life Survey 2011. a large multiplex Odeon cinema was built in Upper High Street. the borough of Epsom and Ewell was named in August 2005 by Channel 4's Location. with heraldic lions of Caen Stone at the four corners of the tower base. and ranked at numbers 8 and 3 in subsequent years. and the Horton Park Children's Farm. Sport & Leisure Epsom has a Non-League football club Epsom & Ewell F. the town was well known as the location of a group of five large Edwardian psychiatric hospitals. They are currently looking to move back into the Epsom area[7] Hospitals As well as Epsom's General Hospital. although psychiatric services are still offered on parts of the Horton. a community service based development. . Location. the Odeon cinema. a shopping mall.[5] Town Hall. and was built to 70 feet of red and suffolk brick. In the 1990s.

with termini at Epsom Downs and Tattenham Corner. Two other railway lines were built to serve the Epsom Downs Racecourse. as a branch from the main line near Ewell West Station. Epsom Town. The dereliction is even more evident from the train line from Ewell East railway station. West Croydon where it connects with London Overground and Wimbledon where it connects with the London Underground and Croydon Tramlink. London County Council bought to solve the overcrowding problems experienced in its other hospitals. The hospitals shared a central 'engineering works' next to Long Grove. Horsham. 1808. and although most of the listed buildings remain they have apparently been left to decay. John Constable. Victoria and London Bridge).[13] The surrounding land has now become the Horton Country Park and is also home to the Horton Park Children's Farm. c. The Horton Light Railway was built around 1905.[14] [11] (1907. three have been largely redeveloped for housing (Horton. used as a military hospital from 1916 and officially opened in 1921) The hospitals were built in close proximity to each other on a 1.44 km2) estate close to Epsom Common. There was originally a siding at the side of the station and the buffers of this siding survived (but no track) until the new construction at the station. Dorking. of the former hospitals. The entrance to the station is currently being rebuilt and incorporated into a new block of flats. and also to Leatherhead. The station is of historic interest being the arrival point for Queen Victoria and her entourage prior to taking a carriage up to Epsom Downs. was closed in 1929. which the View of Epsom. an exact duplicate of Horton • Long Grove Hospital Hospital to save construction time) Transport Rail Epsom railway station has frequent rail services to London (running to Waterloo. to deliver building materials to the mental hospitals (see above) being built on what is now Horton Country Park. The Manor and Long Grove Hospital) and two are in the process of being redeveloped while retaining limited NHS services including day care and a cottage hospital.096-acre (4. The town's other station. . Guildford. and incorporated into fast food and shop storage areas on the Upper High Street. which supplied all five institutions with water and electricity and were served by the private Horton Light Railway.Epsom The hospitals were (in order of date of opening): • Manor Hospital [8] 44 • St Ebba's Hospital • Horton Hospital [9] (1899) (1902) (1903) [10] • West Park Hospital[12] (construction started 1912. Today.

• Surrey Fire & Rescue Service • Epsom General Hospital. St. Education State schools include Blenheim High School. Epsom Primary School and Children Centre. [18] Kingswood House School. some run with the support of Surrey County Council. Thomas Mayr-Harting. comedienne Mel Giedroyc. the drummer of the prog-rock band Camel was born here and others include adult film actor Nici . Guildford and other neighbouring areas. Leatherhead. and have now ceased to exist.[17] There is also a campus of the University for the Creative Arts. snooker player Jimmy White and football commentators Kenneth Wolstenholme and David Vine. author and charity-founder David Charles Manners. • The M25 motorway can be joined at Junction 9 Leatherhead. People who have lived in Epsom at some time include writer Isabella Beeton. Andy Ward. Kingston. which has an Accident and Emergency facility. artist Simon Starling. St Joseph's Catholic Primary School and Danetree Junior School Independent schools include Epsom College.[15] Glyn Technology School. and a regular service connects with the London Underground at Morden. Primary schools include Southfield Park Primary School. Some bus services are commercial. Coach company Epsom Coaches and their bus division Quality Line are based in the town. Warwick Davis. via the A24 south. • Surrey Police • South East Coast Ambulance Service as of 1 July 2006. comedian Norman Wisdom. North East Surrey College of Technology (NESCOT) and Rosebery School for Girls and also The Beacon School Banstead [16]. Stamford Green Primary School.The guitarist Jimmy Page of Led Zeppelin notoriety is a famous son of Epsom and his father owned the Page Motors garage. Notable people Notable people who were born in Epsom include: singer Petula Clark. Alex Kingston and the current Ambassador of the European Union to the United Nations. Christopher's School and Ewell Castle School. Epsom and Ewell High School. • The B280 runs from Epsom (West Hill) through Malden Rushett (A243) to Oxshott. Epsom College Emergency services Epsom is served by these emergency services. Road • The A24 passes through the centre of the town. actors Tom Felton. photographer Martin Parr.St Martins C of E Junior and Infant School.Epsom 45 Bus Bus services connect Epsom to Sutton. Sussex. The Surrey Ambulance Service. and Kent Ambulance services have all merged. and others under contract to London Buses (part of TfL). Redhill.

org. Thetimechamber. [11] "Long Grove Hospital" (http:/ / www.uk) Exploring St. co. ewellcastle. Ewellcastle. uk/ ). Retrieved 2010-04-29.sch. . [15] "[[Epsom and Ewell High School (http:/ / www. thetimechamber.org/E/EP/EPSOM.co. html). Group one winning jockey Ian Mongan who is an Epsom based rider and television presenters Tyger Drew-Honey and Michaela Strachan (born in Ewell). co.epsom. co. co. Thetimechamber. Salts and Springs of Epsom and Ewell (http://www. php). Retrieved 2010-04-29. php). channel4. uk/ Sites/ Hospital/ EpsomCluster/ Manor/ ManorHospital. [13] "Urbex" (http:/ / www. . com/ urbex). html& page=3 [8] "Manor Hospital" (http:/ / www. the Bristol City footballer Jody Morris. uk/ ). Ebba's Hospital" (http:/ / www. . uk/ Sites/ Hospital/ EpsomCluster/ St Ebbas/ Ebba.com/) .net/#/westparkasylum/4528788650/) Detailed History of the Spa. Thetimechamber. pitchero.uk.urbanassault. 2010-04-09. uk/ EpsomClockTower. uk/ Sites/ Hospital/ EpsomCluster/ LongGrove/ Long Grove Hospital. Retrieved 2010-04-29.uk. Hortonpark. thetimechamber.urbanassault. thetimechamber. Retrieved 2010-04-29.epsomwells. bbc. Retrieved 2010-01-06.co.uk. htm) Hull 'worst place to live in' (http:/ / news.epsom-ewell. [16] http:/ / www. [9] "St.surrey.net/#/stebbashospital/4528789281/) Exploring West Park Asylum (http://www. [12] "West Park Hospital" (http:/ / www. . Thetimechamber. Retrieved 2010-04-29. thisislondon.uk. . Epsom and Ewell High School. thetimechamber.co. com/ clubs/ epsomandewellfc/ a/ history-9397. net/ surrnames.uk. do) [5] "Epsom Playhouse" (http:/ / www. [10] "Horton Hospital" (http:/ / www.1911encyclopedia. 2010-03-05. sch. uk). External links • • • • • • Epsom (http://38. .Ebbas Hospital (http://www. uk/ 1/ hi/ uk/ 4136342. epsomandewellhistoryexplorer.1911 Encyclopædia Britannica article Town of Epsom (http://www. . [6] "Epsom Clock Tower" (http:/ / www. php).Epsom Sterling. [18] "ewell castle school" (http:/ / www. [14] "Horton Park Childrens Farm" (http:/ / www. uk/ standard/ article-24024241-uks-most-desirable-location-named. surrey. Retrieved 2007-11-16. co.com. Thetimechamber. Retrieved 2010-04-29.townpage. . Location. 46 References [1] [2] [3] [4] Surrey Domesday Book (http:/ / www.co. uk/ [17] "Rosebery School" (http:/ / www. .t83. Retrieved 2010-04-29. epsomandewellhighschool. .uk. enta. php). epsomplayhouse. stm) Location. co. thetimechamber.uk. gwp.htm) . uk/ Sites/ Hospital/ EpsomCluster/ Horton/ Horton Hospital. co. Location: Best and Worst Live (http:/ / www. uk/ Sites/ Hospital/ EpsomCluster/ WestPark/ westpark. co.co.uk/) Epsom & Ewell Borough Council (http://www. co. Rosebery. co.co. php). uk).t83. .co. Simoncornwell. rosebery.uk. hortonpark. thebeaconschool. Retrieved 2010-04-29. com)]"]. com/ 4homes/ ontv/ best& worst/ ) (http:/ / www. the Southend United footballer Freddy Eastwood. Retrieved 2010-04-29. Retrieved 2010-04-29. [7] http:/ / www.gov. .co. co. simoncornwell.

Wicket has picked up some English (Basic. Cindel and Wicket have been walking in the forest together. Nearly six months have passed since the events of the first film. 1985 94 min. and the Towani family's starcruiser is almost completely fixed. and sometime between Star Wars Episode V: The Empire Strikes Back and Star Wars Episode VI: Return of the Jedi. as it is called in the Star Wars Expanded Universe) from Cindel and her family. Setting The film is set sometime after the Ewoks animated series. Smith Jim Wheat Ken Wheat George Lucas Wilford Brimley Warwick Davis Aubree Miller Paul Gleason Carel Struycken Niki Botelho Eric Walker Siân Phillips Peter Bernstein Music by Cinematography Isidore Mankofsky Distributed by Release date(s) Running time Country Language ABC November 24. the little girl from the first film. and Jeremitt is putting the final touches on the craft. joins the Ewoks in protecting their village and defeating the evil marauders who have taken control of the Endor moon.Ewoks: The Battle for Endor 47 Ewoks: The Battle for Endor Ewoks: The Battle for Endor Directed by Produced by Screenplay by Story by Starring Jim Wheat Ken Wheat Thomas G. after being orphaned. A sequel to Caravan of Courage: An Ewok Adventure. . who. picking flowers. United States English Ewoks: The Battle for Endor (later re-released on home video as Star Wars: Ewok Adventures – The Battle for Endor) is a 1985 made-for-TV movie set in the Star Wars galaxy. it focuses on Cindel Towani.

goodbyes are said as Noa and Cindel leave the forest moon of Endor aboard Noa's starship. where Wicket leads the Ewoks in defense of the ship. Cindel is awakened one morning by a song her mother used to sing to her. only missing the energy cell. where she is reunited with the ewok Wicket. with Noa simultaneously killing Terak and leaving Charal trapped in bird form for eternity. Wicket. she and Charal are both imprisoned with the Ewoks. The two escape and meet Teek. The woman transforms into Charal. Card Player #2 . Cindel's escape is short-lived. Eventually he proves himself to be a kindhearted man. she is captured by Charal and placed in a prisoner carriage. and Cindel). They escape with the energy cell. Shortly thereafter. Terak and Noa face off. It is revealed that Noa is rebuilding his own broken Star Cruiser. letting Teek steal food for them and inviting the two in when they attempt to build a fire for warmth." When she cannot. she is captured by Terak. Mace. Terak. along with Catrine and Mace. and the marauders trace them back to the ship. Meanwhile. who takes her to Terak. Many Ewoks are killed. the Ewok village is attacked by a group of marauders (originally crash landed from Sanyassa) led by Terak and his witch-like sorceress Charal. When Cindel goes to save Wicket. Cindel. and Teek sneak into the castle. Noa. Catrine. She follows the voice to find a beautiful woman singing. a human man who is angered by their uninvited presence and throws them out. making their way to the cellblock. Teek takes Wicket and Cindel to the home of Noa Briqualon. the Towani family (Jeremitt. and are nearly beaten by the time Noa powers up the ship and uses the its laser cannons to fend off the marauders. and Wicket are becoming friends. and Noa installs the energy cell in his ship. assuming she knows how to use "the power" in the energy cell stolen from Jaremitt. and Jeremitt. a small fast native of Endor.Ewoks: The Battle for Endor 48 Plot While preparing to leave the forest moon of Endor. Charal. The Ewoks put up a valiant effort. even as the other marauders retreat. He orders her to activate "the power. where they free Cindel and the other Ewoks. Outside. Cast Actor/Actress Wilford Brimley Warwick Davis Aubree Miller Siân Phillips Carel Struycken Niki Botelho Paul Gleason Eric Walker Marianne Horine Daniel Frishman Tony Cox Pam Grizz Roger Johnson Michael Pritchard Role(s) Noa Wicket Cindel Charal Terak Teek Jeremitt Mace Young Witch Deej Willy Shodu Lieutenant Card Player #1 Johnny Weissmuller Jr. Charal is ordered by Terak to find Cindel. At the marauders' castle. Noa.

called latent image matte painting. like Swiss Family Robinson and The Seventh Voyage of Sinbad. In this technique. wizards. California. so stop motion was used to realize creatures such as the condor dragon. . capturing motion blur in the otherwise static puppet. a more advanced form with motorized articulated puppets that moved while the camera shutter was open.Logray uses a magical spinning lantern to divine the location of the missing Towani parents. the evil witch Charal dons a magical ring that allows her to change shape into a raven. remaining unexposed. the blurrgs. and the painting photographed. executive produced by Lucas.as long as they were 7 feet tall. The Ewok movies proved an opportunity for Industrial Light & Magic to hone a new technique in photographing matte paintings.ferrets. Effects Both Ewok films were some of the last intensive stop motion animation work Industrial Light & Magic produced. and they contributed an assortment of bits and pieces. magic and mysticism were quite prevalent in the Ewok films. the technique was being replaced by go motion animation. llamas and horses. was directed by Jim and Ken Wheat. The scout Noa has a little rodent-like companion named Teek who could run at blindingly fast speeds. We'd been thinking about the adventure films we'd liked as kids. Co-director Ken Wheat explained the production and inspiration of the film in an interview with EON Magazine: Lucas guided the creation of the story over the course of two four-hour sessions we had with him. Since the painting now existed on the original film. However. the Ewok priestess Kaink carries a magical staff capable of mesmerizing animals. The Ewok films introduced a variety of lifeforms to Endor. Selected plot elements While the original Star Wars trilogy only had the Force. there would be no generational quality loss. The giant Gorax had packs of deadly boar-wolves that prowled the forest floor. which was fine with George -. and written by the Wheat brothers. He'd just watched 'Heidi' with his daughter the weekend before these took place. so we suggested having space marauders. shot in summer 1985 in Marin County. The film also features dialogue referring to the unspecified planet Mace and Cindel are originally from. as in the early 80s. In Ewoks: Battle for Endor. based on a story written by Lucas. Witches. a section of the camera's lens blocked off. The Maurauders ride atop dim-witted blurrgs. according to Wheat.Ewoks: The Battle for Endor Matthew Roloff Ewok with Crutches 49 Production Creation and crew The film. and a painting would be crafted to occupy that space. of course! The rest of the brainstorming was done along those lines. the budgets of the Ewok films were such that go motion was simply too expensive for the projects. dinosaur-like beasts of burden. The films also had more earthen animals . Hunting the skies of the moon is the leathery condor dragon. The film would then be rewound. an enchanted lake momentarily traps Mace behind an unbreakable barrier. Joe Johnston (the production designer and second unit director) and Phil Tippett (the creature supervisor) were involved in the second day's story session. and the boar-wolves. giants and fairies filled the forests of Endor . and the story idea he pushed was having the little girl from the first Ewok TV movie become an orphan who ends up living with a grumpy old hermit in the woods. eliminating the harsh staccato movement often associated with stop motion. the blocked areas reversed. Lucas’ involvement primarily was in the design and editing stages. during live action photography.

• When Cindel has a nightmare about bad guys coming into Noa's house. it incorporated several elements introduced in the two Ewok films. In the novel. in that it reveals that she was once one of the Nightsisters.Ewoks: The Battle for Endor 50 Alternative versions • In a home video release. set over ten years after The Battle for Endor. Wicket races for Noa's house but Noa tells him the only chance they have got is the star cruiser. was in at least the planning stages around the late eighties.According to the official continuity of the Star Wars Expanded Universe. but all home-video releases of the film have the end credits rolling after the final scene. and selections from the score were released on LP by Varèse Sarabande in 1986. . in which Cindel rushes to Noa's bed to wake him up. and the credits roll over a traditional black background. • Cindel's lines: "Do something. the article "Moddell Starship Search Abandoned". • The Illustrated Star Wars Universe (1997) by Kevin J. Then a scene that happened shortly after where the men went inside and burned down Noa's house. the following two scenes were deleted: when being chased by Terak's men. Anderson explains the origins of Charal the witch who kidnaps Cindel in The Battle for Endor in relation to The Courtship of Princess Leia. but instead finds Terak in the bed and wakes up. In the "regional" section of this issue. Cindel received the so-called Plat Mallar tapes from Admiral Drayson. the characters. and also contained cues from Bernstein's score to The Ewok Adventure. Cindel is shown to have grown to become a reporter on Coruscant. Jimke Weet. Soundtrack Peter Bernstein composed the film's music. Many times. • HoloNet issue #49 (2002) was an issue of the in-universe news report. Wicket! Do something!" for the DVD release. the end credits rolled over the final scene. The release was known simply as Ewoks. several elements from the film have gone on to appear in other works from the Star Wars Expanded Universe. known only as "Ewoks III". • Star Wars: Ewoks (1985–1987) was an ABC animated series featuring the Ewoks that ran for two seasons. The Expanded Universe timeline states Cindel decided to join the New Republic and go into journalism after witnessing the Battle of Endor. but the project has been shown to have never come through. the third book of Michael P. • Tyrant's Test (1996) . • In the original TV broadcast of the film. was never published. The Black Fleet Crisis Trilogy. Kube-McDowell's Star Wars book series. A follow-up to the two films. Sequels According to an interview with Warwick Davis. the character of Cindel Towani went on to appear in Tyrant's Test. if one was ever developed. a dark side force-using sect of the witches of dathomir from the planet dathomir. a second sequel to the original film. Later Expanded Universe appearances Since the release of The Battle for Endor in 1985. The search was said to have been called off due to the fact that Jimke had to file bankruptcy due to his expenses in the search. The television version just shows Cindel waking up after the men break in. and leaked the story of the only survivor of the Yevethan attack of Polneye. During the Yevethan crisis. locations. or other elements are elaborated on in greater detail. such as the appearance of Queen Izarina of the fairies. explains that the search has been called off for the rescue of Salek Weet and Noa Briqualon. which had been funded by Salek's father. a scene was cut from the television broadcast. The report was meant to garner sympathy among the people of the New Republic and the Senate and it worked. Wicket! Use your sling! You hit the ring!" have been altered to "Do something. The plot of the film.

2004. the player can run across the base of the Sanyassan Marauders. ISBN 0-553-08928-5 Return of the Ewok. Michael P. Random House published a children's book adaptation of The Battle for Endor called The Ring. ISBN 0-553-37484-2 The Courtship of Princess Leia (Star Wars). 2004 DVD release Caravan of Courage: An Ewok Adventure. the Witch. In the game.( Read the article [1]) Star Wars Episode VI: Return of the Jedi junior novelization. Features • Presented in its original 1. first paperback printing. The player may also encounter the Nightsisters. 1997. Zakul. 1994. 1985. Anderson. 1995. when exploring the forest moon of Endor. Ryder Windham . the Witch and the Wardrobe by C. David Tomblin Tyrant's Test. 51 Adaptations In 1986. Dave Wolverton. ISBN 0-553-57275-X The Essential guide to Characters (Star Wars). 1983. In it. Release Ewoks: The Battle for Endor initially premiered as an ABC TV special on November 24. 2004. of whom Charal was a member. with one film on each side. and the Crystal: An Ewok Adventure. 1996. • Geonosis and the Outer Rim Worlds (2004) was a sourcebook for the Star Wars: The Roleplaying Game. and utilized the film's story and images from the film. 2004 DVD Release Return of the Jedi. Terak's son Zakul takes over rule of his Marauders after Terak's death. Lewis. Kevin J. The release was a single double-sided disc. 1st edition.33:1 aspect ratio • Available Subtitles: English • Available Audio Tracks: English (Dolby Digital 2. and the rise of his son. Richard Marquand The Illustrated Star Wars Universe. The title is an allusion to The Chronicles of Narnia: The Lion. It explains his death. (Book 3 of The Black Fleet Crisis). Kube-McDowell. 1st edition. ISBN 0-345-39535-2 Endor and the Moddell Sector.0 Surround) References • • • • • • • • • • • Ewoks: The Battle for Endor.Ewoks: The Battle for Endor • Star Wars Galaxies: An Empire Divided (2003) is a MMORPG. The book gives Terak's bio and stats. The film was released on DVD with its predecessor as a double feature collection entitled Star Wars: Ewok Adventures on November 23. who were originally seen in The Battle for Endor. The book was written by Cathy East Dubowski. 1st edition. 1982. Andy Mangels. article from Star Wars Gamer magazine. It was later released on VHS and Laserdisc in 1990 through MGM Home Video. Issue #9 HoloNet News #49 . S.

net/ SWCaravanBattleEwoks_DVD. html . html [2] http:/ / www.com databank entries for the film's characters [6] Reviews • A review of the DVD [7] References [1] http:/ / www. genreonline. html [7] http:/ / www. com/ eu/ tv/ classic/ f20000824/ index. com/ 49/ regional/ 13328_2. com/ m/ ewoks_the_battle_for_endor/ [5] http:/ / www. holonetnews. imdb. allrovi. com/ movies/ movie/ v16277 [4] http:/ / www. html [6] http:/ / www. rottentomatoes. starwars. com/ title/ tt0089110/ [3] http:/ / www. starwars. com/ databank/ updates/ news20041112.Ewoks: The Battle for Endor 52 External links • Ewoks: The Battle for Endor [2] at the Internet Movie Database • Ewoks: The Battle for Endor [3] at AllRovi • Ewoks: The Battle for Endor [4] at Rotten Tomatoes Official sites • Star Wars Databank entry [5] • StarWars.

Warwick Davis. The miniseries stars Ted Danson. Shashi Kapoor. Tom Sturridge. Kate Maberly. Omar Sharif. The series won 5 Emmy Awards including in the Best Miniseries category. Peter O'Toole. produced by Jim Henson Productions and Hallmark Entertainment. Alfre Woodard.S. Richard Wilson and Nicholas Lyndhurst. Brian Henson Producer(s) Location(s) Duncan Kenworthy England Portugal 186 minutes Broadcast Original channel Original run NBC February 4 – 5. 1996 Directed by Starring Running time Gulliver's Travels is a U. and in the USA on NBC in February 1996. Mary Steenburgen. This miniseries is notable for being one of the very few adaptations of Swift's novel to feature all four voyages. It was shot in England and Portugal. . Kristin Scott Thomas. John Gielgud. of episodes Isabelle Huppert Ted Danson Trevor Jones United Kingdom English 2 Production Executive producer(s) Robert Halmi Sr. TV miniseries based on Jonathan Swift's novel of the same name. The miniseries aired in the UK on channel 4.Gulliver's Travels (TV miniseries) 53 Gulliver's Travels (TV miniseries) Gulliver's Travels Written by Simon Moore (script) Jonathan Swift (original) Charles Sturridge Ted Danson Mary Steenburgen James Fox Omar Sharif Peter O'Toole Alfre Woodard Kristin Scott Thomas John Gielgud Voices of Narrated by Composer(s) Country of origin Language(s) No.

Gulliver's wife Mary asks for the help of Dr. Gulliver continues to explain the strange customs of Lilliput. Tom later discovers a small Lilliputian sheep (which he tries to retrieve towards the series). which are different from the traditional politics of the normal kingdom of England. he recovers from this obsession and returns to his wife and children. the ending has been changed for a more upbeat conclusion. Although Gulliver's new Lilliputian friends help him by hiding him. and he is allowed to tell his tale to everyone present. Meanwhile. [. Production It took years to find the financial backing for the miniseries. Producer Duncan Kenworthy said that. rather than with his family. He then proceeds to tell his story (which is narrated in flashbacks as Gulliver begins telling his tale) starting back to the day of the shipwreck and the famous arrival of Gulliver to Lilliput. After fleeing from the Emperor's army. Meanwhile. He then flees from Lilliput and ends up in the sea after making a raft with thousands of trees to escape. In the miniseries. Gulliver is sent to a mental institution. He eventually gains the despise of the court dwarf Grildrig (Warwick Davis). and discusses the politics of Brobdingnag. Dr. but is actually plotting how to get rid of him. A fire occurs at the palace which Gulliver puts out with his urine enough to end up soaking the trapped Empress. He is sold to a lady of the royal court.] We wanted to do the whole book. although these are just memories of his travels. The animals seen in this film were provided by A1 Animals. After some time. a member of the mental institution in London who appears to help Gulliver. they ask him to eliminate Blefuscu further which Gulliver refuses."[1] Jim Henson's Creature Shop created several CGI wasps and some prosthetic make-up for the Yahoos. reciprocating Gulliver's help towards them to obtain the highest office. The action shifts back and forth between flashbacks of his travels and the present where he is telling the story of his travels and has been committed to an insane asylum (The flashback framework and the incarceration in the asylum are not in the novel). Gulliver has returned to his family after a long absence.. He is examined by the doctors who ridicule him for his size. Gulliver then accepts and wins the war in order to show gratitude towards the Lilliputians. who is envious of not being considered the "smallest man in the kingdom". Gulliver is so impressed with the Utopian country of the Houyhnhnms that when he returns to England he eventually chooses to live out his life among the horses in his barn. He also appears to show signs of dementia.. Meanwhile. such as the naming of officials by doing rituals such as the jumping over and going under a stick held by the Emperor of Lilliput (Peter O'Toole). who presents him to the Queen of Brobdingnan (Alfre Woodard). and that was what interested Jim. The dwarf sends him some giant wasps .Gulliver's Travels (TV miniseries) 54 Premise In this version. an island consisting of tiny people. Gulliver imagines for a moment that he is back on the shipwreck that started his travels. In the book. He is shown as an exhibition by Farmer Grultrud (Ned Beatty) and his daughter Glumdalclitch (Kate Maberly) who discover him. The project required a good deal of Special Effects work. Gulliver later lands in the land of Brobdingnag which consists of Giants. He pretends to send Mary's letters to Gulliver in the institution. Gulliver is found by his wife Mary (Mary Steenburgen) and son Tom (Tom Sturridge) on the horse stable the next day. but actually intercepts them. saving them in a book shelf. Plot Part 1 The story begins on the night that Lemuel Gulliver (Ted Danson) arrives back at home. Gulliver is then presented to the Empress of Lilliput (Phoebe Nichols) and is asked to fight a war against the enemy country of Blefuscu. "It [Gulliver's Travels] was something I'd been developing while Jim was still alive. While the miniseries remains faithful to the novel. The Empress demands that her husband have Gulliver executed. Gulliver ends up on the run. Bates (James Fox).

Meanwhile. With sadness. His wife is then asked if she believes his story. Gulliver softly rejects her advances and asks her to free him. Gulliver begins to despise more and more the Yahoo lifestyle. After reassuring his tale once more. later rejecting their offer to gain immortality by drinking their water." Gulliver later discovers the magician is drugging him and using his blood to summon the ghosts of great figures such as Alexander the Great (Ian Dunn) and Julius Caesar. After being attacked by Yahoos and saved by the Houyhnhnm Mistress. Gulliver wonders when will this be as the magician only says his servants are looking for two horses that escaped and that they'll "go tomorrow. After leaving the palace. and shares what he is now as a person. Gulliver later learns the tricks of these men and they share their knowledge of math and astronomy among other things. even though they recognize his virtues. He talks to the Houyhnhnm Mistress (voiced by Isabelle Huppert) and explains his costumes and lifestyle. Gulliver is then released and he lives with his family. The Houyhnhnms." Gulliver participates in a battle in which the kingdom of the prince's mother Empress Munodi (Geraldine Chaplin) is attacked. Following an undepicted attack by pirates that led to a mutiny. and begins to admire more their culture. Gulliver makes it to a port where the ship's captain agrees to take him back to England. He converses with two astronomers and learns of the way to speak to them when they get into a thinking state. Gulliver then departs the island and is rescued by a Portuguese ship against his will. he abandons the place realizing everything's an illusion when he goes through two standing guardians. It was mentioned by Lemuel in the narration that Dr. After getting ready for the "End of the World Ball. Bates wasn't seen again and it was said that he went abroad. he encounters a magician (Omar Sharif) in Glubbdubdrib and stays at his house with the promise of being taken to a port to go to England. Gulliver falls from the hole (which is under a magnet that sustains the island above the ground) into a bed under the palace. They do so and he immediately befriends the Rajah (Shashi Kapoor) and Prince Munodi (Navin Chowdhry) where Prince Munodi is considered an idiot. but Gulliver is swift enough to kill them. Gulliver later summons more spirits by his own will. He studies their customs and decides to prove the Houyhnhnms that he's more like them. He then is in the moment amongst doctors in an evaluation. He then converses with Empress Munodi of the place. Gulliver begins to get disgusted by the Yahoos and prefers the company of the Houyhnhnms. He even rejects the diamonds he finds in a quarry. While the days pass. whom he has grown to love once more. form a council and decide that Gulliver must leave the island. Gulliver's son enters the court room showing the small Lilliputian sheep Gulliver took care of. He later examines some customs which he finds unnecessary while trying to find a Room of Answers to get back to England. She answers that she believes in him and later questions Bates's motives to leave him in the institution. He later meets the Struldbrugs where he gives his wasp-sting dagger to the Immortal Gatekeeper (Kristin Scott Thomas) to enter.Gulliver's Travels (TV miniseries) to kill Gulliver. Glumdalclitch eventually falls in love with Gulliver and wishes to marry him. but has learned to be a better person and is dedicated to his new horses and family. She responds that his motives are "everything but Christian" and reveals his hideous plan of hiding the letters which had been discovered by Tom earlier in the film. 55 Part 2 Gulliver sees the flying land of Laputa and signals them to pick him up. After summoning many spirits. The film ends in a scene of Gulliver and his family. whom he talks to again. . He still struggles to cope with them after receiving so much disgust of being a Yahoo. She reluctantly does so by letting his box float away in the sea. Gulliver arrives on the island of the Houyhnhnm horses (where he is enchanted by their intelligence and grace) and also encounters the Yahoos. He then extracts a wasp's sting and makes a dagger from it. He answers he does it since it is his "Christian duty".

Farmer Grultrud's Wife Kate Maberly .wikia.Plato Kristin Scott Thomas .Farmer Grultrud Annette Badland .Dr.Empress Munodi Navin Chowdhry . .. html).Lady-In-Waiting Shashi Kapoor . No Strings Attached: The Inside Story of Jim Henson's Creature Shop.Glumdalclitch Karyn Parsons .Queen of Brobdingnag John Gielgud .the Professor of Light Ned Beatty .Lemuel Gulliver Mary Steenburgen .Houyhnhnm Mistress (voice) Reception The miniseries was generally well received by critics. gaudy.291218.com/title/tt0115195/) at the Internet Movie Database • Gulliver's Travels (http://muppet.King of Lilliput Omar Sharif .Prince Munodi Warwick Davis .. "A Man for all Sizes" (http:/ / www. pp. ew. [2] Tucker. "Everything about this production is surprising. from its choice of Gulliver — Cheers' Ted Danson in an excellent wig — to its startling fidelity to Jonathan Swift's 1726 novel.Mary Gulliver Tom Sturridge .com/wiki/Gulliver's_Travels) at Muppet Wiki .Tom Gulliver James Fox . Ken Tucker of Entertainment Weekly wrote that.imdb. Retrieved 2008-06-25. ISBN 0-02-862008-9. Bates Peter O'Toole . com/ ew/ article/ 0. External links • Gulliver's Travels (http://www.Magician Alfre Woodard .00.Rajah of Laputa Geraldine Chaplin . Ken (1996-02-02).. 150–151.a big.Archimedes Philip McGough .Alexander the Great Sylvester Morand . Matt (1997)."[2] References [1] Bacon. Macmillan." and called it ".Immortal Gatekeeper Isabelle Huppert . Entertainment Weekly. funny production that feels free to give full reign to Swift's blithe vulgarity.Grildrig Ian Dunn .Gulliver's Travels (TV miniseries) 56 Cast • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Ted Danson .

falls in love. Rowling Daniel Radcliffe Rupert Grint Emma Watson Starring (See below) Music by Nicholas Hooper Cinematography Bruno Delbonnel Editing by Studio Distributed by Release date(s) Running time Country Language Budget Box office Mark Day Heyday Films Warner Bros. breaking the record for highest five-day worldwide gross in history. K.416. two weeks after its original release. Pictures • 15 July 2009 [2] [1] 153 minutes • • United Kingdom United States English $250 million [3] [4] $994. Due to North American theatres having a several-week commitment to Transformers: Revenge of the Fallen.487 Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince is a 2009 fantasy film[4] directed by David Yates and based on the novel of the same name by J. breaking the record for the biggest single-day worldwide gross of all time.[5] The story follows Harry Potter's sixth year at Hogwarts as he becomes obsessed with a mysterious textbook. alongside Rupert Grint and Emma Watson as Harry's best friends Ron Weasley and Hermione Granger. one day short of the fourth anniversary of the corresponding novel's release. In five days the film made $394 million. K. It is the sixth instalment in the Harry Potter film series. it became the 8th highest grossing . In everywhere but the United States. It is the sequel to Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix and is followed by Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows – Part 1. With a total gross of $934 million. and attempts to retrieve a memory that holds the key to Lord Voldemort's downfall.Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince (film) 57 Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince (film) Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince Theatrical poster Directed by Produced by Screenplay by Based on David Yates • • David Heyman David Barron Steve Kloves Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince by J. Rowling. written by Steve Kloves and produced by David Heyman and David Barron. Filming began on 24 September 2007. culminating with the film's worldwide cinematic release on 15 July 2009.[6] the IMAX 3D release of the film occurred on 29 July.[7] Half-Blood Prince opened to positive reviews along with instant commercial success. the sixth film was simultaneously released in regular cinemas and IMAX 3D in all countries. The film stars Daniel Radcliffe as Harry Potter.

Draco discovers Harry's presence and immobilises him. After being cured of a love potion meant for Harry. in front of both Hermione and Lavender. watch the structure burn. home of the Weasleys. retreats as Severus Snape enters and magically heals Draco's wound. which Dumbledore notices.[10] Half-Blood Prince remains one of the most positively reviewed films within the series among film critics. Ron is nearly killed by a drink originally intended for Dumbledore.Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince (film) movie of all time[8] and the second highest-grossing film of 2009 (behind Avatar). but Harry is rescued by Luna with her Spectrespecs. Critics praised the film's "emotionally satisfying" story. Dumbledore requests Harry's help to retrieve it. direction. Ginny Weasley. cinematography. Harry. Ginny and Harry hide it in the Room of Requirement and. share their first kiss. Thinking he has been given a good luck potion by Harry. who hints to his friends that he does not plan to return to Hogwarts next year. granting him immortality unless the Horcrux is destroyed.[11][12][13] 58 Plot Harry is shown bleeding in front of the Ministry of Magic. a locket. Harry confronts Draco and severely injures him with a Sectumsempra curse taken from the textbook of the Half-Blood Prince. to protect Draco and fulfill the assignment if he fails. They almost share a kiss on Christmas Eve but Bellatrix and Fenrir Greyback. Harry spies on Draco. Bellatrix and Greyback abandon their attack as Order members Nymphadora Tonks and Remus Lupin. They travel to a far-away cave where Harry is forced to make Dumbledore drink a mind-altering potion that hides the Horcrux. learning that Voldemort wanted information for creating seven Horcruxes. Ron becomes a sports hero and partially as a result. Harry and Ron are admitted to Slughorn's Potions class at the last minute and have to borrow the needed textbooks because they don't have their own. Narcissa. Touching the ring. Ron murmurs Hermione's name in the hospital. attack and burn the Burrow. Harry retrieves the memory. Dumbledore shows Harry memories of a young Tom Riddle and reveals that Slughorn retains a memory critical to Voldemort's defeat. At Hogwarts. while doing so. it became the third highest rated Harry Potter film on review aggregators Rotten Tomatoes and Metacritic. The Horcrux safeguards a portion of the creator's soul. Harry. Leaving Fred and George's new shop. intent on capturing Harry. had annotated the book with additional instructions—tips and recommendations that allow Harry to excel in the class. While recovering. but Ron and Hermione are sceptical. Lord Voldemort is tightening his grip on both the Wizarding and Muggle worlds and has chosen Draco Malfoy to carry out a secret mission. This owner. who has gone into hiding. After discovering the possible location of another Horcrux. shocked that the curse has sliced open Draco's chest. leaving Hermione disconsolate. forms a romantic relationship with Lavender Brown. Outnumbered. now 16 years old accompanies Albus Dumbledore to visit former potions professor Horace Slughorn. Harry. Ron and Hermione notice Draco and Narcissa associating with Death Eaters in Borgin and Burkes. On the Hogwarts Express. Harry believes Voldemort has made Draco a Death Eater. Harry has a vision of Voldemort. Fearing the book may be filled with more Dark Magic. together with Harry and the Weasleys. including gaining recognition at the 82nd Academy Awards for Best Cinematography[9] and the 63rd British Academy Film Awards for Best Special Visual Effects and Best Production Design. Harry's copy is inscribed on the fly page by the "Half-Blood Prince". visuals and music. Two of Voldemort's Horcruxes have already been destroyed: Tom Riddle's diary and Marvolo Gaunt's ring. Severus Snape accepts Bellatrix Lestrange's challenge to make an Unbreakable Vow with Draco's mother.[8] The film attained a mix of awards and nominations. at the time of its release. As for Ron. Slughorn agrees to return to teach at Hogwarts as Dumbledore tells Harry that Slughorn's return to Hogwarts is crucial. one of which has almost killed Ron. Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix. Harry discovers Hermione sobbing in the Astronomy Tower. he becomes the Keeper of the Gryffindor Quidditch team. Suspecting that Draco was responsible for two attempts on Dumbledore's life. Harry finds. Harry spends Christmas with the Weasleys and becomes closer to Ginny. It is currently the 20th highest-grossing film of all time worldwide unadjusted for inflation. A weakened . where he reveals to her that he has feelings for Ron's sister. as the result of an attack that took place after the second-to-last scene of the previous film.

Bellatrix. Upon arriving at the tower. the students and teachers destroy the Dark Mark to honour Dumbledore whereupon Harry is comforted by Ginny. • Alan Rickman as Severus Snape. the legendary headmaster of Hogwarts.B. a member of the Order of the Phoenix and Harry's ex-Defense Against the Dark Arts teacher. the Death Eater who betrayed Harry's parents to Voldemort. Harry later reveals to Ron and Hermione that the locket Horcrux was a fake. • Emma Watson as Hermione Granger. one of Harry's two best friends. the former Potions master and current Defense Against the Dark Arts teacher. Draco's mother and younger sister of Bellatrix. Draco and the Death Eaters escape from the castle.) Thomas James Longley was the original choice to take on the role but Riddle was ultimately played by Hero Fiennes-Tiffin as a child and Frank Dillane as a teenager.[20] only for it to be denied by her agency. Spall has no lines in the film.[14] Yates responded that Coulson was too old.B. Dumbledore tells Harry to fetch Snape but as footsteps approach. Snape. who played the young Tom Riddle in Chamber of Secrets. Bellatrix destroys the Great Hall and sets fire to Hagrid's hut as Harry attempts to stop them." to Voldemort stating that he has stolen the real Horcrux with the intent of destroying it. • Julie Walters as Molly Weasley. one of Voldemort's principal Death Eaters and Draco Malfoy's aunt. Harry. The locket contains a message from an "R. 59 Cast • Daniel Radcliffe as Harry Potter.[17][18] Helen McCrory appears as Narcissa Malfoy. the Charms master and head of Ravenclaw.A. but had to drop out due to pregnancy. expressed an interest in returning in the role for flashback sequences. Led by Minerva McGonagall. • Robbie Coltrane as Rubeus Hagrid. the Hogwarts gamekeeper and Care of Magical Creatures teacher at Hogwarts.A. • Tom Felton as Draco Malfoy. Snape overpowers Harry and reveals that he is the Half-Blood Prince before escaping. nearing 30. • Warwick Davis as Filius Flitwick. killing Dumbledore. one of Harry's two best friends.[16] (Bower was. Harry's rival and recipient of Voldemort's secret mission. the Hogwarts Transfiguration teacher. • Maggie Smith as Minerva McGonagall. Greyback and several other Death Eaters enter the castle with Draco's help. was and to find the remaining Horcruxes. • Helena Bonham Carter as Bellatrix Lestrange. • Rupert Grint as Ron Weasley. McCrory was originally cast as Bellatrix in Order of the Phoenix. Draco reveals that he has been chosen by Voldemort to kill Dumbledore.Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince (film) Dumbledore defends them from a horde of Inferi and Apparates himself and Harry back to the Astronomy Tower at Hogwarts. however. later cast as the teenage Gellert Grindelwald in Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows – Part 1. he orders Harry to hide. • Jim Broadbent as Horace Slughorn. His dying wish is that when Voldemort meets his match he will be mortal once more. Ron and Hermione vow to seek out who R. previously noted that he had his "fingers crossed" he would be cast as a young Riddle. Casting Christian Coulson.[21] . • David Thewlis as Remus Lupin. deputy headmistress and head of Gryffindor.[15] Jamie Campbell Bower. Harry returns to the school to find the staff and students mourning Dumbledore. the Weasley matriarch and a mother figure to Harry. • Michael Gambon as Albus Dumbledore. Rather than return for their final year at Hogwarts. the newly appointed Potions master who held the position before. but he is unable to follow through. Snape arrives and casts the Avada Kedavra curse. As Bellatrix casts the Dark Mark. In the meantime. to be playing the role. who appeared in Sweeney Todd: The Demon Barber of Fleet Street.[19] Naomi Watts was previously reported as having accepted the role. • Timothy Spall as Peter Pettigrew.

including Tom Riddle's Orphanage. stayed on to design all the sets in Half-Blood Prince. and was not approached for this one."[36] . the director of the third film. When asked whether he would consider directing a later film. We'd had our first totally virtual set on the last film.[22][23] After Bill Nighy expressed an interest in appearing.[33] Yates and Heyman have noted that some of the events of Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows influenced the script of Half-Blood Prince. The interior of the cave is made up of geometric crystal formations. Gilliam said. "Warner Bros.[26] 60 Production Development Before David Yates was officially chosen to direct the film. and responded to.[28] Terry Gilliam was Rowling's personal choice to direct Philosopher's Stone. and the conversations happened before the movie was released. designed in the computer. but did not appear in the film. Craig noted that the film used several CGI sets. visual effects supervisor Tim Burke. he included a reworking of John Williams's Hedwig's Theme. The exterior of the cave scene was filmed at the Cliffs of Moher in the west of Ireland."[30] Yates described Half-Blood Prince as being "a cross between the chills of Prisoner of Azkaban and the fantastical adventure of Goblet of Fire. So they were really delighted with the material that they were seeing while we were in post-production.[24] Yates confirmed that Nighy would be his first choice for the role of Minister for Magic Rufus Scrimgeour. Also maintained were costume designer Jany Temime. the production designer of the first five films. creature and make-up effects designer Nick Dudman. because I had to start pre-production on it while Order of the Phoenix was being promoted.[25] Scrimgeour's character was ultimately cut from the film. but Nighy appeared in his role in Deathly Hallows. stated he "would love to have the opportunity" to return." and could not bear to see anyone else play Hermione. Composer Nicholas Hooper returned from the last film. many directors had expressed an interest in taking the helm. the only location to be filmed outside of the United Kingdom throughout the film series.[35] Several new sets are introduced. Astronomy Tower and the Cave. who has played Percy Weasley. It was just something they see in the work that they really liked. "the pluses outweighed the minuses. so we approached this one with a bit more confidence. and Chris Rankin.[32] but eventually decided that. Craig noted "Apart from the point at which Harry and Dumbledore first arrive and the island formation on which everything inside the cave happens. and special effects supervisor John Richardson from the third film.[27] Goblet of Fire director Mike Newell declined a spot to direct the fifth film. the set is entirely virtual.[34] Sets Stuart Craig. Yates said that "I was still working on Order of the Phoenix when they asked me to do Half-Blood Prince. Alfonso Cuarón."[31] Emma Watson considered not returning for the film. who has played Fleur Delacour. noticeably the interior of the Cave where Harry and Dumbledore both go to hunt Horcruxes.Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince (film) Both Clémence Poésy."[29] In an interview with Dark Horizons. and they blew it. were interested in returning. which has recurred in all scores. had their chance the first time around.

[42][43][44] On set reports indicated that the main scene filmed was Harry and Dumbledore's visit to Slughorn's house.[44] Further filming took place in Surbiton railway station in October 2007. Gambon and Broadbent started shooting in late September 2007.[37] Filming returned to Glen Coe and Glenfinnan. and residents of the street were asked to black out their windows with dark blinds. after retouching the picture."[53] . asked him and Yates to change the style and to add more colours to the film. the final product was presented to the studio and Yates informed the executives of the changes. [and] the pacing of the scenes" made the film "incredibly rich".[38] Following a week of rehearsals.[51] The palette and lighting was heavily inspired by the Dutch painter Rembrandt.[40][41] The Cliffs of Moher were used as the exterior of the Horcrux Cave. Watson did not begin until December 2007.[38] A series of night scenes were filmed in the village of Lacock and the cloisters at Lacock Abbey for three nights starting 25 October 2007. he said. Fortunately David Yates. "Some of the sets are there since the very first Potter. there was belief that filming might move from the UK. How could I light them in a different way? This question brought another one based on the series itself. "I wanted to have some kind of 'dynamism' with the light. in February 2008. where the first and second films were shot. Yates said that "the choice of angles. In an interview with the Academy. both which have appeared in the previous films. the extreme close-ups. I thought it would be interesting to have those very intimate stories amidst this very dark mood.[45] Gloucester Cathedral. and the producers liked the idea. I thought it could be interesting and more dramatic if the light was floating. Scotland." In reference to the cave scene Delbonnel said. saying that "It's not what you wanted. for use in the cave scene. circling above the characters faces: sometimes lighting them. Yates said that he didn't want to lose the "very European look". principal photography began on 24 September 2007 and ended on 17 May 2008. Rickman until January 2008.Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince (film) 61 Filming Before filming began. sometimes hiding them in a very random and unpredictable way. The crew also scouted around Cape Wrath in Scotland. As if the school was a dark character.[46][47] and at the Millennium Bridge in London in March 2008.[39] Though Radcliffe. Warner Bros. That’s when I suggested to go for this (again) dark moody variations of greys.[52] Half-Blood Prince is the only film in the series to be nominated for the Best Cinematography accolade at the Academy Awards. where all previous films were shot. to preserve the continuity of the landscape.. On the weekend of 6 October 2007.[48] Cinematography Half-Blood Prince was extensively colour graded and due to cinematographer Bruno Delbonnel's use of de-focussing and soft wipes in the digital grade. some other cast members started much later: Grint did not begin until November 2007. and Bonham Carter until February 2008.. the crew shot scenes involving the Hogwarts Express in the misty and dewy environment of Fort William.[9] One of the major challenges for Delbonnel was lighting the film. but we're happy with it.[49][50] In an interview with Total Film. Filming took place from 5 pm to 5 am daily." After five minutes of watching the film the studio were pleased with the changes.

S. The soundtrack was released on an Audio CD format on 14 July 2009. He said. We ended up going with a very realistic style.[68] An [69] and another teaser trailer was released. Tim Alexander said that completing the Inferi-attack scene took several months." He also noted that Inferi are skinnier than zombies.[61] As with Goblet of Fire. teaser trailer was released on 29 July on AOL's Moviefone website.Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince (film) 62 Visual effects Tim Burke and Tim Alexander were the visual effects supervisors for the film. who also composed the music for Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix. A lot of it came down to their movement – they don't move fast. opacity. which have a lot of heat going on but no actual flames. viscosity. but they don't move really slow or groan and moan. The U. The book begins with a scene involving the Muggle Prime Minister. Yates and his crew debated over this scene. "It's certainly much bolder and scarier than we imagined that they'd ever go in a 'Potter' movie.[59] Differences from the book While at the middle of the series in length.[60] Yates felt that they needed "an injection of jeopardy and danger" and that without it there was too much comedy and lightness. so we were constantly trying to figure out how not to make these dead people coming up look like zombies. and showed them to the Potter folks. and an additional action scene at the Burrow was added to keep with the tone of the franchise. "We did a lot of research on molten volcanoes." The visual effects team emulated these six fire parameters: heat ripples. computer graphics artist Chris Horvath spent eight months finding a faster way to conjure flames.[60] Yates thought it would give the audience a feel for what the Death Eaters were doing if they showed the collapse of the Millennium Bridge rather than describe it. but gave up the beginning of the movie to events described but not seen in the book. the film Half-Blood Prince did add or change events in the literary canon. He added.[62] A small battle scene at Hogwarts which happened during the end of the book was cut.[54] About Dumbledore's ring of fire. he noted that the effect would look as if someone sprayed propane and then lit it.[60] Dumbledore's funeral was removed as [63] it was believed it did not fit with the rest of the film. and collected a bunch of other references.[3] The special edition two-disc DVD for Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix contained two sneak peeks of the film. as well as the character Rufus Scrimgeour. Television or Other Visual Media. Since the whole fire scene was very time consuming.S.[64][65] while the US edition included an additional clip.[55][56] Music The film's score was composed by Nicholas Hooper. buoyancy. which Steve Kloves did to "break the pattern"[60] Further background of Tom Riddle was removed. Distribution Marketing Warner Bros. the Dursleys were cut. a day before the film was released in theatres. including flares that burn underwater.[67] The first full-length U. waterlogged and grey.[66] A 15-second teaser for the film was shown alongside the IMAX release of The Dark Knight. theatrical trailer international teaser was released on 26 October [70] was released on 14 November. thus making it the highest charting soundtrack among all the six movie soundtracks released. Heyman commented that it was removed to "[avoid] repetition" with the forthcoming adaptation of the Battle of Hogwarts in Deathly Hallows. such as the Gaunts because they felt it more important to concentrate on Riddle as a young boy. smoke. Director David Yates was cautious of not making this into a zombie movie. Another trailer was screened on the Japanese TV station Fuji TV during a . has spent an estimated $155 million to market and distribute the film.[57] The album debuted at number twenty-nine on the Billboard 200 chart. and brightness.[58] It was nominated for the 2010 Grammy Award for Best Score Soundtrack Album For Motion Picture.

Germany. Warner Bros. Australia. Belgium.[94] The film had been chosen to be screened at the 2008 Royal Film Performance on 17 November. with the prize being a walk-on part in the Half-Blood Prince." with other films being delayed due to the 2007–2008 Writers Alan F. which focused on the romantic side of the film.[85] The box-office success of summer WB chief operating officer (left). EW was unaware of the change until it was publicly announced by WB and noted that readers would now be in possession of a "Dewey Defeats Truman collectible". Dumbledore. Horn noted that the move went ahead "to guarantee the studio a major summer blockbuster in 2009.[73] On 5 February 2009. Cinema and Television Benevolent Fund chief executive Peter Hore noted he was "very disappointed" with Warner Bros' decision. executive Alan F. said that the studio had considered the date change for three to four weeks prior to the [88] announcement.[77] On 10 March 2009. the first three promotional teaser posters were released.[75] Warner Bros and MSN ran an online Order of the Phoenix quiz. Therefore.[78] On 27 March six character posters were released: Harry. India."[87] Dan Fellman.[95] but was not shown. which was released on 17 March 2009. rumors were flying and angry screeds were being posted on Internet sites within minutes of the Thursday announcement. Italy.[92] The sixth film was simultaneously released in regular cinemas and IMAX 3D everywhere but the United States.[74] On 5 March and 16 April 2009. films Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix and The Dark Knight also motivated the decision. [1] New Zealand.[71][72] Scenes from the film were aired during ABC Family's Harry Potter marathon which took place 5–7 December 2008. the IMAX 3D version of the film was released on 29 July 2009 there. Brazil. France. the Warner Bros." as "they don't need the money this year anymore. so it could open on a Wednesday like most tentpole summer movies.. first clip from the film was released through The Ellen DeGeneres Show's official website. May 2010. the date was again changed by 2 days from 17 to 15 July."[86] The move was mocked by Entertainment Weekly which had Half-Blood Prince on the cover on its "Fall Preview Issue". despite being completed. but was pushed back by eight and seven months to 17 July. new trailers were released by Warner Bros.[83] 63 Release The film was released in the United Kingdom. featuring Dumbledore and Harry. Spain and Mexico on 15 July 2009. Horn released a statement in response to the "large amount of disappointment" expressed by fans of the series. It [84] was originally set to be released on 21 November 2008. Ireland. showing love-struck Ron. EA Games produced a video game based on the film. Ron.[76] As with the previous films. at MTV Awards. Three months before its release in July.Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince (film) screening of Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire on 18 January 2009. WB head of distribution. as the Los Angeles Times noted: "Petitions were circulating. and Professor Snape. CW Channel aired 30-second TV Spot. Despite each being owned by Time Warner Inc. due to a conflicting agreement in which Transformers: Revenge of the Fallen was given a four-week window by itself in IMAX in that country.[87] Several days after the announcement. president and Guild of America strike.[85] . Canada.[79] An English version of the international trailer and a Japanese version of the international trailer were released online 10 April.[89] The date change was met with a heavily negative reaction by Harry Potter fans.[86] An unnamed rival studio executive told Entertainment Weekly that the move was to "stop next year's profits from looking seriously underwhelming after the phenomenal success of The Dark Knight.[80] On 8 May. but gave it serious consideration a week before they came to their final decision. Half-Blood Prince's release slot was taken by Summit Entertainment's Twilight. showing Dumbledore visiting Tom Riddle's Orphanage was released on 31 May 2009.[82] Another clip of the film. Hermione. Horn. United States.[81] On 20 May.[91] and Walt Disney Pictures' Bolt.[93] The film's opening sequence featuring the destruction of the Millennium Bridge was in 3D. Taiwan. Draco. it was announced that there would be a video game soundtrack.[90] Following the date change. Sweden.

the DVD release became the fastest selling DVD of the year with an estimated 840. the film had taken in $158. making $22. and the third highest for a film in the Harry Potter franchise behind Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows . Florida.7 million in its five-day debut in the US. becoming the largest number of cinemas.com's top 25 advance sellers of all time. previously held by The Dark Knight. surpassing Spider-Man 3's $381 million.[107] 64 Reaction Box office Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince broke the then-record for biggest midnight showings.1 million. The Blu-ray and 2-disc DVD editions in North America includes a digital copy of the film.[103] the Philippines. an Ultimate Edition was released simultaineously with the Ultimate Edition of the Order of the Phoenix film on both Blu-ray and DVD.[106] On 14 June 2011. and collectables.[109] The film opened in 4. Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows – Part 1 (2010). Also included are deleted scenes comprising 8 scenes with a running length of 6 minutes and 31 seconds.[101] and a sneak peek of the next Harry Potter movie. a 1-Disc and 2-Disc Special Edition for the film was released on Blu-ray Disc with a Digital Copy and DVD on 7 December 2009 in the United Kingdom.Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince (film) Advance ticket sales on Fandango.[113] By 20 July.Part 2's $91.7 million.75 million (equivalent to about $38. It is also the sixth-highest single-day gross of all time. Half-Blood Prince opened in the same Wednesday slot that Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix did in 2007. It is also in MovieTickets.455 theatres three weeks later.[102] The Blu-ray and DVD released in India.3 million.7 million in the US and $236 million from 85 other markets. surpasses all of its predecessors by a wide margin. which made $61.[116] In the UK. the highest opening for both the series and releases of 2009. on its way to $139. South Africa.2 million on its opening day at the top of the United States and Canadian box office. the film grossed £19.622 copies. 19 November.[97] Half-Blood Prince is the third longest film in the series. containing new bonus features. The release date for Australia and New Zealand was 18 November and for Brazil[104] and Chile. which grossed $12 million in midnight runs. making them the first countries to get the Half Blood Prince DVD release before the UK and the US.[112] It earned an additional $46 million overseas for a worldwide total of $104 million.2 million). Czech Republic and Israel on 16 November 2009.[96] Running 153 minutes (2 hours 33 minutes and 19 seconds) long. till The Twilight Saga: Eclipse surpassed it with the number of 4.000 theatres.com for Half-Blood Prince surpassed advance ticket sales for Transformers 2 at the same point in sale cycles. until the new record was held by The Twilight Saga: New Moon with $26.[99] In the United Kingdom. World wide DVD and Blu-ray sales of the film show that it is the fastest selling film of 2009. behind Chamber of Secrets (161 minutes) and Goblet of Fire (157 minutes). in the US.[99] The Blu-ray and DVD includes an 11-minute 38 second feature on the new Wizarding World of Harry Potter mini theme park[100] which opened on 18 June 2010 at Islands of Adventure in Orlando.2 million in 3. the DVD made a strong debut at number one in both the DVD and Blu-Ray markets widely beating out any competition with sales of 4.[114] This broke the record for biggest ever worldwide 5-day opening.000 copies of the film sold in a few hours.13 million).[115] The film held this record for two years until it was topped by Deathly Hallows – Part 2 ($483. Home media Like the previous films.[108] The film's box office run was over on 17 December 2009.S. documentaries.199. and Canadian box office run the total ticket sales of the film were .[117] At the end of the film's U. and.[105] In the US. breaking the record for highest single-day worldwide gross. for a worldwide tally of $394. makes the film the fastest to reach the $350 million mark in worldwide box office of all time.[98] and 8 December 2009 in the United States.468 theatres)[110] and grossed $58.1 million[111] and Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows: Part 1. achieving the sixth-largest ever 5-day opening in the US.325 cinemas (rising to 4. the third-highest Wednesday opening of all-time behind Transformers: Revenge of the Fallen and The Twilight Saga: Eclipse.

but in the second half.[127] The first review of the film came three weeks before the official release. as of November 2011. the film broke records with a debut of $11.[124] The site's general consensus categorises the film as "dark.416. after Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows – Part 2 and Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone. and occasionally quite funny.com called the film not only the best Harry Potter film yet.[119] As with all of the previous films in the franchise.[129] Devin Faraci of Chud.[4] making it the third most successful film in the franchise. and grossed a total of $24. both parts of Deathly Hallows.Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince (film) $301. production design. and the 18th highest-grossing picture of all time.[120] it maintained a number one position during the second week too. It is the fifth highest-grossing film in the franchise.959. which assigns a normalised rating out of 100 based on individual reviews. cinematographer Bruno Delbonnel and designer Stuart Craig deliver a singularly muscular and vigorous chapter". largely due to the large number of opportunities the director and screenwriter had sacrificed to . The reviewer praised David Yates' directing and called Jim Broadbent's portrayal of Horace Slughorn "perfect". saying "while on occasion it drags.278. it is the first Harry Potter film to receive a Critic's Choice certificate.[126] BBC News's Tim Masters has praised the film's cinematography. improved acting and darker plotline.096 (down 54%). Alan Rickman and Daniel Radcliffe.[8] In South Africa the film opened with the number one position grossing $789. disappointment.197.336. visual effects.176. Half-Blood Prince proved to be extremely successful globally with an estimated non-US total gross of $632. behind Philosopher's Stone. totalling approximately $934. Dave Golder of SFX magazine found some aspects of the film to be a match and the "stunning" finale. and gave the film 3. Paul Dergarabedian of Hollywood.208.[123] 65 Critical reception The film received very positive reviews from film critics. with a total of $242.[4] making it the second highest-grossing film of 2009. but also one of the best films of the year. "Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince is a tour-de-force that combines style and substance.[122] In France the film debuted at $20.[133] Screen Daily called the film "[s]tunningly shot by Bruno Delbonnel in metallic hues leavened by buttery tones and the thumping beats of Nicholas Hooper's score bear little resemblance to the original and the overall effect is much less tween. the film finds better footing. the 153 run-time never feels too long. He highly praised the performance of Sir Michael Gambon. "This is by far the best-looking of the Potter films thus far.[134] Chris Tilly of IGN UK commented on the length of the film." commending the "beautiful" Quidditch [135] However.487 worldwide.[128] Another early review came from the UK tabloid The Sun. thrilling. He commented.290. On Metacritic. Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince is also visually stunning and emotionally satisfying". whose anonymous reviewer called the film "masterful" and "very emotional". behind Avatar.[125] The film scored an 87 from professional critics at the Broadcast Film Critics Association.[118] as well as the third highest-grossing film of 2009 in these regions behind Avatar and Transformers: Revenge of the Fallen.239 from 949 theatres. He adds.com ranked the film with The Lord of the Rings film trilogy and called the film a "possible Oscar contender".[132] The Hollywood Reporter's Kirk Honeycutt noted that the film's first half is "jerky and explosive".5 out of 5 stars rating.492. as in most of the world. "Composer Nicholas Hooper. special effects and heart and most importantly great performances from all of the actors young and not-so-young".457.541. thanks in no small part to the astonishing visuals and (largely) marvellous performances.243.142 and opening at number one.[121] In Australia. and Order of the Phoenix. the film received an average score of 78 ("generally favourable") based on 36 reviews. it holds an overall approval rating of 84% (out of 255 reviews) on the film review aggregator Rotten Tomatoes. much more grown-up".[130] Andrew Pulver of The Guardian wrote a positive review." and goes on to say.[131] Todd McCarthy of the trade magazine Variety said that the film is "dazzlingly well made" and "less fanciful than the previous entries". unadjusted for inflation. maintaining a second week at number one with a total of $5. He praised Alan Rickman's performance and he described Helena Bonham Carter as "mesmerising" and Jim Broadbent as a "grand eccentric old professor".

K. J.[137] At the time of its release. including Best Supporting Actor for Alan Rickman. of Margaret and David at the Movies. the co-host of the television show. remarking. gave the film a 2. "For non-readers [of the Harry Potter series] the films are now borderline incomprehensible". Foley.[62] 66 Accolades The film was nominated for BAFTA Awards in Production Design and Visual Effects.[136] David Stratton. gave the film 3 out of 5 stars. praising the performances of Jim Broadbent and Alan Rickman.[138] Bruno Delbonnel was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Cinematography at the 82nd Academy Awards.[10] and was in the longlists for five other categories.[139] List of awards and nominations Award 82nd Academy Awards Art Directors Guild Award 63rd BAFTA Awards Best Cinematography Category Result Recipient Source [9] [140] [10] Nominated Bruno Delbonnel Nominated Nominated Stuart Craig Stuart Craig Stephanie McMillan Excellence in Production Design For a Feature Film Best Production Design Best Special Visual Effects John Richardson Tim Burke Nominated Tim Alexander Nicolas Aithadi Won Nominated Won Won Nominated BAFTA Britannia Awards Artistic Excellence in Directing BAFTA Kids' Vote Best Film films 5–8) David Yates (for Harry Potter Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince [141] [142] [143] Digital Spy Movie Award Best Family Film Gouden Flip Award Golden Reel Award Grammy Award IFTA Award IGN Best Film Best Sound Editing: Sound Effects. adding Sir Michael Gambon "really makes Dumbledore an imposing character" and Jim Broadbent was "wonderful"." He praised the cast.[9] The film was also one of the final seven contenders for Best Visual Effects. Dialogue and ADR in a Foreign Feature Film Best Score Soundtrack Album For Motion Picture Best Supporting Actor Best Fantasy Movie [144] [59] [145] [146] Nominated Nicholas Hooper Nominated Michael Gambon Won Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince .Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince (film) devote "huge swathes of the film to subplots of Harry and his chums' teenage romances. and that the film was "a little tedious" and "generally less interesting visually than its predecessors. describing them as "consummate". Rowling stated that Half-Blood Prince was her "favourite one" of the six film adaptations." but nevertheless found the film to be a large enjoyment. Margaret Pomeranz.5 out of a possible 5 stars.

Animated or Mixed Media Best Fantasy Film Best Costume Best Production Design Best Special Effects Nominated Jany Temime Nominated Stuart Craig Tim Burke John Richardson Nominated Nicholas Aithadi Tim Alexander .Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince (film) MTV Movie Awards Best Movie Best Female Performance Best Male Performance Best Villain Best Global Superstar National Movie Awards Best Family Movie Best Performance Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince 67 [147] Nominated Nominated Emma Watson Nominated Daniel Radcliffe Won Tom Felton Nominated Daniel Radcliffe Won Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince [148] Nominated Rupert Grint Nominated Daniel Radcliffe Nominated Emma Watson People's Choice Awards Favorite Movie Favourite Franchise Best On-Screen Team Nominated Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince [149] Nominated Harry Potter Nominated Won Won Won Won Won Nominated Nominated Nominated Daniel Radcliffe. Rupert Grint. and Emma Watson Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince [153] [154] [150] [151] [152] Phoenix Film Critics Society Awards RAAM Awards RAFA Awards Best Live Action Family Film Film of the Year Alan Titchmarsh Show British Film of the Year Award Classic FM Film Music of the Year Award Best Use of UK Locations in a Film Film of the Year sponsored by The List Satellite Awards Saturn Awards Best Motion Picture.

. oscars. 22 June 2009. "International Details – Dusk for Ice Age" (http:/ / www. com/ movies/ ?id=harrypotter6. co. [4] "Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince (2009)" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 5 May 2010. (19 September 2009). [7] Campbell. Christopher (30 June 2009). latimes. . C. com/ 2009/ 07/ 15/ movies/ 15harry. [5] "Daniel Radcliffe. .S. Warner Bros. AMPAS. warnerbros.Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince (film) Scream Award Best Fantasy Film Best Fantasy Actress Best Fantasy Actor Best Supporting Actor Best Supporting Actress Best Villain Best F/X Best Sequel Holy Shit! Scene of the Year Best Ensemble SFX Awards Switch Live Award 2009 Teen Choice Awards 2010 Teen Choice Awards Best Film Favourite Flick Choice Summer Movie: Action Adventure Choice Movie: Fantasy Choice Movie Actress: Fantasy VES Awards Outstanding Matte Paintings in a Feature Motion Picture Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince 68 [155] Nominated Nominated Emma Watson Nominated Daniel Radcliffe Nominated Rupert Grint Nominated Evanna Lynch Nominated Helena Bonham Carter Nominated Nominated Won Won Won Won Won Nominated Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince "Death Eaters Attack London" Scene Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince [156] [157] [158] [159] [159] [160] Nominated Emma Watson David Basalla Nominated Emily Cobb Tania Richard Nominated Evanna Lynch Young Artist Award Best Supporting Actress [161] References [1] "Official Release Dates" (http:/ / harrypotter. Retrieved 13 August 2010. "Movie Review-Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince" (http:/ / movies. Retrieved 23 June 2009. . [9] "Nominees & Winners for the 82nd Academy Awards" (http:/ / www. AMPAS. [2] Dargis. . com/ 2009/ 07/ 06/ movies/ 06box. html). Rupert Grint and Emma Watson to Reprise Roles in the Final Two Instalments of Warner Bros. uk/ releasedates/ ). . Box Office Mojo. [3] "Half-Blood Prince Production Budget" (http:/ / latimesblogs. The New York Times. htm). mtv. html?hp/ ). com/ interactive/ newsStory. Brooks (6 August 2009). html). org/ awards/ academyawards/ 82/ nominees. Retrieved 6 August 2009. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 26 April 2010. nytimes. nytimes. com/ herocomplex/ 2009/ 06/ harry-potter-countdown-are-dvd-fans-still-under-the-wizards-spell-. . Retrieved 1 August 2009. The New York Times. "Tight Battle at the Holiday Box Office" (http:/ / www. html). Retrieved 15 July 2009. [6] Barnes. . newswire. php?newsID=4505). Pictures' Harry Potter Film Franchise" (http:/ / www. . Retrieved 7 November 2010. Manohla (15 July 2009). ca/ en/ releases/ archive/ March2007/ 23/ c6173. the-numbers. Mtv. com/ 2009/ 06/ 30/ harry-potter-and-the-half-blood-prince-gets-limited-july-15-imax-opening/ ). [8] Strowbridge. The Numbers. "‘Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince’ Gets Limited 15 July IMAX Opening" (http:/ / moviesblog. . html) (Press release). boxofficemojo. 23 March 2007.. Retrieved 23 March 2007.

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[31] "Ten Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince facts" (http:/ / www. jpg). Sean (17 February 2007). [33] "Casting Is Complete on "Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince"" (http:/ / www. html). The Courier-Mail. . Retrieved 11 September 2007. . Retrieved 19 April 2011. Potter And The Film He Panhandled To Promote" (http:/ / www. org/ awards/ film/ film-awards-nominations. newsweek. com/ index. Paul Fischer. com/ movies/ harry-potter-and-the-half-blood-prince-spoilers). comingsoon. Retrieved 24 July 2007. 19 September 2007. Shawn (25 July 2007). . html). . html).20016352. Newsweek. [16] "Jamie Campbell Bowen" (http:/ / i115. Retrieved 26 June 2007. net/ article. . "Yates and Heyman on Harry Potter 6" (http:/ / www. php/ aid/ 1722/ Pupils_board_the_Hogwart's_Express. washingtonpost. uk/ cbbcnews/ hi/ newsid_7080000/ newsid_7087000/ 7087093. jewreview. Retrieved 16 October 2006. crawleyscastingcalls. au/ couriermail/ story/ 0. CBBC Newsround. The Scotsman. 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Retrieved 20 July 2009. com/ nominees). bafta. html). . peopleschoice. . Tim (8 July 2009). [134] Hannigan. 8 January 2010. Potter. stm). uk/ sol/ homepage/ showbiz/ film/ movie_reviews/ 2516815/ Excluse-review-of-Harry-Potter-And-The-Half-Blood-Prince. Kirk (5 July 2009). Margaret. [150] "Phoenix Film Critics Society Awards Winners" (http:/ / www. co. . Boxofficemojo. Retrieved 1 August 2009. Retrieved 64 July 2009. The Hollywood Reporter. Chud. [143] Reynolds. 28 June 2011. [130] Faraci. com/ hr/ film-reviews/ harry-potter-and-the-half-blood-prince-film-1003990567. . [144] "2010 Golden Reel Award Nominees: Feature Films" (http:/ / www. html). Retrieved 14 December 2011. Todd (5 July 2009). . Pictures – Rotten Tomatoes" (http:/ / www.ign. [148] "Nominees" (http:/ / www. Broadcast Film Critics Association.Mr. [135] Tilly. bfca. other sci-fi hits vie for F/X Oscar (http:/ / scifiwire. php) Retrieved on 5 May 2010. Fionnuala (6 July 2009). . Retrieved 16 December 2010. Simon (5 October 2009). [138] Orange British Academy Film Awards in 2010 – Long List (http:/ / static. html). . Retrieved 11 August 2009. "IGN: Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince Review" (http:/ / movies. TV. Retrieved 1 August 2009." [142] "The BAFTA Kids' Vote" (http:/ / www. [129] The Sneak (4 July 2009). Metacritic. htm). Irish Film Board. uk/ movies/ a179988/ digital-spy-movie-awards-2009-the-winners. [128] Dergarabedian. nationalmovieawards. Retrieved 8 July 2009. html). [126] "BFCA: Half-Blood Prince" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 16 June 2010. . Retrieved 13 December 2010. 22 December 2009. html). com/ 2009/ movies/ best-fantasy-movie. Motion Picture Sound Editors. variety. . . "Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince Review" (http:/ / www. "John Lasseter and David Yates are master creators of joy and imagination. "Digital Spy Movie Awards 2009: The Winners" (http:/ / www. Paul (26 June 2009). hollywood. php?id=2816). Australia: ABC. Retrieved 1 August 2009.com" (http:/ / www.. . Hollywood.com. com/ node/ 1240917). html). boxofficemojo. com/ uberblog/ marc_malkin/ b180567_mtv_movie_awards_when_twilight_betty. irishfilmboard. Screen Daily. story).com. Retrieved 5 July 2009.. [145] "IFTA Announces Nominees for the 7th Annual Irish Film & Television Awards" (http:/ / www. com/ articles/ articles/ 20066/ 1/ REVIEW-HARRY-POTTER-AND-THE-HALF-BLOOD-PRINCE/ Page1. sys-con. bafta. SFX. com/ pca/ awards/ nominees/ index. htm). National Movie Awards. Digital Spy. . html). [127] Masters. ign. . "Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince--Film Review" (http:/ / www1. British Academy of Film and Television Arts. sfx. Rotten Tomatoes. "At the Movies: Harry Potter And The Half Blood Prince" (http:/ / www. com/ intl/ australia/ ?yr=2009& wk=30& p=. Oscar?" (http:/ / www. htm). jsp?year=2010). com/ harry-potter-and-the-half-blood-prince/ 5003198. Retrieved 28 May 2010. Ajax World. org/ losangeles/ news/ 2011-britannia-awards. . [137] Stratton. ign. Retrieved 1 August 2009.com. com/ review/ VE1117940610. [149] "People's Choice Awards Nominees & Winners:2010" (http:/ / www. [140] "Art Directors Guild Announces Nominations for 2009 Film. Boxofficemojo. The Sun (London).

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[161] "31st Annual Young Artist Awards – Nominations / Special Awards" (http:/ / www. youngartistawards. org/ noms31. html). Young Artist

External links
• Official website (http://harrypotter.warnerbros.com/harrypotterandthehalf-bloodprince/) for the film • Official website (http://harrypotter.com/) for the film series • Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince (http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0417741/) at the Internet Movie Database • Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince (http://www.allrovi.com/movies/movie/v357831) at AllRovi • Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince (http://www.boxofficemojo.com/movies/?id=harrypotter6.htm) at Box Office Mojo • Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince (http://www.rottentomatoes.com/m/ harry_potter_and_the_half_blood_prince/) at Rotten Tomatoes

Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix (film)

75

Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix (film)
Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix
Theatrical poster
Directed by Produced by Screenplay by Based on David Yates David Heyman David Barron Michael Goldenberg Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix by J. K. Rowling Daniel Radcliffe Rupert Grint Emma Watson (See below) Nicholas Hooper

Starring

Music by

Cinematography Sławomir Idziak Editing by Studio Distributed by Release date(s) Running time Country Language Budget Box office Mark Day Heyday Films Warner Bros. Pictures
• •

11 July 2007 (United States) 12 July 2007 (United Kingdom)

138 minutes United Kingdom United States English $150 million
[1] [1]

$939,885,929

Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix is a 2007 fantasy film[1] directed by David Yates and based on the novel of the same name by J. K. Rowling. It is the fifth installment in the Harry Potter film series, written by Michael Goldenberg and produced by David Heyman and David Barron. The story follows Harry Potter's fifth year at Hogwarts as the Ministry of Magic refuses to believe the return of the evil Lord Voldemort. The film stars Daniel Radcliffe as Harry Potter, alongside Rupert Grint and Emma Watson as Harry's best friends Ron Weasley and Hermione Granger. It is the sequel to Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire and is followed by Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince. Live-action filming took place in England and Scotland for exterior locations and Leavesden Film Studios in Watford for interior locations from February to November 2006, with a one-month break in June. Post-production on the film continued for several months afterwards to add in visual effects. The film's budget was reportedly between [2][3] Warner Bros., the distributor of the film, released it in the UK on 12 £75 and 100 million ($150–200 million). July 2007, and in North America on 11 July, both in conventional and IMAX theatres, and was the first Potter film to be released in IMAX 3D. Order of the Phoenix is the unadjusted 18th highest-grossing film of all time, and a critical and commercial success, acclaimed as "the best one yet"[4] by Rowling, who has consistently offered praise for the film adaptations of her

Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix (film) work.[5][6][7] The film opened to a worldwide 5-day opening of $333 million, fourth all-time, and grossed nearly $940 million total, second to Pirates of the Caribbean: At World's End for the greatest total of 2007.[8][9]

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Plot
The Order of the Phoenix, a secret organisation founded by Albus Dumbledore, inform the now 15-year-old Harry Potter that the Ministry of Magic is in denial of Lord Voldemort's return; under the Ministry's influence, The Daily Prophet has launched a smear campaign against Harry and Dumbledore due to Harry's supposed encounter with Voldemort at the end of the previous year. This encounter has had a huge psychological effect on Harry – he has nightmares not only about what happened in the graveyard but also about the Department of Mysteries at the Ministry of Magic. While at the Order's headquarters, 12 Grimmauld Place, Harry's godfather, Sirius Black, mentions that Voldemort is after an object which he didn't have last time. Upon arrival at Hogwarts, Harry learns that Minister for Magic Cornelius Fudge has appointed a new Defence Against the Dark Arts professor: Dolores Umbridge, a senior Ministry official who refuses to teach practical magic due to her belief that Dumbledore is forming a rebellion against the Ministry. Umbridge and Harry immediately clash, as she refuses to believe that Voldemort has returned and forces Harry to carve 'I must not tell lies' into the skin on the back of his hand through a cursed quill. When Ron and Hermione notice these scars, they are outraged but Harry refuses to go to Dumbledore as he has distanced himself from him since the summer. As Umbridge's control over the school increases, Ron and Hermione aid Harry in forming a secret group to train students in defensive spells, calling themselves "Dumbledore's Army". The Slytherin students are recruited by Umbridge to uncover the group. Meanwhile, Harry and Cho Chang develop romantic feelings for each other and begin a relationship during Christmas, Cho being Harry's first kiss at the last DA meeting before the holidays. However, Harry discovers that his behaviour is becoming erratic and possibly more similar to Voldemort's. Harry has a vision involving an attack upon Arthur Weasley in the Department of Mysteries, from the point of view of Arthur's attacker. Fearing Voldemort will exploit his connection to Harry, Dumbledore instructs Professor Snape to give Harry Occlumency lessons to block his mind from Voldemort's influence. These lessons increase Harry's psychological problems, as he is forced to relive everything bad that has ever happened to him. During one lesson, Harry got annoyed at what he saw and requested a break but Snape refused and forced Harry to continue the lesson. This only got the spell reversed on him by Harry where Harry sees the Vision on why Snape hates his father, James, who often had bullied him. The connection between Harry and Voldemort leads Harry to distance himself from everyone, and he pushes not only Ron and Hermione but Ginny, Neville, the Weasley twins and Luna away, as he feels "so angry all the time". Bellatrix Lestrange, Sirius' deranged cousin, escapes from Azkaban along with nine other Death Eaters. At Hogwarts, Umbridge and her Inquisitorial Squad uncover Dumbledore's Army after illegally interrogating Cho with Veritaserum. Dumbledore covers up for Harry, but escapes as Fudge orders his arrest. With Dumbledore gone, Umbridge becomes the new Headmistress. Harry's relationship with Cho falls apart, mostly due to Cho having betrayed Dumbledore's Army to Umbridge (unknown to Harry, however, is that Cho was under the influence of Veritaserum, a truth potion). During an O.W.L. exam, the Weasley twins revolt and set off fireworks in the Great Hall, causing chaos for Umbridge. During this event, Harry has a vision of Sirius being tortured by Voldemort within the Department of Mysteries. Harry, Ron and Hermione rush to Umbridge's fireplace to alert the Order via the Floo Network, since it is the only one not being monitored, but Umbridge stops them before they can do so. When she threatens to use the Cruciatus Curse to get information out of Harry about the trio's intentions, Hermione deceives Umbridge into entering the Forbidden Forest in search for Dumbledore's "secret weapon". She and Harry lead her to the hiding place of Hagrid's half-giant brother, Grawp, only to be confronted by centaurs who kidnap Umbridge after she attacks them. When Umbridge tells Harry to make the centaurs let her go and that she means no harm Harry says, "Sorry, Professor. I must not tell lies". Harry, Hermione, Ron, Luna, Neville and Ginny fly to the Ministry of Magic on Thestrals in an attempt to save Sirius.

• Michael Gambon as Albus Dumbledore. the Charms teacher at Hogwarts and the Head of Ravenclaw house." As Harry and his friends head towards the Hogwarts Express. Lucius reveals that Harry only saw a dream of Sirius being tortured. Harry comes to terms with the prophecy. but to little avail (it knocks her down). • Helena Bonham Carter as Bellatrix Lestrange. Harry's best friend. • Brendan Gleeson as Mad-Eye Moody. Harry tells his friends that even though a war is beginning. Harry refuses and a fight between Dumbledore's Army and the Death Eaters ensues. They attack the Death Eaters and Lucius drops the prophecy. who runs away continuously saying "I killed Sirius Black" in a song-like manner. asserted there was [10] As early as August 2005. in April 2006 she revealed that she was three months pregnant and withdrew from the film because she would not have been able to perform the intense battle sequences in the Ministry of Magic in September and October 2006.[13] McCrory was subsequently cast as Narcissa Malfoy from Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince onwards. After the two prove evenly matched. Just as Sirius defeats Lucius. one of Lord Voldemort's most loyal Death Eaters and the cousin of Sirius Black. Persistent rumours linked Elizabeth Hurley to the role. Bellatrix kills Sirius. Kingsley Shacklebolt and Mad-Eye Moody. Voldemort possesses Harry in order to try to get Dumbledore to sacrifice Harry in the hope of killing him. Harry and Sirius duel him. the father of Draco Malfoy and a senior Death Eater. The Death Eaters take everyone except Harry as hostages. unlike Voldemort. but the love Harry feels for his friends and Sirius makes it impossible for Voldemort to remain in his body. Voldemort appears. it was not an actual situation. "Neither can live while the other survives. The announcement that Bonham Carter had been recast in the role was made on 25 May 2006. Harry's archnemesis intent on conquering the Wizarding World and the leader of the Death Eaters. • Ralph Fiennes as Lord Voldemort. the half-giant Gamekeeper and Care of Magical Creatures teacher at Hogwarts and a member of the Order of the Phoenix. the object Voldemort was after. . Despite Remus trying to hold him back. • Jason Isaacs as Lucius Malfoy. Harry goes after Bellatrix. they are ambushed by Death Eaters including Lucius Malfoy and Bellatrix Lestrange. A duel between Voldemort and Dumbledore ensues while Bellatrix escapes. Harry's ex-Defense Against the Dark Arts teacher and a member of the Order of the Phoenix. • Warwick Davis as Filius Flitwick. destroying it. although Warner Bros. Dumbledore explains that he distanced himself from Harry all year hoping it would lessen the risk of Voldemort using their connection. Lucius attempts to persuade Harry to give him the prophecy.[11] On 2 February 2006 it was announced that McCrory had indeed been cast as Bellatrix. the legendary Hogwarts headmaster. rumours began linking Helen "no truth whatsoever" to reports that she had been cast. Fudge is forced to admit that Voldemort has returned and resigns as Minister. another of Harry's best friends and the brains of the trio. 77 Cast • Daniel Radcliffe as Harry Potter • Rupert Grint as Ron Weasley. McCrory to the role of Bellatrix Lestrange. Dumbledore returns as headmaster of Hogwarts after he and Harry are vindicated. threatening to kill them if he does not surrender the prophecy. • Emma Watson as Hermione Granger.Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix (film) The six enter the Department of Mysteries where they uncover a prophecy involving Harry and Voldemort. However. they have something worth fighting for. Ministry officials arrive before Voldemort disapparates. Harry chases and corners Bellatrix in the Atrium and attempts to perform the Cruciatus Curse on her. • Robbie Coltrane as Rubeus Hagrid. telling him it will reveal why Voldemort could not kill Harry when he was an infant. Harry's Muggle uncle. but Dumbledore arrives through the Floo Network moments before Voldemort can kill Harry. Harry obliges just as Sirius and Remus Lupin arrive with Order members Nymphadora Tonks. • Richard Griffiths as Vernon Dursley. rather a method to lure Harry into the Death Eater's grasp.[12] However.

would be cut. in which Harry and his friends found the D.[15] Across the media frenzy that took place during the release of Goblet of Fire. as well as the entire Quidditch subplot. a plant from the corrupt Ministry of Magic. The character. Tiana Benjamin was scheduled to return for the film in the role of Angelina Johnson. the Divination teacher at Hogwarts. Harry's Muggle aunt. also a member of the Order of the Phoenix. In April 2006. Julie Walters as Molly Weasley. was in the first draft of the script for Phoenix. the Transfiguration teacher at Hogwarts and a member of the Order of the Phoenix. Evanna Lynch won the role of Luna Lovegood over 15. you'll be tied in knots". Albus' brother and the barman of the Hog's Head. representatives of Jim McManus said he would be playing Aberforth Dumbledore. which was released just ten days after the film. saying. series producer David Heyman said that former Hogwarts professor Gilderoy Lockhart. which. She did.[26] Other minor roles were cut with subsequent drafts of the script. Harry's ex-Defense Against the Dark Arts teacher and a member of the Order of the Phoenix. but she had to withdraw due to a commitment to playing Chelsea Fox in EastEnders. the captain of the Gryffindor Quidditch team. Emma Thompson as Sybill Trelawney. was not even a speaking part. before the final book. though his commitments to Arsenal Football Club forced him to pull out. Imelda Staunton as Dolores Umbridge.Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix (film) • • • • • • • • Gary Oldman as Sirius Black.[23] The inclusion or cutting of some characters sparked speculation from fans as to the importance of the characters in the final book of the series. Wright. most of the main returning actors announced their return to the series. Or you can. record sound clips for the Order of the Phoenix video game. and Fiennes. A week later WB announced that the role was "very minor".[14] David Thewlis as Remus Lupin. Fiona Shaw as Petunia Dursley. was cut from the film in one draft of the script. opening up "plot questions" as to how the role of the elf would be filled. Theo's aunt. "You know. The family of footballer Theo Walcott made a cameo appearance in the film. played by Kenneth Branagh in Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets.S. but if you get to make a seventh film. the Weasley matriarch and a mother figure to Harry. Alan Rickman as Severus Snape. and in the fifth book. However. premiere of Goblet of Fire. Chamber of Secrets. allaying some of the speculation to the significance of the role. who appeared in the second film.[27] However. who is the partner of Yvonne Walcott. Watson. I wouldn't [cut him] if I were you. the new Defence Against the Dark Arts teacher. the Black family's house-elf. They were signed on by director David Yates. Harry's godfather and a member of the Order of the Phoenix. the Potions teacher at Hogwarts and a member of the Order of the Phoenix.[25] MTV also reported about a month before the release of the final book that Kreacher. he was added back into the script. however. At the U.000 other girls who attended the open casting call. when Radcliffe announced he would reprise his role as Harry. after Rowling prodded the filmmakers to include him. including Grint.[29][30] Theo himself was due to appear alongside his family. Lewis.A.[16][17][18][19][20][21] The announcements of the casting of the rest of the new characters to the series was spanned across 2006. Leung.[24] MTV reported in October 2006 that Dobby the house elf.[22] waiting in a line of hopefuls that stretched a mile long. 78 Casting Casting began as early as May 2005.[31] . Maggie Smith as Minerva McGonagall. was [28] ultimately cut from the film. neither Branagh nor the character of Lockhart appears in the final version.

not with a capital P.[44][45] The set of Number Twelve. who was considered to pen the first film in the series. Sławomir Idziak was the cinematographer. Facing the fact that the authority is corrupted means having a non-conformist approach to reality and power. as well as a Burger King on Tottenham Court Road in London. making it the largest and most expensive set built for the Potter film series to date. while [45] New professor Dolores Umbridge.[42] Set design Stuart Craig returned as set designer.[32][33] Yates believed he was approached because the studio saw him fit to handle an "edgy and emotional" film with a "political backstory". created a physical language for wand combat to choreograph the wand fighting scenes. Matthew Vaughn and Mira Nair.Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix (film) 79 Production British television director David Yates was chosen to direct the film after Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire director Mike Newell.[43] Craig's design was inspired by early London Underground stations. and Jany Temime was the costume designer. when the producers told Rowling they wanted to visualise the details of each name and birth year. stating that "[Order of the Phoenix] is a political film. filled in and wrote the script. had other commitments. which some of his previous television projects including State of Play. prophecies crash to the ground and break.[39] The film's budget was reportedly between GB£75 and 100 million (US$150–200 million). David has made films in the UK about politics without being heavy handed. filming began on 7 February 2006 and finished at the start of December 2006. having designed the first four films' sets.[49] The quill which Umbridge gives Harry to write lines is designed by the set designers. he said.[48] . the way truth is often denied and all the things our society has to face.[46] The set of the Hall of Prophecies was entirely digitally built. where. the screenwriter of the first four Potter films. Sex Traffic and The Girl in the Café demonstrated. pink filigree" and a number of plates upon which moving kittens were animated in post-production. though she teaches in a classroom that has still protecting its symmetry. During a fight scene which occurs there.[33] Producer David Heyman supported Yates' comments about the film's political theme. appeared in films two through four. had it been an actual physical set. the way people behave when they’re scared."[34] On the film's political and social aspects. Grimmauld Place contains the Black family tapestry spread across three walls.[48] A 24-hour photo shoot was held to photograph and film the kittens for use on these plates.[40] Mark Day was the film editor. The set was redressed with "fluffy. Emma Watson stated that "somehow it talks about life after 7 July.[47] The set used for Igor Karkaroff's trial scene in Goblet of Fire was doubled in size for Harry's trial in this film. inhabits an office vastly different from those of her predecessors."[35] Steve Kloves. architects "tried to imitate classical architecture but they used ceramic tile". turned down offers. but it's about teen rebellion and the abuse of power.[43] There were a number of notable new sets in this film.[36] Rehearsals for Order of the Phoenix began on 27 January 2006.[4][37][38] Filming was put on a two-month hiatus starting in May 2006 so Radcliffe could sit his A/S Levels and Watson could sit her GCSE exams. who has previously worked with David Yates several times. where "there's a fantastic Victorian façade which just embodies the age". she faxed them a complete copy of the entire tree.[41] Choreographer Paul Harris. The atrium in the Ministry of Magic is over 200 feet in length. Guillermo del Toro. as well as Jean-Pierre Jeunet. Michael Goldenberg.[2][3] The largest budget of the other films in the series has been the £75 million it cost to make Goblet of Fire. the reset time would have been weeks.

Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix (film) 80 Filming Though the producers explored options to film outside of the UK. However. and Lord Voldemort's invasion of Harry's mind.[67] The soundtrack was released on 10 July 2007. including the Great Hall. The trailer prominently features the cues "Divine Crusade" by X-Ray Dog and "DNA Reactor" by Pfeifer Broz. Big Ben.[63] and Burnham Beeches was used for filming the scene where Hagrid introduces his fifth-year Care of Magical Creatures class to Thestrals. The score. and Patrick Doyle. and the HMS Belfast. Working for six months on previsualisation starting in September 2005. .[54] Filming of aerial and backdrop shots took place at Filming at Platform 9¾ took place at King's Cross Station. Grimmauld Place.[53] This sequence also includes such landmarks as the London Eye. Hooper was nominated for a World Soundtrack Discovery Award. Hagrid's giant half-brother.[65][66] Music Nicholas Hooper was the composer for the soundtrack of the film. Canary Wharf. the Hogwarts Express crosses a viaduct.[59] In Glenfinnan. To emphasise this. scenes were shot where Professor McGonagall recovers from Stunning Spells.[65] A new character in the film. Grimmauld Place were shot. In the new score. the movements and facial expressions of actor Tony Maudsley were used to model Grawp's actions. Instead of building the character from scratch. following John Williams. as it has in the past films. and the Death Chamber. Hooper and the London Chamber Orchestra recorded nearly two hours of music at Abbey Road Studios in London. the eve of the film's release.[64] Harry skips stones in front of the Glenfinnan Monument in Glenfinnan in another cut scene.[61] Director David Yates stated in an interview that he had originally shot a three-hour film of Order of the Phoenix.400 visual effects shots. who scored the first three films. for the flight of the Order of the Phoenix to Number Twelve. as it has in Glen Etive.[60] [60] Visual effects The film required over 1. at the time of filming. the past. was one of the few places in Scotland without snow. Aerial scenes were shot in Glen [60] Coe. the Hall of Prophecies. the two new main themes reflect the sinister new character Dolores Umbridge. and the flight of Dumbledore's Army to the Ministry of Magic. the series' theme originally written by Williams for the first film and heard in all subsequent ones. came to life by a new technology called Soul Capturing. A Japanese Taiko drum was used for a deeper sound in the percussion. who did the fourth.[57] Other scenes were filmed in and around Oxford.[56] while the crew closed the Westminster tube station on 22 October 2006 to allow for filming of Arthur Weasley accompanying Harry to his trial at the Ministry of Magic. developed by Image Metrics. some material had to be cut out in the final edit.[7][50][51][52] Locations in England included the River Thames. as the movie was 45 minutes too long. Scotland. in Clachaig Gully.[67] In March and April 2007. Music.[55] A telephone booth near Scotland Yard was used as Harry and Arthur Weasley enter the Ministry. making it ideal for a backdrop. which. and the London-based company Double Negative created more than 950 of them. is darker than previous instalments in the series. Hooper incorporated variations on "Hedwig's Theme". In Virginia Water. Leavesden Film Studios in Watford was again the location on which many of the interior scenes. Privet Drive and Number Twelve. several locations which were used for various scenes do not appear in the final cut of the film.[62] Therefore.[58] specifically at nearby Blenheim Palace in Woodstock.[68] For his work on the film. Grawp. Double Negative was largely responsible for sequences in the Room of Requirement. like the film and book. Buckingham Palace. the Forbidden Forest. and Glen Etive.

which he "hated" to do.[70] Goldenberg said that Rowling told him. Order of the Phoenix is the longest book in the Harry Potter series. because it's for so much later". who was included in the script only at Rowling's request. Hermione blackmails her into writing an article that supports Harry as the rest of the Wizarding world denies his claims. and the thief who eventually steals Slytherin's locket discarded in Grimmauld Place)."[70] Young Lily Potter did not appear at all. became "clearer when [he] figured out that the organising principle of the screenplay was to narrate Harry's emotional journey". and gave [them] permission to take whatever liberties [they] felt [they] needed to take to translate the book into a movie she would love". but promotional screenshots show unknown teenager Susie Shinner in the role. and that's the approach we took".[26] Whilst Kreacher remained. the producers. to have it somewhere in the background or to feel like it could be taking place off-screen". Things get trimmed out. in Goldenberg's words. Ron. In the novel. the hospital where Harry and friends run into classmate Neville Longbottom and learn that his parents were tortured into insanity by Bellatrix Lestrange. Ron grows as a character by trying out for the Quidditch team. Yates said. Goldenberg explained.[69] Screenwriter Michael Goldenberg described his task to cut down the novel as searching for "the best equivalent way to tell the story.[70] The main purpose of the action of the scene was relocated to the Room of Requirement after one of the D. if not the details of that story. . at least the spirit of it is present in the film". it is abbreviated to an "idea". to sort of pay homage to it.[70] In the book. has a larger part in the book than the film.[70] He and Yates "looked for every opportunity to get everything [they] could in there. lessons.[72] In a significant scene in the book.Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix (film) The film also featured the song "Boys Will Be Boys" by The Ordinary Boys. and Yates that "she just wanted to see a great movie. you feel like. as much as possible.A.[69] Rita Skeeter. several events in the Ministry leading up to Harry's battle with Voldemort were removed. Harry sees a memory of his own father humiliating Snape in their school days.[71] "The truth is that any movie made of this book. So. Hermione and Malfoy becoming prefects. They'll take certain aspects from the book and make it something that they hope is going to be commercial and that people want to see"... whoever made it. was cut because it required the construction of a new set. one of which is a locket which becomes extremely important in the seventh book. he is seen saving some of the Black family's artefacts which the Order of the Phoenix throw away. was the absence of Quidditch. .[70] The change disappointed actor Rupert Grint who had been "quite looking forward to the Quidditch stuff". My job was to stay true to the spirit of the book.[70] Cutting down the book to meet the time frame of the film. rather than to the letter".[71] One cut Goldenberg had to make. And where [they] couldn't.[73] The scene at St Mungo's. to speed up the film's climax. including the brain room. was also removed.[74] "It was kind of tricky to raise that in our story. "Ron facing challenges and coming into his own in the same way that Harry is. 81 Differences from the book At 766 pages in the British edition and 870 in the American edition. "We figured we can probably introduce it later. but I kept the meat of that in there – and that was what really gave me the coming-of-age story. the Wizarding sport. the journalist played by Miranda Richardson in Goblet of Fire.[69] Richardson noted that "it's never gonna be the book on film. In the film.[75] . all scenes involving Dobby were cut. In the book.[69] Mrs. Weasley's encounter with a boggart at Grimmauld Place. Also.. we tried to get that into the film in other ways.[72] The character of Kreacher the house-elf.. and his important actions given to other characters. and Snape insulting his mother after she stood up for him. that had included the Quidditch subplot would have been a lesser film". "It's an iconic moment when you realise your parents are normal. exactly. the appearance of Mundungus Fletcher (member of the Order. he said. flawed human beings. and Firenze teaching Divination followed suit.

the U.[77] On 4 May 2007.[93] After the premiere.[86] According to estimates in March 2007. said a representative for WB.[89] The world premiere took place in Tokyo. including a petition garnering 2.[96][97] Even though the book is the longest in the series (over 700 pages).' ” Representatives for WB later wrote about the poster under fire. at a preview in Japan. a Corgi International company.[84] while a larger array of smaller figures was also produced by PopCo Entertainment.[80] The video game version. was made curvier as the outline of her breasts was enhanced. the film would debut on over 10.[98] .[87] Previews of the film began in March 2007 in the Chicago area. K. the second shortest in the entire film series. WB has tried to stick with day-and-date releases for most countries. and she herself is under 18.S. However. by Warner Bros. was released 25 June 2007. were also moved back. and Watson. It was made available online on 20 November 2006.[94] Originally. both from 13 July.000 signatures the date was pulled back to 11 July 2007. and give her some dramatic lighting and more blonde hair. Japan on 28 June 2007. after complaints from the Australian community.000 theatre screens during the summer.[90] MySpace users could bring copies of their online profiles to gain free admission to sneak previews in eight different cities across the country on 28 June 2007. played by Emma Watson.[88] Under tight security to prevent piracy. attached to another WB film. Rowling made a public appearance. and inflate her bust a bit. Warner Bros.[95] The release dates of the film in the UK and U. this would be a much better picture. designed by EA UK. including Hermione Granger. footprints.[91] The UK premiere took place on 3 July 2007 in London's Odeon Leicester Square.[81] Lego produced just one set.. during which author J.Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix (film) 82 Distribution Marketing The first trailer was released on 17 November 2006. and "wandprints" were placed in the cement in front of Grauman's Chinese Theatre. wrote:[79] “ Emma Watson is playing a 15-year-old girl. respectively. The IMAX release featured the full movie in 2D and the final 20 minutes of the film in 3D. except the Middle East and a few minor markets which were to be in holidays at that point. In one poster. "This is not an official poster. the three young stars of the film series.[87] The film was released in most countries in a two-week period starting 11 July 2007. "really maximises our opportunity".[78] Three posters released on the Internet that showed Harry accompanied by six classmates.S. Radcliffe. a model of Hogwarts. even though the films are typically released in the winter. 'Now. premiere took place on 8 July in Los Angeles. the film is 138 minutes long (2 hours and 18 minutes). though one advertised the IMAX release. nearly two months after the majority of other release dates. They were essentially the same picture. The set of summer releases. Happy Feet. WB had security guards patrol the aisles. Grint. looking for cell phone cameras or small recording devices. Unfortunately this image was accidentally posted on the IMAX website".[76] The international trailer debuted online on 22 April 2007 at 14:00 UTC.[85] Release The film was the third Harry Potter film to be given a simultaneous release in conventional theatres and IMAX. I get the full heebie jeebies thinking about the person who sat there thinking.[82][83] NECA produced a series of action figures.S. the lowest amount of sets for a film so far. the profile of Hermione. to 12 and 11 July. set the Australian release date as 6 September 2007.[92] The U. Melissa Anelli. trailer was shown before Spider-Man 3. generated some controversy by the media. on the Happy Feet website. were honoured with a ceremony where their handprints. if we cinch her waist a bit. webmistress of noted fan site The Leaky Cauldron.

an A&E documentary about the films and books. Imelda Staunton's performance as Dolores Umbridge and Helena Bonham Carter's as Bellatrix Lestrange were widely acclaimed. calling it the best Potter film yet and wrote that "die-hard Potter addicts will rejoice that Yates has distilled J. who played Nymphadora Tonks. Goblet of Fire and Half-Blood Prince. The site's general consensus states that "It's not easy to take the longest Harry Potter book and streamline it into the shortest HP movie. with 10. creating an Order of the Phoenix that's entertaining and action-packed". "coming close to stealing the show".[104] 83 Reaction Critical reception The film received mostly positive reviews.14 million units.[103] There was also a third DVD with extras featuring a behind the scenes look at the sets of the movie.[109] Mark Adams of The Sunday Mirror. which may be played on a computer with Windows Media Player. The DVD-ROM features a timeline and a sneak peek of the next film. The HD DVD and Blu-ray contain additional features.[111] David Yates at the premiere of Order of the Phoenix.[102] The high-definition DVDs had combined sales of 179. "community screening".[108] Colin Bertram of the New York Daily News gave the film four out of four stars.500 copies. but not the US. making it the lowest-rated film in the series on the site. Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince (2009).[106][107] Charles Frederick of The Telegraph headlined their review "Potter film is the best and darkest yet". he had not directed a mainstream picture prior to [105] Order of the Phoenix. but director David Yates does a bang up job of it. Rowling's broad universe with care and reverence". a feature showing a day in the life of Natalia Tena. Phoenix feels like a real 'movie'". as the film was made available on the iTunes Store in the UK. and a featurette on film editing in Phoenix. Instead. The film holds a 79% "Certified Fresh" approval rating at Rotten Tomatoes. iPod devices. Staunton was described as the "perfect choice for the part" and "one of the film's greatest pleasures". and "focus points" featurettes [99][100] The HD DVD also include an exclusive feature called on how certain scenes of the film were made. It also has a score of 71 out of 100 on Metacritic. July 2007.[110] Rene Rodriguez of The Miami Herald gave the film three stars out of four and wrote that the film "is the first instalment in the soon-to-be series-of-seven that doesn't seem like just another spinoff capitalising on the money-minting Harry Potter brand name.Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix (film) Home media The DVDs included additional scenes. called it "a dark and delicious delight [and] a must-see movie". The package included a one-time-only code that activated a digital copy of the film. Prisoner of Azkaban. K. while giving the film four out of five stars. This can only be found in those purchased at Target stores (Future Shop in Canada) as it is a Target exclusive. which enable owners of the HD DVD to watch the film together over the internet. such as the "in-movie experience". The digital copy however is not playable on Macintosh or Apple Inc.[102] with more units coming from the Blu-ray version. with the character herself described as "a cross between Margaret Thatcher and Hyacinth .[112] The Daily Mail described Staunton's portrayal of Umbridge as a "refreshing addition". This issue was partially addressed. Yates was praised for his transition from television to budget cinema. a video commentary in which members of Dumbledore's Army share their favourite moments from the production of the film. the fifth highest rated after Deathly Hallows – Part 2.[101] Order of the Phoenix was the seventh best-selling DVD of 2007.

0 million. breaking the U.[124][125] That amount topped Sony Pictures' Spider-Man 2. In the United States. behind Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows – Part 2. Transformers: Dark of the Moon.[118] Kirk Honeycutt of The Hollywood Reporter wrote that Phoenix is "quite possibly the least enjoyable of the [series] so far". Maggie Smith. the highest opening day ever for any IMAX day of the week. tickets for hundreds of midnight showings of the film.K. making it the fifth highest-grossing film of 2007 in these regions. when Harry is put on trial for performing magic outside of school and threatened with expulsion.Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix (film) Bucket".8 million. box office record for the biggest 4-day [127] opening weekend ever.[122] In one-night earnings. In the U.K.[114] Variety praised Alan Rickman's portrayal of Severus Snape. He digs deep into the character and into Harry's nightmares. bought from online ticket-seller Fandango. touching all the bases from tender to fearful".[130] Overseas. Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince.[123] In the U.[117] Peter Travers of Rolling Stone called the film "the best of the series so far.[136] Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone's $974 million. playing Luna Lovegood. did not advance the plot. beating Spider-Man 3's $1.S. surpassing At World's End's $42.2 million. post-midnight showings. making up approximately 90% of the site's weekly ticket sales.9 million. and Pirates of the Caribbean: At World's End. Phoenix's gross is at $292.[126] It was also the fifth-biggest opening day for a movie in history.K. but is cleared of all charges. which had debuted four hours earlier on its date. writing that he "may have outdone himself. weakening the film. the seventh highest-grosser ever overseas. Marvel's The Avengers.[116] Peter Travers of Rolling Stone also lauded the three principal actors' achievements. the result was similar.311 midnight exhibitions making the showings "the most successful batch of midnight exhibitions ever". by losing the "candy-ass aspect" of the first two and "raising the bar" from the "heat and resonance" of the third and fourth.2 million on Wednesday. Pirates of the Caribbean: On Stranger Tides.[115] Newcomer Evanna Lynch.[131] for a worldwide total of $939. The review also criticised the under use of the "cream of British acting".S. it has grossed $647.[129] or $101.[113] Bonham Carter was said to be a "shining but underused talent".S. also received good word from a number of reviewers including the New York Times who declared her "spellbinding". Phoenix earned an additional $32.[114] The San Francisco Chronicle complained about a "lousy" storyline.[132] It became the sixth highest grossing film in history at the time. the eighth-biggest opening of all time.0 million in the U. David Thewlis.Part 2's $1. and Canada. Phoenix is behind only At World's End. noting the brief appearances of Helena Bonham Carter. midnight screenings (very early morning on 11 July) brought in $12 million[121] from 2. The film made £16. seldom has an actor done more with less than he does here".[137] Harry . [with] the laughs.[117] Leo Lewis of The Times (London) expressed disappointment that the three main actors were not able to fully advance the emotional sides of their respective characters. and Canada.8 million[1] making it the second highest-grossing film of the year closely behind Pirates of the Caribbean: At World's End's $961 million gross. making it the biggest single-day Wednesday gross in box office history. "the magic – movie magic. and Julie Walters. Spider-Man 3. Emma Thompson.[133] and the second Potter film to break the $900 million mark. which had held the record since 2004 with its $40. and that despite "several eye-catching moments". at the time. that is – is mostly missing".4 million in the U. Richard Griffiths.[120] In the U. with a total of $44. were sold out. Rolling Stone's review also classified the film as better than the previous four instalments in the series. It's a sensational performance. the jitters and the juice to make even nonbelievers wild about Harry".[128] and at £49.2 million from 4. especially Radcliffe: "One of the joys of this film is watching Daniel Radcliffe grow so impressively into the role of Harry. alleging that the first twenty minutes of the film. until this record was broken in 2009 by Transformers: Revenge of the Fallen with $62.[134] It is the seventeenth-highest grossing film of all time[135] as well as the fourth highest-grossing Potter film in the franchise behind Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows .5 million during its opening 4-day run.[119] 84 Box office The film opened to a worldwide 5-day opening of $333 million.4 million take on a Wednesday. It earned $1. the second-highest grossing Potter film worldwide. and Canada.8 million.327 billion.9 million from a record-breaking 91 IMAX screens.285 theatres.

com/ TFK/ specials/ potter/ 0. "Harry the Fifth" (http:/ / www. Pictures announced that the film has made over $35 million on IMAX screens.[152] Nicholas Hooper received a nomination for a World Soundtrack Discovery Award for his score to the film. htm). USA Today. Box Office Mojo. Retrieved 26 June 2007. organised by Empire. com/ life/ movies/ news/ 2004-05-27-potter-movie-book_x. including Best Film. 7 November 2005. David Yates won Best Director. David Heyman. . OOTP US Premiere red carpet interviews (http:/ / media. mugglenet. . worldwide.[146] The film picked up three awards at the inaugural ITV National Movie Awards. which includes Order of the Phoenix. the film was nominated for "Best Production Design" and "Best Special Visual Effects". Retrieved 31 May 2007. com/ movies/ ?page=main& id=harrypotter5. [8] "Worldwide Openings" (http:/ / www. Mellisa. Retrieved 6 March 2008. [3] Haun. the film won the award for Choice Summer Movie – Drama/Action Adventure at the Teen Choice Awards. Claudia (27 May 2004). Best Fantasy Movie. [2] Cornwell. [4] Grint. timeforkids. BBC Newsround.[151] Yates later received the BAFTA Britannia Award for Artistic Excellence in Directing for his four Harry Potter films. Retrieved 28 May 2006. . Retrieved 31 May 2007.[150] Having been nominated for six awards at the 13th Empire Awards.[144] The film was also nominated for several awards at the 2007 Scream Awards presented by Spike TV. com/ alltime/ world/ worldwideopenings. MuggleNet. and Best Sequel. .[139][140] IMAX Corporation and Warner Bros. filmjournal. htm). com/ yearly/ chart/ ?view2=worldwide& yr=2007& p=. the-leaky-cauldron. The Leaky Cauldron. scotsman. . jsp?vnu_content_id=1003600960& imw=Y). with an impressive per-screen average of $243.[153] Imelda Staunton was nominated in the "British Actress in a Supporting Role" category at the London Film Critics Circle Awards. in the categories of The Ultimate Scream. . Daniel Radcliffe was nominated in the Fantasy Hero categories.00. html). Retrieved 20 October 2007.[143] On 26 August 2007. Box Office Mojo. . . Box Office Mojo.082. Retrieved 24 January 2007.[141] In South Africa the film opened at number 1 with a total of $944. Film Journal International. Time For Kids. htm). Harry (20 June 2007). taking Best Family Film. com/ filmandtvawards/ Oscars-signal-boom-except-for. The Scotsman (Edinburgh).[155] Order of the Phoenix was also nominated for the awards from the Art Directors Guild and Costume Designers Guild. bbc. org/ index.[145] The film won for Best Sequel and Ralph Fiennes won for "Most Vile Villain". Best Actor for Radcliffe and Best Actress for Emma Watson. . com/ movie5/ redcarpetvideo/ ootpredcarpet.[148] It was also nominated for Best Live Action Family Film at the Broadcast Film Critics Association Awards[149] and won the 2007 People's Choice Award for "Favorite Movie Drama". Retrieved 31 May 2007.184807. Best Summer Movie You Haven't Seen Yet. [6] Puig. com/ filmjournal/ features/ article_display. [9] "2007 Worldwide Grosses" (http:/ / boxofficemojo. 3340535. Tim (24 January 2007). [7] "JK 'loves' Goblet of Fire movie" (http:/ / news.Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix (film) Potter and the Deathly Hallows . "Oscars signal boom (except for Scots)" (http:/ / news.12405.[158] The British Academy Children's Awards (BAFTA) nominated Order of the Phoenix for Best Feature Film in 2007[159] and the Hugo Awards nominated the film for Best Dramatic Presentation (Long Form) in 2008.[160] References [1] "HARRY POTTER AND THE ORDER OF THE PHOENIX" (http:/ / www.00. [5] "Potter Power!" (http:/ / www. htm).000 making it the highest grossing live-action IMAX release in history. Rupert. 6 March 2008. respectively. 8 February 2005.Part 1's $955 million[138] and the highest grossing 2007 film in Australia and the UK. boxofficemojo. jp). php?articleID=5483). "WB: Hurley Not Cast in Fifth Potter Film" (http:/ / www. stm). Order of the Phoenix was nominated in a new category at the 2007 MTV Movie Awards.[154] At the 2008 BAFTA Awards. boxofficemojo. Retrieved 11 July 2007. Emerson Spartz (8 July 2007). [10] Anelli. being screened at 87 theatres. . mov). uk/ cbbcnews/ hi/ newsid_4410000/ newsid_4415400/ 4415454.[156][157] and was awarded for "Outstanding Special Effects in a Motion Picture" by the Visual Effects Society out of six nominations. "New Potter movie sneaks in spoilers for upcoming books" (http:/ / www. usatoday.[142] 85 Accolades Before it was released. co.[147] The film was one of ten nominees for a 2007 Hollywood Movie of the Year.

Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix (film)
[11] Cummins, Fiona (2 August 2005). "Exclusive: Helen is New Foe for Harry" (http:/ / www. mirror. co. uk/ news/ tm_objectid=15806491& method=full& siteid=94762& headline=helen-is-new-foe-for-harry--name_page. html). Daily Mirror. . Retrieved 18 February 2008. [12] "Luna Lovegood role has been cast" (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ cbbcnews/ hi/ newsid_4670000/ newsid_4672700/ 4672798. stm). CBBC Newsround. 2 February 2006. . Retrieved 18 February 2008. [13] "Potter exclusive: New Bellatrix" (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ cbbcnews/ hi/ newsid_5010000/ newsid_5015300/ 5015376. stm). CBBC Newsround. 25 May 2006. . [14] "Top actress "will play Umbridge"" (http:/ / news. bbc. co. uk/ cbbcnews/ hi/ newsid_4360000/ newsid_4365800/ 4365880. stm). BBC. 21 October 2005. . Retrieved 23 October 2006. [15] Puig, Claudia (3 May 2005). "There's no looking back" (http:/ / www. usatoday. com/ life/ movies/ news/ 2005-05-03-potter-sidebar_x. htm). USA Today. . Retrieved 23 October 2006. 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[132] "2007 WORLDWIDE GROSSES" (http:/ / www. cgi?f=/ c/ a/ 2007/ 07/ 10/ DDG3IQSIV91. html). Retrieved 13 July 2007. comingsoon. . [135] "All Time Box Office: Worldwide Grosses" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 18 February 2008. com/ news/ ?id=2598& p=. com/ hr/ film/ reviews/ article_display. The Guardian (London). net/ news/ movienews. Emma (18 January 2008). 90 [118] LaSalle. html). [140] Bulbeck. com/ alltime/ world/ ). San Francisco Chronicle: p. htm). . ComingSoon. [136] http:/ / boxofficemojo. [138] http:/ / boxofficemojo. Retrieved 21 November 2011. Box Office Mojo. htm) [127] "Potter casts spell over UK box office" (http:/ / film. . Retrieved 8 July 2007. [119] Honeycutt. "Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix" (http:/ / web. [124] "'Harry Potter' Flies with the 'Phoenix'" (http:/ / boxofficemojo. 10 July 2007. [125] "Harry Potter works magic at box office" (http:/ / news. . Peter (29 June 2007). htm). [117] Travers. . htm [137] Highest-Grossing Harry Potter Film of All-time. Dave (10 September 2007). . co. com/ 2007/ 07/ 10/ movies/ 10harr. Retrieved 27 August 2007. html?categoryid=13& cs=1). [131] "The Numbers News" (http:/ / the-numbers. com/ article/ VR1117971702. 18 July 2007. jsp?& rid=9447). Retrieved 24 November 2007. . htm [139] Hewitt. [123] "Harry Potter 5 Opens to $12 Million" (http:/ / www. boxofficeprophets. com/ cgi-bin/ article. [144] "Order of the Phoenix wins "Teen Choice" award" (http:/ / www. 11 July 2007. David. com/ mv/ news/ va/ 20070712/ 118428478700. [134] "Order of the Phoenix third most successful film in franchise" (http:/ / www. . Ninemsn. sfgate. [126] ‘Transformers’ Sequel Blasts Off on First Day (http:/ / www. Retrieved 12 July 2007. Retrieved 4 September 2007. artlogic. org/ web/ 20070706204940/ http:/ / www. Mick (10 July 2007). uk/ pages/ news/ article?B7C02536-01E1-4B68-830B-555CE0969DCD). Rolling Stone. "Harried Harry: In his fifth outing. IMAX Corporation.223" (http:/ / www. "Daily Box Office Analysis for 11 July 2007" (http:/ / www. "'07 Australia box office close to record" (http:/ / www. 16 July 2007. Retrieved 10 September 2007. uk/ news/ story/ 0. hollywoodreporter. htm) (Press release). Spike TV.net. [141] "Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix: An IMAX 3D Experience Sets New Record" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 25 September 2007. Variety. [145] "Spike TV Goes Into the Woods for SCREAM 2007 at the Greek Theater in Los Angeles" (http:/ / money. . [120] "SOLD OUT! Harry Potter Tickets are Flying Away on Fandango" (http:/ / www. prnewswire. Boxofficemojo. . 23 September 2007. html). Retrieved 29 July 2007. boxofficemojo. O. Pip (12 January 2008). . com/ movies/ ?id=harrypotter72. com/ app/ news/ full_story/ 942). . The Hollywood Reporter. aspx?id=60460). Retrieved 12 July 2007. php?id=21911). com/ yearly/ chart/ ?yr=2007& p=. com/ movies/ ?page=intl& id=harrypotter5. Retrieved 6 September 2007. com/ news/ ?id=2353& p=. Retrieved 4 October 2007. UK FILM COUNCIL. [121] ""Harry Potter" works box office magic in debut" (http:/ / movies. "UK Film Council announces Film production in the UK topped £723 million in 2007" (http:/ / www. comingsoon. rollingstone. 30 August 2007. . HPANA. com/ news. . html). php?newsID=2864). UK Film Council. Retrieved 13 July 2007. . com/ hr/ content_display/ international/ news/ e3ia6dc904e032a3e877d2b41d8a4597f20). com/ intl/ southafrica/ ?yr=2007& wk=28& p=. com/ column/ index. Retrieved 24 October 2007. yahoo. .00.Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix (film) [116] Scott. . boxofficemojo. com/ news/ newsfeeds/ articles/ prnewswire/ NYW14905092007-1. [133] McNary. DTL). . 5 September 2007. com/ cgi-bin/ stories. com/ interactive/ newsStory. MuggleNet. .net. Yahoo!. boxofficemojo. [128] 2007 DOMESTIC GROSSES (http:/ / boxofficemojo. boxofficemojo. org. Retrieved 18 February 2008. 20 October 2007. nytimes. cnn. . Box Office Mojo. hpana.

com/ pca/ history. Sycamore Productions.harrypotter. . Adam (13 December 2007). php?section=festivals& Id=2134) (Press release). 91 contribution to the final four parts of the ‘Harry Potter’ franchise.com. org/ web/ 20071228232721/ http:/ / www. html).. Retrieved 10 January 2008. [156] King. latimes. Yates’ idUKL102694620080310?sp=true). bafta. 11 December 2007. com/ awardcentral_article/ VR1117977651. "Art Directors Guild lists nominations and honours for Harryhausen. co. . com/ awards/ guild/ env-art-directors-guildnoms11jan11. . "Potter wins film awards hat-trick" (http:/ / news. [159] "Past Winners and Nominees" (http:/ / www. External links • Official website (http://www. Visual Effects Society. .1953829. stm). latimes. com/ awards/ guild/ env-costume-awards17jan17-list.Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix (film) [147] Pryor. Reuters UK.0. Retrieved 4 February 2008. pcavote. [160] "2008 Hugo Awards" (http:/ / www. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 10 March 2008.0. pdf) (PDF) (Press release). filmthreat. com/ article/ entertainmentNews/ [152] "2011 Britannia Awards – John Lasseter & David Yates" (http:/ / www. . org/ hugo-history/ 2008-hugo-awards/ ). Retrieved 14 December 2011. Retrieved 17 September 2012.com) • Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix (http://www. [148] "2007 HOLLYWOOD FILM FESTIVAL ANNOUNCES LINE-UP" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 11 February 2008. [155] "FILM AWARDS NOMINEES IN 2008" (http:/ / www.com/movies/movie/v289458) at AllRovi • Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix (http://www. cfm?articleID=4193). [151] Griffiths. Atonement" (http:/ / www. Variety. Retrieved 15 December 2007.. . Hugo Awards." [153] "Nicholas Hooper nominated for "World Soundtrack Discovery Award"" (http:/ / www. ""Atonement" wins hat-trick of Empire awards" (http:/ / uk. Fiona (28 September 2007). Craig" (http:/ / theenvelope. Archived from the original (http:/ / www.. 11 February 2008. 10 October 2007. jsp) on 28 December 2007. html). Retrieved 6 March 2008. Peter (10 March 2008).224. com/ article. pcavote.3811812.. "London critics love Control. . bafta. com/ index. [154] Dawtrey. .com/m/ harry_potter_and_the_order_of_the_phoenix/) at Rotten Tomatoes . com/ documents/ pdf/ 6thAnnualVESAwardWinners. 17 January 2008. .org. 28 June 2011. Hollywood Film Festival. org/ awards/ film/ film-awards-nominees-in-2008. Retrieved 15 December 2007.htm) at Box Office Mojo • Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix (http://www. Retrieved 8 September 2007. .com/movies/?id=harrypotter5.com/title/tt0373889/) at the Internet Movie Database • Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix (http://www. Associated Press. Los Angeles Times. BAFTA. [157] "10th Annual Costume Designers Guild Awards" (http:/ / theenvelope. . [150] "People's Choice Awards Past Winners: 2008" (http:/ / web. htmlstory). org/ awards/ childrens/ nominations/ ?year=2007). 7 September 2007.BA. Susan (11 January 2008). . Retrieved 29 September 2007. uk/ 1/ hi/ entertainment/ 7019374. html). . HPANA. org/ losangeles/ news/ 2011-britannia-awards. archive. 20184.delighted to honor these remarkable filmmakers with this year’s Britannia Award. variety. thehugoawards. "John Lasseter and David Yates are master creators of joy and imagination. Retrieved 21 January 2008.BA. html?nav=news& categoryid=1983& cs=1). Retrieved 10 October 2007. 2008. Retrieved 17 September 2012.boxofficemojo. hpana. com/ pca/ history.. [158] "6th Annual Visual Effects Society Award Winners" (http:/ / www. 16 January 2008.rottentomatoes.1904.imdb. BBC News. BAFTA.allrovi. PCAvote. reuters.Mr. . [149] "Into The Wild Leads With Seven Nominations for the 13th Annual Critics' Choice Awards" (http:/ / pressmediawire. bbc. com/ news. story?coll=env-guild). jsp). bafta. vesawards..

It is followed by seven sequels with the first being Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets.755. As of January 2013. written by Steve Kloves and produced by David Heyman. Production began in the United Kingdom in 2000. designed by Drew Struzan. with Rupert Grint and Emma Watson as Harry's best friends Ron Weasley and Hermione Granger. written by Steve Kloves. J. The story follows Harry Potter's first year at Hogwarts as he discovers that he is a famous wizard and begins his magical education. in November 2001. Warner Bros. The film was shot at Leavesden Film Studios and historic buildings around the U. with Columbus being chosen to create the film from a short list of directors that included Steven Spielberg and Rob Reiner.K. Pictures • • Music by Cinematography Editing by Studio Distributed by Release date(s) Running time Country Language Budget Box office 4 November 2001 (London premiere) 16 November 2001 (United States) 152 minutes United Kingdom United States English $125 million [1] [2] $974.Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone (film) 92 Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone (film) Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone International poster displaying the Philosopher's Stone title (left) and the American poster. The film is the first instalment in the Harry Potter film series.371 Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone (released in the United States. in keeping with the cultural integrity of the book and the film. it is the fifteenth . displaying the Sorcerer's Stone title (right). K. Sri Lanka and Pakistan as Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone)[3][4][5] is a 2001 fantasy film[2] directed by Chris Columbus and based on the novel of the same name by J. It received positive critical reception. She also approved the screenplay. Rowling. Rowling insisted that the entire cast be British or Irish. Rowling Daniel Radcliffe Rupert Grint Emma Watson (See below) John Williams John Seale Richard Francis-Bruce Heyday Films 1492 Pictures Warner Bros. The film was released in the U. The film stars Daniel Radcliffe as Harry Potter. made more than $974 million at the worldwide box office. and was nominated for many awards. K. bought the film rights to the book in 1999 for a reported £1 million.K. and U. Best Art Direction and Best Costume Design.S. Directed by Produced by Screenplay by Based on Starring Chris Columbus David Heyman Steve Kloves Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone by J. India. K. including the Academy Awards for Best Original Score.

Upon arriving at the school. Hermione discovers that the dog is guarding the Philosopher's Stone. Harry begins learning wizardry and discovers more about his past and his parents. Headmaster Albus Dumbledore moves the mirror and advises Harry against looking for it. a close friend of Hagrid's. Harry sees a hooded figure drinking a unicorn's blood for its healing properties. Hufflepuff. While helping Hagrid in the Dark Forest. and Hermione Granger. Hagrid reveals to Harry that he has been invited to attend Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry. One night. In the final room. Using information let slip by Hagrid. that he is a wizard. a witch born to Muggle (non-magical) parents. Ravenclaw. After buying his school supplies from the hidden wizarding street. is trying to obtain the stone. Voldemort killed Harry's parents. He winds up in Gryffindor along with Ron and Hermione. Harry discovers the Mirror of Erised which shows a person's heart's desire. As Slytherin is noted for being the house of darker wizards and witches. Due to an enchantment placed by Dumbledore. life-sized chess match. Ron and Hermione conclude that Snape was the man in the pub and attempt to warn Dumbledore. Harry inadvertently makes Gryffindor's Quidditch team (a sport in the wizarding world where people fly on broomsticks) as a Seeker.Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone (film) highest-grossing film of all time and the second highest-grossing film in the series behind the final film. The hooded figure then attempts to attack Harry. living with his hostile relatives. flying past hundreds of flying keys and winning a violent. Harry boards the train to Hogwarts via the concealed Platform 9 3⁄4 in King's Cross Station. Harry tries to escape but Quirrell starts a fire by clicking his fingers to trap him. They face a series of obstacles: surviving a deadly plant. Harry. Harry begs the magical Sorting Hat not to put him in Slytherin. Quirrell removes his turban and reveals Voldemort to be living on the back of his head. Harry learns from a mysterious stranger. and Slytherin. leaving only a lightning-bolt scar on Harry's forehead and rendering Voldemort powerless. Then. Ron is nearly killed in the match and Hermione stays with him as Harry goes on ahead. Professor Quirrell forces Harry to look in the Mirror of Erised. Harry meets Ron Weasley. Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows – Part 2. Upon learning he is away on business. However. Harry concludes that his potions teacher. 93 Plot Harry Potter is a seemingly ordinary boy. Harry concludes that the hooded figure was Voldemort and that Snape is trying to get the stone to restore Voldemort to full strength. On his 11th birthday. Hermione uses her knowledge of spells to get past the plant. but Defence Against the Dark Arts teacher Professor Quirrell. Quirrell then tries to kill him but Harry's touch prevents . but Harry refuses. Harry. After the trio incapacitate an escaped mountain troll and Harry is nearly knocked from his broom by a curse during one of the Quidditch matches. the trio conclude that Snape will attempt to steal the stone that night and resolve to find the stone before Snape does. famous in the Wizarding World for surviving an attack by the evil Lord Voldemort when Harry was a baby. learning that his father was also on the team. The trio use their skills to overcome the obstacles. pure-blood wizarding family. Harry finds the stone in his pocket after looking in the mirror. an item that can grant its owner immortality. After trying to get Harry to answer what he has seen in the mirror. Diagon Alley. Ron and Hermione find a giant three-headed dog in the Forbidden Corridor on the Third Floor of the school. the first-year students are sorted into four houses: Gryffindor. Rubeus Hagrid. Harry finds out that it was not Snape who wanted the stone. only to be scared off away by an arriving centaur named Firenze. the trio assume that someone is trying to get past the dog. the Dursleys in Surrey. Quirrell reveals that he let the troll in and tried to kill Harry in the Quidditch match. He also reveals that Snape has been protecting Harry and trying to stop Quirrell all year. Harry is caught out of bed at night and given detention. On the train. Voldemort tries to convince Harry to give him the stone by pledging to bring his parents back from the dead. but his attack on Harry rebounded. Harry uses his skills as a seeker to get past the keys and Ron uses his skill at chess to win the chess match. a boy from a large but poor. Severus Snape. After hearing from Hagrid that the dog will fall asleep if played music and that he revealed this to a man in a local pub.

when Harry's mother died to save him. stating that "having seen [his] screen test I don't think Chris Columbus could have found a better Harry. who was already a fan of the books.[8] with only British children being considered. When Harry gets up. Harry's best friend at Hogwarts. • Richard Harris as Albus Dumbledore. before the open casting sessions had taken place. also auditioned for the role. His attempt was successful as the casting team asked for a meeting with him.[16] Watson took her audition seriously. The Charms Master and head of Hogwarts' Ravenclaw House. complaining that Columbus did not consider any of the thousands of children they had auditioned "worthy". Hermione Granger and Ron Weasley. although he felt the fee was not "that important".[1] Radcliffe was asked to audition in 2000. but had been told by Figgis that Radcliffe's protective parents would not allow their son to take the part.[11] • Daniel Radcliffe as Harry Potter. Harry's other best friend and the trio's brains. a half-giant and Hogwarts' Groundskeeper. Professor Dumbledore explains that the stone has been destroyed and that Hermione and Ron are fine. Coltrane was Rowling's first choice for the part.[7] Open casting calls were held for the main three roles. with those auditioning having to read a page from Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone.[18] Coltrane. • Richard Griffiths as Vernon Dursley.[17] • John Cleese as Nearly Headless Nick.[15] • Rupert Grint as Ron Weasley. Ron and Hermione. Hogwarts' Headmaster and one of the most famous and powerful wizards of all time." and was a fan of the series.[1] Rowling approved of Radcliffe's casting.[14] William Moseley. Harry realises that while every other student is going home. respectively. Harry wakes up in the school's hospital wing. knocking him unconscious before fleeing. Columbus had wanted Radcliffe for the role since he saw him in the BBC's production of David Copperfield.[9] Scenes from Columbus' script for the 1985 film Young Sherlock Holmes were also used in auditions. when Heyman and Kloves met him and his parents at a production of Stones in His Pockets in London.[1] Columbus explained that his persistence in giving Radcliffe the role was responsible for Figgis' resignation. • Robbie Coltrane as Rubeus Hagrid. Quirrell burned at Harry's touch because. prepared for the role by talking with Rowling about Hagrid's past and future."[14] The producers were impressed by Watson's self-confidence and she outperformed the thousands of other girls who had applied. Harry's Muggle (non-magical) uncle. Hogwarts is truly his home. Watson's Oxford theatre teacher passed her name on to the casting agents and she had to do over five interviews before she got the part.[10] On 8 August 2000. 94 Cast Rowling personally insisted that the cast be kept British. they had to improvise a scene of the students' arrival at Hogwarts. Voldemort's spirit forms and passes through Harry.[14] Having seen a Newsround report about the open casting he sent in a video of himself rapping about how he wished to receive the part. and they agreed to let him play Harry. but "never really thought [she] had any chance of getting the role.[6] Susie Figgis was appointed as casting director.[14] • Emma Watson as Hermione Granger."[13] Radcliffe was reportedly paid £1 million for the film. who was later cast as Peter Pevensie in The Chronicles of Narnia series. working with both Columbus and Rowling in auditioning the lead roles of Harry. Figgis left the production. her death gave Harry a love-based protection against Voldemort. then if called back. the virtually unknown Daniel Radcliffe and newcomers Emma Watson and Rupert Grint were selected to play Harry Potter. Harris initially rejected the role of Dumbledore.Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone (film) him from hurting him and causes him to turn into dust and die.[1] • Warwick Davis as Filius Flitwick. the ghost of Hogwarts' Gryffindor House. Before Harry and the rest of the students leave for the summer.[9] The principal auditions took place in three parts. only to reverse his decision after his granddaughter .[10] On 11 July 2000. they were then given several pages from the script to read in front of Columbus. He decided he would be perfect for the part "because [he has got] ginger hair.[12] Heyman and Columbus successfully managed to convince Radcliffe's parents that their son would be protected from media intrusion.

Before Walters was cast.[26] Although Steven Spielberg initially negotiated to direct the film.Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone (film) stated she would never speak to him again if he did not take it. Rob Reiner. His staff at Heyday Films then suggested Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone. but his plans fell through. Doubtfire as influences for their decision.[35] Columbus pitched his vision of the film for two hours.[21] Tom Felton as Draco Malfoy. a poltergeist who likes to prank students in the novel.[1] Spielberg contended that. and that making money would have been like "shooting ducks in a barrel. Tim Robbins. Memoirs of a Geisha or Harry Potter. to make non-author-written sequels.[18] Julie Walters as Molly Weasley. the slightly nervous Defence Against the Dark Arts teacher at Hogwarts. Ollivander. Parker and Gilliam. head of Gryffindor and transfiguration teacher at Hogwarts. talks began with other directors.[1][24][31] Petersen and Reiner then both pulled out of the running in March 2000. and also Lord Voldemort's voice. American actress Rosie O'Donnell held talks with Columbus about playing Mrs.[33] Rowling's first choice director was Terry Gilliam.[1] and the following year. nonetheless allowing for the inclusion of Irish actors such as Richard Harris as Dumbledore.[27] Spielberg reportedly wanted the adaptation to be an animated film.[23] but the scene ended up being cut from the film.[24] Production Development In 1997. Night Shyamalan and Peter Weir. There's no challenge. including: Chris Columbus.900). Fiona Shaw as Petunia Dursley."[30] Heyman recalled that Spielberg decided to direct whichever project. Weasley.[25] A demand Rowling made was that the principal cast be kept strictly British. and for casting of French and Eastern European actors in Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire where characters from the book are specified as such.[28] or a film that incorporated elements from subsequent books as well. Terry Gilliam.I. but he turned it down for Planet of the Apes. Alan Parker. David Thewlis auditioned for the part. which would have enabled Warner Bros. Rowling sold the company the rights to the first four Harry Potter books for a reported £1 million (US$1. the finest wand producers in the wizarding world since 382 B. chose Columbus. he would later be cast as Remus Lupin in Harry Potter and the Prisoner of Azkaban.[34] but Warner Bros." with him opting to direct A. Ivan Reitman. in his opinion. there was every expectation of profit in making the film. Jonathan Demme. Artificial Intelligence.C.[19] Ian Hart as Professor Quirrell.[6] Rowling was hesitant to sell the rights because she "didn't want to give them control over the rest of the story" by selling the rights to the characters. Minority Report. It's just a slam dunk. She shows Harry how to get to Platform 9 3⁄4. Columbus. Maggie Smith as Minerva McGonagall.[1] He had planned to produce Diana Wynne Jones' novel The Ogre Downstairs. Wolfgang Petersen."[29] Rowling maintains that she had no role in choosing directors for the films and that "[a]nyone who thinks I could (or would) have 'veto-ed' [ sic ] him [Spielberg] needs their Quick-Quotes Quill serviced."[1] Heyman pitched the idea to Warner Bros.[32] and the choice was narrowed down to Silberling. Harry's enemy. the Potions Master and head of Hogwarts' Slytherin House. with American actor Haley Joel Osment to provide Harry Potter's voice. which Heyman believed was "a cool idea. Smith was Rowling's personal choice for the part. Brad Silberling.[1] After Spielberg left. Alan Rickman as Severus Snape. Mike Newell. It's just like withdrawing a billion dollars and putting it into your personal bank accounts. Harry's Muggle aunt. the owner of Ollivanders.I. Mayall had to shout his lines off camera during takes.[22] 95 • • • • • • • Rik Mayall was cast in the role of Peeves. Tim Roth was the original choice for the role. Ron's caring mother.982. producer David Heyman searched for a children's book that could be adapted into a well-received film. out of A.[20] John Hurt as Mr. M. the Deputy Headmistress. citing his work on other family films such as Home Alone and Mrs. stating that . he declined the offer. "came together first.

which he "almost never read".. as it did not "lend itself to adaptation as well as the next two books.Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone (film) he wanted the Muggle scenes "to be bleak and dreary. Warner Bros. But he said 'Hermione. Oxford was the location for the Hogwarts trophy room.[43] these included shots of the corridors and some classroom scenes."[1] Rowling admitted that she "was really ready to hate this Steve Kloves. offering their assistance in securing filming locations.[36] Kloves was nervous when he first met Rowling as he did not want her to think he was going to "[destroy] her baby. was used as the Hogwarts Library. 'You know who my favourite character is?' And I thought.. part of the Bodleian. .[47] London Zoo was used as the location for the [47] with King's Cross Station also being used as the book scene in which Harry accidentally sets a snake on Dudley. due to time constraints the date was put back to 16 November 2001. filming took place on a constructed set in Leavesden Film Studios.[24][38] Principal photography took place on 2 October 2000 at North Yorkshire's Goathland railway station."[36] Kloves often received synopses of books proposed as film adaptations from Warner Bros.K. However. as well as changing the U. an arrangement that Columbus did not mind. July." but those set in the wizarding world "to be steeped in color."[1] Rowling received a large amount of creative control. and became an instant fan of the series.[46] London's Australia House was selected as the location for Gringotts Wizarding Bank. with final work being done in location for Hogwarts. mood. and detail.[44] Oxford University's Divinity School served as the Hogwarts Hospital Wing. [48] specifies. proposal due to concerns about the film's "pagan" theme. He described adapting the book as "tough". I can't think of anyone more ideally suited for this job than Chris. so payments to the street's residents were correspondingly increased. he stated that the film had to be British.[1] but Harry Potter jumped out at him. wishing to use "that sort of darkness. and Duke Humfrey's Library.' And I just kind of melted.[37] Filming Two British film industry officials requested that the film be shot in the U.'s child labour laws (adding a small number of working hours per week and making the timing of on-set classes more flexible). and had to be true to the characters. Since the books have generated such a passionate following across the world. that sort of edge. making for such a short production window that several proposed directors pulled themselves out of the running." He took inspiration from David Lean's adaptations of Great Expectations (1946) and Oliver Twist (1948).[43] Filming in the street took two days instead of the planned single day.. Berkshire.[1] He went out and bought the book. that quality to the cinematography. Filming began in September 2000 at Leavesden Film Alnwick Castle was used as a principal filming Studios and concluded in April 2001.[45] Filming for Privet Drive took place on Picket Post Close in Bracknell.[1] while Christ Church.[1] "Harry Potter is the kind of timeless literary achievement that comes around once in a lifetime.[1] Warner Bros. I know you're gonna say Ron.[40][41] Alnwick Castle and Gloucester Cathedral were eventually selected as the principal locations for Hogwarts. the use of Leavesden Film Studios. he said to me.[43] For all of the subsequent film's scenes set in Privet Drive. which proved to have been cheaper than filming on location.K." — Lorenzo di Bonaventura [35] 96 Steve Kloves was selected to write the film's screenplay.[1] with some scenes also being filmed at Harrow School." taking the colour designs from Oliver! and The Godfather." but recalled her initial meeting with him: "The first time I met him.[36] When speaking to Warner Bros. accepted their proposal. had initially planned to release the film over a 4 July 2001 weekend. Canterbury rejected Warner Bros.[42] Other Hogwarts scenes were filmed in Durham Cathedral over a two-week period. You're gonna say Ron. it was important to us to find a director that has an affinity for both children and magic.[39] Canterbury Cathedral and Scotland's Inverailort Castle were both touted as possible locations for Hogwarts.

One of the main themes is entitled "Hedwig's Theme".[52] Williams composed the score at his homes in Los Angeles and Tanglewood before recording it in London in August 2001. once with the actors saying "philosopher's" and once with "sorcerer's". Industrial Light & Magic created Lord Voldemort's face on the back of Quirrell. One of the lines originally included had to be removed after Rowling told him that it would directly contradict an event in the then-unreleased Harry Potter and the Order of the Phoenix novel.[50] John Coppinger stated that the magical creatures that needed to be created for the film had to be designed multiple times. Some conflicts. Harry's less than pleasant times at Mrs. The film removes this. In some scenes computer animation was used to render his eyes green. They also developed a liking for fake facial injuries from the makeup staff. but deemed them "a mess. Craig decided to build his own set. 19th century fencing breeches and arm guards.[24] The children filmed for four hours and then did three hours of schoolwork. and Peeves the poltergeist. of which Rowling approved. involving numerous companies. a month of Harry's summer. she dressed the Quidditch players in "preppie sweaters.[49] Columbus originally planned to use both animatronics and CGI animation to create the film's magical creatures.[7] Nick Dudman.[51] The film features nearly 600 special effects shots.[53] Differences from the book Columbus repeatedly checked with Rowling to make sure he was getting minor details in the film correct. was given the task of creating the needed prosthetics for the film. Williams retained it for his finished score as "everyone seemed to like it".[50] Kloves described the film as being "really faithful" to the book." Instead. including several of Vernon's attempts to escape the constantly arriving Hogwarts letters. and Sony Pictures Imageworks produced the film's Quidditch scenes. Professor Binns. having initially planned to use those shown on the cover of the American book. with Jim Henson's Creature Shop providing creature effects. and not green like Harry's. Georgian and Queen Anne architecture. Rhythm & Hues animated Norbert. including Hogwarts Great Hall. such as Harry and Draco's encounter with .[1] The store in London used as the exterior of The Leaky Cauldron. all scenes that mention the philosopher's stone by name had to be reshot. including Fluffy. Professor McGonagall and Hagrid leaving Harry with the Dursleys (although McGonagall tells Dumbledore how she had been watching the Dursleys all day). beginning with Professor Dumbledore. Although originally asked to use an existing old street to film the Diagon Alley scenes.[1] Music John Williams was selected to compose the film's score. who worked on Star Wars Episode I: The Phantom Menace. 97 Design and special effects Judianna Makovsky designed the film costumes. She re-designed the Quidditch robes. Figg's are cut from the film while the boa constrictor from Brazil in the zoo becomes a Burmese Python in the film. because of Radcliffe's discomfort.[54] Several minor characters have been removed from the film version. most prominent among them the spectral History of Magic teacher. He added some dialogue.Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone (film) Because the film's American title was different. highlighting how non-magical people react to magic. basing it on many English cathedrals.[1] Daniel Radcliffe had to wear green contact lenses as his eyes are blue. The book's first chapter is from the viewpoint of Vernon and Petunia Dursley the day before they are given Harry to look after. Next."[49] Production designer Stuart Craig built the sets at Leavesden Studios. comprising Tudor.

The movie unfolds exactly as written in the book.[70] Praise was echoed by both The Telegraph and Empire reviewers. but concluded that it "isn't perfect. and particularly praising the Quidditch scenes' visual effects.[73] Although criticising the final half-hour.Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone (film) each other in Madam Malkin's robe shop and midnight duel.[64]and 28 May 2002 in the U.[60] Hasbro also produced products. for the GameCube. is shown to be dark in the film. Snape's potion riddle is one of two deleted scenes.[49] The Sorting Hat's song is axed. For Potter fans. which has previously been shown during certain television airings.[56] 98 Distribution Marketing The first teaser poster was released New Year's Day 2001. Neville and Malfoy are also given detention when they are caught in the corridor by Professor McGonagall.[67] Reaction Critical reception The film received positive reviews from critics. but for me it's a nice supplement to a book series that I love".com also gave the film a positive review. what more can you ask for?".[71][72] Brian Linder of IGN. Grint's and Watson's first screen tests. who is described in the book as being palomino with light blonde hair. PlayStation 2. was also given detention for being out of bed after hours).[58] The soundtrack was released on 30 October 2001 in a CD format." giving the film four out of four stars.[55] Additionally. garnering an 80% "Fresh" rating on Rotten Tomatoes.S. Rowling described the scene as "the one part of the book that she felt [could easily] be changed". along with the leg-locking curse which Malfoy put on Neville.[69] Roger Ebert called Philosopher's Stone "a classic. signed a deal worth US$150 million with Coca-Cola to promote the film.[68] It got a score of 64 out of 100 at Metacritic representing "generally favourable reviews".[53] Another video game. It includes the existing special features disc. are only in the book. and not in the film. including confectionery items based on those from the series. Some of Nicolas Flamel's role is changed or cut altogether.[49] As such.[48] and Lego produced a series of sets based on buildings and scenes from the film.[57] The first teaser trailer was released via satellite on 2 March 2001 and debuted in cinemas with the release of See Spot Run. the Quidditch pitch is altered from a traditional stadium to an open field circled by spectator towers. as well as a Lego Creator video game. the reason for the detention in the Forbidden Forest is also changed: In the novel. Harry and Hermione are put in detention for being caught by Filch when leaving the Astronomy Tower after hours. Radcliffe's. Norbert is mentioned to have been taken away by Dumbledore in the film.[61] Warner Bros.K. first released the film on VHS and DVD on 11 February 2002 in the E3 U. to be sold exclusively through Warner Brothers' stores. Harry. an extended version of the film with deleted scenes edited in. Jeanne Aufmuth of Palo Alto Online stated that the film would "enchant even the most cynical of .S. as is Quirrell's troll room on the way to the stone. "Being so faithful to the book is both the movie's strength and weakness. Firenze the centaur. Hermione and Ron receive detention after Malfoy catches them in Hagrid's hut after hours (Malfoy however. A video game based on the film was released on 15 November 2001 by Electronic Arts for several consoles.[59] Mattel won the rights to produce toys based on the film.[66] The film's extended version has a running time of about 159 minutes. whilst the book sees Harry and Hermione have to take him by hand to Charlie Weasley's friends.[65] They later released an Ultimate Edition in the U. Its consensus says.[63] 11 May 2002 in the U. so there is little room for surprises or discoveries. and Xbox was released in 2003. a feature-length special Creating the World of Harry Potter Part 1: The Magic Begins. and a 48-page hardcover booklet.K. only that included a Blu-ray and DVD. with Alan Morrison of the latter naming it the film's "stand-out sequence". while in the film.[62] Home media Warner Bros.

5 million. it is the unadjusted fifteenth highest-grossing film of all-time and the second highest-grossing Harry Potter film to date[91] after Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows – Part 2." He says it suffers from "a lack of imagination" and wooden [83] characters. breaking the record for highest-opening weekend of all time that was previously held by The Lost World: Jurassic Park.1 million elsewhere. makeup and effects match and sometimes exceed anything one could imagine. Best Costume Design.8 million in its opening weekend.[99] and the Art Directors Guild Award for its production design. breaking the single day record previously held by Star Wars Episode I: The Phantom Menace. but criticised John Williams' score and concluded "ultimately many of the book's readers may wish for a more magical incarnation. as well as the awards for Best Costume Design. it made $90. both including and excluding previews."[81] Ed Gonzalez of Slant Magazine wished that the film had been directed by Tim Burton. with the cinema arranged to resemble Hogwarts School..1 million in the U.Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone (film) moviegoers. especially praising the set design and Robbie Coltrane's portrayal of Hagrid. and $657. considered the film a "by the numbers adaptation.S. until both were surpassed by Mamma Mia!.[86] Similar results were achieved across the world.[84] The film was greatly received at the box office."[77] Jonathan Foreman of the New York Post recalled that the film was "remarkably faithful. in London's Leicester Square." to its literary counterpart as well as a "consistently entertaining if overlong adaptation. finding the cinematography "bland and muggy. $317. it made $32. In total.[85] It held the record until the following May when Spider-Man made $114. the sets." 99 Box office The film had its world premiere on 4 November 2001.[94] The film won a Saturn Award for its costumes." and the majority of the film a "solidly dull celebration of dribbling goo. making it the country's second highest-grossing film of all-time (after Titanic).K."[74] USA Today reviewer Claudia Puig gave the film three out of four stars. design.[2] which made it the second highest-grossing film in history at the time. In the U. costumes. and Best Original Score for John Williams.[96] It won other awards from the Casting Society of America and the Costume Designers Guild.[88] In total.[90] As of 2012."[76] Todd McCarthy of Variety compared the film positively with Gone with the Wind and put "The script is faithful. banging music box that simply will not shut up.[93] The film was also nominated for seven BAFTA Awards. These were Best British Film.[87] The film went on to make £66. effects and principal cast were all given praise from Kirk Honeycutt of The Hollywood Reporter.[92] Accolades The film was nominated for three Academy Award nominations: Best Art Direction."[82] Elvis Mitchell of The New York Times was highly negative of the film.6 million of that in the U.S. breaking the record for biggest single day again.[100] It received the Broadcast Film Critics Award for Best Live Action . the rides clatter and groan with metal fatigue every time they take a curve. cinematography. which grossed more than $1 billion worldwide. the film's gross increased to $33. making £16." criticising the pace and the "charisma-free" lead actors.7 million at the worldwide box office. using defamations such as "[the film] is like a theme park that's a few years past its prime.[89] as well as the year's highest-grossing film.[79] CNN's Paul Tatara found that Columbus and Kloves "are so careful to avoid offending anyone by excising a passage from the book.3 million with and £9.K."[78] Richard Corliss of Time magazine.[95] and was nominated for eight more awards. the actors are just right.3 million on its opening day. the film earned $974.8 million without previews. alone. Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone broke the record for the highest-opening weekend ever. Makeup and Hair. "The Sorting Hat has more personality than anything else in the movie."[80] Nathaniel Rogers of The Film Experience gave the film a negative review and wrote: "Harry Potter and the Sorceror's Stone is as bland as movies can get. Best Supporting Actor for Robbie Coltrane."[75] The sets. the so-called narrative is more like a jamboree inside Rowling's head. Sound and Visual Effects. Production Design..3 million during its first weekend.[97][98] It was nominated for the AFI Film Award for its special effects. although he deemed John Williams' score "a great clanging. On the second day of release. In the U.

[101] List of awards and nominations 100 Award 74th Academy [93] Awards Category Best Costume Design Achievement in Art Direction Best Original Score Judianna Mokovsky Stuart Craig John Williams Name Outcome Nominated Nominated Nominated Nominated Amanda Awards [102] Best Foreign Feature Film Best Digital Effects Artist: Robert Legato. John King. Janet Hirshenson Nominated Awards of the Japanese [103] Academy Artios Award [97] [104] Nominated Won Won Nominated Nominated Nominated Nominated Nominated Nominated Nominated Won Daniel Radcliffe John Williams John Williams Won Nominated Nominated Bogey Awards 55th British Academy [94] Film Awards Broadcast Film Critics [101] Association Best Family Film (Live Action) Best Child Performance Best Composer Broadcast Music Incorporated Film & TV [105] Awards Costume Designers [98] Guild Award Eddie Awards [106] [107] BMI Film Music Award Excellence in Fantasy Costume Design Best Edited Feature Film – Dramatic Best Film Best Debut Judianna Makovsky Richard Francis-Bruce Won Nominated Nominated Empire Awards Daniel Radcliffe. Nick Davis. Eithne Fennel. Michael Lamont. Dominic Masters. Stephen Film Morahan. Amanda Knight Jane Jenkins. Peter Francis. Neil Lamont. Gary Tomkins Outstanding Foreign Language Film Feature Film – Comedy Bogey Award in Titanium Best British Film Best Supporting Actor Best Costume Design Best Production Design Best Makeup & Hair Best Sound Best Visual Effects Robbie Coltrane Judianna Makovsky Stuart Craig Nick Dudman. Simon Lamont. Andrew Excellence in Production Design for a Period or Fantasy Ackland-Snow. Emma Watson Stuart Craig Nominated Won Evening Standard British Technical Achievement [108] Award Film Awards . Roger Guyett American Film Institute [99] Awards 2001 Art Directors Guild [100] Award Nominated Stuart Craig. Rupert Grint. Steve Lawrence.Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone (film) Family Film and was nominated for Best Child Performance (for Daniel Radcliffe) and Best Composer (John Williams). Lucinda Thomson.

Nick Davis. John Richardson. Roger Guyett. Nick Davis. John Lambert Robert Legato. Television or Other Visual Media Best Dramatic Presentation Favorite Movie Breakthrough Male Performance Best Family Film Best Newcomer Best Youth Performance Best Costume Design Best Original Score Best Production Design Best Visual Effects 13th Producers Guild of [115] America Awards Satellite Awards [116] 101 Eddy Joseph.John Richardson Nominated Rupert Grint Won Nominated Chris Columbus Robbie Coltrane Maggie Smith Daniel Radcliffe Emma Watson Judianna Makovsky Nick Dudman. Peter Holt John Williams Nominated Nominated Hugo Awards [111] Nominated Nominated Daniel Radcliffe Nominated Won Daniel Radcliffe Emma Watson Judianna Makovsky John Williams Stuart Craig Robert Legato. Mark Coulier. Nick Davis.Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone (film) Golden Reel [109] Awards 45th Grammy [110] Awards Best Sound Editing – Foreign Film Best Score Soundtrack Album for a Motion Picture. Animated or Mixed Media Best Film Editing Best Art Direction Best Visual Effects Outstanding New Talent Special Achievement Award Robert Legato. Roger Guyett. Martin Cantwell. Colin Ritchie. Nick Lowe. John Richardson Nominated Nominated Nominated Nominated Nominated Won Nominated Nominated Won 28th Saturn Awards [96] Best Fantasy Film Best Director Best Supporting Actor Best Supporting Actress Best Performance by a Younger Actor Best Performance by a Younger Actress Best Costumes Best Make-Up Best Special Effects Sierra Awards [117] Best Family Film . Roger Guyett Nominated Nominated Nominated Nominated Nominated Nominated Nominated Nominated Richard Francis-Bruce Stuard Craig Nominated Nominated 2002 Kids' Choice [112] Awards 2002 MTV Movie [113] Awards Phoenix Film Critics [114] Society Awards Producer of the Year Award in David Heyman Theatrical Motion Pictures Best Motion Picture.

buzzle. Retrieved 8 July 2007. com/ articles/ 034/ 034105p1. . com/ thehindu/ mp/ 2002/ 04/ 11/ stories/ 2002041100350400. [11] "Daniel Radcliffe. Brian (30 March 2000). "Inside Harry Potter – It May Be a Movie about a Tyro Wizard and His Magical Adventures. ew. org/ web/ 20071011092955/ http:/ / eastvalleytribune. com/ story/ 92834?source=rss& dest=STY-92834) on 11 October 2007. com/ articles/ 034/ 034108p1. Box Office Mojo. Retrieved 29 May 2007. "One Enchanted Night at Theater. Pictures Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone" (http:/ / web. hinduonnet. Barry (8 July 2007). 21 August 2000. html). Retrieved 7 February 2010. in/ Titles/ HPSORSTN/ CTLG/ ProductsDescription. Big Home Video. . archive. [14] "When Danny Met Harry". html). html). com/ editorials/ 6-22-2004-55758. casting. . Retrieved 26 May 2007. Retrieved 7 February 2010. Dhananjay (23 June 2004). New Teenage Sensation!!" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 7 February 2010. Retrieved 8 July 2007. .00. movies. html). com/ pub/ movie/ releases/ harrycast. html) on 20 December 2001. "Trouble Brewing with Potter Casting?" (http:/ / filmforce.188388~1~0~harrypottershermionetalks. IGN. [10] Lindner.00.254808. Radcliffe Became Harry Potter" (http:/ / web. html). html).. Archived from the original (http:/ / movies. . yahoo. movies. . ew. .595317. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. archive. 16 November 2001. com/ articles/ 034/ 034099p1. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. . ign. org/ web/ 20070404184713/ http:/ / movies. 02/ ). The Times. com/ pub/ movie/ releases/ harrycast. 14 December 2001. [7] Linder.6115. ign. boxofficemojo. The Hindu. warnerbros. com/ news-detail/ 30336/ BIG-Home-Video-market-Warner-catalogues-in-India. htm). Retrieved 26 May 2007. guardian. Retrieved 2 May 2008. Larry (2 May 2008). . . Brian (14 June 2000). [16] "Season of the Witch" (http:/ / web. "BIG Home Video To Market Warner Catalogues in India" (http:/ / in. co. "Chris Columbus Talks Potter" (http:/ / uk. No Hocus-Pocus about It" (http:/ / www. com/ ew/ report/ 0. "Harry Comes to Hyderabad" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 8 July 2007. [6] "Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone" (http:/ / film. Fierman. Rupert Grint and Emma Watson Bring Harry. Guardian Unlimited. com/ 2000/ WORLD/ europe/ 08/ 22/ potter. [17] Kulkani. . Jeff. ign. com/ story/ 92834?source=rss& dest=STY-92834). . com/ movies/ ?id=harrypotter. Ron and Hermione to Life for Warner Bros. asp). [15] Carroll. movies. Entertainment Weekly. com/ ew/ article/ 0. archive. IGN. Entertainment Weekly. cnn. html). Retrieved 7 February 2010. Drama/Action Adventure Best Family Feature Film – Drama Best Performance in a Feature Emma Watson (Tied with Scarlett Johansson) Film – Leading Young Actress Best Performance in a Feature Film – Supporting Young Actor Best Ensemble in a Feature Film Most Promising Young Newcomer Rupert Grint Tom Felton 102 Nominated Nominated Won Nominated Nominated Won References [1] Jensen. [3] Anthikad-Chhibber. "British Child Actor "a Splendid Harry Potter"" (http:/ / premium. Warner Bros. [2] "Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone" (http:/ / www. [12] Koltnow. . Buzzle. Brian (30 May 2000). com/ 2008/ 05/ 02/ narnia-star-william-moseley-reflects-on-nearly-becoming-harry-potter/ ). [5] Indiabroad (07-30). MTV. edition. Brian (11 July 2000). ign. but Bringing Harry Potter to the Big Screen Took Real Muggle Might. Retrieved 3 August 2007. [8] Linder. co. com/ ew/ report/ 0. IGN.188388~1~0~harrypottershermionetalks. bigvideo. warnerbros. movies. com/ articles/ 034/ 034104p1. 3 November 2001. [4] "Official Home Video Product Description for India" (http:/ / www. html). . . "Attention All Muggles!" (http:/ / uk. eastvalleytribune. Paul (23 August 2000). Indo-Asian News Service (via Yahoo! India Movies). htm). mtv. "Emma Watson. "Harry Potter Casting Frenzy" (http:/ / uk.00. . ew.Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone (film) Teen Choice [118] Awards Young Artist [119] Awards Choice Movie. East Valley Tribune.6115. Retrieved 19 July 2009. org/ web/ 20011220190847/ http:/ / www. html) on 4 April 2007.. uk/ News_Story/ Critic_Review/ Guardian_Film_of_the_week/ 0. html). .. CNN. [13] Sussman. [9] Linder. ""Narnia" Star William Moseley Reflects on Nearly Becoming Harry Potter" (http:/ / moviesblog. Daniel (14 September 2001).00. Retrieved 18 July 2010. Retrieved 7 February 2010. aspx). IGN. Retrieved 15 July 2007. Mini.

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imdb.com/movies/?id=harrypotter. [108] "Evening Standard British Film Awards for 2002" (http:/ / www. . . Retrieved 21 October 2010. imdb. pressacademy. . Internet Movie Database. Retrieved 3 February 2011.htm) at Box Office Mojo • Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone (http://www. com/ event/ ev0000786/ 2002). Internet Movie Database. [118] "Teen Choice Awards for 2002" (http:/ / www.' 'Lord of the Rings' among producing guild's nominees" (http:/ / www. [109] "Golden Reel Awards for 2002" (http:/ / www.allrovi. com/ event/ ev0000386/ 2002). [107] "Empire Awards for 2002" (http:/ / www. imdb. [117] "Sierra Awards for 2002" (http:/ / www. berkeleydailyplanet. com/ event/ ev0000453/ 2002). com/ event/ ev0000108/ 2001). com/ event/ ev0000106/ 2002).com/m/ harry_potter_and_the_sorcerers_stone/) at Rotten Tomatoes • Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone (http://www. Internet Movie Database. Internet Movie Database. The Hugo Awards. imdb. Retrieved 3 February 2011. com/ event/ ev0000372/ 2002). [112] "Kids' Choice Awards for 2002" (http:/ / www. shtml). imdb. imdb. . . com/ satawards/ awards2002. Retrieved 3 February 2011. Retrieved 3 February 2011.com/title/tt0241527/) at the Internet Movie Database Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone (http://www. [115] "'Shrek. International Press Academy. imdb. . imdb. com/ event/ ev0000017/ 2002). . . . thehugoawards. Retrieved 3 February 2011.' 'Harry Potter. com/ event/ ev0000644/ 2002). Associated Press. Internet Movie Database.com/) Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone (http://www. com/ issue/ 2002-01-11/ article/ 9485?headline=-Shrek-Harry-Potter-Lord-of-the-Rings-among-producing-guild-s-nominees). imdb. Internet Movie Database. imdb. Retrieved 3 February 2011. .com/movies/movie/v255538) at AllRovi Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone (http://www. Retrieved 21 October 2010.Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone (film) [103] "Awards of the Japanese Academy for 2002" (http:/ / www. Internet Movie Database. . . Internet Movie Awards. Internet Movie Database. [110] "Grammy Awards for 2003" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 3 February 2011. com/ event/ ev0000301/ 2003). [106] "Eddie Awards for 2002" (http:/ / www. [113] "MTV Movie Awards for 2002" (http:/ / www.com/movie/ harry-potter-and-the-sorcerers-stone) at Metacritic . [116] "2002 6th Annual SATELLITE Awards" (http:/ / www. imdb. htm). com/ event/ ev0000231/ 2002). org/ hugo-history/ 2002-hugo-awards/ ). [105] "BMI Film & TV Awards for 2002" (http:/ / www. [119] "23rd Annual Young Artist Awards 2002" (http:/ / www. . 11 January 2002. Internet Movie Database. . Retrieved 3 February 2011. . Retrieved 3 February 2011. 106 External links • • • • Official website (http://www. imdb.harrypotter. [104] "Bogey Awards for 2001" (http:/ / www. Internet Movie Database. Retrieved 3 February 2011. Retrieved 3 February 2011. imdb.rottentomatoes. com/ event/ ev0001104/ 2002). . youngartistawards. Retrieved 3 February 2011. Internet Movie Database. Internet Movie Database. org/ noms23A. Retrieved 3 February 2011. [111] "2002 Hugo Awards" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 3 February 2011. imdb.metacritic. Retrieved 21 October 2010. .boxofficemojo. com/ event/ ev0000452/ 2002). com/ event/ ev0000392/ 2002). Young Artist Foundation. [114] "PFCS Awards for 2002" (http:/ / www.

2005 Born Kenneth George Baker 24 August 1934 Birmingham. who stands 3 ft 8 in (112 cm) tall.[1] He is an only child. Baker appears in all six of the episodic theatrical Star Wars films. was born and educated in Birmingham. . he appeared in the British medical drama Casualty. but had not received sufficient education. He went to live with his stepmother in Hastings.Kenny Baker (English actor) 107 Kenny Baker (English actor) Kenny Baker Baker at a science fiction convention. He revealed a feud between him and his co-star Anthony Daniels.[3] He even said he wouldn't be in the same room as Daniels unless necessary. Kenny is featured on Justin Lee Collins's "Bring Back Star Wars". Baker's other films include The Elephant Man. Baker played an additional role in 1983's Return of the Jedi as Paploo. He claimed Daniels had been rude to him on numerous occasions. and states that Daniels is rude to everyone. Life and career Baker. learned to ice-skate and appeared in many ice shows. Sussex and in 1951 was approached on the street by a lady who invited him to join a theatrical troupe of dwarves and midgets. February 12. Amadeus and Jim Henson's Labyrinth. He was originally going to play Wicket. the Ewok who steals an Imperial speeder bike. and wanted to follow in his father's footsteps and be an engraver. and at boarding school in Kent. This was his first taste of show business. Warwickshire. including fans. best known as the man inside R2-D2 in the popular Star Wars film series. Warwickshire. On television. England Actor 1977–present Occupation Years active Kenneth George "Kenny" Baker (born 24 August 1934) is a British actor and musician. but he fell ill and that role was handed over to Warwick Davis. He had formed a successful comedy act called the Minitones with entertainer Jack [2] Purvis when George Lucas hired him to be the man inside R2-D2 in Star Wars in 1977. Time Bandits (also with Purvis) Willow (also with Jack Purvis) and Flash Gordon. His parents were "normal-sized". Later. he joined a circus for a brief time.

New York. In November 2009. Once Upon A Galaxy: A Journal of The Making of The Empire Strikes Back.imdb. their two sons do not. Andrew (2005-05-19). Baker currently resides in Preston. p. Del Ray-Ballantine Books. [3] Williams. 1980. co. While both he and his wife have dwarfism. Lancashire. It was written with Ken Mills of Writestuff Autographs of Lancaster and self-published by Writestuff Autographs ISBN 978-0-9563819-0-3. Baker played harmonica with the James Coutts' Scottish Dance Band at Hugh McCaig's Silverstone Party in July 1997.kennybaker. Alan.com/name/nm48652/) at the Internet Movie Database .co. uk/ fame/ interviews/ article. newsbank. References [1] (http:/ / nl. External links • Kenny Baker's website (http://www. Retrieved 2009-01-28. his biography entitled "From Tiny Acorns: The Kenny Baker Story" was made available through his website and at conventions and book signings. Baker launched a brief stand up comedy career. "Kenny Baker" (http:/ / www. metro. html?in_article_id=1217& in_page_id=11). com/ nl-search/ we/ Archives?p_product=PI& s_site=philly& p_multi=PI& p_theme=realcities& p_action=search& p_maxdocs=200& p_topdoc=1& p_text_direct-0=0EB29939267751E4& p_field_direct-0=document_id& p_perpage=10& p_sort=YMD_date:D& s_trackval=GooglePM) [2] Arnold. Metro (Associated Newspapers). 124-127. .Kenny Baker (English actor) 108 Later work In the late 1990s.uk/) • Kenny Baker (http://www.

917 Labyrinth is a 1986 British-American fantasy film directed by Jim Henson.Labyrinth (film) 109 Labyrinth (film) Labyrinth Theatrical release poster Art by Ted CoConis Directed by Produced by Jim Henson Eric Rattray David Lazer George Lucas Terry Jones Dennis Lee Jim Henson David Bowie Jennifer Connelly Toby Froud Shelley Thompson Christopher Malcolm David Bowie (Songs) Trevor Jones (Score) Alex Thomson John Grover Henson Associates Lucasfilm TriStar Pictures • Screenplay by Story by Starring Music by Cinematography Editing by Studio Distributed by Release date(s) Running time Country Language Budget Box office June 27. The plot revolves around Sarah's quest to reach the center of an enormous otherworldly maze to rescue her infant brother Toby. who has been kidnapped by Jareth. George Lucas. Labyrinth was shot on location in Upper Nyack. 1986 101 minutes United Kingdom United States English $25.729.000 $12.000. Labyrinth started as a collaboration between Jim Henson and Brian Froud. . Various other script-writers. most of the significant characters in the film are played by puppets produced by Jim Henson's Creature Shop. the Goblin King. and at Elstree Studios and West Wycombe Park in the United Kingdom. and Elaine May. drawing on Brian Froud's sketches for inspiration. The Dark Crystal. Piermont and Haverstraw in New York. The film stars David Bowie as Jareth and Jennifer Connelly as Sarah. subsequently re-wrote and made additions to the screenplay. although Jones received the film's sole screen-writing credit. produced by George Lucas and based upon conceptual designs by Brian Froud. with ideas for the film first being discussed between them following a screening of their previous collaboration. Terry Jones from Monty Python wrote the first draft of the film's script early in 1984. including Laura Phillips (who had previously written several episodes of Fraggle Rock). With the exception of Bowie and Connelly.

In 2012 Archaia Studios Press announced they were developing a graphic novel prequel to the film. . Jareth sends Hoggle into the oubliette to free Sarah and misdirect her back to the beginning of the labyrinth. reciting lines from a play called The Labyrinth in a park. entitled Return to Labyrinth. transforming into Jareth: King of the Goblins (David Bowie). who confronts her face-to-face and asks her to abandon her quest in order to stay with him forever. He transports Sarah and himself to the Labyrinth. returns Sarah and Toby to their home. A group of revelers with detachable limbs called the Fire Gang harass Sarah until Hoggle reappears to rescue her. Although it was met with a mixed critical response upon its original release in the summer of 1986. Abruptly. before eventually trapping herself in an oubliette. She finds the toy in Toby's room and resentfully declares a wish that the goblins would take the baby away.S theatrical run. It would be the last feature film directed by Henson before his death in 1990. including a Knights and Knaves logic puzzle. Hoggle appears and disables a giant robot that guards the city gate. Toby vanishes and a barn owl flies into the room. Upon reaching Jareth's throne room. As Sarah struggles to remember the final line of her monologue. Sarah forgives Hoggle for his earlier betrayal and continues with all her friends through the city. Sarah decides to go forward alone. Sarah recites the complete monologue from the beginning of the film. stair-filled room." Jareth. concluding with the formerly elusive line. Sarah tells her friends she needs them. At the entrance of the Labyrinth. summoning them into her room. A four-volume manga sequel to the film. was published by Tokyopop between 2006 and 2010. Sarah meets Hoggle. Lancelot. Jareth tells Sarah that he will return her brother if she can solve his Labyrinth within thirteen hours. Sarah falls into a trance and finds herself in a dream-like ballroom where Jareth attempts to seduce her. and attempts unsuccessfully to find a path to reach her brother. a chivalrous. a barn owl briefly watches the party before flying away. C. The commercial failure of the film demoralized Henson to the extent that his son Brian Henson remembered the time of the film's release as one of the most difficult periods of his father's career. She finds Jareth and Toby in a vast. acknowledging defeat. the town clock chimes seven o' clock and Sarah remembers she has to babysit her brother Toby. As they travel Sarah and Hoggle encounter a group of goblins tormenting a gentle beast named Ludo. Sarah (Jennifer Connelly). is missing from her room. Sarah saves Ludo and travels with him but the two become separated. then leaves Sarah to start her quest. Outside the bedroom window. successfully defeating the soldiers of the goblin army who have been sent to stop them. "You have no power over me. (inspired by M. Labyrinth has since gained a strong cult following and tributes to it have been featured in magazines such as Empire and Total Film. Escher's Relativity). She rejoins Ludo and Sir Didymus. Sarah discovers she can see Hoggle and the rest of her friends in her bedroom mirror. Following her parents' departure Sarah realizes that her teddy bear. fox-like knight who guards the bridge that leads away from the bog. whose roars frighten Hoggle and lead him to flee. and the three of them approach the Goblin City that surrounds Jareth's castle. 110 Plot The film opens with a barn owl watching a teenager. She rushes home and has a confrontation with her impatient stepmother. Upon biting the peach. Hoggle offers Sarah a peach that Jareth had ordered him to give her.917 during its U. The film closes as Sarah and the creatures celebrate her victory. She advances through the labyrinth alone and overcomes a series of obstacles during her journey. She is interrupted by Jareth. The sound of a striking clock reminds Sarah that she needs to save her brother and she frees herself from the vision to resume her quest.729.Labyrinth (film) The New York Times reported that Labyrinth had a budget of $25 million. Shortly afterward they pass through the Bog of Eternal Stench where they are reunited with Ludo and add another to their party: Sir Didymus. a grumpy and obstinate dwarf who refuses to help her. Labyrinth was a box office disappointment and only grossed $12.

• Ron Mueck as the voice of Ludo • Dave Goelz and David Barclay as Sir Didymus. and Ian Thom as Firey 2 • Charles Augins as the voice of Firey 2 • Dave Goelz. and Dave Goelz as The Four Guards • Anthony Jackson. Ron Mueck. and Sherry Ammott as Firey 3 • Danny John-Jules as the voice of Firey 3 • Steve Whitmire.Labyrinth (film) 111 Cast • • • • Jennifer Connelly as Sarah Williams. David Barclay. Rob Mills. Sarah's baby half-brother. Anthony Asbury. Toby Froud as Toby Williams. an Old English Sheepdog. a kind-hearted beast. Kevin Clash. • David Shaughnessy as the voice of Sir Didymus • Steve Whitmire and Kevin Clash as Ambrosius. and Toby Philpott as Firey 1 • Kevin Clash as the voice of Firey 1 • Karen Prell. Cheryl Henson. David Shaughnessy and Timothy Bateson as the voices of The Four Guards • Kevin Clash. • Brian Henson as the voice of Hoggle • Ron Mueck and Rob Mills as Ludo. Alistair Fullarton. and Rollie Krewson as Firey 5 • Richard Bodkin as the voice of Firey 5 • Anthony Asbury as Right Door Knocker • David Healy as the voice of the Right Door Knocker • Dave Goelz as Left Door Knocker • Robert Beatty as the voice of the Left Door Knocker . a dwarf in Jareth's employ who befriends Sarah. Douglas Blackwell. Christopher Malcolm and Shelley Thompson as Sarah's father and stepmother. Creature performers • Shari Weiser as Hoggle. David Bowie as Jareth. a brave knight. • Percy Edwards as the voice of Ambrosius • Karen Prell as The Worm • Timothy Bateson as the voice of The Worm • Frank Oz as The Wiseman • Michael Hordern as the voice of The Wiseman • Dave Goelz as The Wiseman's Bird Hat • David Shaughnessy as the voice of The Wiseman's Bird Hat • Karen Prell as The Junk Lady • Denise Bryer as the voice of The Junk Lady • Steve Whitmire. a teenage girl. the Goblin King. and Kevin Bradshaw as Firey 4 • Danny John-Jules as the voice of Firey 4 • Anthony Asbury.

Mark Lisle.heavier than we had intended. Linda Spriggs. with more of a sense of comedy since Dark Crystal got kind of heavy . submitting it . and interacting more. Ian Tregonning.along with Froud's insight that goblins traditionally steal babies . 112 Influences Labyrinth features allusions to a range of literary and filmic sources. Kathryn Mullen.[5] Production Origins and script According to the film's conceptual designer Brian Froud. in which 9-year-old Ida's baby sister is stolen by the goblins. In his afterword to The Goblins of Labyrinth. Toby Clark. Katie Purvis. Sendak. Michael Quinn.provided the basis for the film's plot. The film's concept designer Brian Froud has stated that the character of Jareth was influenced by a diverse range of literary sources. Tessa Crockett. Sue Dacre. Sean Barrett. Anthony Georghiou. Jim Henson. Kerry Shale.[4] Both agreed to work on another project together. Peter Marinker. Jan King. Ron Mueck. Penny Stead. Henson explained that he and Froud "wanted to do a lighter weight picture. Mary Turner.[4] The dialogue starting with "you remind me of the babe" that occurs between Jareth and the goblins in the Magic Dance sequence in the film is a direct reference to an exchange between Cary Grant and Shirley Temple in the 1947 film The Bachelor and the Bobby-Soxer. and Froud suggested that the film should feature goblins. Douglas Blackwell. Christopher Leith. Bowie's costumes were intentionally eclectic."[6] Labyrinth was being seriously discussed as early as March 1983. drawing on the image of Marlon Brando's leather jacket from The Wild One as well as that of a knight "with the worms of death eating through his armour" from the fairy tales of the Brothers Grimm. Fiona Beynor Brown. David Showler. Gillie Robic. Now I wanted to do a film with the characters having more personality. many of which were recognized by contemporary reviewers. Robert Tygner. Christine Glanville. Kenny Baker. when Henson held a meeting with Froud and children's author Dennis Lee.Labyrinth (film) • Natalie Finland as the Fairies Juggler Michael Moschen performed Jareth's elaborate crystal-ball contact juggling manipulations. Nicholas Read. Froud "pictured a baby surrounded by goblins" and this strong visual image . Brian Henson. David Rudman. Goblins performed by Donald Austen. Andrew Herd. John Key. Martin Bridle. Nigel Plaskitt.[7] Lee was tasked with writing a novella on which a script could be based. Malcolm Dixon. Geoff Felix. Angie Passmore. On the same journey. Michael Petersen." [3] Copies of Outside Over There and Where the Wild Things Are are shown briefly in Sarah's room at the start of the film. John Bluthel. Terry Lee. Brian James. writing that "Labyrinth lures a modern Dorothy Gale out of the drab Kansas of real life into a land where the wild things are. and David Shaughnessy. Anthony Jackson. and Francis Wright. Goblins voiced by Michael Attwell. David Greenaway. Labyrinth was first discussed between himself and director Jim Henson during a limousine ride on the way back from a special screening of their 1982 fantasy film The Dark Crystal.[1] Goblin Corps performed by Marc Antona. Mak Wilson. Judy Preece. Peter Mandell. Timothy Bateson. Michael Henbury Ballan. Michael Bayliss. Warwick Davis. Richard Corliss noted that the film appeared to have been influenced by The Wizard of Oz and the works of Maurice Sendak. Jack Purvis. Peter Burroughs. Richard Jones. Simon Buckley. Brian Henson. Danny Blackner. The film also features an end credit stating that "Jim Henson acknowledges his debt to the works of Maurice Sendak". David Bulbeck. Trevor Freeborn. Froud wrote that Jareth references "the romantic figures of Heathcliff in Wuthering Heights and a brooding Rochester from Jane Eyre" and the Scarlet Pimpernel.[6] Discussing the film's origins. Ronnie Le Drew."[2] Nina Darnton wrote that the plot of Labyrinth "is very similar to Outside Over There by Mr. Robin Stevens. and Albert Wilkinson. Paul Grant.

" [9] Jones was given Dennis Lee's novella to use as a basis for his script.[12][13] At least twenty-five treatments and scripts were drafted for Labyrinth between 1983 and 1985. I always felt it fell between two stories. Jareth is overtly villainous in this draft of the script. According to Jones.' With the thought of Bowie starring in the film in mind.Labyrinth (film) at the end of 1983. and Jareth snatches him away against her will. Ally Sheedy.[8] Jim Henson approached Terry Jones to write the film's script as "his daughter Lisa had just read Erik the Viking and suggested that he try me as screen-writer.[12] According to Henson. Of these. Henson noted that he wished to "make the idea of taking responsibility for one's life ."[10] While Terry Jones is credited with writing the screenplay. and during his final confrontation with Sarah he tells her he would "much rather have a Queen" than "a little goblin prince. it was ultimately decided that the film's lead would be a teenage girl from contemporary America. Sarah does not wish for her brother to be taken away by the goblins. at different stages of its development. but it was ultimately decided it would be better to cast an American actress. Sarah Jessica Parker.[9][10] Elaine May met with Henson several months prior to the start of filming in April 1985. something Jones considered to be the "wrong" decision. Laura Phillips and Elaine May. Sheedy and Corman were considered to be the top candidates.S until January 1985. a princess from a fantasy world and a young girl from Victorian England.which is one of the neat realizations a teenager experiences . and the film's shooting script was only ready shortly before filming began. but later told Empire that Lee had produced an unfinished "poetic novella" that he "didn't really get on with. Krakowski. going to be a King whose baby had been put under an enchantment. Despite his misgivings. This draft of the script "went away for about a year. as he felt that doing so robbed the film of a significant 'hook. the author of a play she is due to perform in. Fourteen year old actress Jennifer Connelly was ultimately chosen to play Sarah after her audition on January 29. To ensure Bowie's involvement. and started creating the story from them. Marisa Tomei. May's changes "humanized the characters" and pleased Henson to the extent that they were incorporated into the film's shooting script. her blows causing him to transform into a powerless." during which time it was re-drafted first by Laura Phillips and subsequently by George Lucas. the shooting script was actually a collaborative effort that featured contributions from Henson.[11] The re-drafted script was sent to David Bowie. Connelly was chosen as she "could act that kind of dawn-twilight time between childhood and . "won Jim [Henson] over" and led him to cast her within a week." In Jones' original script. 1985. Jones "discarded it and sat down with Brian [Froud]'s drawings and sifted through them and found the ones that I really liked.a central thought of the film."[9] Jones has said that David Bowie's involvement in the project had a significant impact on the direction taken with the film. Jim Henson asked Jones to "do a bit more" to the script in order to make it more humorous." Jones has said his version of the script was "about the world. Jareth merely seems "all powerful to begin with" and is actually using the Labyrinth to "keep people from getting to his heart.[6][9] An early draft of the script attributed to Jones and Phillips is markedly different from the finished film. Henson decided he wanted Jareth to sing and appear throughout the film. Jones himself has said that the finished film differs greatly from his original vision. Monthly auditions were held in the U. and about people who are more interested in manipulating the world than actually baring themselves at all."[6] Auditions for the lead role of Sarah began in England in April 1984. Jones re-wrote the script to allow for songs to be performed throughout the film. George Lucas. and was asked to polish the script. The early script has Jareth enter Sarah's house in the guise of Robin Zakar. Yasmine Bleeth. sniveling goblin. Maddie Corman and Mia Sara all auditioned for the role. Jim wanted it to be one thing and I wanted it to be about something else. who found that it lacked humor and considered withdrawing his involvement in the project as a result.[12] 113 Casting The protagonist of the film was. Jones had originally intended for the audience not to see the center of the Labyrinth prior to Sarah's reaching it. and Jane Krakowski. Laura Dern. Helena Bonham Carter auditioned for the part." In light of this. In order to make the film more commercial." The early script ends with Sarah kicking Jareth in disgust. "I didn't feel that it was very much mine.

" Henson explained.[6] Henson eventually decided he wanted a big. and I must say that Jim gave me a completely free hand with it. and it had a lot more heart in it than many other special effects movies." . Brian Henson said that "five performers trying to get one character out of one puppet was a very tough thing. However. Veteran performers Frank Oz and Dave Goelz operated various puppets in the film.[16] "I wanted to put two characters of flesh and bone in the middle of all these artificial creatures."[14] Connelly moved to England in February 1985 in advance of the film's rehearsals. Labyrinth took five months to film. and sent him each revised draft of the film's script for his comments. In the making-of documentary Inside the Labyrinth. they find problems or they try to figure out what they're going to do with these characters.[21] The team that worked on Labyrinth was largely assembled from talent who had been involved in various other projects with the Jim Henson company. myself included.Labyrinth (film) womanhood. all sorts of things that characterize the adult world. Speaking in the Inside the Labyrinth documentary. So I was pretty hooked from the beginning. 1985. who is just now becoming aware of the responsibilities that come with growing up. Henson stated that although Jim Henson's Creature Shop had been building the puppets and characters required for around a year and a half prior to shooting. Bowie explained that "I'd always wanted to be involved in the music-writing aspect of a movie that would appeal to children of all ages. several months before filming began. which began in March. Basically [16] what it takes is a lot of rehearsing and getting to know each other. the jaw is not connected to her jaw. the most complex puppet of the production was Hoggle." Henson noted that "even if you have the characters together. Ron Mueck and Rob Mills who had all worked with Henson on Fraggle Rock."[15] The character of Jareth also underwent some significant developments during the early stages of pre-production. who had previously worked on the satirical puppet show Spitting Image. "everything came together in the last couple weeks. as well as everyone else." Speaking of the challenges involved with performing Hoggle. his disturbing aspect. 1984."[17] Henson met David Bowie in the summer of 1983 to seek his involvement. According to Henson he was originally meant to be another puppet creature in the same vein as his goblin subjects. Nothing that the face is doing has any connection with what she's doing with her face.[18] Henson continued to pursue Bowie for the role of Jareth. Sting and Michael Jackson were both considered for the part. 1985. also worked on the film. Henson showed Bowie The Dark Crystal and a selection of Brian Froud's concept drawings to pique his interest in the project. however it was ultimately decided that David Bowie would be the most suitable choice."[20] 114 Filming Labyrinth began shooting on April 15. "and David Bowie embodies a certain maturity. the puppeteers start working with them. Members of Henson's family also worked on the production. at Elstree Studios.[6][19] Discussing why he chose to be involved in the film. During a meeting that took place on June 18. Newcomers working on the production included puppeteer Anthony Asbury. Brian Henson explained that Weiser "does all the body movement and her head is inside the head. charismatic star to the play the Goblin King. who had previously been a crew member on Sesame Street. and decided to pursue a musician for the role. The other four members of the crew are all radio crew. and was a complicated shoot due to the myriad of puppets and animatronic creatures involved. including son Brian Henson and daughter Cheryl Henson.S for his Serious Moonlight Tour at the time. The script itself was terribly amusing without being vicious or spiteful or bloody."[16] Although each of the film's key puppets required a small team of puppeteers to operate it. as did Karen Prell. Kevin Clash. Shari Weiser was inside the costume. with his sexuality. while Hoggle's face was radio-controlled by Brian Henson and three other operators.[19] Bowie formally agreed to take part on February 15.[12] Discussing her understanding of her role with Elle. as Bowie was in the U. Connelly said that the film is about "a young girl growing out of her childhood.

and a new forest background was added. The most prominent of these post production effects was the computer generated owl that appears at the opening of the film. giving and taking. Bowie told Movieline "I had some initial problems working with Hoggle and the rest because. After that. 1.S. and 35 bundles of mossy old man's beard. namely North Nyack. which can slow the story. Jim Henson was unhappy with the compositing of the finished scene. They were there. and would spend time between takes suspended mid-way up the shaft. I tend to cut looser. and then George was heavily involved on bringing it to the final cut.200 turfs of grass. but from the side of the set. and required nearly a hundred performers to operate the grey. from the Shaft of Hands to the rambling. I always want to go one way. 1985. So. and go for more lyrical pauses. The film's production notes state that "the entire forest required 120 truckloads of tree branches."[22] The film required large and ambitious sets to be constructed. scaly hands integral to the scene."[20] Connelly remarked that "it was a bit strange [working almost exclusively with puppets in the film]. although he considered the puppetry featured in it worthy of inclusion. but we each took turns trading off. and George goes another way. the biggest challenge he faced was building the forest Sarah and her party pass through on their way to Jareth's Castle. The scenes of Sarah running back home were filmed in various towns in New York. I loosen up his [6] tightness. England. According to Henson.[17] Jim Henson received help editing the film from executive producer George Lucas. The sequence was created by animators Larry Yaeger and Bill Kroyer. or from behind you. stars Connelly and Bowie found it difficult to interact naturally with the puppets they shared most of their scenes with. what they say doesn't come from their mouths. "When we hit the editing.[23][24] Principal photography on Labyrinth wrapped on September 8. 133 bags of lichen."[14] While most filming was conducted at Elstree Studios.[26][27] and marked the first use of a realistic CGI animal in a film. I took it over again and did the next few months of post-production and audio. for one thing. And by the end of the film.[25] 115 Post-production Most of the visual effects in Labyrinth were achieved in camera. George tends to be very action-oriented and he cuts dialogue quite tight. distorted Goblin City where the film's climatic battle takes place. The park seen at the start of the film is West Wycombe Park in Buckinghamshire. According to Production Designer Elliot Scott. Connelly was strapped into a harness when shooting the scene.[16] The set of the Goblin City was built on Stage 6 at Thorn EMI Elstree Studios in London. but I think both Dave [Bowie] and I got over that and just took it as a challenge to work with these puppets. and he tightens my looseness. The Shaft of Hands sequence was filmed on a rig that was roughly forty feet high.[28][29] The scene where Sarah encounters the Fire Gang had to be altered in post-production as it had been filmed against black velvet cloth. Piermont and Haverstraw. a small amount of location shooting was carried out in England and the U." Henson went on to explain that "When you edit a film with somebody else you have to compromise. I did the first cut." . it wasn't a challenge anymore.Labyrinth (film) At the early stages of filming. and they were their characters. and required the largest panoramic back-cloth ever made. 850 pounds of dried leaves. with several notable exceptions.

including plush toys of Sir Didymus and Ludo.S. encountering many of the creatures seen in the film. "Thirteen O'Clock" and "Home at Last". using them alongside black-and-white shots of Bowie performing the song in an elegant room. "As the World Falls Down" and "Within You". but this plan did not materialize.[34] An hour-long making-of documentary that covered the filming of Labyrinth and included interviews with the key figures involved in its production was broadcast on television as Inside the Labyrinth. and in certain markets was also released in an instrumental version and an extended dance mix. "Chilly Down".[6][34][35] An article that appeared in The New York Times shortly after filming wrapped in September 1985 focused heavily on the film's large scale. "Magic Dance". David Bowie recorded five songs for the film: "Underground". the actors who voiced the 'Firey' creatures in the film. "Hallucination". Richard Bodkin.[31] "As the World Falls Down" was initially slated for release as a follow-up single to "Underground" in Christmas 1986.[33] Steve Barron produced promotional music videos for "Underground" and "As the World Falls Down". a board game. emphasizing the size of the production and selling Labyrinth as a more "accessible" film than The Dark Crystal due to the casting of live actors in its key roles. with articles appearing in The New York Times. saying "I think it's the best thing he could have done for the film. . Labyrinth was featured in an exhibition titled 'Jim Henson's Magic World' that was shown at the Seibu Department Store in Tokyo [40] in August 1986."[38] Ted Coconis produced a one-sheet poster for the film's North American release. "Underground" was released in various territories as a single. The clip for "As the World Falls Down" integrates clips from the film. Kevin Clash and Danny John-Jules.S. Release Promotion The production of Labyrinth was covered in multiple high-profile magazines and newspapers in anticipation of its release. which was performed by Charles Augins. "Sarah".Labyrinth (film) 116 Music The soundtrack album features Trevor Jones' score. Dallas and Chicago. including New York. first in an edited version that was played over the film's opening sequence and secondly in full. "The Goblin Battle".[39] A range of merchandise was produced to accompany the film's release.[30] "Magic Dance" was released as a 12" single in the U. "Underground" features on the soundtrack twice. An exhibition of the film's characters and sets toured across shopping malls in various cities in the U. computer game and multiple jigsaw puzzles.[37] Bowie was not heavily involved in promoting the film but Jim Henson was nonetheless grateful that he produced a music video to accompany the song "Underground" from the soundtrack. The music video for "Underground" features Bowie as a night-club singer who stumbles upon the world of the Labyrinth. Time and Starlog magazine.[32] The only song Bowie did not perform lead vocal on is "Chilly Down". which is split into six tracks for the soundtrack: "Into the Labyrinth".[36] Labyrinth was featured in music trade papers such as Billboard due to David Bowie's soundtrack for the film.

[49] In its next weekend at the box office. in a package that replicated the extras featured on the 2007 Anniversary Edition DVD. Jennifer Connelly and the animatronic creature Ludo were all present to support the film. The film was released in Denmark as Labyrinten til troldkongens slot (Labyrinth .917. 1988.A Magia do Tempo (Labyrinth . choreographer Gates McFadden and Brian Henson.[45] The 2003 re-release was described as a collector's edition. Top Gun. Brian Henson. It was released in South America next. only earning $1.[41] The film received a royal premier on December 1. and was released in Argentina under the title Laberinto on July 10.K in the same year. Home media Labyrinth was first released on home video in 1987 by Embassy Home Entertainment in the U.S. Ruthless People. Back to School. and featured a set of exclusive collectors cards that featured concept art by Brian Froud. The Blu-ray release featured one new special feature.[51] just over half of its $25 million budget.[43] The royal premier brought the film a significant level of media coverage in the U. theaters on November 28.549.S under the name of its subsidiary company. which placed it behind The Karate Kid Part II.K.K.To The Troll King's Palace) on February 20. and Princess Diana and Prince Charles represented the British royal family at the event.836. and an article that appeared in The Sun quoted Princess Diana as remarking "isn't he wonderful!" upon being introduced to Ludo. Brian Froud. 1986. All DVD releases of the film feature the Inside the Labyrinth documentary as an extra. and has since been re-released on DVD in 2003 and 2007.[46] The 2007 release was promoted an Anniversary Edition.[34] . 1986 and in Brazil as Labirinto .[44] The film was rolled out in other European countries largely between December 1986 and February 1987.[41][42] Labyrinth started playing in U. with Inside the Labyrinth included as a special feature.[48] Reaction Box office Labyrinth opened at number eight in the U. and featured a commentary by Brian Froud and two newly-produced making-of documentaries: "Journey Through the Labyrinth: Kingdom of Characters" and "Journey Through the Labyrinth: The Quest for Goblin City" which featured interviews with producer George Lucas. 1986. 1986 in London. Legal Eagles.S cinemas the film had grossed $12.Labyrinth (film) 117 Theatrical release Labyrinth received its U. Columbia Tristar. 1986.177. Australia. Jim Henson.S and by Channel 5 Video Distribution in the U. 1987. a picture-in-picture track that lasts the length of the film and features interviews with the crew and several minor cast members including Warwick Davis. 1986.S. Jennifer Connelly visited the country to promote its release. and Ferris Bueller's Day Off.K. box office charts with $3. Running Scared. Sony re-issued Labyrinth on video in 1999 in the U. and premiered in France as Labyrinthe on December 2 and in West Germany as Die Reise ins Labyrinth (The Journey into the Labyrinth) on December 13. and saw its last theatrical release in Hungary under the tile Fantasztikus labirintus (Fantastic Labyrinth) when it premiered there on July 7.243 from 1141 theaters.[41] The film was released in Japan on July 26. Labyrinth was first released on DVD in 1999 in the U.S premier on June 27.[41] In 2012 the film was digitally remastered and rereleased at the famed The Astor Theatre in Melbourne.[47] The film was released on Blu-ray in 2009.[50] By the end of its run in U.The Magic of Time) on July 24.729. the film dropped to number 13 in the charts. Labyrinth was re-issued on VHS in the U.

including the hint of sexual awakening. which uses a "weighted average" of all the critics' scores."[57] Bruce Bailey admired the film's script. It removes storyboard creations from the flat celluloid cartoon image and makes them three-dimensional.[59] Nina Darnton compared the film's tone to the writings of E. Petersburg Times praised her acting saying that "Connelly makes the entire experience seem real.[3] Jennifer Connelly's portrayal of Sarah polarized critics and received strong criticism from some reviewers.[53] On Metacritic. but Henson does it. stating that "Terry Jones has drawn on his dry wit and bizarre imagination and come up with a script that transforms these essentially familiar elements and plot structures into something that fairly throbs with new life. Hoffman. and found it successful to varying degrees. writing that "the casting of Bowie can't be faulted on any count. The result is really quite startling. She acts so naturally around the puppets that you begin to believe in their life-like qualities. which Sarah experiences too in the presence of a goblin king."[62] Bowie's performance was variously lauded and derided. Kathryn Buxton found that it had "excitement and thrills enough for audiences of all ages as well as a fun and sometimes slightly naughty sense of humour."[58] Several critics noted the film's subtext. The Dark Crystal. Mr. Jon Marlowe stated that "Connelly is simply the wrong person for the right job. the St.T."[58] In a largely critical review. He's not exactly wooden. preferring to prance around his lair while staring solemnly into the camera.[52] On Rotten Tomatoes." Roger Ebert gave the film two stars out of four as he felt that the film "never really comes alive."[56] Other critics were more positive. Critic Kirk Honeycutt referred to Connelly as "a bland and minimally talented young actress"[60] Writing for The Miami News. the film averages a 62% positive rating. writing that "adults will have the additional advantage of appreciating the story as a coming-of-age parable. Labyrinth scores 50 out of 100.A. Richard Corliss praised him as "charismatic" referring to his character as a "Kabuki sorcerer who offers his ravishing young antagonist the gilded perks of adult servitude. Henson uses the art of puppetry to create visual effects that until very recently were possible to attain only with animation. The technique makes animation seem dull and old-fashioned by comparison." Siskel objected to the film's "violent" plot. In his largely positive review of the film. robbing the film of any dramatic tension.[54] While acknowledging that Labyrinth was made with "infinite care and pains." Bailey was also impressed by the film's depth." — Nina Darnton of The New York Times on Labyrinth's technical achievements.Labyrinth (film) 118 Critical reception "As he did with less success in The Dark Crystal." "much too complicated plot" and a "visually ugly style. [3] The film received mixed reviews from critics." Darton enjoyed the film and considered it to be more successful than Henson's previous collaboration with Brian Froud. stating that Hoffman's The Nutcracker "is also about the voyage to womanhood. so that they actually come alive and interact with living people. an anonymous review in St. and he referred to it as an "awful" film with a "pathetic story."[62] The film's mixed reviews and poor box office takings demoralized Jim Henson to the extent that his son Brian remembered the time of the film's release as being "the closest I've seen him to turning in on himself and getting quite depressed. Saw Tek Meng acknowledged that "Sarah's experiences in the labyrinth are symbolic of her transition from child to woman" but ultimately found the film "too linear" for its latent themes to come through. writing that "the sight of a baby in peril is one of sleaziest gimmicks a film can employ to gain our attention. He has just the right look for a creature who's the object of both loathing and secret desire.[63] . She has a squeaky voice that begins to grate on you. when she cries."[2] Bruce Bailey enjoyed Bowie's performance." It would be the last feature film directed by Henson before his death in 1990. Plastic might be a more accurate description." Ebert said that as the film was set in an "arbitrary world" none of the events in it had any consequences. Petersburg Times found that "Bowie forgoes acting."[61] Contrary to these negative views.[55] Gene Siskel's review of Labyrinth for the Chicago Tribune was highly negative. you can see the onions in her eyes.

It's on TV all the time and I guess I pretty much look the same.[73][74] Labyrinth has a significant Internet fandom. with cover art by [78] Return to Labyrinth follows the adventures of Toby as a teenager. is developing a prequel comic book about the story of how Jareth became the Goblin King. A review from 2000 in Empire magazine called the film "a fabulous fantasy" and wrote that "David Bowie cuts a spooky enough figure in that fright wig to fit right in with this extraordinary menagerie of Goth Muppets.[67] David Bowie told an interviewer in 1992 that "every Christmas a new flock of children comes up to me and says.[40] Since 1997. Fanfiction.[10] 119 Legacy Despite its poor performance at the American box office. David Bowie is being approached by Archaia Comics in order to seek permission to use . Fantasy author Neil Gaiman and artist Dave McKean were called in to write and direct a film similar in spirit to Labyrinth. vibrant daydream. Michael Wilmington described Labyrinth as "dazzling. originally planned as a trilogy. Labyrinth's main strength lies in its fairytale roots.[76] The decision was ultimately taken to avoid making a direct sequel." While it is still in the early stages of development.[67] and Curse of the Goblin King was briefly used as a place-holder title. 2009. And Jennifer Connelly. Tokyopop. when he is tricked into Kouyu Shurei. in partnership with The Jim Henson Company. Labyrinth has been re-evaluated by several notable critics. was being extended to include a fourth volume. which was first released in a single volume as Marvel Super Special #40."[66] In their February 2012 issue.[79] The first volume was released August 8. CA. 'Oh! you're the one who's in Labyrinth!'"[68] In 1997.Net hosts 7263 stories in its Labyrinth section. In other media Since the initial release of the film. with a second following on October 9. Labyrinth was a success on home video and later on DVD. saying that "he was able to see all that and know that it was appreciated. was published by Marvel Comics. which give the fantastical story a platform from which to launch into some deliriously outlandish scenarios.Labyrinth (film) Since Jim Henson's death. in collaboration with The Jim Henson Company. an absolutely gorgeous children's fantasy movie. 2012."[64] Writing for the Chicago Tribune in 2007. Jennifer Connelly said "I still get recognized for Labyrinth by little girls in the weirdest places. which is currently out of print. and instead produce a fantasy film with a similar atmosphere." writing that it is "a real masterpiece of puppetry and special effects. In an afterword to the second volume.C. editor Tim Beedle announced that the series. Empire featured a four page spread on Labyrinth as part of their Muppet Special. makes for an appealingly together kind of heroine. 2006."[65] In 2010 Total Film ran a feature called 'Why We Love Labyrinth' which described Labyrinth as a "hyper-real."[71] Academic Andrea Wright wrote that Labyrinth has managed to maintain audience popularity long after its initial release to a greater extent than The Dark Crystal. returning to the Labyrinth by Jareth. there are plans for the novel to integrate music into the plot in some way. published a manga-style four-volume comic called Return to Labyrinth."[69] Labyrinth has become a cult film. illustrated by Chris Lie.H.[70] Brian Henson remembered his father Jim Henson as being aware that Labyrinth and The Dark Crystal both had cult followings by the time of his death in 1990. and MirrorMask was ultimately released in selected theaters in 2005 after premiering at the Sundance [67] Film Festival. Forbes. 2010. Archaia Entertainment. an annual two-day masquerade ball called the "The Labyrinth of Jareth [72]" where revelers come dressed in costumes inspired by the film has been held in Hollywood. and as of February 4. The fourth and final volume of Return to Labyrinth was released on August 3. still in the flush of youth. The film was novelized by A. 2007 and a third on May 1. Smith as Labyrinth: A Novel Based On The Jim Henson Film. I can't believe they still recognize me from that movie. Labyrinth has been translated to other forms of media.[80] Project editor Stephen Christy has stated the graphic novel will be a "tragic story.[75] The strong DVD sales of Labyrinth prompted rights-holders the Jim Henson Company and Sony Pictures to look into making a sequel. written by Jake T.[77] A three-issue comic book adaptation.

. Retrieved January 26. Jim Henson (writer) (1986). 2012. 2011). MichaelMoschen. com/ 2009/ 05/ 07/ scenes-we-love-the-bachelor-and-the-bobby-soxer/ ). 2012. Teen Idols Mania!. Retrieved January 26. Starlog 10 (109): 44–48. and ascertain if he wishes to have any involvement in the project. Ecran Fantastique. com/ go/ writing/ moviepeople/ archivedicon/ jennifer_article2. Retrieved March 3. 2012. 2012. Archived from on January 28. [12] Henson. Froud will be producing covers for the series. Jim's Red Book. org/ labyrnth/ script. Alain (February 1987). Jim's Red Book. Adam (August 1986).Labyrinth (film) his likeness.'" (http:/ / www. 2012. henson. . [7] Henson. "Lights. time. net/ realm/ ?p=27). [19] Henson. "1/29/1985 – 'Jennifer Connelly auditions for Labry. "Nice to Have Gnome You". com/ jimsredbook/ 2011/ 01/ 29/ 1291985/ ). com/ 2011/ 08/ jm_rocklandfilmlocations/ ). Nina (June 27.9171. "Scenes We Love: The Bachelor and the Bobby-Soxer" (http:/ / blog. 2011). Elle. 2012. Astrolog. and I begin talking about Labyrinth in London'" (http:/ / www. henson. 2011). Michael (June 1986). com/ movie/ review?res=9a0de5dc1139f934a15755c0a960948260). 1986). . 2009). [6] Pirani. a Muppet Babies episode with a similar plot. Jim's Red Book. 468-469 2151985/ ). Owen (2012).[83] The film was also adapted for Commodore 64 and Apple II video game consoles in 1986 as "Labyrinth: The Computer Game". html). com/ jimsredbook/ 2011/ 03/ 28/ 3281983/ ). "SCREEN: JIM HENSON'S 'LABYRINTH'" (http:/ / movies. Jim (March 28. [20] Anonymous (June 12. Camera. Retrieved January 20. 2012. Empire (272): 100–103.com. about his newest film. Henson.com. Dawn (May 7. 2012.com. 1985).. Retrieved January 20. moviefone. 139-153 [5] Taylor. com/ ~almeath/ jc_old/ elle86. . Retrieved January 21. [23] Unknown (September 17. "Cinema: Walt's Precocious Progeny" (http:/ / www. com/ bio. [3] Darnton. "Labyrinth-Filming Locations" (http:/ / labyrinthlocations. Labyrinth" (http:/ / oddpla. com/ jimsredbook/ 2011/ 02/ 26/ 2261985/ ). "1/29/1985 – 2/26/1985 – 'Meet Elaine May on Labyr. Henson. Retrieved January 8. 2012. 2012. pp. blogspot." (http:/ / www. 2012. 2011). "Jennifer Connelly . com/ jimsredbook/ 2011/ 02/ 15/ . 2012. Shaft of Hands. 1986). Jim (February 15. org/ labyrnth/ product. "3/28/1983 – 'Dennis Lee – Brian F.[82] In addition to these print media tie-ins. 209-210 [10] Williams. [24] Miller. "Playing Hooky" (http:/ / www. 1985). Los Angeles: Jim Henson Television. Archived from on January 26. henson. incorporates clips from the film and features Miss Piggy going on a quest to recover her copy of Alice's Adventures In Wonderland. Retrieved January 21. 2012. nytimes.[81] Archaia released a Labyrinth short story titled Hoggle and the Worm for Free Comic Book Day on May 5. . 2012.00.'" (http:/ / www. Movieline: 14. Henson. . Jim's Red Book. The New York Times. "5/5/1985 – 'To Amsterdam – (Filming Labyrinth) – Forest – Wild Things. Retrieved January 21. pp. . 2012. [15] Sauter. eftel. astrolog. [16] Des Saunders (director).com.org. html). com/ time/ magazine/ article/ 0. nyacknewsandviews. Jim (May 5. Jon (August 2. com/ jimsredbook/ 2011/ 05/ 05/ 551985/ ). [2] Corliss. as well as character designs. A sketch features an older Toby Williams (voiced by Seth Green) visiting a therapist (voiced by Maurice LaMarche) where he tells the therapist of the trauma he had when Jareth had him captive and did a "Magic Dance" at the time when Jareth had an erection. AOL. [22] Dickholtz. .com. Cast within a week. under the title Labyrinth: Maō no Meikyū. Retrieved January 20.org. Time Magazine. [8] Henson. pp. com/ jimsredbook/ 2010/ 12/ 27/ 12-1983/ ). Jim (February 26. Jim (December 1983). rattlebeak. Henson. henson.com. 1985). Astrolog.I Love to Do Daring Things!" (http:/ / www. "Dance Magic Dance: 25 Years Of Labyrinth". michaelmoschen. . moviefone. astrolog. [17] Schlockoff. 2012.. Retrieved January 20. Henson. Retrieved January 20. henson. [11] "LABYRINTH: by Laura Phillips and Terry Jones" (http:/ / www. txt). . 2012. txt).[81] Brian Froud is serving as a creative consultant on the project. . [21] Henson. . Daniel (1986). Retrieved January 13. "Part Two: Into the Labyrinth with Jim Henson". Retrieved January 28. "Jim Henson Interview".'" (http:/ / www.961696. [13] Henson. Richard (July 7. [18] Pegg (2002). [14] "Labyrinth Production Notes" (http:/ / www. html). Piermont and Rockland" (http:/ / www. Jim's Red Book. "12/-/1983 – 'End of December – Dennis Lee hands in "Novella" of Labyrinth'" (http:/ / www. . [9] Howard (1993). Different versions were also released in Japan the following year for the Family Computer and MSX consoles. Inside the Labyrinth (Televised Documentary). . Retrieved January 25. Jim's Red Book.[85] 120 Notes [1] "Michael Moschen Official Biography" (http:/ / www. Action in Nyack. henson. . . html). [4] Froud (2006). The therapist then recreates the event in order to cure Toby of this trauma. 2012. .[84] Labyrinth was parodied in the Robot Chicken episode "Eviscerated Post-Coitol by a Six Foot Mantis" with Jareth voiced by Seth Green. Nyack News and Views. Jim (January 29. com/ ). 2012. "3/28/1983 – 2/15/1985 – 'Bowie's deal is set. 1986). "Bowie talks. Retrieved January 28.

Technical Committee--Computer Graphics (July 27–31. Retrieved January 25. 2012. . com/ apps/ pbcs. jimhensonlegacy. html). boxofficemojo. com). "'STAR WARS' AND MUPPET WIZARDS TEAM UP IN 'LABYRINTH'" (http:/ / www. . 1986" (http:/ / www. 2012. "12/1/1985 – 'Back to UK – re-shoot Hoggle'" (http:/ / www. 2007). . "Soundtrack Fastlane Already Facing Congestion As Labels Strengthen Crossover Links In Marketing Chain" (http:/ / books. 2010). Retrieved February 3. dll/ article?AID=/ 19860627/ REVIEWS/ 606270302/ ). Retrieved January 21.com. 3. Jim (December 1. 2012. Retrieved January 25. 2012. Rogerebert. 2004). Roger (June 27. 2012. Andrea (2005). June 26. Henson. htm Boxofficemojo. htm). [38] "Untitled Article". Jamie (September 25. . Colin (August 29. 1987). [37] McGowan. Retrieved January 25. The Los Angeles Times. Robert S. "Selling the Fantastic". Billboard 99 (25). 2012.00. 2012. [29] SIGGRAPH. 2012. Jim's Red Book. com/ reviews/ 38419/ labyrinth/ ). 121 . ACM SIGGRAPH 87: Course Notes. Archived from on February 3. 1985). 2012. [31] Pegg (2002). IEEE Computer Society. December 2. [51] "Labyrinth" (http:/ / www. jenniferconnelly. Retrieved October 21. [39] "Labyrinth / one sheet / USA" (http:/ / www. [43] Henson. nytimes. us/ larryy/ cgi. . Muppet Wiki. Retrieved January 25. Box Office Mojo. "Labyrinth (1986)" (http:/ / www. net/ coppermine_gallery/ thumbnails. 2012. EMI. com/ time/ magazine/ article/ 0. 2010. 2012. 2012. 1985" (http:/ / www. Chris (June 21. Retrieved January 20. p. 2012. [53] "Labyrinth (1986)" (http:/ / members. Larry.Labyrinth (film) [25] Henson. [35] Murphy. com/ movie/ labyrinth). Retrieved January 25. [54] "Labyrinth" (http:/ / www. "12/1/1986 – 'Royal Premier Labyrinth – UK – Party at Elephant on River – then to Amsterdam. 2012. com/ wiki/ Labyrinth_(video)). Shelia (June 26. com/ m/ labyrinth/ ). . 23. 2012. . 2012.com. [36] "Jim Henson Time Line" (http:/ / www.959937. Paris. Retrieved February 4. "Visualization of natural phenomena". [52] Benson. Retrieved February 3. Archived from on January 25. [34] Hartmetz. com/ posters/ labyrinth-one-sheet-usa/ ). Time Magazine (Time Inc. imdb. 2012. DVDTalk. "Labyrinth (Blu-ray)" (http:/ / www. Stikky Media. [48] Tyner. Retrieved January 28. [30] McDonald. html). . [27] Wolff. Archived from on January 28. Film On Paper. [47] Jacobson. latimes. Archived from on February 3. [40] Wright.). 1986). . imdb. Retrieved January 25. php?option=com_content& view=category& layout=blog& id=7& Itemid=400006). 70–71. 2009). com/ 1/ post/ 2011/ 10/ memories-of-diana-beauty-meets-a-right-beast. 2012. 2012. slantmagazine. 2012. henson.June 27-29. amazon. Retrieved January 13. Archived from on February 3. 2012. . html?pagewanted=all). pp. Archived from on January 28. "A Brief. Archived from on February 4. html). p. . com/ jimsredbook/ 2011/ 12/ 01/ 1211986/ ). 2012. 2012. Archived from on July 14. . . rottentomatoes. google. "A History of CGI in Movies" (http:/ / www. . [28] Vreeswijk.com. . 2012. "Labyrinth: Collector's Edition Box Set" (http:/ / www. suntimes. Adam (September 29. Retrieved January 25. "Labyrinth" (http:/ / rogerebert. 2012. [49] "Weekend Box Office . The Sun. . "Labyrinth: Anniversary Edition (1986)" (http:/ / dvdmg. 2012. princess-diana-remembered. 1986). 1986. DVD Movie Guide.9171. Retrieved January 28. com/ movies/ ?id=labyrinth. Jim Henson Legacy. boxofficemojo. dvdtalk. Madrid. shtml). Box Office Mojo. beanblossom. time. 1985). [45] "Labyrinth (video)" (http:/ / muppet. com/ weekend/ chart/ ?yr=1986& wknd=26& p=. Allmusic. Retrieved July 14. com/ 1986-06-26/ entertainment/ ca-21515_1_great-lengths). [44] "Beauty meets a right Beast!" (http:/ / www. The Jennifer Connelly Center.com. [55] Ebert. Simon. . 2012. boxofficemojo. . metacritic. David Bowie. Slant Magazine. Rotten Tomatoes. . Retrieved January 25. htm). 2012. 1986. Retrieved February 3. Archived from on February 3. Archived from on February 3.com. Retrieved January 28. . 119 [32] Pegg (2002). TELOS: The electronic library of science 1: 186. Yaeger. Retrieved February 3. News Corporation. The New York Times (The New York Times Company). Retrieved February 4. com/ dvd/ review/ labyrinth-collectors-edition-box-set/ 291). php?album=96). 2012. Steve. 2012. 26 [33] "Labyrinth Liner Notes".July 4-6. Eric (February 3. 2011). The University of California. Retrieved February 3. [50] "Weekend Box Office . Retrieved February 3. com/ labyrinthanniversary. Indiana University. "People: Sep. 1986. Jim (December 1. Copenhagen'" (http:/ / www. . com/ weekend/ chart/ ?view=& yr=1986& wknd=27& p=. 2012. [26] Yaeger. . stikkymedia. Early History of Computer Graphics in Film" (http:/ / www. 2012. 2012.com. 2012. henson. Aljean (September 15. Sunday Star News. 14th Annual Conference on Computer Graphics and Interactive Techniques. [46] Henderson. com/ album/ labyrinth-1986-r115341). Archived from on January 25. filmonpaper. The Jim Henson Legacy. in. 1986). Archived from on January 28. . Larry (1993). 1986" (http:/ / www. Journal of British Cinema and Television 2 (2). [41] "Release Dates For Labyrinth" (http:/ / www. Inc. com/ title/ tt0091369/ releaseinfo). . com/ jimsredbook/ 2010/ 12/ 01/ 1211985/ ). org/ index. wikia. Archived from on February 3. com/ 1985/ 09/ 15/ arts/ star-wars-and-muppet-wizards-team-up-in-labyrinth. 2012. com/ articles/ a-history-of-cgi-in-movies). Jim's Red Book. Metacritic. allmusic. Labyrinth (Liner Notes). uk/ books?id=gyQEAAAAMBAJ& dq=bowie+ labyrinth+ soundtrack& source=gbs_navlinks_s). Box Office Mojo. "Movie Review : Going To Great Lengths In A Trying 'Labyrinth'" (http:/ / articles. [42] "Promotion Film Labyrinth" (http:/ / www. co. 2012.

Empire. . A. Retrieved May 6. co. "Shawn Strider: Labyrinth of Jareth" (http:/ / www. 2012). Jonah (August 6. html). 2012). Retrieved January 25. "Labyrinth: Review" (http:/ / www. . "Return to Labyrinth Vol. 2010). (September 11. Retrieved January 25. [67] Weiland. mania. Bruce (July 3. com/ nes/ 578368-labyrinth-maou-no-meikyuu). The Spokesman. [63] Harrigan. [62] Anonymous (June 27. . "Yellow Brick Road Revisited". Jon (June 27. Retrieved January 25. 2012. Fanfiction. Saw Tek (June 27. labyrinthmasquerade. com/ 2007-06-15/ entertainment/ 0706130779_1_goblin-king-movie-ron-mueck). Stylus Magazine. 2010). Moveline 3 (7). 2007). Josh (May 13. [84] "Labyrinth: Maou no Meikyuu" (http:/ / www. [66] Winning. . com/ 1986-06-30/ features/ 8602160766_1_labyrinth-baby-brother-david-bowie). com/ ?page=article& id=3869). htm). [80] Flood.. [75] "Movies" (http:/ / www. com/ cgi-bin/ article. 1986). Jen (October 26.. stylusmagazine. Labyrinth". . "Henson's fantasy Labyrinth takes cues from the classic". "Bowie at the Bijou". [60] Honeycutt. DTL& ao=all). [61] Marlowe. LA Weekly Magazine. ign. uk/ books/ 2012/ jan/ 09/ labyrinth-graphic-novel-prequel). 2006). "Exclusive First Look at RETURN TO LABYRINTH Manga Cover" (http:/ / www. .com. 2012. html). [72] http:/ / www. "Labyrinth is a Fairy-Tale Movie That Grown-Ups Can Believe In". 2012. 1986). Retrieved January 28. [77] Smith (1986) [78] Forbes. [82] Connelly. 2007. [70] Sparrow. "Staying power is true magic of Henson's 'Dark Crystal'" (http:/ / www. "Return to Labyrinth". gamefaqs. 2012. 2004).Labyrinth (film) [56] Siskel. com/ reviews/ reviewcomplete. [76] Cameron. ew. IGN. com/ articles/ movie_review/ mirrormask. Retrieved January 28. . "Labyrinth Review". Starlog (242). Jake T. . [65] Wilmington. sfgate. . Ian (2000).EXCLUSIVE" (http:/ / shelf-life. Archived from on February 4. Petersburg Times. 1986). Muppet Wiki. "Putting on the "Mirrormask": Executive Producer Michael Polis on the film" (http:/ / www. Kathryn (July 2. Entertainment Weekly. "'Labyrinth' movie review: 3 stars" (http:/ / articles. shtml). 2012. com/ around-town/ events/ Labyrinth-Masquerade-Attracts-Merry-Fairies. The Palm Beach Post. [79] Schneider. Virginia (1992). [64] Nathan. [69] Spelling. SFGate. Mania. San Francisco Chronicle. London: The Guardian. "Why We Love. 2012. [57] Buxton. com/ wiki/ Dance_Magic_Dance 122 . . Retrieved January 25. laweekly. [58] Bailey. com/ 2012/ 01/ 08/ for-david-bowies-birthday-preview-of-archaias-next-labyrinth-comic-news-of/ ). Retrieved February 4. com/ wiki/ Episode_805:_Nice_to_Have_Gnome_You). 2012. "For David Bowie's Birthday: A Preview Of Archaia's Next Labyrinth Comic. Stephen (July 1990). com/ exclusive-first-look-return-to-labyrinth-manga-cover_article_51279. [71] Hartlaub. Karl (May 18. com/ 2010-05-20/ la-life/ shawn-strider-labyrinth-of-jareth/ ). Ian (1997). asp?DVDID=5689). 2012. "Damsel in the Dark". "'Labyrinth' graphic novel prequel to answer. San Francisco. "Bowie's trapped in Labyrinth". Chicago Tribune. 1986). comicbookresources. Retrieved January 25. 2007. NBC Los Angeles. com [73] Ohanesian. bleedingcool. . Game FAQs. Kirk (June 27. [83] "Episode 805: Nice to Have Gnome You" (http:/ / muppet. nbclosangeles. . "Labyrinth gets graphic novel prequel" (http:/ / www. "Quality gets lost in Labyrinth". 2012. 1986). Alysia Gray (Jul 15. . 2012. Bleeding Cool. 2006). The Miami News. 'Who was the Goblin King?' -. The Montreal Gazette. 2005). empireonline. 2012. And Talk Of Another" (http:/ / www. wikia. [74] Painter. Liz (May 20. ISBN 978-1-59816-725-2. Alison (January 9. Retrieved January 26.. 2010). 1986). html). [85] http:/ / robotchicken. [59] Meng. Retrieved January 25. cgi?f=/ c/ a/ 2007/ 06/ 25/ DDG56QKBCU1. Michael (June 15. com/ articles/ 732/ 732053p1. Gene (June 30. "Movie Review: Mirrormask" (http:/ / www. net/ movie/ ). LIFE. [68] Campbell.net. Retrieved January 25. St. chicagotribune. Lie. . . 2012. 2012. 2006).E. chicagotribune. "It's Not Easy Being Blue" (http:/ / www. Peter (June 25. fanfiction. "Jim Henson`s Wizardry Lost In `Labyrinth`" (http:/ / articles. California: TokyoPop. wikia. muppetcentral. New Strait Times. Chicago Tribune. [81] Gartler. Retrieved July 10. . Retrieved January 28. ""Labyrinth" Masquerade Attracts Merry Fairies" (http:/ / www. . 1986). 2007). Examiner. Chris (August 8.com. Brendon. James (January 6. guardian. com/ 2012/ 01/ 06/ labyrinth-graphic-novel-prequel/ ). 1 Review" (http:/ / comics. Total Film. com/ articles/ tributes/ henson/ hensonarticle6.

C. New York: Henry Holt.com/movies/?id=labyrinth. ISBN 0-312-08695-4. Life Before And After Monty Python. Labyrinth: A Novel Based On The Jim Henson Film.org/web/*/http://www. Brian.rottentomatoes. Terry (2006).Labyrinth (film) 123 References • • • • Froud.com/movies/movie/v28019) at AllRovi Labyrinth (http://www.com/title/tt0091369/) at the Internet Movie Database Labyrinth (http://www. New York: Plexus.boxofficemojo.htm) at Box Office Mojo Labyrinth (http://www. External links • • • • • • • Labyrinth (http://www. Howard.metacritic. Smith.com/movie/labyrinth) at Metacritic Muppet Wiki: Labyrinth Official Return to Labyrinth manga site (http://wayback.tokyopop. ISBN 978-0-03-007322-9.allrovi.imdb. Pegg. (1986).com/ product/1712) from Tokyopop . Goblins of the Labyrinth. The Complete David Bowie. Nicholas (2002). ISBN 1-903111-40-4.archive.com/m/labyrinth/) at Rotten Tomatoes Labyrinth (http://www. Jones. A. Kim (1993).H. ISBN 978-0-8109-7055-7. London: Reynolds & Hearn Ltd. New York: Abrams.

While having a barbecue at the abandoned youth center construction site with Lisa. Carpenter) is chased through the construction site of the youth center he had planned on building by the Leprechaun. the quartet of friends use it to fulfill their fantasies. unaware that by taking the gold they have released the Leprechaun. Father Jacob (Willie C. but it must be denied as it will come at a great price and summon a terrible evil. Using four-leaf clover laced holy water Jacob manages to banish the Leprechaun. all except one (Warwick Davis) who remained in the mortal world and through the ages slowly became corrupted and obsessed with the treasure he still guarded. their stoner friend Jamie Davis (Page Kennedy) and her ex-boyfriend-turned-drug dealer Rory Jackson (Laz Alonso). . in 2003. The sixth installment of the Leprechaun series. taking one of his coins at a party held by Jamie.Leprechaun: Back 2 tha Hood 124 Leprechaun: Back 2 tha Hood Leprechaun: Back 2 tha hood Promotional poster Directed by Produced by Steven Ayromlooi Peter Block Phyllis Cedar Mike Upton Steven Ayromlooi Warwick Davis Tangi Miller Laz Alonso Page Kennedy Michael Whittaker Stephen H. summoning demonic hands which drag him underground. have their fortune told when the clairvoyant Esmeralda (Donzaleigh Abernathy) who warns them that they will attain great wealth soon. the film has the villainous Leprechaun rampaging through a town looking for his gold. In the present. Emily Woodrow (Tangi Miller) and Lisa Duncan (Sherrie Jackson). He will hunt and kill to retrieve his pot of gold. After the death of the king the Leprechauns returned to their places of origin. two friends. Sloaa Lions Gate Entertainment Written by Starring Music by Editing by Studio Distributed by Lions Gate Films Release date(s) 30 December 2003 Running time Country Language 87 minutes United States English Leprechaun: Back 2 tha Hood is a 2003 American direct-to-video comedy horror film written and directed by Steven Ayromlooi. Plot The film opens with an animated prologue revealing the origins of leprechauns. which was stolen by a group of urban youths who are using it to fulfill their wildest dreams. who begins stalking the group (killing a guest by impaling his chest with a bong. stating that they were summoned by a king to protect his gold. in the year 2000. Evenly splitting up the gold. Three years later. but soon after drops dead of injuries inflicted by the Leprechaun during the fight. Emily falls through a hole and discovers the Leprechaun's gold in an old tunnel where it was hidden by Father Jacob. whose gold Jacob had taken to fund the building project.

Believing the Leprechaun is dead. Emily returns to Rory. but distracts him long enough for Emily to hit the Leprechaun with the chest of coins. The movie then cuts back to the animated prologue like the one at the beginning. Emily taunts him by throwing some of his gold into nearby wet cement and lures him into the ruins of the youth center. who rush to get to Lisa's. after killing a regular customer. and Esmeralda dies in a magical duel with the Leprechaun. Followed to the roof of the building. while Emily. though before the Leprechaun can kill him. Watson and his gang are all disposed of by the Leprechaun. When the Leprechaun arrives. Searching for Rory the Leprechaun stops by his house and kills Rory's profligate girlfriend Chanel (Keesha Sharp) by tearing out her upper jaw. sending him plummeting off the rooftop and into the wet cement below. the Leprechaun taunts her. Emily is attacked and chased outside by the Leprechaun. but is killed when the Leprechaun claws her in the stomach. led by Watson (Shiek Mahmud-Bey) and Cedric (Sticky Fingaz). Rory runs out of bullets. Rory and Emily are given the chance to run with the gold when the Leprechaun is distracted by Jamie. who is quickly wounded with a baseball bat to the leg. Knocking Emily off the roof and leaving her barely holding on. and the Leprechaun digs himself out of the ground. reclaiming the gold she used to make a tooth while Rory and Emily are stopped and harassed by Officers Thompson (Beau Billingslea) and Whitaker (Chris Murray). attacks Emily. While Emily and Jamie want to return the gold. leaving a cliffhanger ending. where she tosses his gold into a furnace before knocking the Leprechaun in with it. who had fixed his gun. only for the recovered Leprechaun to renew his attack on them. but is saved when Rory has a change of heart and comes back for her. Emily and Rory escape and regroup with Jamie. Planning on executing Rory for infringing on their territory. who barely escapes and warns Rory and the recently released Jamie. but is shot several times in the middle of his speech by Rory. Rory and Jamie drive off in Watson's car (which the Leprechaun latches to the bottom of for a short while) and go looking for help from Esmeralda. Doria. where the Leprechaun sinks and becomes trapped with his gold. At the salon where Emily works the Leprechaun sneaks in and. Rory laces the hollow-point bullets of his gun with clovers Jamie finds in the marijuana Rory had earlier sold him. Rory shoots him several times with the clover bullets. shortly after realizing Rory is gone. Shooting the Leprechaun repeatedly. only for his gun to jam before he can finish the Leprechaun off. Advised to use four-leaf clovers against the Leprechaun by Esmeralda. Lisa is attacked by the Leprechaun and manages to fight him off for a short while. with her friends finding her body moments later. on the massage table by breaking her neck. After the Leprechaun appears and kills the two officers.Leprechaun: Back 2 tha Hood prompting the police to temporarily arrest him). Rory tries fighting the Leprechaun and is knocked out. Rory does not and takes off with it. 125 Cast • • • • • • • • • • • • • Warwick Davis as The Leprechaun Tangi Miller as Emily Woodrow Laz Alonso as Rory Jackson Page Kennedy as Jamie Davis Sherrie Jackson as Lisa Duncan Donzaleigh Abernathy as Esmeralda Shiek Mahmud-Bey as Watson Sticky Fingaz as Cedric Keesha Sharp as Chanel Sonya Eddy as Yolanda Beau Billingslea as Officer Thompson Chris Murray as Officer Whitaker Vickilyn Reynolds as Doria . In her house. only to be confronted by a machine gun wielding group of Rory's drug-dealing rivals.

Rotten Tomatoes. [2] "Leprechaun . though executives at Lions Gate had director and writer Steven Ayromlooi change the location of the film to an urban environment like the previous entry in the series.imdb. and currently holds a 25% approval rating on movie review aggregator website Rotten Tomatoes.[2] In its "25 Worst Sequels Ever Made" article Entertainment Weekly named the film the third worst sequel of all time. ew. this is it.Back 2 Tha Hood . Retrieved 25 July 2012. External links • Leprechaun: Back 2 tha Hood (http://www. based on eight reviews. Carpenter as Father Jacob 126 Filming The original setting for the film was a tropical island in the midst of spring break.com" (http:/ / www.Leprechaun: Back 2 tha Hood • Willie C.[1] Reception The film was panned by critics. com/ ew/ article/ 0. . "if a movie could spark a race riot.1169126_24.00. html)."[3] References [1] Leprechaun: Back 2 tha Hood DVD commentary. .com. [3] "The 25 Worst Sequels Ever Made | EW. Retrieved 3 August 2012..Rotten Tomatoes" (http:/ / www. writing. rottentomatoes.com/title/tt0339294/) at the Internet Movie Database . ew. com/ m/ leprechaun_back_2_tha_hood/ ).

(Anthony Montgomery). After killing some people.Leprechaun: In the Hood 127 Leprechaun: In the Hood Leprechaun: In the Hood Promotional poster Directed by Produced by Rob Spera Bruce David Eisen Darin Spillman Mike Upton Mark Jones Doug Hall Jon Huffman William Wells Alan Reynolds Rob Spera Doug Hall Warwick Davis Ice-T Nicholas Rivera Written by Screenplay by Story by Starring Music by Cinematography Michael Mickens Editing by Studio Distributed by Release date(s) Running time Country Language J. and Butch stare in horror.'s home. The Leprechaun reaches the three friends at Postmaster P. The duo then goes upstairs to find the Leprechaun who wants the dragged up Postmaster P to give him .J. Postmaster P then disenchants the Zombie Fly Girls by having them smoke one of the joints laced with clovers. the Leprechaun kills Stray Bullet by making him shoot himself in the mouth with his own pistol while Postmaster P. When the rap artists and the Leprechaun engage in a fight. Jackson Trimark Pictures Trimark Pictures 28 March 2000 90 min United States English Leprechaun: In the Hood is a 2000 American comedy horror film directed by Rob Spera and the fifth entry in the Leprechaun series. It was the last entry to be released by Trimark Pictures. such as a Reverend. Stray Bullet (Rashaan Nall) and Butch (Red Grant) accidentally free a Leprechaun that was imprisoned by record producer Mac Daddy O'Nassas (Ice-T) 20 years earlier. Butch visits Postmaster P at his grandma's house and convinces him to use a joint laced with clovers to strip the Leprechaun of his powers in order to steal back the flute. which places listeners of its tune in an euphoric trance. The Leprechaun hunts the friends in order to recover his magic flute. It was released straight to video on 28 March 2000. some DJ artists and a hot girl. Plot Wannabe Los Angeles rap artists Postmaster P. In order to gain entry they dress in drag. and Butch then visit the club in which the Leprechaun has taken up residence. Postmaster P.

killing him. The camera pans to the front row. Postmaster P then distracts the Leprechaun. the Leprechaun smokes the clover laced joint and passes out. Postmaster P retaliates by shooting Mac Daddy three times. Smith Rashaan Nall as Stray Bullet Red Grant as Butch Dan Martin as Jackie Dee Lobo Sebastian as Fontaine Rivera Ivory Ocean as Reverend Hanson Jack Ong as Chow Yung Pi Bleu Davinci as Slug Bebe Drake as Mrs. allowing the bullet-ridden Mac Daddy to hit the Leprechaun with a wooden chair. The movie ends with the Leprechaun rapping about being an evil Irish Leprechaun. in which the Leprechaun sits wearing the same glasses as Postmaster P. the Leprechaun comes downstairs and uses magic to pin Postmaster P against a girder. Perkins as Jackie Cee Daya Vaidya as Zombie Fly Girl #1 Chloe Hunter as Zombie Fly Girl #2 Lori J. He removes the sunglasses to show that his irises glow a neon green indicating that he is under the Leprechaun's spell. Jones as Zombie Fly Girl #3 Eric Mansker as Bodyguard Steven M. The rap artists take the flute and head downstairs where Mac Daddy shoots Butch. Mac Daddy throws the magic amulet in the air. Cut to a dark stage with much fog and a silhouetted Postmaster P rapping about how he's finally made it. No longer under the effects of clover. Before proceeding any further. Immediately. Porter as Berry Grady James Boyd III as J-Money Chrystee Pharris as Matty (deleted scene) Diana Terranova as Leprechaun's Girl Derrick White as Church Man #1 Coolio as Himself . Smith Donna M. but with the last of his strength.Leprechaun: In the Hood a blowjob. He moves to the forefront where his eyes are hidden behind sunglasses. 128 Cast • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Warwick Davis as Leprechaun Ice-T as Mack Daddy O'Nassas Anthony Montgomery as Postmaster P. the Leprechaun uses magic to explode Mac Daddy's torso.

on review aggregator website Rotten Tomatoes.Leprechaun: In the Hood 129 Reception The film received a negative critical reception. the highest for any film in the series. rottentomatoes. and currently holds a 33% approval rating.imdb. . based on six reviews. Rotten Tomatoes. com/ m/ leprechaun-in-the-hood/ ).[1] References [1] "Leprechaun in the Hood .com/title/tt0209095/) at the Internet Movie Database . Retrieved 25 July 2012.Rotten Tomatoes" (http:/ / www. External links • Leprechaun: In the Hood (http://www.

Daniel O'Grady returns home from a trip to Ireland to tell his wife that he had captured a Leprechaun and that by doing so.D. Mallian Michael Prescott David Price William Sachs Mark Jones Warwick Davis Jennifer Aniston Ken Olandt Mark Holton Robert Gorman Kevin Kiner Robert J. He manages to trap him inside a crate and attempts to burn it and the house to the ground. It is the first of six films in the Leprechaun franchise. guarded by the magic of the four leaf clover. Plot In 1983 of the 10 january. Redding and his teenage daughter Tory rent the O'Grady farmhouse for the summer when they meet Nathan Murphy. After burying the gold. his little brother Alex.940 Leprechaun is a 1993 American horror comedy film written and directed by Mark Jones (screenwriter) and starring Warwick Davis and Jennifer Aniston in her first feature film role. Walsh Written by Starring Music by Cinematography Levie Isaacks Editing by Studio Distributed by Release date(s) Running time Country Language Budget Box office Christopher Roth Trimark Pictures Trimark Pictures 8 January 1993 92 minutes United States English $900. the evil Leprechaun had stowed away in one of his suitcases. J. but suffers a stroke. leaving the leprechaun inside.556. 10 years later.000 $8. who are . the Leprechaun's weakness. killing his wife by pushing her down the basement stairs. as well as the first theatrical release of 1993.Leprechaun (film) 130 Leprechaun (film) Leprechaun Theatrical release poster Directed by Produced by Mark Jones Mark Amin Barry Barnholtz Jim Begg Jeffrey B. California. in 1993. Daniel discovers the leprechaun and tries to kill it by showing a four-leaf clover. acquired his pot of gold. and their mentally challenged friend Ozzie Jones. Unknowing to him. The film was shot in Saugus.

Alex tries to set a trap but is attacked by the Leprechaun. The Leprechaun attacks the pawn shop owner. The Leprechaun lures J. Ozzie spots a rainbow and chases it. Alex accompanies him for fear Ozzie might hurt himself when they come across an old truck. finding the house ransacked. After testing to see if it's real gold (where Ozzie bit the gold piece and accidentally swallowed it). while the bloodied body of O'Grady crashes through. Alex takes the four-leaf clover from Tory. with the bag of one hundred gold pieces magically appearing. Before the Leprechaun can kill Ozzie. they plot to keep it for themselves. before dying. The skeleton of the Leprechaun appears out of the well until Nathan hits him down and pours gas inside the well.D.) returns home. Everyone (minus J. After terrorizing and killing a policeman. The police arrive where Tory is reunited with her father as the police investigate the remains of the well. 131 Cast • • • • • • • • • Warwick Davis as Leprechaun Jennifer Aniston as Tory Redding Ken Olandt as Nathan Murphy Mark Holton as Ozzie Jones Robert Gorman as Alex Murphy David Permenter as Deputy Tripet William Newman as Sheriff Cronin Shay Duffin as Dan O'Grady John Sanderford as J. into a trap by imitating a cat.'s results. the Leprechaun returns to the farmhouse. Tory escapes.D. believing that there will be a pot of gold at the end. due to the Leprechaun biting all the cords.Leprechaun (film) re-painting the farmhouse. who chases Tory to the elevator.D. searching for his gold. who was taken to a nursing home after his stroke. After ramming the truck with his specially-made car. who almost kills her until she is saved by Nathan and Ozzie. they try to leave the farmhouse when the truck breaks down. hoping to fix Ozzie's brain. leading him to terrorize them until Ozzie tells them about O'Grady. D. Tory returns home. killing him by crushing his chest with a pogo stick. and gives it to the Leprechaun. After shooting the Leprechaun several times. while shining every shoe in the house. they try to head out to the hospital. After trying to convince the others that he met a Leprechaun (which fails horribly due to his former ludicrous stories). mistaking him for a little child. Tory arrives at the nursing home. blowing up the well and killing the Leprechaun. almost killing him but Ozzie tells him that he swallowed the last gold coin. Redding . taking away his power. Tory decides to head out to the home to find out how to kill the Leprechaun. letting the Leprechaun break free. and is critically wounded by the Leprechaun. followed by the Leprechaun. the Leprechaun terrorizes the gang until Ozzie reveals that he and Alex found the pot of gold. Alex and Ozzie go to a pawn shop to see if the gold is pure while Nathan and Tory are out. sticks it to a wad of gum and shoots it into the Leprechaun's mouth. The Leprechaun is counting his gold when he discovers that he is missing one gold piece (the one Ozzie swallowed) and thinks that they have tricked him. waiting on J. Tory and the others rush him to the hospital. biting and injuring his hand. where the Leprechaun vows he will not rest until he recovers every last piece of his gold. searching until she finds O'Grady. Ozzie is looking around the basement when he hears the Leprechaun's cry for help. and automatically starts searching for a clover until she is chased by the Leprechaun. He brushes the old four-leaf clover off the crate. Tory recovers the bag from the old well. managing to tell her that the only way to kill him is by a four-leaf clover. who traveled there on a tricycle. who is actually the Leprechaun. Believing the worst to be over. Nathan goes out to see what is outside when he is injured by a bear trap set up by the Leprechaun.

htm). Retrieved 3 August 2012.940 domestically. It currently has an approval rating of 27% on movie review aggregator website Rotten Tomatoes based on eleven reviews. ewrestlingnews.php) digital comic books from Devil's Due Digital.Box Office Mojo" (http:/ / boxofficemojo. "WWE & Lionsgate Rebooting Leprechaun Franchise .com" (http:/ / www. rottentomatoes. with a sequel contracted as well. .com/titles/leprechaun. There is currently no writer or director.WWE . References [1] "Leprechaun (1993) .Weekend Box Office Results . [3] Clark.com/title/tt0107387/) at the Internet Movie Database • Leprechaun (http://www. Rotten Tomatoes.Rotten Tomatoes" (http:/ / www. com/ m/ leprechaun/ ).[3] As of November 2012.000 budget. . Box Office Mojo.imdb.eWrestlingNews. .[2] Reboot Lions Gate and WWE Studios are set to reboot the film. .020 its opening week.devilsduedigital. com/ movies/ ?page=weekend& id=leprechaun. Retrieved 3 August 2012.[1] ultimately earning $8. and the film is set for a 2013 release.493. Ryan (15 March 2012). Dylan Postl (WWE's Hornswoggle) is set to star as Leprechaun. [2] "Leprechaun .556. the film received negative reviews. External links • Leprechaun (http://www. Retrieved 3 August 2012. ewrestlingnews.com. com/ news/ 3371/ wwe-lionsgate-rebooting-leprechaun-franchise). Critically. no news of other actors or even a director have yet been announced. on a $900.Leprechaun (film) 132 Release Leprechaun opened in 620 theatres and took in $2.

but when O'Day sees that the girl is in fact his daughter. It centers on a sadistically evil leprechaun (Warwick Davis) hunting for a bride.622 Leprechaun 2 (also known as Leprechaun II and One Wedding and Lots of Funerals) is a 1994 American comedy horror film and the second film in the Leprechaun series. It released in 1994 and is the final entry in the series to be released theatrically.000 $2. whose corpse is then discovered by his daughter. Plot On March 17. he can choose any woman to be his bride..000. United States English $2. before he kills O'Day. as the creature can marry any girl who sneezes three times. he intervenes with "God bless you." The Leprechaun captures. The Leprechaun describes the girl he has chosen to O'Day. my child" therefore denying the Leprechaun his bride. . Since that is his birthday. provided no one says "God bless you. Characters from the first film aren't seen or mentioned at all in the film. 994.Leprechaun 2 133 Leprechaun 2 Leprechaun 2 Theatrical release poster Directed by Produced by Rodman Flender Mark Amin Donald Borchers Mark Jones Michael Prescott Turi Meyer Al Septien Warwick Davis Charlie Heath Shevonne Durkin Adam Biesk Arturo Gil Linda Hopkins James Lancaster and Sandy Baron Jonathan Elias Written by Starring Music by Cinematography Jane Castle Editing by Studio Distributed by Release date(s) Running time Country Language Budget Box office Richard Gentner Christopher Roth Planet Productions Trimark Pictures 8 April 1994 85 min. He picks a young girl of the O'Day family.260. The Leprechaun is a thousand years old. tortures and tells O'Day that he will marry his descendant in a thousand years time on St Patrick's Day.

throws it at the Leprechaun's head. Morty and Cody then go to a bar. who believes that the little man is some kind of performer. Morty. He goes to a coffee shop." Just then. The police soon arrive. an alcoholic scam artist. leading them to get an arrest warrant out for him. grotesquely stretching it. Cody Ingalls. He attempts to kill Cody for his gold coin. The Leprechaun then creates an illusion that fools Ian into believing that Bridget is asking him to kiss her breasts. but Morty takes advantage of the opportunity to claim three wishes and locks Cody in a store room. for his third wish. he follows Bridget to her house. but you're all out of wishes. When the tree roots turn out to be an illusion. who has been picking at her collar with a broken awl. While the Leprechaun downs whiskey. the Leprechaun cannot harm him. Cody and Morty break into the go-kart racetrack that Ian worked at since the office contains a huge safe on wheels made of wrought iron. she refuses with a swift elbow to his ribs. Cody is attacked by the skeleton of Willam O' Day carrying out the Leprechaun's bidding. Upon being asked for payment for the coffee. in modern-day Los Angeles. Cody. breaks off the collar. Cody is given a piece of chocolate in a gold wrapper by one of the bar's patrons (Tony Cox). celebrating St. Wherever Cody and Bridget run. Morty says he's crazy until the Leprechaun breaks into the house and they barely escape." but is unable to complete the blessing when the Leprechaun attempts to strangle him with a telephone cord. where a boy named Ian attempts to persuade her into letting him in. offering flowers. setting Cody up to take the fall for the brutal murder. Before he can arrest Cody. The Leprechaun steals some whiskey and a gold tooth from a homeless man and a gold ring off the finger of Tim Streer. the officer is lured onto the track by the Leprechaun's impersonation of Bridget and is run over twice and killed by the little green man in his own custom go-kart. and a note from Cody at the scene. Before he can find Bridget.Leprechaun 2 In 1994. Meanwhile. The third time she sneezes. the Leprechaun grabs Bridget and disappears. Morty wishes for the Leprechaun out of the safe so that he can help him. The Leprechaun dusts off his hat and pursues them both ("A game of hide-and-seek! How lovely!"). Suddenly. After all of this. leading him to run to the Leprechaun's lair to attempt rescuing Bridget. leading him to bash Morty in the head with a bottle to get away. Morty begs for help as he dies. enters. Patrick's Day. The Leprechaun eventually becomes extremely drunk. Shortly afterwards. and runs. find Bridget missing. which causes Bridget to sneeze all over his shirt. the Leprechaun has found a petulant sixteen-year-old girl named Bridget Callum. however. When he manages to fell the skeleton. he finally stumbles upon Bridget in the Leprechaun's room with a gold collar on her neck. Cody traps the Leprechaun inside. but the Leprechaun laughingly says "love to. Ian badly injured. where he sobers up. who has got into a fight with her boyfriend. they end up back in the same place. asks for the pot of gold out of him. a talent agent. whose legal guardian is his uncle. He distracts Morty and Cody by turning on a jukebox with his powers. Bridget convinces Cody to leave the coin behind on the supposition that the Leprechaun 134 . When they meet up again. but Cody realizes that as long as he holds it. friend. the only thing that can harm the Leprechaun. Cody follows. which the creature causes to appear in Morty's stomach. losing one of his gold coins. killing Morty. and. and takes the time to murder a waiter (Michael McDonald) who was making jokes about his size and speech. while in actuality. which Cody soon finds. who has responded to a silent alarm that Morty tripped. Bridget. however. Bridget and Cody get separated. While there. frequently has to break their dates in order to support Morty. which is filled with little people dressed as leprechauns. as Cody breaks out of the store room. After a struggle. His first is for the Leprechaun's pot of gold. the Leprechaun corners Cody. demanding that he return his coin. In their mad dash to find an exit. Morty is actually drinking soda and water. the leprechaun thinks the waiter wants to take his gold and kills him. so much to the point he can barely speak properly or use his magic. Cody returns to Morty's house and tells him what happened. they are a pair of lawnmower blades that start up after Ian shoves his face into them. The Leprechaun disappears. Cody knocks on the door and apologizes. The Leprechaun cuts Morty's stomach open and pulls out the pot. Cody begins to say "God bless you. a descendant of the O'Day bloodline. a security guard. he is encased in a tangle of tree roots. The Leprechaun appears and Morty challenges him to a drinking contest in honor of his wedding.

Bridget asks Cody how he knew that the illusionary Bridget wasn't really her kissing him.com/title/tt0110329/) at the Internet Movie Database . They then share a laugh and walk home. .imdb. Cody jumps up and shoves an iron crowbar through the Leprechaun's chest. When Cody is reluctant to part with the coin. the film has made $2. Rotten Tomatoes. Cody and Bridget run out of the lair. Bridget turns on the charm and kisses him.622. She then asks him whether he's going to keep the coin.260. In the final scene. Paddy's Day reveler had given him earlier.[1] References [1] "Leprechaun 2 . Bridget backs away and starts to laugh saying "You Lose!" in the Leprechaun's voice. so Cody hands her the coin.Rotten Tomatoes" (http:/ / www. Domestically. Retrieved 3 August 2012. Critical reception Leprechaun 2 received a very negative response from critics. External links • Leprechaun 2 (http://www. Cody points out that the gold coin he gave him was actually the gold-covered milk chocolate that a St. and the Leprechaun explodes behind him. It currently holds an approval rating of 0% on movie review aggregator website Rotten Tomatoes based on fifteen reviews. com/ m/ leprechaun_2/ ). As the Leprechaun begins to sizzle. the only thing that is keeping the Leprechaun from harming them. 135 Cast • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Warwick Davis as The Leprechaun Charlie Heath as Cody Ingalls Shevonne Durkin as Bridget Callum Sandy Baron as Morty Ingalls Adam Biesk as Ian Linda Hopkins as Housewife Arturo Gil as Pub Drunk Kimmy Robertson as Tourist's Girlfriend Clint Howard as The Tourist Billy Beck as Homeless Man Al White as Desk Sargeant Martha Hackett as Detective Tony Cox as Black Leprechaun Mark Kiely as Tim Streer Michael McDonald as Waiter Warren Stevens as Wiggins Release This film opened in 252 theaters and took in $672. The Leprechaun knocks Cody across the room and then goes after Bridget.775 its opening week. intending to lead her to their wedding bed." Cody replies and tosses it on the ground. "It's not worth it. rottentomatoes. Together. Suddenly. and Cody informs her that her kisses are different.Leprechaun 2 will stop chasing them if they give him what he wants.

Gupta then attempts to negotiate with the Leprechaun by allowing him to have half of the gold in exchange for the Leprechaun's freedom. Gupta reveals that he is wearing a medallion that he found on the Leprechaun's then petrified body. so he removes it from the statue. Knowing he is being tricked. The Leprachaun notices one gold coin is missing. a decrepit old man with one leg and hand shows up and pawns the shop owner Gupta with a statue wearing a medallion around its neck. accusing him of being a greedy thief. Then a Leprechaun (Davis) suddenly springs to life from his statue prison. The old man claims the statue is his good luck charm and warns Gupta to never touch the medallion it's wearing. Gupta runs back upstairs to call for help. he notices a woman with car trouble. and bites off a part of his ear.200. It is the third installment and first direct-to-video entry in the Leprechaun series. Scott becomes . Leprechaun tosses the medallion aside. Before he can cause him anymore harm.Leprechaun 3 136 Leprechaun 3 Leprechaun 3 Promotional poster Directed by Produced by Brian Trenchard-Smith Mark Amin Bill Berry Jeff Geoffray Walter Josten Henry Seggerman David DuBos Warwick Davis John Gatins Lee Armstrong Marcelo Tubert John DeMita Caroline Williams Michael Callan Dennis Michael Tenney Written by Starring Music by Cinematography David Lewis Editing by Studio Release date(s) Running time Country Language Budget Daniel Duncan Trimark Pictures 27 June 1995 90 min. United States English $1. Introduced as Tammy. in a Las Vegas pawn shop. He stops and gives her a ride to the Lucky Shamrock Casino. Plot In 1995. Meanwhile. but is strangled to death by the Leprechaun via the phone cord. but while driving on the streets. college student Scott McCoy has just arrived in Las Vegas.000 Leprechaun 3 is a 1995 American comedy fantasy horror film. Gupta cannot resist taking the medallion. where she works. where Gupta traps him inside. jumps on Gupta's back. The Leprechaun grabs his pot of gold and runs from it and hides in the basement.

Loretta wishes for her 20-year-old body back. so he goes to the local shop to pawn his watch. casino employees and then attacked by the Leprechaun. Everyone in the crowd starts insisting they want the saw trick to be done. Scott begins to undergo Leprechaun-like tendencies (for instance. Scott is promptly taken to the examination room. Fazio attempts to make another wish on the coin that he would be at Caesars Palace. they'll share it. The computer on the counter next to him states in folklore that one wish grants the mortal anything he or she desires and that it remains permanent if kept in possession by that mortal. The inflated Loretta tries to escape via an open door but becomes stuck when she tried to squeeze her newly inflated buttocks through. the Leprechaun captures her at the morgue and threatens to kill her if she doesn't tell him where Scott is. sees Fazio being killed on stage. however. Leprechaun promises Scott that if he takes the pot of gold. Tammy snaps out of the coin's spell. There is a very sexy woman who looks just like Tammy on the television and starts speaking Mitch's name. stands up from his stretcher. When he looks back at the woman. Scott strikes rich at the casino (realizing his wish had come true). As they each use magic to subdue one another. and Scott will be trapped forever as a Leprechaun. He loses all of his money at the roulette wheel. Leprechaun warns Scott that his Leprechaun-like tendencies cannot be fought so easily and that he would eventually be drawn to the gold's power. Noticing a dead mortician. and attempts to saw him in half. Two casino workers walk in but are quickly killed by the Leprechaun. he kills them off. When Mitch goes up to have sex with Tammy. During his stay at the casino. and when it leaves the vicinity of the room. using magic to turn the television on. Still in Leprechaun form. While at the casino. and buttocks. She comes out of the television and starts kissing Mitch. now a tall Leprechaun. After hearing this. After she leaves the room. Shortly after. Scott and Tammy subdue the Leprechaun and flee Mitch's room. back in the casino. and Fazio wishes that he were the greatest magician in the world. Fazio wished to be the best magician in the world. Scott sarcastically wishes that he had a winning streak. the Leprchaun enters. where he uncovers Gupta's lifeless body on the floor. she is actually a robot. Loretta steals the coin. due to Scott's transformation. After hearing Tammy's pleas to not take it and that the Leprechaun's 137 . Leprechaun possessed an actual chainsaw at the time. During his magic performance. in disgust. so he plays at the tables. Scott and Tammy spot the Leprechaun beside Mitch's body asking for the coin to be given back to him. Loretta wishes for a new body. so Leprechaun strolls away in the stretcher and flips him off. the Leprechaun inflates her lips. Loretta and Fazio. Scott can't resist the pot of gold the Leprechaun leaves on the stage floor. Tammy. Outside the casino. they all screamed in fear. Scott immediately appears and a showdown commences between the two. ventures into the empty hospital hallways to find him. Meanwhile. Tammy and Scott arrive and warn the people to leave for their own safety. The whole crowd.Leprechaun 3 immediately infatuated with her. Scott. worried over Scott's condition. The audience immediately leave. which proceeds to electrocute him. After he leaves the shop (via the coin's magic transporting him back). When confronted by the Leprechaun she tells him she doesn't have the coin anymore. while Scott continues to battle with the Leprechaun. and starts wandering around the hospital sensing that his "brother" is somewhere in the building. Scott has begun to turn slowly into a Leprechaun himself from being bitten and must fight his urges. Leprechaun has survived the fall and one by one. but to no avail since the Leprechaun informs him that he already made one wish and that it's pointless because he only gets one wish. Scott unknowingly finds and takes Leprechaun’s coin and is given one wish. Leprechaun shows up. The doctors notice irregularity in both his skin and blood. along with the Lucky Shamrock's owner Mitch pass the coin around making wishes. Scott then informs him that Fazio is the one who has the coin. quoting random limericks in an Irish accent). Mitch hears the Leprechaun on the television and looks up. subdues the medical officials observing him. He is later robbed by Loretta and Fazio. Before he can cause fatal harm to Tammy. but in the process is bitten and some of Leprechaun's blood mixes with his. Scott can't resist gambling. chest. When Tammy takes him to the nearest hospital. She continues to grow larger before finally exploding. not knowing that there would be that much blood and gore. Mitch wishes he could sleep with Tammy. and Fazio knew that Leprechaun was going to kill him. In the meantime. While calling for police. He is able to throw Leprechaun out of the hotel window.

com/ m/ leprechaun_3/ ). Scott morphs back to his regular self. has the highest rating of any film in the series on the Internet Movie Database with 4. . a crippled old man who gives Gupta a leprechaun statue and warns never to remove or touch the medallion it's wearing. a casino employee. which in turn incinerates him. External links • Leprechaun 3 (http://www. a casino employee and Mitch's friend. Rotten Tomatoes. Tom Dugan as Arthur. Reception The film was panned by critics and currently holds a 0% approval rating on review aggregator website Rotten Tomatoes. the main antagonist.5/10. Lee Armstrong as "Tammy" Larsen.imdb.[1] It. Retrieved 25 July 2012. Mitch and Loretta's co-worker and a powerful magician. a pawn shop owner. Scott burns the gold. Roger Hewlett as Tony. and he and Tammy share a kiss and happily leave the casino together. References [1] "Leprechaun 3 . 138 Cast • • • • • • • • • • Warwick Davis as the Leprechaun. a young adult who's driving to Los Angeles to go to college. Marcelo Tubert as Gupta. based on five reviews. a casino employee and co-worker of Mitch and Fazio. Michael Callan as Mitch. rottentomatoes. John DeMita as Fazio The Great.com/title/tt0113636/) at the Internet Movie Database . Fazio's assistant and Scott's love interest. John Gatins as Scott McCoy.Rotten Tomatoes" (http:/ / www. Tammy's master. Caroline Williams as Loretta. a casino employee and Loretta and Fazio's co-worker who is madly in love with Tammy but she doesn't seem to return his affections. however. a casino employee and Mitch and Arthur's friend Richard Reicheg as Lucky.Leprechaun 3 powers lie in his gold.

far away from Earth The Leprechaun is on a desolate planet attempting to court a narcissistic princess named Zarina. Kowalski. with a lightsaber-like weapon. and. Plot In space. throws a grenade and it lands near Zarina. though Zarina is saved.000 Leprechaun 4: In Space is a 1997 direct-to-video comedy horror science fiction film directed by Brian Trenchard-Smith. . Jr. A group of space marines attack and the Leprechaun kills one of the marines. the Leprechaun jumps in the way. Nunez. United States English $1.600. whom he has kidnapped in a plot to marry her.Leprechaun 4: In Space 139 Leprechaun 4: In Space Leprechaun 4: In Space VHS cover Directed by Produced by Brian Trenchard-Smith Mark Amin David R. Cobb Jeff Geoffray Andrew Hersh Walter Josten Jonathon Komack Martin Dennis Pratt Warwick Davis Brent Jasmer Jessica Collins Tim Colceri Miguel A. Dominia. Lucky. It is the fourth film in the Leprechaun series. When another marine. While the rest of the crew attend to Zarina. Debbe Dunning Gary Grossman Rebekah Carlton Rick Peters Geoff Meed Michael Cannizzo Ladd York Guy Siner Dennis Michael Tenney Written by Starring Music by Cinematography David Lewis Editing by Studio Release date(s) Running time Country Language Budget Daniel Duncan Trimark Pictures 25 February 1997 95 min. then murder her father in order to become king of her home planet. Kowalski relieves himself on the Leprechaun's dismembered leg. and is seemingly possessed. the explosion of the bomb kills the Leprechaun and causes Zarina to lose a hand.

and they discover that the password is "Wizard. Metal Head Hooker Miguel A. Delores Costello Mike Cannizzo as Danny Rick Peters as Mooch Geoff Meed as Kowalski Ladd York as Lucky James Quinn as Computer Voice . as Sticks Debbe Dunning as Pvt. the leader of the marines. now known as Mittenspider. Mittenhand. who has taken the shape of a giant spider-like creature." since Dr. Mittenhand's experimental enlargement ray. Elsewhere on the ship. kills Mittenhand's assistant Harold by stabbing him in the groin and then flattening his face. revealing him to be a cyborg which deactivates after being electrocuted. The Leprechaun then kills most of the crew members in other various gruesome and absurd ways: Mooch has his suit sliced open and dissolved into a skeleton. Sticks. who grows to many times his own size after being exposed to Dr. The Leprechaun finds Zarina in Dr. The four rejoice and Books and Tina kiss as the spaceship flies past the remains of the giant Leprechaun's body. Mittenhand. the half-robotic Dr. Dolores. A surviving marine.Leprechaun 4: In Space The marines return to their ship with Zarina. is brainwashed into thinking he is a drag queen and has his head cracked open. Sergeant Books Malloy and Tina. Tina crawls through the air ducts. Mittenhand previously referred to himself as "the wizard behind the curtain. Books joins the others at the helm. Sticks is about to be killed by Mittenspider when he is saved by Books and Tina. The other survivors. Tina spends the remainder of the film in a T-shirt and black panties. Danny is crushed under a metal structure. before initiating the ship's self-destruct mechanism. explains that the princess has regenerative powers (as shown when she regenerates a hand she lost) and his plans to use Zarina's DNA to recreate his own mutilated body. killing him in an incredibly painful and sadistic manner. Metal Head. Books and Sticks spray Mittenspider with liquid nitrogen from a hose and then shoots him. Dolores is dropped from extreme height. rushes to the bridge to defuse the self-destruct but he is stopped by a password prompt. shattering his body. Mittenhand's laboratory. Sticks is attacked and tangled in webs by the now mutated and deformed Dr. and injects doctor Mittenhand with a mixture of his intended bride's DNA and the remains of a scorpion and a tarantula (mixed in a blender). where their leader. Tina Reeves Guy Siner as Dr." stopping the self-destruct with only seconds to spare. confront the Leprechaun in the cargo bay. Mittenhand/Mittenspider Gary Grossman as Harold Rebekah Carlton as Princess Zarina Tim Colceri as MSgt. the Leprechaun violently emerges from Kowalski's penis when he attempts to have sex with a fellow marine. Nunez Jr. They fly past his fist. making his way in by assuming the image of a completely naked Doctor Tina Reeves. Books avoids the giant Leprechaun and opens the airlock so the villain is sucked out into space and explodes while Zarina watches in glee. where her pants get torn off by Dr. 140 Cast • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Warwick Davis as Leprechaun Brent Jasmer as SSgt. Books Malloy Jessica Collins as Dr. Mittenhand. clenched with middle finger extended.

1/10).In Space .[1] It has the lowest rating of any film in the series on IMDb (3. based on six reviews. References [1] "Leprechaun 4 . External links • Leprechaun 4: In Space (http://www. Rotten Tomatoes.Leprechaun 4: In Space 141 Critical reception This film was panned by critics.com/movies/movie/v162156) at AllRovi .com/title/tt0116861/) at the Internet Movie Database • Leprechaun 4: In Space (http://www. Retrieved 25 July 2012.allrovi. com/ m/ leprechaun_4_in_space/ ). rottentomatoes. .Rotten Tomatoes" (http:/ / www.imdb. It currently holds a 0% approval rating on review aggregator website Rotten Tomatoes.

The show began airing on BBC Two on 10 November 2011. it was announced that Life's Too Short will end later in the year with a special that will bring the series closure.Life's Too Short 142 Life's Too Short Life's Too Short Genre Format Created by Sitcom Mockumentary Warwick Davis Ricky Gervais Stephen Merchant Starring Warwick Davis Ricky Gervais Stephen Merchant United Kingdom United States English 1 7 (List of episodes) Production Executive producer(s) Ricky Gervais Stephen Merchant Mark Freeland Camera setup Running time Single-camera 22–30 minutes Broadcast Original channel BBC Two HBO 480i (SDTV) 1080i (HDTV) 10 November 2011 .present (UK) – 19 February 2012 . of episodes Picture format Original run Life's Too Short is a sitcom mockumentary created and written by Ricky Gervais and Stephen Merchant from an idea by Warwick Davis.[2][3] Premium cable channel HBO. of seasons No.[6] .present (US) External links Website [1] Country of origin Language(s) No.[4][5] In January 2013. Davis plays a fictionalised version of himself and both Gervais and Merchant appear in supporting roles as themselves. who co-produced the series with the BBC. and is as described by Gervais. about "the life of a showbiz dwarf". have the US rights and began airing the series on 19 February 2012.

' And we try to get rid of him. He has a big tax bill. not really. Davis pointed out that he came up with it."[7] When asked by an interviewer if the title of the show offended him. He's quite conceited and arrogant and manipulative. That is out and out funny. Me and Steve Merchant pop up as ourselves. He's a conniving."[10] In an interview with Entertainment Weekly he elaborated: "It's a single camera sitcom following the trials and tribulations of ‘Warwick Davis. During filming. and people touching him for luck as if he were a leprechaun. We did some casting today. It's fantastic.[12] while Gervais said of the character "he refuses to live his life as a disabled person.Life's Too Short 143 Genesis The genesis of the show came when Davis worked with Gervais and Merchant in an episode of the second series of Extras. 'Ooh. Warwick Davis.[9] He also described it as "Third in our trilogy of TV sitcoms . 'Doing any more Extras? Got any work?' And we go. which he does in real life. dealing with everyday problems. Davis said that his character is egotistical and suffers from small man syndrome. he's going through a messy divorce and he's trying to get back his Hollywood career.. who's really a showbiz dwarf. He plays a twisted version of himself and he's doing this documentary to try to get his career back on track. another naturalist observational comedy. and then we'll see. when he co-starred with Daniel Radcliffe.. human foibles and social faux pas ... just to add some realism. Gervais told reporters: "The real Warwick tells us these great stories.." Stephen Merchant commented of Davis that "he helped create the idea and came to us with the story."[14] .. such as having to use a mop handle to reach objects on the high shelves in supermarkets. showbiz dwarf."[13] Gervais also said of the series and of Davis' character: "It's returning to our Office roots of fake documentary . And he runs a small person talent agency. It follows the life of a showbiz dwarf.[8] Gervais and Merchant approached the BBC about developing a show centred on a character based on Davis. We're making him empowered but also give him these foibles". They're comedy gold."[11] In an interview with Jonathan Ross. Warwick comes round and says. just like we did with The Office ten years ago. no. I'm off to America for some shows and then I come back after that and we shoot a little pilot. back-biting little Napoleon.[9] Gervais described it as "A cross between Extras and Curb your Enthusiasm and One Foot in the Grave but with a dwarf.' Warwick is playing a twisted version of himself. but with a dwarf. Davis told them about the trials of life for a man of 3 feet 6 inches in height.

"[7] Gervais reported in his blog on the progress of writing Life's Too Short throughout November 2010: "Had a great week writing Life's Too Short.[22] Shaun Williamson.[20] In March 2011 Gervais reported on his blog "Getting ready to film Life's Too Short.[26] Boxer Mike Tyson also asked Gervais to consider casting him in a role. He's very charismatic. he stated. He's a real comic star in waiting. a very physical comedian which we really made use of . Gervais described Life's Too Short as "the funniest thing we've done. We will shoot the whole series before anything is aired. Gervais told him that he wanted him to appear in Life's Too Short as a version of himself.[23] Cat Deeley. Gervais commented in July 2010 "Finished the pilot for Life's Too Short too. and the Controller of BBC Comedy Commissioning Cheryl Taylor.[16] Gervais reported on progress in his blog. We're not sure how many eps [episodes] we will record (probably 6) and not sure when the series will air.[8] Rosamund Hanson.Life's Too Short 144 Development Gervais first mentioned Life's Too Short on his blog in February 2010.. So much fun. As the pilot has already been filmed. Starting from scratch. very charming in it . It is a non-broadcast pilot.[17] The series was [9][18] On 17 September 2010 the BBC executive produced by Gervais and Merchant along with Mark Freeland.[19] and in a February 2011 filmed conversation with American comedian Jerry Seinfeld.[24] Kiruna Stamell[25] and Jamie Dodd. via the BBC Two Controller Janice Hadlow."[15] Merchant confirmed that filming would begin in May 2011. and in February that he and Merchant were trying to finish writing Life's Too Short."[9] Gervais told The Hollywood Reporter "We're having so much fun working with Warwick. It's the hardest bit. the series will comprise eight shows." He later wrote that filming of the pilot was undertaken in June and July 2010.."[15] In January 2011 he reported that he was still working on the scripts for the show. In April 2010. Just like The Office and Extras. It wont [sic].. It doesn't get better than that for me. that the six-part series had been commissioned and filmed in 2011. On 1 April he stated "Started casting Life's Too Short this week too. who now". just me and Steve in a room crafting a brand new show. previously produced Extras. announced.[15] The owner of a house used as a location for the pilot commented on the BBC Radio 4 programme Broadcasting House on 30 January 2011 that a scene filmed there had involved Davis and a dog-sized pet flap. and Michelle Farr. It feels great doing this project."[15] On 29 April he wrote "Did the last of the . Yes seven!". Just have to write the series Warwick Davis. I was really pleased. the star of Life's Too Short [15] The series was produced by Charlie Hanson. the most important bit and the most invigorating bit"."[9] Stephen Merchant said of Davis: "Warwick is very funny.. while talking at the Banff World Television Festival. who played himself (known as "Barry off EastEnders") in Extras. Six hours hard labour for a potential two minutes screen time. when he and Merchant were writing and casting the project.[13] In June 2010.[15] On 31 March 2011 Gervais confirmed on his blog that "We've basically got first drafts of all seven episodes of Life's Too Short now. and in a later entry "Wrote one of the funniest sketches we've ever done for Life's Too Short. who played Warwick Davis' wife in the pilot.[21] Cast members included Jo Enright.[15] The pilot for the comedy was commissioned by the BBC in April 2010. playing "quite a whiny Upper East Side Jewish guy"."[15] Gervais wrote on his blog in June 2010 "Found the last location today for Life's Too Short. "Some reports are saying that the Life's Too Short pilot we are shooting in the summer will be aired. Pound for pound he is one of the funniest men I know.

Not just because of the surprise factor but because it takes the focus away from the real meat of the show. Lazier and lazier.[27] The teaser trailer released on the same day featured Keith Chegwin. prior to the start of the series run. but hopefully we might be able to keep a couple of the other really big ones under wraps.[29] A half-hour long documentary. After the first series finished airing. Les Dennis and Shaun Williamson as well as the three main stars.[15] Earlier in that week he had blogged about how "Matt Groening's favourite character from The Office will make a cameo in Life's Too Short". 5 and 6) Keith Chegwin (Episodes 5 and 6) Cat Deeley (Episode 6) Ewen MacIntosh (Episode 6) Sting (Episode 7) Sophie Ellis-Bextor (Episode 7) . Some amazing cameos too. as well as posting a link to a YouTube video of him and Warwick Davis filmed on the set of Life's Too Short. Ha ha.[30] Despite this. You know about the [Johnny] Depp one.[15] On 22 June 2011 it was announced that Sting and Steve Carell would be filming cameos for the series. Gervais confirmed via Twitter that a second series had been commissioned for early 2013. Now it's down to ONE series and a special.[28] On 11 July Gervais hinted on his blog that a Doctor Who-related cameo would be in the show. Gervais stated on his blog that "We are thinking of going straight to the Xmas Special.Life's Too Short casting today on Life's Too Short. The Making of Life's Too Short. Principal filming ran for eight weeks ending on 22 July 2011. and rehearsals started on the week beginning 16 May 2011 with Gervais commenting "We've put together an amazing cast so it should be a joy."[15] Filming started on 30 May 2011. along with an on-set photograph of actor Ewen MacIntosh who played Big Keith in The Office. aired on BBC Two and BBC HD on 5 November 2011."[15] On 11 May the cast had their first read-through of all seven episodes."[31] 145 Cast • • • • • • • Warwick Davis as himself Ricky Gervais as himself Stephen Merchant as himself Steve Brody as Eric Rosamund Hanson as Cheryl Jo Enright as Sue Shaun Williamson as himself Cameo appearances • • • • • • • • • • • • Liam Neeson (Episode 1) Johnny Depp (Episode 2) Helena Bonham Carter (Episode 3) Right Said Fred (Episode 4) Steve Carell (Episode 4) Ramin Karimloo (Episode 5) Les Dennis (Episodes 4.[15] Gervais and Davis attended a question and answer session to discuss the making of Life's Too Short at the Edinburgh Fringe Festival in August 2011.

[32][33] Many reviews were deeply critical of the writing – Gwilym Mumford of The Guardian felt that writers Gervais and Merchant were "on autopilot". cinemablend. co. where Gerald O'Donovan praised the show for its "Belly laughs and cringe-making moments". to 997. com/ watch?v=V2TtqePh3xw). BBC. referring to the programme as "strikingly lazy stuff. Steven Merchant. described the show as "tripe" while David Butcher of the Radio Times introduced his review of episode six with "another week.[34] and journalist for The Independent Robert Epstein likewise branded it "shoddily derivative" and potentially degrading. indulgent. html).[36] However Metro's review of episode 7 was slightly more positive saying "Life's Too Short bowed out tonight with an episode that was more than marginally better than the six previous offerings. self-plagiarizing and cold". comprised of little more than a predictable checklist of taboos and social faux pas". uk/ ustv/ news/ a326379/ ricky-gervais-lifes-too-short-heads-for-hbo. Retrieved 17 October 2011. but there were some genuinely funny scenes too. Rachel Tarley.[45] References [1] http:/ / www.J. 7th of November in Australia [44] and scheduled for release on 15 January 2013 in the US. 10 October 2011. deadline. . "Ricky Gervais 'Life's Too Short' heads for HBO – US TV News" (http:/ / www. Movieweb. proclaiming that though it could easily have overreached. .[37] More positive reviews could be found in the The Telegraph. Caroline Frost of The Huffington Post applauded both the writing and the acting following the first episode. "Life's Too Short" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 4 September 2011. . most notably a discussion between Gervais and Merchant about charity. com/ 2013/ 01/ lifes-too-short-to-end-hbo-run-with-special/ ) [7] "EXCLUSIVE: Stephen Merchant on The Office and Life's Too Short" (http:/ / www.[39] While the first episode rated strongly in the UK. "Gervais and Merchant have pulled another one out of the hat". Barnard.[41] US critical response In the United States the show received generally positive reviews. movieweb. youtube. html). YouTube. hbo. Comedy Blog. 13 August 2010. com/ lifes-too-short [2] Sykes.[35] T. At Metacritic. a writer for WhatCulture!. bbc. another queasy mix of comedy and unpleasantness". And Warwick Davis Tease Life's Too Short" (http:/ / www.Life's Too Short 146 Reception UK critical response In the United Kingdom the show received mostly mixed reviews. Jaine. com/ television/ Ricky-Gervais-Steven-Merchant-Warwick-Davis-Tease-Life-Too-Short-36112. . 17 October 2011. which indicates "Generally favorable reviews".[42] Home media release Life's Too Short was released on DVD and Blu-ray on 22 October 2012[43] in the UK. digitalspy. [5] Alex Fletcher (23 June 2011). not only was the plot stronger than in previous weeks. Retrieved 13 November 2011. [4] "Ricky Gervais. Digital Spy. . shtml). [3] "Tweet That! – Life's Too Short" (http:/ / www. Cinemablend.[38] Likewise. Retrieved 17 February 2011. Hearst Magazines UK. which assigns a weighted mean rating out of 100 to reviews from mainstream critics. of Metro. uk/ blogs/ comedy/ 2011/ 06/ lifes-too-short-1. . It's aimless. And Steve Brody as Warwick's ineffectual giggly/depressive accountant continued to shine". Retrieved 11 November 2011.[40] and by the fifth episode the overnight ratings had dropped below a million. the show received an average score of 63.000 – 35% down on the average audience for its timeslot in the UK.com. com/ news/ exclusive-stephen-merchant-on-the-office-and-lifes-too-short). [6] (http:/ / www. co. based on 14 reviews. called the show "a mess. the ratings dropped by 40% in the following week.

Inc. debiallenassociates. Hearst Magazines UK. html?refCatId=19). with Brad Blanks" (http:/ / www. . Blog!. The Hollywood Reporter. youtube. Retrieved 30 May 2011. The Telegraph. 21 April 2010. The Guardian. com/ watch?v=xdei36KJlnw). Guardian News and Media. 22 April 2010. . uk/ news/ newstopics/ celebritynews/ 7614380/ BBC-to-screen-Ricky-Gervais-sitcom-about-life-of-a-dwarf. BBC2. co. . co. Retrieved 30 May 2011. YouTube. . 15 May 2010. BBC Radio 4. Retrieved 2 June 2011. Thursday" (http:/ / www. com/ 2010/ 05/ 07/ ricky-gervais-lifes-too-short/ ). . com/ 2011/ 02/ 04/ ricky-gervais-is-the-marriage-ref/ ). Daily Record (Trinity Mirror). BBC. Associated Newspapers. Comedy Blog. . Comedy. Retrieved 22 June 2011. 17 September 2010. Retrieved 24 December 2011. uk/ greenlight-from-bbc?news_page=1). . com/ thissideofthetruthc. wordpress. "Life's Too Short. . bbc. co. "'Life's Too Short' In The Press. "An interview with…Shaun Williamson" (http:/ / joshgill. imdb. uk/ 1/ hi/ entertainment/ 8635226. php). 'Life's Too Short. Retrieved 16 September 2010.co. asp?id=87). uk/ blogs/ comedy/ 2011/ 06/ lifes-too-short-carrell-depp-s. variety. [21] "Beanpole funnyman Stephen Merchant hopes stand-up lines will help him bag a girlfriend" (http:/ / www. sundaymercury. Retrieved 11 November 2011. [24] "Rosamund Hanson" (http:/ / www. rickygervais. BBC News. Retrieved 23 March 2011. News Limited." (http:/ / www.com [32] Tarley. . Retrieved 14 October 2010. co. co. IMDB. html). co. Retrieved 11 November 2011. metro. [20] "Ricky Gervais is 'The Marriage Ref' | Extra" (http:/ / www. [30] Eames. com/ news/ ricky-gervais-previews-next-project-24685). "Ricky Gervais confirms 'Life's Too Short' renewal. warwickdavis. . extratv. BBC. . guardian. . Josh Gill's Blog'. co. 7 May 2010. [31] Blog! (http:/ / www. "Warwick Davis talks Ricky Gervais. Metro. com/ watch?v=sFj_k3GB6Zs). . BBC. Retrieved 15 September 2010. uk/ programmes/ b006qnj3). [33] Butcher. [17] "'Life's Too Short' BBC Pilot" (http:/ / www. [28] "Life's Too Short Trailer" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 24 December 2011. Warwick Davis. Variety. 147 .Life's Too Short [8] Blanks. "TV highlights: 08/12/2011" (http:/ / www. . co. Retrieved 24 December 2011.com. bbc. bbc. hollywoodreporter. Robert (27 November 2011). BBC1. 22 April 2010. Retrieved 5 October 2010. David. Retrieved 16 September 2010. comedy. Retrieved 16 September 2010. Josh (15 March 2011). . digitalspy. 15 May 2011. [14] "A mad session with Ricky Gervais. Gwilym (7 December 2011). Debi Allen Associates. uk/ arts-entertainment/ tv/ reviews/ lifes-too-short-bbc2-thursday-to-the-manor-reborn-bbc1-thursday-6268423. com/ name/ nm1463165/ ). [27] "Life's Too Short: Big casting SPOILERS" (http:/ / www. 17 September 2010. [22] "Birmingham comic Jo Enright's the short star with a big future" (http:/ / www. [35] Epstein. uk/ tv-and-radio/ 2011/ dec/ 07/ rev-without-you-anna-friel). [16] "Ricky Gervais comedy gets BBC green light" (http:/ / news. Stephen Merchant and Karl Pilkington" (http:/ / www. Tom (21 December 2011). com/ name/ nm2580571/ ). 'Idiot' special" (http:/ / www. [18] "BBC greenlights Gervais sitcom 'Life's Too Short' centers on Warwick Davis" (http:/ / www. . Rachel (15 December 2011). 29 August 2010. independent. [13] "'Green-Light' from BBC" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 16 September 2010.com. stm). The Independent. Retrieved 22 June 2011.'" (http:/ / popwatch. html). [23] Gill. . Retrieved 2 May 2012. . Retrieved 24 December 2011. Trinity Mirror. . Retrieved 2 May 2012. com/ article/ VR1118024311. Telegraph Media Group. Retrieved 30 May 2011. [29] Steve Saul (8 June 2011). . Entertainment Weekly Inc.. uk/ blogs/ comedy/ 2011/ 06/ bbc-comedy-hits-the-edinburgh. Digital Spy. telegraph. rickygervais. TheTelegraph. 4 February 2011. net/ news/ midlands-news/ 2011/ 03/ 23/ birmingham-comic-jo-enright-s-the-short-star-with-a-big-future-66331-28367592/ ). Retrieved 24 December 2011. 16 June 2010. html). bbc. [11] "Ricky Gervais bigs up his new sitcom. youtube. dailyrecord. TTT West Coast. Sunday Mercury. 16 March 2011. co. co. 23 March 2011. . bbc. uk/ showbiz/ celebrity-interviews/ 2011/ 03/ 16/ beanpole-funnyman-stephen-merchant-hopes-stand-up-lines-will-help-him-bag-a-girlfriend-86908-22993387/ ). [12] "Warwick Davis talks working with Ricky Gervais and Steve Merchant" (http:/ / www. [26] "Jamie Dodd" (http:/ / www. co. [10] "BBC to screen Ricky Gervais sitcom about life of a dwarf" (http:/ / www. [19] "Broadcasting House" (http:/ / www. Reed Elsevier Properties Inc. YouTube. [9] "Ricky Gervais previews next project Talks up 'Life's Too Short' at Banff TV festival" (http:/ / www.. shtml). Ricky Gervais. IMDB. shtml). . . . co. . co. uk/ lifes-too-short-bbc-pilot-1?news_page=1). com/ 2011/ 03/ 15/ an-interview-with-shaun-williamson/ ). uk/ guide/ tv/ lifes_too_short/ press/ ). Thursday To the Manor Reborn. [34] Mumford. [15] "Week one hundred and five – February 2010" (http:/ / www. February 2010. co. ew. Retrieved 30 May 2011.uk. Retrieved 23 March 2011. uk/ tv/ reviews/ 885050-lifes-too-short-represents-grounds-for-a-gervais-merchant-divorce). warwickdavis. Brad (6 April 2011). "BBC Comedy hits the Edinburgh Festival Fringe 2011" (http:/ / www. uk/ comedy/ clips/ p00hpzxb/ lifes_too_short_lifes_too_short_trailer/ ). [25] "Kiruna Stamell" (http:/ / www. com. . "Life's Too Short represents grounds for a Gervais-Merchant divorce" (http:/ / www.au. Warwick Davis. php) RickyGervais.com. com/ thissideofthetruth. EW. uk/ tv/ news/ a357045/ ricky-gervais-confirms-lifes-too-short-renewal-idiot-special. imdb. Retrieved 30 May 2011. Retrieved 2 May 2012. au/ entertainment/ insider/ a-mad-session-with-ricky-gervais-stephen-merchant-and-karl-pilkington/ story-e6frewt9-1226055897372). . Comedy Blog. The British Comedy Guide. com/ clients_detail. dailytelegraph. Life's Too Short and Cat Deeley. ExtraTV.

Retrieved 24 December 2011. [44] http:/ / www. [37] Tarley.Life's Too Short [36] "Life's Too Short: The Difficult Third Series?" (http:/ / whatculture. co. too late for Ricky Gervais fans" (http:/ / www. .co. The Telegraph.com/title/tt1641247/) at the Internet Movie Database Warwick Davis talks working with Ricky Gervais and Steve Merchant (http://www.bbc. Metro.youtube. Metacritic. "Review: Life's Too Short – Warwick Davis. 23 December 2011. The British Comedy Guide. Retrieved 24 December 2011. co. com/ tv/ lifes-too-short/ season-1). The Guardian. html). uk/ tv/ 885476-lifes-too-shorts-finale-was-too-little-too-late-for-ricky-gervais-fans).rickygervais. co. uk/ media/ 2011/ nov/ 18/ life-s-too-short-audience). Retrieved 15 November 2012. huffingtonpost. . au/ dvd/ dvd-genres/ tv/ life-s-too-short-season-1/ 674487 [45] (http:/ / www. co.co. tvshowsondvd. [43] "Life's Too Short . Ricky Gervais. YouTube . Obsessed with Film Ltd. uk/ 2011/ 11/ 10/ review-lifes-too-short-warwick-davis_n_1087073. Stephen Merchant. Caroline (11 November 2011). [38] "Today's TV highlights" (http:/ / www. uk/ culture/ tvandradio/ 5602956/ TV-highlights. Retrieved 24 December 2011.com/lifestooshort.Series 1 [DVD]" (http:/ / www. 148 [39] Frost. Josh (18 November 2011). guardian. telegraph.php) RickyGervais. comedy. amazon. .com Life's Too Short (http://www.uk. php). "Life's Too Short sees audience shrink" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 20 February 2011. . . [40] Halliday. com. Guardian News and Media. "Life's Too Short's finale was too little. .imdb.uk/programmes/b012csf6) at BBC Programmes Life's Too Short (http://www. WhatCulture!. Retrieved 24 December 2011. . co. uk/ news/ story/ 00000703/ lifes_too_short_ratings_nosedive_below_1_million/ ). jbhifionline. com/ news/ Lifes-Short-Season-1/ 17597) External links • • • • Life's Too Short (http://www. co.co. 9 December 2011. . metro. CBS Interactive.uk. uk/ Lifes-Too-Short-Series-DVD/ dp/ B006CEWGLO). Rachel (20 December 2011). metacritic. [41] "Life's Too Short ratings nosedive below 1 million" (http:/ / www. [42] "Life's Too Short – Season 1" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 24 December 2011. Associated Newspapers. Amazon. Liam Neeson" (http:/ / www. Telegraph Media Group. html). com/ tv/ lifes-too-short-the-difficult-third-series. Huffington Post.com/ watch?v=xdei36KJlnw) The Jonathan Ross Show.

Milne's Eeyore or Jacques in Shakespeare's As You Like It. etymological. and he's exactly like that. the true horror of Marvin's existence is that no task he could be given would occupy even the tiniest fraction of his vast intellect.[2] (or 30 billion times more intelligent than a live mattress) though this is. "Marvin came from Andrew Marshall. from Episode Five and a half First appearance Last appearance Created by Portrayed by Fit the Second (radio) Fit the Twenty-Sixth (radio) Douglas Adams David Learner (television) Warwick Davis (film) Voiced by Stephen Moore (radio and TV) Alan Rickman (film) Information Species Gender Occupation GPP prototype android Male design Servant Marvin. solve "all of the major mathematical. chemical." and compose a number of lullabies. philosophical. is a fictional character in The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy series by Douglas Adams. and Warwick Davis wore the Marvin costume for the feature film. the robot was called Marshall. He seemed to find this last task the hardest. the Paranoid Android." He remains . three times over. Name According to Douglas Adams." Nor does he show any signs of mania. though Ford refers to him as a "maniacally depressed robot. given the chance to use. A.Marvin the Paranoid Android 149 Marvin the Paranoid Android Marvin the Paranoid Android A close-up of the Marvin costume from the 1981 TV series. Marvin simultaneously manages to plan the entire planet's military strategy. Marvin is afflicted with severe depression and boredom. such as A. which would have undesirable connotations. and even owes something to Adams's own periods of depression. if ever. physical. as one of the robots standing in a queue on Vogsphere. and only one. sociological. where the main characters are trying to release Tricia. When kidnapped by the bellicose Krikkit robots and tied to the interfaces of their intelligent war computer. Marvin is the ship's robot aboard the starship Heart of Gold." (Indeed. in an early draft of Hitchhiker's. in part because he has a "brain the size of a planet"[1] which he is seldom.) However. Marvin claims he is 50. having previously played and voiced the part for the stage version. A recreation of the costume from the 1981 television series makes an appearance in the film. Adams also admitted that Marvin is part of a long line of literary depressives. meteorological and psychological problems of the Universe except his own. It was changed to "Marvin" partly to avoid causing offence. but also because it was pointed out to Adams that on radio the name would sound like "Martial". Marvin's voice was performed by Stephen Moore on radio and television.[3] Marvin does not actually display signs of paranoia. biological.000 times more intelligent than a human. "How I Hate the Night".[3] He's another comedy writer. Originally built as a failed prototype of Sirius Cybernetics Corporation's GPP (Genuine People Personalities) technology. if anything. a vast underestimation. David Learner operated his body on television. though Zaphod refers to him as "the Paranoid Android. is known. while Alan Rickman voiced this role in the film. Indeed.

he grudgingly saves the crew multiple times from the Foot Soldiers of the Dolmansaxlil Shoe Corporation. When the Heart of Gold crew arrive on the ancient planet of Magrathea. As the menial labourer on the Heart of Gold spaceship. they abandon Marvin on the surface. I called for succour in my loneliness. Zaphod. upon impact with the ground. and. After that I went into a bit of a decline. According to Marvin. 35% are only 5% true and the rest are told by Zaphod Beeblebrox". he exhibits remarkable stoicism. Marvin was constructed much against his own wishes by the Sirius Cybernetics Corporation to prototype human personality artificial intelligence. but against all probability. and me with this terrible pain in all the diodes down my left side. creates his own archaeological excavation site. However of the stories of Zaphod's visit to the Frogstar. Cruelly intact. the Guide says "10% are 95% true. having taken them back in time two million years before the present. I don't think it even occurred to them that I might have feelings. while there. are eaten by its crew. the crew accidentally find themselves falling several miles through the air. check airlocks and pick up pieces of paper. The ship turns out to be a Haggunenon battle cruiser. The third ten million I didn't enjoy at all. is set on an . he eventually finds himself on Ursa Minor Beta. He reserved a particular contempt for the sentient doors." Apparently. The Restaurant was constructed on the ruins of the planet they had just left. Trillian claims this story is Zaphod's hallucination. Deciding they had better leave. In his own words: “ I didn't ask to be made: no one consulted me or considered my feelings in the matter. being willing to wait hundreds of billions of years for his employers. the crew make a desperate and futile attempt to engage Marvin's enthusiasm (he "hasn't got one") before he simply does what they really want and opens the door to the ship they want to steal. 14% are 65% true.Marvin the Paranoid Android consistently morose throughout.003. Marvin remains in Heart of Gold whilst Ford. who escape. I was left in a dark room for six months. Marvin rejoins the crew on the Heart of Gold. in fact... The carbon-based members of the crew manage to stay alive by grabbing onto passing giant birds. he grew immensely resentful of the insistence of his new masters (Zaphod Beeblebrox and Trillian. and the entire group. After I was made.000. and listeners are presented with one "version" of that visit. One day it crawled into a cavity in my right ankle and died. —Douglas Adams. However. but excluding Ford Prefect and Arthur Dent. especially as reverse temporal engineering explanation has not entered the plot yet. A subsequent section of Marvin's biography occurs only in the Secondary Phase of the radio series. takes them to the ravaged planet Brontitall. despising their blissful satisfaction with existence. Having landed in a giant floating marble copy of a plastic cup. Davies for the "Depreciation Society" featured a "rat cavity". they find Marvin. 150 Radio and TV series According to his autobiography read in the Secondary Phase of the radio series. In the television series. Marvin has no such luck. the best conversation he'd had was over 40 million years ago. the black ship stolen at the Restaurant at the End of the Universe is actually the stunt ship of the Disaster Area rock band. including Marvin. the crew are teleported directly from Magrathea into the future to the Restaurant at the End of the Universe to find that. and that was with a coffee machine. My first and only true friend was a small rat. During an apparently suicidal confrontation with a pair of trigger-happy cops.. "The first ten million years were the worst. In fact. Zarniwoop and Arthur bother the Ruler of the Universe. using the improbability drive programmed by Zaphod Beeblebrox the Fourth. and the second ten million years. later also Ford Prefect and Arthur Dent) that he open doors. just in time to rescue Zaphod from a robotic tank. Marvin's subsequent survival is never explained. and. leaving when an enraged Arthur hijacks the ship. who had been waiting patiently for their return for 576. from Fit the Twelfth (radio series) ” The cutaway illustration of Marvin made by Kevin J. but did anyone come? Did they hell.. they were the worst too. I have a horrible feeling it's still there.579 years (he counted them). and. they haven't traveled an inch. in the Tertiary Phase.

In the third novel. He is barely functional. his last words are "Goodbye. in which Marvin did not originally appear. I feel good about it. we find that Marvin survived his collision with the sun of Kakrafoon. a fragment of the key that will reopen their imprisoned world and restart the genocidal Krikkit War. who are after his leg. where excited onlookers would try to make him happy. Marvin subsequently saves Zaphod's life by engaging in a battle of wits with a vicious (yet stupid) automated tank. and rather than focusing on their mission of extermination. and he was asked to open the brand new bridge that was meant to revitalise the planet's economy. Marvin is rescued by his friends. Life. He explains that it turned out he was still covered by his warranty agreement. The once formidable Krikkit robots find themselves overcome with crippling sorrow and depression. Arthur and Fenchurch find him on the planet where God's Final Message To His Creation is located. who bring him back to the Heart of Gold. This is a mistake. Eventually the crew arrive at the Restaurant at the End of the Universe and the story continues as with the radio and TV series. he has a cameo at the end of the last episode alive and well. Marvin reappears in the second-to-last chapter of So Long. Marvin responds "I think. he is kidnapped by a squad of Krikkit war robots.5 million years walking around in a circle." The lights in his eyes go out and his already-worn circuits completely stop working. the Restaurant at the End of the Universe. to his own obvious astonishment. Forced to flee in the ship's barely functional teleport. taking the two police who were then firing at the ship's crew with it. Thinking that Marvin's intelligence will be an asset. enduring the robot's constant abuse. but are teleported summarily to Ursa Minor Beta. so he spent just over 1. they wire his brain into the interfaces of their intelligent war computer. the bridge committed suicide. (In the radio dramatisation. commits suicide. taking the entire gathered crowd with it. his false leg having trapped him in the mud. just like the police computer. in the 2005 radio adaptation of the fifth novel in the series. forces Marvin to accompany Zaphod on his mission of self-discovery." Astonishingly." He planned to keep walking in a circle for another million years before trying it backward. "Miserable git!" and then. claiming that. and was sent back in time by the Improbability Field projected by the Heart of Gold to be rescued by a scrap metal merchant on Sqornshellous Zeta. The merchant grafted a steel rod to Marvin's now lost leg. in an apparent fit of vicious humour. Mostly Harmless. It is also due to Marvin's influence that Zaphod and the others' lives are spared by the Krikkit robots. with the exception of "all the diodes down [his] left side. the Universe and Everything. where they lift him up to see the words of the message: "We apologise for the inconvenience. which.Marvin the Paranoid Android irreversible course to collide with the sun of Kakrafoon.. and then is abandoned on the planet Frogstar B when Zaphod is sent to the Total Perspective Vortex. and sold him to a Mind Zoo. due to time travel he is now "thirty-seven times older than the Universe itself. instead sulk in corners doing quadratic equations. the crew politely ask Marvin to stay behind and operate it. . "I'll miss him. where Zaphod's great grandfather. and stoically awaits his fate "almost as good as death" in the heart of the blazing sun.") However." which have been giving him severe pain for the whole of his existence. when exposed to the true nature of Marvin's view of the universe. to the God's Final Message viewing station. and is back to parking cars at Milliways. and. "Just for the variety. and Thanks for All the Fish. The crew leave Magrathea on the Heart of Gold." Every part of his body has been replaced. "just to make the point. Marvin is no more.. Arthur and Fenchurch end up carrying him. He does so. Marvin dutifully plugged himself into the bridge's opening circuit. This made him something of a celebrity on the planet of Sqornshellous Zeta. to add. you understand. From here his story is unknown. Marvin was left in the swamp. Arthur. Marvin inadvertently saves the crew by plugging himself into the onboard computer of a police vehicle." Marvin's 'death' prompts Arthur to say. 151 Novel series A difference to the radio and TV series occurs in the novels when the Heart of Gold crew arrive on the ancient planet of Magrathea." Suddenly.

Marvin is relegated back to a menial servant. "Marvin" "Marvin" was released in 1981. and was featured on one of the Dr. Demento web site. it is ranked 56 out of the top 100 favorite novelty tunes on the official Dr. The title is a reference to "Reasons to be Cheerful. . but with the tape reversed so that the notes play backwards. to a synthesiser backing. The vocal was performed by Stephen Moore. The song involves a spoken exchange between the starship captain (also played by Moore. The intro to the song consists of a simple guitar figure. I'd rather be a lemming"). Marvin describes finding a love letter in his data banks eons after receiving it. Demento "Greatest Hits" compilation albums. As of [10] 2008. "Reasons To Be Miserable" and "Marvin" now being performed by Stephen Fry (singing in the third-person. The song involves Marvin describing his views on life ("I'd feel a little better if they broke me up for spares". reaching number 52 in the British Charts.[4] He is voiced by Alan Rickman. "Metal Man" was the B-side. featuring an over-sized head and stubby limbs. who had played Marvin on the radio and television series. "Marvin I Love You" was the other B-side. and it was a double B-side single released by Polydor[9] on Depressive Discs. The female vocal is provided by Kimi Wong-O'Brien. Part 3" by Ian Dury. The original television costume prop was refurbished for a cameo role in the feature film. The Double B-Side "Reasons To Be Miserable" was released in 1981.Marvin the Paranoid Android 152 Film Warwick Davis played Marvin in the 2005 film. The song was a frequently requested tune on the Dr. to a synthesiser backing.[7][8] The song involves Marvin describing his woes ("My moving parts are in a solid state") and frustrations ("You know what really makes me mad? They clean me with a Brillo Pad"). Moore also narrated the ship's captain on the B-side. and can only be saved by assigning control to Marvin. Two of these were re-recorded and remixed to coincide with the 2005 Hitchhiker's movie release. It was a minor hit. not as Marvin). Songs Stephen Moore released two pop singles—Marvin/Metal Man[6] and Reasons to Be Miserable/Marvin I Love You (double B-side)—in the UK in 1981. Such is the lot of a robot. though neither reached the top 40. In thanks for saving the ship.[5] This Marvin's design is a departure from the Marvin of the television series. The starship is falling into a black hole. Demento radio show. Its official title was The Double 'B'-Side. as is a cameo radio voice) and the depressed robot Marvin. "Marvin" was incorporated into the 2012 live radio show. appearing in the Vogon office queue with various other life forms as well as in the group near the end of the film. "If I had my time again.

Discogs. Jon Kutner and Neil Warwick (2002). "Share and Enjoy: M. douglasadams. ISBN 0-7119-9075-1. Omnibus. htm). ISSN 0091-7729.[11] The song was performed at the very end of the 2012 live radio show. XJ-7.. Titan Books. [8] Rubenstien. For instance. which inspired the movie Blade Runner. com/ Marvin-The-Paranoid-Android-Marvin/ release/ 1154072). A Completely and Utterly Unauthorized Guide to THE HITCHHIKER'S GUIDE" (http:/ / www.com. and the second verse soon after the start of "Fit the Eighteenth" as listed below: Now the world has gone to bed Darkness won't engulf my head I can see by infra-red How I hate the night Now I lay me down to sleep Try to count electric sheep Sweet dream wishes you can keep How I hate the night The line "try to count electric sheep" is a reference to Philip K. Michael-Anne (March 2002).. well i mean Stephen Moore !" (http:/ / www. Science Fiction Studies (Greencastle. com/ 100demented.). Tony. com/ Marvin-The-Paranoid-Android-The-Double-B-Side/ release/ 214117). [11] Gaiman. edu/ sfs/ birs/ bir86b.Marvin (Vinyl) at Discogs (http:/ / www. everything" a reference not only to Marvin. Simpson. "Fans will not want to miss this book. Retrieved 2011-08-24. .The Double B-Side (Vinyl) at Discogs (http:/ / www.com. imdb. did you know that Marvin is the only robot listed in The Guinness Book of British Hit Singles?" [9] Marvin The Paranoid Android . and thought it should have been released. Retrieved October 5. According to Don't Panic. [3] "Exclusive interview with MARVIN." The first verse of "Marvin's Lullaby" appears close to the end of the episode "Fit the Seventeenth". depauw. but the "Ultimate Question of Life. Solonor. life. discogs. com/ name/ nm0000614/ [6] Marvin The Paranoid Android . the Universe and Everything. 75. html). References [1] On Wikiquote [2] The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy. Retrieved on 2012-04-15. the Universe.eu. "The usual. imdb.J. p. [10] Rank (http:/ / solonor. p. 92.). com/ title/ tt0371724/ [5] http:/ / www. Retrieved on 2012-04-15. the universe. Discogs.Marvin the Paranoid Android 153 Marvin's lullaby "How I Hate the Night". The Spaniard electronic music producer Daniel Canelo named his musical project The Happy Marvin Project in reference to the Adams's character. . eu/ en_h2g2_interviews_stephen_moore. Dick's novel Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep?. [7] Brown.com. ISBN 1-85286-411-7. a chronically depressed robot character replied. discogs. php). where it is described as "a short dolorous ditty of no tone. as it contains information they didn't even know that they didn't even know. Neil (1993). also known as "Marvin's lullaby". and Everything" a central tenet of the series' storyline (as well as the title of the third book). was published in the book Life. Indiana: DePauw University) 29 (86). . Douglas Adams wrote a guitar tune for the lullaby. [4] http:/ / www. douglasadams. 646. Retrieved on 2012-04-15. The Complete Book of the British Charts (2nd edition ed. Don't Panic: Douglas Adams and the Hitch-Hiker's Guide To The Galaxy (2nd edition ed. British alternative rock group Radiohead named their 1997 song "Paranoid Android" after Marvin. or indeed tune. p. Outside the Hitchhiker's universe In the episode "Sibling Tsunami" of the animated series My Life as a Teenage Robot. when asked what's wrong. 2012.

brainthesizeofaplanet.shtml) • Marvin's Desolated Fan page (http://www.Marvin the Paranoid Android 154 External links • BBC's page on Marvin (http://www.bbc.html) .co.terryballard.org/marvin.net/) • Marvin's depressing corner of the universe (http://www.uk/cult/hitchhikers/guide/marvin.

a guest at Camelot. to steal the magical sword Excalibur during a joust tournament. ruler of the kingdom of Thule. A young. meanwhile.[1][2] . masquerading as Sir Gawain. some panels of which were used in the movie.Prince Valiant (1997 film) 155 Prince Valiant (1997 film) Prince Valiant Theatrical release poster Directed by Produced by Anthony Hickox Tom Rosenberg James Gorman Bernd Eichinger Michael Frost Beckner Anthony Hickox Carsten H. Edward Fox and Ron Perlman. inexperienced squire Valiant. Valiant and the princess become part of the struggle of "he who holds the sword rules the world" which leads them both to love and Valiant to his princely destiny. the evil sorceress Lady Morgana has convinced the Viking warlord Sligon. as it turns out he is the rightful heir to the throne of Thule. Thomas Kretschmann. Katherine Heigl. It is based on the long-running Prince Valiant comic strip of Hal Foster.W. on her way back home. the villains are killed and Valiant rescues the princess and recovers Excalibur. is sent to accompany the Welsh princess Lady Ilene.[1][2] Plot The story is based on the myth of King Arthur. who also captures Ilene. The usurper is eventually killed by his brother Thagnar. Little he knows that.  Ireland  UK  Germany Language English Prince Valiant is a 1997 Irish-British independent sword and sorcery film directed by Anthony Hickox and starring Stephen Moyer. Lorenz Michael Frost Beckner Prince Valiant by Hal Foster Stephen Moyer Katherine Heigl Thomas Kretschmann Edward Fox David Bergeaud Screenplay by Story by Based on Starring Music by Cinematography Roger Lanser Editing by Distributed by Running time Country Alexander Berner Fox Video 119 min. In a final confrontation.

allmovieportal.com/m/1082087-prince_valiant/) at Rotten Tomatoes • Prince Valiant (http://www.allrovi.tvguide. .com. com/ prince-valiant/ review/ 133443). Retrieved 2011-03-18. [2] "Prince Valiant (1997) by Liz Braun" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2011-03-18. tvguide. html). com/ m/ 1997_Prince_Valiant21.com/movies/movie/v128295) at AllRovi . .rottentomatoes.com.com/title/tt0119947/) at the Internet Movie Database • Prince Valiant (http://www.imdb. Movies.Prince Valiant (1997 film) 156 Cast Actor Stephen Moyer Katherine Heigl Role Prince Valiant Princess Ilene Thomas Kretschmann Thagnar Edward Fox Udo Kier Joanna Lumley Ron Perlman Warwick Davis Anthony Hickox King Arthur Sligon Morgan Le Fay Boltar Pechet Prince Gawain Marcus Schenkenberg Tiny References [1] "Prince Valiant Review" (http:/ / movies. AllMoviePortal. External links • Prince Valiant (http://www.

White Taylor Hackford James L. White Jamie Foxx Kerry Washington Clifton Powell Harry Lennix Terrence Howard Larenz Tate Richard Schiff Regina King Craig Armstrong Ray Charles (songs) Screenplay by Story by Starring Music by Cinematography Paweł Edelman Editing by Studio Paul Hirsch Bristol Bay Productions Anvil Films Baldwin Entertainment Group Universal Studios • Distributed by Release date(s) Running time Country Language Budget Box office October 29. 2004 152 minutes United States English $40 million [1] $124. several months before its premiere. The independently produced film was directed by Taylor Hackford and starred Jamie Foxx in the title role. Foxx received an Academy Award for Best Actor for his performance.Ray (film) 157 Ray (film) Ray Theatrical release poster Directed by Produced by Taylor Hackford Taylor Hackford Stuart Benjamin Howard Baldwin Karen Baldwin James L. but he died of liver disease in June.[3] .731.534 Ray is a 2004 biographical film focusing on 30 years[2] of the life of rhythm and blues musician Ray Charles. Charles was set to attend an opening of the completed film.

Touring across the chitlin circuit. through his Bristol Bay Productions company. Aretha Robinson Kerry Washington as Della Bea Robinson Regina King as Margie Hendricks Renee Wilson as Pat Lyle Larenz Tate as Quincy Jones Harry Lennix as Joe Adams Clifton Powell as Jeff Brown Curtis Armstrong as Ahmet Ertegun Richard Schiff as Jerry Wexler Kurt Fuller as Sam Clark Richard A. Cast • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Jamie Foxx as Ray Charles Sharon Warren as Ray Charles' mother. the soulful singer gained a reputation and then exploded with worldwide fame when he pioneered incorporating gospel. .Ray (film) 158 Plot Raised on a sharecropping plantation in Northern Florida. Hacker Terrence Howard as Gossie McKee Chris Thomas King as Lowell Fulson Wendell Pierce as Wilbur Brassfield Bokeem Woodbine as David "Fathead" Newman Aunjanue Ellis as Mary Ann Fisher C. He later clarified in the liner notes of the soundtrack album that it took that time to secure financing. Inspired by a fiercely independent mother who insisted he make his own way in the world. Ray debuted at the 2004 Toronto International Film Festival. he objected only to a scene showing him taking up piano grudgingly. jazz. Ray Charles Robinson went blind at the age of seven. Taylor Hackford stated in a DVD bonus feature that it took 15 years to make the film. and a scene implying that Charles had shown mistress and lead "Raelette" Margie Hendricks how to shoot heroin. Charles was given a Braille copy of the film's original script. shortly after witnessing his younger brother drown. Smith as Til Patrick Bauchau as Dr. Charles found his calling and his gift behind a piano keyboard. Sanders as Young Ray Robinson Denise Dowse as Marlene Andres Warwick Davis as Oberon David Krumholtz as Milt Shaw Production The film's production was entirely financed by Philip Anschutz. and orchestral influences into his inimitable style. J. country.

In his autobiography.[5] Differences from noted events As noted in the film's final credits. • In the studio scene where Charles is taught the "Mess Around. Charles remembers trying to pull his brother out of the tub after realizing he was drowning but was unable to save him. with critics complaining that the film suffered from a mediocre screenplay buoyed by powerful performances." The "Mess Around" is actually in the key of E flat. with an additional $50 million internationally. Critical reaction The film received mostly positive reviews.S.Ray (film) 159 Soundtrack The following songs were used in the film: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • "Every Day I Have the Blues" "Baby. earning $75 million in the U. Let Me Hold Your Hand" "Mess Around" "I Got a Woman" "Hallelujah." Examples of the fictionalized scenes include: • In the film." he is told it is in the "key of G. he stands there and does nothing as George drowns (because he thought George was joking). locations. Ray is based on true events. when Ray's younger brother George drowns in their mother's wash tub. but includes some characters. and events which have been changed and others which have been "fictionalized for dramatization purposes. . bringing its world wide gross to $125 million.[4] Currently Ray has a certified fresh rating of 81% based on 188 reviews at Rotten Tomatoes. The film however did receive some bad reviews. Most of the praise went to Jamie Foxx's performance for which he was awarded the Academy Award for Best Actor. The film went on to become a box-office hit. 2004 on a budget of $40 million. I Love Her So" "Drown in My Own Tears" "What Kind of Man Are You?" "Mary Ann" "Leave My Woman Alone" "Night Time Is the Right Time" "I Believe To My Soul" "What'd I Say" "Georgia on My Mind" "Hit the Road Jack" "Unchain My Heart" "You Don't Know Me" "I Can't Stop Loving You" "Bye Bye Love" "Born to Lose" "Hard Times (No One Knows Better Than I)" Reception Box office Ray was released in theaters on October 29. names.

an October 2004 article from the Washington Post • Craig Armstrong (Score Composer for Ray) (http://www. Trailers.rottentomatoes.com/movies/movie/v287477) at AllRovi Ray (http://www. htm) [2] Director Hackford noted this focus on the years 1935-1965 in his DVD commentary for the film. com/ m/ ray) External links • Official website (http://www.com/movies/?id=ray. a scene Hackford included at Charles' specific request.allrovi.craigarmstrongonline. Ray actually met Quincy a few days after arriving. Ray meets a teenage Quincy Jones that very night. Pictures – Rotten Tomatoes (http:/ / www.raymovie. Trailers.com/film_score/ray.imdb.com/title/tt0350258/) at the Internet Movie Database Ray (http://www. msnbc.com/m/ray/) at Rotten Tomatoes Taylor Hackford's Unchained Art (http://www.com/wp-dyn/articles/A7913-2004Oct28. [4] Ray – Movie Reviews.boxofficemojo.com/) • Ray (http://www. rottentomatoes. Pictures – Rotten Tomatoes (http:/ / www.htm) • It's a shame about Ray (http://www. msn. html).slate.html) a review at Slate Magazine that lists factual inaccuracies • questions about the film (http://www. the only exception to this focus is the film's final scene featuring Julian Bond and set in the Georgia State Capitol in 1979. [3] "Music legend Ray Charles dies at 73" (http:/ / today. 160 References [1] Ray (2004) (http:/ / boxofficemojo.Ray (film) • In the film.washingtonpost. 2004-06-10.htm) at Box Office Mojo Ray (http://www.edu/content/historyinthemovies/ray. rottentomatoes. AP Associated Press.com/articles/news_and_politics/life_and_art/2004/10/ its_a_shame_about_ray. com/ movies/ ?id=ray. com/ id/ 5182959/ ns/ today-entertainment/ t/ music-legend-ray-charles-dies/ ). . when he arrives at the club he's going to audition at. com/ m/ ray/ ?page=2) [5] Ray – Movie Reviews.htm) • • • • . after reaching Seattle. This event is semi-true.stfrancis.

allowing Narnian soldiers into the castle. He is also pugnacious and quick to defend any affront to his honour. utterly fearless. The three bound and gagged a cat during the operation. causing them to fall.Reepicheep 161 Reepicheep Narnia character Reepicheep in the 2008 film The Chronicles of Narnia: Prince Caspian Reepicheep Race Nation Gender Birthplace Talking Mouse Narnia Male Narnia Major character in Prince Caspian The Voyage of the Dawn Treader Portrayals in adaptations 1989 BBC miniseries: Warwick Davis 2008 Walden/Disney film: Eddie Izzard 2010 Walden/Fox film: Simon Pegg Reepicheep (pron. and faultlessly courteous. near Aslan's How. Reepicheep led two other mice into Miraz's castle during a mission that did not appear in the book. but for the love Reepicheep's people bear him. they became talking mice. He is a large. Ancestry In Prince Caspian. The mice that freed Aslan from his ropes at the Stone Table might be a reference to when Joseph of Arimathea asked Pilate for the body of Jesus Christ to bury in the tomb. as a result of their service. . and also in The Last Battle. He appears in Prince Caspian. Halfway through. apparently not "for the sake of his dignity". The Voyage of the Dawn Treader.S. particularly to noble ladies. However. He is an experienced warrior. as the tail is "the honour and glory of a mouse. and he loses his tail." Aslan expresses concern about whether the mouse thinks too much of his honour. Chronicles of Narnia series. talking mouse who carries a rapier. Reepicheep is badly wounded in the battle. Peepiceek (the second in command of the mice) and the other mice prepare to cut off their own tails to avoid bearing an honour denied to their leader. He petitions Aslan afterward to have it restored. as Aslan states. He and his followers run through the battle and plunge their rapiers into unsuspecting enemy's feet. This solidarity convinces Aslan to restore Reepicheep's tail. and wears a red plume tucked in his golden circlet. Lewis'. after which they are quickly dispatched. Prince Caspian In Prince Caspian. Lewis states that Reepicheep is descended from a group of common mice who gnawed through the ropes that bound Aslan to the Stone Table after the White Witch had killed him. they teamed up with Trumpkin the dwarf and opened the gate. In the 2008 film version. Reepicheep is the leader of the twelve mice who help to fight against Caspian's Uncle Miraz in the Second Battle of Beruna.: /ˈriːpɪtʃiːp/) is a fictional character from C.

he is sometimes compared to St.Reepicheep 162 Voyage of the Dawn Treader In The Voyage of the Dawn Treader. In the movie version The Chronicles of Narnia: The Voyage of the Dawn Treader Reepicheep likewise joins the boat's company. Lewis' Space Trilogy. To find all you seek. Because of this. During the journey. He is exactly as the Pevensies remember him. Reepicheep accompanies Caspian on his voyage in the hope of finding Aslan's Country at the end of the world. Reepicheep re-appears in the final pages of the Last Battle ushering the children into Aslan's Country. but does not explicitly state. . Dr. They eventually become fast companions. The three children are returned to our world through a door in the sky. Reepicheep's fate is also reminiscent of that of the main character from C. Lewis then implies. that Reepicheep ultimately did reach Aslan's Country. it is of course quite possible that all three associations were intended (or that none were). further accentuated in the 2010 film adaptation with the mouse continually riding Eustace in his dragon form in the air. Doubt not. He believes it is possible to sail to Aslan's Country because when he was a baby. so his character's film progression is unknown. not having died or even aged in the hundreds of Narnian years that have passed since their time.S. Reepicheep asks for Aslan's permission to enter Aslan's Country and Aslan says yes. Reepicheep bids farewell to his friends and Caspian before giving up his rapier and before paddling a small canoe up the wave to enter Aslan's country. Where the waves grow sweet. The Last Battle has not been filmed at this time. In That Hideous Strength. When the journey is finished. in Catholic Christian tradition. Reepicheep. Edmund. and disappears. is thought to guard the gates of Heaven and welcome the saints. Eustace and Reepicheep set forth from the Dawn Treader in a small rowboat to the edge of the world. His living departure into a symbolic heaven. see below. Reepicheep teaches Eustace Scrubb about honour. who. The Last Battle Reepicheep appears at the very end of The Last Battle to greet the last of the Narnians at the Emperor's Garden. Elwin Ransom also ascends to heaven without dying. There is the utter East. paddles off in a different direction. and loyalty. Since Lewis was not a strict allegorist. Peter. a dryad prophesied: Where sky and water meet. is more reminiscent of the Old Testament figures Enoch and Elijah. while Reepicheep embarks in his own small coracle. courage. even though at the start of their relationship Eustace treats Reepicheep with great disrespect. Near the Eastern edge of the world. Lucy. however.

Eddie Izzard voiced Reepicheep in the 2008 movie The Chronicles of Narnia: Prince Caspian.Reepicheep 163 Portrayals In the 1989 BBC television miniseries Prince Caspian and the Voyage of the Dawn Treader. who went on to play the part of Nikabrik in the 2008 film The Chronicles of Narnia: Prince Caspian. narniaweb. narniafans. Reepicheep is played by Warwick Davis. com . php [2] http:/ / www. Simon Pegg took over the role for The Chronicles of Narnia: The Voyage of the Dawn Treader. External links • The Voyage of the Dawn Treader at Narnia Fans [1] • NarniaWeb [2] References [1] http:/ / www. com/ books/ bk_vdt.

. Warrick in Star Wars Episode VI: Return of the Jedi. Throughout the film. and it has never been officially released. He thinks he's the only Ewok in the world. Real world locations include Chelsea Football Club's stadium Stamford Bridge.[1] One potential use of the film mooted at the time of filming was to use it as a promotional film for Return of the Jedi.[1] "The film is a curiosity.Return of the Ewok 164 Return of the Ewok Return of the Ewok Directed by Produced by Written by Starring David Tomblin David Tomblin David Tomblin Warwick Davis Roy Kinnear Robert Watts Harrison Ford Mark Hamill Carrie Fisher Anthony Daniels David Prowse Jeremy Bulloch Frank Oz Tim Rose Peter Mayhew David Tomblin Sue Davis Ashley Davis Kim Davis Chelsea Football Club John Williams Supertramp Music by Running time 24 minutes Return of the Ewok is a 1982 mockumentary short. half-documentary about the making of Jedi. starring Warwick Davis as himself in a fictionalized account of how he got the role of Wicket W." Tomblin said in a 1984 interview. but evenutally finds there are others. on which Tomblin worked as first assistant director. [1] Overview The film was created during production of Return of the Jedi. half-fairy tale about a little boy who becomes an Ewok. produced and directed by David Tomblin. Heathrow Airport and Elstree Studios and the actors' dressing rooms there. However. written. these two realities are intermixed to produce an alternate reality. and Endor.[1] The film is set in both the "real world" and the fictional locations of the Star Wars universe. Jabba's Palace. the Death Star II. and as second unit director. post-production on Return of the Ewok was never completed. Fictional locations include Dagobah. filming Ewok battle scenes.

himself Roy Kinnear . though costs were limited to expenses such as film stock. and the Death Star to see Darth Vader.Chewbacca David Tomblin .a little girl Chelsea Football Club . and the voice of Darth Vader and Boba Fett Sue Davis .the Choreographer.[1] Cast • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Warwick Davis .themselves Music • "Star Wars" Theme Music .C-3PO David Prowse . and is chased by Boba Fett.himself Carrie Fisher . It also follows his transformation into Wicket. when Davis mentioned it in an interview for the Star Wars Insider magazine.John Williams • "Take the Long Way Home" . he goes to Elstree Studios where he interacts with the cast." Tomblin said. and many fans had never even heard of it until 1996. As Wicket. and colleagues.the Talent Agent Robert Watts . he even interacts with Luke Skywalker as he jumps out of a movie screen." Tomblin said. he had never shown the film publicly.himself Mark Hamill . he goes to Dagobah to see Yoda.Return of the Ewok 165 Plot Return of the Ewok focuses on the fictional account of Davis' decision to become an actor and act as Wicket in Return of the Jedi. friends. Davis publicly screened the film at the first Star Wars Celebration in 1999.himself and Darth Vader Jeremy Bulloch . including at lunchtimes and on weekends. "Everyone contributed their time and talent for absolutely nothing. I would rush around and try and shoot pieces for it.Warwick's mom Ashley Davis . he visits and interacts with many of the cast and crew of the movie and then characters of the movie. Despite viewings of the film by those close to him.performing Salacious Crumb Peter Mayhew .Warwick's dad Kim Davis . As Warwick. and was also screened . "At lunch times.[1] George Lucas financed the film. As Warwick and as Wicket. At one point.the Producer Harrison Ford .performing Yoda Tim Rose . Production Filming took place during the production of Return of the Jedi.herself Anthony Daniels .Boba Fett Frank Oz .Supertramp Versions Official For many years. the only confirmed copy of Return of the Ewok was a video copy in Warwick Davis' own home entertainment center.[2] This copy has been said by Davis to have been frequently shown to only close family. both in and out of character.

Unlike its counterpart mockumentary." 166 Bootlegs In 2004. Davis said at the convention that he loaned his VHS tape to Lucasfilm. approximately four minutes of the film was made available on the official Star Wars website for members of Hyperspace. such as a brief excerpt shown on VH1.Return of the Ewok at Celebration II in 2002. a copy of the print. Davis has reportedly stated that a future release is "possible. may actually reside in the Lucasfilm archives. a collaboration between Garrett Gilchrist of California and SKot Kirkwood of Texas. At 25 minutes. The original 16 mm print was said to be lost. However. but the auction was pulled because the copy was reportedly given to the seller under strict agreement that it was not to be copied or sold. who made a digital copy of it. England in 1996. Bootleg versions have been placed on YouTube. as well as clips culled from other sources. combined with a camcorder recording of the movie from one of its public showings. the official fan club.com." the online version substitutes incidental music to avoid copyright clearance issues. to download and view after the film was shown at Celebration III. suggesting that it had been preserved. a recording of the entire film was put on eBay by someone who attended a screening. but their copies have yet to surface. Gilchrist digitally cleaned up portions of the video and audio. The copy online at StarWars. or even the original print. R2-D2: Beneath the Dome. Evidence of this was shown on the 2004 DVD release of the Star Wars Original Trilogy. Wicket's cry of "Crikey. In April 2005. At least two people are alleged to have filmed it at Celebration II. and at Celebration III in 2005. no illicit recordings have yet surfaced. it's Lord Vader!" near the end of the film has been excised. The best known quality bootleg of the entire movie is a fan preservation project created in May 2005.com shows minimal amount of cleanup. this version is slightly longer than the original. Although the film was also screened in the Pop Culture room at 2005's Celebration III. Their DVD version combines footage taken from the clip on StarWars. . and the soundtrack has been altered in several places. The first UK screening of this movie was at Empire Day 3 in Watford.in one example. with Gilchrist adding his own opening and ending credits. according to Davis. then combined and edited the footage from different sources together to reconstruct the film. A later showing was at the National Space Centre in Leicester for the Star Wars day convention on November 12 2005. his VHS copy is the only one in existence. Dialogue has also been changed . that it was the source for the Hyperspace clip. It was presented by Warwick Davis and also included a question-and-answer session afterward. Return of the Ewok has not yet been officially released on DVD or any other format. Where the original film used Supertramp's "Take The Long Way Home. and since it was the best known copy. It appeared in a widescreen format in good quality. A clip from the film of Wicket being chased by Boba Fett on the Death Star was included as part of the Easter egg of bloopers from the trilogy.

the film won the Pioneer Award in the Lucasfilm sponsored Official Star Wars Fan Film Awards. Starlog #86 pp. December 1985. to Indy Jones. com/ title/ tt0490479/ . [3] http:/ / www.Return of the Ewok 167 Awards • In 2005. [2] Warwick Davis: Return of the Ewok.44-46. September 1984. imdb.D.29-31. Starlog #101 pp. External links • Return of the Ewok [3] at the Internet Movie Database References [1] David Tomblin: A.58.

Christopher Guest. actor. Jerry Sadowitz. he returned to host in 2011 and again in 2012. five British Comedy Awards. Berkshire. film. Stewart Lee. radio British 1982–present Cringe comedy. Woody Allen. Paul [1] Merton. Larry David. observational comedy Steve Coogan. He has performed on four sell-out stand-up comedy tours. Billy Connolly.Ricky Gervais 168 Ricky Gervais Ricky Gervais Gervais at Comedy Central's "Night of Too Many Stars" in 2010 Birth name Ricky Dene Gervais Born 25 June 1961 Reading. Gervais achieved mainstream fame with his television series The Office and the subsequent series Extras. three Golden Globe Awards. musician.[4] In 2010 he was named on the TIME 100 list of the world's most influential people. Groucho Marx Jane Fallon (1982–present) rickygervais. television. insult comedy. director. producer. Garry Shandling.[6] . born 25 June 1961) is an English comedian. both of which he co-wrote and co-directed with Stephen Merchant. written the best-selling Flanimals book series and starred with Merchant and Karl Pilkington in the most [3] downloaded podcast in the world as of March 2009. Laurel and Hardy. Gervais has won seven BAFTA Awards.[5] In 2010 Gervais became the first British person to host the Golden Globe Awards in 14 years. two Emmy Awards and the 2006 Rose d'Or. The Ricky Gervais Show. as well as a Screen Actors Guild Award nomination. In addition to writing and directing the shows.com [2] Partner(s) Website Ricky Dene Gervais (/dʒərˈveɪz/. writer. Chris Langham. and former radio presenter. Ghost Town and The Invention of Lying. Gervais has also starred in Hollywood films. England Medium Nationality Years active Genres Influences Stand up. Gervais played the lead roles of David Brent in The Office and Andy Millman in Extras. In 2007 he was voted the 11th greatest stand-up comic on Channel 4's 100 Greatest Stand-Ups and again in the updated 2010 list as the 3rd greatest stand-up comic. books.

Gervais later had a band called the Sacred Hearts. leading to the unusual spelling of his middle name. with a high level of honesty and openness between his family members.[14] Gervais attended Whitley Park Infants and Junior Schools and received his secondary education at Ashmead Comprehensive School. During the interview at a local pub.[18] Music In 1983. Gervais tells the author that even his mother admitted his birth was unplanned. he met Jane Fallon. of lung cancer.[15] He arrived to study biology but changed to philosophy after only two weeks.[7] was born and brought up in Whitley. Jane Fallon.[19] Despite not being successful in the UK.[22] In 1998 Gervais was made redundant when the station was taken over by the Capital Radio group. "much like The Waltons". Marsha (born 1948) and Bob (born 1950). His father. Berkshire. According to the 20 December 2003 broadcast of the Ricky Gervais Show. emigrated while on foreign duty during the Second World War from London.Ricky Gervais 169 Early life Gervais. Gervais and Bill Macrae formed the New Wave pop duo. Seona Dancing. Gervais and Merchant returned to Xfm in November 2001 for a Saturday radio show. during his final year as a student at UCL (University College London). The singles failed to break the top 40. before moving on to University College London in 1979. which released two of their singles—"More to Lose" and "Bitter Heart". Gervais noted that he believes his birth was unplanned due to the age difference between his oldest sibling and himself. During one interview with The Independent.[10] and they settled in Whitley. . which was being produced by his girlfriend. in 2000. Merchant agreed to do "all the boring stuff" because of his experience in media studies while Gervais "mess[ed] around". She died. with "More to Lose" charting at No.[17] During his time at UCL.[16] and earned an upper second-class honours degree in the subject. He and Merchant also contributed sketches to BBC Radio 1's The Breezeblock in 1999 and 2000. with whom he has been in a relationship since 1982. After the first series of The Office. Canada. The CV belonged to Stephen Merchant.[21] Needing an assistant. Radio Gervais later worked as an assistant events manager for the University of London Union (ULU). Gervais interviewed the first person whose curriculum vitae he saw.70 on the UK Singles Chart. a Franco-Ontarian.[20] where he continued working until he took a similar job as "head of speech" at Xfm London. The show ran intermittently until January 2004 with breaks of 1–3 months between new shows. and worked as a labourer. Ontario.117 and "Bitter Heart" peaking at No.[8][9] who was English. Jerry Gervais met Eva Sophia House (1925–2000). This was when the pair first worked with Karl Pilkington. Seona Dancing did manage to score a hit in the Philippines with "More to Lose". Lawrence Raymond "Jerry" Gervais (1919–2002). along with siblings Larry (born 1945). aged 74. They were signed by London Records. Gervais was music adviser for the BBC drama This Life.[12] He has claimed that his father was "drunk when he filled in the birth certificate". during a blackout. He claims that his family. which Ian Camfield described as Gervais's "Bon Jovi phase".[11] During Xfm London's The Ricky Gervais Show and in further newspaper interviews with The Independent. made fun of each other regularly. who produced the shows and later collaborated with them on their series of podcasts.[13] Gervais has stated that his upbringing and childhood were stable and trauma-free.

covering several topics.. His mainstream-TV debut came in September 1998 as part of Channel 4's "Comedy Lab" series of pilots.. taking in the clash between the broad comedy of characters Barry (Shaun Williamson) and Darren (Stephen Merchant). Among the other regular featured comedians on the show was Mackenzie Crook.com at a "nominal fee" (later. its comedy department run by a rather crudely stereotyped gay couple"." He remarks on the confused tone of the series. These three were known by Ricky and Steve as "The Fourth Season".[3] On 20 February 2006.670 downloads per episode during its first month. Merchant and Pilkington released another free full-length podcast.[24] Throughout this time. His one-off show Golden Years focused on a David Bowie–obsessed character called Clive Meadows. in which his character used as many expletives as was possible and produced an inordinate amount of politically incorrect statements. this podcast was originally given out for free during a performance of Gervais's Fame tour in London. The English. These audiobooks were described as the 'guide to. which lasted just over an hour. and the apparent parody of this style with When The Whistle Blows. The conversations typically begin on topic. the article. Gervais then came to much wider national attention with an obnoxious. Philosophy. as Dave. it appeared in the 2007 Guinness World Record for the world's most-downloaded podcast. Gervais also wrote for the BBC sketch show Bruiser and The Jim Tavare Show. but adds. Natural History. The Earth.. On 25 November 2007 Gervais. Merchant and Pilkington recorded their fifth season of audiobooks. "particularly in the second series". and Pilkington. after the conclusion of the twelve-podcast series. the BBC is portrayed as interfering. later a co-star of The Office. In October 2007 another free full-length podcast was released through iTunes. Spaced..' series. The World Cup 2010 & Comic Relief. however. Throughout January and February 2006 the podcast was consistently ranked the number-one podcast in the world. In August 2008 Gervais. having gained an average of 261. and "given their total indulgence of Gervais.Ricky Gervais 170 Podcast On 5 December 2005 Guardian Unlimited began offering free weekly podcasts featuring Gervais. In late 2006 three more free podcasts were released. Together called "The Podfather Trilogy". penning several sketches.. they debuted individually at Halloween. Pegg later joked that Dave was a younger . also describes him as "a very funny man" who "created one of the great sitcoms". there are 12 "Guides" in total: Medicine. Awards in 2007 The Independent newspaper has described Gervais as "obsessed by his own celebrity". Two years later. Gervais went on to present his own comedy chat show for Channel 4 called Meet Ricky Gervais.. The Human Body. but. The Future. Merchant.. these had to be called audiobooks in accordance with iTunes policy). As of May 2011. but constantly stray away from the topic at hand. Thanksgiving and Christmas. "Who wouldn't want to be Peter Lawford in a comedy Rat Pack?" in reference to Ricky Gervais Meets. it Gervais at the 60th British Academy Film was poorly received and has since been mocked by Gervais himself. which were released on 16 September 2008. Society. Television Gervais has contributed to the BAFTA-winning The Sketch Show (ITV). Law & Order. and he had a cameo role in Simon Pegg and Jessica Hynes's sitcom. it was announced that all future episodes would be available from Audible.[23] The Guardian's Chris Tryhorn explained the "few gripes" he had with Extras. cutting persona featured in a topical slot that replaced Ali G's segments on the satirical Channel 4 comedy programme The 11 O'Clock Show in early 1999. Two more series—-each with six podcasts—-were released between February and September 2006. Arts. totalling 4 chapters. "You can forgive Gervais a certain arrogance after the success of The Office.

"It's funny". a longstanding Simpsons fan.[25] Gervais guest-starred in an episode of The Simpsons entitled "Homer Simpson... On 25 and 26 December of the same year Channel 4 aired similar specials in which he interviewed the actor/comedian Christopher Guest and comedian Garry Shandling. and his performance was more warmly received by critics. A source claimed. We watch Celebrity Big Brother at the moment. Gervais has also guest-starred on Alias (appearing in the third-season episode "Façade") as Daniel Ryan. In June 2010 it was announced that Gervais had been cast in the upcoming Season 8 of Curb Your Enthusiasm playing himself. This Is Your Wife". Gervais clarified the extent of his input in a joint interview (with Christopher Guest) for Dazed and Confused magazine (January 2006): "No.[31] As of January 2013... presented a segment to mark the show's 20th anniversary on BBC Two's The Culture Show on 16 June 2007. Gervais made a cameo appearance on Saturday Night Live in a Digital Short during which he joked that The Office was adapted from a Japanese programme of the same name (with Steve Carell reprising his role as Michael Scott).Ricky Gervais David Brent and that he and Hynes were the real minds behind The Office. The episode was the highest rated in Sky One's history. Asked in a separate interview about how his idea for the episode (in which Homer swaps Marge on a game show) came about. and on 18 July 2006 in Australia. and The Hollywood Reporter. he has made 23 guest appearances on Late Show with David Letterman on the CBS network. Gervais was a guest judge on Jerry Seinfeld's NBC show The Marriage Ref alongside Larry David and Madonna. On 5 January 2006 he interviewed Larry David in a one-off special. which aired on 26 March 2006 in the United States.' list programmes.[26] Gervais. There are no plans for further episodes of Meets. although editions with John Cleese and Matt Groening were recorded in 2006 for broadcast in 2007. on 23 April 2006 on satellite station Sky One in the United Kingdom (first appearing on terrestrial television in 2010). arguably because of its extensive promotion. Me being serious. The sketch re-creates scenes from the American and British pilot episode with Japanese elements (although in an exaggerated way). making him the first master of ceremonies since 1995. Gervais replied: I've always been fascinated with reality game shows but I think it was my girlfriend's idea. we watch all those reality TV shows — The Office came out of those docu-soaps"."[27] His performance as host received a mixed response with positive reviews from the New York Daily News and the Associated Press. Gervais also appeared in a few of Channel 4's 'Top 100.[30] On 1 April 2010 Gervais made his first appearance on Late Night with Jimmy Fallon on NBC. I'm going to get the credit.[28][29] He returned to host the show again in 2011 and 2012. all I did was put down a load of observations on an email and they made it look like a Simpsons script.. In January 2009. "The Shandling experience put him off for good". Larry David. Ricky Gervais Meets. I can't watch it". but there are just some things you don't turn down. and I can't watch it. a former Royal Navy bomb-disposal specialist turned rogue Irish Republican Army bomb-maker. Gervais was interviewed by James Lipton for Season 15 of BravoTV's Inside the Actors Studio. Get Me out of Here. which revolved around the angle that Gervais was the episode's sole writer (and the first guest star on the show to also receive a writing credit for the episode of his appearance). but I think everyone in the industry knows it was a joint effort". He has said about the appearance. but also some negative comments from industry bible. He stated: "I have resisted many other offers like this.. 171 . Gervais laughs at the end. His voice was redubbed for the US market... "I did an episode of Alias. In January 2010 he hosted the 67th Golden Globe Awards. we watch I'm a Celebrity.. "because it's racist". and he voiced the character of Penguin in Robbie the Reindeer's Legend of the Lost Tribe. He is the only British comic to write and star in a Simpsons episode.

and they also co-wrote the episode "The Convict" for the show's third series. Gordon Ramsay. and the show then switched to BBC One in December 2003 for its final two special episodes. Brazil and the United States.. Robert Lindsay. Patricia Potter. Gervais also won a Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Lead Actor in a Comedy Series. Clive Owen. repeats. Gervais (right) with Jonathan Ross at Live 8 in July 2005 Extras was awarded the Golden Globe Award for Best Television Series – Musical or Comedy on 14 January 2008. Stephen Merchant had to make his own short film. a background artist. Germany..[32] With help from Ash Atalla. Guest stars on the first series of Extras include Ross Kemp. while on a BBC production course. Warwick Davis. He chose to make a docu-soap parody. Millman is more self-aware and intentionally humorous than Gervais's The Office character David Brent. and DVDs helped spread the word. Chris Martin. Les Dennis. who assumed the role offered to Harris. set in an office." Gervais claimed that Harris simply "didn't get it". who then passed it on to Head of Comedy Jon Plowman. Gervais appears as himself talking about the episode that will air. Samuel L. Vinnie Jones. Stephen Fry. it's pure filth. this isn't clever writing. In February 2007 ventriloquist Keith Harris refused an invitation to appear on the second series of Extras. The original UK version is currently airing on Adult Swim on Fridays. Quebec. I'm not desperate.. Ben Stiller. Jackson. This sketch later formed the basis of the interview episode.[36] Keith Chegwin. Patrick Stewart. Jonathan Ross and David Tennant. Keith Chegwin. He said. featuring guest appearances by George Michael. David Bowie. in September 2002. on Ricky Gervais Meets. who eventually commissioned a full-pilot script from Merchant and Gervais. Kate Winslet. I read the script and thought."[37] . creators of these shows. Sir Ian McKellen. The first six-episode series of The Office aired in the UK in July and August 2001 to little fanfare or attention. Merchant passed this tape on to the BBC's Head of Entertainment Paul Jackson at the Edinburgh Fringe. He has interviewed both Larry David and Garry Shandling. Moira Stuart.. I [35] When asked about Harris's refusal on Friday Night with Jonathan Ross. the sitcom ran for twelve episodes and starred Gervais as Andy Millman. In one of those segments Gervais claimed the episode "Training" to be his favourite. also comprising six episodes. it received its premiere on HBO in the United States in September 2005.[34] The second series topped the BBC Two ratings. Some have suggested that Gervais is influenced by Curb Your Enthusiasm and The Larry Sanders Show in making Extras. Robert De Niro and Jonathan Ross. France. The Office has since been remade for audiences in Sweden. and prior to the show's airing. Extras Extras had its debut on the BBC on 21 July 2005. building up huge momentum and anticipation for the second series. Orlando Bloom. said "the people who didn't get it probably think Johnny Depp really is a pirate. Written and directed by Ricky Gervais and Stephen Merchant.Ricky Gervais 172 The Office In August 1999. particularly in the format of celebrities making fools of themselves or subverting their public personas. "[Gervais] wanted me to be a racist bigot . turned it down. Richard Briers. Ronnie Corbett.[24] and in the Gervais joke of someone making inappropriate remarks in front of a member of a minority.. A Christmas special of Extras aired on 27 December 2007 in the UK and on 16 December 2007 in the US. Sophia Myles.[33] Word-of-mouth. A second series began on 14 September 2006 in the UK and featured appearances by Daniel Radcliffe. Gervais and Merchant are producers of the American version. Kate Winslet and Francesca Martinez. Dame Diana Rigg.

It’s about a bunch of people with nothing. Million Pound Drop and Britain's Got Talent – but his main hobby is autograph hunting". British comedian Kerry Godliman plays Derek's best friend Hannah and David Earl plays Kev."[45] The show stars actor Warwick Davis playing a fictionalised version of himself. The show was developed using original podcast recordings from The Ricky Gervais Show starring Gervais. from an idea by Warwick Davis.[41] Throughout January and February 2006 the podcast was consistently ranked the number one podcast in the world.[56] He chose to set the sitcom in a retirement home after he watched Secret Millionaire – "It was always these people with huge problems who were helping other people."[56] Gervais's co-host Karl Pilkington makes his acting debut as Derek's friend and caretaker Dougie who also works in the retirement home. I think it's perfect for now."[56] On 9 May 2012. but making the most of it. Cable channel HBO recommissioned the show for a second series. Gervais responded: "I’ve never thought of him as disabled. When portraying someone with disabilities I usually get someone with that disability to play them. who themselves are losers and have their own problems. 2003. In November 2005 Guardian Unlimited offered the show as a podcast series of 12 shows. Gervais filmed in London a 35-minute pilot episode for a potential comedy-drama series called Derek.[57] Gervais said that the series is about "kindness [being] more important than anything else". as well as Gervais and Merchant in cameo roles as themselves.[46][47] The show began airing on BBC Two on 10 November 2011. The original audio show was broadcast in November 2001 on radio station Xfm. I thought about having Derek help old people because no one cares about old people in this country. Deal or No Deal. have the US rights and began airing the series on 19 February 2012. having gained an average of 261.[38][39] In the UK.670 downloads per episode during its first month. who co-produced the series with the BBC. After receiving a loyal and enthusiastic following in the US. 2004 and mid-2005. and Karl Pilkington. And it’s about the people who help them. The episode is produced by Charlie Hanson. and aired in weekly periods for months at a time throughout 2002."[58] Gervais said he wanted to "do normal people with normal problems again" after exploring fame in his previous series and "get close to real emotion". and they’re together. Bean. it appeared in the 2007 Guinness World Record for the world's most downloaded podcast. who "loves animals.[54][55] Gervais says Derek was "an excuse to see the world differently. Stephen Merchant.Ricky Gervais 173 The Ricky Gervais Show (animated series) The Ricky Gervais Show is an animated TV show that debuted on US cable network HBO on 19 February 2010. He’s cleverer than Baldrick and Father Dougal and he certainly hasn’t got as big a problem as Mr. He added "It’s about the forgotten – everyone’s forgotten. Jesus. according to the BBC. and they’re in there now because they’re in the last years of their life. It’s all these arbitrary people who didn’t know each other."[59] The pilot caused controversy even before its broadcast as some critics felt that Gervais was mocking disabled people. The character first appeared as an aspiring comedian who loves animals and still lives with his mother in a 2001 Edinburgh Festival Fringe sketch. which aired on Channel 4 on 12 April 2012. Channel 4 announced that it had commissioned a full series of Derek to air in early 2013.. It is described by Gervais as being about "the life of a showbiz dwarf" and as "a cross between Extras and Curb Your Enthusiasm and One Foot in the Grave but with a dwarf.[42][43] By September 2006. which aired in 2011.[50][51] Derek In November 2011. the first series began airing on 23 April 2010 on Channel 4. That is out and out funny. Rolf Harris.[44] Life's Too Short In April 2010 it was announced that Gervais and Stephen Merchant would be writing a new show.[60] . the podcasts of the series had been downloaded "nearly 8 million" times. an observational sitcom series called Life's Too Short.[40] and a third series which started airing in April 2012.. a 49-year-old retirement home worker.[52][53] The pilot is solely written and directed by Gervais and features him in the title role of Derek Noakes. He’s not that bright but neither are Kev or Dougie.[48][49] Premium cable channel HBO.

the show also featured Jimmy Carr. The Politics tour followed a year later. having interviewed them extensively for television. referring to the December 2006 murders of five prostitutes in Ipswich. but his first successful show took place at the Cafe Royal. with the panellists playing themselves in promos for the second series of Extras. The third part of the themed live trilogy. Titled Rubbernecker.[61] More dates were added. quite honestly". New York. Gervais performing in 2007 Gervais's fourth show was entitled Science. "Go out and kill a prostitute". Julian Hall gave Science two stars out of five. Critic Mark Lawson is a great admirer of Gervais and Merchant. That is the problem with comedy. print Front Row. they want to make a joke out of anything. took place in 2007. Robin Ince and Stephen Merchant. I feel he's just being uncaring.[66] The DVD for Science was released on 15 November 2010. and commenced with an eleven date tour in August 2009 at the Scottish [64] [65] The show opened to little critical praise. Writing for The Exhibition and Conference Centre in Glasgow. the television in the game and the radio. They were not favourable. Mark Kermode and Mark Lawson also appeared as themselves reviewing When The Whistle Blows in a series episode. Fame. to a [63] The story referred to a question asked of Gervais five years Scottish audience. Gervais closed each show by calling Hislop an "ugly little pug-faced cunt". Fame was the subject of some controversy in January 2007 when Gervais told a story. a joke that is funny today can be a terrible faux pas tomorrow". The joke drew criticism from the father of victim Tania Nicol: "These days. earlier by a reporter: what could someone do to become famous like you? To which he replied. Gervais later toured the UK in 2003 with his stand-up show Animals. It started in Glasgow in January and ended in Sheffield in April.[67] In November 2009 he headlined the sixth annual New York Comedy Festival at Carnegie Hall. Panel regulars Germaine Greer. Independent.[62] After this.[69] Grand Theft Auto IV Gervais is one of two featured comedians (the other being Katt Williams) in the video game Grand Theft Auto IV who performs at the Comedy Club. Newsnight Review's panel saw Animals during its Bloomsbury run and covered it in January 2003. to be titled Humanity. and the Edinburgh International Television Festival. Both of these shows were recorded for release on DVD and television broadcast. ostensibly about how people will do anything to become famous. He followed up with the punch line. Further coverage on Newsnight Review has been overwhelmingly favourable. "I won't do that bit in Ipswich".[68] Gervais has begun writing his fifth stand-up routine. with Private Eye editor Ian Hislop being the most explicit in his criticism.Ricky Gervais 174 Stand-up comedy Gervais made some attempts at stand-up in the late 1990s. as part of the 2001 Edinburgh Festival Fringe. Blackpool reported selling out of tickets within 45 minutes of them going on sale. DVD releases . Gervais defended himself: "I do want people to know that that happened five years ago and is not related to anything now. stating that it was Gervais's "most disappointing" offering yet.

Flanimals (illustrated by Rob Steen). including dolls and gift cards. "That way it stands a chance of being the next Dr. as well as The World of Karl Pilkington presented by Gervais and Merchant. Roz Ryan. about class. McPhee in 2006's Night at the Museum and its sequel Night at the Museum 2. which was released on 19 September 2008. as a studio executive in 2006's For Your Consideration. which depicted nonsense animals. He has also been cast as Mole in the 2012 adaption of The Wind in the Willows.K. with Flanimals of the Deep coming the next year.Ricky Gervais 175 Title Released Notes Animals 17 November 2003 Live at the Bloomsbury Theatre.[78] . and as "Ferdy the Fence" in the 2007 film Stardust. starring himself. featuring effects by Weta Workshop in New Zealand. Seuss or Mr. Film Gervais's film career has included small roles as the voice of a pigeon in 2005's Valiant. with the film grossing $570 million worldwide. was released in October 2007. Men". His role in Night at the Museum has proven to be one of Gervais's most popular roles.[71] although Gervais had previously claimed signing a Hollywood film deal[72] so that a franchise could be developed. as museum director Dr. and was in Lowell. and the remaining episodes following in 2003. Jason Bateman.. love and fulfilment. Gervais was the voice of Argonaut in Spy Kids: All the Time in the World.[77] The film was released in April 2010. London Politics 15 November 2004 Live at the Palace Theatre.[70] There is a wide range of Flanimals merchandise available. set in 1970s Britain. A six-part Flanimals TV series has been commissioned by ITV. London Books Flanimals Gervais released a children's book in 2004.[73] Other books The Office scripts have been released in book form. he released its sequel More Flanimals in 2005. Philip Seymour Hoffman and Edward Norton. was co-written and co-directed by Gervais and Matt Robinson.[76] Gervais and co-writer Stephen Merchant made a film called Cemetery Junction. released in 2011. with appearances by Tina Fey. Jeffrey Tambor. Massachusetts during May 2008 filming his next project. Flanimals: The Day of the Bletchling. The comedy.[74][75] Gervais starred in Ghost Town. A new Flanimals book. After the success of this book. Jennifer Garner. Rob Lowe and Louis C. with Series 1 issued in 2002. These were essentially transcripts of Xfm shows and podcasts. released in 2009. In late 2006 the Extras script book was released. The Invention of Lying. London Fame 12 November 2007 Live at the HMV Hammersmith Apollo. Flanimals: Pop Up was also published in 2009. London Science 22 November 2010 Live at the HMV Hammersmith Apollo.

Gervais introduced Rob Reiner appearing in the guise of spoof film director Marty Di Bergi.E. at their Fight Factory gymnasium. a music event celebrating the life of the Princess of Wales. For this. On his Saturday afternoon radio show on Xfm London Gervais and partners Merchant and Pilkington had discussions on both Gervais's attitude towards boxing and training in general. Towards the end of the event — after a pre-recorded introduction from Ben Stiller — Gervais appeared along with fellow Office star Mackenzie Crook. Gervais later said that the experience was the 'most difficult thing' he had ever done. for Comic Relief. Gervais then had to fill time until he was able to re-introduce Elton John to close the show.[80] His jibes were described as setting "a corrosive tone" by one critic. who in turn introduced Spinal Tap.. linked acts from the studio with Jonathan Ross. similar to the New York Friars Club roast style jokes. so he did the David Brent dance again.M.[81][82] Ricky Gervais performing at Tribeca Performing Arts Center in 2007 Boxing In 2002 Gervais took part in a charity boxing match against Grant Bovey — known to the public only due to his relationship with TV personality Anthea Turner. due to his dislike of slight pain and his inexperience with fitness in general. [83] The following week. They performed Free Love Freeway. Gervais was trained for the three-round contest by famous boxing trainer brothers Frank and Eugene Maloney. "Yes I am resting on my fucking laurels you cunt!" In this video Gervais mocked Jim Shelley typing the words "Resting . recorded and fully motion-captured. and Gervais came out on top by a split decision verdict. But Has Ricky Gervais Lost It?".[79] Gervais has also hosted the 2010. though some celebrities were seen crying from laughter. It was the second televised charity boxing match. In July 2007. concluding with the words. the first being Bob Mortimer against Les Dennis.Ricky Gervais 176 Other appearances On 2 July 2005 Gervais appeared at the Live 8 event held in London's Hyde Park. appearing in his role as a comedian in a comedy club. and also introduced the group R. The Guardian ran a column by Daily Mirror television critic Jim Shelley entitled "Call Me Crazy.. He produced a series of short films for the cause. London. as himself. On 7 July 2007 Gervais appeared at the UK leg of Live Earth at Wembley Stadium. His 2011 hosting of the awards was controversial for his edgy jokes that were at the expense of many of the nominees. Merchant had questions as to why Gervais was participating in the event. 2011.000 prize money to the training of a Macmillan nurse. Concert for Diana and Live Earth On 1 July 2007 Gervais performed at the Concert for Diana in Wembley Stadium.. where he performed his famous dance. as well as his likelihood of victory against Bovey. Initially. and as an interviewee on radio station We Know The Truth. following Gervais's appearance at the memorial concert for the Princess of Wales. Due to a technical problem. and 2012 Golden Globe Awards. Gervais also has a role in the video game Grand Theft Auto IV. as well as singing the "Little Fat Man" song as performed by David Bowie in episode two of the second series of Extras. The Guardian noted that where he described Gervais as a "tiresome embarrassment". He donated his £5. leaving the overall reaction to be 'mixed'. The fight was televised by the BBC. a special 3-minute act was written. Gervais had responded with "an exhilaratingly foul-mouthed tirade" on his website. a song previously heard in the fourth episode of series one of The Office.

one for the show itself).[88] He later apologised.[94][95] He has also expressed his desire to open an animal sanctuary in the future. The award is given to "an individual who has made an exceptional contribution to the global entertainment business".[92] Gervais is a fervent supporter of animal rights. and started appearing in adverts and began the development of a mobile app in order to fund it.[90] having moved from Bloomsbury.[96][97][98] [93] Gervais is an atheist. He says they chose not to marry because "there's no point in us having an actual ceremony before the eyes of God because there is no God" or have children because they "didn't fancy dedicating 16 years of our lives. of course". In December 2010 he wrote an editorial for The Wall Street Journal defending his non faith. amongst others.[102] Accolades and awards Gervais has received many awards for his work on The Office. a historically derogatory term for mentally disabled people. He has spoken out against fox hunting and bullfighting. most notably two Golden Globes (one for acting. producer and screenwriter Jane Fallon. they bought a second home on the Upper East Side of Manhattan in New York City. And there are too many children. Gervais attracted criticism for his repeated use of the word "mong" (short for "mongoloid"). Gervais received an honorary award at the annual Rose d'Or ceremony in Switzerland on 29 April 2006.[99][100] stating he lost his faith at the age of eight. as well as numerous British Academy Television Awards and British Comedy Awards. quipping "What's the point? What is there to beat?"[84] On 18 October 2011.[103] On 16 September 2007 Gervais won an Emmy Award for Outstanding Lead Actor in a Comedy Series for his role of Andy Millman on Extras. and has been a fan of wildlife documentaries since he was a child. with his girlfriend of 30 years.[87] Gervais initially remained defiant over his use of the word.[85] Gervais claimed the word no longer represented this meaning. most commonly used against those with Downs syndrome.[101] and in June 2008 he became an Honorary Associate of the National Secular Society.[91] In August 2008. and wrote to Gordon Brown urging him to stop the use of black bear fur as caps for the Foot Guards.[89] 177 Personal life Gervais lives in Hampstead.[104] Awarding Body/Event BAFTA Awards • • • • • • • British Comedy Award • • • • • Broadcasting Press Guild Awards • • 2007 Best Comedy Performance 2004 Best Comedy Performance 2004 Best Situation Comedy The Office (UK) 2003 Best Comedy Performance 2003 Situation Comedy Award The Office (UK) 2002 Best Comedy Performance 2002 Situation Comedy Award The Office (UK) 2008 Best TV Comedy Actor 2004 Writer of the Year Ricky Gervais & Stephen Merchant 2002 Best Comedy Actor 2002 Best Television Comedy The Office (UK) 2001 Best New Television Comedy The Office (UK) 2003 Writer's Award for: The Office (UK) 2002 Writer's Award for: The Office (UK) Awarded . saying that he found it hard to believe that "idiots" still used the word to refer to people with Down Syndrome.[86] Although other comedians and support groups for the disabled pointed out that verbal and physical abuse of the disabled was on the increase.Ricky Gervais on his laurels" as Gervais jokingly lashed out by stating he was resting on his laurels and that he was not going to make another show for television.

producer Writer. director. Bertram Pincus Satellite Award for Best Actor – Motion Picture Voice Role Notes 2009 Night at the Museum: Battle of the Smithsonian Dr.) 2008 Best Television Comedy or Musical (TV) Extras 2003 Best Actor — Musical or Comedy (TV) The Office (UK) 2003 Best Television Comedy The Office (UK) 2004 Peabody Award The Office (UK) 2006 Honorary Rose for Exceptional Contribution to the Global Entertainment Business 2003 Best Comedy Performance for: The Office (UK) 2008 Best Actor in a Motion Picture. Comedy or Musical Ghost Town 2004 Individual Achievement in Comedy The Office (UK) 2007 Best Comedy Series The Office (U.S. McPhee 2009 The Invention of Lying 2010 Cemetery Junction 2011 Spy Kids: All the Time in the World 2011 The Muppets 2012 The Wind in the Willows 2014 The Muppets..S. McPhee Ferdy the Fence Dr.) 2012 Lifetime Achievement Award 178 Golden Globe Filmography Film Year 2001 Dog Eat Dog 2005 Valiant 2006 For Your Consideration 2006 Night at the Museum 2007 Stardust 2008 Ghost Town Title Bouncer Bugsy Martin Gibb Dr. executive producer Voice Cameo Scene cut from final film Voice Television .Again! Mark Bellison Len Taylor Argonaut Himself Mole Dominic "Number Two" [76] Writer. director..Ricky Gervais Emmy Awards • • • • • Peabody Awards Rose d'Or Royal Television Society Satellite Awards Television Critics Association Writers Guild of America Shorty Award • • • • • • • 2007 Outstanding Lead Actor in a Comedy Series Extras 2006 Emmy Outstanding Comedy Series The Office (U.

director. This Is Your Wife" 2001–2003 The Office (UK) 2002 2004 2005 Robbie the Reindeer in Legend of the Lost Tribe Penguin Alias Kelsey Grammer Presents: The Sketch Show Daniel Ryan Various Andy Millman Charles Heathbar Himself Himself Himself Himself Dr. executive producer Writer Episode: "Homer Simpson. Ben Himself David Brent Himself Himself Himself Himself God (Himself) Billy Finn Derek Noakes Himself [105] 2005–2007 Extras 2006 2008 2009 2010 2010 2010 2011 2011 2011 2011 2011 2011 2012 2012 2012 2012 The Simpsons Out of England: The Stand-Up Special Sesame Street The Ricky Gervais Show An Idiot Abroad Louie Life's Too Short The Office (US) The Simpsons Curb Your Enthusiasm Talking Funny An Idiot Abroad 2: The Bucket List Afterlife Family Guy Derek An Idiot Abroad 3: The Short Way Round 3 episodes 2 episodes Writer Episodes: "The Seminar" and "Search Committee" Episode: "Angry Dad: The Movie" Episode: "The Hero" Episode: "Be Careful What You Fish For" Writer. director 16 episodes Voice Episode: "Façade" Unknown episodes 13 episodes Writer. executive producer .Ricky Gervais 179 Year 1998 1999 1999 2000 2000 2001 2001 Title The 11 O'Clock Show The Jim Tavaré Show Comedy Lab Bruiser Meet Ricky Gervais The Sketch Show Spaced Role Various Unknown episodes Writer of 12 episodes Clive Meadows Writer Notes Various characters 7 episodes Episode: "Golden Years" Writer Himself Various Dave David Brent 6 episodes Unknown episodes 1 episode Writer. director.

. 'I remember going out for a drink with Steve early on. [9] "Megan Smolenyak: You Asked for It. dailymail. com/ megan-smolenyak-smolenyak/ you-asked-for-it-ricky-ge_b_531001." [23] "Ricky Gervais: Step into my office — People. How I Escaped My Certain Fate. co. findmypast." [22] The Observer (2006). [4] "The 100 Greatest Stand-Ups" (http:/ / www. [14] The Independent (2005)." He said: "OK. Huffington Post. was set in a blacksmith's. 8 April 2010. co. jsp). Retrieved 22 May 2010. html). London: Blogs. Retrieved 21 November 2009. "You've done media studies. [2] http:/ / www. .guardian. Gervais moved from ULU to a job as head of speech at the alternative radio station Xfm. Retrieved 21 November 2009. "Ricky Gervais: A lucky man lurks behind David Brent – but just who is he?" (http:/ / www. com/ programmes/ the-100-greatest-stand-ups/ articles/ greatest-stand-ups-of-all-time). "If the Waltons took the piss out of each other. html). p. Ginny (3 June 2010). ComingSoon. Faber and Faber Ltd. Retrieved 25 March 2009. The video for one. The Independent (UK). – Mail Online" (http:/ / www. John (6 February 2006). Findmypast." And that was that. uk/ BirthsMarriagesDeaths. – "The youngest. html). co.. The Independent (UK). "She went 'You was an accident'. . 'When I was working at ULU I never thought." I thought: "This is quite a good job.uk" (http:/ / news. "Bitter Heart"." The first time he did. Like The Waltons. com/ time/ specials/ packages/ completelist/ 0. Their singles reached 117 and 70. . uk/ tvshowbiz/ article-1129313/ The-jokes-Ricky-Gervais-reveals-father-drunk-filled-birth-certificate. Retrieved 24 September 2010. telegraph. 28 [17] Heatley 2006. Daily Mail (UK). p. co. "Extras work needed. I went 'Cheers!' Ha ha! A lot of honesty in my family" [13] "The joke's on Ricky Gervais as he reveals his father 'may have been drunk' when he filled in his birth certificate. The Daily Telegraph [19] The Independent (2005). html). 23. uk/ organgrinder/ 2006/ 09/ extras_work_needed_ricky. by some way.uk. he says. "He'll be alright. independent. of four brothers. Time Magazine. "Gervais podcast in the record books" (http:/ / media. a mistake. Retrieved 24 September 2010.net.co. . huffingtonpost. his family reasoned. you can do all the boring stuff. pp. uk/ site/ story/ 0. "Merchant was his deputy. [10] The Independent (2005) – "His father. during a blackout and they settled in Reading. html). Jerry. Huffington Post. com/ [3] Plunkett. .' Gervais says. . [12] The Independent (2005) – "Ricky Gervais was born 44 years ago. Ricky Gervais!" (http:/ / www. co. was French-Canadian . they mostly worked on little routines." [11] Dougary. his childhood was trauma-free. Merchant was sometimes obliged to wheel his boss around the office in his executive chair. 28 [16] Heatley 2006."" [15] Heatley 2006. com/ ginny-dougary/ ricky-gervais-in-his-most_b_524351.' he says. he was in a band himself. "This is shit" or "The money is bad. Instead of worrying too much about being heads of speech.1703591. independent. Robert (21 December 2002). . Retrieved 24 September 2010. [6] "Ricky Gervais to Return as Golden Globes Host!" (http:/ / www. time." he says. ISBN 978-0-571-25482-8. 'I said to him. Retrieved 24 September 2010. co.00. Guardian Unlimited" (http:/ / blogs. uk/ culture/ 5158001/ Ricky-Gervais-Grumpy-middle-aged-man. huffingtonpost." [21] The Observer (2005) "Instead of a stand-up career. But that never worried me at the time. html). soldier stationed here during the war. I'll mess around.co. 11 April 2010. Retrieved 16 November 2011. The Guardian. Ricky?. He met Eva. [8] "Deaths England and Wales 1984–2006" (http:/ / www. 14 January 2007. . co. uk/ people/ profiles/ article2152792." I suppose if all this had not come along I might now have been a 43-year-old entertainments manager. Gervais recently admitted in an interview that he had "a very honest family" and the only lie his mother ever told him was that God existed. Chris (22 September 2006). all the filing. You had to be able to answer back. channel4. comingsoon.co.Ricky Gervais 180 Video games Year Title Role Notes 2008 Grand Theft Auto IV Himself Voice and likeness References [1] Stewart Lee (2010). uk/ news/ people/ profiles/ ricky-gervais-a-lucky-man-lurks-behind-david-brent--but-just-who-is-he-611664.. . Organgrinder. guardian. he got a laugh and. rickygervais.29569. [7] Hanks.uk." [20] The Observer (2005) "'Not at all. net/ news/ movienews. . [24] Tryhorn. 27 January 2009. – "Aged 21. "Ricky Gervais in his most 'postmodern' interview ever" (http:/ / www. 39 [18] "Ricky Gervais: Grumpy middle-aged man" (http:/ / www. . guardian.00. html). . html). [5] "The 2010 Time 100" (http:/ / www. News — Independent. 16 November 2011. the comedian's mother. php?id=84317). new romantics Seona Dancing. ece). "My mum told me that. Retrieved 27 March 2010.1984685.

21 February 2006. Retrieved 11 September 2009. . 22 April 2010. YouTube. guardian.com (http:/ / www. ew. html). . Digital Spy. co. nme. "Ricky Gervais to Host Golden Globes" (http:/ / www.com. Henry. guardian. 1 February 2007. sky. uk/ arts/ main. Independent News and Media Limited. Retrieved 19 March 2012. Ken. [42] "Entertainment. co. com/ tvguide/ 413550_tvgif22. John (6 February 2006). BBC One. co. [45] "Gervais' Life's Too Short" (http:/ / tv. uk/ 2/ hi/ entertainment/ 5370282. com/ thissideofthetruthe. html). [38] Stanhope. 28 November 2005. digitalspy. co. Retrieved 11 September 2008. [28] "Ricky Gervais gets mixed response at the Golden Globes" (http:/ / news. [30] Tucker. com/ television/ Ricky-Gervais-Steven-Merchant-Warwick-Davis-Tease-Life-Too-Short-36112. bbc. uk/ film/ 2010/ aug/ 24/ ricky-gervais-lifes-too-short). co. . ". bbc. youtube. 18 September 2002" (http:/ / www. [41] "Entertainment. aspx?SectionID=3& ObjectID=1665& CityID=3). [29] Logan. co. . 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Ben (18 September 2002). html). findarticles. bbc. [43] Plunkett. 18 January 2010.00. Retrieved 15 September 2010.co. com/ watch?v=V2TtqePh3xw). stm). Retrieved on 22 July 2007. . Rickygervais. [52] Plumplard. Retrieved 3 February 2010. uk/ 0100news/ 0100regionalnews/ tm_objectid=17753518& method=full& siteid=50061& headline=cheggers--i-m-not-really-that-foul-mouthed-bigot-name_page. TVGuide. Retrieved 27 March 2010. tvguide. "Did Ricky Gervais shine at the Golden Globes?" (http:/ / www. php). Gervais radio show to be podcast" (http:/ / news. 23 June 2011. Cinemablend. BBC News. [51] "Ricky Gervais 'Life's Too Short' heads for HBO – US TV News" (http:/ / www. html). uk/ news/ people/ pandora/ by-george-we-salute-you-for-your-indefatigability-430845. The Telegraph. Retrieved 3 February 2010. bbc.. Gervais puts a stop to podcasts" (http:/ / news. com/ news. stm).The big cheese. uk/ 2/ hi/ entertainment/ 4479230. 10 October 2011. . . [27] Gina DiNunno. seattlepi. html). co. Retrieved 13 November 2011. uk/ site/ story/ 0. nsf/ article/ ventriloquist shocked by rickys racist script_1007228). 181 [53] "Ricky Gervais's Derek Noakes sitcom pilot to air on Channel 4 in April – TV News" (http:/ / www. .com. BBC News. [35] "Ricky gervais — ventriloquist shocked by ricky's 'racist' script" (http:/ / www. guardian. bbc. "Ricky Gervais. .Ricky Gervais [25] Deedes. Retrieved 11 November 2011. Retrieved 24 September 2010. uk/ 2/ hi/ entertainment/ 8464994. . html). ukula. jhtml?xml=/ arts/ 2002/ 09/ 18/ baoff. . com/ News/ Ricky-Gervais-Host-1011235. uk/ media/ 2010/ mar/ 24/ ricky-gervais-show-hbo). "BBC Blog". "Ricky Gervais Gets Animated for New HBO Series" (http:/ / www. Steven Merchant. TV GUIDE.. xml). Tv. And Warwick Davis Tease Life's Too Short" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 24 September 2010. Liverpool Echo. Retrieved 22 May 2010. . com/ showtracker/ 2010/ 01/ tca-press-tour. Retrieved 11 March 2010. com/ 2010/ 03/ 11/ the-marriage-ref-madonna-2/ ). 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[81] "Mixed reaction to Ricky Gervais as Golden Globes host" (http:/ / www. com/ sciencelive. "Guardian Unlimited: Arts blog — TV & radio: Ricky Gervais: 'Resting on my laurels? Yes!'" (http:/ / blogs. com/ communities/ entertainment/ post/ 2011/ 01/ ricky-gervais-opens-golden-globes-with-shot-at-sheen/ 1). co. Alex (19 July 2007). "First Night: Ricky Gervais: Science. "Ricky Gervais. Leigh. [77] "Ricky Gervais. co. Retrieved 17 January 2011. com/ 2012/ 02/ 12/ ricky_gervais_my_conscience_never_takes_a_day_off/ singleton/ [59] Gilbert. Retrieved 17 January 2011. channel4. uk/ showbiz/ news/ a346043/ ricky-gervais-blasted-by-richard-herring-for-calling-people-mongs. html). Old. entertainmentwise. "Ricky Gervais has slammed treatment of old folk in UK for focusing too much on youth" (http:/ / www. bbc. thesun.. . Retrieved 13 September 2011. Digital Spy (17 October 2011). com/ ricky-gervais/ humanity-tour_b_908409. Retrieved 21 November 2009. co. . ISSN 0951-9467. 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But when The Simpsons calls or Robert De Niro calls. [84] Needham. bbc.. 17 November 2004.. com/ ). Rickygervais. uk/ news/ nov04/ flanimals. August 2004. BBC News. google.com. uk/ arts-entertainment/ comedy/ features/ mock-the-disabled-me-ricky-gervais-on-how-he-has-been-misunderstood-7621909. Books & Arts" (http:/ / books. Rickygervais. [68] "Gervais to headline 6th NY Comedy Festival" (http:/ / www. chortle. Gerard (6 April 2012). Huffingtonpost. ece). 29 March 2012.uk. com/ books?id=vR0NPwAACAAJ). "Guardian Unlimited: Arts blog — TV & radio: Call me crazy . usatoday. uk/ tv/ 2007/ 07/ ricky_gervais_resting_on_my_la. guardian. In Schott. London: Blogs. 13 January 2003. . Retrieved 13 September 2011. php).. com/ news?id=26941). .. OCLC 432407182. co.uk. – "Green: After having your own Simpsons episode and working with Robert De Niro. html) Play. com/ news/ ni6702175/ ). . . . but has Ricky Gervais lost it?" (http:/ / blogs. Retrieved 9 April 2012. [62] "BBC News.com. . 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Ricky Gervais [86] http:/ / twitter. [95] Owen. co. says Gervais" (http:/ / www. channel4. co.uk. . (19 December 2010) Ricky Gervais: Why I’m an Atheist (http:/ / blogs. [99] Gervais: I had to say sorry to vicar for joking at my mother's funeral (http:/ / www.9171... uk/ 1/ hi/ entertainment/ 6994527. "Bearskin caps are no laughing matter.com. uk/ 1/ hi/ entertainment/ 4809312. (2005). Blogs. Metro. . [90] "''Ricky Gervais digs himself into big trouble''" (http:/ / www.org.co. Sara. [92] Adams. . php). Ricky Gervais: My life as a pure superstar Electronic Version Independent News Media: United Kingdom • The Guardian Newspaper. . [89] Nathan. [105] "The Ricky Gervais Show – Channel 4" (http:/ / www. "Will Hollywood wipe the smile off Ricky Gervais's face?" (http:/ / entertainment. rickygervais. "Comedian gives great impression" (http:/ / www. Graeme (30 January 2007). [88] King. metro. Retrieved 14 December 2008. (18 October 2011) Ricky Gervais blasted over 'mong' gags (VOTE) | Eleven UK (http:/ / celebrity. independent. The Independent (UK). co. uk/ news/ uk/ home-news/ bearskin-caps-are-no-laughing-matter-says-gervais-1066095. rickygervais.co. [91] Long. ece). Rose d'Or honour for TV's Gervais" (http:/ / news. archive. Renaissance Man: Ricky Gervais (http://www. html). Celebrity. London: www. org/ campaign/ ricky_gervais_bearskins?qp_source=pukfbmsg). uk/ news/ disability-hate-crime-fuelled- casual-and-institutional-disablism ). PETA. . uk/ tol/ arts_and_entertainment/ stage/ comedy/ article5760063. Camilla (31 January 2010). telegraph. Scope. org. html?in_article_id=35340& in_page_id=11). Ricky. Retrieved 30 October 2012. bbc. 6 April 2007. . dailymail.1840580. .co. co. www. rickygervais.00. "Ricky Gervais: Bad parents should be sterilised. [96] "Week two hundred and thirty – August 2012" (http:/ / www. Retrieved on 13 December 2011. html). stm).co. nypost.. uk/ news/ article-2051938/ Ricky-Gervais-admits-naive-offensive-remarks-Twitter.timesonline. Metro. [103] "Entertainment.html) by Joel Stein • The Independent. uk/ tol/ comment/ columnists/ guest_contributors/ article7009550. . Interviews • Time Magazine (2008). html). The Sunday Times (UK). org/ web/ 20101028150231/ http:/ / www. Retrieved on 13 December 2011. co. 15 March 2006. peta. timesonline.wsj.co. BBC News. Retrieved 17 September 2007. Retrieved 28 April 2010. com/ thissideofthetruth. [93] Green. co.uk. co. [94] "Ricky Gervais: Bearskin Caps Are Not a Laughing Matter" (http:/ / getactive. . 25 June 2007 [100] "BBC Radio 4 – Factual — Desert Island Discs — Ricky Gervais" (http:/ / www. [98] "Week two hundred and two – January 2012" (http:/ / www. php). "60 SECONDS: Ricky Gervais. bbc. . "Second Coming" Guardian Unlimited © Guardian News and Media Limited 2007: United Kingdom . uk/ news/ uknews/ 1547788/ Ricky-Gervais-digs-himself-into-big-trouble. co. shtml).channel4. aol. Retrieved on 13 December 2011. . . Jonathan (14 December 2008). Ricky Gervais — The Story So Far. Retrieved 22 February 2009. co.com. Michael (2006). scope. html) by James Tapper. . uk/ 2011/ 10/ 18/ ricky-gervais-mong/ ). com/ seven/ 11102008/ gossip/ cindy/ comedian_gives_great_impression_137931. bbc. uk/ fame/ interviews/ article. Michael O'Mara Books. Retrieved 21 November 2009. ISBN 1-84317-219-4. com/ thissideofthetruth. BBC News Online.aol. et al. Retrieved 14 December 2008. . Retrieved 10 November 2008. [101] Appleyard. Daily Mail (London). [104] "2007 Emmy Winners" (http:/ / news. stm). co. com/ speakeasy/ 2010/ 12/ 19/ a-holiday-message-from-ricky-gervais-why-im-an-atheist/ ). wsj. Retrieved 3 July 2011. php). Fact" (http:/ / web. .com/time/magazine/article/ 0. London: Daily Telegraph – Telegraph.uk. Bryan (22 February 2009).uk" (http:/ / www.uk. co.uk. timesonline. et al. uk/ radio4/ factual/ desertislanddiscs_20070624. ece). com/ programmes/ the-ricky-gervais-show). com/ thissideofthetruth. com/ #!/ rickygervais/ status/ 125635506351505408 [87] Disability hate crime fuelled by “casual and institutional disablismâ€? | Disability Charity | Scope UK (http:/ / www. Daily Mail (UK). htm). Cindy (10 November 2008).time. NY Post. 183 [97] "Week two hundred and five – February 2012" (http:/ / www. "'I was naive': Finally Ricky Gervais apologises for 'mong' comments after mother of two disabled daughters is reduced to tears" (http:/ / www. Bibliography • Heatley. 17 September 2007. dailymail. Retrieved 21 November 2009. Stacey. (2005). uk/ tvshowbiz/ article-463974/ Gervais-I-say-sorry-vicar-joking-mothers-funeral. [102] Gervais.

com) Ricky Gervais (https://twitter.co.com/name/nm315041/) at the Internet Movie Database Ricky Gervais (http://www.wordpress.imdb.bbc.com/2010/06/24/ ricky-gervais-sir-peter-ustinov-award-for-comedy-2010-banff-world-tv-festival/) • Ricky Gervais (http://www.guardian.com/guest/view/1307) on Charlie Rose Ricky Gervais at the Oxonian Society (http://fora.Ricky Gervais 184 External links Official website (http://www.nytimes.uk/comedy/extra/show/b00jd68z) Gervais's video interview on Big Think (http://bigthink.tv/fora/showthread.html) collected news and commentary at The New York Times • • • • • • • • .charlierose.uk/culture/ricky-gervais) collected news and commentary at The Guardian • Ricky Gervais (http://topics.com/rickygervais) Video interview & acceptance speech of Ricky Gervais winning Sir Peter Ustinov Award for Comedy @ Banff World TV Festival 2010 (http://kempton.php?t=676) video Behind the scenes of The Office on BBC (http://www.com/rickygervais) on Twitter Ricky Gervais (http://www.rickygervais.com/top/reference/timestopics/people/g/ricky_gervais/index.co.

There they meet her strange sons. escape through a window and are pursued by Surgeon General and Plates. the father. 2004 (USA) 97 minutes USA English $ 600. The daughter. After their car gets a flat. . Tina. She gets recaptured and it's assumed the gang are killed in a cutscene. Matthew taunts Surgeon General who swipes at him and splits him in two. Plot A familly of american are lost in the highway on a family trip. one whom the woman calls the "Surgeon General".000 USD Skinned Deep is a 2004 horror film. Tina is captured and knocked out.Skinned Deep 185 Skinned Deep Skinned Deep Directed by Produced by Written by Starring Gabriel Bartalos Gabriel Bartalos Gabriel Bartalos Forrest J Ackerman Eric Bennett Warwick Davis David Davidson Captain Sensible Music by Cinematography Peter Strietmann Editing by Release date(s) Running time Country Language Budget Christopher Seguine • February 14. Phil Rockwell. After the mom takes a picture of Surgeon General. Brain takes Tina to a park and shows her how to ride a motorcycle. When she wakes up she's in a room covered in newspapers where she escapes out of a trap door. directed and written by Gabriel Bartalos. She finds a couple old bikers from part of a gang at the convience store being served coffee by the old woman and begs for help from the family. and son. After. In the end Tina manages to kill and escape the strange family. where she finds help from a police who turns out to be similar to the strange family. they are introduced to Plates (Warwick Davis) and Brain. he kills her and Plates starts throwing plates at the dad who is then murdered by Surgeon General. goes to a convience store to find help and a strange old woman invites them to stay with her while one of her sons can fix their car. Matthew.

.. imdb.. Website..... Eat Horror.. com/ bgh/ reviews/ 11/ 12/ 2009/ skinned-deep) [2] Eat Horror Movie Review (http:/ / www. Bloody Good Horror. explaining that its "just the average Texas Chainsaw Massacre knock-off". Octobaby Reception Since its release.. com/ title/ tt0304722/ .[2] External links Skinned Deep [3] at the Internet Movie Database References [1] Skinned Deep Movie Review (http:/ / www.. gave the film a 5/10 for its terrible performance and weak storyline.. Brain Warwick Davis ...[1] Another website. Graine Neil Dooley .Skinned Deep 186 Cast • • • • • • • • • Forrest J Ackerman . explained the film is "horribly bad but never scares or thrills and the attempts at comedy are incredibly childish". php) [3] http:/ / www.. bloodygoodhorror. Tina Rockwell Kurt Carley . Plates Karoline Brandt . Forrey Eric Bennett . eathorror.. Pig Pen Joel Harlow . Skinned Deep hasn't received good reviews. com/ skinneddeep. Surgeon General #2 Bill Butts .. Phil Rockwell Jason Dugre ...

types II and XI. Presentation People with spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia are short-statured from birth. including cheekbones close to the nose appearing flattened. and occasionally problems with vision and hearing.4 meters (55 inches). although this appears to be unfounded. Other skeletal signs include flattened vertebrae (platyspondyly). and that it is present from birth (congenital). as are other eye problems that can affect vision such as detached retinas. but milder than. Short stature. with a very short trunk and neck and shortened limbs.7 756. disproportionately short trunk. a hip joint deformity in which the upper leg bones turn inward (coxa vara).Spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia congenita 187 Spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia congenita Spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia congenita Classification and external resources A 61⁄2-year-old male with spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia congenita. Medical texts often state a mild and variable change to facial features. Some infants are born with an opening in the roof of the mouth. Changes in the spinal bones (vertebrae) in the neck may also increase the risk of spinal cord damage. The name of the condition indicates that it affects the bones of the spine (spondylo-) and the ends of bones (epiphyses).9 meters (35 inches) to just over 1. This type of dwarfism is characterized by a normal spinal column length relative to the femur bone. the related skeletal disorders achondrogenesis type 2 and hypochondrogenesis.9 [1] [2] [3] 183900 29410 [4] [5] orthoped/630 Spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia congenita (abbreviated to SED more often than SDC) is a rare disorder of bone growth that results in dwarfism. Spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia congenita is a subtype of collagenopathy. Their hands and feet. which is called a cleft palate. .and downward-turning foot (called clubfoot). Decreased joint mobility and arthritis often develop early in life. Severe nearsightedness (high myopia) is sometimes present. are usually average-sized. Adult height ranges from 0. Curvature of the spine (kyphoscoliosis and lordosis) progresses during childhood and can cause problems with breathing. characteristic skeletal abnormalities. however. About one-quarter of people with this condition have hearing loss. and kyphoscoliosis. The signs and symptoms of spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia congenita are similar to. ICD-10 ICD-9 OMIM DiseasesDB eMedicine Q77. and an inward.

ncbi. gov/ omim/ 300202. nih. X-ray of the spine in a patient with spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia Notable cases Actor Warwick Davis's dwarfism has been attributed to spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia congenita. cfm?ID=-1643773875 [10] http:/ / chorus. com/ orthoped/ topic630. ashx?icd9=756.313400. The protein made by this gene forms type II collagen. nih. which means one copy of the altered gene is sufficient to cause the disorder. edu/ doc/ 01031. com/ ddb29410. emedicine. mcw. co. External links • • • • • • • GeneReviews/NIH/NCBI/UW entry on X-Linked Spondyloepiphyseal Dysplasia Tarda [6] OMIM entries on X-Linked Spondyloepiphyseal Dysplasia Tarda [7] Spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia congenita [8] at NLM Genetics Home Reference -1643773875 [9] at GPnotebook 01031 [10] at CHORUS Duke Orthopedics spondyloepiphyseal_dysplasia_congenita [11] Little People of America [12] Includes list of International support groups References [1] http:/ / apps. html [11] http:/ / www. nlm. com/ ortho/ spondyloepiphyseal_dysplasia_congenita [12] http:/ / www. 7 [2] http:/ / www.313400 [8] http:/ / ghr. The condition of late actor Michael Dunn has been attributed to spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia. rad. gpnotebook. which prevents bones from developing properly and causes the signs and symptoms of this condition. org . nlm. icd9data. gov/ condition=spondyloepiphysealdysplasiacongenita [9] http:/ / www. type unspecified.Spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia congenita 188 Causes Spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia congenita is one of a spectrum of skeletal disorders caused by mutations in the COL2A1 gene.300202. wheelessonline. com/ getICD9Code. lpaonline. nlm. nih. int/ classifications/ icd10/ browse/ 2010/ en#/ Q77. org/ entry/ 183900 [4] http:/ / www. who. diseasesdatabase. gov/ bookshelf/ br. fcgi?book=gene& part=sedt [7] http:/ / www. Bill Klein and Jennifer Arnold from the TV series The Little Couple both have spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia as well. a molecule found mostly in cartilage and in the clear gel that fills the eyeball (the vitreous). Spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia congenita is inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern. 9 [3] http:/ / omim. Type II collagen is essential for the normal development of bones and other connective tissues. Actress and comedienne Selene Luna may have it as well. uk/ simplepage. htm [5] http:/ / www. ncbi. Mutations in the COL2A1 gene interfere with the assembly of type II collagen molecules. htm [6] http:/ / www.

television series. their evil counterpart. V and VI until May 2020.[1] 20th Century Fox still retains the distribution rights to the first two Star Wars trilogies. Sixteen years after the release of the trilogy's final film. with the final film of the trilogy released on May 19. is commonly recognized in popular culture. owning permanent rights for the original film Episode IV: A New Hope. 2005. under the title Star Wars. while holding the rights to Episodes I-III. especially influences of philosophy and religion. by 20th Century Fox. The Walt Disney Company acquired Lucasfilm for $4. In October 2012. and comic books. The film series has spawned a media franchise outside the film series called the Expanded Universe including books. The fictional universe also contains many themes. The first film in the series was originally released on May 25.[2] . far away. and became a worldwide pop culture phenomenon. computer and video games. Star Wars Episode VII. Their weapon of choice. with the first film. released at three-year intervals. the first in a new prequel trilogy of films was released. the lightsaber. planned for release in 2015. as seen in all films Creator George Lucas Original work Star Wars Episode IV: A New Hope (1977) Films and television Films • • • • • • • • IV: A New Hope (1977) V: The Empire Strikes Back (1980) VI: Return of the Jedi (1983) I: The Phantom Menace (1999) II: Attack of the Clones (2002) III: Revenge of the Sith (2005) The Clone Wars (2008) VII (2015) Games Video games • • • • • • • • List of Star Wars video games X-Wing Jedi Knight Rogue Squadron Knights of the Old Republic Battlefront Lego Star Wars The Force Unleashed Franchises: Star Wars is an American epic space opera franchise centered on a film series created by George Lucas. These supplements to the film trilogies have resulted in significant development of the series' fictional universe. The three prequel films were also released at three-year intervals. 1977.Star Wars 189 Star Wars Star Wars The Star Wars title card/logo. The franchise portrays a universe which is in a galaxy that is described as far. These media kept the franchise active in the interim between the film trilogies. It commonly portrays Jedi as a representation of good. followed by two sequels. in conflict with the Sith.05 billion and announced that it would produce three new films.

according to most review aggregator websites. though the films were generally advertised solely under their subtitles.49 billion. such as speed and reflexes. an omnipresent energy that can be harnessed by those with that ability. 1983. [and] binds the galaxy together. and mind control) and can amplify certain physical traits. It is described in the first produced film as "an energy field created by [5] all living things [that] surrounds us. One of the prominent elements of Star Wars is the "Force". 2004 and the first ever Blu-ray release of all six films on September 16. Robotic droids are also commonplace and are generally built to serve their owners.[3] making it the third-highest-grossing film series. it has a dark side that. when pursued. precognition. 190 Setting The events depicted in Star Wars media take place in a fictional galaxy.[4] The success has also led to multiple re-releases in theaters for the series. 1980. with the overall box office revenue generated by the Star Wars films (including the theatrical Star Wars: The Clone Wars) totalling $4.[12] . released on May 25. known as Force-sensitives. these abilities vary between characters and can be improved through training. The six films feature the Jedi. aggression. and many planets in the galaxy are members of a Galactic Republic. Lucas released a "Special Edition" of the Star Wars trilogy to theaters. primarily motivated by the improvement of CGI and other special effects technologies. The opening crawl of the sequels disclosed that they were numbered as "Episode V" and "Episode VI" respectively. Many species of alien creatures (often humanoid) are depicted. released on May 25. All of the main films have been box office successes. clairvoyance. All six of the main films in the series were also nominated for or won Academy Awards. While the Force can be used for good. mainly because of the "Rule of Two" (see Sith Origin).Star Wars Reactions to the original trilogy were mostly positive. 2011. released on May 21. This was followed by two sequels: The Empire Strikes Back. later reorganized as the Galactic Empire. Lucas continued to make changes to the films for subsequent releases. while the prequel trilogy received a more mixed reaction. and Return of the Jedi. imbues users with hatred. who use the dark side for evil in an attempt to take over the galaxy. The re-release featured alterations to the three films. 1977. penetrates us. Though the first film in the series was simply titled Star Wars. with its 1981 re-release it had the subtitle Episode IV: A New Hope added to remain consistent with its sequel. and the Sith. In 1997. many dark side users are Dark Jedi rather than Sith. Space travel is common.[5][6][7][8][9][10] Theatrical films The film series began with Star Wars. and malevolence. to correspond with the 20th anniversary of A New Hope. which allowed visuals that were not possible to achieve at the time of the original filmmaking. In the Star Wars Expanded Universe. who use the Force for good." The Force allows users to perform various supernatural feats (such as telekinesis. with most of the praise being for the final movie. and to [11] establish it as the middle chapter of a continuing saga. such as the first ever DVD release of the original trilogy on September 21. with the last film being considered the weakest.

sense that Anakin's future is clouded by fear. culminating in a lightsaber battle between himself and Obi-Wan on the volcanic planet Mustafar. Darth [6] Maul.[8] Obi-Wan ultimately defeats his former apprentice and friend. severing his limbs and leaving him for dead beside a lava flow. and eventually Padmé becomes pregnant. along with his protocol droid counterpart C-3PO. escape from the blockade and plea her case before the Galactic Senate on Coruscant.[7] Anakin and Padmé fall in love and secretly wed. Queen Padmé Amidala. Qui-Gon comes to believe that Anakin is the "Chosen One" foretold by Jedi prophecy to bring balance to the Force. . which Palpatine secretly engineers in order to destroy the Republic and lure Anakin into his service. Episode VII is scheduled to be released in 2015.[13] On August 15. Episode II: Attack of the Clones. the droids are purchased by Luke Skywalker and his step-uncle and aunt. he accidentally triggers a message put into the droid by Leia. There. While Luke is cleaning R2. escapes to Tatooine. they land on the desert planet Tatooine for repairs. Senator Palpatine. the series continued with the long-awaited prequel trilogy. and he helps liberate the boy from slavery. under the orders of the Sith Lord Darth Sidious. He is generally considered to be one of the most [14] iconic characters of the franchise. during the Battle of Naboo. which will allow the Empire to crush the Rebel Alliance. a pretense to overthrow the Supreme Chancellor of the Galactic Republic and take his place. The twins are [8] hidden from Vader and are not told who their real parents are. released on May 19. When Luke asks about his father. but are forced to instead help the planet's ruler. who has stolen the plans to the Death Star and hidden them in the astromech droid R2-D2. led by Yoda. Vader captures Princess Leia. who is now passing as an old hermit under the alias Ben Kenobi. At the same time. 2008 Star Wars: The Clone Wars was released theatrically as a lead-in to the weekly animated TV series of the same name. putting him into a black. R2. 2002. The Jedi Council. but reluctantly allows Obi-Wan to train Anakin after Qui-Gon is killed by Palpatine's first apprentice. released on May 19. It is revealed that Sidious secretly planned the blockade to give his alter ego. who asks for assistance from Obi-Wan. The original trilogy begins 19 years later as Vader nears completion of the massive Death Star space station. 2005. When their spaceship is damaged during the escape. consisting of Episode I: The Phantom Menace. who then becomes the rival of his children. Padmé dies while giving birth to twins Luke and Leia. Obi-Wan tells him that Anakin was a great Jedi who was betrayed and murdered by Vader. The plot of the Star Wars films centers on how a young Anakin Skywalker succumbs to the dark side and becomes Darth Vader. mechanical suit of armor that keeps him alive. 191 Plot overview The prequel trilogy begins with the greedy Trade Federation setting up a blockade around the peaceful planet Naboo. While Palpatine re-organizes the Republic into the tyrannical Galactic Empire—appointing himself Emperor for life—Vader participates in the extermination of the Jedi Order. The Jedi Knight Qui-Gon Jinn and his apprentice Obi-Wan Kenobi are sent to Naboo to negotiate with the Federation. Anakin submits to the dark side and takes the Sith name Darth Vader.Star Wars More than two decades after the release of the original film. an organized resistance formed to combat Palpatine's tyranny. However. Palpatine arrives shortly afterward and saves Vader. and Episode III: Revenge of the Sith. desperate. released on May 16. 1999. where Qui-Gon discovers a young slave named Anakin Skywalker. and Palpatine convinces him that the dark side holds the power to save her life. Anakin has a prophetic vision of Padmé dying in childbirth. Luke later assists the droids in finding the Jedi Knight.[15] A figure of Darth Vader in Amsterdam. The remainder of the prequel trilogy chronicles Anakin's gradual fall to the dark side of the Force as he fights in the Clone Wars.

Yoda confirms that Vader is Luke's father. after rescuing Han from the gangster Jabba the Hutt a year later. Luke himself fires the shot that destroys the deadly space station.[5] Three years later. Luke succumbs to his anger and brutally overpowers Vader. Vader reveals that he is Luke's father and attempts to turn him to the dark side. which they eventually find has been destroyed by the Death Star. An enraged Palpatine then attempts to kill Luke with Force lightning. Leia's home world. Luke is interrupted when Vader lures him into a trap by capturing Han and the others. Luke travels to find Yoda. and the Rebels destroy the second Death Star. Luke confronts Vader as Palpatine watches. a sight that moves Vader to turn and kill his master.[10] Cast and characters Character A New Hope The Empire Strikes Back Return of the Jedi Vader: David Prowse James Earl Jones (voice only) Anakin: Sebastian Shaw Hayden Christensen (2004 DVD release) Obi-Wan Kenobi R2-D2 C-3PO Yoda Anthony Daniels Frank Oz (voice and puppeteering) Alec Guinness Kenny Baker Anthony Daniels (voice only) Frank Oz (voice and puppeteering / voice only. Yoda is on his deathbed. moments later. Once on board the space station. returns to Yoda to complete his training. Obi-Wan's spirit tells Luke that he must face his father before he can become a Jedi. now living in exile on the swamp-infested world Dagobah.[10] During the subsequent lightsaber duel. However. Before he passes away.Star Wars Obi-Wan and Luke hire the smuggler Han Solo and his Wookiee co-pilot Chewbacca to take them to Alderaan. However. in order to start his Jedi training. Luke becomes a full-fledged Jedi. but controls himself at the last minute. 2011 3-D re-release) Frank Oz (voice only) Tom Kane Ewan McGregor Kenny Baker (credit only) Anthony Daniels James Arnold Taylor Film The Phantom Menace Jake Lloyd Attack of the Clones Hayden Christensen Revenge of the Sith Anakin: Hayden Christensen Vader: James Earl Jones (voice only) The Clone Wars Matt Lanter 192 Darth Vader / Anakin Skywalker David Prowse James Earl Jones (voice only) . During a fierce lightsaber duel. As the Rebels attack the second Death Star. and that Leia is his twin sister. Anakin Skywalker dies in his son's arms. Redeemed. now over 900 years old. suffering mortal wounds in the process. and.[9] Luke escapes. Obi-Wan allows himself to be killed during a lightsaber rematch with Vader. his sacrifice allows the group to escape with the plans that help the rebels destroy the Death Star. both Sith Lords intend to turn Luke to the dark side and take him as their apprentice. realizing that he is about to suffer his father's fate. he spares Vader's life and proudly declares his allegiance to the Jedi.

2004 DVD release) Denis Lawson Kenneth Colley Billy Dee Williams Michael Carter Erik Bauersfeld (voice only) Timothy M. 1997 Special Edition) Silent cameo.Star Wars Palpatine / Darth Sidious Mentioned only Elaine Baker Clive Revill (voice only) Ian McDiarmid (2004 DVD release) Leia Organa Luke Skywalker Owen Lars Beru Grand Moff Tarkin Chewbacca Han Solo Greedo Paul Blake Maria De Aragon (close-up shots) Larry Ward (voice only) Uncredited actor (voice only. 1997 Special Edition Mentioned only Larry Ward (voice only) Uncredited actor (voice only) Daniel Logan Kevin Michael Richardson Phil Brown Shelagh Fraser Peter Cushing Peter Mayhew Harrison Ford Carrie Fisher Mark Hamill Aidan Barton Aidan Barton Joel Edgerton Bonnie Piesse Wayne Pygram Peter Mayhew Ian McDiarmid Ian Abercrombie 193 Jabba the Hutt Boba Fett Jeremy Bulloch Jason Wingreen (voice only) Temuera Morrison (voice only. Rose Erik Bauersfeld (voice only) Matthew Wood Wedge Antilles Admiral Piett Lando Calrissian Bib Fortuna Admiral Ackbar Wicket Qui-Gon Jinn Nute Gunray Padmé Amidala Captain Panaka Sio Bibble Jar Jar Binks Warwick Davis Liam Neeson Liam Neeson (voice only) Silas Carson Natalie Portman Hugh Quarshie Oliver Ford Davies Ahmed Best (voice only) Catherine Taber Mentioned only .

Lucas made a conscious effort to parallel scenes and dialogue between films. dirty city of the future. Jackson Silas Carson Jay Laga'aia Jimmy Smits Leeanna Walsman Temuera Morrison Ronald Falk (voice only) Jack Thompson Christopher Lee Matthew Wood (voice only) Ashley Eckstein Nika Futterman Silent cameo 194 Watto Sebulba Shmi Skywalker Chancellor Valorum Mace Windu Ki-Adi-Mundi Captain Typho Bail Organa Zam Wesell Jango Fett Dexter Jettster Cliegg Lars Count Dooku / Darth Tyranus General Grievous Ahsoka Tano Asajj Ventress Themes Star Wars features elements such as knights. witches. and Blade Runner. and especially to parallel the journeys of Luke Skywalker with that of his father Anakin when making the prequels. which is set in a post-apocalyptic desert.[16] The Star Wars world.[17] which was set on a dirty space freighter. and princesses that are related to archetypes of the fantasy genre. unlike fantasy and science-fiction films that featured sleek and futuristic settings.[6] .Star Wars Boss Nass Sabé Darth Maul Brian Blessed (voice only) Keira Knightley Ray Park Peter Serafinowicz (voice only) Andy Secombe (voice only) Lewis MacLeod (voice only) Pernilla August Terence Stamp Samuel L. which is set in a crumbling. Lucas' vision of a "used future" was further popularized in the science fiction-horror films Alien. was portrayed as dirty and grimy. Mad Max 2.

Burtt's accomplishment was such that the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences presented him with a Special Achievement Award because it had no award at the time for the work he had done.[18] Lucas hired Ben Burtt to oversee the sound effects on A New Hope. the Death Star.[22][23] The technical lightsaber choreography for the original trilogy was developed by leading filmmaking sword-master Bob Anderson. The next draft removed the father character and replaced him with a substitute named Ben Kenobi. Thorpe as a "Jedi-Bendu" space commando by the legendary Mace Windy.[20] John Williams composed the scores for all six films. and Episodes II and III were shot with Sony's CineAlta high-definition digital cameras. a few months later. and a protagonist named Annikin Starkiller. Williams' Star Wars title theme has become one of the most famous and well-known musical compositions in modern music history. The original trilogy was shot with anamorphic lenses.[27] . Luke Skywalker's Landspeeder. as taken from the Journal of the Whills. Lucas made heavy simplifications. the creator of Star Wars 1974. and introduced the young hero on a farm as Luke Starkiller. Universal Studios agreed to make American Graffiti and Star Wars in a two-picture contract.Star Wars 195 Technical information All six films of the Star Wars series were shot in an aspect ratio of 2.J. and the Death Star. During production. Annikin became Luke's father. Saga I: The Star Wars. adding elements such as the Sith. American Graffiti was completed in 1973 and.[21] Lucas hired 'the Dean of Special Effects' John Stears.40:1. Anderson's role in the original Star Wars trilogy was highlighted in the film Reclaiming the Blade. The film was titled Adventures of Luke Starkiller. the Jedi Knights' lightsabers. which had thematic parallels with Akira Kurosawa's The Hidden Fortress.[25] Frustrated that his story was too difficult to understand. where he shares his experiences as the fight choreographer developing the lightsaber techniques for the movies. although Star Wars was later rejected in its early concept stages. Lucas changed Luke's name to Skywalker and altered the title to simply The Star Wars and finally Star Wars. a wise Jedi knight.[19] Lucasfilm developed the THX sound reproduction standard for Return of the Jedi. with leitmotifs for different characters and important concepts. wearing Vader's costume.[24] Production history Original trilogy In 1971. Lucas wrote a short summary called "The Journal of the Whills". while Episode VI was shot in Joe Dunton Camera (JDC) scope. Lucas then wrote a 13-page treatment called The Star Wars. which told the tale of the training of apprentice C. Episode I was shot with Hawk anamorphic lenses on Arriflex cameras. and in 1976 a fourth draft had been prepared for principal photography.[26] By George Lucas. Anderson trained actor Mark Hamill (Luke Skywalker) and performed all the sword stunts as Darth Vader during the lightsaber duels in The Empire Strikes Back and Return of the Jedi. he had expanded the treatment into a rough draft screenplay. Lucas' design for Star Wars involved a grand musical sound. who created R2-D2. "The Force" was also introduced as a supernatural power. For the second draft. Episodes IV and V were shot in Panavision.

but Lucas decided to abandon his plan to adapt Foster's work. . and quickly wrote two more drafts. Lucas met [28] The intention was that if Star with author Alan Dean Foster. He had also by that point developed an elaborate backstory to aid his writing process. Later. except that Darth Vader does not reveal he is Luke's father. Later that year. Empire Strikes Back was listed as Episode II.[30] When Star Wars proved successful. As the saga of the Skywalkers and Jedi Knights unfolded. although at one point he considered walking away from the series altogether.[31] However. Lucas decided to use the film as the basis for an elaborate serial." and by the time of the third draft some months later Lucas had negotiated a contract that gave him rights to make two sequels. the book was released as Splinter of the Mind's Eye the following year.[36] He made use of a new plot twist: Darth Vader claims to be Luke's father. It was this draft in which Lucas first made use of the "Episode" numbering for the films. He also took the script to a darker extreme by having Han Solo imprisoned in carbonite and left in limbo. At first Lucas envisioned a series of films with no set number of entries. Lucas has said he was disappointed with it. Luke's father appears as a ghost to instruct Luke. but a film in the second trilogy in the saga. Lucas had produced a handwritten treatment called The Empire Strikes Back. According to Lucas.[9] This new story point of Darth Vader being Luke's father had drastic effects on the series. The fourth draft of the script underwent subtle changes that made it more satisfying as a self-contained film. Lucas had previously conceived of the film as the first in a series of adventures. and hired him to write these two sequels as novels. composer of the musical scores for all six films of the original and prequel trilogies. The second draft contained a teaser for a never-made sequel about "The Princess of Ondos. I began to see it as a tale that could take at least nine films to tell—three trilogies—and I realized.[33] Brackett finished her first draft in early 1978. Lucas was not expecting the film to become part of a series. he said that he wanted his friends to each take a turn at directing the films and giving unique interpretations on the series. by late November 1977. In the first draft that Brackett would write from this. Lucas hired science fiction author Leigh Brackett to write Star Wars II with him. However. ending with the destruction of the Empire itself by way of destroying the Death Star. In an interview with Rolling Stone in August 1977. kills Luke's father and fights Ben Kenobi on a volcano as the Galactic Republic falls would make an excellent sequel. This is stated explicitly in George Lucas' preface to the 1994 reissue of Splinter of the Mind's Eye: It wasn't long after I began writing Star Wars that I realized the story was more than a single film could hold. like the James Bond series. Lucas wanted to create an independent filmmaking center—what would become Skywalker Ranch—and saw an opportunity to use the series as a financing agent. Lucas had to write his next draft himself. he realized the film would not in fact be the first in the sequence. as opposed to the yearlong struggles writing the first film.[35] As Michael Kaminski argues in The Secret History of Star Wars. 196 John Williams. in making my way through the back story and after story. Not long after. He also said that the backstory in which Darth Vader turns to the dark side. They held story conferences and.Star Wars At that point. she died of cancer. he found this draft enjoyable to write.[32] Alan Dean Foster had already begun writing the first sequel novel. but before he could discuss it with her. the disappointment with the first draft probably made Lucas consider different directions in which to take the story. The treatment is very similar to the final film. Michael Kaminski argues in his book that it is unlikely that the plot point had ever seriously been considered or even conceived of before 1978.[34] With no writer available.[37] both in April 1978. [29] Wars were successful. Lucas could adapt the novels into screenplays. that I was really setting out to write the middle story.

Making Empire Strikes Back was stressful and costly. in the wake of Dark Horse's comic book line and Timothy Zahn's trilogy of novels. now indicating the series would be a tragic one examining Anakin Skywalker's fall to the dark side. Lucas' 1981 rough drafts had Darth Vader competing with the Emperor for possession of Luke—and in the second script. the "revised rough draft".[51] As he reviewed the storyline that summer. and began working on Episode II at that time. Lucas reviewed the new backstory he had created: Anakin Skywalker was Ben Kenobi's brilliant student and had a child named Luke. first revising the opening sequence to have Palpatine kidnapped and his apprentice. Burned out and not wanting to make any more Star Wars films. to polish it. darker storyline. Lawrence Kasdan was hired to take over once again and. Meanwhile Kenobi hid Luke on Tatooine while the Republic became the Empire and Vader systematically hunted down and killed the Jedi.[45] The first draft of Episode II was completed just weeks before principal photography. and developed the series from the light adventure roots of the first film. a writer from The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles. This was the final step towards turning the film series into a "Saga". and producer Gary Kurtz saw the film as a more serious and adult film.[50] The basic elements of that backstory became the plot basis for Episode II. Anakin battled Ben Kenobi on the site of a volcano and was wounded.[37] Lawrence Kasdan. After writing the second and third drafts of Empire Strikes Back in which the point was introduced.[40] By the time he began writing Episode VI in 1981 (then titled Revenge of the Jedi). and Lucas' personal life was disintegrating. continued to fascinate him. Kershner. he says he radically re-organized the plot. He began outlining the story.[39] With this new backstory in place. offering concept artists that the film would open with a montage of seven Clone War battles.[43] By 1993 it was announced. offers evidence that issues in Anakin's fall to the dark side prompted Lucas to make massive story changes. This change in character would provide a springboard to the "Tragedy of Darth Vader" storyline that underlies the prequels. Lucas saw that there was still a large audience. was then hired to write the next drafts.[46] Unsure of a title. which were quite developed at this point. in Variety among other sources. he vowed that he was done with the series in a May 1983 interview with Time magazine.[44] In 1994. Vader became a sympathetic character. but now he saw that they could form the beginning of one long story that started with Anakin's childhood and ended with his death."[47] In writing The Empire Strikes Back.Star Wars and that the first film was clearly operating under an alternate storyline where Vader was separate from Luke's father. and had unofficially canceled his sequel trilogy by the time of Return of the Jedi. that he would be making the prequels.[38] there is not a single reference to this plot point before 1978. Lucas had no desire to return to Star Wars. Kasdan. His children were older.[52] Michael Kaminski. and was given additional input from director Irvin Kershner. Lucas had jokingly called the film "Jar Jar's Great Adventure. After Star Wars became popular once again.[42] Nevertheless. but then resurrected as Darth Vader. with the new wrinkle added that Palpatine secretly orchestrated the crisis. murdered by Anakin as the first act in the . changing Empire Strikes Back from Episode II to Episode V in the next draft.[41] Prequel trilogy After losing much of his fortune in a divorce settlement in 1987. but was swayed to the dark side by Emperor Palpatine (who became a Sith and not simply a politician). the prequels. much had changed. Lucas initially decided that Lando Calrissian was a clone and came from a planet of clones which caused the "Clone Wars" mentioned by Princess Leia in A New Hope. in The Secret History of Star Wars. at first they were supposed to be a "filling-in" of history tangential to the originals. Lucas decided that the series would be a trilogy. who had just completed writing Raiders of the Lost Ark. Lucas announced that he would also be directing the next two.[7] 197 Lucas began working on Episode III before Attack of the Clones was released. Following the release of that film. Vader was explicitly redeemed and finally unmasked. Count Dooku. in these final drafts. however. Lucas also began to change how the prequels would exist relative to the originals. which was helped by the new. and Lucas hired Jonathan Hales.[48][49] he later came up with an alternate concept of an army of clone shocktroopers from a remote planet which attacked the Republic and were repelled by the Jedi. Lucas began writing the first screenplay titled Episode I: The Beginning. and with the explosion of CGI technology he was now considering returning to directing.

and when Luke saves the galaxy and redeems his father. Michael Kaminski explained that these exaggerations were both a publicity and security measure. The Hollywood Reporter reported that Lawrence Kasdan.[53] After principal photography was complete in 2003..' and there really is no answer for that. much of it stemmed from the post–1978 period when the series grew into a phenomenon.[65] Kasdan and Kinberg were later confirmed as creative consultants on those films. Abrams as Star Wars Episode VII's director and producer. The trick is to pretend you've planned the whole thing out in advance.[64] On November 20. along with Bryan Burk and Bad Robot Productions. writer of Star Wars Episode V: The Empire Strikes Back and Star Wars Episode VI: Return of the Jedi. The movies were the story of Anakin Skywalker and Luke Skywalker. with franchise creator and Lucasfilm founder Lucas serving as creative consultant. In addition. 2013. rather than the previous version in which that reason was one of several. reporting to Walt Disney Studios chairman Alan Horn. 2012.[8][55] When congratulating the producers of the TV series Lost in 2010. I didn't know where it was going either. Kathleen Kennedy became president of the company. The Walt Disney Studios and Lucasfilm officially announced J. that's where that story ends. Kaminski rationalized that since the series' story radically changed throughout the years. in addition to writing stand-alone films."[60] In January 2012. and new and revised scenes filmed during pick-ups in 2004. The Walt Disney Company agreed to buy Lucasfilm and announced that a new Star Wars Episode VII film will be released in 2015. This fundamental re-write was accomplished both through editing the principal footage. Lucas stated: "Why would I make any more. re-writing his entire turn to the dark side. including that he genuinely believed that the Jedi were evil and plotting to take over the Republic. "when Star Wars first came out. and Simon Kinberg will write and produce Episodes VIII and IX.Star Wars latter's turn towards the dark side. In an interview regarding whether or not the scrutiny he received from the prequel trilogy and the alterations made on the original trilogy were a factor in his retirement. V and VI) released between 1977 and 1983. The co-chairman of Lucasfilm.. it was always Lucas' intention to change the original story retroactively because audiences would only view the material from his perspective. speaking about the upcoming Star Wars: The Clone Wars. he would now turn primarily in a quest to save Padmé's life. II and III) was ultimately released between 1999 and 2005. Kennedy will serve as executive producer on new Star Wars feature films.[56] Sequel trilogy The sequel trilogy was a reportedly planned trilogy of films (Episodes VII. Lucas himself jokingly admitted. Lucas maintained his status on the sequel trilogy: "I get asked all the time. Lucasfilm and George Lucas have for many years denied plans for a sequel trilogy. Throw in some father issues and references to other stories – let's call them homages – and you've got a series". when everybody yells at you all the time and says what a terrible person you are?"[61] In October 2012.J.[58][59] In May 2008.[62] The screenplay for Episode VII will be written by Michael Arndt. 198 .[54] Lucas often exaggerated the amount of material he wrote for the series.. Lucas announced that he would step away from blockbuster films and instead produce smaller art-house films. 'What happens after Return of the Jedi?. VIII and IX) by Lucasfilm as a sequel to the original Star Wars trilogy (Episodes IV. Lucas made even more massive changes in Anakin's character.[63] On January 25.[57] While the similarly discussed Star Wars prequel trilogy (Episodes I. insisting that Star Wars is meant to be a six-part series.

740.398.306. Jeffrey Katzenberg. 1983 $460.773 $1.290 $68.121.027. Snyder's spokesperson informed The Akira Kurosawa's 1954 film. Lucas demonstrated new technology and stated that he planned to release the six films in a new 3D film format.367. Hollywood Reporter that Snyder has no involvement with any of the new Star Wars films.703 — August 15.177 $711. beginning with A New Hope in 2007.046.994 $1. it was announced that The Phantom Menace would be theatrically re-released in 3-D on February 10.[72][73] All six films would be re-released in order.914 $4.491.106.900.270.359.857 Complete Star Wars film series totals $2.191 $848.[70] In July 2008." At Celebration Europe in July 2007.398.067 $737.677 $552.251 $728.768 $452.800.261 #5 #11 $310.779 $2.677 $686.475.868 . 1980 May 25." but they are "waiting for the companies out there that are developing this technology to bring it down to a cost level that makes it worthwhile for everybody".380 #49 #92 $309.544.788.799 $2.859 #18 #30 $1.799 #37 #117 $1.197.514.251 $2.261.484. Seven Samurai. the CEO of DreamWorks Animation.359.779.007 $314.546.457 #1.432.844 $37.927. 2005 $474. New York reported that director Zack Snyder is developing a stand-alone Star Wars film based on [66] In response to this report.588 $649. 2008 $35.721.165.com that "there are no definitive plans or dates for releasing the Star Wars saga in 3-D.382. with the 3-D conversion process taking at least a year to complete per film.177 $165.954.000 $475.500.000 $538.Star Wars Stand-alone films In January 2013. 2002 May 19.583 #35 #61 $380.000 $1.554 $33.400.161.[68] 3D releases At a ShoWest convention in 2005.[71] In late September 2010.879.060. Disney CEO Bob Iger confirmed the development of two stand-alone films.282.840 May 19. Lucasfilm stated on StarWars.328 $407. Rick McCallum confirmed that Lucasfilm is "planning to take all six films and turn them into 3-D.044. each individually written by Lawrence Kasdan and Simon Kinberg.[67] On February 5 2013.788.291. 2012. 1977 May 21.[74] 199 Box office performance Film Release date Box office revenue United States Non-US Worldwide Adjusted for inflation [75] (US) $1.375.449.010.740 $338.100.120.132. by January 2007.288. revealed that Lucas plans to redo all six of the movies in 3D.661 Box office ranking All-time US All-time worldwide Star Wars Episode IV: A New [76] Hope Star Wars Episode V: The [77] Empire Strikes Back Star Wars Episode VI: Return [78] of the Jedi Original Star Wars trilogy totals Star Wars Episode I: The [79] Phantom Menace Star Wars Episode II: Attack of [80] the Clones Star Wars Episode III: Revenge [81] of the Sith Prequel Star Wars trilogy totals Star Wars: The Clone Wars [82] May 25.525.000 $775.069 $4.676.324.998. 1999 May 16.007 #6 #41 $290.254.577 $468.000 $1.705.[69] However.754.067 $247.

of which they won ten.Star Wars 200 Critical reaction Film Star Wars Episode IV: A New Hope Star Wars Episode V: The Empire Strikes Back Star Wars Episode VI: Return of the Jedi Star Wars Episode I: The Phantom Menace Star Wars Episode II: Attack of the Clones Star Wars Episode III: Revenge of the Sith Star Wars: The Clone Wars Rotten Tomatoes [83] 94% (67 reviews) [85] 97% (71 reviews) [87] 79% (66 reviews) Metacritic [84] 91 (13 reviews) [86] 78 (15 reviews) [88] 52 (14 reviews) [89] [90] 57% (186 reviews) 51 (36 reviews) [91] [92] 67% (218 reviews) 53 (39 reviews) [93] [94] 80% (253 reviews) 68 (40 reviews) [95] [96] 19% (153 reviews) 35 (30 reviews) Academy Awards The six films together were nominated for 25 Academy Awards. Three of these were Special Achievement Awards. Creature and Robot Voices) Win (Visual Effects) Win (Visual Effects) Win Nomination Nomination Nomination Nomination Nomination Nomination . Award A New Hope The Empire Strikes Back Awards Won Return of the Jedi The Phantom Menace Attack of the Clones Revenge of the Sith Actor in a Supporting Nomination Role (Alec Guinness) Art Direction-Set Decoration Costume Design Director Win Win Nomination (George Lucas) Win Nomination Win Nomination Nomination Nomination Nomination Nomination Film Editing Makeup Music (Original Score) Picture Screenplay – Original Nomination Sound Editing Sound (Mixing) Visual Effects Special Achievement Award Win Win Win (Alien.

Lucasfilm Licensing devotes efforts to ensure continuity between the works of various authors across companies. shown only once and never released on video. It was followed by adaptations of The Empire Strikes Back in 1983 and Return of the Jedi in 1996. a 1985 American made-for-TV film—released theatrically overseas. a 1984 American made-for-TV film—released theatrically overseas. respectively. Boba Fett.Star Wars 201 Expanded Universe The term Expanded Universe (EU) is an umbrella term for officially licensed Star Wars material outside of the six feature films. A radio adaptation of A New Hope was first broadcast on National Public Radio in 1981.[101] Star Wars has had numerous radio adaptations. • The Great Heep. which first appeared in Timothy Zahn's novel Heir to the Empire before being used in The Phantom Menace. . • Lego Star Wars: The Quest for R2-D2. a 1986 animated television special from the Star Wars: Droids TV series. Additionally. usually serving as storywriter or executive producer. In addition. and Lando Calrissian.[99] Elements of the Expanded Universe have been adopted by Lucas for use in the films. Mark Hamill. a 2009 official comedy spoof primarily based on The Clone Wars film.000 years before The Phantom Menace to 140 years after Return of the Jedi. The popular character was first incorporated in the Expanded Universe in the television film The Star Wars Holiday Special until appearing in the [97] main film series. Lucas has played a large role in the production of various television projects. that he included her as a character in Attack of the Clones. who was introduced in Dark Horse Comics' Star Wars series. such as the name of capital planet Coruscant. The series also used John Williams' original score from the films and Ben Burtt's original sound designs. Lucas so liked the character Aayla Secura.[98] George Lucas retains artistic control over the Star Wars universe. the death of central characters and similar changes in the status quo must first pass his screening before authors are given the go-ahead. several other authorized films have been produced: • The Star Wars Holiday Special. followed quickly by Alan Dean Foster's novel Splinter of the Mind's Eye the following month. taking place anywhere from 25. a 1978 two-hour television special. The adaptation was written by science fiction author Brian Daley and directed by John Madden. Notable for the introduction of Boba Fett. Anthony Daniels. C-3PO. The material expands the stories told in the films.[100] Cosplay of the Star Wars character.[102] Other films In addition to the two trilogies and The Clone Wars film. For example. The adaptations included background material created by Lucas but not used in the films. and Billy Dee Williams reprised their roles as Luke Skywalker. The first Expanded Universe story appeared in Marvel Comics' Star Wars #7 in January 1978 (the first six issues of the series having been an adaptation of the film). • Ewoks: The Battle for Endor. except in Return of the Jedi in which Luke was played by Joshua Fardon and Lando by Arye Gross. • Caravan of Courage: An Ewok Adventure.

and vaguely fills in the gaps between the events of Star Wars Episode III: Revenge of the Sith and Star Wars Episode IV: A New Hope. and accompanying video game and comic book series. continuation of the animated movie of the same name. was simultaneously released in September 1985 and focused on the adventures of Wicket and various other recognizable Ewok characters from the original trilogy in the years leading up to Star Wars Episode VI: Return of the Jedi. Marvel Comics published Star Wars comic book series and adaptations from 1977 to 1986.[105] LucasBooks radically changed the face of the Star Wars universe with the introduction of the New Jedi Order series. including Roy Thomas. however. several hundred tie-in novels have been published by Bantam and Del Rey. which aired on Cartoon Network from November 2003 to March 2005.[108] They have since gone on to publish a large number of [109] original adventures set in the Star Wars universe. Splinter of the Mind's Eye. who is a writer for the comedy news show The Daily Show.Star Wars 202 Animated series Following the success of the Star Wars films and their subsequent merchandising. it has been reported that Marvel (which is now a part of Disney) will once .[103] an animated comedy series written by Brendan Hay. The Jedi Apprentice series follows the adventures of Qui-Gon Jinn and his apprentice Obi-Wan Kenobi prior to The Phantom Menace. set in between Revenge of the Sith and A New Hope. with the 1976 novelization of Star Wars (ghost-written by Alan Dean Foster and credited to Lucas). Timothy Zahn's Thrawn trilogy debuted. set in between The Empire Strikes Back and Return of the Jedi. Whilce Portacio. After Disney's acquisition of Lucasfilm. which premiered in September 1985. Michael Golden. For younger audiences. Al Williamson. In 1992. sparking a new interest in the Star Wars universe. In addition to filling in the time between A New Hope and The Empire Strikes Back. • Star Wars: Ewoks. a CGI-animated series. Jo Duffy. Marvel announced it would publish a new Star Wars comic by Tom Veitch and Cam Kennedy. focused on the travels of R2-D2 and C-3PO as they shift through various owners/masters. which takes place some 20 years after Return of the Jedi and stars a host of new characters alongside series originals. A wide variety of creators worked on this series. There have also been parody comics. also known as Ewoks. • Star Wars: Detours. The series will take place during the original trilogy and the setting will be remote from the front line of war. • Star Wars: The Clone Wars. A similar resurgence in the Expanded Universe occurred in 1996 with the Steve Perry novel Shadows of the Empire. was the first Expanded Universe work to be released. Foster's 1978 novel. including Tag and Bink. an animated micro-series created by Genndy Tartakovsky. Goodwin and Williamson[106][107] with Goodwin writing under a pseudonym. in December 1991. which has been airing on Cartoon Network since October 2008. Dark Horse Comics acquired the Star Wars license and used it to launch a number of ambitious sequels to the original trilogy instead. Carmine Infantino. and with creative consulting from the co-creators of Robot Chicken: Seth Green and Matthew Senreich. and Ron Frenz. Star Wars fiction flourished during the time of the original trilogy (1977–1983) but slowed to a trickle afterwards. including the popular Dark Empire stories. Archie Goodwin. Walt Simonson. The Jedi Quest series follows the adventures of Obi-Wan and his apprentice Anakin Skywalker in between The Phantom Menace and Attack of the Clones. Chris Claremont. In the late 1980s. The Los Angeles Times Syndicate published a Star Wars newspaper strip by Russ Manning. The Last of the Jedi series follows the adventures of Obi-Wan and another surviving Jedi almost immediately. Howard Chaykin. this additional content greatly expanded the Star Wars timeline before and after the film series. Gene Day. However. Since then.[104] Literature Star Wars-based fiction predates the release of the first film. several animated television series have been created: • Star Wars: Droids. also known as Droids: The Adventures of R2-D2 and C-3PO. three series have been introduced. • Star Wars: Clone Wars.

by Topps. and documentaries. has allowed but not endorsed the creation of these derivative fan-fiction works.Star Wars again be distributing Star Wars comics once Dark Horse's contract expires. Since then. Three different official tabletop role-playing games have been developed for the Star Wars universe: a version by West End Games in the 1980s and 1990s. However. Fan-fiction films set in the Star Wars universe were originally ineligible. Star Wars: The Force Unleashed and Star Wars: The Force Unleashed II.[122] While many fan films have used elements from the licensed Expanded Universe to tell their story. Because of concerns over potential copyright and trademark issues. role-playing video games. The board game Risk has been adapted to the series in two editions by Hasbro: and Star Wars Risk: The Clone Wars [120] (2005) and Risk: Star Wars Original Trilogy Edition[121] (2006). While most "base" or "common card" sets are plentiful.[123] Lucasfilm. RTS games. officially recognizing filmmakers and the genre. mockumentaries. video. with Topps being the licensed creator in the United States. in 1977. and others. marking the first time a fan-created Star Wars character has ever crossed into the official canon. have been published bearing the Star Wars name.Republic Heroes)._Inc had the license for. Nintendo DS and Wii. The game features a new game engine. among other types. for the PS3. Lego Star Wars III: The Clone Wars. miniature. [118] Dozens of series Star Wars trading cards have been published since the first 'blue' series. beginning in 1977 with the board game Star Wars: Escape from the Death Star[111] (not to be confused with another board game with the same title. Star Wars has opened the way to a myriad of space-flight simulation games. first-person shooter games. published in 1990). one by Wizards of the Coast in the 2000s and one by Fantasy Flight Games in the 2010s. While The Complete Saga focuses on all six episodes of the series. Xbox 360. The best-selling games so far are the Lego Star Wars and the Battlefront series. of the same name of the multimedia project which it is a part of.[116][117] There are three more titles based on the Clone Wars which were released for the Nintendo DS (Star Wars: The Clone Wars – Jedi Alliance) and Wii (Star Wars: The Clone Wars – Lightsaber Duels and Star Wars: The Clone Wars .[110] 203 Games Since 1977. this has ranged from writing fan-fiction to creating fan films. created and produced a collectible card game based on Star Wars. card. the Star Wars Collectible Card Game (also known as SWCCG). The Force Unleashed. with 12 million and 10 million units respectively [113][114] while the most critically acclaimed is the first Knights of the Old Republic. dozens of board. Edition Fan works The Star Wars saga has inspired many fans to create their own non-canon material set in the Star Wars galaxy. PS2.[112] Star Wars video games commercialization started in 1982 with Star Wars: The Empire Strikes Back published for the Atari 2600 by Parker Brothers. while others are original art. the lead character from the Pink Five series was incorporated into Timothy Zahn's 2007 novel Allegiance. however. they are not considered an official part of the Star Wars canon. many "insert" or "chase cards" are very rare. such as the 1993 Galaxy Series II "floating Yoda" P3 card often commanding US$1000 or more.[115] The most recently released games are Lego Star Wars: The Complete Saga. Lucasfilm sponsored the first annual Official Star Wars Fan Film Awards. In 2002. Some of the card series are of film stills. and was released on September 16. takes place in the largely unexplored time period between Revenge of the Sith and A New Hope and casts players as Darth Vader's "secret apprentice" hunting down the remaining Jedi. the contest was initially open only to parodies. In recent years. but in 2007 Lucasfilm changed the submission standards to allow in-universe fiction entries. have been produced. for the most part.[119] From 1995 until 2001 Decipher. PSP. so long as no such work attempts to make a profit from or tarnish the Star Wars . Many of the cards have become highly collectible with some very rare "promos". 2008 in the United States. and tabletop role-playing games.

which depicts R2-D2's "life story". The show is present at the Rebels stage at Disney's Hollywood Studios and at the Tomorrowland Terrace at Disneyland. converted into Star Tours: The Adventures Continue. The attraction also had subsequent incarnations at other Disney Parks worldwide. such as the lightsaber and the blaster.Star Wars franchise in any way. in order to allow the rides to be The original Star Tours ride at Disneyland in 1996. September 7. Disney's Hollywood Studios and Tokyo Disneyland closed on July 27. its fictional weapons contained in it. The successor attraction opened at Disney's Hollywood Studios on May 20. 2011 and June 3. 2010. Star Wars Weekends during specific dates from May to June. an attraction that opened at Disneyland in 1987. with the exception of Hong Kong Disneyland. Warrick in Return of the Jedi. a feature film by Mel Brooks which featured effects done by Lucas' Industrial Light & Magic. about Warwick Davis. Both the films and characters have been parodied in numerous films and television. Legacy Just like the franchise. The Jedi Training Academy is a live show where children are selected to learn the teachings of the Jedi Knights and the Force in order to become Padawan learners. The Star Wars saga has had a significant impact on modern American pop culture. George Lucas had established a partnership in 1986 with Disney and its Walt Disney Imagineering division to create Star Tours. • Notable film parodies of Star Wars include Hardware Wars. and R2-D2: Beneath the Dome (2002). respectively. have been used in popular culture and have been an iconic part of the franchise. The attractions at Disneyland. who portrayed Wicket W. 2012. a 13-minute 1977 spoof which Lucas has called his favorite Star Wars parody. The Japan version is expected to open in 2013.[127][128] . at Disneyland.[124] 204 Attractions Before Disney's acquisition of the franchise. and Spaceballs.[125][126] • Lucasfilm itself made two mockumentaries: Return of the Ewok (1982). The event began in 1997. 2010 and April 2. The Walt Disney World Resort's Disney's Hollywood Studios park hosts an annual festival.

[14] "Darth Vader/Anakin Skywalker . . 'It's a good movie. ign. 20th Century Fox. 2008. 2001. "Tangled Rights Could Tie Up Ultimate 'Star Wars' Box Set (Analysis)" (http:/ / www. [20] "Quality Home Theater Systems Products" (http:/ / web. 20th Century Fox. Tara Strong as Bubbles from The Powerpuff Girls and Princess Clara from Drawn Together. Retrieved January 3. Nash Information Services. [17] The Force Is With Them: The Legacy of Star Wars. Maurice LaMarche Tara Strong and Kevin Conroy performed a parody reading of A New Hope as a radio play in cartoon character voices that they perform on other animated series. [6] Star Wars Episode I: The Phantom Menace (DVD). html) on March 21. 2012). 2012. php). [12] Arnold. . Retrieved March 27. The Washington Times. the Star Wars universe. 2012. i. [13] "Episode III Release Dates Announced" (http:/ / web. 2002. archive. com/ surround-sound/ thx. . and are developing an animated comedy series based in the Star Wars universe. 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Way Out There in the Blue. Jossey-Bass. Del Rey. starwars.Official Video (http:/ / www. . John M. [130] "New Star Wars Animated Series in the Works" (http:/ / www. The Making of Star Wars: The Definitive Story Behind the Original Film (Star Wars) (http:/ /www.amazon.com/ Power-Myth-Joseph-Campbell/dp/0385418868). org/ web/ 20080522164132/ http:/ / www. (2007). Joseph (June 1.html). html) on May 22.amazon.amazon. youtube. (January 31. ISBN 0-7879-7894-9. ISBN 0-385-41886-8. ISBN 0-345-49476-8 • Rinzler. ISBN 0-9755214-7-0. . com/ 2009/ 08/ whats-coming-in-family-gu.Nerdy Something" (http:/ / www. html). Star Wars. Del Rey.com/ Star-Wars-Magic-Myth-Wars/dp/0553102060).amazon.com/Once-Upon-Galaxy-Journal-Strikes/dp/0345290755).com/book. "The Secret History of Star Wars" (http://secrethistoryofstarwars. Retrieved January 9. com/ fans/ media/ newseries_announcement/ index. Matthew (April 25.amazon.com/ Joseph-Campbell-Fire-Stephen-Larsen/dp/0892818735). Joseph Campbell: A Fire in the Mind (http://www. Dick (March 25. Laurent (1997). Michael (2007). starwars. 2008.amazon. • Snodgrass. Star Wars and Philosophy (http://www.amazon. [132] ECCC 2012: Star Wars Trilogy: The Radio Play . Ballantine Books.amazon. 2005). 2009. (March 10. Jonathan (2005).amazon. accessible via The New York Times here (http:/ / www.com/Making-Star-Wars-Definitive-Original/dp/0345494768). October 26. Mary (November 3. Inner Traditions. • Joseph Campbell's influence on Star Wars • Campbell. html).com/ Star-Wars-Screenplays-Laurent-Bouzereau/dp/0345409817). Episode III . • Larsen. 2008. StarWars. Spaceballs (DVD). 2004). Wisdom Publications. html) 209 References • Arnold. 2008. ISBN 0-345-29075-5 • Bouzereau. 2006.html) • Kaminski. Alan (1980). [128] "R2-D2: Beneath the Dome DVD" (http:/ / www. Frances. . • Decker.com/ Tao-Star-Wars-John-Porter/dp/0893343854). Retrieved January 9.amazon. Star Wars: The Magic of Myth (http://www. nytimes. starwars. Simon & Schuster. com/ community/ news/ rocks/ news20061027. Star Wars. Jon (September 13. J.com/ Star-Wars-Philosophy-Popular-Culture/dp/0812695836). 2008 • Rinzler. • Staub. Star Wars. com/ episode-ii/ release/ video/ news20021223. SCI FI Wire. "The Secret History of Star Wars" (http://secrethistoryofstarwars. Michael (2008). The Annotated Screenplays (http://www. [127] "Mystery Ewok Theater 2005: Return of the Ewok" (http:/ / web. Open Court. ISBN 0-684-84416-8. starwars. InnerCircle Publishing.amazon. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. Peace Knights of the Soul (http://www. • Henderson. php). April 5. religion. ISBN 0-89334-385-4. Bantam. html).Revenge of the Sith (http://www. 2002). [131] "What's coming in Family Guy's new Star Wars spoofs" (http:/ / scifiwire. com/ community/ event/ celebration/ f20050419/ indexp2. .com/ Peace-Knights-Soul-Jon-Snodgrass/dp/0975521470). The Tao of Star Wars (http://www. 2005).. and philosophy • Bortolin. ISBN 0-345-40981-7 • Kaminski. Further reading • Star Wars. The Power of Myth (http://www. com/ watch?v=SBzRmWeC6Ds) [133] Fitzgerald. 2010. 2010. • Porter. 2008. ISBN 0-345-43139-1.com. [129] ""Weird Al" -.com/ Dharma-Star-Wars-Matthew-Bortolin/dp/0861714970). html). com/ community/ event/ celebration/ f20050419/ indexp2. Anchor. Kevin S. Christian Wisdom of the Jedi Masters (http://www. Retrieved January 9. archive. ISBN 0-89281-873-5. Once Upon a Galaxy: A Journal of the Making of The Empire Strikes Back (http://www. amazon. 1997). ISBN 0-553-10206-0. ISBN 0-8126-9583-6.com/ Christian-Wisdom-Jedi-Masters-Staub/dp/0787978949). ISBN 0-86171-497-0. Retrieved May 21. Stephen (April 1.com/book. 2003). Retrieved December 15. Retrieved July 30. Del Rey. 1991).W. Humanics Trade Group.com/ Making-Star-Wars-Episode-III/dp/0345431391). . The Making of Star Wars. The Dharma of Star Wars (http://www. 2005).Star Wars [126] Mel Brooks'. starwars. com/ books/ first/ f/ fitzgerald-blue. .

starwars.com/) • Star Wars (http://www.Star Wars 210 External links • Official website (http://www.org/arts/movies/titles/s/star_wars_movies/) at the Open Directory Project • Star Wars .Wookieepedia – A Wiki Devoted To Star Wars .dmoz.

as the first of a three-part prequel to the original Star Wars trilogy. 1997) at various locations including Leavesden Film Studios and the Tunisian desert. The film follows the Jedi Master Qui-Gon Jinn and his apprentice Obi-Wan Kenobi. It is the fourth film to be released in the Star Wars saga. Lucas began production of this film after he had concluded that the science of film special effects had advanced to the level of what he wanted for his fourth film in the saga. The film was also Lucas' first production as a film director after a 22-year hiatus following the original Star Wars film. as well as the first film in the saga in terms of story chronology. It also features a young Anakin Skywalker before he became a Jedi. 1999 136 minutes United States English $115 million [1] [1] $1. Its filming took place during 1997 (started on June 26.044.027. introduced as a young slave boy who seems to be unusually strong with nascent powers of The Force. and only his fourth overall.Star Wars Episode I: The Phantom Menace 211 Star Wars Episode I: The Phantom Menace Star Wars Episode I: The Phantom Menace Original theatrical poster Directed by Produced by Written by Starring George Lucas Rick McCallum George Lucas Liam Neeson Ewan McGregor Natalie Portman Jake Lloyd Ian McDiarmid Ahmed Best Anthony Daniels Kenny Baker Pernilla August Frank Oz John Williams Music by Cinematography David Tattersall Editing by Studio Distributed by Release date(s) Running time Country Language Budget Box office Ben Burtt Paul Martin Smith Lucasfilm 20th Century Fox1 • May 19. and must contend with the mysterious return of the Sith. who escort and protect Queen Amidala in traveling from the planet Naboo to the planet Coruscant in the hope of finding a peaceful end to a large-scale interplanetary trade dispute. Its special effects included .677 Star Wars Episode I: The Phantom Menace is a 1999 American epic space opera film written and directed by George Lucas.

characterization and acting. the Jedi escort the Queen to the Republic's capital planet of Coruscant so she can plead her people's case to the Galactic Senate. who was dispatched to capture the Queen. Queen Amidala (Natalie Portman). Watto (voiced by Andy Secombe). Return of the Jedi. Back on Naboo. Qui-Gon senses a strong presence of the Force within the boy. The film premiered in theaters on May 19. Jar Jar leads them to the underwater Gungan city of Otoh Gunga. Qui-Gon Jinn (Liam Neeson) and his Jedi apprentice Obi-Wan Kenobi (Ewan McGregor). C-3PO. ultimately deciding to return to Naboo with the Jedi. Qui-Gon ventures into the settlement of Mos Espa with Jar Jar and the astromech droid R2-D2 to a junk shop to purchase a new hyperdrive generator. Indebted to the Jedi. due to the large cultural following its predecessors had created. a pilot and engineer who has created his own protocol droid. There. extensive media coverage and great anticipation. forcing them to land on Tatooine.3 million worldwide during its initial run in theaters. to journey along with them. but the Council rejects it. There. After spending time with Anakin. While Jar Jar leads his people in a battle against the droid army. Anakin manages to win the race and joins the group to be trained as a Jedi. however some months later it was bumped out of the top 10 by The Dark Knight Rises. bringing the film's overall worldwide total to over $1 billion. 1999. A 3D reissue was released in February 2012. Qui-Gon also asks to train Anakin as a Jedi. The film's premiere was accompanied by considerable hype. who tended to praise the visuals and action sequences but criticize the writing. returning it to the ten highest-grossing films of all time. as Qui-Gon was unable to arrange for her release. to negotiate with Trade Federation Viceroy Nute Gunray (Silas Carson) in hopes of resolving the issue. Meanwhile.7 million at the box office. Qui-Gon saves Gungan outcast Jar Jar Binks (voiced by Ahmed Best) from being crushed by a Federation tank. In response to a taxation on trade routes. sixteen years after the 1983 premiere of the previous Star Wars film. the Trade Federation organizes a blockade of battleships around the planet of Naboo. to enter him in a podracing tournament. which is damaged on its way through the blockade surrounding the planet. to which the Council replies that the Sith had been extinct long ago. is captured by the Federation army. Supreme Chancellor Finis Valorum (Terrence Stamp) dispatches two Jedi Knights. though they are able to obtain a transport to reach the Capital city of Theed on the surface. They are attacked by Darth Sidious' apprentice. Anakin pilots a vacant starfighter and joins the fight against the Federation droid control ship in space and destroys the ship. The leader of Naboo. making it the highest-grossing Star Wars film (unadjusted for inflation). Despite mixed reviews by critics. but grows frustrated with the lack of action by the Galactic Senate. a handmaiden. it grossed $924. Padmé reveals herself to be the real Queen Amidala. Senator Palpatine of Naboo convinces the Queen to make a motion of no confidence in Valorum in attempt to vote for a stronger Chancellor who will help end the conflict.Star Wars Episode I: The Phantom Menace extensive use of computer-generated imagery (CGI). deactivating . Having escaped the attack. the Sith Lord Darth Sidious orders the Viceroy to kill the Jedi and invade Naboo with an army of battle droids. Qui-Gon informs the Jedi Council about his recent attack on Tatooine and suspects of his attacker being a Sith. Padmé convinces the Gungans to form an alliance against the Trade Federation. a nearby desert planet. The Queen escapes Naboo with the Jedi on her personal starship. The queen allows Padmé. the other "Queen" (Keira Knightley) having been a decoy. However. but is rescued by the Jedi. with some of its characters and its settings being completely computerized and not existing at all in the real world. Darth Maul (played by Ray Park and voiced by Peter Serafinowicz). for repairs. but he is forced to leave his mother Shmi (Pernilla August) behind. they meet a slave child named Anakin Skywalker (Jake Lloyd). Qui-Gon makes a bet with Anakin's owner. and suspects he may be the "Chosen One" of Jedi prophecy who will bring balance to the Force. if Anakin wins. the Queen tries to capture Gunray in Theed. The two Jedi escape the attempt on their lives by stowing aboard landing craft and escaping to Naboo. there. which has earned an additional $102. 212 Plot The Galactic Republic is in a period of decline. he will be freed. She pushes such a vote. the Jedi unsuccessfully attempt to persuade the Gungans to help the people of Naboo.

[2] He stated. who is Irish. along the lines of Leia [and] Natalie embodied all those traits and more. describing him as a "master actor. despite the Jedi Council's protests.[2] before the producers settled on Lloyd."[6] • Ian McDiarmid as Palpatine/Darth Sidious: The Senator of Naboo. was accepted. At a festive ceremony. She is concerned for her son's future.Star Wars Episode I: The Phantom Menace the droid army down on Naboo. and lets him leave with the Jedi.[2] • Natalie Portman as Queen Padmé Amidala: The young queen of Naboo at 14 years of age. Meanwhile. However. but at the same time be vulnerable and open.[8] Best frequently improvised movements to make Jar Jar as clumsy and comedic as possible. • Ahmed Best as Jar Jar Binks: A clumsy Gungan. Over 200 actresses were auditioned for the role. all of whom who had to be compared to pictures of young Alec Guinness.[6] • Pernilla August as Shmi Skywalker: Anakin's mother. who has got the qualities of strength that the character demands. Best was hired after Gurland saw him on a Stomp performance in San Francisco."[2] • Ewan McGregor as Obi-Wan Kenobi: Qui-Gon's young Jedi Padawan apprentice. McGregor was cast out of fifty potential actors. enthusiastic and very energetic" and producer Rick McCallum added that Lloyd was "smart. and even at Qui-Gon's funeral they're left to wonder if Darth Maul was the Sith master or merely the apprentice." Portman was chosen especially for her performances in The Professional (1994) and Beautiful Girls (1996). "I was looking for someone who was young. but is defeated by Obi-Wan. August. because he had assumed that a younger actor would play the part in the prequel films."[5] • Jake Lloyd as Anakin Skywalker a nine-year-old slave boy with great piloting skills. and studied several of Guinness' performances. Maul mortally wounds Qui-Gon. but questions his motives at times. who is eventually elected Chancellor of the Republic. because he considered Neeson to have great skills and presence. strong. since there are always two of them. Hundreds of actors were tested. Obi-Wan is bestowed the rank of Jedi Knight. McDiarmid was surprised when Lucas approached him 16 years after Return of the Jedi to reprise the [7] role of Palpatine. the Jedi are still mystified by the recent reemergence of the Sith. He accompanies them throughout the film. Obi-Wan and Qui-Gon encounter Darth Maul once more and engage him in a lightsaber duel. When he discovers Anakin. but cast Neeson. who portrayed the elderly Obi-Wan. the Federation Viceroy is sent to stand trial for his crimes. which impressed Lucas.[3] McGregor had a vocal coach help him develop a voice closer to Guinness'. he insists that the boy be trained as a Jedi. with his filmed performance later replaced by the computer-generated character. I think it will be good for young women to see a strong woman of action who is also smart and a leader. Qui-Gon's dying request is for Obi-Wan to train Anakin. who the other actors will look up to. 213 Cast • Liam Neeson as Qui-Gon Jinn: A Jedi Master and mentor to Obi-Wan. He holds Qui-Gon in high regard.[2] but was enthused over being cast as Naboo's queen. mischievous and loves anything mechanical -. exiled from his home but taken in by Qui-Gon and Obi-Wan."[2] The actress was unfamiliar with Star Wars prior to being cast. who Lucas considered that fit his requirements of "a good actor. Amidala hopes to protect her planet from a blockade brought on by the Trade Federation. Palpatine is elected as the new Supreme Chancellor of the Republic. although she [8] was afraid of not being chosen due to her accent. Lucas originally envisioned an American actor in the role. He wandered in the set in a foam-and-latex suit and headpiece to provide reference for the actors. from both his early work and the Star Wars movies. was chosen after auditioning with Liam Neeson. who dreams to become a Jedi. Padmé presents a gift of appreciation and friendship to the Gungans. but after offering to also voice the character. a veteran of Swedish cinema.[4] with production notes stating that "The role required a young woman who could be believable as the ruler of that planet.[6] and originally was just going to provide motion capturing.just like Anakin. and the Jedi Council accepts Anakin as Obi-Wan's apprentice. a character she expected to become a role model: "It was wonderful playing a young queen with so much power. to make a believable younger version. .

he was approached by cast director Robin Gurland to play Windu.[10] • Silas Carson as Nute Gunray: The Viceroy of the Trade Federation who leads Naboo's invasion and tries to force Queen Amidala to sign a treaty to legitimize the occupation.[21] Casting director Robin Gurland approached him for Nass as it was a "bigger than life" character with "a kind of bravado". Sebulba's design was described by Lucas as "a spider crossed with an orangutan crossed with a sloth". while actual robots and a digital replica are used otherwise (see Effects. similar to the Japanese puppet theater Bunraku. also used for the 3D re-release.[19] • Brian Blessed voices Boss Nass: The leader of the Gungan tribe who allies with the Naboo and defeats the Trade Federation.[13] • Andy Secombe voices Watto: A junk dealer on Tatooine who owns Anakin and his mother as slaves. Jackson as Mace Windu: A member of the Jedi Council who also opposes the idea of training Anakin.[23] 214 .[8] A computer-generated Yoda is featured in two distant shots and Warwick Davis portrays him in the scene in which Obi-Wan becomes a Jedi Knight. Watto's expressions were based on video footage of Secombe doing the voice acting. with Oz controlling the mouth and other parts controlled by the puppeteers using remote controls. and took about 15 minutes to apply.[6][9] • Kenny Baker as R2-D2: An astromech droid. below). His voice was considered "too squeaky". leading it to be dubbed over. the Governor of Naboo. • Anthony Daniels voices C-3PO: A protocol droid built by Anakin.[20] for which he was considered "too loud".[16] • Frank Oz as the voice of Yoda: The centuries old leader of the Jedi Council who is apprehensive about allowing Anakin to be trained. while Daniels read his lines off-camera. Lucas and McCallum were so impressed with the test tape that they gave Park the role of Maul.[22] Blessed described Nass as a "reluctant hero". Yoda was mostly portrayed as a puppet designed by Nick Dudman. The Thai accent used by the character was chosen after Lucas and McCallum listened to various languages to pick how the Neimodians would speak. Carson also portrays three minor characters: Jedi Master Ki-Adi-Mundi. With a design that was an amalgalm of various rejected ideas.[12] • Hugh Quarshie as Captain Panaka: Queen Amidala's chief of security at Theed Palace. Park was originally only a member of the stunt crew. exerted a lot of pressure on the bearer. and clothing inspired by medieval armor.[14] • Lewis MacLeod voices Sebulba: An aggressive.[17] Lucas stated that his original intention was for a full-time digital Yoda. but the attempts did not work well enough. a CG Yoda similar to the one from the other prequels is used instead. to which Lucas replied that the actor would remain.[18] • Samuel L.Star Wars Episode I: The Phantom Menace • Ray Park as Darth Maul: Darth Sidious' Zabrak Sith apprentice. Lucas described the character as a "good man but he's beleaguered – a bit like [Bill] Clinton". A martial arts champion with experience in gymnastics and swordfighting. notable for saving Queen Amidala's ship when all other droids fail. photos of animation supervisor Rob Coleman imitating the character. fans campaigned on the Internet to retain Baker as R2.[8] He was voiced by Peter Serafinowicz. he lacks a metal covering in this film. Quarshie accepted the part for considering it "a good career move" and a production that would be fun to make. Trade Federation Senator Lott Dod. A puppeteer – dressed in a color close to the one seen in the background.[21] and a fun role to play. Before the film's production started.[6] and stunt coordinator Nick Gillard filmed Park to demonstrate how he envisioned the lightsaber battles. Eventually on The Phantom Menace's Blu-Ray version. so he could be erased during post-production – manipulated a skeletal C-3PO figure attached to his front. which R2-D2 refers to as being "naked". Blessed originally auditioned for Sio Bibble. and an ill-fated pilot (which was the role Carson originally auditioned for). and modeler Steve Alpin saying Watto's lines to the mirror.[15] with a camel-like face. who uses a double-bladed lightsaber. scheming Podracer and Anakin's rival.[6] • Terence Stamp as Supreme Chancellor Finis Valorum: The current Chancellor who commissions Obi-Wan and Qui-Gon to negotiate with the Trade Federation Viceroy. After Jackson expressed interest in appearing in a Star Wars film. Baker is used for scenes where R2 bends forwards and backwards and wobble from side to side.[11] Carson got the role because another actor was uncomfortable with the costumes used by the Trade Federation characters – which were hot. based on Stuart Freeborn's original design.

He had also by that point developed a fairly elaborate back-story to aid his writing process. who bore a striking resemblance to Natalie Portman. the two headed announcer of the Boonta's Eve Race. The actors were filmed wearing make-up and blue bodysuits.[35] Lucas later revealed the true title to be The Phantom Menace. and that the series would be a tragic one examining Darth Vader's origins. Knightley's role was kept quiet by the film's marketing department in order to heighten the surprise of there being a decoy Queen when the film was released.[29] With this new backstory in place. a reference to Palpatine hiding his true identity as an evil Sith Lord behind the .small scenes with him figuring out how the ship works. 1994. The visual effects crew did not like the original results. The Queen's costumes were specifically designed to hide any height and shape differences between Knightley and Portman. and with the explosion of CGI technology. Lucas had negotiated a contract that gave him rights to make two sequels. However. The Empire Strikes Back. from being the first film in the sequence. from a "filling-in" of history. Lucas decided that the series would be a trilogy. Seeing that there was still a large audience for his idea of a prequel trilogy. George Lucas considered returning to directing.[35] At first Anakin's age was twelve.[35] The screenplay for Star Wars was adapted from Lucas' 15-page outline that was written in 1976. the original film was meant to be the introduction to a much wider story arc that could be covered by sequels if the first film turned out to be successful. Star Wars saw a resurgence in popularity in the wake of Dark Horse's comic line and Timothy Zahn's trilogy of novels. but Lucas reduced it to nine because he felt the lower age fit better the plot point of Anakin being affected by his mother being separated from him.to make it sound more believable. to the beginning of one long story that started with Anakin's childhood and ended with his death. He began outlining the story. and thus. Lucas stated that he was "burned out" and would take a break from the series. The early outline was originally designed to help Lucas track the character backstories and what events had taken place before the original trilogy. George Lucas reportedly realized that the story he had written was too vast in scope to be covered in one stand-alone film. and had unofficially canceled his sequel trilogy by the time of Return of the Jedi. But since Lucas had developed most of the backstory. now indicating that Anakin Skywalker would be the main protagonist rather than Obi-Wan Kenobi.[31] After losing much of his fortune in a divorce settlement in 1987. Eventually Anakin being younger lead Lucas to rewrite Anakin's participation in the final battle . George Lucas had no desire to return to Star Wars.[28] While writing the first sequel. and developed a backstory depicting Vader as having once been Jedi Knight Anakin Skywalker.[30] By the time of the trilogy's final film. This was the final step towards turning the franchise into a "saga". existing parallel or tangential to the originals.[25] 215 Production Background and writing During the process of writing the original Star Wars. The role was originally going to be filled by a stand-in. and ended up crafting Fode and Beed as an entirely computer generated alien. Vader became a tragic character and was ultimately redeemed.[36] While the film's working title was The Beginning. R2D2 helping Anakin . so much so that Portman's mother could not distinguish between the two on set.[33] By 1993 it was announced.[26][27] By the time of the third draft. to a film actually belonging to the saga's second trilogy.Star Wars Episode I: The Phantom Menace • Greg Proops and Scott Capurro voice Fode and Beed. until casting director Robin Gurland came across Knightley.[34] George Lucas began writing the new Star Wars trilogy on November 1. renaming the film from "Episode II" to "Episode V". He turned the villain Darth Vader into the father of hero Luke Skywalker. backstory.[32] In the early 1990s. so their heads would be joined in a computer-generated body. Return of the Jedi. the idea of prequels continued to fascinate him. Lucas also began to change how the prequels would exist relative to the originals.[24] • Keira Knightley as Sabé: Queen Amidala's body double and decoy. that he would be making the prequels. a powerful warrior who was swayed to the dark side of the Force. The original film eventually evolved. Lucas considered different directions in which to take the story. in Variety among other sources.

one leading to another . Anakin being met along the way. and creating sets and landscapes through digital technology. the Jedis being sent there. Gillard theorized that the Jedi would have had to develop a fighting style that merged every swordfighting style. and facial muscles on Jar Jar Binks as reference to ILM's animators. and in the summer he begun location scouting along with production designer Gavin Bocquet. Obi-Wan needed a Master.[38] 216 Pre-production and design Even before Lucas had started writing. Each creature would reflect its environment. Balance also emerged frequently. Tatooine having rough-looking creatures "with weather-beaten leathery skin to protect them from the harsh desert [43] elements" and Coruscant featuring more bipedal human-looking aliens. since it was the history leading up to A New Hope.[39] Within three to four months of Lucas beginning the writing process." Because of their short-range weapons. and Obi-Wan at odds with his rebellious master but eventually becoming Qui-Gon by taking on his rebellious personality and his responabilities. Whitlatch would also design detailed skeletons for major characters. with other swinging techniques. translating the concepts into construction bluprints with environments and architetural styles that had some basis in reality "to give the audience something to key into.the central is Palpatine's intent to become Chancellor. While training Liam Neeson and Ewan McGregor. such as kendo and other kenjutsu styles. such as long-term deals with actors and soundstages.which also drew from old Tunisian hotels and buildings. The preference of hand-to-hand combat was intended to give a more . and the characters having someone to influence them . Like with the original trilogy. which leads to the Trade Federation's attack to Naboo. such as the human and Gungan cities of Naboo and three different buildings in Coruscant . who had a background on zoology and anatomy.some with varied environments.[42] Standing out on creature design was artist Terryl Whitlatch.[40] Chiang stated that Lucas intended Episode I to be a stylistically different production from the other Star Wars films. At times entire food chains would be developed even if only a small percentage would appear on the film. Darth Sidious needed an apprentice" as without interaction and dialogue "you wouldn't have drama". and had touches such as a marketplace to differentiate from A New Hope's Mos Eisley . meant to be among five to six sequences per fight. architeture and design schools. employing recent graduates with no film experience.Star Wars Episode I: The Phantom Menace facade of a well-intentioned public servant. Duality is frequent.and Coruscant. rather than high-casualty soldiers. Bocquet would later flesh out the work of Chiang's team and design the interiors. "Anakin needed to have a mother.[44] Lucas later referred to Jedi as being "negotiators". with both Anakin being supposedly the chosen one to bring balance to the Force. with Naboo's being more beautiful given the planet being "lush and more animal-friendly". in particular a metropolis design which became the [41] basis for the Senate. McCallum started searching for artists on art. which instead had an art nouveau-inspired visual. Lucas constructed The Phantom Menace to illustrate a number of themes through the narrative. The concept drawings of Ralph McQuarrie for the original trilogy served as the basis for Mos Espa . with some basis in the real world except for the Gungan city.would be given distinctive looks. McCallum stated that his experience with The Young Indiana Jones Chronicles lead to many of his decisions on The Phantom Menace.[37] The story ended with five plots going on simultaneously. with Amidala being a queen who passes as a handmaiden. Gillard likened the lightsaber battles to a chess game "with every move being a check. being "richer and more like a period piece. Stunt coordinator Nick Gillard was recruited to create a new Jedi fighting style for the prequel trilogy. Industrial Light & Magic art director Doug Chiang was eventually hired as the design director for being the artist that impressed McCallum the most." The three planets in which the story takes place . Palpatine playing on both sides of the war.as Lucas explained. Gillard would write a sequence to be an estimated 60 seconds long. and the rise of the Sith lords. such as tennis swings and tree-chopping. Many of the aliens emerged as hybrids combining features of different real animals. his producing partner Rick McCallum was doing his own preparations for the film. Chiang and his design team started a two-year process of reviewing thousands of designs for the film. In April 1994.

[46] with Obi-Wan's being directly inspired by the one worn by Guinness. 1997 and ended on September 30 of that year.[51] with Mos Espa being Remains of Mos Espa in the Tunisian desert. with inspiration from various cultures around the globe. and Naboo had green and gold for humans. Leavesden was leased for a whole two and a half years so the production company could return after principal photography had [48] wrapped with the sets still standing.[45] Biggar worked closely with concept designer Iain McCaig. Designer Trisha Biggar and her team created over one thousand costumes. Following another British studio used for the original trilogy. and the creature department for fabrics that "wouldn't wear too heavily" on the alien skins." Biggar also consulted Gillard to seek ways the costumes would accomodate action scenes.[51] serving as a location for four days after it had been closed for visitation.an expensive process compared to recording directly on digital for the compositing of computer-generated effects. considering that the society was more sophisticated than the one depicted in the original trilogy. an unexpected sandstorm destroyed many sets and props.[44] Lucas also decided to make elaborate costumes.while Tatooine followed A New Hope with sun-bleached sand colors.[54][55] . production was able to leave Tunisia on the exact day originally planned. as Lucas and McCallum considered it a logical next step given the amount of digitizing . All future films would be shot using Sony CineAlta high-definition video cameras.[52] The Italian Caserta Palace doubled for the Theed City Naboo Palace interior. Scenes with explosions were built in replica sets in Leavesden.[47] 217 Filming Filming began on June 26. A huge wardrobe department was set at Leavesden Film Studios to create from scratch over 250 costumes for the main actors and 5000 for the background ones. creating a color palette for the inhabitants of each world . built in the desert outside Tozeur. Another English location was Cassiobury Park in Watford for the forest scenes on Naboo. while Gungans wore "a leathery look. primarily taking place at Leavesden Film Studios in England. Elstree. Some scenes were shot on high-definition digital video tapes to test on how digital recording could hold up. Coruscant had grays. With a quick rescheduling to allow for repairs.Star Wars Episode I: The Phantom Menace spiritual and intellectual role to the Jedi.[49][50] The Tunisian desert was again used for the Tatooine scenes. Lucas stated that he and Biggar would look at the conceptual art to work on "translating all of these designs into cloth and fabric and materials that would actually work and not look silly. On the night following the third day of shooting in Tozeur. The Jedi costumes followed the tradition from the original. like their skin".[53] The Phantom Menace would be the final Star Wars film to be shot on 35mm film. browns and blacks.

mystical force that a regular orchestra might not have been able to provide" and reflect the different atmosphere. .Star Wars Episode I: The Phantom Menace 218 Effects Up until the film's production.[15] Having confronted problems with the props used to depict R2-D2 before. and featured two wheelchair motors capable of pushing 440 pounds (198 kilograms) of weight. to create their own versions for the robot. and read the script for a breakdown on scenes with practical creatures.[51] Music As with previous Star Wars installments. so they had to rush its production.[58] To research for the podrace vehicles. and was mostly used in Tunisia. and background characters on Mos Espa. he was unaware of any way to accomplish what he had seen.[15] Life-sized replicas of the engines were built. The Neimodian suits. completing the conversation. with the scene where toxic gas is released on the Jedi being the only sequence without any digital alteration. because that R2's motor drive system allowed it to drive over sand. matte paintings. These included the Neimodians. Williams tried to reflect both the innocence of his childhood. leading only the more outlandish designs to be done through CG. Besides Jake Lloyd inside a hydraulically-controlled cockpit. the visual effects crew went to a jet junkyard outside Phoenix. and sent to Tunisia to provide reference in the film. originally envisoned as digital characters. were delivered just one day before they would be required on set. and more choral pieces to "capture the magical. Lucas allowed two companies. seven were built by ILM. Knoll later recounted that on hearing the explanations of the storyboards. and scavenged four Boeing 747 engines. Williams decided to use more electronic instruments such as synthesizers to enhance the sound. Visual effects supervisor John Knoll previewed 3. "more mysterious and mystical and less military" than the original trilogy. He started working on the score in October 1998.950 of the shots have special effects. enabling it to run and being mostly used in stage sets. and on-set visual effects. temple-like feel to the epic lightsaber duel. New computer software was written by Knoll and his visual effects team to create certain shots in the film.[59] One of the most notable tracks is "Duel of the Fates". although other films had made extensive use of computer-generated imagery (CGI). Industrial Light & Magic (ILM) and the production's British special effects department.[56] Lucas also used CGI to correct the physical presence of actors in certain scenes. Nine R2-D2 models were created. Another goal was to create computer-generated characters that could act seamlessly with live-action actors. The voice actors were then removed and the live-action actors would perform the same scene alone. Dudman travelled to Skywalker Ranch to see the original creatures that could be reused. While filming scenes with CGI characters. that even received its own music video. which uses the chorus introduced to give a religious. with Lucas accompanying him to explain what factors of the shots would be practical and what would be created through visual effects. 1999. Lucas would block the characters using their corresponding voice actor on-set. The result was to mix original techniques with the newest digital techniques to make it difficult for the viewer to guess which technique was being used. A CGI character would later be added into the shot.[15] About 1. and began recording the music with the London Voices and London Symphony Orchestra at Abbey Road Studios on February 10. one was for actor Kenny Baker to be dropped into.500 storyboards for the film. and foreshadow his transformation into Darth Vader by putting slight suggestions of "The Imperial [59] March" into the melody. the ones which would be more cost-effective done with masks and animatronics were created by Nick Dudman's creature effects team. the entire podracing scene is computer-generated which the effects crew tried to design to be as "out of this world" as possible. the film's score was composed and conducted by John Williams. and the British studio produced a "pneumatic" R2 that was able to shift from two to three legs.[60] While composing Anakin's theme.[57] While the initial attempt was to create as many aliens with computer graphics. the Jedi Council and the Galactic Senate. Dudman's team was warned on where they would be required only six months before principal photography begun. many special effects in the film industry were achieved by the use of miniature models.

therefore. 1999. the same work that heavily influenced Lucas in his writing of the original Star Wars trilogy's outline. whereas Notting Hill fared rather well and followed The Phantom Menace closely in second place. among them were DreamWorks and Universal Studios. The Phantom Menace makes several references to both historical events and films from George Lucas' youth. The words ki (Japanese) and Ch'i (Chinese) are translations of the Indian term "Prana". According to The Wall Street Journal. His fall from grace seemingly prevents him from fulfilling his destiny as the "chosen one" – the individual prophesied to bring balance to the Force. "Amidala. Unlike Chinese philosophy. health and combat. to go with hair sculpted into a curve that frames make-up of a Japanese cast. 2000. favour a mixture of the gothic and the oriental over anything very futuristic.[67] Challenger.[62] 219 Historical and cultural allusions Like previous Star Wars films.[68] Queue areas formed outside cinema theaters over a month in advance of ticket sales. as did the ancient Japanese Samurai warriors. has a number of highly formal outfits . In Taoist philosophy. including all of the edits and loops that were made for the sound mix.. with the releases of The Love Letter (on May 21) and Notting Hill (on May 28). the ancient Persian philosophy of Zurvanism taught that the dualism of dark and light forces are locked in eternal battle while at the same time being two sides (or evolutes) of the same "Force".[69] . estimated that 2.[63] Japanese film such as Akira Kurosawa's The Hidden Fortress was a source of inspiration for the original Star Wars film."[64] Release The release of the first new Star Wars film in 16 years was accompanied by a considerable amount of hype.[61] A two-disc "Ultimate Edition" was released on November 14. from The Way is born the two opposing but complementary aspects of reality or nature.. Gray & Christmas of Chicago. The Star Wars films typically mix several selected concepts from different mythologies together. where yin and yang are not moral qualities. and scholars point out that The Phantom Menace was likewise influenced by Japanese culture. respectively. The inspiration behind the story of the "virgin birth" parallels a concept developed by Joseph Campbell and his work on The Hero with a Thousand Faces. whose design draws heavily from traditional depictions of the Christian Devil. These elements derive primarily from Eastern and Iranian religions and myths.[66] The Love Letter resulted in a box-office flop. the "chosen one" conceived of a virgin birth. referring to the energy thought to flow through all living things from the source of all chi (or power) which is "The Way" or "The Tao" in Chinese philosophy. This album featured the score restructured by the composer as a listening experience. such as the appearance of Darth Maul. resulting in $293 million in lost productivity." Finally. which refers to a Chinese discipline involving meditation and cultivating the flow of the vital energy called "Chi" or "Qi" for healing.2 million full-time employees did not appear for work to attend the film. The name "Qui-Gon" adapts the term Qigong. the force of time itself (Zurvan): the prime mover.[63] The Star Wars film cycle features a similar religious narrative involving Anakin Skywalker. yin and yang. so many workers announced plans to view premiere that many companies shut down on the opening day..[65] Few film studios released films during the same week as the release of The Phantom Menace. "The costume and make-up designs .Star Wars Episode I: The Phantom Menace The film's soundtrack was released by Sony Classical Records on May 4. a work-issues consulting firm. in keeping with her status and character.[63] There are many references to Christian mythology in the film.. it is not in film order and omits many notable cues from the film due to a compact disc's space restrictions. Film historians Geoff King and Tanya Krzywinska assert. complete with red skin and horns. The gothic is most strongly apparent in Darth Maul's demonic horns and the red and black make-up mask that borrows from the facial designs found in depictions of Japanese demons. who is tempted to join the Sith.[63] The Jedi practice Zen-like meditation and martial arts." King and Krzywinska note that "Qui-Gon's pony tail and Obi-Wan's position of apprentice further encourage a reading in terms of the Samurai tradition. The set features almost the entire score as it is heard in the film.

1999 with the film Wing Commander. provided that there be a twelve-ticket limit per customer. which was held in Denver.[87] and a junior novelization by Scholastic. Lucas stated that the change was to give the fans a "head start" by allowing them to view it over the week and allowing families the chance to view it on the weekends.[88] The film's official novelization was written by Terry Brooks.[84] Many tie-in adaptations were released. 1999.Star Wars Episode I: The Phantom Menace More theater lines appeared when it was announced that cinemas were not allowed to sell tickets in advance until two weeks into the release. Star Wars Celebration. This was done out of fear that family theater-goers would be either unable to receive tickets or forced to pay higher prices. 1999. Again. which a distribution chief called "horrible". Drew Struzan.[73] Despite worries about whether the film would be finished in time. 1998. 1999 to May 19.000. the Aubrey Fund for Pediatric Cancer Research at the Sloan-Kettering Hospital in New York. some advance tickets were sold by scalpers as high as $100 apiece. 1999.[80] A bootlegged version of the preview was leaked on the Internet the same day. and the poster was unveiled on March 11.[76] 220 Promotion Lucasfilm spent $20 million in the film's advertising campaign.C. was released on November 10. After Lucas opted for a drawn theatrical poster. The company also made licensing deals for promotion with Hasbro. the artist responsible for the Special Edition posters. 1999. At the ShoWest Convention. receipts from the Los Angeles event were donated to the Elizabeth Glaser Pediatric AIDS Foundation with corporate packages available for $5. including information about impending developments in the following two installments of the series.[83] and was aired on Entertainment Tonight and Access Hollywood. Tricon and Nestlé were promotional partners. stating it was exactly what they wanted to avoid.[70] However.[78] The teaser trailer was pre-released on selected screens accompanying A Bug's Life on November 17.[81] The teaser poster. who met with Lucas before writing the book and received his approval and guidance. the Big Brother/Sister Association of the Philadelphia premiere.[81] and the trailer was released the following morning on the film's official website. and there were even reports that people were paying full admission at theaters just to see the trailer.[71] As a result. with the servers becoming gridlocked soon after. Foreshadowing his future conversion to digital cinematography.[77] Lucasfilm also helped the Star Wars fan club to organize a special event.[89] For the 2012 3D re-release. Lucas stated that the film would be released on four digital projectors on June 18. . A statement said that tickets were sold at $500 apiece and that certain sections were set aside for disadvantaged children. Lego. many fans paid full theater admission just to watch the new trailer. Brooks also wrote three chapters of unique material. however. it could not be modified in any way.[86] a four-part comic book adaptation by Dark Horse Comics. 1999. contractually. because it not only premiered in theaters.[72] Daily Variety reported that theater owners received strict instructions from Lucasfilm that the film could only play in the cinema's largest auditorium for the first 8–12 weeks. 1999.[75] Other charity premieres included the Dallas premiere for Children's Medical Center. after meetings with the National Association of Theatre Owners. featuring Anakin with his shadow forming Darth Vader's silhouette.[74] Eleven charity premieres were staged across the United States on May 16. Colorado between April 30 and May 2.[85] a pinball machine by Williams. Struzan's illustration was the only art the foreign distributors could use. two weeks before its theatrical release Lucasfilm pushed the release date up from May 21. D. and other than the text. but screened at the ShoWest Convention in Las Vegas.[82] The theatrical trailer caused even more notable media hype. Tricon Global Restaurants and PepsiCo.000–$25. 1998. Lucasfilm agreed to allow advance ticket sales on May 12. was commissioned to illustrate.[79] A second trailer was released on March 12. no honor passes were allowed for the first eight weeks. Tickets were instead to be sold on a traditional first-come-first-served basis. and the Children's National Medical Center in Washington. and they were obligated to send their payments to distributor 20th Century Fox within seven days. such as a LucasArts video game for the PlayStation and PC. but promotion was rather limited. Lucasfilm dictated that.

with 2. a commentary track featuring among others Lucas and producer Rick McCallum. with the release of Attack of the Clones. with an average rating of 5.[92] A LaserDisc version of The Phantom Menace was also released in Japan. it became the first Star Wars film to be officially released on DVD.J.[106] In 2002.000. 500. Abrams being chosen as director of Star Wars Episode VII..S." and stating that "Lucas tells a good story.[97][98] George Lucas stated that the 3D conversion was "just a conversion" of the film's Blu-ray release in 2011 and no additional changes were made. who was regarded by many members of the older fan community as toyetic — purely a merchandising opportunity rather than a serious character in the film. and hypothetically entreating filmmakers to "give me transparent underwater cities and vast hollow senatorial spheres any day.[93] The Star Wars films were released on Blu-ray Disc on September 16. a comic-relief character who's frankly not funny.[94] 3D re-release On September 28. Ewan McGregor said that in retrospect The Phantom Menace slightly lacked some of the "humor and colour" of the forthcoming prequels. 2000. In its first two days of availability. They were supposed to be released in episode order. a standard pan and scan and a Collector's Edition widescreen. several months before it was available on DVD in the U. making it slightly different from its theatrical release while retaining an identical plot. including a full-length documentary entitled "The Beginning: Making Episode I". 2011 in three different editions. and a number of documentaries. On both sites."[109] Owen Gleiberman of Entertainment Weekly gave the film a B grade and complimented Liam Neeson's .Star Wars Episode I: The Phantom Menace 221 Home video The film was released on VHS on April 4. Roger Ebert of the Chicago Sun Times gave it three and a half out of four stars. in two different versions. "Perhaps the absolute creative freedom director George Lucas enjoyed while dreaming up the flick's 'comic' relief – with no studio execs and not many an independently minded actor involved – is a path to the dark side.8/10.[91] The DVD version was re-released in a prequel trilogy box set on November 4. especially the character of Jar Jar Binks." [108] Conversely. Among the special features are seven deleted scenes completed specifically for the DVD. 2008.[96] The 3D re-releases of Star Wars Episode II: Attack of the Clones and Star Wars Episode III: Revenge of the Sith were postponed after the news of J. beginning with The Phantom Menace. calling it "an astonishing achievement in imaginative filmmaking. the film holds a 57% "Rotten" rating on the review aggregator website Rotten Tomatoes. 2010. it seemed "kind of flat. The Phantom Menace became the fastest selling DVD ever in the U.[95] The conversion was supervised by Industrial Light & Magic and produced by Prime Focus. He felt as a result of bearing the weight of setting up the entire saga.[100] Reception Critical reception At the time of its original release. the regular version sold 4.[101] It also has a score of 51/100 ("mixed or average reviews") on Metacritic based on 36 reviews. which was released in 3D to cinemas in February 2012. The film's DVD version had certain scenes and other elements edited and inserted by George Lucas. it was announced that all six films in the series were supposed to be stereo-converted to 3D.[99] The only confirmed change is to Anakin's magnetic wand during the podrace scene where the tip was sharpened to more accurately fit the 2D photography to the new 3D image. based on 186 reviews.5 million copies and the limited edition. it is the lowest rated film in the Star Wars film series."[107] One critic observed that. 2001." [105] George Lucas criticized the American media for using fan opinions from the Internet as a reliable source for their news stories. on October 16.[90] Later. Many aspects of the scripting were criticized.S.2 million copies sold in its first week after release. As of the film's 3D re-release during March 2012." Ebert also commented that it was perfectly fine for the characters being a bit less compelling.[102][103][104] Kenneth Turan of the Los Angeles Times described Binks as "a major miscue. seeing that they were just being introduced. The Phantom Menace received mixed reviews from film critics.

[122] the greedy and corrupt Neimoidians of the Trade Federation spoke with East Asian accents. of the Seattle Post-Intelligencer. in another Entertainment Weekly review of the film. Lucas has categorically denied all of these implications."[118] William Arnold. professor of African-American studies at Georgetown University.[123] Jar Jar Binks was described by one critic as "Servile and cowardly. and he seems to be a caricature of a [124] stereotypical African tribal chieftain.. saying "it built expectations that can't possibly be matched and scuttled (the) element of storytelling surprise. Those against it have seen it as a concept that negates the Force's spiritual quality. Marc Bernardin gave the film a C-. calling it "haplessly plotted.com remarked that the film's better moments "don't merely balance out the weaker ones – they topple them.[125] It also became the fastest film to reach the $200 million and $300 million mark. . bumbling buffoon with a rumbling voice.." praising the characters of Darth Maul and Watto..[126] The Phantom Menace was 1999's most successful film." 222 Box office performance Despite its mixed critical reception. observed that the entire Gungan people seem oddly suggestive of a primitive African tribe: "The leader of Jar Jar's tribe is a fat. and juvenile.558.[114] The Phantom Menace was ranked by Empire magazine as one of "500 Greatest Movies Of All Time". the film ranked as the third highest-grossing film . he also felt that the film was "well made and entertaining" and believed it was much better than similar box office fare released around that year.a black minstrel-ish stereotype on par with Stepin Fetchit. notably: the oafish. breaking many box office records in its debut.."[120] Religion expert John D. The Phantom Menace was a major financial success. the link between physical bodies and spiritual energy.[110] However. slow-witted Jar Jar Binks had long droopy ears reminiscent of dreadlocks and spoke with what many perceived as a Caribbean patois (particularly Jamaican Creole).Star Wars Episode I: The Phantom Menace performance and the action scenes. It broke The Lost World: Jurassic Park's records for the largest single-day gross with more than $28 million in the opening day (surpassed in 2001 by Harry Potter and the Philosopher's Stone). even if its ways are mysterious: their bodily cells have a heavier than usual concentration of 'midi-chlorians.[115] while Entertainment Weekly considered it as one of "the 25 worst sequels ever made"[116] and Comcast ranked it among the "worst film sequels of all time". there was controversy over whether several alien characters reflected racial stereotypes. animator Rob Coleman admitted that he viewed footage of Alec Guinness as Fagin in Oliver Twist to inspire his animators in creating Watto. "In the 'Gospel according to Lucas' a world is conjured up in which the intractable oppositions that have tormented religious thinkers for centuries are reconciled."[108] Michael Eric Dyson. midi-chlorians provide a biological interface. "The Phantom Menace was probably the most overhyped motion picture of the last decade (if not longer). and fastest to $100 million gross in five days (surpassed in 2002 by Spider-Man). "Anathema to Star Wars fanatics who thought they reduced the Force to a kind of viral infection.[119] The introduction of midi-chlorians (microscopic organisms that mediate use of the Force) in the film has been controversial among fans. Caputo adds.088.295 domestically (in North America) and $493. Film historian Daniel Dinello notes." However. earning $431.'"[121] After the film's release. such as The Mummy and The Matrix.[112] David Cornelius of efilmcritic.263 in other territories for a worldwide total of $924.[102] however. praising the visuals and Liam Neeson's performance."[113] Colin Kennedy of Empire magazine said that despite problems with pacing and writing "there is still much pleasure to be had watching our full-blown Jedi guides in action"."[111] Susan Wloszczyna of USA Today thought the film did "plenty right.[126] At that time.317. surpassing Independence Day and Titanic respectively. agreed that the massive hype of the film caused much of the negative reaction. horribly written. and considering the duel between Darth Maul and the Jedi "the saga's very best lightsaber battle".229.[117] James Berardinelli would later note. and the unprincipled desert trader Watto has been interpreted as a Fagin-esque Jewish stereotype. and its reputation suffered as a result of its inability to satisfy unreasonable expectations. The gifts that the Jedi masters enjoy have a perfectly plausible scientific basis. although the film itself still portrays the Force as a mysterious entity using the midi-chlorians as a link through which the Force communicates with living beings.

 44-45 [4] (Bowen 2005.[142] Citations [1] "Star Wars: Episode I – The Phantom Menace" (http:/ / www. International grosses which exceeded $10 million included Australia ($25. Worst Screenplay.[137] and a Young Artist Award for Jake Lloyd's performance. Germany ($53. Brazil ($10. and Best Sound Mixing (Gary Rydstrom. starwars. Worst Supporting Actor (Jake Lloyd as Anakin). Shawn Murphy and John Midgley). Its current worldwide total stands at $1. [2] "Star Wars Episode I Production Notes: The Actors and Characters – Part I" (http:/ / web.[133][134] In contrast. . Archived from the original (http:/ / www. Distribution rights will be transferred to Walt Disney Studios Motion Pictures by May 2020. starwars. p. When adjusting for ticket price inflation. Worst Screen Couple (Jake Lloyd and Natalie Portman). it overtook the original Star Wars as the saga's most financially successful film when not adjusting for inflation of ticket prices. making it the first Star Wars film to accomplish this feat and the eleventh film in history to do so. com/ episode-i/ bts/ production/ f19990501/ indexp5. and is currently the fifth highest-grossing film of all time domestically. losing all three to The Matrix.Star Wars Episode I: The Phantom Menace of all time domestically (behind Titanic and Star Wars). [6] "Star Wars Episode I Production Notes: The Actors and Characters – Part II" (http:/ / web.9 million). not taking inflation into account.com.[136] the MTV Movie Award for Best Action Scene. html). StarWars. the 3D re-release has made total of $102.677. . Best Visual Effects. [3] Bouzereau & Duncan 1999. htm).[130] The 3D re-release. Retrieved April 5.[138] It was also nominated for. com/ episode-i/ bts/ production/ f19990501/ indexp5. and the second highest-grossing film of all time worldwide (behind Titanic) when not adjusting for inflation of ticket prices. starwars.9 million).727. it increased its rank on the Adjusted for Ticket Price Inflation list to 16th place (one place behind Return of the Jedi). among others.[131] The film crossed the $1 billion mark worldwide on February 22. 1999.044. .9 million). Worst Director. Box Office Mojo. StarWars. the total worldwide box office gross surpassed $1 billion. html). it ranked as the 19th highest-grossing film domestically (making it the fourth Star Wars film to be in the Inflation-Adjusted Top 20). Worst Supporting Actress (Sofia Coppola as Saché). Archived from the original (http:/ / www.5 million domestically. 2012. and has increased the film's overall box office takings to $474. 2004. 2009. html) on October 23. Although the film had lost some of its rankings in the various lists of highest-grossing films in the intervening years. archive. the 3D re-release returned the film to the worldwide all-Time top ten for several months (it is currently in 12th place). org/ web/ 20041023023636/ www. Retrieved April 5. com/ episode-i/ bts/ production/ f19990501/ indexp4. boxofficemojo. Retrieved 2009-04-05. and $552. Retrieved 2007-09-12. and won the Worst Supporting Actor category with Jar Jar Binks actor Ahmed Best. May 1. com/ episode-i/ bts/ production/ f19990501/ indexp4. 2002. and the United Kingdom and Ireland ($81. nominations.[132] 223 Awards and nominations The Phantom Menace was nominated for three Academy Awards: Best Sound Editing. p. Italy ($12. or Razzie.5 million in other territories. the BAFTAs in Visual Effects and Sound.[141] References Footnotes 1.4 million).[139] and the Grammy Award for Best Score Soundtrack for Visual Media. Mexico ($12 million). cnn. org/ web/ 20041023023458/ http:/ / www. Tom Johnson. archive. Japan ($109.9 million).[127] After its 3D re-release in 2012.119 worldwide (including $43.[128] In North America. 3) [5] "Return of the galaxy's new beauty" (http:/ / www. earned $43 million worldwide on its opening weekend ($22. . .[140] Empire magazine ranked The Phantom Menace 449th in a 2008 list of the 500 greatest movies of all time. which premiered in February 2012. Spain ($25 million). html). France and Algeria ($43 million). These included Worst Picture. starwars.5 million of which was in North America). html) on 2004-10-23. 1999-05-01.027. To date. com/ movies/ ?id=starwars.9 million). com/ CNN/ Programs/ people/ shows/ portman/ profile.[129] Also domestically. 2009. CNN.com.[135] The film won Saturn Awards for Best Costumes and Best Special Effects.5 million domestically). the film received seven Golden Raspberry Award.

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htm). com/ movies/ 1999/ STRWR. .64044. empireonline. uk/ 2/ hi/ in_depth/ entertainment/ 2000/ oscars_2000/ 691746. boxofficemojo. Box Office Mojo. shtml) [120] Daniel Dinello (2005). 2001-10-16. "Star Wars Episode I: The Phantom Menace" (http:/ / www. Retrieved 2012-04-14. Wired (7. html). [116] "The worst movie sequels ever – Countdown!" (http:/ / www. Susan (2005-05-17). ew. com/ apps/ pbcs. org/ awards/ academyawards/ legacy/ ceremony/ 72nd-winners. Empire.. Retrieved 2009-03-12. 2001-12-01. Technophobia!: Science Fiction Visions of Posthuman Technology. ew. The Numbers.com. [138] "21st Annual Young Artist Awards: 1998–1999" (http:/ / www. . Inc. [137] "MTV Movie Awards Past Winners: 2000" (http:/ / www. rogerebert. com/ onair/ ma01/ pastwinners/ 2000. . or its affiliates. . 1999" (http:/ / edition. org/ web/ 20090505010618/ http:/ / www. . Retrieved 2009-03-12. razzies. asp?DVDID=7324). com/ reviews/ reviewcomplete.1169126_15. [115] "Empire's 500 Greatest Movies Of All Time" (http:/ / www. [119] (http:/ / www. 2000-03-27. Saturn Awards. ISBN 0-292-70986-2 [121] Caputo. org/ awards/ film/ nominations/ ?year=1999) on 2009-05-05. reelviews. All rights reserved. Golden Raspberry Foundation. boxofficemojo. [135] "1999 RAZZIE Nominees & "Winners"" (http:/ / www. .84401. . Retrieved 2012-03-29. Retrieved 2009-02-29. cnn. dll/ article?AID=/ 19990517/ REVIEWS/ 905170301/ 1023). . Box Office Mojo and IMDb are trademarks or registered trademarks of IMDb. php). . © IMDb. oscars.. Colin. Comcast. boxofficemojo. htm). Retrieved 2008-04-13. p. Box Office Mojo. net/ slideshow/ entertainment-worstsequels/ 50/ ). Retrieved 2011-10-14. [129] "All Time Domestic Box Office Grosses" (http:/ / www. . . . Box Office Mojo. ew. "Hyped up 'Menace' runs on overdrive" (http:/ / www. John D. Retrieved 2009-03-12. USA TODAY. htm). com/ wired/ archive/ 7. Retrieved 2009-02-18. Inc. bafta. ISBN 0-415-23332-1 [122] Guylaine Cadorette. Empire. com/ movies/ ?id=starwars. [131] Weekend Report (cont. . com/ alltime/ world/ ). jhtml?PageName=pastwinners& Year=2000). com/ movies/ ?page=intl& id=starwars. [113] "Star Wars: Episode I – The Phantom Menace" (http:/ / www.): 'Phantom Menace' Moves Up to Fifth All-Time (http:/ / www. CNN. . Retrieved 2012-03-28. Retrieved 2009-03-12. .20566981_179604. [126] "Star Wars: The Phantom Menace" (http:/ / www. htm). html). com/ ew/ article/ 0. On Religion. com/ life/ movies/ reviews/ 2005-05-17-menace-review_x. com/ ew/ article/ 0. . .org. Retrieved 2010-04-08. Young Artist Foundation. Retrieved 2010-05-24.00. html). 211. com/ forum/ forum_posts." (http:/ / www. ew. Owen (1999-05-21). oscars.com. htm) [132] "Box Office Mojo" (http:/ / www. html). . spawns criticism – June 9. com/ SHOWBIZ/ Movies/ 9906/ 09/ jar. 227 [110] Gleiberman. seattlepi. . [128] "All Time Worldwide Box Office Grosses" (http:/ / www.com. MTV. Box Office Mojo. co. Retrieved 2006-06-29. htm). . Steve (May 1999). BBC. 2010. Retrieved 2006-07-25. Retrieved 2011-09-15.Adjusted for Ticket Price Inflation" (http:/ / www.00. Retrieved 2009-03-12. Austin: University of Texas Press. [133] "The 72nd Academy Awards (2000) Nominees and Winners" (http:/ / www.. ReelViews. Rotten Tomatoes. (2001). com/ 500/ 10.Star Wars Episode I: The Phantom Menace [109] Roger Ebert (1999-05-17). com/ news/ ?id=3369& p=. html). "Review: Star Wars (Episode II): Attack of the Clones" (http:/ / www. London: Routledge. Retrieved 2009-07-12. [127] "International Box Office Results" (http:/ / www.00. . [123] Silberman. asp). Entertainment Weekly. boxofficemojo. org/ past. Retrieved 2012-06-21. com/ ew/ article/ 0. [118] James Berardinelli. Star Wars Episode I: The Phantom Menace. net/ movies/ s/ sw2002. Entertainment Weekly. "Movie Review: Star Wars: Episode I – The Phantom Menace (1999)" (http:/ / www. Entertainment Weekly.00. . com/ alltime/ adjusted. . stm). Retrieved 2011-11-19. html). boxofficemojo. comcast. wired. Hollywood. [117] "Worst Sequels of All Time" (http:/ / www. 87. usatoday. bbc. archive. rottentomatoes.. Retrieved 2009-03-29. [111] "Movie Review: Star Wars: Episode I -. British Academy of Film and Television Arts. the-numbers. . Retrieved 2006-07-25. [136] "Past Saturn Awards" (http:/ / www. mtv. com/ ew/ article/ 0. Entertainment Weekly. "G Force: George Lucas fires up the next generation of Star Warriors. Retrieved 2012-26-10. "Star Wars – Episode I: The Phantom Menace" (http:/ / rogerebert. com/ news/ detail/ id/ 1109067). htm). Retrieved 2009-03-12. com/ m/ star_wars_episode_i_the_phantom_menace/ ). . empireonline.. Retrieved 2009-07-27. or its affiliates. saturnawards. [130] "All Time Domestic Grosses . com/ movies/ starq. . suntimes. html). hollywood.05). [112] Wloszczyna. asp?TID=349& PN=1). youngartistawards. [114] Kennedy. org/ noms21. [124] "CNN – Jar Jar jars viewers. [125] Josh Wolk (1999-05-24). Retrieved July 18. html). bafta. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. 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Michael (2007).com] • Star Wars Episode I: The Phantom Menace (http://en. asp). empireonline.boxofficemojo. . Anticipation: The Real Life Story of Star Wars: Episode I-The Phantom Menace (http://books. Duncan. amazon.Star Wars Episode I: The Phantom Menace [140] "John Williams" (http:/ / www. 2012.W.metacritic. com/ news/ tangled-rights-could-tie-up-384541).com/explore/the-movies/episode-i) at [www.wikipedia. Empire. (2007).com/movies/?id=starwars. The Gorfaine/Schwartz Agency. J. ISBN 0345431111 • Bowen.rottentomatoes. com/ Composers/ WLLMS-JN.amazon. Laurent. 2012).com/book. Retrieved November 12. [141] "The 500 Greatest Movies of All-Time: 451–447" (http:/ / www. ISBN 0-345-40981-7 • Bouzereau. . .imdb.htm) at Box Office Mojo • Star Wars Episode I: The Phantom Menace (http://www.com/Making-Star-Wars-Episode-Phantom/dp/0345431197). Laurent (1997).amazon.html) • Rinzler. hollywoodreporter. [142] Masters. Del Rey. com/ 500/ 10. The Annotated Screenplays (http://www. Jody (1999). (2005).com/m/ star_wars_episode_i_the_phantom_menace/) at Rotten Tomatoes • Star Wars Episode I: The Phantom Menace (http://www. Jonathan L.com/movies/movie/v179455) at AllRovi • Star Wars Episode I: The Phantom Menace (http://www. "The Secret History of Star Wars" (http://secrethistoryofstarwars. Del Rey. pdf) (PDF).com/?id=W1oyiL-Je6MC). The Hollywood Reporter. 228 Notes • Bouzereau. "Tangled Rights Could Tie Up Ultimate 'Star Wars' Box Set (Analysis)" (http:/ / www. Inc.starwars.allrovi.com/title/tt0120915/) at the Internet Movie Database • Star Wars Episode I: The Phantom Menace (http://www. The Making of Star Wars: The Definitive Story Behind the Original Film (Star Wars) (http:/ /www.com/movie/ star-wars-episode-i---the-phantom-menace) at Metacritic .com/ Star-Wars-Screenplays-Laurent-Bouzereau/dp/0345409817).com/Making-Star-Wars-Definitive-Original/dp/0345494768). ISBN 0-345-49476-8 External links • Star Wars Episode I: The Phantom Menace (http://www.google. ISBN 0-595-34732-0 • Kaminski. iUniverse. The Making of Star Wars: The Phantom Menace (http://www.starwars.org/wiki/ Wikiasite:starwars:''star_wars_episode_i:_the_phantom_menace'') on Wookieepedia: a Star Wars wiki • Star Wars Episode I: The Phantom Menace (http://www. Retrieved 2009-02-18. gsamusic. Ballantine. Kim (October 30.com StarWars.

[2] The evil Galactic Empire. Meanwhile.177 Star Wars Episode VI: Return of the Jedi (also known as Return of the Jedi) is a 1983 American epic space opera film directed by Richard Marquand and written by George Lucas and Lawrence Kasdan. 1983 136 minutes United States English $32. . a Rebel leader and Jedi Knight.Star Wars Episode VI: Return of the Jedi 229 Star Wars Episode VI: Return of the Jedi Star Wars Episode VI: Return of the Jedi Theatrical release poster Directed by Produced by Screenplay by Story by Starring Richard Marquand Howard Kazanjian Lawrence Kasdan George Lucas George Lucas Mark Hamill Harrison Ford Carrie Fisher Billy Dee Williams Anthony Daniels David Prowse Ian McDiarmid Kenny Baker Peter Mayhew Frank Oz John Williams Music by Cinematography Alan Hume.5 million [1] $475. Editing by Sean Barton Marcia Lucas Duwayne Dunham Lucasfilm 20th Century Fox1 • Studio Distributed by Release date(s) Running time Country Language Budget Box office May 25. is building a second Death Star in order to crush the Rebel Alliance.C. effectively bringing an end to the Empire.106. The film is set approximately one year after The Empire Strikes Back. back from the Dark Side of the Force. While writing the shooting script. under the direction of the ruthless Emperor Palpatine. The production team relied on Lucas' storyboards during pre-production. Since Emperor Palpatine plans to personally oversee the final stages of its construction. It is chronologically the sixth film in the Star Wars franchise and the first film to use THX technology. the Rebel Fleet launches a full-scale attack on the Death Star in order to prevent its completion and kill Palpatine. with Lucas as executive producer. Luke Skywalker. Lucas.S. who is his father and himself a fallen Jedi. B. struggles to bring Vader. David Lynch and David Cronenberg were considered to direct the project before Marquand signed on as director.

the redeemed Anakin Skywalker asks Luke to remove his mask so he can look on his son. severing his father's right hand. He unsuccessfully tries to convince Vader to turn from the dark side of the Force. and Arizona from January to March 1982. that Vader is their father and that he is leaving to confront him. After Luke survives a battle with the Rancor. and Luke and Vader engage in a lightsaber duel. Meanwhile. While Han and Leia meet with the other Rebels. Luke snaps and attacks Vader. Luke escapes on Palpatine's Imperial shuttle with his father's body before the . defeats the Imperial forces and destroys the shield generator. Luke breaks free and a large battle erupts.Star Wars Episode VI: Return of the Jedi Kasdan. Unable to watch his son suffer. On Endor. Luke returns to Dagobah. Yoda confirms that Darth Vader is Luke's father. allowing a squadron of starfighters to enter the incomplete superstructure and destroy the station from within. The film was released in theaters on May 25. Vader discovers that Luke has a sister. Luke fears he is endangering the mission. receiving mostly positive reviews. The Rebel Alliance learns that the Empire has been constructing a new Death Star. during which Leia strangles Jabba to death. Heavy secrecy surrounded production and the film was given the title Blue Harvest to prevent price gouging. the Rebels are captured by Imperial forces. Kazanjian's schedule pushed shooting to a few weeks earlier to allow Industrial Light & Magic to work on the film's effects in post-production. 2012 and is planned for a 2015 release. but lets them through so that they will be ambushed by the Imperial forces lying in wait on Endor. Several home video and theatrical releases and revisions to the film followed over the next 20 years. C-3PO and R2-D2. Sensing Vader's presence. he also mentions "another Skywalker". Luke learns that the Death Star is fully operational and set to destroy the Rebellion. Lando leads the remaining ships into the station's core and destroys the main reactor. and producer Howard Kazanjian spent two weeks in conference discussing ideas to construct it. Chewbacca. with Luke in tow. Luke and his companions encounter a tribe of Ewoks and form a partnership with them. Han knocks Boba Fett into the gaping maw of the Sarlacc and Luke destroys Jabba's sail barge. was announced on October 30. Vader turns on Palpatine and throws him down a reactor shaft to his death. with Lucas handling second unit work. Leia infiltrates Jabba's palace on Tatooine disguised as a bounty hunter and releases Han from a block of carbonite. his Sith master and leader of the Empire. On Endor. Star Wars Episode VII. Han leads a strike team to destroy the battle station's shield generator on the forest moon of Endor. With his last breaths. Luke arrives soon afterward and allows himself to be captured. and tell Leia that there was good in him after all. allowing the Rebel fleet to launch a final assault on the Death Star. Luke steps back from the brink and refuses. dooming himself to die in the process. only to find the station's shield is still up and the Imperial fleet waiting for them. Palpatine entreats Luke to kill Vader and take his place. declaring himself a Jedi. just for once. Filming took place in England. On Endor. Luke confesses to Leia that she is his sister. but Vader takes Luke to the Death Star to meet Emperor Palpatine. The film grossed over $475 million worldwide. The strike team. With his dying breaths. Palpatine attacks him with Force lightning. Palpatine tempts Luke to give in to his anger and join the dark side. so that they will bring him to Vader. A sequel. Vader senses Luke's presence on the shuttle. 1983. Marquand. the strike team. but she is captured and enslaved. California. but a surprise counterattack by the Ewoks allows the Rebels to launch an attack. travels to Endor in an Imperial shuttle. only to find that Yoda is dying. Star Wars continued with Episode I: The Phantom Menace as part of the film series' prequel trilogy. Luke surrenders to Imperial troops. Jabba sentences Luke and Han to be executed by the Sarlacc. with his own eyes instead of through the mask. and hatches a plan to destroy it. Lando leads the Rebel fleet in the Millennium Falcon to the Death Star. who Luke discovers is Leia. Lando Calrissian.[3] 230 Plot Luke Skywalker initiates a plan to rescue Han Solo from the crime lord Jabba the Hutt with the help of Princess Leia. with the help of the Ewoks. Obi-Wan then tells Luke that he must confront Vader again to defeat the Empire. Later. and threatens to turn her to the dark side. The spirit of Obi-Wan Kenobi reveals that the "other Skywalker" Yoda spoke of is Luke's twin sister.

On Endor. • Ian McDiarmid as Emperor Palpatine: Simply known as "The Emperor". James Earl Jones provided the voice of Vader. • Kenneth Colley as Admiral Piett: Piett. • Frank Oz performing Yoda. Luke returns to Endor and cremates his father's armor on a funeral pyre. and taken to Jabba the Hutt. Han is freed by Princess Leia. • Anthony Daniels as C-3PO: Luke Skywalker's protocol droid for human-cyborg relations. • Jeremy Bulloch as Boba Fett: A bounty hunter who. who mistakenly believe him to be a god. He would later use the Millennium Falcon. • David Prowse as Darth Vader: Vader has been relentlessly continuing his search for Luke. He escapes with the group after Luke arrives at Jabba's palace. to lead an attack on the Death Star. Lando joined the Rebel Alliance. but he is set off course when the Emperor sends him to Endor to oversee the construction of the new Death Star and to prepare for the Rebel strike. and he prepares to aid (now General) Lando Calrissian in the fighter attack on the Death Star. Palpatine is the supreme ruler of the Galactic Empire and a Dark Lord of the Sith. 231 Cast • Mark Hamill as Luke Skywalker: In the year since his encounter with Darth Vader in Cloud City. Obi-Wan continues to offer guidance to Luke as a Jedi spirit and told Luke the truth about Leia being his sister. but was replaced by 11-year-old Warwick Davis after falling ill with food poisoning on the morning of the shoot. Han tells Leia that he knows she loves Luke and offers to step aside. commands the Imperial Fleet at Endor from the Executor. • Carrie Fisher as Princess Leia Organa: A princess from Alderaan.[4] . That evening. Davis had no previous acting experience and was cast only after his grandmother had discovered an open call for dwarfs for the new Star Wars film. • Caroline Blakiston as Mon Mothma: Mon Mothma is a co-founder of the Rebel Alliance and also serves as its leader. • Kenny Baker was originally cast as the Ewok Wicket. She explains the mission of destroying the Death Star to the Alliance. 3PO is instrumental in establishing friendly relations between the Rebels and the Ewoks on Endor. stays on at the crime lord's palace and engages in the battle above the Sarlacc. After living for 900 years.Star Wars Episode VI: Return of the Jedi Death Star explodes. Luke sees the spirits of Obi-Wan. while Lando escapes in the Falcon. Anakin. Leia has been aiding Luke in his search for Han. Han Solo's ship. Yoda and Anakin Skywalker watching over them. she tells him that Luke is her brother and kisses him. Luke has nearly completed his Jedi training. He now plans to destroy the Alliance with the new Death Star and turn Luke Skywalker to the dark side of the Force. • Denis Lawson as Wedge Antilles: Wedge is now the leader of Rogue Squadron. only to be sentenced to death by Jabba the Hutt. It is later revealed that she is actually Luke's twin sister. • Harrison Ford as Han Solo: Frozen in carbonite by Darth Vader in Cloud City. Shaw was partly replaced by Hayden Christensen in the 2004 DVD release of the film. • Peter Mayhew as Chewbacca: Han Solo's Wookiee co-pilot and best friend. and aided Luke in his search for Han Solo. Yoda finally prepares to become one with the Force and told Luke that Vader is truly his father. was a Jedi Knight before being seduced by the dark side of the Force and becoming Darth Vader. • Alec Guinness as Obi-Wan "Ben" Kenobi: Struck down by Vader in A New Hope. • Sebastian Shaw as Anakin Skywalker: Luke's father. • Billy Dee Williams as Lando Calrissian: After Cloud City was taken over by the Empire. • Kenny Baker as R2-D2: Luke Skywalker's astromech droid. • Warwick Davis as Wicket: An Ewok who leads Leia and eventually her friends to the Ewok tribe. after capturing and delivering Han Solo to Jabba the Hutt. introduced in A New Hope. As the Rebels celebrate the end of the Empire. one of the few officers under Vader's command to survive his wrath.

to helm Return of the Jedi. and Raiders of the Lost Ark had made him an even bigger star. Kasdan concurred. Marquand.[13] . Luke Skywalker was also to have walked off alone and exhausted like the hero in a Spaghetti Western. More American Graffiti).[7] Lucas himself has admitted to being on the set frequently due to Marquand's relative inexperience with special effects.[6] Lucas eventually chose Richard Marquand.[4] Lucas approached David Lynch.[10] The inclusion led Lucas to insert a scene in which Yoda confirms that Darth Vader is Luke's father because.Star Wars Episode VI: Return of the Jedi 232 Production Development As with the previous film. When it came time to formally write a shooting script.[8] Marquand did note that Lucas kept a conspicuous presence on set.[11] the Millennium Falcon would be used in the arrival at the forest moon of Endor. Ford had not contracted to do two sequels. based on Lucas' story. and Kazanjian spent two weeks in conference discussing ideas. Lucas personally funded Return of the Jedi.g. Kasdan used tape transcripts of these meetings to then construct the script.[5] David Cronenberg was also offered the chance to direct the film. The Empire Strikes Back. well after a production schedule and budget had been created by Kazanjian and Marquand had been hired. this is a function Lucas had willingly performed on previous occasions when he had only officially been producing a film (e. For instance. who produced Star Wars and The Empire Strikes Back. which was unusual for a film.[10] The issue of whether Harrison Ford would return for the final film arose during pre-production. Raiders of the Lost Ark. claimed in 2010 that the ongoing success with Star Wars merchandise and toys led George Lucas to reconsider the idea of killing off Han Solo in the middle part of the film during a raid on an Imperial base. Instead. "It is rather like trying to direct King Lear – with Shakespeare in the next room!"[9] The screenplay was written by Lawrence Kasdan and Lucas (with uncredited contributions by David Peoples and Marquand). but Marquand strongly felt that returning to Dagobah was essential to resolve the dilemma raised by the previous film.[8] Many ideas from the original script were left out or changed. but Lucas opted for a happier ending to encourage higher merchandise sales. Some reports have suggested that Lucas was so heavily involved in the shooting of Return of the Jedi that he could be considered a second or a co-director. who had been nominated for the Academy Award for Best Director for The Elephant Man in 1980. and Lucas later decided to name the film Revenge of the Jedi. Kasdan. Ford suggested that Han Solo be killed through self-sacrifice.[4] The screenplay itself was not created until rather late in pre-production. joking. and Obi-Wan Kenobi would return to life from his spectral existence in the Force. he did not want younger moviegoers to dismiss Vader's claim as a lie.[4] Lucas praised Marquand as a "very nice person who worked well with actors". but Lucas was vehemently against it and rejected the concept.[4] Yoda was originally not meant to appear in the film. It is likely that he directed much of the second unit work personally as the shooting threatened to go over schedule. but Lynch declined in order to direct Dune. after a discussion with a children's psychologist. saying it should happen near the beginning of the film to instill doubt as to whether the others would survive. the Ewoks were going to be Wookiees. Kasdan claims he told Lucas that Return of the Jedi was "a weak title".[12] Gary Kurtz. the production team relied on Lucas' story and rough draft in order to commence work with the art department. Lucas. but he declined the offer to make Videodrome and The Dead Zone. Unlike the other stars of the first film.

[15] the forests of Endor in Return of the Jedi. In the same year.[4] Music John Williams composed and conducted the film's musical score with performances by the London Symphony Orchestra. The shoot commenced with a scene later deleted from the finished film where the heroes get caught in a sandstorm as they leave Tatooine. Sony Classical re-pressed the 1997 RCA Victor release of Return of the Jedi along with the other two films in the trilogy. Despite the Sony digital re-mastering. the motion seen in the film appeared as if it were moving at around 120 mph (190 km/h). However. The production team made several attempts. The set was released with the new artwork mirroring the first DVD release of the film.[4] The project was given the working title Blue Harvest with a tagline of "Horror Beyond Imagination. but were unable to create an adequate result.[16] Steadicam inventor Garrett Brown personally operated these shots as he walked through a disguised path inside the forest shooting at less than one frame per second. Orchestration credits also include Thomas Newman. One of two "skeletal" post-production units shooting background matte plates spent a day in Death Valley. The first stage of production started with 78 days at Elstree Studios in England.500. and also [4] prevented price gouging by service providers.000. a schedule six weeks shorter than The Empire Strikes Back.[17] .Star Wars Episode VI: Return of the Jedi 233 Filming Filming began on January 11.000.[15] Lucas was determined to avoid going overbudget as with The Empire Strikes Back.[9] Production then moved to the redwood forests of northern California near Crescent City where two weeks were spent shooting the Endor forest exteriors.[9] (This was the only major sequence cut from the film during editing.[14] The other was a special Steadicam unit shooting forest backgrounds from June 15–17.[14] where the film occupied all nine stages. Sony Classical Records acquired the rights to the classic trilogy scores in 2004 after gaining the rights to release the second trilogy soundtracks (The Phantom Menace and Attack of the Clones). Lucas insisted on trying to create the scene in the same style as Toho's Godzilla films by using a stunt performer inside a suit. California for about ten days of bluescreen shots.[4] In April. even though Star Wars and The Empire Strikes Back had been big hits.000. which minimally improved the sound heard only on high-end stereos.[14] Working on a budget of $32. the fact that Lucasfilm was a non-union company made acquiring shooting locations more difficult and more expensive. 1982 and lasted through May 20. and left some crew members dubious of their ability to be fully prepared for the shoot. this 2004 release is essentially the same as the 1997 RCA Victor release. Producer Howard Kazanjian estimated that using ILM (owned wholly by Lucasfilm) for special effects The heavy forest of Redwood National Park was used to film saved the production approximately $18." This disguised what the production crew was really filming from fans and the press. the crew moved to the Yuma Desert in Arizona for two weeks of Tatooine exteriors. 1982 for the speeder chase near the middle of the film. Lucas eventually relented and decided to film the rancor as a high-speed puppet. Kazanjian's schedule pushed shooting as early as possible in order to give Industrial Light & Magic (ILM) as much time as possible to work on effects. By walking at about 5 mph (8 km/h) and projecting the footage at 24 frame/s. and then concluded at ILM in San Rafael.)[10] While attempting to film Luke Skywalker's battle with the rancor beast. 1982. The initial release of the film's soundtrack was on the RSO Records label in the United States.

800 posters Star Wars fan club members for $9. the modification of the Sarlaac to include a beak. 1983. Along with the two other films in the original trilogy.)[22] The 2005 prequel trilogy film Revenge of the Sith later alluded to the dismissed title of Revenge of the Jedi.50. (Note that the poster reverses the correct color of the light sabers. (Bootlegs of these posters exist and can be differentiated. At the time of its release. and a montage of different alien worlds celebrating the fall of the Empire. which included the insertion of several alien band members in Jabba's throne room. In December 1982 Lucas decided that “Revenge” was not appropriate and returned to his original title. Lucas released The Star Wars Trilogy: Special Edition. the replacement of music at the closing scene.000 feet (30. the entire company found it necessary to remain running 20 hours a day on six day weeks in order to meet their goals by April 1. The changes have caused controversy among the fans as some believe that they detract from the films. Return of the Jedi required fewer changes than the previous two films because it is more emotionally driven than the [8] [25] others. In 1997.$500 depending on condition. It was originally slated to be May 27.[15] With a massive worldwide marketing campaign. but was subsequently changed to coincide with the date of the 1977 release of the original Star Wars film. this was offset by the desire to have the closing film raise the bar set by each of these films. illustrator Tim Reamer created the image for the movie poster and other advertising. However.000 m) of film when the film perforations failed image registration and steadiness tests. by that time thousands of "Revenge" teaser posters (with artwork by Drew Struzan) had been printed and distributed. .[18] Progress on the opticals was severely retarded for a time due to ILM rejecting about 100. since ILM was the only company capable of using the format.[24] According to Lucas.[14] Title Changed from "Revenge" to "Return" The original teaser trailer for the film carried the name Revenge of the Jedi.[20] Lucasfilm stopped the shipping of the posters and sold the remaining stock of 6. Instead. Return of the Jedi was re-released on March 14. While the R&D work and experience gained from the previous two films in the trilogy allowed for increased efficiency.[23] Releases Return of the Jedi's theatrical release took place on May 25. as soon as production began.[14] all VistaVision optical effects remained in-house. the film was advertised on posters and merchandise as simply Star Wars: Return of the Jedi. special effects work at ILM quickly stretched the company to its operational limits. despite its on-screen "Episode VI" distinction. 1983. for the 20th anniversary of the release of Star Wars (retitled Episode IV: A New Hope).[19]. Of about 900 special effects shots.[15] A compounding factor was the intention of several departments of ILM to either take on other film work or decrease staff during slow cycles. 1997 with a number of changes and additions. while about 400 4-perf opticals were subcontracted to outside effects houses. The original film was later re-released to theaters in 1985.[21] These posters now sell for $250 .Star Wars Episode VI: Return of the Jedi 234 Post-production Meanwhile. Luke is seen wielding a red lightsaber while Vader wields a blue one.

movie "The Smash of 83" critic Roger Ebert gave the film four stars out of four. and Luke Skywalker's duel against Darth Vader – are well-regarded. and Summers also received nominations for "Best Sound". 1983 TIME magazine cover issue (where it was labeled "Star Wars III"). Burtt. the older award for science fiction and fantasy in film. it was "better and more satisfying" than The Empire Strikes Back. Dennis Muren. stating "Let's not pretend we're watching art!"[27] At the 56th Academy Awards in 1984.. the others are just a lot better.. That doesn't make it bad. Original Score".[27][28][29] At Rotten Tomatoes. Gary Summers.[32] and James Kendrick of Q Network Film Desk described Return of the Jedi as "a magnificent experience.[40] Fans are also divided on the likelihood of Ewoks (being an extremely primitive race of small creatures armed with sticks and rocks) defeating an armed ground force comprising the Empire's "best troops". the ground battle between the Ewoks and Imperial stormtroopers remains a bone of contention. stating that it "Lack[s] the humanity and richly drawn [27] However.[8] American Film Institute Lists • AFI's 100 Years. Revenge of the Sith (80%). been considered by many critics and fans to be a slightly lesser achievement than its predecessors.[27] On Metacritic. and the final film of the prequel trilogy. Dawe. Williams was also nominated "Best Album of Original Score Written for a Motion Picture or Television Special". the Jedi was the worst of all three.Star Wars Episode VI: Return of the Jedi 235 Reception Although a critical and commercial hit. Randy Thom and Tony Dawe all received the nominations for "Best Sound". Ken Ralston." show Siskel & Ebert during the release of The Star Wars Trilogy: Special Edition. Gene Siskel of the Chicago Tribune was somewhat critical of the film during the 1997 re-release. James L. but he states his dislike for the closing scenes involving the Ewoks. Schoppe.100 Thrills – Nominated[42] ." Siskel went on to praise the opening sequence at the Sarlaac pit and the chase sequence involving speeder bikes. who enjoyed the first film and despised the second. grossing more than $475 million worldwide. John Williams received the nomination for "Best Music. Burtt."[33] The film was also featured on the May 23. Ralston. the film received a score of 52% based on 14 reviews from mainstream critics.[26] Return of the Jedi has. Siskel later gave Return of the Jedi thumbs up on the television characters that brighten Star Wars. with the marquee stating Contemporary critics were largely complimentary. felt that Return of best of the original trilogy. Tippett and Stuart Freeborn were also nominated for "Best Makeup"... saying that the Ewoks' purpose was to distract the Imperial troops and that the Ewoks did not really win.[34] with the reviewer Gerald Clarke saying that while it was not as exciting as the first Star Wars film.[36] According to Rotten Tomatoes.[30] and The Empire Strikes Back received a score of 78% based on 15 reviews. now considered by many as the [35] Vincent Canby. Ben Burtt received a nomination for "Best Sound Effects Editing". A New Hope (94%). In 1983. Muren. Fred Hole. Richard Edlund. the speeder bike chase on the Endor moon. and Michael Ford were nominated for "Best Art Direction/Set Decoration". Return of the Jedi's 79% approval rating is surpassed by The Empire Strikes Back (97%). at the 1984 Hugo Awards. saying: "This is my least favorite of the three episodes.[31] Return of the Jedi showing at the University Theatre in Toronto. and Kit West won for "Best Special Visual Effects". the space battle between Rebel and Imperial pilots. Lucas has defended the scenario.[37] The New York Post's Rex Reed negatively reviewed the film." Norman Reynolds. in the decades that followed. The film also won for "Best Dramatic Presentation". Edlund.[39] While the action set pieces – particularly the Sarlacc battle sequence.[38] At the 1984 BAFTA Awards. Reynolds received a nomination for "Best Production Design/Art Direction". and Phil Tippett received the "Special Achievement Award for Visual Effects.100 Movies – Nominated[41] • AFI's 100 Years.

and a scene where Darth Vader communicates with Luke via the Force as Skywalker is assembling his new lightsaber before he infiltrates Jabba's palace. instead of him saying "I'm sure" to her warning of her powerful friends. while others were boxed sets of all three original films. in which Anakin is unaware his wife was expecting twins and believes their child died with her. Dolby Digital 5. 2008. with additional changes made by George Lucas. With the release of Revenge of the Sith. In the DVD release. but in the meantime. It was digitally restored and remastered. although they remained in print and were packaged with the 2004 versions again in a new set on November 4. 2011. A Blu-ray Disc version of the Star Wars saga was announced for release in 2011 during Star Wars Celebration V. 2006. Lucas once again altered Return of the Jedi to bolster the relationship between the original trilogy and the prequel trilogy. no other extra special features were included to commemorate the original cuts. All three films in the original Star Wars trilogy have since been released. A facet of the story which was made more clear in the novel was the confusion which overtook the Imperial forces upon the death of Palpatine. Several deleted scenes from Return of the Jedi were included for the Blu-ray version. These versions were originally slated to only be available from September 12. and commentaries by George Lucas.[45] On January 6. For example. instead of simply licking his lips as seen in the movie. trailers." presumably when he became Vader. The change drew further fan criticism directed toward Lucas. The DVD also featured English subtitles. This is partly contradicted by Revenge of the Sith.Star Wars Episode VI: Return of the Jedi 236 Home video The original theatrical version of Return of the Jedi was released on VHS and Laserdisc several times between 1986 and 1995. individually. who portrayed Anakin in Attack of the Clones and Revenge of the Sith. Kahn writes that Owen Lars is the brother of Obi-Wan Kenobi." Additionally. Some of these releases contained featurettes. Ben Burtt. It also further supports the events depicted in all post-Return of the Jedi fiction. including a sandstorm sequence following the Battle at the Sarlacc Pit. some were individual releases of just this film. 2004. a scene featuring Moff Jerjerrod and Death Star officers during the Battle of Endor. "I'm sure. and Carrie Fisher.[44] Although the 2004 versions in these sets each feature an audio commentary. while in Attack of the Clones he is instead shown to be the stepbrother of Anakin Skywalker. The bonus disc included documentaries including Empire of Dreams: The Story of the Star Wars Trilogy and several featurettes including "The Characters of Star Wars". "The Birth of the Lightsaber". 1983. he is described as planting "a beastly kiss squarely on the Princess's lips.[43] followed by releases of the Special Edition in the same formats between 1997 and 2000. the Force spirit of Obi-Wan reveals that he was able to hide Luke and Leia from Anakin because he did not know that his wife was pregnant when he "left. Dennis Muren. . When Leia is captured by Jabba. which depicts how and why Anakin Skywalker turned to the dark side of the Force. and a demo for Star Wars: Battlefront. on DVD. TV spots. the Special Editions of all three original films were released in a boxed set on DVD (along with a bonus disc). 2006 to December 31.1 EX surround sound." Later. still galleries. The original and Special Edition versions of Return of the Jedi featured British theatre actor Sebastian Shaw playing both the dying Anakin Skywalker and his ghost. I shall thoroughly enjoy the pleasure of your company. who ceased to be the guiding will animating the Empire. On September 21. Shaw's portrayal of Anakin's ghost is replaced by Hayden Christensen.[46] Marketing Novelization The novelization of Return of the Jedi was written by James Kahn and was released on May 12. the release was announced for September 2011 in three different editions. he says.[47] It contains many scenes that were deleted from the final cut as well as certain assertions which have since been superseded by the prequel trilogy. and "The Legacy of Star Wars". Also included were teasers. thirteen days before the film's release.

Da Capo. archive. org/ web/ 20070203075748/ http:/ / www. played Boba Fett. com/ starkiller/ scripts/ revenge_revised_rough_draft. The message is included as part of the Star Wars Trilogy collector's edition box set. htm). latimes. htm) on February 3. Daley died of pancreatic cancer. It was based on characters and situations created by George Lucas and on the screenplay by Lawrence Kasdan and George Lucas. com/ magazine/ starwars/ articles/ jedi/ pdir/ pg3. [3] Pomerantz. uk/ entertainment/ film-tv/ news/ article2298474. New York City: Harry N. starwars. html). [10] Richard Patterson (June 1983). . p. The cast and crew recorded a get-well message for Daley. Twentieth Century Fox: A Corporate and Financial History. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. American Cinematographer. John Knoll and Roger Guyett. Belfast Telegraph. [13] Geoff Boucher (August 12. Abrams Inc. 2010). "Did Star Wars become a toy story? Producer Gary Kurtz looks back" (http:/ / latimesblogs. Dorothy (October 30. 2012). 2007.[49] Citations [1] Aubrey Solomon. co. 2007). [6] Shawn Adler (September 20. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. Rick McCallum. Retrieved August 19. com/ movies/ episode-vi/ ) on February 12. Retrieved October 31. The radio drama had a running time of three hours. . 1996. archive. [2004] [5] "David Lynch: Weird at Heart" (http:/ / www. 2007. 2004 [9] Marcus Hearn (2005). Only hours after celebrating its completion with the cast and crew of the show. Calendar section [14] Richard Patterson (June 1983). "Disney Planning New 'Star Wars' Movie With Lucasfilm Purchase" (http:/ / www. p. "Return of the Jedi: Production and Direction. 2010. . 1981). starwarz. Retrieved August 19. Forbes. com/ starkiller/ scripts/ revenge_revised_rough_draft. ece). Veteran character actor Ed Begley. . . "Return of the Jedi: Production and Direction.[48] Principal production of the show was completed on February 11. theasc. but it was not until 1996 that a radio version of Return of the Jedi was heard. John Lithgow voiced Yoda. . p. 2007. but Mark Hamill and Billy Dee Williams did not reprise their roles as they had for the first two radio dramas. forbes. . "Cliffhanging". 140–1. mtv. Retrieved August 19. The first two Star Wars films were similarly adapted for National Public Radio in the early 1980s. whose voice actor in the films has always been Frank Oz. American Cinematographer. "Return of the Jedi: Production and Direction. Rob Coleman. theasc. Footnotes 1. htm). ISBN 0-573-60606-4. htm). Los Angeles Times. Distribution rights will be transferred to Walt Disney Studios Motion Pictures by May 2020. theasc. but the author never got the chance to hear it. 4" (http:/ / www. 2012. belfasttelegraph. starwarz. Jr. Skywalking: The Life and Films of George Lucas. 2007. Retrieved March 5. MTV Movies Blog [7] Dale Pollock (1999). [8] Star Wars Episode VI: Return of the Jedi DVD commentary featuring George Lucas. Retrieved March 4. Starkiller. 2007. com/ herocomplex/ 2010/ 08/ star-wars-was-born-a-long-time-ago-but-not-all-that-far-far-away-in-1972-filmmakers-george-lucas-and-gary-kurtz-wer. 2007. 2007. "Cronenberg's Aborted Job Offer: Star Wars: Return of the Jedi Director's Chair?" (http:/ / moviesblog. [15] Richard Patterson (June 1983).Star Wars Episode VI: Return of the Jedi 237 Radio drama A radio drama adaptation of the film was written by Brian Daley with additional material contributed by John Whitman and was produced for and broadcast on National Public Radio in 1996. 2010. pp. [4] Empire of Dreams: The Story of the Star Wars Trilogy Star Wars Trilogy Box Set DVD documentary. 3" (http:/ / www. 1989 p260 [2] "Star Wars: Episode VI Return of the Jedi" (http:/ / web. com/ 2007/ 09/ 20/ cronenbergs-aborted-job-offer-star-wars-return-of-the-jedi-directors-chair/ ). Lucasfilm. com/ magazine/ starwars/ articles/ jedi/ pdir/ pg4. The show is dedicated to his memory. Ben Burtt. htm). com/ magazine/ starwars/ articles/ jedi/ pdir/ pg1. Anthony Daniels returned as C-3PO. ISBN 0-8109-4968-7. Dennis Muren and Carrie Fisher. Fox Home Entertainment. The Cinema of George Lucas. Retrieved February 22. "Star Wars — Episode VI: "Revenge of the Jedi" Revised Rough Draft" (http:/ / web. 2005 [12] George Lucas (June 12. [11] Star Wars Episode III: Revenge of the Sith DVD commentary featuring George Lucas. Edward Asner also guest-starred speaking only in grunts as the voice of Jabba the Hutt. Bernard Behrens returned as Obi-Wan Kenobi and the late Brock Peters reprised his role as Darth Vader. . org/ web/ 20100212102456/ http:/ / www. They were replaced by newcomer Joshua Fardon as Luke Skywalker and character actor Arye Gross as Lando Calrissian. 1" (http:/ / www. com/ sites/ dorothypomerantz/ 2012/ 10/ 30/ disney-planning-new-star-wars-movie-with-lucasfilms-purchase). Fox Home Entertainment. starwars. com/ movies/ episode-vi/ ). Scarecrow Press. American Cinematographer.

September 8. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. html). May 23. musicweb-international. [38] "The 56th Academy Awards (1984) Nominees and Winners" (http:/ / www. org/ web/ 20100816235346/ http:/ / www. html). davisdvd. New York Times.100 Thrills Nominees" (http:/ / www. . starwars. com/ Docs/ 100Years/ thrills400. [19] Revenge of the Jedi Trailer from Star Wars Trilogy Box Set DVD Bonus Disc. time. [23] Greg Dean Schmitz. com/ movies/ ?id=starwars6. 124. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. Lucasfilm. Retrieved 2013-02-03. net/ collecting/ posters/ rotj/ advance. metacritic. [30] "Star Wars: Episode VI . [17] "Star Wars / The Empire Strikes Back / Return of the Jedi (Original Soundtracks – 2004 reissue)" (http:/ / www. 2008. oscars. theasc. 2008. Retrieved March 10. htm). StarWars.Net. [34] "Star Wars III: Return of the Jedi" (http:/ / www. 2010.com. Chronicle Books.. CNN. . Retrieved March 10. Retrieved August 19. Retrieved July 30. 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[35] Clarke. [2004] [20] "Collecting: Revenge of the Jedi" (http:/ / www. James. com/ title/ tt0086190/ usercomments). [46] "Pre-order Star Wars: The Complete Saga on Blu-ray Now!" (http:/ / www. dvdverdict.Star Wars Episode VI: Return of the Jedi [16] "Return of the Jedi: Steadicam Plates.com. g4tv. 2006. youtube. [45] "George Lucas Announces Star Wars on Blu-Ray at Celebration V" (http:/ / web. Metacritic. imdb. Retrieved August 19. Retrieved June 11. [44] "Star Wars Saga Repacked in Trilogy Sets on DVD" (http:/ / web. [27] "Star Wars: Episode VI . 2007. "Star Wars Episode III: Revenge of the Sith — Greg's Preview" (http:/ / web. TIME Magazine. html) on October 26. org/ awards/ academyawards/ legacy/ ceremony/ 56th-winners. Archived from the original (http:/ / movies. html). com/ themovies/ saga/ preorder_bluray/ index. . . January 6. 2006. qnetwork. [37] "Return of the Jedi" (http:/ / www. com/ reviews/ starwarstrilogy. rottentomatoes. com/ film/ 2004/ Sep04/ star_wars. html). . 2008. html?internalid=ACA).00. . Retrieved August 15. [26] "Return of the Jedi" (http:/ / boxofficemojo. [42] "AFI's 100 Years. Roger (May 25. com/ ?page=review& id=669). Lucasfilm. archive. .9171. "Return of the Jedi" (http:/ / rogerebert. . theforce. org/ web/ 20081026032957/ http:/ / www. . August 14. 1983). archive. com/ themovies/ saga/ mebd/ bluray/ index.

hollywoodreporter. HighBridge Audio.rottentomatoes.wikipedia. The Hollywood Reporter. Sphere Books.siskelandebert.starwars. Amazon.boxofficemojo. com/ returnofjedi.siskelandebert. [49] Masters. 2012.com/movies/ star-wars-episode-vi-return-of-the-jedi) at The World of Star Wars • Star Wars Episode VI: Return of the Jedi (http://www. "Tangled Rights Could Tie Up Ultimate 'Star Wars' Box Set (Analysis)" (http:/ / www.com. London.org/video/U415SBG352SM/ Star-Wars-Jedi--Blue-Thunder-1983) at [www.imdb.com/movies/movie/v41093) at AllRovi • Star Wars Episode VI: Return of the Jedi (http://www.org SiskelandEbert.Star Wars Episode VI: Return of the Jedi [47] "Star Wars.yahoo. com/ news/ tangled-rights-could-tie-up-384541).com/title/tt0086190/) at the Internet Movie Database • Star Wars Episode VI: Return of the Jedi (http://www. html). [48] "Return of the Jedi Produced by NPR" (http:/ / www. .org] . 2012).htm) at Box Office Mojo • Star Wars Episode VI: Return of the Jedi (http://en. .com/m/return_of_the_jedi/) at Rotten Tomatoes • Star Wars Episode VI: Return of the Jedi (http://www. 239 Bibliography Arnold. com/ dp/ 0345307674).com/movies/?id=starwars6. highbridgeaudio. Once Upon a Galaxy: A Journal of Making the Empire Strikes Back.starwars.com/explore/the-movies/episode-vi) at [www. Retrieved March 6. 2007. amazon. Retrieved November 12. Episode VI — Return of the Jedi (Mass Market Paperback)" (http:/ / www.allrovi. Retrieved March 6.com StarWars. ISBN 978-0-345-29075-5 External links • Star Wars Episode VI: Return of the Jedi (http://www.org/wiki/ Wikiasite:starwars:''star_wars_episode_vi:_return_of_the_jedi'') on Wookieepedia: a Star Wars wiki • Star Wars Episode VI: Return of the Jedi (http://starwars. Alan. .com] • Star Wars Episode VI: Return of the Jedi (http://www. 2007. Kim (October 30. 1980.

Stephen Merchant 240 Stephen Merchant Stephen Merchant Merchant in 2009 Born Stephen James Merchant 24 November 1974 Bristol. England Actor. Merchant appeared in the BBC TV series Life's Too Short which he co-wrote and co-directed.01 m) Stephen James Merchant (born 24 November 1974) is an English writer. though at the time Gervais and Merchant were quick to dismiss the award on air as unbecoming of a rising star of Gervais's stature. radio presenter. podcast. radio presenter. The Ricky Gervais Show in radio form won a bronze Sony Award. director. four British Comedy Awards and an Emmy Award. He has won three BAFTA Awards. comedian and actor. as the co-writer. He also voiced the character Wheatley in the popular 2011 video game Portal 2. and performs as a stand-up comedian. audiobook and television-show forms. comedian Occupation Years active 1998–present Height 6 ft 7 in (2. co-developed the Sky1 travel series An Idiot Abroad. co-director and a co-star of Extras. . as the co-writer and co-director of the popular British sitcom The Office. He is best known for his collaborations with Ricky Gervais. and as the co-host of The Ricky Gervais Show in its radio. director. writer.

.. His school yearbook predicted that he would enjoy success. as it was actually genuinely good. and a former film reviewer on the student radio station. Gervais says "It's a tin pot radio station. he recalls. I realised that stand-up was not that easy after all. Merchant was a finalist at the Daily Telegraph Open Mic Awards. 'Make Ricky Gervais laugh' and 'Song for the Ladies. and Ronald John Merchant. It's not even the biggest radio station in the building. . tending to focus on school work. This show stood out.Stephen Merchant 241 Early life Merchant was born in Bristol.' After leaving XFM." He also appeared as a contestant on a 1997 episode of the TV game show Blockbusters and worked for a short time as a DJ for Radio Caroline. where. Recently. "The first week I did really well . They collaborated on a sitcom pilot called Golden Years featuring a manager suffering a mid-life crisis. recorded at the time. where he began his broadcasting career. It's only a matter of time before Steve and his posse follow in the footsteps of Newman and Baddiel. ” Members of Merchant's "posse" included film critic James King. Merchant did a total of 7 years on XFM 104. Merchant began a production course at the BBC.[3] He graduated with a 2:1 in Film and Literature in 1996. the "Steve Show"." which became the earliest inspiration for their sitcom The Office.. The Saturday show never had a large audience. Merchant met Ricky Gervais for the first time in 1997. have been rediscovered and are being distributed on various Merchant fansites.The second week I died on my arse. Radio Warwick. a number of tapes of "The Steve Show". highlights of which included an inspired take-off of the IRN news ('we spoke to Gerry Adams..[2] The station's 1995/96 yearbook tipped him for great things: “ Merchant. an insurance representative. Steve: The man behind the funniest show on W963.9. the pilot aired on Channel 4's Comedy Lab series in September 1998.. the son of Elaine (née Hibbs). he enlisted Gervais to perform in a 30-minute short film.) Merchant and Gervais hosted a Saturday afternoon radio show together from January through to August 1998. In the same year. but failed to find further success. Dan Warren. when Gervais (then in the position of "Head of Speech" at the London radio station Xfm) hired Merchant as his assistant. Neil the Maskell and Geraint the Welshman.[1] He attended Hanham High School. Merchant is a graduate of the University of Warwick. He once suckled milk from a cows udder. as well as a series of snippets entitled At home with Rose and Fred West. Career Pre-2001 Merchant began his career performing stand-up comedy at Bristol's Comedy Box. As part of his coursework. (Gervais said later that he had called Merchant for an interview simply because it was the first CV handed to him. "Seedy Boss. Merchant was a very shy child. attempting to give away an Aerosmith video to people on the toilet in Rootes [hall of residence]. when both of them left XFM as it was bought by the Capital Radio Group. England. telephoning the library bridge security post to ask if they had seen a lost ball.. an advert for Coventry Library ('Coventry Library makes no claims to be infinite'). a nursery nurse." Merchant created the features 'Hip Hop Hooray'. As he has described in Xfm London shows and podcasts.').

The radio show went off the air indefinitely in January 2004. Gervais and Pilkington began recording a weekly podcast (also called The Ricky Gervais Show).[5] Throughout its first series (through 20 February 2006). the show initially received low ratings. Series 2 of Extras aired in late 2006. following a brief return of the XFM radio show (filling in for Adam and Joe). in addition to writing and directing the show.S to critical acclaim. Extras In July 2005. and Merchant would direct the fifth-season episode "Customer Survey". The same year. co-written and co-directed by Merchant and Gervais and starring the latter as paper sales office manager David Brent. In late 2008. They would later co-write the third-season episode "The Convict".) Merchant also directed a sitcom pilot called The Last Chancers. which aired that December. Two more series and three special instalments (the "Podfather Trilogy") were recorded in 2006. which aired on Comedy Lab in November 2002 and became a five-part series broadcast in December on E4. The series features Merchant in a supporting role as Darren Lamb. and served as a script associate on the Chris Morris and Charlie Brooker sitcom Nathan Barley. and was certified as the most-downloaded of all time by Guinness World Records. the incompetent agent to struggling actor Andy Millman. taking another break to film the Office Christmas special. consisting of six episodes. all three instalments aired on HBO in the United States. with sponsorship by The Guardian. Merchant. played by Gervais. (Merchant's father also appears in multiple episodes as an office handyman named Gordon. The Office aired in the U. Merchant appeared in a recurring role as a chef on Garth Marenghi's Darkplace and in a cameo on Green Wing. Merchant and Gervais continued to host The Ricky Gervais Show through 2003. followed by a Christmas special in December 2007. the American version of The Office premiered. Beginning in September. the podcast was consistently ranked the most popular in the world. Gervais and Merchant's new sitcom Extras premiered on BBC2. They took a break from the radio show in mid-2002 in order to film the second series of The Office.[4] Podcast series In December 2005. which aired that year. Merchant and Gervais returned to Xfm as co-hosts of The Ricky Gervais Show. with the final episode released on Christmas Eve. During 2004. It went on to win the Golden Globe Award for Best Television Series – Musical or Comedy which both Merchant and Gervais accepted. This was followed in 2005 by a 4th series of the radio show. Merchant made a cameo performance in the episode "Charity" as a friend of Gareth Keenan's character known by the name Oggy or Oggmonster. which led to their fruitful relationship with producer Karl Pilkington. US series of The Office In March 2005.Stephen Merchant 242 2001–03 (The Office and return to XFM) In mid-2001.[6] . they recorded four more podcasts and began a series of audiobooks examining Pilkington's perspective on various subjects. with Merchant and Gervais credited as executive producers. Merchant won a 2006 British Comedy Award for Best TV Actor for his performance as Lamb. another Saturday afternoon programme. BBC Two aired the first series of The Office.

What I was really pleased by how people seemed to respond to it in the way they do with a movie they've enjoyed. as the best man. he also starred as a sports commentator in the unaired pilot No Skillz. starring Karl Pilkington. Dobson[8] joining the ensemble." Many of the songs on the show were suggested by listeners or co-presenters. Later in 2010. and The Invention of Lying (2009)."[14] Merchant has provided the voice-over since 2009 of advertisements for Barclays and Waterstones. his childhood friend Harry.[13] While he states his work on the project was "exhausting". and actor Rufus Gerrard-Wright (who also appeared in an episode of Extras). In 2012.[10] For television Merchant and Gervais also produced An Idiot Abroad.[12] a role which earned him widespread acclaim among reviewers. Merchant is also "very pleased by the response people have had to it. or a TV show they've enjoyed. Gervais and Merchant wrote. On television. he starred in I Give It a Year (released in Feb 2013). under the title Hello Ladies.[11] In January 2011. Other work Merchant has played small roles in the films Hot Fuzz (2007). the tour is set to continue with dates being announced for Australia and New Zealand." defined by Merchant as "music you've not heard before. In addition to Merchant. airing weekly on Sunday afternoons. which received mixed to positive reviews on its release in 2010. Merchant began hosting his own radio show on BBC 6 Music. A spring search for a "she-J" resulted in the addition of former Byker Grove actor Sammy T. Merchant in January 2011 Stand-up Merchant began performing stand-up comedy in the late 1990s to critical success. and had cameo roles in. "The Steve Show" aired for four seasons and concluded in May 2009. Life's Too Short. Merchant and Gervais collaborated on the film Cemetery Junction. though he decided to focus more on his work with writing partner Ricky Gervais after the success of The Office. he lent his voice to the CGI film Gnomeo and Juliet. in a show of stand-up to benefit the Free Fringe at the Edinburgh Comedy Festival.[9] The tour was later released on DVD. He has a supporting role in the 2010 film Tooth Fairy. including his housemate Dan. set in working-class England in the 1970s. the show featured several of his friends. Merchant made a cameo appearance in a non-speaking role on the sixth season premiere of 24. Merchant returned to stand-up with a nationwide tour of the United Kingdom in September 2011. Merchant appeared alongside many other comedians at the 'Free Fringe Benefit' at the Bloomsbury Theatre. Run Fatboy Run (2007). . a television show starring Warwick Davis. In late 2012.Stephen Merchant 243 The Steve Show In January 2007. The Steve Show focused on music and particularly "new music.[7] Instead of comedy. In 2009. London. and had a role in the Farrelly brothers' comedy Hall Pass. Merchant is the voice of Wheatley in Valve's 2011 video game Portal 2. the latter starring Ricky Gervais. In 2011.

2. Peter Crouch[23] who is also six foot seven inches. friend and collaborator Ricky Gervais has likened him to an "upright lizard being given electro-shock treatment"[19] and a "stick insect with glasses"[19] or Beaker from The Muppet Show.[20] Radio producer and co-host of Merchant. has described his moves as a "bit of weird art"[21] in the past. director Voice only Notes 2010 Jackboots on Whitehall Tom 2010 Burke and Hare 2011 Hall Pass 2011 Gnomeo and Juliet 2013 Movie 43 2013 I Give It a Year Holyrood Footman Gary Paris Donald TBA Voice only Television . Karl Pilkington.[22] Merchant has commented that he prefers to liken himself to fellow tall man and English football player. although their relationship reportedly ended in 2009.Stephen Merchant 244 Personal life Merchant dated digital advertising producer Claire Jones for two years. He made a cameo appearance in The Office. whom David Brent called "a big lanky goggle-eyed freak". Filmography Film Year 2007 Hot Fuzz 2007 Run Fatboy Run 2009 The Invention of Lying 2010 Tooth Fairy 2010 Cemetery Junction Title Role Peter Ian Staker Man with broken leg Man at the door Tracy Dougie Boden Writer.[16] He is the cousin of Sara Dallin of Bananarama.[15] Merchant is an atheist.[18] While discussing what the Daily Mail had said on the show.01 m)[17] and his unusually large eyes meant that he has suffered teasing throughout his life. Appearance Merchant's height (6 ft 7in. Merchant impersonated Crouch in a BBC sketch broadcast as part of the pre-match build-up to England's opening game at the 2006 World Cup. while British comic and broadcaster Russell Brand has likened him to a "graceful grasshopper". playing a character nicknamed the Ogg-Monster.

Stephen Merchant 245 Year 2000 2002 2004 2004 2005 2005 2007 2010 Title Meet Ricky Gervais The Office Garth Marenghi's Darkplace Green Wing Bromwell High Extras 24 An Idiot Abroad Role Studio employee The Ogg Monster Chef Lab technician Mr. Phillips Darren Lamb CTU technician Himself Himself Notes Writer and director Episode 2 Episode 6 Writer and director Executive producer 2010–present The Ricky Gervais Show 2011 2011 2011 Life's Too Short Ronnie Corbett's Comedy Britain Version of himself Writer and director Himself Executive producer Executive producer An Idiot Abroad 2: The Bucket List Himself Video games Year Title Role Notes 2011 Portal 2 Wheatley Voice only Awards Awarding Body/Event BAFTA Awards • • • • • • • Broadcasting Press Guild • • • • • • Peabody Awards Television Critics Association • • Awarded 2002 Situation Comedy Award The Office 2003 Situation Comedy Award The Office 2004 Situation Comedy Award The Office 2001 Best New Television Comedy The Office (UK) 2002 Best Television Comedy The Office (UK) 2004 Writer of the Year Ricky Gervais & Stephen Merchant 2006 Best TV Comedy Actor Extras 2002 Best Writer The Office 2003 Best Writer The Office 2006 Emmy Outstanding Comedy Series The Office (U.S.) 2007 Best Comedy Series The Office 2003 Best Television Comedy The Office (UK) 2008 Best Television Comedy or Musical (TV) Extras 2004 Peabody Award The Office (UK) 2004 Individual Achievement in Comedy The Office (UK) 2011 Outstanding Character Performance as Wheatley (Portal 2) 2011 Best Performance by a Human Male as Wheatley (Portal 2) British Comedy Award Emmy WGA Award Golden Globe Academy of Interactive Arts and Sciences • Spike Video Game Awards • .

com/ latest. taller success story (http://www.. rickygervais. "Tate and Merchant win comedy awards . .com/television/2010/08/ricky-gervais-interview) interviewed by Sophie Elmhirst on New Statesman." (http:/ / www. Season 3. co. Rickygervais. Episode 2. Episode 2.html) – interview in The Telegraph – 8 August 2005 • Interview with Barbara Ellen (http://observer.uk. co. php). . [8] "" (http:/ / www.uk/arts/main.asp?id=86251) • Tall man. guardian. ac. html). External links • Official website (http://www. Episode No. Retrieved 23 January 2012. Steveshow. "Ricky Gervais.co. . The Ricky Gervais Show. . uk/ showbiz/ celebrity-interviews/ 2011/ 03/ 16/ beanpole-funnyman-stephen-merchant-hopes-stand-up-lines-will-help-him-bag-a-girlfriend-86908-22993387/ ). 2. Retrieved 23 January 2012. Phil (18 August 2010). Episode 5. co.newstatesman. [9] "Beanpole funnyman Stephen Merchant hopes stand-up lines will help him bag a girlfriend" (http:/ / www. warwick. [4] Gervais to write US office episode (http:/ / news. Retrieved 23 January 2012. uk/ news/ people/ stephen-merchant-a-giant-of-comedy-441755. Entertainment Weekly. Season 2. com/ news/ 2012/ 11/ 22/ i-give-it-a-year-next-year/ ). 16 March 2011.com/) • Stephen Merchant (http://www.co.co.shtml?fivelive/ merchant) • Xfm: Biography (http://xfm. co. GameStop Corporation. . tv. The Independent (UK). ..whatsonwales. "'Portal 2' Videogame Review: Physics is Phunny" (http:/ / popwatch. Retrieved 13 May 2011. The Ricky Gervais Show.co. . November 22. uk/ alumni/ ouralumni/ notable2/ merchant/ ). Retrieved 17 March 2010. uk/ pressoffice/ pressreleases/ stories/ 2006/ 11_november/ 30/ merchant. com/ ). Tv. Episode No.xml&sSheet=/arts/2005/08/08/ixartright. co. 5 October 2009 from preston. html).co.uk/Article. uk/ education/ main. season 1. The Daily Record.uk/magazine/story/0. Retrieved 26 December 2007. The Office. Retrieved 13 May 2011. [6] Owen Gibson. bbc.telegraph. "Portal 2 Has A Release Date And A New Voice Actor" (http:/ / gameinformer. html). independent. [15] "News of the World '. Luke (13 May 2011).com. season 3. stephenmerchant. warwickdavis. The Guardian (UK). Newsoftheworld. [17] "Stephen Merchant: A giant of comedy" (http:/ / www.imdb.. [13] Young. Kotaku. dailyrecord..com. Retrieved 1 February 2013.stephenmerchant. Warwickdavis.com/name/nm580351/) at the Internet Movie Database • Interviewed on BBC Radio Five Live (http://www. BBC.cambodia) • Stephen Merchant interview (http://www. Retrieved 17 March 2010. co. uk/ lifes-too-short-bbc-pilot-1). [11] "I give it a year next year" (http:/ / www. [18] "Episode Five". Game Informer Magazine. cfm?id=190702006) [5] Plumplard. com/ sammy-dobson/ person/ 95277/ appearances.guardian.00. ew. Season 3. [3] "The Steve Show" (http:/ / steveshow. [10] "| Warwick Davis Official Website" (http:/ / www. com/ 2011/ 04/ 20/ portal-2-review/ ). [19] "Part 4". . xml). uk/ showbiz/ 299503/ COMEDY-star-Stephen-Merchant-has-split-from-his-girlfriend-of-two-years. com/ b/ news/ archive/ 2010/ 08/ 18/ portal-2-has-a-release-date.. "Portal 2’s Wheatley Found it all "Exhausting"" (http:/ / kotaku. 2012. . Retrieved 17 March 2010.com. shtml).bbc.co. John (20 April 2011). [7] "Stephen Merchant presents new show for BBC 6 Music" (http:/ / www.co.html) in The Observer Magazine – 5 November 2006 • An Englishman abroad (http://www. co. 22 August 2006.wordpress. . Retrieved 17 March 2010. www. com/ podcasts2.uk/radio/aod/fivelive_aod.uk/travel/2008/jun/08/vietnam.Stephen Merchant 246 References [1] Family detective: Stephen Merchant – Telegraph (http:/ / www. ."TV Steve Dumps his Girl"'.stephenmerchant. uk/ uk_news/ story/ 0. Retrieved 17 March 2010. . 28 October 2002. aspx). wordpress.co. .jhtml?xml=/arts/2005/08/08/ btmerchant08.guardian. Retrieved 20 April 2011. Gawker Media. jhtml?view=DETAILS& grid=& xml=/ education/ 2007/ 08/ 18/ fafamdet118.com August 2004. [12] Kollar. telegraph. [22] BBC Podcast — The Russell Brand Show [23] "Part 2". [20] The Ricky Gervais Show — The Early Years/Part 3 [21] The Ricky Gervais Show. newsoftheworld. . . University of Warwick website. html).1971460. scotsman. [2] "Funny you asked" (http:/ / www2.00.com. Obviously" (http:/ / www. 4. media correspondent (14 December 2006). [14] Plunkett.uk. [16] The Ricky Gervais Show. 22 August 2006. com/ 5801430/ portal-2s-wheatley-found-it-all-exhausting).uk/interviews/i/21634/) • Stephen Merchant (http://www. Media" (http:/ / www.1937381. 25 March 2007.

The miniseries was initially broadcast over five nights in two-hour episodes on NBC. It garnered good reviews but very poor ratings. but must face many dangers. New York. follow a Golden Retriever named Prince through Central Park and enter a magical traveling mirror that sends them to a fairy tale world known as The Nine Kingdoms.The 10th Kingdom 247 The 10th Kingdom The 10th Kingdom DVD cover for The 10th Kingdom Directed by Produced by Written by Starring David Carson Herbert Wise Robert Halmi Sr. However. Plot New York City waitress Virginia Lewis and her father. It depicts the adventures of a young woman and her father after they are transported from Manhattan.000. . Prince's wicked stepmother the Evil Queen has placed an imposter on the throne and plans to take over all of the Nine Kingdoms. Simon Moore Kimberly Williams Scott Cohen Ed O'Neill John Larroquette Daniel Lapaine Dianne Wiest Ann-Margret Anne Dudley Music by Cinematography Chris Howard Lawrence Jones Editing by Distributed by Release date(s) Running time Country Language Budget Andrew McClelland Chris Wimble Hallmark Entertainment February 27. beginning February 27. evil stepmothers and self-discovery. Tony and Virginia are desperate to get home. Tony. The dog is actually a transformed Prince Wendell. grandson of the late Queen Snow White and future leader of the 4th Kingdom. through a magical mirror into a parallel world of fairy tales. 2000 417 minutes (466 minutes extended version) United States English $44. and the USA's Hallmark Entertainment. Germany's Babelsberg Film und Fernsehen.000 The 10th Kingdom is an American fairytale fantasy miniseries written by Simon Moore and produced by Britain's Carnival Films. Robert Halmi Jr. It won an Emmy Award for Outstanding Main Title Design in 2000. 2000. The group is pursued by a relentless Huntsman who works for the Evil Queen and seeks to capture Prince. They are accompanied by Prince and a half-wolf (simply called Wolf) who has fallen in love with Virginia at first sight. At first. magical beings.

Virginia eventually commits to helping Wendell rescue his kingdom. Christine discovered the traveling mirror after suffering a mental breakdown and running away from a failed attempt to kill Virginia. carries a magical crossbow that never fails to hit the heart of a living thing when fired. Virginia is very cynical and tired. The Evil Queen has her imposter Prince Wendell crowned king and then tries to poison all the monarchs who attend the ceremony. Virginia is a plucky waitress on her way to self-confidence. The plot of the series concerns her plan to take over the Nine Kingdoms. She later reveals that she blames herself for her mother leaving. who is sent to kill Virginia and Tony. • Daniel Lapaine as Prince Wendell . he's left somewhat fascinated by the modern 10th Kingdom (New York City) and insists on Tony building him a "bouncing castle" and thus encourages Tony to give him an industrial revolution. and slowly becomes more humble and responsible. holding no interest in mercy.[1] According to Ron Wertheimer. The real Prince Wendell turns back into a human and takes the throne. • Dianne Wiest as Christine White[3] usually referred to as the Evil Queen . She was taken in by the Swamp Witch (Snow White's stepmother) and became her apprentice.The 10th Kingdom Virginia eventually meets the ghost of Snow White. and cowardly. Tony also recognizes the Evil Queen as his long lost wife and Virginia’s mother. Virginia's. greedy. He temporarily joins forces with the Evil Queen. Melissa Perenson said that "Virginia must learn how to face the pain caused when her mother abandoned her. The Evil Queen is depicted as pure evil and quite insane. She had been sentenced to life in prison for murdering both of Wendell's parents and almost killing him. Blabberwort. At the start of the show. which pains her greatly. 248 Characters • Kimberly Williams as Virginia Lewis . He must also do what he can to keep his wolfish nature in check. with whom he falls instantly in love. • Ed O'Neill as Relish. While at first she cares only about returning to her own world." Wolf is released by the Evil Queen after he swears allegiance to her. Later in the series she is revealed to be Virginia's mother. however she becomes more three-dimensional once her true identity is revealed.[2] • John Larroquette as Anthony Lewis . it soon becomes obvious that she feels very lonely. In the beginning he is portrayed as selfish. the spoiled. who reveals she is destined to save the Nine Kingdoms. Virginia must kill the Evil Queen in self-defense." Slowly she develops feelings for Wolf. He teams up with Virginia and Tony and spends most of the film trying to decide whose side he is on. He is a self-described "half-wolf" imprisoned in the Snow White Memorial Prison for "sheep worrying. They travel to the castle to stop the Evil Queen. the Troll King . and while she claims that she doesn't care about her mother or dating. Grateful to Tony for all his help. Prince Wendell offers him a job at the palace and Tony accepts. problems and feelings. He goes to New York City in search of Prince Wendell and meets Virginia.Tony is a janitor and single father who is mostly oblivious of his daughter. and Bluebell. The Huntsman is completely devoted to the Evil Queen and firmly believes in fate and destiny. this confused and confusing character provides a lot of the comic relief in The 10th Kingdom. Wolf switches the poison for a sleeping potion and everyone escapes unharmed.The main antagonist of the film and Prince Wendell's stepmother. Prince Wendell spends most of the film as a dog. • Scott Cohen as Wolf .Virginia is a pretty 21-year-old woman who lives on the edge of Central Park with her father. Luckily. arrogant and bored heir to the throne of the 4th kingdom. but later abandons her plans for conquest when he decides to take the 4th Kingdom for himself. • Rutger Hauer as The Huntsman . she is released from prison and turns Wendell into a dog. After his adventures and times with Tony. He can only communicate with Tony.(which is why so many of the characters give negative comments about him) but by the end of the series he is willing to do anything to save Virginia. and uses the meeting they arrange as an opportunity to poison Relish the Troll King .Relish is the king of the troll kingdom and the father of Burly. Prior to the events in the miniseries.Snow White's grandson.Known only as "Wolf".The Evil Queen's huntsman. He is killed and beheaded by the Evil Queen when she claims to be holding his children captive. but Wolf seems to have betrayed Tony and Virginia. Virginia returns Wolf’s love and they travel to New York City as a couple and expectant parents.

He's later sells various stolen goods. Tony's wife and Viriginia's grandmother. I feel a sense of panic.' I didn't read it .. she adds that she's more into the "fairy godmother appearance" sort of thing. she gave her life.... She's over 200 of years old. For one good man.My manager told me that NBC had offered me the role of Snow White and I said. 'Because TV happens so fast. "'We wanted to take the flip side of these well-known characters. She despises Tony because he's lower class. by shielding her image from the Evil Queen. • Camryn Manheim as Snow White . • Hugh O'Gorman. "prefers to work in film and theatre rather than television. "Well.. He reappears again while hiding in the swamps in the very house Snow White's evil stepmother had lived.He's a minor character in the story and in the beginning helps Tony and the others escape from prison. Beneath the ice by Snow White Falls. this hasn't slowed the rest of her from aging as she has a bad cough and dancing causes her pain. Around her tomb it was written "For seven men.For instance. such as the magic mirror. I grew up reading about Snow White and fantasizing about being the fairest of them all. yes. but still pose a major threat to the heroes.So it was really thrilling to get in that tight corset and be able to accentuate my assets. And Camryn took her part because she loved the idea that Snow White was now overweight. Dawnn Lewis..She is mentioned many times and is eventually seen by only Virginia and her grandson Prince Wendell (as a dog) in a white cavern in an ice-like coffin most likely constructed by the original Seven Dwarves. no pun intended and. our Cinderella is now 200 years old. She's often accompanied by her two elderly stepsisters.She's one of the oldest living fabled-princesses of the Nine Kingdoms. But it was wonderful. Here lies the fairest of them all. but appears young because she's had a lot of "magic surgery". • Moira Lister as Grandmother . They are clumsy and incompetent. she accepted the offer to play Virginia Lewis The Times reported that Virginia Lewis's portrayer. 'I'll take it. she could not resist the offer to star in The 10th Kingdom alongside Dianne Wiest. Blabberwort. and we've come very far from that image when I grew up and we're getting all kinds of images of beauty. Virginia is at first confused to see her. it was a throwback to my finer days." • Ann-Margret as Cinderella . Jimmy Nail and Rutger Hauer. She believes Christine to be out somewhere enjoying luxury and never knew Christine tried to kill Virginia. They spend a large part of the film as golden statues after Tony misuses a magic spell. and Jeremiah Birkett as Burly. However. Nevertheless. Upon meeting her she tells Virginia her childhood story and tells Virginia that she is destined for many great things and gives her advice on how to kill the Evil Queen. writer of the screenplay. He gives Virginia a brief time to rest when she's searching for her father and even lets her see the Evil Queen's tomb. she still holds some sort of influence (such as removing Tony's bad luck and broken back) and has been protecting Virginia in many ways. While Snow admits this.. 'Simon .. 249 Production Simon Moore.I am playing Snow White.'"[4] Camryn Manheim elaborates.. and Bluebell .These three troll siblings provide much of the comic relief as they attempt to complete the task given them by the Evil Queen of hunting down Prince Wendell and later Virginia and Tony. and I agreed to do it even before reading the script because I was so thrilled that they were moving away from the conventional Snow White.. she was his wife. Yet.' she explains. His vision became The 10th Kingdom. and she prefers acting in film and theatre to television. Kimberly Williams.." Executive producer Robert Halmi Sr. According to The New York Times "There are humorous allusions to familiar characters like the Seven Dwarfs and Rapunzel throughout the 10 hours and appearances by updated versions of Snow White (Camryn Manheim) and Cinderella (Ann-Margret).The 10th Kingdom and his guards. but loves Virginia and thinks she needs to marry into high society. • Warwick Davis as Acorn the Dwarf . as she was thought to be dead. Despite being passed on.The mother of Christine Lewis. I've been playing her in my bedroom for many years now. wondered about what happened after the Happily Ever After of old fairytales. Afterwards he directs her to where she could find Tony. explains. despite the misgivings."[5] The fast production on television usually scares Kimberly Williams. and there I was. so I was ready for her.

but it is now out of print. A two disc set followed in May 2002. A Stepmother's Curse (3:04) ."[2] Variety's Laura Fries asserts that "Kimberly Williams is doe-eyed and pretty and is heavily featured throughout. was written by Kristine Kathryn Rusch and Dean Wesley Smith under the name Kathryn Wesley. only a few differences exist between the novel and the film. however. None of the footage dealt with major plot elements. beginning February 27."[7] Christopher Null felt that "Larroquette [was] an unfortunate casting choice. featuring the score by Anne Dudley and the Miriam Stockley cover version of "Wishing on a Star" heard over the opening title and end credits of each episode.". Nothing Escapes the Huntsman (2:26) 10. However. As of August 2012 all DVD editions are out of print and are considered rare with used copies selling for thirty dollars or more. which utilized one double sided disc and one single sided disc and included the special feature "The 10th Kingdom: The Making of an Epic". talking dogs and evil stepmothers. Troll Trouble (3:45) 7.' explains Williams. whose character Virginia is a New York waitress thrust into a parallel world inhabited by trolls. 250 Broadcast and reception The miniseries was initially broadcast as five 2-hour episodes on NBC. For a number of years it was available in a package with the VHS release of the movie and the soundtrack. Varèse Sarabande released a soundtrack album on compact disc.on her way to self-confidence. with most being slight changes in conversations and other minor details. The Four Who Saved the Nine Kingdoms (2:40) 2. 1. Six Glorious Wishes (2:03) 4. and the entire miniseries on three cassette tapes.The 10th Kingdom has woven together all the old fairytales and updated them. hosted by John Larroquette. The Dwarves of Magic Mountain (2:32) 9. This is the first time the series has been presented in individual episode format since the initial broadcast on NBC. Flowers Only Grow Where There Are Seeds (2:18) 8. The novel was based on an early version of the script. The 10th Kingdom was released by Hallmark Entertainment and Artisan Entertainment (now Lions Gate Entertainment) on VHS as both a two tape set and as an Extended Play single tape edition. Addicted to Magic (2:43) 5. In May 2000. exploring what happened after Happily Ever After. The novelization. The House of White (2:44) 6. the CD soundtrack. Seattle Post Intelligencer critic John Levesque found Kimberly Williams "annoying yet somehow captivating as Virginia. Merchandise During the original airing of The 10th Kingdom there was a toll-free number displayed so that one could order a set of the novelization.. the complete 5 episode series is available for instant streaming on Netflix as of the 3rd week of August 2012. Standing on the Edge of Greatness (1:50) 3. but 10 hours is a lot for this star to carry on her shoulders.."[8] As of August 2012 the entire 5 episode series is available to watch on Netflix's instant streaming service. but the sheer amount removed resulted in a significantly different viewing experience. released in February 2000 by Hallmark-Kensington Books. 417 minutes is too much of his abrasive attitude to handle. The miniseries was later released as aired on a three disc DVD set in October 2000. 2000. Approximately two hours of the miniseries was cut out to make it fit on two tapes. 30 minutes of Night Court has always been my limit on the guy. The 10th Kingdom won an Emmy Award for Outstanding Main Title Design in 2000."[6] Ron Wertheimer describes Virginia as "that plucky waitress.

2000).com/articles/art_and_culture/staff_favorites/ 7742/Carolyn_Babbitt_Loves_The_10th_Kingdom/) • • • • . " '10th Kingdom' isn't perfect. directed by David Carson and Herbert Wise. The Dog Formerly Known as Prince (1:56) Blood on the Snow (1:28) Trolls in New York (1:25) A Travelling Mirror (1:59) Kissing Town (2:16) A Gypsy Incantation (2:21) These Are Dark Days (3:14) Seven Years Bad Luck (2:32) The Days of Happy Ever After Are Gone (2:13) When the Wild Moon Calls You (2:34) Still Lost in the Forest (2:57) Do Not Think.com/title/tt0207275/) at the Internet Movie Database The 10th Kingdom (http://www." The New York Times (February 27. [3] Simon Moore. " The 10th Kingdom Review (http:/ / www. " COVER STORY. scifi. [5] As quoted in PAT ST. com/ sfw/ issue148/ screen.com/property. ca/ Television/ TV_Shows/ T/ 10th_Kingdom/ 2000/ 01/ 11/ 732997.com) • Venus Zine Staff Picks: The 10th Kingdom (http://venuszine. The 10th Kingdom. 12. "A Fairy Tale For Adults (Watch for Snow White). 20. filmcritic. Moore released this teaser of his ideas for the sequel in the "10th Kingdom Newsletter". [4] CRAIG TOMASHOFF.com. html). com/ misc/ emporium." Filmcritic. it would follow the story of Wolf and Virginia and their child.rottentomatoes.allrovi. 19. 16. " Camryn relishes NBC Snow job (http:/ / jam.com/m/10th_kingdom/) at Rotten Tomatoes RHI Entertainment (http://www. 2000). html)." Seattle Post Intelligencer (February 24.com (2001). and cast members have expressed interest in a possible sequel at one time or another. 98 (http:/ / books. 2000). com/ 2000/ 02/ 27/ tv/ cover-story-through-a-very-different-looking-glass. Simon Moore. [8] Christopher Null. nsf/ reviews/ The-10th-Kingdom). com/ review/ VE1117915234. 21. External links The 10th Kingdom (http://www. 2000). Become (2:19) Wishing on a Star .Miriam Stockley (1:23) 251 Sequel Rumors of a sequel have long circulated.M1). 2000. com/ tv/ tv248. [7] LAURA FRIES. New York: Hallmark Entertainment. 22. 21. canoe." The New York Times Television Reviews 2000: The New York Times (New York: Routledge. " The 10th Kingdom: What happens after happily-ever-after? (http:/ / www. html?categoryid=31& cs=1). but it is creative (http:/ / www. 15. The main screenplay writer.t10kfan.php?propertyId=10thKingdom) RHI Entertainment (Hallmark Ent. [2] Ron Wertheimer.GERMAIN. html). variety." JAM! (January 11. google. shtml). 17.rhifilms. Through a Very Different Looking Glass (http:/ / www.The 10th Kingdom 11. 13.): The 10th Kingdom • The 10th Kingdom Fan Site (http://www. " Review of The 10th Kingdom (http:/ / www. In September 2006.com/movies/movie/v186949) at AllRovi The 10th Kingdom (http://www. See the special features section on Tony for Christine's maiden name. DVD.imdb. seattlepi." Variety (Feb. 23. nytimes. 2001). 14. [6] John Levesque. com/ books?id=z0QFKpI6p7AC& pg=PA98& dq="Virginia+ Lewis"+ "Kimberly+ Williams"& ei=lVbvSeesHaXEzgTT9pW_AQ#PPA98." SciFi. References [1] Melissa Perenson. If the sequel were to be produced. 18.

Susan. She meets a faun named Mr. of episodes 3 18 Production Running time 26–28 min. They are sent to the countryside to stay with Professor Digory Kirke. Lucy again enters the wardrobe and Edmund follows her into it. of series No. the second series aired was Prince Caspian and The Voyage of the Dawn Treader in 1989 and the third series aired was The Silver Chair in 1990. each episode 505 min total for series (approx. Lucy enters a wardrobe and finds herself in the middle of a snowy wood. Edmund is particularly cruel to her and taunts her with comments like "found any new countries in the cupboard lately?". he hears a jingling of bells and a horse-drawn sleigh draws up. during a game of hide and seek. The Lion. After walking some distance into the snow-covered forest. transporting a great lady. The first series aired was The Lion. the Witch and the Wardrobe in 1988. but he cannot find Lucy. while Prince Caspian and The Voyage of the Dawn Treader were directed by Alex Kirby. especially because Lucy claims to have been gone for hours.) Broadcast Original channel Picture format Original run BBC 4:3 13 November 1988 – 23 December 1990 The Chronicles of Narnia is a BBC-produced television serial that was aired from 13 November 1988 to 23 December 1990 and is based on four books of C.The Chronicles of Narnia (TV serial) 252 The Chronicles of Narnia (TV serial) The Chronicles of Narnia Title screen Format Created by Drama TV serial C. He takes her back to his cave for tea. While exploring a spare room in the house. who explains that she is in the land of Narnia. Later. and the Wardrobe was directed by Marilyn Fox. but when she wakes up Tumnus is crying and he confesses that he had intended to hand her over to the cruel White Witch. who rules over Narnia and makes it "always winter and never Christmas". the Witch and the Wardrobe Set in 1940. S. She had ordered him and all the other Narnians that if they ever saw a Son of Adam or Daughter of Eve in Narnia. S. and manages to find his way into Narnia. while for her siblings no time has passed. they were to catch them and hand them over to her. This television serial was produced by Paul Stone and teleplayed by Alan Seymour. Lewis's The Chronicles of Narnia series. but Tumnus realises that he cannot go through with it and he walks back to the lamp-post with Lucy to make sure she returns safely to her own world. Plot The Lion. Edmund and Lucy Pevensie are siblings who are evacuated from London because of World War II. When Lucy returns to her siblings. the Witch. they do not believe her story about the country in the wardrobe. Peter. Tumnus. . He then plays his flute and Lucy goes to sleep. Lewis (novel) Country of origin United Kingdom No.

and she is running out of patience before she finally asks him if he is human. and that the White Witch has done nothing to him for letting her go. and she is furious with him for coming alone. The White Witch had ordered Maugrim and another wolf to go to the Beavers' house. travelling for hours and hours through the night. A letter signed by "Maugrim. She is eager to know all about him and he tells her that he has a brother and two sisters – she seems particularly interested in the fact that there are four of them. where he is reunited with Lucy. They make the journey on sledge through the snow. They enter the wardrobe and all four find themselves in Narnia. and had not told the others what he had done or whom he had met. Captain of the Secret Police" has been left behind. After walking through the snow for several miles. Mr Beaver is convinced that it is the White Witch (not knowing that she had deliberately set out on her sleigh without bells in hope of creeping silently upon them) and heads outside to watch in secret. He also tells her that his sister Lucy has already been in Narnia and has met a faun. as he had the look of someone who had been with the Witch. When she describes the White Witch. but according to the few people to have been taken in the castle and come out again it is likely that he has been turned to stone. He tells her that he is human and that he got into Narnia through a wardrobe door. who reveals himself to be a friend. when he returns to tell the others what he has seen. They soon fall asleep but are awakened hours later (by which time morning has broken) by the sound of jingling bells. who tells him that she has been to see Tumnus again. Peter. She is even more furious when she hears that Aslan has come to Narnia. He is confused by her question. because they are part of a prophecy that when "two sons of Adam and two daughters of Eve" sit on the thrones at Cair Paravel. He is even more sure of this when he hears that Edmund has been in Narnia before. they notice that Edmund has disappeared. The Queen tells Edmund that she would like to see his brother and sisters and that next time he comes to Narnia he should bring them with him to meet her. but they find him gone and the cave ransacked. harbouring spies and.The Chronicles of Narnia (TV serial) The lady introduces herself as the Queen of Narnia. Edmund realises that she is no other than the lady he has just made friends with. She also tells him that she has no children. stating that Tumnus is under arrest and awaiting trial on a charge of high treason against the Queen of Narnia for "comforting her majesty's enemies. She eventually bids farewell to Edmund and reminds him to come and see her soon. as the White Witch would be more dangerous still if she knew that there four humans in Narnia. and decides that they are to travel to the Stone Table. However. who would be King of Narnia when she died. He reveals that Tumnus was seen being taken away by the Secret Police to the White Witch's castle. The children have to meet Aslan. above all. and demands to know "what" Edmund is. The four children then make their way from the cave and encounter a beaver. is furious with Edmund for encouraging Lucy about her "lies". Lucy takes them to Tumnus's cave. so he followed his mistress's order to head for the Stone Table. Mr Beaver then tells them that Edmund has gone to the White Witch. A few days later. but of her life. The beavers and the three other children are preparing for their own journey to the Stone Table. but he is nowhere to be seen. and that there was no certainty of his fate. Suddenly. Mr Beaver explains that this prophecy is why they all had to be so cautious as they came along. the children and the beavers rest in a cave which acts as a hiding place for beavers in bad times. but when they got there they had already gone and there was no scent or tracks. he refuses to back up Lucy's story. Mr Beaver takes them to his home. When they return to the Professor's house and meet Peter and Susan. and that she would love a boy she could bring up as a prince. and they rush outside in hope that he will hear them calling for him. it will be the end White Witch's reign. Edmund arrives at the White Witch's house. who still does not believe Lucy about Narnia. and there he explains that Aslan – the great lion and king of beasts – will save Tumnus and end the White Witch's reign. by himself. She is kind to Edmund.and Lucy tells them about Edmund's visit to Narnia. he assures them that it is a nasty knock for the 253 . Edmund returns to the lamp-post. giving him warm drink and his favourite food: Turkish delight and magically makes a tent appear which they enter before talking. of fraternising with humans". claiming that Lucy had only been "imagining". the children have to get out of the way when visitors are in the house. but he does not let on that he has seen her.

They bind and shave Aslan. a badger called Trufflehunter and a black dwarf called Nikabrik. and once again children. Arriving at the Stone Table. then announces to all that Edmund will be spared. the four monarchs are passing through the forest when they come across the old lamp-post that marks the border of Narnia. but makes them promise to stay hidden. Susan and Lucy follow Aslan as he leaves the encampment. and Lucy gets a bottle of magical healing cordial. killing her upon impact with the ground below. the Stone Table cracks in half and Aslan comes back to life. the snow around them melts. Aslan appears and roars so loudly that the Witch loses her balance and falls off the edge. Susan saves the life of a dwarf named Trumpkin who is about to be drowned by two soldiers on a boat. She realises that it is Aslan. Miraz then has an argument with his two courtiers and had intended to refuse the challenge. As they continue their journey. Susan gets a bow. That night. his ancestors defeated them in their invasion of Narnia hundreds of years earlier. who presents the children with gifts: Peter gets a sword and shield. who instructs the others to follow him. because King Miraz hates the Old Narnians. Peter sends a letter of challenge to King Miraz and the guard who gave it to him is Glozelle. Cornelius who one night woke him up because the Queen had given birth to a baby. By the time Aslan and the restored statues return to the battlefield. of which Trumpkin has heard of in the Narnian legends. Lucy wakes up from sleep. Caspian escaped on a horse but fell from it in the woods and was taken in by Trumpkin. That night. Aslan discusses the matter in private with the Witch. They rule Narnia for many years. They land at an overgrown castle which they recognise as Cair Paravel. Peter. The children meet Aslan the next morning at the Stone Table. succeeding just as the White Witch is preparing to kill him. Later. The White Witch kills Aslan with a knife. Edmund and Lucy are later crowned Kings and Queens of Narnia in Cair Paravel. He has a tutor called Dr. passing through the wardrobe door and find themselves back in the professor's house. However. Aslan sends his creatures to rescue Edmund. Caspian lived in a great castle with King Miraz and his wife Queen Prunaprismia. Edmund brings his sword down on the Witch's wand. At dawn. where the White Witch and her followers are waiting for him. . Knowing that the White Witch is nearby. and te takes them to meet the Old Narnians and Prince Caspian. The two girls jump on Aslan's back and they fly to the White Witch's house. The children travel through the woods with Trumpkin to meet Caspian. They walk deeper. the children and the beavers are welcomed warmly by Aslan. Miraz no longer needs Caspian. They watch as Aslan walks to the Stone Table. one of the King's courtiers who along with Sopespian has been conspiring against the King. The children tell him that they are the old Kings and Queens of Narnia. only to be slain by Peter. As adults. and the Witch herself is chased to the top of a ravine by Peter. the White Witch and her company leave to prepare for the oncoming battle with Peter and his forces.The Chronicles of Narnia (TV serial) Witch and a sign that her power is crumbling. 254 Prince Caspian/The Voyage of the Dawn Treader Prince Caspian: The four Pevensie children are waiting at a train station when a magical force pulls them into Narnia. It is Father Christmas. making way for spring. as all traitors in Narnia belong to her. but the camp has to be moved away from the Stone Table before nightfall. quiver of arrows and a horn. hearing someone calling her name. and planned to kill him. bringing peace and prosperity to the land. Aslan allows them to follow. the White Witch herself arrives at the Stone Table. where Aslan's restores all the Witch's victims – including Tumnus – back to life from their stone forms. Susan. nephew of the current monarch. Susan and Lucy spend the night at the Stone Table with Aslan's body. King Miraz. with the White Witch revealing that Aslan traded his life for Edmund's. When the ceremony is over. breaking it. the fight is in full swing and the Witch has already turned a number of Aslan's followers into stone. with a direct heir. He explains that there is a deeper magic that states that if a "willing victim who has committed no treachery is killed in a traitor's stead. These are people who live in hiding. Trumpkin tells the children the story of Prince Caspian. but changes his mind at the last minute and accepts the offer. Maugrim appears soon afterwards and terrifies the crowd. the Stone Table will crack and death itself will be denied". demanding that Edmund be given to her.

but when he wakes up he soon realises that he has metamorphosised into a dragon. On the fourth island. There is a body in the water. 255 . Eustace enters the room. Edmund and Lucy. where they are captured by slave traders. are staying at their cousin Eustace Scrubb's home. Aslan also names Caspian as the King of Narnia. Before they ascend the island." but Reepicheep proposes the more apt name of "Deathwater Island") where they find a cavern in which there is a pool. Susan has been invited to America for a holiday. Sitting in their temporary room. The cave is full of gold and jewellery. The Voyage of the Dawn Treader: When the story opens. and peace is restored between all Narnians. A brave mouse called Reepicheep has his tail cut off but Aslan restores it in recognition of his bravery. He explains that he is on a quest to find seven lords who were friends of his father's. encountering new islands where things are not what they seem and finally to sail to the end of the world. Caspian had already been bought by a man who introduced himself as Lord Bern (one of the missing lords). who lives on an island at the end of the world. On the island they meet Ramandu and his daughter. Aslan also told Edmund and Lucy that they will not return to Narnia since they are getting too old. Eustace wanders off and finds a cave where a dragon has died. On board the ship the Dawn Treader. Edmund and Lucy are reunited with Prince Caspian who has grown into a young man since they last saw him. The four Pevensies return home. but Edmund and Lucy will. They later find an isolated island which appears to be uninhabited. A battle is bought briefly. and that the four lords who were in a deep sleep on Ramandu's island will awaken. and they soon figure out who he is. He is soon turned back into a human by Aslan. and the younger two. He is tired and soon falls asleep. hoping to reach Aslan's Land. they find a man in the water who introduced himself as Lord Rhoop. it is explained that Peter is working at Professor Kirke's house. who must have perished on that island. and the creatures are soon made visible again. The third island (Caspian declares it "Goldwater Island.The Chronicles of Narnia (TV serial) Peter eventually fights Miraz and in the struggle he stabs Miraz in the back. The first island they encounter is one of the Lone Islands. how it resembles a Narnian ship. and Eustace finds a bracelet which he puts on. with Aslan telling them that Peter and Susan will not return. and all three are sucked into the painting. and before leaving they know that Caspian will marry the daughter of Ramandu. The fifth and final island is at the end of the world. The three children eventually return home. He flies back to the beach where the others confront him. they both comment on a picture on the wall. A magician called Coriakin appears after Lucy reads from a magic book. Caspian establishes that the bracelet was a possession of Lord Octesian. and also find the three remaining Lords who are in an enchanted sleep. The quest requires them to sail through dangerous waters. Edmund places his sword in the water to measure its depth. Caspian later realises that the body in the water is that of Lord Restimar. but are rescued the next day when Caspian and his army arrive at the market (having already deposed Governor Gumpus) and announce the abolition of slavery in Narnia. Miraz lies wounded on the floor and Glozelle finishes him off with a spear. and they establish that anyone or anything that ends up in the water turns into gold. they encounter some invisible creatures who give them dinner at a large house. only for it to become heavy and fall in the water – causing it to splash over his shoes and produce splashes of gold.

Jill realised that she fell into the "E" of the message the day before. for a short time every day he becomes "unlike himself". The children are shocked. Eustace accidentally falls off a cliff. Aslan explains that in Narnia. they are captured by Earthmen to be taken to the Queen of the Underworld. and the two watch as a boat with the elderly king leaves the castle dock. where she is reunited with Eustace near the castle of Cair Paravel. Although Puddleglum is reluctant to detour from their quest. as the fourth and final sign was that the first person to ask them to do something in . and given good food and a warm place to sleep. and that night they are brought by Glimfeather to the Parliament of Owls where they are told the full story of Prince Rilian's disappearance. They are greeted by a knight wearing a silver mask. they fall down a slope deep into the ground. Lord Drinian witnessed Rilian approach a beautiful lady with red hair in such a way to imply that Rilian was infatuated with her. learning that the Harfang Giants intend to cook them for their Autumn Feast. One day Lord Drinian. He reveals that he has met them before: he was the knight on horseback they'd encountered. The two children are targeted by bullies because of their surnames. The pair meet Trumpkin the dwarf. eventually encountering a lady riding on horseback alongside an unspeaking knight in black armour. the knight's demeanor changes and he begs the trio to set him free "in the name of Aslan". There. the elderly king's only son and heir. bind him in the Silver Chair and then leave. and Jill falls into a trench that leads nowhere. and Jill is upset that they've missed the first sign. Eustace says that he cannot recognize anyone. and was invited by the prince to enter the woods. They escape through a cat door. the trio look out the window of Jill's room and see the Ruined City of the Giants on a nearby hillside. one of Caspian's friends. who tells her of the task she and Eustace have been given to do. They are welcomed warmly by the giants. with the words "UNDER ME" inscribed on the ground. Aslan sends Jill to Narnia. but is blown to Narnia. The next day. so he has to be restrained in the Silver Chair. which is the first sign given by Aslan. Rillian's mother. cousin of the Pevensies. The knight explains that because of the curse. Eustace. as only she can break the curse that is on him. the children insist they go to Harfang. Jill and Puddleglum hide while two Earthmen take the knight. is at a boarding school with a girl named Jill Pole. and get away from the Giants' hounds by crawling through a hole under a rock. The two meet an owl named Glimfeather. disappeared some years earlier. and while running away from bullies. the Queen of Narnia. they deduce that they have to go under the Ruined City to find Rilian. Alone. Eustace realises that King Caspian is his friend from the Dawn Treader.The Chronicles of Narnia (TV serial) 256 The Silver Chair Eustace Scrubb. who tells them that the king who just left is King Caspian X. Rilian returned to the woods many times to hunt the serpent. They are allowed to stay in the castle. The trio travel north. Jill is told to memorise four signs that will lead her and Eustace to Rilian. noticed a change in Rilian. had been killed by a serpent in the woods. and advises them to pay a visit to the Giants of Harfang. where they will get good food and lodging. but failed. Jill quickly tells Eustace that he has to greet "an old and dear friend". The owls take Eustace and Jill to a marshwiggle named Puddleglum. Soon the group are caught in a snowstorm. The owls then speak of their belief that the woman in the forest and the deadly serpent are one and the same. The lady introduces herself as the Lady of the Green Kirtle. who is King Caspian's trusted advisor. they have to go north beyond Narnia to the Ruined City of the Giants. who will be their guide. Eustace tells Jill about Narnia. Jill explains that according to Aslan's second sign. They explore the castle. he failed to return. Eustace. Jill encounters Aslan. The next time Rillian went out. As the third sign was to find a "writing" at the ruins and follow their instructions. After a moment. and the Queen of the Deep Realm is also the Lady of Green Kirtle. He makes the group promise not to listen to whatever he says when he is under that condition. Jill and Puddleglum are taken to the Queen's living quarters. Prince Rilian. The knight claims that the Lady is his saviour. In the darkness. they pass through a doorway into Aslan's country.

Puddleglum retains enough of himself despite her spells to defy the Lady. Caspian greets Eustace warmly. but she is killed by Rilian. Macready . upon which he destroys the Silver Chair. with Eustace and Jill returning to their own world. Puddleglum is the one who undoes the binds. The group flee just as everything suddenly starts to rumble and rocks cave in. and the knight is freed. 257 Cast The Lion. and tells Aslan that he has always wanted a glimpse of Eustace's world. the Witch and the Wardrobe • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Richard Dempsey as Peter Sophie Cook as Susan Jonathan R. They detour briefly to Aslan's country. Aslan appears. She uses her magic to convince Eustace and Jill that all "other worlds" (Narnia and Earth) do not exist. The group are stopped when the Lady of the Green Kirtle arrives. only to be chased away by the three children in knight's armour. where he is reunited with his father just before the old king dies. taking them to the outer walls of Eustace and Jill's school. The Lady had ordered the Earthmen to dig through the roof of the underworld for an invasion of the overworld. Aslan agrees to the request. Rilian returns to Cair Paravel. Beaver Lesley Nicol as Mrs. who also realises that the Lady of the Green Kirtle was the serpent who killed his mother. Tumnus Michael Aldridge as Professor Digory Kirke Ken Kitson as Giant Rumblebuffin Christopher Bramwell as Peter (adult) Suzanne Debney as Susan (adult) Charles Ponting as Edmund (adult) Juliet Waley as Lucy (adult) Maureen Morris as Mrs. The group manages to climb high enough to break through the surface. Aslan forces a crack in the wall and the bullies appear at the other side. Angered. and they realise that they have emerged in the heart of Narnia. Rilian is hailed as the new king. They then say their goodbyes. the Lady turns into a giant serpent. Beaver Big Mick as Ginaarbrik Ailsa Berk as Aslan Martin Stone as Maugrim William Todd-Jones as Aslan Keith Hodiak as Aslan's Satyr Garfield Brown as Aslan's Satyr Ronald Pickup as Aslan Irene Marot as Hag Kairen Kemp as Hag Jeffrey Perry as Mr. where they see a vision of Caspian as a 13-year-old again. and that the underworld is the only world.The Chronicles of Narnia (TV serial) Aslan's name would be Prince Rilian. Scott as Edmund Sophie Wilcox as Lucy Barbara Kellerman as The White Witch Kerry Shale as Mr. congratulating Eustace and Jill for their success.

Scott as Edmund Pevensie Sophie Wilcox as Lucy Pevensie David Thwaites as Eustace William Todd-Jones as Glenstorm / Aslan Tim Rose as Aslan Ronald Pickup as Aslan Ailsa Berk as Aslan / Dragon Samuel West as King Caspian John Hallman as Captain Drinian Guy Fithen as Rhince Neale McGrath as Rynelf Richard Dempsey as Peter Pevensie Sophie Cook as Susan Pevensie Jean Marc Perret as Prince Caspian Robert Lang as King Miraz Henry Woolf as Dr. Tumnus Henry Woolf as Doctor Cornelius . Perry as Mr. Cornelius Julie Peters as Trufflehunter Joanna David as Trufflehunter George Claydon as Nikabrik Big Mick (actor) as Trumpkin The Silver Chair • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Camilla Power as Jill Pole David Thwaites as Eustace Clarence Scrubb Ailsa Berk as Aslan / Dragon Richard Henders as Prince Rilian / Black Knight Tom Baker as Puddleglum William Todd-Jones as Aslan / Centaur Ronald Pickup as Aslan Warwick Davis as Glimfeather Barbara Kellerman as Green Lady Geoffrey Russell as King Caspian Nick Brimble as Giant Porter Stephen Reynolds as Giant King Lesley Nicol as Giant Queen Patsy Byrne as Giant Nanny Joe Hall as Sentry Jack Purvis as Golg Jean Marc Perret as Young Caspian Jefferey S.The Chronicles of Narnia (TV serial) 258 Prince Caspian/The Voyage of the Dawn Treader • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Warwick Davis as Reepicheep Jonathan R.

1989.The Chronicles of Narnia (TV serial) 259 Awards The series were nominated for a total of 14 awards. "Best Video Cameraman" (1989. bafta. org/ site/ webdav/ site/ myjahiasite/ shared/ import/ TV_and_%20Craft_Winners_1980-1989.com • The Chronicles of Narnia (http://www.imdb.classickidstv.com/shows/the-chronicles-of-narnia-uk/) at TV. 1990). of series No. 1990) and "Best Costume Design" (1988).tv.uk (http://www. bafta. the Witch and the Wardrobe (http://www.co. "Best Make Up" (1988.co.uk/wiki/The_Chronicles_of_Narnia) at ClassicKidsTV. 1989 and 1990).imdb. org/ site/ webdav/ site/ myjahiasite/ shared/ import/ TV_and_Craft_Winners_1990-1999.com/title/tt0094500/) at the Internet Movie Database • Prince Caspian/The Voyage of the Dawn Treader (http://www. of episodes United Kingdom English 3 32 (as of 18 December 2012) Production Executive producer(s) Anna Beattie (2010–) Kieran Smith (2012–) Richard McKerrow (2010) Genre Format Directed by Presented by . and was nominated for "Best Children's Programme (Entertainment / Drama)" (1988.com/title/tt0098912/) at the Internet Movie Database • The Chronicles of Narnia (http://www. including a nomination for an Emmy in the category of "Outstanding Children's Program".classickidstv. pdf External links • The Lion. "Best Video Lighting" (1989). The series won the BAFTA Award for "Best Video Lighting" (1988).com/title/tt0096681/) at the Internet Movie Database • The Silver Chair (http://www.uk/) The Great British Bake Off The Great British Bake Off Also known as The Great Sport Relief Bake Off Junior Bake Off The Great Comic Relief Bake Off Cooking Baking Competition Andy Devonshire Mel Giedroyc Sue Perkins Judges Mary Berry Paul Hollywood Country of origin Language(s) No. pdf http:/ / www.[1] References [1] http:/ / www.co.imdb.

and discovering why people bake what they do today.[2] Mel Giedroyc & Sue Perkins[3][4] have presented all three series of the programme. The judges are cookery writer Mary Berry and professional baker Paul Hollywood. Kent Bakewell Mousehole Fulham Palace Series 2: Valentines Mansion Series 3: Harptree Court Running time 60 minutes 260 Production company(s) Love Productions Distributor BBC Worldwide Broadcast Original channel Picture format Audio format Original run BBC Two 16:9 Stereo 17 August 2010 – present Chronology Related shows MasterChef Come Dine with Me Great British Menu External links Production website [1] The Great British Bake Off is a British television baking competition first shown by the BBC on 17 August 2010. The show traces the very particular history of British baking by visiting local baking landmarks such as Bakewell. have gone onto start their own bakery-type businesses (notably Jo Wheatley.[6] Edd Kimber. including winners. It is credited with reinvigorating interest in baking throughout the UK[5] and many of its participants. Winners .[7] and John Whaite[8]).The Great British Bake Off Editor(s) Location(s) Victoria Watson Series 1: Cotswolds Scone Palace Sandwich.

Although Paul and Mary judged the results. Series 3 A third series of The Great British Bake Off began on Tuesday 14 August 2012.[9] The series was filmed at Harptree Court in East Harptree. to make and bake two spectacular Wedding Cakes each in just 16 hours.The Great British Bake Off 261 Series The Great British Bake Off 1 2 3 Junior Bake Off The Great Sport Relief Bake Off The Great Comic Relief Bake Off 1 1 1 Winner Edd Kimber Joanne Wheatley John Whaite Freya Watson Anita Rani Ingrid Oliver Warwick Davis Ellie Simmonds Kirsty Wark Martha Kearney The Great British Bake Off Series 1 Series 1 of The Great British Bake Off saw ten passionate home bakers take part in a bake-off to test every aspect of their baking skills as they battled to be crowned the Great British Bake Off’s best amateur baker. This year The Great British Bake Off found a home . Each week the nationwide tour saw keen bakers put through three challenges in a particular discipline. to host the next chapter in the nation's love affair with home baking. The rounds took place in various locations across the UK. no individual winner was declared. London.Valentines Mansion. the three finalists from series one (Edd. wartime Britain and the eighties to the present day. Somerset. The Great British Wedding Cake In this one-off special edition on the series. . Paul Hollywood and Mary Berry set them the ultimate challenge. Paul and Mary explore the history of the Great British Wedding Cake. from the Tudors and the Victorians. Series 2 Twelve amateur bakers started the competition and they were gradually eliminated during each round of the contest. one being traditional and the other contemporary. Ruth and Miranda) returned once more. a 17th century mansion house in Redbridge. looking at the dramatic changes through the eras.

The Great British Bake Off

262

Junior Bake Off
Junior Bake Off
Genre Cooking Baking Competition Children's Amanda Westwood Aaron Craze Mary Berry Paul Hollywood Country of origin Language(s) No. of series No. of episodes United Kingdom English 1 13 Production Executive producer(s) Kieran Smith Anna Beattie Location(s) Running time Valentines Mansion 25 mins

Format

Directed by Presented by Judges

Production company(s) Love Productions Broadcast Original channel Picture format Original run CBBC Channel 16:9 31 October 2011 – present External links Website [10]

Junior Bake Off is a new series, presented by Aaron Craze, where thirty two young bakers tackle a series of baking challenges including the art of baking cakes, biscuits, bread and pastries all competing to be crowned "Junior Bake Off Champion".

Summary

The Great British Bake Off

263

Episode No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Technical Challenge

Invention Challenge

Contestants

Semi-Finalist

Airdate

The perfect Victoria Sandwich Tricky jammy shortbread biscuits 12 carrot cake and walnut muffins A batch of chocolate chip cookies Cheese scones Lemon Drizzle cake Swiss roll

Cakes from Outer Space Chocolate celebration cake Celebration cake of their favourite festival Animal themes cakes Cakes fit for a queen American themed cake Birthday cakes

Marie, Joy, Joe and Amari Sam, Stanley, Saffron and Millie Kieran, Holly, Sylvia and Hari Cameron, Zyta, Alex and Ellie Jim, Scott, Sangita and Galway Kai, Sami, Abigail and Olivia Jacob, Conal, Katie and Coco-Nina

Joe Saffron Kieran Cameron Sangita Kai Jacob

31 October 2011 1 November 2011 2 November 2011 3 November 2011 7 November 2011 8 November 2011 9 November 2011

8

Chocolate Brownies

Haunted Biscuits

Sam, Cameron, Aasiya and Freya Contestants

Freya

10 November 2011 Airdate

Episode No. 9

Technical Challenge

Invention Challenge

Finalist

Pitta bread pockets

Savoury tarts

Saffron, Joe, Kieran and Cameron Sangita, Kai, Jacob and Freya

Kieran and Saffron Freya and Kai

14 November 2011 15 November 2011 Airdate

10

Mini Pizzas

Sweet pastry tarts

Episode No. 11

Masterclass

Challenge

Finalists

Baking (Pastry)

In teams, they must prepare afternoon tea for special guest Michelin-starred chef Michel Roux Junior and judges Mary Berry and Paul Hollywood Baking for a glamorous event - the fifth anniversary party of the musical Wicked in London's West End Final Challenge

Kieran, Saffron, Freya and Kai

16 November 2011 17 November 2011 Airdate

12

Knowledge test, a series of difficult questions and practical challenges

Kieran, Saffron, Freya and Kai

Episode No. 13

Winner

They must bake two of their own recipes for judges Mary Berry and Paul Hollywood and a party of invited friends and family

Freya

17 November 2011

The Great British Bake Off

264

The Great Sport/Comic Relief Bake Off
The Great Sport/Comic Relief Bake Off
Genre Cooking Baking Competition Sport Relief Stuart McDonald Mel Giedroyc Mary Berry Paul Hollywood Country of origin Language(s) No. of series No. of episodes United Kingdom English 2 8 (as of 24 January 2013) Production Location(s) Valentines Mansion (Sport Relief) Unknown (Comic Relief) Running time 60 mins

Format

Directed by Presented by Judges

Production company(s) Love Productions Broadcast Original channel Picture format Original run BBC Two 16:9 10 January 2012 – Present External links Website [11]

The Great Sport Relief Bake Off
The Great Sport Relief Bake Off sees well-known faces don their aprons in this charity special hosted by Mel Giedroyc. Episode Summary

Duncan Bannatyne. Kirsty Wark. Joe Swift. Stephen K. Each night. Fi Glover and Anita Rani Anita Rani 13 January 2012 The Great Comic Relief Bake Off Comic Relief takes over the Great British Bake Off tent. 1 2 3 4 Signature Challenge Shortbread Iced Biscuits Scones Chocolate Biscuits Showstopper Challenge Portrait Cake Gateaux Novelty Cake Comic Relief Birthday Cake Technical Challenge Custard Slices Bakewell Tart Chocolate Eclairs Lemon Meringue Pie Contestants Comic Relief Star Baker Ingrid Oliver Warwick Davis Ellie Simmonds and Kirsty Wark Martha Kearney Airdate Jo Brand. Julia Bradbury and Bob Mortimer Claudia Winkleman. James Wong and Angela Griffin Arlene Phillips. Saira Khan and Gus Casely-Hayford Anita Rani.The Great British Bake Off 265 Episode No. Episode Summary Episode No. Ed Byrne. 1 2 3 Episode No. Lorna Watson and Ingrid Oliver Warwick Davis. Martha Kearney and Helen Glover 21 January 2013 22 January 2013 23 January 2013 24 January 2013 Transmissions The Great British Bake Off Series 1 2 3 Start date End date Episodes 6 11 14 17 August 2010 21 September 2010 16 August 2011 14 August 2012 20 October 2011 16 October 2012 . Alex Deakin and Alex Langlands Finalists Angela Griffin Fi Glover Anita Rani Winner 10 January 2012 11 January 2012 12 January 2012 Airdate 6 Sausage Rolls Angela Griffin. different faces will battle it out with their baking skills to claim one of the four "Comic Relief Star Baker" titles. Simon Reeve and Andy Akinwolere Ellie Simmonds. 4 Signature Challenge Traybake Savoury Flan Classic Crumble Signature Challenge Trio of baked biscuits Showstopper Challenge Meringue dessert Layered cake 24 miniature tarts Showstopper Challenge Covered Tiered occasion cake Technical Challenge Contestants Finalist Airdate Wholemeal Cheese Scones Banana and chocolate chip loaves Coffee and Walnut cake Technical Challenge Sarah Hadland. Pearl Lowe. Amos. Fi Glover.

000 2.000 1 1 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 6 9 N/A 7 3 2 4 1 1 BBC Two Weekly Ranking . Airdate Total Viewers Series 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 17 August 2010 24 August 2010 31 August 2010 7 September 2010 14 September 2010 21 September 2010 2.000 3.000 4.000 4.000 3.000 2.000 2.535.752.000 Below 1.845.101.833.000 4.602.029.000 2.[12] The Great British Bake Off ! Episode No.000 3.253.000 5.000 2.790.000 3.000 3.996.003.818.419.597.000 3.000 Series 2 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 16 August 2011 23 August 2011 30 August 2011 6 September 2011 13 September 2011 20 September 2011 27 September 2011 4 October 2011 6 October 2011 13 October 2011 20 October 2011 3.The Great British Bake Off 266 Junior Bake Off Series 1 Start date End date Episodes 13 31 October 2011 17 November 2011 Specials Title The Great British Wedding Cake The Great Sport Relief Bake Off The Great British Bake Off Christmas Masterclass The Great Comic Relief Bake Off Start date End date Episodes 1 4 1 4 20 April 2011 10 January 2012 13 January 2012 18 December 2012 21 January 2013 24 January 2013 Ratings Episode Viewing figures from BARB.240.324.000 Series 3 1 2 14 August 2012 21 August 2012 3.602.138.062.

000 1 6 8 3 The Great British Bake Off Christmas Masterclass 18 December 2012 3.743.000 2.431.822.000 2.000 5.606.000 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 5 4 8 6 267 Specials Episode No.341.000 4.000 3.The Great British Bake Off 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 (Final) 11 12 13 14 28 August 2012 4 September 2012 11 September 2012 18 September 2012 25 September 2012 2 October 2012 9 October 2012 16 October 2012 22 October 2012 23 October 2012 24 October 2012 25 October 2012 4.187.350.000 4.000 2 The Great Comic Relief Bake Off 1 2 3 4 21 January 2013 22 January 2013 23 January 2013 24 January 2013 4.000 2.000 2.000 6.600.793.562.000 4.528.441.101.000 2.000 5.000 4.395.485.175.333.697.000 5.000 2.525.715.000 5 2 4 3 Junior Bake Off: Series 1 .000 4.561.759. Airdate Total Viewers BBC Two Weekly Ranking The Great British Wedding Cake 20 April 2011 1.000 4.000 19 The Great Sport Relief Bake Off 1 2 3 4 10 January 2012 11 January 2012 12 January 2012 13 January 2012 3.

000 329.[14] International versions Current and upcoming versions include:[15] Country  Australia Local title The Great Australian Bake Off Host(s) Shane Jacobson [16] Anna Gare Rani De Coninck Peter Ingemann Neel Rønholt TBA [20] Faustine Bollaert Judges Dan Lepard Kerry Vincent Sofie Dumont Bernard Proot Network [17] Nine Network Vtm Premiere TBA 2013 (Dutch)  Belgium  Denmark  Finland  France De MeesterBakker (The Master Baker) Den Store Bagedyst (The Great Baking Joust) TBA Le Meilleur Pâtissier 4 April 2012 [18] 28 August 2012 [19] 2013 26 November 2012 Mette Blomsterberg DR1 Jan Friis-Mikkelsen TBA Cyril Lignac Mercotte MTV3 M6 [21] [22] (The Best Pastry Chef)  Ireland The Great Irish Bake Off RTL-TVI (Belgium) TV3 [23] Biddy White Anna Nolan Lennon TBA TBA TBA 2013  Netherlands Heel Holland Bakt (The Whole of Holland is Baking) Hele Norge Baker (working title) The Great Polish Bake Off MAX (Nederland 1) [24] June 2013  Norway  Poland TBD Marta Grycan Piotr Gasowski TBD TV3 [25] TBA 2013 Bozena Sikoń [26] Thomas Deker TLC 10 October [27] 2012 .000 356.000 Below 382.000 Reception The Great British Bake Off has been nominated for a Rose D'or in the Lifestyle section of the 2012 competition.000 Below 382. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Airdate 31 October 2011 1 November 2011 2 November 2011 3 November 2011 7 November 2011 8 November 2011 9 November 2011 10 November 2011 14 November 2011 15 November 2011 16 November 2011 17 November 2011 (17:45) 17 November 2011 (18:20) Total Viewers [13] CBBC Channel Weekly Ranking N/A N/A 8 5 N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 10 N/A Below 293.000 Below 293.000 Below 364.000 Below 364.000 Below 382.000 Below 382.000 382.The Great British Bake Off 268 Episode No.000 Below 364.000 Below 364.

"'Great British Bake Off' serves up global hit for BBC" (http:/ / www. "The Great British Bake Off proves that big boys bake. Broadcasters' Audience Research Board. [13] "Weekly Top 30 Programmes" (http:/ / www. [22] http:/ / www. tv3. . tvtonight. . co. uk/ ) [8] John Whaite's website (http:/ / www. [24] Andrew Laughlin (January 2013). c21media. the BBC said Love Production's loan agreement with Smeg did not meet editorial guidelines and was being revised for the third series. uk/ viewing/ weekly-top-30). 26 October 2012. The issue came to light after a viewer wrote to the Radio Times complaining of "blatant product promotion". programme-tv. thegreatbritishbakeoff. html). After an investigation. co. co. c21media.The Great British Bake Off  Sweden [28] Tilde de Paula Johan Sörberg Birgitta Rasmussen TBA TV4 (Sjuan) 20 September 2012 269 Hela Sverige bakar (All Sweden Bakes)  United States 'Baking Show" [29] TBA CBS [30] [31] 29 May 2013 Product placement sanction In September 2012." (http:/ / www. which it has since done.[32] The BBC asked Smeg to remove a notice from its website promoting its association with the show. Poets have contributed their own confections in verse to celebrate their devotion to the programme. uk/ programmes/ 2012/ the-great-sport-relief-bake-off [12] "Weekly Top 30 Programmes" (http:/ / www. "Shane Jacobson. html). .net. BBC Two. . uk/ culture/ tvandradio/ 9609533/ The-Great-British-Bake-Off-proves-that-big-boys-bake-too. "The Great British Bake Off. [16] David Knox (18 October 2012). guardian. net/ archives/ 98471). [14] Rose d'Or . co. com/ #!home/ mainPage) [9] Food on BBC Two (http:/ / www. rtl. Metro. [17] Clive Whittingham (30 July 2012). [3] Keith Watson (21 September 2010). co. metro. net/ archives/ 77478). loveproductions. html). ch/ en/ competition/ nominees/ ) [15] "Europe whips up Bake Off adaptations" (http:/ / www. review" (http:/ / www. "Bake Off rises in Poland. c21media. loveproductions.Wettbewerbskategorien (http:/ / www.au. c21media.net.net. dk/ TV/ se/ den-store-bagedyst/ den-store-bagedyst-1-6). too" (http:/ / www. . uk/ programmes/ 2011/ junior-bake-off-2011 [11] http:/ / www. telegraph. uk/ culture/ tvandradio/ 7950624/ The-Great-British-Bake-Off-BBC-Two-review. com. johnwhaite. [10] http:/ / www. be/ rtltvi/ emission/ le-meilleur-patissier/ 578. tvtonight. c21media. c21media. . au/ 2012/ 10/ shane-jacobson-anna-gare-to-host-the-great-australian-bake-off. "Another view on The Great British Bake Off" (http:/ / www. barb. aspx [23] "The Great Irish Bake Off" (http:/ / www. [20] http:/ / www. co. [25] "Norway cooks up Bake Off" (http:/ / www. The Guardian. Retrieved 7 October 2012. "Netherlands. edited by poets Amy Key and Charlotte Runcie. "The Great British Bake Off: Just as sappy as the X Factor" (http:/ / www. php?request=thegreatirishbakeoff). net/ archives/ 89615). html).com.[34] References [1] http:/ / www. . and that appropriate retrospective hire payments would be made. . Finland set for Bake Off" (http:/ / www. production company Love Productions was sanctioned by the BBC for product placement of Smeg fridges. barb. The Daily Telegraph.[33] Great British Bard-Off A pop-up tribute poetry blog. . co. [18] "Den store bagedyst" (http:/ / www. telegraph. uk/ media/ s215/ great-british-bake-off/ news/ a452513/ great-british-bake-off-serves-up-global-hit-for-bbc. [19] Clive Whittingham (21 January 2013). uk [2] Anne Harrison. c21media. blogspot. 26 April 2012. rosedor. dr. c21media. ie/ shows. co. net/ news/ tv/ 36005-le-meilleur-patissier-m6-emission-cyril-lignac/ [21] Ed Waller (7 October 2012). net/ archives/ 90912). co. Broadcasters' Audience Research Board. The Daily Telegraph. Anna Gare to host The Great Australian Bake Off. net/ archives/ 85755). co. was created in September 2012. c21media. bbc. Digital Spy. uk/ mediacentre/ mediapacks/ food/ ). [6] http:/ / josblueaga. 29 February 2012. uk/ viewing/ weekly-top-30). co. [4] Iain Hollingshead (18 August 2010). . co. uk/ tv/ reviews/ 841589-the-great-british-bake-off-just-as-sappy-as-the-x-factor). [5] Rose Prince (15 October 2012). uk/ [7] Edd Kimber's website (http:/ / theboywhobakes. . digitalspy. . Alexandra Coghlan (5 September 2010). uk/ culture/ 2010/ sep/ 05/ anne-harrison-great-british-bake-off). co. "French Bake Off in the works" (http:/ / www.net. . Oz" (http:/ / www.

co. -Znamy-szczegoly. Digital Spy. googleusercontent.com. se/ hela-sverige-bakar).bbc. 4 September 2012.imdb. .bbc. .imdb.uk/programmes/b013pqnm) at BBC Programmes The Great British Wedding Cake (http://www. pl/ media/ 94343-Polski-turniej-wypiekow-nowy-program-TLC-z-Grycan-i-Gasowskim. . uk). Smeg UK. com/ shows/ baking-show [30] Kate Goodacre (18 October 2012). "'The Great British Bake Off' to be remade for US audiences by CBS" (http:/ / www. BBC News.com • The Great British Bake Off (http://www. php+ & cd=10& hl=en& ct=clnk& gl=uk& client=firefox-a).ukgameshows.co. [32] "Great British Bake Off breaks BBC branding rules" (http:/ / www.co. tv4. 23 July 2012. 14 August 2012. uk/ news/ entertainment-arts-19474011). co.com/title/tt2255405/) at the Internet Movie Database • • • • • • . [27] "TLC Polska" (http:/ / www. media2. Retrieved 4 September 2012.bbc.uk/programmes/b019j2ct) at BBC Programmes The Great Comic Relief Bake Off (http://www. tv.co.co.com/title/tt1877368/) at the Internet Movie Database • Junior Bake Off (http://www.com/title/tt2131864/) at the Internet Movie Database • The Great Sport Relief Bake Off (http://www. digitalspy. [34] "Great British Bard-Off" (http:/ / greatbritishbardoff. "Premiere date info" (http:/ / www. .pl. co. pl/ programy/ polski-turniej-wypiekow). Retrieved 9 October 2012. html). co. co. com/ search?q=cache:ZePSLBiKl1kJ:smeg-service. Retrieved 4 September 2012.com/ukgs/The_Great_British_Bake_Off) at UKGameshows. .The Great British Bake Off [26] "Polski turniej wypieków" (http:/ / media2. [29] http:/ / www. html). com/ news/ cbs-sets-summer-premiere-dates-for-under-the-dome-unforgettable-and-more-30398/ ?part=rss& subj=& tag=news-summary-). .bbc.uk/programmes/b0171wzy) at BBC Programmes The Great Sport Relief Bake Off (http://www. bbc. . cbs.uk/programmes/b010n3q1) at BBC Programmes Junior Bake Off (http://www. [28] "Hela Sverige bakar" (http:/ / www. uk/ ustv/ news/ a431516/ the-great-british-bake-off-to-be-remade-for-us-audiences-by-cbs. tv. tlcpolska. 270 External links The Great British Bake Off (http://www.uk/programmes/b01q9tbm) at BBC Programmes The Great British Bake Off (http://www. uk/ smeg_news. blogspot.imdb. [31] Tim Surette (14 January 2013). [33] "Great British Bake Off" (http:/ / webcache.bbc. .

and on the following day in Canada and the United States. 2005 (United States) 110 minutes United Kingdom United States English $45–50 million $104. the Paranoid Android). It stars Martin Freeman. .478. 2005 in Europe. Zooey Deschanel and the voices of Stephen Fry (the guide book) and Alan Rickman (Marvin. Australia and New Zealand. Shooting was completed in August 2004 and the movie was released on April 28. Sam Rockwell. Mos Def. 2005 (United Kingdom) April 29.416 The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy is a 2005 British-American comic science fiction film based on the book of the same name by Douglas Adams.The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy (film) 271 The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy (film) The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy Theatrical release poster Directed by Produced by Garth Jennings Douglas Adams (posthumous credit) Nick Goldsmith Derek Evans Robbie Stamp Douglas Adams Karey Kirkpatrick The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy by Douglas Adams Stephen Fry Martin Freeman Zooey Deschanel Mos Def Sam Rockwell Bill Nighy Anna Chancellor John Malkovich Alan Rickman Warwick Davis Joby Talbot Screenplay by Based on Narrated by Starring Music by Cinematography Igor Jadue-Lillo Editing by Studio Niven Howie Spyglass Entertainment Hammer & Tongs Everyman Pictures Touchstone Pictures • • Distributed by Release date(s) Running time Country Language Budget Box office April 28.

the planet Earth. making him understand how she feels about the destruction of Earth. led by Galactic Vice-President Questular Rontok. to determine the Ultimate Question. Slartibartfast takes Arthur home. and a journalist working on the Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy. who constructed Deep Thought. lunchtime. On the planet.The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy (film) The screenplay is by Adams (who died in 2001) and Karey Kirkpatrick. Believing Arthur. Arthur realizes he has fallen into a trap. Upon learning of Zaphod's plan. As the crew regroup outside the house they are surrounded by Vogons and take shelter in a caravan as the Vogons open fire. and uses the Point-of-View gun on the Vogons. the mice attempt to remove his brain. Zaphod decides to visit Humma Kavula. When the trio finds the Point-of-View gun. The mice. Zaphod explains that he is seeking the planet Magrathea. a friend of Arthur's. the Universe. . and Everything to match with the answer "42" given by the supercomputer Deep Thought. Ford Prefect. She also finds out how much she loves Arthur. in order to make way for a hyperspace bypass. a universal guide book. causing them to become depressed and unable to fight. and Marvin the Paranoid Android. They find Ford's "semi-half brother" Zaphod Beeblebrox. As they are leaving the planet. When they ask the computer whether it has calculated the ultimate question. Arthur kills the mice. Trillian is captured by Vogons. may hold the Ultimate Answer. He takes one of Zaphod's two heads hostage and demands they bring him the Point-of-view gun created by Deep Thought. and Trillian take a portal to Deep Thought. who is attempting to rescue Zaphod from himself. convinces him to go to the pub with him. it reveals that it designed another supercomputer to do so—Earth. He tries delaying the bulldozers by lying down in front of them. Over a pint of beer (as "muscle relaxant"). a Vogon Constructor Fleet appears in the sky and destroys the planet. Arthur chooses to explore the galaxy with Trillian and lets Slartibartfast finalize the new Earth without him. Ford saves himself and Arthur by hitching a ride on a Vogon ship. As the Heart of Gold arrives in orbit above Magrathea. where the others are enjoying a feast provided by pan-dimensional beings who resemble a pair of mice. the President of the Galaxy. The Heart of Gold crew decide to visit the Restaurant at the End of the Universe while Marvin points out they are going the wrong way. Suddenly. Ford. which allows the target to understand the shooter's point of view. Marvin is left outside and shot in the back of the head. who takes Arthur on a tour of the construction floor where Earth Mark II is being built. and that the Earth is to be demolished later that day by a race called Vogons. Trillian shoots Zaphod. Kavula announces that he has the coordinates to Magrathea. used the supercomputer to build an even larger supercomputer. The Heart of Gold is chased by the Vogons. 272 Plot One Thursday. Arthur Dent discovers that his house is to be immediately demolished in order to make way for a bypass. an Earth woman whom Arthur had met previously. Trillian is outraged to learn that Zaphod signed the authorization for the destruction of Earth thinking it was a request for an autograph. The missiles transform into a bowl of petunias and a sperm whale. Arthur and Marvin miss the portal and encounter a Magrathean called Slartibartfast. the last remaining supercomputer component. During one of these attempts. As the Vogons are taken away and Questular rejoins with Zaphod. The two are discovered and thrown out of an airlock. Zaphod stole the Heart of Gold to use its improbability drive to get to Magrathea through trial and error. He has stolen the ship along with Tricia "Trillian" McMillan. Zaphod. they end up on the planet Viltvodle VI. where he believes he can discover the Question of Life. but are picked up by the starship Heart of Gold. his opponent from the election. facing long lines and frustrating form processing. Ford explains that he is an alien from a planet in the vicinity of Betelgeuse. the film is dedicated "For Douglas". Arthur triggers the improbability drive to avoid the automated missile defense systems. The others travel to rescue her from the Vogon home world bureaucracy.

." • "Douglas himself is on record as saying that as far as he was concerned the only character who had to be British. Robbie Stamp.. Jonze turned the job down.The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy (film) 273 Cast • • • • • • • • • • • • Martin Freeman as Arthur Dent Zooey Deschanel as Tricia McMillan / Trillian Mos Def as Ford Prefect Sam Rockwell as Zaphod Beeblebrox Bill Nighy as Slartibartfast Anna Chancellor as Questular Rontok John Malkovich as Humma Kavula Warwick Davis as Marvin the Paranoid Android (voiced by Alan Rickman) Kelly Macdonald as Jin Jenz Reporter Jason Schwartzman (uncredited) as Gag Halfrunt Edgar Wright (uncredited) as Deep Thought Tech Simon Jones (cameo) as Magrathea Video Recording Voices • • • • • • • • Stephen Fry as Narrator. noted the following about the cast of the film:[2] • The hardest character to cast was "the voice of the Guide itself and in the end came back to somebody who was one of the people Douglas himself had wanted. was Arthur Dent.. The Guide Richard Griffiths as Jeltz Thomas Lennon as Eddie the Computer Alan Rickman as Marvin the Paranoid Android Bill Bailey as The Whale Helen Mirren as Deep Thought Mak Wilson as Vogon Interpreter Garth Jennings as Frankie Mouse (uncredited) Pre-production and production Spike Jonze was one of several directors asked to do the film. recommending that the producers hire Hammer & Tongs." . namely Stephen Fry. indeed English.All the substantive new ideas in the movie." Preparations for the premiere of Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy on Leicester Square.are brand new Douglas ideas written especially for the movie by him..[1] In a Slashdot interview.. I know how easy it is to see every decision to cut a scene as 'studio' pressure but it was always much more to do with pacing and rhythm in the film itself." • "The script we shot was very much based on the last draft that Douglas wrote...Douglas was always up for reinventing HHGG in each of its different incarnations and he knew that working harder on some character development and some of the key relationships was an integral part of turning HHGG into a movie. one of the film's executive producers.. Stamp also commented on how large a role the studio and screenwriters other than Adams played in making the film: • "I think that a lot of fans would be surprised to know just how much of a free hand we have been given in the making of this movie.

and obviously cleverer.[5] Roger Ebert. very funny sci-fi misadventure that's guaranteed to win converts"."[7] Philip French. The movie's total box office gross was $104.. but a good bit less engaging than Galaxy Quest. It was released a day later in North America... You will hear dialogue that preserves the content of written humor at the cost of sounding as if the characters are holding a Douglas Adams reading.[9] Soundtrack . than Spaceballs.It's funnier. low-tech BBC origins. riffing on Elvis and the former President George Bush.... The inevitable Anglo-American accommodations of casting have muddled its identity and the performances of the new American stars can be uneasy.478. and honours the Guide's gentle. the gravity is stronger.[3] with Metacritic giving 63/100.. after describing the Vogons as "a species resembling Laughton's version of Quasimodo" and noting it is "not. more about moments than an organizing purpose.[6] Manohla Dargis called it "hugely likable" with a story arc structured "more or less" as "a long beginning and then an ending". making $21.The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy (film) 274 Reception Critical reaction The film received generally favorable reviews.. Mel Brooks's puerile spoof on Star Wars. The jokes have to compete with the hardware and the actors executing them often exude a feeling of desperation. viewed the film very negatively.. But it doesn't do justice to the open-ended inventiveness of the original. saying the "film is no disgrace. opening in first place..203 in its opening weekend. It somehow seems heavier-footed and slower-moving than Adams's concept.000 in its first week in the UK. its playfully ruminative feel. I do not get the joke. noting that: You will find the movie tiresomely twee. To me it got old fairly quickly. The movie was more of a revue than a narrative..200. making £4. except in its financing. anything resembling a standard Hollywood production". and notice that it obviously thinks it is being funny at times when you do not have the slightest clue why that should be."[8] Commercial earnings The movie was released on April 28. indicating "generally favorable" reviews. but maybe you will..[4] Empire magazine rated the film four stars out of five and said it was a "very British. she calls Henson's Creature Shop's Vogons "beautifully constructed" and noted that Sam Rockwell's performance is "sensational."[1] Peter Bradshaw gave the film three stars out of five. I do not much want to get the joke. in the UK. though giving two stars. Rotten Tomatoes gave it a "Fresh" rating of 60%. The movie remained in the US box office top ten for its first four weeks of release.The savour and flavour of the Adams original. 2005.. has been downgraded in favour of a jolly but less interesting outerspace romp.103.416 worldwide. called the film "slightly old-fashioned (few things date as rapidly as science fiction and our view of the future) and somewhat commonplace through its embracing familiar special effects.

The song. Neil Hannon. Michael's Church in Highgate. lively version sung by the dolphins before they leave Earth. 2005. 2005. and a fifth. The CD has the same 33 tracks as the previous iTunes release. and Thanks For All The Fish" is a Broadway-style. The song was written by English composer Joby Talbot. a division of The Walt Disney Company. founder and frontman of the Irish pop group Divine Comedy. PAL) in the UK on September 5.fan.The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy (film) 275 The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy Soundtrack album by Stephen Fry." also performed by Fry. set to music by Joby Talbot and written by Tim Browse and Sean Sollé (with the exception of the How to be Cool entry. and was publicised on the internet. The recording was open to anyone wishing to attend. opening version. conductor Christopher Austin. The first version of the song "So Long. lent his vocals to the version of the song played during the end credits. The soundtrack CD was released on April 26. The enclosed booklet includes acknowledgements from Joby Talbot and notes on the creation of the song "So Long and Thanks for All the Fish. as well as a new vocal and a new instrumental track for "Marvin. Four were released on the iTunes Music Store to promote the Hollywood movie version of The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy. The second plays over the end credits and is in the style of 1950s male singers. London by members of local church choirs along with a congregation consisting of members of the public. Joby Talbot Released Genre April 12. here performed by Stephen Fry. 2005 Soundtrack The complete motion picture soundtrack was released as an iTunes Music Store exclusive (in the US and UK) on April 12. • The Guide Entries are new spoken "Hitchhiker's Guide" entries. the Guide to Websites. who wrote the film score. • Deleted scenes • Really deleted scenes (scenes that were never really meant to be in the movie. The standard double disc edition features: • Making-of • Additional guide entries. including in a post to the [10] Usenet group alt. Home release The movie was released on DVD (Region 2. 2005. can be heard on the official UK movie website. The iTunes Music Store also has two further exclusive sets of tracks related to the movie: • The Marvin Mixes are remixes of a new version of Reasons To Be Miserable. was translated into and performed in Spanish for the Latin-American Region 4 DVD release. in its "bouncy". just for fun) • Sing-a-long • Audio commentaries • Set Top Games: Marvin's Hangman • Don't Crash (68 minute UK exclusive "making of" documentary. which was also co-written by Yoz Grahame). Both a standard double disc edition and a UK-exclusive "Gift Set" edition were released on this date." written by Garth Jennings. by Hollywood Records. The track "Huma's Hymn" on the soundtrack is notable for the fact that it was sung in St. and Director Garth Jennings and performed by the Tenebrae Choir. a collection of sound recordings read by Stephen Fry. Stephen Moore had recorded the vocals of both tracks in 1981. directed by Grant Gee) . all read by Fry. with accompanying music by Joby Talbot (with further orchestrations by Christopher Austin). two weeks before the scheduled CD release.douglas-adams.

Retrieved 2011-06-04. . [6] Ebert. for the American market only. . nytimes. Producer Robbie Stamp Answers" (http:/ / slashdot. Single disc widescreen and full-screen editions (Region 1. you are dealing with technology. "The Way the World Ends. April 26. [2] "HHG2G Exec. Retrieved 2011-06-04. The Guide to websites described a website as "a wonderful new invention that allows people you neither know nor care about to inform you what they had for breakfast this morning. 2005). only ever appeared as website text. dll/ article?AID=/ 20050428/ REVIEWS/ 50413005/ 1023). Roger (April 28. com/ reviews/ ReviewComplete. describing the Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy's entry on movie trailers. asp?FID=9807). . . Empire. 2005. instead of by following crowds. Retrieved 2011-06-03. Retrieved 2011-06-04. The movie was made available as a paid download in the iTunes Store starting in September 2006.The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy (film) The "Gift Set" edition includes a copy of the novel with a "movie tie-in" cover. html). but concludes by suggesting the listener attend a showing of The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy. With a Shrug and a Smile" (http:/ / movies. Retrieved 2011-06-04. com/ m/ hitchhikers_guide_to_the_galaxy/ ).S. and Canada on September 13. com/ film/ titles/ hitchhikersguidetothegalaxy?q=hitchhiker's). shtml?tid=97& tid=133& tid=214). empireonline.[12] It was nominated for: the Artios award from Casting Society of America. suntimes. packaged in a replica of the film's version of the Hitchhiker's Guide prop. NTSC) were released in the U. Awards The movie was nominated for seven different awards and won one. . without all that tedious mucking about in the postal system". org/ articles/ 05/ 04/ 26/ 1952248. it was never intended to be recorded and is otherwise unconnected with the Fry/Talbot/Browse works. the Empire Awards from Empire Awards.[11] 276 Marketing The film trailer featured voice over work by Stephen Fry as the Guide. Chicago Sun-Times. Rotten Tomatoes. 2005). the Golden Trailer from Golden Trailer Awards under the category Best Voice Over. and Teen Choice Award from Teen Choice Awards under the categories Choice Movie: Action/Adventure and Choice Rap Artist in a Movie: Mos Def. metacritic. UK under the categories Best British Film and Best Comedy in 2006. . but contain the same special features (except the Don't Crash documentary) as the UK version. com/ 2005/ 04/ 29/ movies/ 29hitc. Single disc releases in the UMD format for the PlayStation Portable were also released on the respective dates in these three countries. Though released at the same time as the iTunes entries.[13] References Specific references: [1] Dargis. Retrieved 2011-06-03. They have a different cover. . rottentomatoes. It won the Golden Trailer Award under the category Most Original. 2005. and collectible prints from the film. Manohla (April 29. [3] "The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy (2005)" (http:/ / uk. The New York Times. Slashdot. Bauer Consumer Media. Metacritic. USA under the category Best Featured Film Casting-Comedy in 2005. Other guides include the Hitchhiker's Guide to Blogging and the Hitchhiker's Guide to Deadlines and the Hitchhiker's Guide to How to be Cool which discusses how an individual can truly be cool. "The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy" (http:/ / rogerebert. com/ apps/ pbcs. written by Touchstone Pictures' copywriters as part of their promotion of the movie. The "Hitchhiker's Guide to Technology" claims that if you make yourself a cup of tea and attempt to get an object working and the tea goes cold before you finish. A region-free Blu-ray Disc version was released on January 2007. The Guide to Fanboys. [4] "Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy" (http:/ / www. [5] "Review of The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy" (http:/ / www.

stm) • Interviews with Robbie Stamp (exclusive producer). v=74) [12] Golden Trailer Awards for 2005 at IMDb (http:/ / www. uk/ theguardian/ 2005/ apr/ 22/ 1). Includes commentaries by Garth Jennings. Garth Jennings (Director) and a visit to the movie set (http:// www. "Future imperfect: The Hitchhiker movie is clever but adds little to the radio original" (http:/ / www.imdb.fan.se/forum/viewtopic. [9] The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy (http:/ / www. Martin Freeman and Bill Nighy.douglasadams.php?p=en_movie_interviews) . boxofficemojo.bbc. 2005. .uk/1/hi/entertainment/film/4461899. htm) at Box Office Mojo [10] Message announcing the recording of "Humma's Hymn" (http:/ / groups.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2005/04/28/AR2005042800677.html?oref=login) • BBC Review: Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy (http://news. ISBN 0-7522-2585-5.douglasadams.allrovi. com/ title/ tt0371724/ awards) The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy at IMDb. guardian.washingtonpost. co. "The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy" (http:/ / www. com/ Sections/ Awards/ Golden_Trailer_Awards/ 2005) [13] Full list of all award nominations for (http:/ / www. 2005). html?. guardian. External links • The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy (http://www. com/ prnews/ 061114/ latu007. yahoo. Nick Goldsmith.boxofficemojo. Retrieved 2011-06-03. editor (2005). Retrieved 2011-06-03. imdb. google. html) • New York Times (http://movies2. uk/ film/ 2005/ may/ 01/ philipfrench). 277 General references: • The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy UK Region 2 DVD Release.douglas-adams newsgroup [11] Buena Vista Press Release (http:/ / biz. .com/movies/?id=hitchhikersguide.co. douglas-adams/ msg/ 5e102640862d2ec9) on the news:alt. com/ movies/ ?id=hitchhikersguide. and Robbie Stamp with Sean Sollé.com/title/tt0371724/) at the Internet Movie Database • The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy (http://www.htm) at Box Office Mojo • The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy (http://www. The Observer.eu/en_index. com/ group/ alt. [8] French. fan.rottentomatoes. Boxtree. Also includes the documentary Don't Crash: The Making of the Film of the Novel of the Radio Series of The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy. Philip (May 1.nytimes.The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy (film) [7] Bradshaw.com/movies/movie/v295710) at AllRovi • The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy (http://www. Peter (April 22. imdb. 2005).com/m/hitchhikers_guide_to_the_galaxy/) at Rotten Tomatoes • "Hitchhiker Movie FAQ with FUA" (http://www. The Making of The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy: The Filming of the Douglas Adams Classic. • Stamp. co.com/2005/04/29/movies/29hitc. The Guardian. Robbie.php?t=2288) • Washington Post (http://www.

a Christian Science school in Los Angeles. he became the youngest person at the time to be accepted into the Juilliard School's Drama Division. 1959) is an American actor. the son of Gladys (née Ekstadt) and Eugene Kilmer. then the cult classic Real Genius (1985).[13] [2][3] .[11] He then attended Chatsworth High School—where his classmates included Kevin Spacey and Mare Winningham—as well as the Hollywood Professional School.[3][4] He grew up in the San Fernando Valley with his two siblings. His father passed away while Val was filming Tombstone.[7] His mother was of Swedish descent. starting with Top Secret! (1984). United States Juilliard School (1981) Actor 1981–present Joanne Whalley (1988–1996) Education Occupation Years active Spouse(s) Val Edward Kilmer[1] (born December 31. 1959 Los Angeles. Irish. Kilmer is best known for his roles as Jim Morrison in Oliver Stone's The Doors.[8][9][10] Kilmer attended Berkeley Hall School. older brother Mark and younger brother Wesley (1962-1977).[5] Kilmer's grandfather was a gold miner in New Mexico. until 9th grade. Kilmer was awarded an honorary doctorate of Fine Arts from William Woods University. He became popular in the mid-1980s after a string of appearances in comedy films. California.[12] On May 5. an aerospace equipment distributor and real estate developer. where he was a member of Group 10 (1977–1981). and Cherokee Native American. Doc Holliday in Tombstone and Bruce Wayne/Batman in Joel Schumacher's Batman Forever. Early life and education Kilmer was born in Los Angeles.[6] the poet Joyce Kilmer is a distant cousin of Kilmer's.Val Kilmer 278 Val Kilmer Val Kilmer Kilmer at the 2005 Cannes Film Festival Born Val Edward Kilmer December 31. near the border with Arizona.[3] At the age of 17. as well as the blockbuster action films Top Gun and Willow. 2012. Originally a stage actor. who died at 15 due to an epileptic seizure in a swimming pool. and his father's ancestry reportedly included German. His parents divorced when he was nine years old. California.

some many years older. Kilmer saw Morrison's story as one that could be told "a thousand different ways" and didn’t want to tell it by playing the role in the style of drugs. Kilmer turned down a role in Francis Ford Coppola's 1983 film. as he had prior theatre commitments. We never got a recording of that live with Jim and now we've got it. op. he practiced that one piece for months for the movie. he met his future wife. action comedy The Real McCoy and again teamed with Top Gun director Tony Scott to play Elvis in True Romance. Paul Rothchild played Val's version of 'The End' for Robby Krieger.[17][18][19] His big break came when he received top billing in the comedy spoof of spy movies Top Secret!. After Kilmer was cast as Morrison. co-star Joanne Whalley. expensive and even second hand copies fetch $300 and up.000 Chains. Chopin’s Nocturne in E minor. The Outsiders. Kilmer played the lead in both Kill Me Again. and sent a video of himself performing some Doors songs to director Stone. that included poems inspired by his time with Pfeiffer. Stone was not impressed with the tape. Kilmer co-authored and starred in the play How It All Began. Ray Manzarek. a 3D IMAX film. based on the band of the same name. who had different issues. Kilmer starred in the Colorado Shakespeare Festival production of Hamlet in 1988. His portrayal of Morrison was praised and members of The Doors noted that Kilmer did such a convincing job that they had trouble distinguishing his voice from Morrison's.[23] Kilmer memorized the lyrics to all of lead singer Jim Morrison's songs prior to his audition. dating numerous women. and that same year. was less than enthusiastic with how Morrison was portrayed by director Oliver Stone's interpretation. director Oliver Stone finally started production on the film The Doors. where he played an American rock and roll star. but Paul Rothchild (the original producer of The Doors) said "I was shaken by it" and suggested they record Kilmer in the studio. and in TNT's Billy the Kid. while at Juilliard. and he told him "I'm really glad they got 'The End'. which Oliver Stone agreed with. Kilmer self-published a collection of his own poetry entitled "My Edens After Burns". Kilmer spoke with Oliver Stone early on. that were not part of the creativity or inspiration. That same year.[20] While garnering more substantial roles and prestige. again opposite Whalley. "Nick Rivers". Also in 1983. including Cher and Ellen Barkin.700.[24] He spent close to a year before production dressing in Morrison-like clothes.[16] it also starred a young Michelle Pfeiffer. Kilmer starred in the mystery thriller Thunderheart. and spent time at Morrison's old hangouts along the Sunset Strip. his first off-stage acting role (excluding television commercials) came in the form of a television short titled One Too Many. Although he doesn’t play the piano." However. he prepared for the role by attending Doors tribute concerts and reading Morrison's poetry. Top Gun grossed a total of $344. 1990s After several delays. Doors keyboardist.[15] In 1983 he appeared Off Broadway in "The Slab Boys" with Kevin Bacon and Sean Penn. concerned about what he might want to do with the story because Kilmer didn’t believe in or want to promote substance abuse. Val plays on the piano in Tombstone. Kilmer played Doc Holliday in the western Tombstone alongside Kurt Russell. he also gained a reputation as a ladies man. in what is credited as one of Kilmer's finest performances. The book of poems is difficult to obtain. Kilmer played Madmartigan in the fantasy Willow. he starred opposite Al Pacino and Robert De Niro in .[25] In the early 1990s.000 worldwide and made Kilmer a major star. Kilmer sang all the songs in the film and released an album under the film character's name.[22] Following roles in the television films The Murders in the Rue Morgue and The Man Who Broke 1. 1995 saw Kilmer star in Wings of Courage.[19] During a brief hiatus.72 No1: Andante. he backpacked throughout Europe before going on to play the lead character in the 1985 [21] before being cast as naval aviator "Iceman" comedy Real Genius. In 1989.[14] which was performed at the Public Theatre at the New York Shakespeare Festival.Val Kilmer 279 Career 1980s In 1981. Kilmer saw Morrison as having picked the wrong heroes. He turned down roles in Dune and Blue Velvet in the action film Top Gun alongside Tom Cruise. on the film's set. In 1993. which was an educational drama on drinking and driving. which was written by Quentin Tarantino.

while enjoying the master of disguise chameleon characters like a mad artist. Other critics though. Kilmer decided not to return for another Batman feature film. before starring in the independent film Joe the King (1999) and playing a blind man in the drama/romance At First Sight. he lent his voice to the animated film The Prince of Egypt as Moses.[30][31] In 1998. The film also brought the film interpretation of Bruce Wayne more into line with his comic book counterpart. feeling that Batman was being marginalized in favor of the villains. Kilmer looked forward to the title role as a change toward a more fun. The Saint. had kind words for Kilmer. Batman Forever was a success at the box office. fun" to be a thief who was pleased [from] "entertaining himself with the characters he would create".[28] He received a salary of $6 million for the movie. the role was still Michael Keaton's.[36] There was debate about the performance of Val Kilmer. such as Roger Ebert.[29] The Saint was a financial success. though just days after Keaton dropped out. Michael Keaton decided not to return for a third Batman film after 1992's Batman Returns. Batman Forever director Joel Schumacher had seen Tombstone and was most impressed with Kilmer's performance as Doc Holliday. Batman creator Bob Kane said in a Cinescape interview that of all the actors to have played Batman up to that point. Schumacher felt him to be perfect for the role of the Caped Crusader. grossing $169.[34] Kilmer took the role without even knowing who the new director was and without reading the script. gave a wooden performance as Bruce Wayne. Kilmer also wrote the poetry in the film. In February 1996. a nerdy British scientist. Kilmer was cast. Defenders of Batman Forever praised the film for portraying Batman as a more heroic.4 million worldwide and has acquired a cult following. a cleaner. more so than his predecessor Michael Keaton had been. some critics charged that Kilmer. Dead Girl. though at the time. and starred alongside Marlon Brando in the poorly received[27] The Island of Dr Moreau. Kilmer starred alongside Michael Douglas in the thriller The Ghost and the Darkness.[32] Batman In December 1993. which he described as of then.[29] George Clooney replaced Kilmer as Batman in 1997's Batman & Robin. which is now considered one of the best crime/drama films of the 1990s. and more human character than in the Tim Burton films. the hardest role he had ever had.Val Kilmer Heat."[33] William Baldwin (who previously worked with Schumacher on Flatliners) was reported to be a top contender.[33] Released in June 1995.[26] In 1996. as another reason for not reprising the role. and a Russian mob boss.[35] despite receiving mixed reviews from critics. including many fans of the original book and TV series. showing him as a seasoned celebrity of the media and a very public figure rather than the neurotic recluse of the previous films. less ruthless. There were also reports that Kilmer had not had a good working relationship with director Schumacher. 280 . The next year he played Simon Templar in the popular action film.[34] due to "creative differences. less serious action thriller. while physically fit to play Batman.[33] In July 1994. Kilmer also decided he wanted to do The Saint. Film critic Leonard Maltin (who heavily criticized the dark tone contained in Batman Returns) complimented Kilmer's portrayal when he reviewed the film for his expanding collection of film reviews. which seemed "very different. he appeared in a largely unknown film. as well as being very favorable of the film as a whole. he felt Kilmer had given the best interpretation. That year.

Kilmer was uncredited for the role on-screen.[42] The production played at the Kodak Theater in Hollywood and also featured Adam Lambert. Stateside. Kilmer starred alongside Kate Bosworth in the drama/thriller Wonderland. he had a role in the drama. Jr. His performance was praised and the film was well reviewed. harvesting and distributing high-quality marijuana. he starred in Spartan. but it developed into a success secondary to positive word of mouth. he released a CD. In keeping with tradition established by the original Knight Rider series and original KITT actor William Daniels. which was filmed in 2003 but not released until 2005. . where he played a Sherpa whose primary source of income was the growing. he starred in the thriller The Salton Sea. Kilmer next appeared in the big budget Oliver Stone production.. Kilmer appeared in an episode of Entourage. all under a guise of metaphysical insights. Finally in 2004. In 2006. where he again worked with Willow director Ron Howard. and the two starred in the low budget film.[45] but the film received only a limited release.[41] Also in 2004. Kilmer was in negotiations with Richard Dutcher (a leading director of Mormon-related films) to play the lead role in a film entitled Prophet: The Story of Joseph Smith. although the project never materialized.[44] In 2005. who had to step down from the role due to contractual conflict with General Motors. he co-starred with Robert Downey. in the action-comedy film Kiss Kiss Bang Bang. Kilmer starred alongside Stephen Dorff in the Sony and Stage 6 film Felon. In 2008. he reunited with director Tony Scott a third time for a supporting role opposite Denzel Washington in the box-office hit Déjà Vu.Val Kilmer 281 2000s Kilmer's first role in 2000 was in the big budget Warner Bros. He replaced Will Arnett. he teamed with his True Romance co-star. In 2002. which received poor reviews. The song "Val Kilmer" was named after him on Bowling for Soup's 2006 album The Great Burrito Extortion Case. That same year. Kilmer returned to the theatre to play Moses in a Los Angeles musical production of The Ten Commandments: The Musical.[40] Subsequently. Kilmer had previously played Moses in the animated film The Prince of Egypt. In 2007. also known as Run for the Money. Christian Slater. is assigned the task of rescuing the kidnapped daughter of the President. Alexander.[39] The same year. as well as appearing in The Missing. Hard Cash. That same year.[43] Kilmer performed in The Postman Always Rings Twice on the London stage from June to September 2005. produced by BCBG founder Max Azria.[46] It later won the award as "Overlooked Film of the Year" from the Phoenix Film Critics Society. The next year. which was generally well-reviewed. and starred (again with Slater) in the thriller Mindhunters. box office disaster[37] Red Planet. In 2003. The song was later used for one of the Ford commercials on season 10 of American Idol in 2011. Kilmer was the voice of the car KITT for the 2008 Knight Rider TV pilot film and the following television series. he had a supporting role in the film Pollock and hosted Saturday Night Live for the first time. proceeds of which went to his charity interests. where he played a United States government secret agent who Kilmer in June 2005. He received Delta Force-like training in preparation for the role. he guest-starred in hit TV series Numb3rs episode "Trust Metric" as torture expert Mason Lancer. The film was given only a limited theatrical release in New York and Los Angeles in 2008. Kilmer with 50 Cent at the AMAs 2009.[38] but received only a limited release.

He plays a version of himself from an alternate reality. Val Kilmer spoke at the May 5 commencement ceremonies of William Woods University in Fulton. Kilmer has been working on a film about the life of Mary Baker Eddy. Kilmer starred in the horror film from Michael Oblowitz. In 2012. In 2012. he accepted. During Kilmer's subsequent "Inside the Actors Studio" interview.[48] and Mark Twain. set against the backdrop of Gilded Age America." . In 2010. Spacey also said he went to Juilliard because Kilmer did.Val Kilmer He next starred alongside Nicolas Cage in the Werner Herzog film The Bad Lieutenant: Port of Call New Orleans." Since 2002. 282 2010s In 2010. He was finally able to work with his lifelong friend Francis Ford Coppola and star in the film Twixt. In 2012. Val Kilmer appeared as the villain Dieter Von Cunth in MacGruber. tender. who was our teacher had a knack for producing and directing. The film was filmed mostly on Coppola's estate in Napa County. [23] because of their very talented pool of students or Chatsworth High that would win all these festivals. turned self-help guru."[49] Initially performed as a one man show Hollywood workshop in April 2012. The filming was expected to take five weeks and was being independently funded by Coppola. where he played the vengeful spirit of a man who had been tortured and murdered while in police custody. one of her most famous critics. that is a former actor. Val Kilmer starred in Harmony Korine's short "The Lotus Community Workshop" which is part of a collaborative film The Fourth Dimension. In 2012. that one of the turning points of his life was at a high school drama festival when he saw Kilmer and Mare Winningham in “The Prime of Miss Jean Brody” and when the drama teacher Robert Correlli invited him to transfer to Chatsworth High School. In the same interview with James Lipton. Kilmer notes that his addition to the list of actors. He appeared as the main antagonist "Mongoose" in a live TV series adaptation of the comic/video game of XIII on NBC in 2009. Val Kilmer appeared in Tenacious D's music video "To Be The Best" as a small cameo role. The Fourth Dimension is a collection of three standalone short films about parallel universes produced by Vice Films in collaboration with Grolsch Film Works. MO where he also received an honorary doctorate. tragicomic portrait of two contrasting lives. it is now the basis of Kilmer's film project. In November 2010. who was the youngest person. Val Kilmer received a Grammy nomination for Best Spoken Word. The Traveler.[] Influence and public image Kevin Spacey told James Lipton on Inside the Actors Studio. he said "Robert Correlli. a new division of the namesake beer company. which will be his directorial debut. Kilmer is still working on the film. And it was either Beverly Hills High. was an accident and says. to that day. that mock their real-life persona in fictional movies. which is about the lives and relationship of Mary Baker Eddy and Mark Twain as "a quirky. ever admitted to Juilliard. the founder of the Christian Science church. “I still love [47] saying the premise because it makes me laugh every time. Both were released in 2009. including John Malkovich (Being John Malkovich) and Al Pacino (Jack and Jill). and alongside Curtis "50 Cent" Jackson in Streets of Blood. Kilmer was filming in Kelseyville. California.

I called Bob De Niro and Michael Mann. and raise bison. understanding. parade in New Filmography Year 1977 The Deep The Spy Who Loved Me 1979 Apocalypse Now 1981 Body Heat 1984 Top Secret! 1985 Real Genius 1986 Top Gun The Murders in the Rue Morgue 1987 The Man Who Broke 1.[52] Personal life Kilmer was married to actress Joanne Whalley from March 1988 to February 1996.. Davis describes him as a very funny man and a hard working. Kilmer reigning as Bacchus. June 6.000 acre ranch in New Mexico in 2011. and phenomenally generous with his time." Kilmer sold his 6. dedicated actor. Tom "Iceman" Kazanski Phillipe Huron Robert Eliot Burns/Eliot Roberts Madmartigan William Bonney Jack Andrews Television film Television film CableACE Award for Best Actor in a Movie or Miniseries Film Bit Part Role Film Debut Notes .. fish. where he would track." Jeffrey Katzenberg (producer of Prince of Egypt) talks about the actor. I had a wonderful experience in spite of all the naysayers. patient. who'd worked with him on Heat. 1995). and they both gave him raves. Kilmer's co-star from the 1988 fantasy Willow. and a son. so I checked him out. "I'd heard the stories. October 29. The two met while working together on the film Willow. Other actors have noted that he prepares for his roles extensively and Orleans during Mardi Gras in 2009 meticulously. 1991). in his audio commentary for the film said that the question he's most asked is what it was like working with Kilmer.[48] Kilmer is also an avid musician. and released a CD in the fall of 2007. The couple had two children: a daughter. hike. Even though he has had a reputation of being difficult. Mercedes (b.[51] He briefly flirted with running for Governor of New Mexico in 2010. Jack (b. He was there every step of the way.Val Kilmer 283 Politics and charity work Kilmer made several trips to New Orleans to help in the 2005 Hurricane Katrina disaster relief.000 Chains 1988 Willow 1989 Billy the Kid Kill Me Again William Nick Rivers Chris Knight Lt. but in the end declined to run. "Val was one of the first people cast in The Prince of Egypt. proceeds of which went to his charity interests.[50] Kilmer is an ardent supporter of Native American affairs and an advocate of environmental protection. Irwin Winkler (director of At First Sight) talked about his decision to hire Kilmer. Warwick Davis.

T. Barker Doc Holliday Based on a true story Nominated – MTV Movie Award for Most Desirable Male Nominated – MTV Movie Award for Best Performance Male True Romance 1995 Batman Forever Heat Wings of Courage 1996 The Island of Dr Moreau The Ghost and the Darkness Dead Girl 1997 The Saint 1998 The Prince of Egypt 1999 At First Sight Joe the King 2000 Pollock Red Planet 2002 The Salton Sea Elvis Presley Bruce Wayne/Batman Chris Shiherlis Jean Mermoz Montgomery Col. Dark Simon Templar Moses/God Virgil "Virg" Adamson Bob Henry Willem de Kooning Robby Gallagher Danny Parker / Tom Van Allen FBI Agent Mark C.a. Cornell John Holmes Lt. Run for the Money Based on the Wonderland murders Voice-over Nominated – MTV Movie Award for Most Desirable Male Nominated – Saturn Award for Best Supporting Actor IMAX Film Nominated – Golden Raspberry Award for Worst Supporting Actor Nominated – MTV Movie Award for Best Performance Male 284 Hard Cash 2003 Wonderland The Missing Blind Horizon Masked and Anonymous 2004 Entourage Spartan Stateside Alexander George and the Dragon 2005 Mindhunters Kiss Kiss Bang Bang . Jim Ducharme Frank Kavanaugh Animal Wrangler The Sherpa Robert Scott Staff Sergeant Skeer Philip II of Macedon El Cabillo Jake Harris Perry Van Shrike/"Gay Perry" Satellite Award for Best Supporting Actor .Val Kilmer 1991 The Doors 1992 Thunderheart 1993 The Real McCoy Tombstone Jim Morrison Ray Levoi J. John Henry Patterson Dr.Motion Picture Nominated– Saturn Award for Best Supporting Actor Uncredited Episode: "The Script and the Sherpa" Limited release Prism Award for Best Performance in a Theatrical Feature Film A.k.

k. David Kruipen Stevie Pruit Virgil Dr.Val Kilmer 2006 Summer Love Moscow Zero 10th & Wolf Played Déjà Vu The Ten Commandments: The Musical 2007 Have Dreams. Nicholas Pinter The Stranger/Mr.k. Will Travel Numb3rs 2008 Comanche Moon Knight Rider Conspiracy Felon Delgo 2:22 Columbus Day The Love Guru XIII 2009 The Chaos Experiment Streets of Blood American Cowslip The Thaw The Bad Lieutenant: Port of Call New Orleans Hardwired Double Identity 2010 The Traveler Bloodworth MacGruber Gun 2011 Kill the Irishman Blood Out 5 Days of War Twixt Spider-Man: Edge of Time 2012 Tenacious D "To Be the Best" Riddle Seven Below Wyatt Earp's Revenge The Wanted Man Andrey Murtha Dillon Agent Andrew Pryzwarra Moses Henderson Mason Lancer Inish Scull Voice of KITT MacPherson John Smith Bogardus Maz John Himself Mongoose James Pettis Detective Andy Devereaux Todd Inglebrink Dr. The Steam Experiment Voice only Episode: "Trust Metric" TV mini-series based on the book Television film based on 1980s TV series Direct-to-video A.a. Dead Man's Bounty 285 . Nobody Warren Bloodworth Dieter Von Cunth Angel Joe Manditski Arturo Dutch Journalist Hall Baltimore Walker Sloan Himself Sheriff Richards McCormick Wyatt Earp Video game Music video Uncredited cameo Based on the Belgian comic book of the same name A.a.

com/ new/ xmlfeed. [17] [18] [19] [20] http:/ / www. com/ cgi-bin/ sse. Retrieved February 18. filmreference. . com/ movies/ 1986/ 0TGUN. Val E. [10] http:/ / www. Because great careers came out of that.com. rottentomatoes. Kilmer says. . planetkilmer. [2] According to the State of California. . 2011. filmreference. Penelope (December 19. ca/ Movies/ Artists/ K/ Kilmer_Val/ 1996/ 12/ 25/ 759582. Miami News. archive. retrojunk. telegraph. 2009. . Rotten Tomatoes. nytimes. Ray (1998). March 2012. Retrieved May 11. 2009. [8] Freedman. htm). Mr. com/ newspapers?id=saAmAAAAIBAJ& sjid=xwEGAAAAIBAJ& pg=1023. com/ film/ 15/ Val-Kilmer. . "is playing a blind person a big challenge? It's probably the hardest role ." [7] "Val Kilmer — superhero no more" (http:/ / jam. Gender: Male. . com/ articles/ tombstone. . 2006. 2005. was still haunted by his brother's death. planetkilmer. 2006. Search. planetkilmer. Archived from the original (http:/ / www.com. ISBN 0-399-14399-8. Retrieved October 24. tcm. 2009. California Birth Index. html?921547260). valekilmer. he could have been another Steven Spielberg or George Lucas. Kilmer. 1998). com/ articles/ tombstone. imdb. archive. html). juilliard. 1905–1995" : "Name: Val E Kilmer. planetkilmer. because I was doing Shakespeare at the time and I thought it was right to stay with the play. "Going West" (http:/ / web. Retrieved May 11. com/ 2002/ 04/ 21/ movies/ film-a-long-lingering-grief-serves-a-new-role. com/ movies/ last-tango-in-pecos-1. [13] "Kilmer will address William Woods Grads" (http:/ / www. dll?indiv=1& rank=0& f2=Val& f1=Kilmer& sx=& f9=& f5=& f4=& rg_f3__date=& rs_f3__date=0& f6=& f7=& gskw=& prox=1& db=cabirth1905& ti=0& ti. com/ discus/ messages/ 407/ 1055. com/ film/ 15/ Val-Kilmer. pp. the-numbers. Light My Fire: My Life With The Doors. html) on 2006-07-17. [15] Dening. archive. org/ web/ 20051221113015/ http:/ / www. uk/ val_kilmer. The New York Times: p. 2006. 2000. Retrieved October 24. com/ bio. com/ person/ val-kilmer/ "[[Inside the Actors Studio (http:/ / www. google. com/ 2007/ 02/ my-edens-after-burns-val-kilmer. Retrieved November 9. alexander-the-great.uk. 28985 [11] http:/ / www. . angelfire. Alexander-the-great. si=0& gss=angs-d& pcat=34& fh=0& h=7303340& recoff=1+ 3). blackbookmag. 251–252. rottentomatoes. Tom Cruise and a whole bunch of actors.P. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. html) on December 21. juilliard. December 2005.1356301& dq=genius-kilmer-does-his-homework& hl=en). Retrieved 2010-10-26. . "A solitary man" (http:/ / www. columbiatribune.co. html). [25] Manzarek. html?921547260) on 2005-03-11. com/ m/ 1068182-heat/ ). "I turned down a role in The Outsiders. com/ discus/ messages/ 407/ 1055. [21] "Kilmer's Regret over Early Decisions" (http:/ / www. co. com/ records/ 39461 [3] "Biography" (http:/ / www. Dana (April 21. html [24] "Val Kilmer" (http:/ / www. org/ web/ 20060717113213/ http:/ / www. Searchable at http:/ / www. Birth Date: Dec 31. Putnam's Sons. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. Season 6. Retrieved May 11. [23] http:/ / www. html). 1959-July 5. Film Review Magazine. planetkilmer. Retrieved 2010-10-06. 3C. 2006. Retrieved February 12. 2010. ContactMusic.com. California Department of Health Services. Mr.ancestry. imdb. html)." Mr. Retrieved May 12. [26] "Heat (1995)" (http:/ / www. I don't think I would have made the same choice now. 2006. com/ actors/ K/ kilmer_val/ index. com/ title/ tt0611293/ )]"]. org/ web/ 20060902185358/ http:/ / www. [28] http:/ / www. . canoe. The Irish Times. New York. com/ movies/ 1986/ 0TGUN." [16] "Val Kilmer" (http:/ / www. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. html). Retrieved 2010-10-26. archive. NY: G. com/ m/ 1072156-island_of_dr_moreau/ ). [27] "The Island of Dr. html). 42. Birth County: Los Angeles" (http:/ / search. thespiannet. . [9] Leith. "A Long-Lingering Grief That Serves a New Role" (http:/ / www. html http:/ / www. "Genius Kilmer Does His Homework" (http:/ / news. 2005. "Despite the passage of time. Showbiz. Retrieved May 11. Mr. The Juilliard Journal. David (March 1994). html). com/ title/ tt0120053/ business [31] http:/ / www. shtml http:/ / movies. org/ web/ 20051204002034/ http:/ / the-numbers. 1905–1995. Retrieved May 11. Kevin. who was 15 and an aspiring filmmaker when he died. html). org/ web/ 20050311122221/ http:/ / www. Jam! Showbiz. London: The Telegraph. edu/ update/ journal/ j_articles733. html).com. [22] "Top Gun" (http:/ / web. Kilmer. [5] Kennedy. nsf/ mndwebpages/ kilmers regret over early decisions). php [32] Maynard. "His grandfather was a gold miner on the New Mexico border with Tombstone's Arizona. . 2002). Moreau (1996)" (http:/ / www. html) on September 2. Retrieved October 24. Sacramento. 2006. archive. California. . . 2006. [4] "Val Kilmer Biography (1959–)" (http:/ / www. "Val finds his voice" (http:/ / web. 2006. 2009. 2008. yahoo. uk/ culture/ film/ 3614594/ A-solitary-man. His brother was so talented. com/ movies/ afs/ articles/ mrshowbiz/ showbiz. "Val Kilmer" (http:/ / web. . com/ news/ 2012/ mar/ 24/ kilmer-will-address-william-woods-grads/ ). Filmreference. The Numbers. imdb. Mother's Maiden Name: Ekstadt. bookride. co. "California Birth Index. familytreelegends." [6] Aldridge. com/ title/ tt0120053/ trivia [29] A Tights Sqeeze [30] http:/ / www.Val Kilmer 286 References [1] "Ancestry. planetkilmer. the-numbers. ancestry. pp. 2006. com/ ca2/ safari/ bravoframe. com/ details_person/ 4/ ). contactmusic. Retrieved October 24. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. edu/ update/ journal/ j_articles733. html) on December 4. Center for Health Statistics. Richard (1985-08-20). RetroJunk. Rotten Tomatoes. . . .com. html?pagewanted=print). Kilmer says of Wesley. com/ movies/ afs/ articles/ mrshowbiz/ showbiz. com/ tcmdb/ person/ 101945%7C0/ Val-Kilmer/ [12] "Batman Returns to His Cave" (http:/ / web. "He was a genius. . William (2004-03-26). Juilliard. 2007. 54. Retrieved 2010-10-06. July 9. Retrieved May 11. com/ movies/ 1997/ SAINT. . [14] "Val Kilmer Biography (1959–)" (http:/ / www. Retrieved May 11.

Rotten Tomatoes. [38] "Salton Sea (2002)" (http:/ / www. the-numbers." [33] Nathan. com/ movies/ 2005/ KSBNG. 2006. the-numbers. Opportunities to Build Networks (http:/ / indiancountrytodaymedianetwork. Ign. . html). archive. 2006. Retrieved October 14. com/ m/ alexander/ ). Empire: pp. rottentomatoes. 2007. thrill me. "Next At Batman" (http:/ / www. archive. . com/ visitor/ article_display.valkilmer. 2006.ugo. . . [35] "Batman Forever" (http:/ / web. Bang Bang" (http:/ / www. Retrieved May 11. com/ diary/ 3223/ val-kilmer-im-not-running-for-governor). [45] "Kiss Kiss. [51] World Indigenous Business Forum to Feature Val Kilmer.. [36] "Batman Forever (1995)" (http:/ / www. . Retrieved May 11. html) on May 8. Rotten Tomatoes. [37] "Red Planet" (http:/ / web.com/) • Val Kilmer (http://www. html).com.635158379. Rotten Tomatoes. 2006) UGO interview (http://www. Retrieved May 11. [47] Aftab. html).lortel. php?id=46730). Kaleem (19 May 2012).com/person.org/LLA_archive/index.Val Kilmer I've ever played. Bang Bang (2005)" (http:/ / www. 2006. Retrieved May 11. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. 287 External links General • Official website (http://www. .com/) Interviews • • • • Maxim interview (http://www. Retrieved May 11. Archived from the original (http:/ / www.com/articles/index. jewish-theater. . 2006. . Ian (August 1995).com. 2006. [39] "The Salton Sea" (http:/ / web. The Numbers.com/name/nm174/) at the Internet Movie Database • Val Kilmer (http://www. 2006. The Independent. 2006.php?video=41) (November 6. Retrieved May 11. . ThisIsTheatre. The Numbers. edited by Ira Glass [49] http:/ / twaineddyfilm.com. ew. net/ news/ movienews.302969. 2006.com/channels/filmtv/features/spartan/) (March 2004) Deal Memo interview (http://www.com/Interview/Val_Kilmer_Salton_Sea. Jeff (July 15.00. Retrieved May 11.com. . html) on December 8.imdb. kiss me. ign. 2006.1249. The Numbers. 1994). 2006. org/ web/ 20051208084938/ http:/ / www. the-numbers. html). "New Mexico Politics: New Mexico FBIHOP:: Val Kilmer: 'I'm not running' for governor" (http:/ / www. org/ web/ 20060509023100/ http:/ / www. archive.ibdb. [40] "An Interview with Val Kilmer" (http:/ / filmforce. [44] "The Postman Always Rings Twice" (http:/ / www. Retrieved May 11. html).The Hollywood bad boy done good" (http:/ / www.00. php). .htm) (April 23. com/ movies/ 2002/ SASEA. com/ m/ salton_sea/ ). [42] "Val Kilmer and the Parting of the Red Sea to Music" (http:/ / www. aspx?articleID=877). com/ londonshows/ postmanalwaysringstwice. Archived from the original (http:/ / www. Rotten Tomatoes.com. rottentomatoes. thisistheatre. "Val Kilmer . 2005. com/ articles/ 497/ 497668p2. Retrieved May 11. Retrieved 2010-10-06. com/ movies/ 2000/ RPLNT. com/ 2011/ 08/ 28/ world-indigenous-business-forum-to-feature-val-kilmer-opportunities-to-build-networks-49379) [52] by: Matt. rottentomatoes. html). com/ movies/ 1995/ 0BTM3.com/ondemand/player. 2002) . com/ dn/ view/ 0. Kilmer". 2006. the-numbers.cfm?search_by=people&first=Val&last=Kilmer& middle=) at the Internet Off-Broadway Database • Official website of Kilmer's Eddy-Twain movie project (http://twaineddyfilm. [46] "Kiss Kiss. uk/ arts-entertainment/ films/ features/ val-kilmer--the-hollywood-bad-boy-done-good-7766422. normal things seem crazy collected in the New Kings of Nonfiction. html).maximonline. 2006. html [50] "Val Kilmer on Bad Lieutenant and Voicing KITT!" (http:/ / www. Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved May 11. 108–117. 2006. com/ movies/ 1995/ 0BTM3. . Retrieved May 11. All About Jewish Theatre.com. html).aspx?a_id=7424&src=jb38) (January 2007) Tom Green Live (http://tomgreen. the-numbers. [48] Chuck Klosterman's interview in his essay Crazy things seem normal. com/ ew/ article/ 0. com/ story. the-numbers. . html) on May 9. the-numbers. The Numbers. com/ m/ kiss_kiss_bang_bang/ ).dealmemo. co.com. Deseret News. [34] Gordinier. rottentomatoes. com/ m/ batman_forever/ ). [41] "Alexander (2004)" (http:/ / www. . Retrieved May 11. Nmfbihop. nmfbihop. . [43] "Son of God's Army" (http:/ / deseretnews. org/ web/ 20060508133948/ http:/ / www.asp?ID=90576) at the Internet Broadway Database • Val Kilmer (http://www. com/ movies/ 2002/ SASEA. ComingSoon. "Hold me. comingsoon. . com/ movies/ 2000/ RPLNT. independent.

81 m). Troyer is notable for his height of 2 ft 8 in (0. the result of cartilage–hair hypoplasia dwarfism.[1] making him one of the shortest men in the world. Troyer (born January 1. 1969) is an American actor and stunt performer. annulled) Occupation Years active Spouse(s) Verne J. Born January 1. Michigan. . Australia 2012. He is best known for playing Mini-Me in the Austin Powers series of comedy films. United States Actor Stunt performer 1994–present Genevieve Gallen (2004. 1969 Sturgis.Verne Troyer 288 Verne Troyer Verne Troyer Troyer at the Supernova Pop Culture Expo Hits Sydney.

the son of Susan. Troyer sued TMZ. He grew up in Centreville. Troyer and his attorney deny that the two ever had any formal wedding plans. a repair technician. Davon and Deborah. which had been made during the Easter Weekend of 2008 at Raffles L’Ermitage hotel. tried to sell the video. saying that Gallen had fabricated the story for her own financial gain. The video. 2004 but filed for an annulment the next day. Though the couple's engagement was widely reported.[3] Sex tape scandal On June 25. a factory worker. Michigan.[2] He has two siblings. the man responsible for brokering the deal for the Paris Hilton sex tape in 2003. for invasion of privacy and copyright infringement. Blatt. Verne Troyer attending the Kandy Masquerade party at the Playboy Mansion on 28 February 2009. Michigan and graduated from Centreville High School in 1987. a private home videotape was released which showed Troyer and his former live-in girlfriend Ranae Shrider having sex.Verne Troyer 289 Personal life Troyer was born in Sturgis. Filmography Verne Troyer at the 2009 San Diego Comic-Con International. . and online rental company SugarDVD.[5] Kevin Blatt. and Reuben Troyer.[4] was leaked to the public by Shrider to TMZ. Troyer reportedly married model Genevieve Gallen on February 22. 2008.

Verne Troyer 290 Year 1994 Baby's Day Out 1996 Dunston Checks In 1996 Jingle All the Way 1996 Pinocchio's Revenge 1997 Men in Black 1997 Volcano 1997 RocketMan 1997 Wishmaster 1998 My Giant Film Stuntman Stuntman Role Notes first film role as Stuntman Stuntman & "little santa" Pinocchio's miniature double Alien Son Stuntman Stuntman Creature stage #1 Wrestler Wee Waiter first acting film role 1998 Fear and Loathing in Las Vegas 1998 The Wacky Adventures of Ronald McDonald: Scared Sundae Silly 1998 Mighty Joe Young 1999 Here Lies Lonely 1999 Instinct 1999 Austin Powers: The Spy Who Shagged Me 2000 Mission Imp 2000 Bit Players 2000 How the Grinch Stole Christmas 2001 Bubble Boy 2001 Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone 2002 Run for the Money 2002 Austin Powers in Goldmember 2003 Pauly Shore is Dead 2007 Postal 2007 Drake & Josh 2008 The Love Guru 2008 College 2009 The Imaginarium of Doctor Parnassus 2012 Keith Lemon: The Film Baby Joe Virgil Gorilla Performer Mini-Me Ethan Runt Marty Rosenthal Band Member Dr Phreak Griphook the Goblin (voice by Warwick Davis) Atilla Mini-Me Himself Himself Chuck Coach Punch Cherkov Himself Percy Archimedes Cameo appearance Credited as Vern Troyer .

. 25 September 2009.com "Mini-Me Actor Challenges Model's Marriage" (http:/ / www. com/ film/ 1/ Verne-Troyer. Shaulis (2008-07-03). (2008) – commentator The Podge and Rodge Show (2008) – himself Celebrity Big Brother (2009) – himself Friday Night with Jonathan Ross (2009) – himself The Paul O'Grady Show (2009) – himself WWE Raw (2009) – guest host References As stated by Troyer during interview on Friday Night with Jonathan Ross. [5] Isola. the Teenage Witch (2002) – Angus Boston Public (2003) – Taylor Prentice (2 episodes) Karroll's Christmas (2004) The Girls Next Door (2005) – himself (episode "Fight Night") The Surreal Life (2005) Bo! in the USA (2006) The Surreal Life: Fame Games (2007) Welcome to Sweden (2007) Celebrity Juice (2008.com/name/nm0873942/) at the Internet Movie Database • Verne Troyer interview (http://www.imdb. html).. Sherri L. "AVN Exclusive: Verne Troyer's Ex Discusses Sex Tape. Laurie (2008-06-26). [1] [2] [3] [4] External links • Verne Troyer (http://www. sfgate. "Troyer in Sex Tape Scandal" (http:/ / www. More" (http:/ / business.com/) . com/ cgi-bin/ blogs/ sfgate/ detail?blogid=7& entry_id=27632). 2010. movieset. Verne Troyer Biography (1969-) (http:/ / www.com/node/4790/play) on Movieset. Retrieved 2008-07-04. com/ news/ wenn/ 2004-06-08#celeb9). avn. Relationship. . 2012) – himself The Smoking Gun Presents: World's Dumbest.. com/ articles/ 31086. Retrieved 2008-07-04. AVN. html) from FilmReference. San Francisco Chronicle. imdb.com (http://www.movieset. .Verne Troyer 291 Television work • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Masked Rider (1995–1996) (stunts for Paul Pistore) Shasta McNasty (1999–2000) Jack of All Trades (2000) – Napoleon Bonaparte Sabrina. filmreference.

Yaxley. Cambridgeshire Signpost in Yaxley Yaxley Yaxley  Yaxley shown within Cambridgeshire Population 7.413 OS grid reference TL185925 District Shire county Region Country Sovereign state Huntingdonshire Cambridgeshire East England United Kingdom . Cambridgeshire 292 Yaxley.

actor External links • Yaxley History Website [3] • Yaxley Festival [4] • Parish council website [5] References [1] "Yaxley to Farcet" (http:/ / www. org. phase 3 will run from where Daimler Avenue meets Broadway to the A15. phase 2 will run along Broadway to Farcet.Yaxley.C. uk/ Actor Warwick Davis . Retrieved 2009-11-09. cambridgeshire. cambridgeshire.. and is approximately three miles north-east of junction 16 of the A1(M) at Norman Cross. and is skirted to its west by the A15 road. . Retrieved 2009-11-09. yaxleypc. which play at Leading Drove. England. uk/ transport/ projects/ huntingdonshire/ Yaxley/ ). it is due south of the city of Peterborough. [2] "Yaxley Map" (http:/ / www. as per its 1999 Transport Plan. uk/ NR/ rdonlyres/ 8D0957CE-9FE5-42A6-9653-3DDCE4BB2A2E/ 0/ YaxleyMap.[1] The scheme's original development will be contained within Yaxley. . yaxleyfestival. pdf). Sport and leisure Yaxley has a Non-League football club Yaxley F. Historically in Huntingdonshire. Cambridgeshire Post town Postcode district Dialling code Police Fire Ambulance EU Parliament Peterborough 293 PE7 01733 Cambridgeshire Cambridgeshire East of England East of England Yaxley is a village in the county of Cambridgeshire. gov. org/ [4] http:/ / www. yaxleyhistory. The village is located near the Hampton township. info/ [5] http:/ / www. Yaxley Cycleway Cambridgeshire County Council has proposed a cycleway to be built in Yaxley. gov. though it is planned to expand it in two phases following the completion of the Yaxley section. [3] http:/ / www.[2] Notable residents • Warwick Davis.

demanding highly-detailed CGI work. Portrayed by Frank Oz (puppeteer. while Tom Kane voiced him in the Clone Wars animated series. several video games.[4] A clip of the new CG Yoda from The Phantom Menace was first seen in the featurette The Chosen One.[1] On their list of the 100 Greatest Fictional Characters. but remained mostly a puppet. included in the 2005 DVD release of Revenge of the Sith. including his participation in elaborate fight scenes.[2] A lifesize statue of Yoda greets visitors to Lucasfilm's Letterman Digital Arts Center in San Francisco's Presidio. For the latter. he trains Luke Skywalker to fight against the evil Galactic Empire. his face appears in several big close-ups. with some "mistakes" made such as the occasional ear-jiggling. Yoda was recreated in CGI for the 2011 Blu-ray release of The Phantom Menace.[5] The 2012 theatrical 3D release of The Phantom Menace also features the CG version of Yoda. In Revenge of the Sith. Fandomania. Yoda was selected by Empire magazine as the 25th greatest movie character of all time. Rob Coleman was responsible for the character's new incarnation to the series. Voice and animation Frank Oz provided Yoda's voice in each film and spent his skills as a puppeteer in the original trilogy and Star Wars Episode I: The Phantom Menace. Galactic Republic Yoda is a character in the Star Wars universe. In the prequel films. and the new series Star Wars: The Clone Wars. Episode I) John Lithgow (Radio) Tom Kane (Clone Wars. as well as all three prequel trilogy films.com ranked Yoda at number 60. Yoda appeared in ways not previously possible. Jedi Council leader. voice) Warwick Davis (costume. Warwick Davis incarnated Yoda as well.Yoda 294 Yoda Yoda Star Wars character Yoda as seen in Star Wars Episode II: Attack of the Clones. In the original films. . He was computer-generated for two distant shots.[3] The puppet was re-designed by Nick Dudman from Stuart Freeborn's original design. video games) Fictional profile Species Gender Position Homeworld Affiliation Unknown Male Jedi Master. in some walking scenes. the headquarters of Industrial Light and Magic. he serves as Grand Master of the Jedi Council and as a general in the Clone Wars. Yoda was voiced by John Lithgow. he was redesigned to look younger. For the radio dramatizations of The Empire Strikes Back and Return of the Jedi. Rendered with computer animation in Star Wars Episode II: Attack of the Clones and Star Wars Episode III: Revenge of the Sith. In The Phantom Menace. appearing in the second and third original films. Jedi Grand Master Unknown Jedi Order. In 2007. His performance was deliberately designed to be consistent with the limitations of the puppet version.

Master Oppo Rancisis. Luke Skywalker (Mark Hamill) arrives on Dagobah to seek his guidance. Yoda then peacefully dies at the age of 900. who is identified in Attack of the Clones as Yoda's old Padawan Learner.[7] Return of the Jedi Yoda's final chronological appearance is in Star Wars Episode VI: Return of the Jedi. Yoda is reluctant to teach him in the ways of the Force. however. including Count Dooku..Yoda 295 Depiction Character overview Yoda is portrayed as a powerful Jedi Master in the Star Wars universe. who found it somewhat inconsistent. referring to Princess Leia. Yoda's race and home world have not been named in any media. after the Empire has been defeated. Obi-Wan's ghost helps Luke come to the realization that the "other" whom Yoda spoke of is Princess Leia (Carrie Fisher). Moments later. Finding that Luke has the same anger and recklessness which caused his father's downfall. alongside Obi-Wan and the redeemed Anakin Skywalker (Vader's former Jedi self). but could extrapolate that "Yodic" has object–subject–verb word order. During the animated series Star Wars: Clone Wars. Mace Windu. it is shown that he instructs several younglings in the Jedi Temple before they are assigned to a master. Luke leaves but promises to return. and agrees only at Obi-Wan's behest. informs Luke that he has completed his training but will not be a Jedi until he confronts Darth Vader." but Yoda reminds him that "there is another". canonical or otherwise... elderly creature is the powerful Jedi Master he was seeking. Before finishing his training. Yoda. In the film's final scene.. before Qui-Gon Jinn takes over as Obi-Wan's master). In the Star Wars prequels. Yoda's speech syntax has been analyzed and discussed by academic syntacticians. matters are worse. Luke is shocked when he finally realizes that this small.[8] . Luke chooses to leave Dagobah in order to confront Darth Vader and save his friends from the Empire's grasp at Bespin. his body disappearing as he becomes "one with the Force". set between Attack of the Clones and Revenge of the Sith. Obi-Wan Kenobi (partially. This was displayed in a scene in Attack of the Clones. He leaves Luke with the knowledge that "there is another Sky. who is his twin sister. Kit Fisto and eventually Luke Skywalker. reckless is he.' Obi-Wan laments that Luke is their "last hope. deliberately provoking both Luke and R2-D2 (portrayed by Kenny Baker). Ignoring Yoda and Obi-Wan's warnings that he is not ready to face Vader and is being lured into a trap. set a year after The Empire Strikes Back. having been instructed to do so by the Force ghost of Obi-Wan Kenobi (Alec Guinness). Luke sees Yoda's spirit looking upon him with pride.. Yoda chides Kenobi: 'told you I did.". The Empire Strikes Back Yoda makes his first film appearance in The Empire Strikes Back (1980). which Darth Vader had told a shocked Luke in the previous film. he also confirms that Vader is Luke's father. Now. Yoda doesn't initially identify himself to Luke and instead tests his patience by presenting himself as a comical and senile backwater individual. Ki-Adi-Mundi.[6] The films and Expanded Universe reveal that he had trained several Jedi. and he is merely said to be of a "species unknown" by the Star Wars Databank. Thinking his fears about Luke have been confirmed....walk. now sick and frail. Series creator George Lucas originally wished Yoda to follow his other characters in having a full name—Minch Yoda—but instead opted to have many details of the character's life history remain unknown. he mentions that he trained another one of the leaders on the Jedi Council.

Embittered by the perceived snub. and foresees 'grave danger' in Anakin's training. and manipulates the young Jedi into becoming his Sith apprentice—Darth Vader—with the promise that the dark side holds the power to save Padmé from dying in childbirth. Anakin seeks Yoda's counsel about his prophetic visions that someone close to him will die. a group of systems rebelling against the Galactic Republic. he escapes with the help of Wookiee leaders Tarfful and Chewbacca (Peter Mayhew). his pregnant wife. saying. "To fight this Lord Sidious. Anakin and Obi-Wan. Yoda is on Kashyyyk. Palpatine has by now amassed near-dictatorial emergency powers. Yoda decides to face Palpatine." He also tells Obi-Wan that the Anakin he . After the second attempted assassination of Senator Padmé Amidala (Natalie Portman). set 10 years after The Phantom Menace.[10] Revenge of the Sith In Star Wars Episode III: Revenge of the Sith. even without the council's permission. initially rejects the request. Yoda first appears in Star Wars Episode I: The Phantom Menace. feeling that doing so would amount to giving Palpatine a vote in the Council. and his dying request to Obi-Wan Kenobi (Ewan McGregor) is that Anakin be trained as a Jedi. who is training Anakin Skywalker (now played by Hayden Christensen). which is set 35 years before Empire Strikes Back. strong enough you are not. Anakin and Padmé from execution at the hands of the Separatists. the ancient Yoda demonstrates agility and mastery of lightsaber combat and acrobatics through the Force. determined to fulfill his promise to his master. Qui-Gon is convinced that the boy is the fabled "Chosen One" who will bring balance to the Force.[9] Attack of the Clones In Star Wars Episode II: Attack of the Clones. Yoda. younglings included. Although seemingly frail. asking instead to go after Palpatine. and begins interfering in Jedi affairs by appointing Anakin as his personal representative on the Council. Obi-Wan tells Yoda he cannot kill Anakin. and orders the clone troopers to kill their Jedi generals. his former Jedi apprentice.Yoda 296 The Phantom Menace In the films' timeline. Obi-Wan. led by Yoda. Palpatine later transforms the Republic into the tyrannical Galactic Empire. Yoda insists. This confrontation ends with Dooku making his escape by threatening Yoda's comrades. and requests the boy be trained as a Jedi Knight. they discover that all the Jedi inside. sending Obi-Wan to kill his former Padawan. Yoda duels with Separatist leader and Sith Lord Count Dooku (Christopher Lee). tells him to "Train yourself to let go of everything you fear to lose. Yoda senses great fear in the boy. At this time. overseeing the battle between the Separatist forces and a combined command of clone troopers and Wookiees. Chancellor Palpatine (Ian McDiarmid) "suggests" that she be put under the protection of Obi-Wan. especially his attachment to the memory of his mother. Qui-Gon Jinn (Liam Neeson) brings the young Anakin Skywalker (Jake Lloyd) to the Jedi Council. Qui-Gon was soon mortally wounded in a duel with Sith Lord Darth Maul (played by Ray Park and voiced by Peter Serafinowicz). proclaiming himself Emperor for life. After failing in one last attempt to dissuade Obi-Wan." Unsatisfied. Yoda reluctantly gives his blessing to Skywalker's training and informs Obi-Wan that the Jedi Council also agrees with him. The council. However. After swiftly killing the clone troopers instructed to kill him. Through the Force. Yoda later leads an army of Jedi and clone troopers in the film's climactic battle scene. Yoda is one of the many Jedi who are concerned about the emergence of the Separatists. They then discover a holographic recording revealing Anakin as the assassin. The Council grants Anakin a Council seat. he feels the deaths of each of the Jedi as they are assassinated by their own troops. Inside. tells Yoda that he will train the boy. set three years after Attack of the Clones. He helps rescue Obi-Wan. At the climax of the battle. Anakin turns to Palpatine. and returns to Coruscant. where he and Obi-Wan fight their way into the Jedi Temple to stop a trap for any surviving Jedi. but denies him the rank of Master. have been slaughtered. Yoda leads the Jedi Council in pursuing the mysterious Sith Lord Darth Sidious. who reveals himself as Darth Sidious. unaware of the intensity of Anakin's love for Padmé. Anakin begins to lose faith in the Jedi.

Other than the ancient Jedi Master. upenn. Yoda is forced to retreat and go into exile on Dagobah so that he may hide from the Empire and wait for another opportunity to destroy the Sith. edu/ ~myl/ languagelog/ archives/ 002173. Fandomania. Yoda also appears in Disney's Star Tours: The Adventures Continue attraction. com/ index. The two Jedi Masters realize too late that the battle is a distraction.[13] TomTom has included a "Yoda" voice as one of the Celebrity GPS voicings in their "Star Wars" voice series. com/ 100-greatest-movie-characters/ default. [5] Gould. php?ltype=Columns& category2=& article_no=1415& page=1).Yoda knew no longer exists.[14] A comical clip of the "behind the scenes" recording of this is available on YouTube. [15] Notes [1] "Empire's The 100 Greatest Movie Characters" (http:/ / www. it is revealed that Yoda has been in contact with Qui-Gon's spirit. Yoda saves two Jedi Knights and finds a message from Count Dooku giving orders to destroy the Jedi Temple on Ilum. html). Yoda battles Palpatine in a lightsaber duel that wrecks the Senate Rotunda. Bill (2002-06-14). Yoda is also instrumental in deciding the fate of the Skywalker children after Padmé dies in childbirth. com/ news/ show/ George_Lucas/ 20th_Century_Fox/ Yoda_Goes_CGI_in_Star_Wars_Episode_I_-_The_Phantom_Menace_on_Blu-ray/ 7520). Retrieved 2009-03-04. Using the Jedi mind trick to convince Captain Typho to take them to Ilum. At the end. Empire Magazine. Expanded Universe Yoda acts as a supporting character in Dark Horse Comics' Clone Wars tie-in comic books. "Star Wars: Episode III . cis. Yoda fights side by side with Mace Windu to defend Coruscant. Chris. Retrieved 2008-11-13. [3] Desowitz. Yoda is made a General. R2-D2 and Obi-Wan know of their true identities.[12] Merchandising Lego's Yoda minifigure was the first of their figures to have a shorter height. Subsequently. empireonline. [2] "The 100 Greatest Fictional Characters" (http:/ / fandomania. At the climax of the duel. com/ 100-greatest-fictional-characters-60-56/ ).[11] 297 Clone Wars (animated) During the opening of the animated series Star Wars: Clone Wars. . asp?c=25). com/ reviews/ dvd/ star-wars-episode-iii-revenge-of-the-sith. He is also an important character in several novels set in the Star Wars universe. thus setting the stage for Revenge of the Sith. Separatist leader General Grievous truly intends to kidnap Palpatine.Revenge of the Sith" (http:/ / www. 2011-08-25. like many of the Jedi Knights and Masters. . . highdefdigest. created by giving the toy shorter legs.The Phantom Menace' on Blu-ray" (http:/ / bluray. particularly Yoda: Dark Rendezvous. Animation World Magazine. Yoda escorts Padmé on their journey to an unspecified planet. learning the secret of immortality from him and passing it on to Obi-Wan. Frank Oz. Yoda holds back the Sith Lord's Force lightning. only the Organas. "Yoda as We've Never Seen Him Before" (http:/ / mag. which is under attack from the Separatists. dvdactive. Retrieved 2011-08-26. but Yoda senses several Jedi in distress on Ilum. [6] http:/ / itre. The Jedi Master's effort to stop Grievous fails. awn. creating a blast of energy that knocks him to the Senate floor. Hi-Def Digest. recommending that Luke and Leia be hidden from Vader and Palpatine in remote locations. dvdactive. the Lars family. In the animated series' final episode.com. html [7] Star Wars Episode V: The Empire Strikes Back [8] Star Wars Episode VI: Return of the Jedi [9] Star Wars Episode I: The Phantom Menace . Retrieved 2010-05-21. having been "consumed by Darth Vader". . . Retrieved 2010-05-21. [4] "Yoda Goes CGI in 'Star Wars: Episode I . and Palpatine is taken hostage. where he is voiced by his original voice actor.

C. Michael Sutfin. 2002.starwars. ISBN 0-553-56937-6 • Mission from Mount Yoda. ISBN 0-7869-2781-X External links • Yoda (http://www. George Lucas. Bill Slavicsek. php?Lid=4& voice=yoda) [15] http:/ / www. Hollace Davids. go. George Lucas. ISBN 0-7894-3481-4 • Star Wars: Revenge of the Sith: The Visual Dictionary. J. Terry Brooks.org/wiki/Wikiasite:starwars:yoda) on Wookieepedia: a Star Wars wiki • Yoda's hut (http://en. 2002. youtube.com/explore/encyclopedia/characters/yoda/) in the Official StarWars. Leigh Brackett. com/ watch?v=FdcJVuylmsM 298 References • The Jedi Apprentice series by Dave Wolverton and Jude Watson • Episode I: The Phantom Menace. 1993. Laurent Bouzereau. 1st edition. Lawrence Kasdan. 1st edition paperback.html#3. Owen K. 2005. ISBN 0-345-40981-7 • The Courtship of Princess Leia. George Lucas. David West Reynolds. Dave Wolverton. 1st edition. 1999. pp. ISBN 0-345-43411-0 • Episode III: Revenge of the Sith . Article) .net/issue13.wikia.Yoda [10] Star Wars Episode II: Attack of the Clones [11] Star Wars Episode III: Revenge of the Sith [12] http:/ / disney. James Luceno. 1994. 1998.D. ISBN 0-7126-8427-1 • The Annotated Screenplays. Wiker. 2005. com/ voices/ index-starwars. 69. ISBN 0-7566-1128-8 • Star Wars Roleplaying Game: Revised Core Rulebook. com/ disneyfans/ insider/ article/ 20110510 [13] Martell. DK. ISBN 0-345-39535-2 • The New Essential Guide to Characters. ISBN 0-345-44900-2 • Star Wars: The Visual Dictionary.com Encyclopedia • Yoda (http://en. 1995.Novelization.vegetarianfriends. Nevin (2009). Stephens. Bill Slavicsek. Matthew Woodring Stover. 2002.wikipedia. Paul Davids. 1st edition hardcover. hardcover.org/wiki/Wikiasite:starwars:yoda's_hut) on Wookieepedia: a Star Wars wiki • Yoda on Soulcalibur Wiki (http://soulcalibur. James Maliszewski. Michael Mikaelian. Daniel Wallace. Andy Mangels. hardcover. 2nd edition. hardcover. ISBN 0-553-15890-2 • A Guide to the Star Wars Universe. hardcover. ISBN 0-345-38625-6 • The Essential guide to Characters (Star Wars). ISBN 0-7869-2876-X • Star Wars Roleplaying Game: Power of the Jedi Sourcebook. Andy Collins." (http://www. 1995. 1997. tomtom. softcover.com/wiki/Yoda) • by Benjamin Urrutia: "Interview with Master Yoda. Standing Small: A Celebration of 30 Years of the Lego Minifigure.wikipedia. Jeff Grubb. [14] " (http:/ / starwars.

the teenage Felipe.S. also known as The New Zorro. he finds his town in a sorry state. Don Alejandro de la Vega summons home from Spain his son Diego to fight the alcalde and his men. 1990 – December 2. Regehr portrayed the fearless Latino hero and fencer on The Family Channel from 1990 to 1993. New World Zorro.[5] Peter Rodgers Organization is the distributor for this version of Zorro. of episodes Production company(s) Distributor Zorro. When Diego arrives. and while pretending to have little interest in anything but books and his experiments. Spain and produced by New World Television (U. Beta TV (Germany). He and his mute servant. Alcalde Luis Ramone. Ellipse Programme of Canal Plus (France). Zorro Productions.). of seasons No. Since 2011. and Zorro 1990.S.S. 10 more than the first Zorro television series. The Family Channel (U.Zorro (1990 TV series) 299 Zorro (1990 TV series) Zorro Genre Action/Adventure Drama See Cast and characters United States English 4 88 (List of episodes) New World Television (U. Inc.[1] 88 episodes of the series were produced. . 1993 Starring Country of origin Language(s) No. and RAI (Italy) FOX.[3] Plot outline The series is set in early 19th-century Spanish California. [2] [3] [4] Peter Rodgers Organization. battle the alcalde's tyranny. The series was shot entirely in Madrid.). he creates the secret identity of El Zorro: The Fox. Broadcast Original channel Original run The Family Channel January 5. and RAI (Italy). terrorizes the people of the pueblo and oppresses them. is an American action-adventure drama series featuring Duncan Regehr as the character of Zorro.S. When the commandant of Los Angeles.).). Beta TV [1] (Germany). The Family Channel (U. the series is currently airing in the United States on the Retro Television Network as The New Zorro. which was produced by Disney in the late 1950s. Ellipse Programme of Canal Plus (France).

• Season 1 is currently available on Hulu. • The original pilot (as included in the DVD boxed set Zorro: The Complete Series) focuses on a young man named Antonio de la Cruz. in the syndicated television series Queen of Swords. Zorro (1981). played by Patrick James.com . rather than a male singer. Hertzler as Alcalde Ignacio de Soto (Seasons 3–4) Efrem Zimbalist Jr. • Patrice Martinez is credited as "Patrice Camhi" in the first three seasons of the series.Zorro (1990 TV series) 300 Cast and characters • • • • • • • • Duncan Regehr as Don Diego de la Vega/Zorro[6] Patrice Martinez as Victoria Escalante (credited as "Patrice Camhi" Seasons 1–3)[7] James Victor as Sgt.[8][9] (He did not work on this series. • Both this series and Queen of Swords were filmed in Spain. and the song is performed by Cathi Campo (Rosemary Clooney's niece). Jaime Mendoza Michael Tylo as Alcalde Luis Ramone (Seasons 1–2) J. the Queen's horse. In this pilot Felipe is able to speak. The pilot was filmed at Texas Hollywood. and played the older Zorro in the short-lived CBS series Zorro and Son (1983) and Zorro's father in this series. The rest of the episodes' openings use the same opening theme. but different clips. who is told by a mortally wounded Don Diego de la Vega to take on the mantle of Zorro. G. Only Patrice Martinez albeit as a different character survived to the actual series. • Henry Darrow is the first Latino actor to play the role of Zorro on television and the first actor to work in three [10][11] He was the voice of Zorro in the animated series The New Adventures of different Zorro television series. Wallace Adam West Jesse Ventura Philip Michael Thomas Hunter Tylo Nigel Terry KM Production notes • The title sequence of the first episode differs from the one used in the rest of the series.) • The bridle and breastplate worn by Toronado in this series is identical to the one worn by Toronado in the Alain Delon film Zorro and by Chico. and filming for Queen of Swords took place at the Texas Hollywood Studios in Southern Spain in 2000. as Don Alejandro de la Vega (Season 1) Henry Darrow as Don Alejandro de la Vega (Seasons 2–4) Juan Diego Botto as Felipe Notable guest appearances A • B • • • CD Timothy Bateson Faith Brook Kevin Brophy Andre the Giant G • • H • • • • • • Oliver Haden James Horan Doug McClure Hilton McRae Ben Miles Garfield Morgan Michael Gough Peter Guinness O • P • • • • R Roger Lloyd Pack Valentine Pelka Roddy Piper Pete Postlethwaite Soon-Tek Oh T • • • V • W • • Julie T.[7] She was married to producer-director Daniel Camhi during that time. Zorro was shot at studios outside of Madrid in 1990.

There are rumors of a second Region 1 release of the entire series. 2011 No Confirmed Release No Confirmed Release . The episodes are dubbed in French and subtitled. and from this series. [12][13] In this set. the German company Kinowelt Home Entertainment released the complete first season of the series. and was released on VHS in that format). trailers for three other Zorro serials. In 2009. the first chapter of Zorro's Fighting Legion from 1939. Each tape's four episodes are presented as a 90-minute movie. and the second tape contains the final four episodes of the series under the name A Conspiracy of Blood. DVD Releases Zorro: The Complete Series (Seasons 1-4) Set Details • • • • • • Special Features • Episodes: 88 Aspect Ratio: Full Frame (1. which was used in the rest of the series.Zorro (1990 TV series) 301 Home media VHS Two tapes of episodes from this series were released to the United States home video market in 1996. dubbed in German. Also. DVD Two separate DVD boxed sets are available in France. 2011 Zorro: The Complete First Season Set Details • • • • • • Special Features • Episodes: 25 Aspect Ratio: Full Frame (1. The first tape contains Parts 1–4 of "The Legend Begins" from the first season (which originally aired as a made-for-cable movie based on the series. some of the episodes use the abbreviated version of the opening credits that appeared in reruns on The Family Channel. premiere is replaced by Campo's version.33:1) Number of Discs: 15 (R1) Languages: English (R1) Subtitles: None (R1) Rating: Not Rated (R1) Release Dates Region 2 No Confirmed Release Region 4 No Confirmed Release The Zorro Archives: The Mark of Zorro with Douglas Fairbanks. with at least one scene in each movie that is not in the regular episodes. but nothing is confirmed as yet. Region 1 January 25. "The Legend Begins" is included in its episodic version. rather than as the expanded movie that was released on VHS.33:1) Number of Discs: 4 (R1) Languages: English (R1) Subtitles: None (R1) Rating: Not Rated (R1) Release Dates Region 1 Region 2 Region 4 None January 25. the original pilot and a photo gallery set to music from the series. the unique opening theme used in the series The entire series is available on DVD in Region 1.

2011 No Confirmed Release No Confirmed Release .33:1) Number of Discs: 2 (R1) Languages: English (R1) Subtitles: None (R1) Rating: Not Rated (R1) Release Dates Region 1 Region 2 Region 4 None January 25. 2011 No Confirmed Release No Confirmed Release Zorro: The Complete Fourth Season Set Details • • • • • • Special Features • Episodes: 13 Aspect Ratio: Full Frame (1.Zorro (1990 TV series) 302 Zorro: The Complete Second Season Set Details • • • • • • Special Features • Episodes: 25 Aspect Ratio: Full Frame (1.33:1) Number of Discs: 4 (R1) Languages: English (R1) Subtitles: None (R1) Rating: Not Rated (R1) Release Dates Region 1 Region 2 Region 4 None January 25. 2011 No Confirmed Release No Confirmed Release Zorro: The Complete Third Season Set Details • • • • • • Special Features • Episodes: 25 Aspect Ratio: Full Frame (1.33:1) Number of Discs: 4 (R1) Languages: English (R1) Subtitles: None (R1) Rating: Not Rated (R1) Release Dates Region 1 Region 2 Region 4 None January 25.

. Retrieved January 10. TVShowsOnDVD.com [11] Bill Cotter. Official Zorro Facebook. . [10] Biography (http:/ / www. Retrieved April 16. making him the only actor to work in three different versions of the story.tv. Retrieved July 10. Retrieved January 10. com/ reviews/ 46509/ zorro-the-complete-series/ ). imdb. retrojunk. com/ 1990-01-04/ entertainment/ ca-544_1_zorro-costumes). com/ henry's_bio. com/ zorro/ zorro-and-son. TVNewsCheck. Retrieved July 10. . zorro. External links • • • • • Zorro (http://www. [5] "RTV Adds More Classic TV To Its Lineup" (http:/ / www.com. 2011. Zorro. com/ article/ 2011/ 02/ 17/ 49205/ rtv-adds-more-classic-tv-to-its-lineup). com/ et-tv. henrydarrow.88 episodes of live action" (http:/ / www. 2011. [4] "Videos Posted by Zorro . Retrieved January 10. . com/ details_person/ 1413/ ).com New World Zorro (http://www. facebook. [7] "Full cast and crew for 'Zorro' The Word (1992)" (http:/ / www. Retrieved November 6. html). . tvshowsondvd. com/ New_World_Summary_sheet_091119. zorro.com/title/tt0098957/) at the Internet Movie Database Zorro (http://epguides.imdb. [8] "Biography for Daniel Camhi" (http:/ / www. 2012. Zorro.com/) (fan site) Series intro (http://www. 2011. com/ video/ ?id=107648214408).com. latimes. com/ name/ nm0131772/ bio). April 8. 2010. htm) at HenryDarrow. Retrieved January 10. . com/ editions/ cynopsis/ 040810/ ).com/shows/zorro-1990/) at TV.'90s Complete Series Press Release Reveals 15-DVD Set Includes Vintage 'Zorro'. imdb. [3] "Distribution. 2011. . "Henry Darrow was signed to play Don Alejandro. [13] "Zorro . tvnewscheck. [6] "Masked Zorro Returns Friday to Make His Mark on Cable TV" (http:/ / articles." [12] "Zorro: The Complete Series" (http:/ / www. 2012. .Jan 19. htm). . [2] "ZORRO . Retro Junk. 2012. 2011.com/NewWorldIntro.com/Zorro_1990) at epguides.com. cynopsis. IMDb. com/ title/ tt0798715/ fullcredits#cast).Zorro (1990 TV series) 303 References [1] "New World Summary" (http:/ / www.zorro. [9] "Patrice Martinez" (http:/ / www. 2010 9:48am" (http:/ / www.com Zorro (http://www. 2011. Retrieved April 16. 2012. February 17. billcotter. 2010. DVD Talk. Clearance & Carriage" (http:/ / www. The Los Angeles Times. 2010. Too!" (http:/ / www. IMDb. Retrieved July 10.mpg) . dvdtalk. com/ news/ Zorro-The-Complete-Series/ 14927#ixzz1K1oDE07M).newworldzorro.com. pdf). Cynopsis Media. BillCotter. January 19. . . "Zorro and Son" (http:/ / www. .

NoMatterTryAgain. Helga76. Voiceof2moro. Palica. Rodhullandemu.wikipedia. Abrio. CatherineMunro. Eddstonham. Midnightblueowl. GMc. Richard BB. PaulaMessina. Gabbe. Zepheus. Davehi1. Martarius. Granite Snake. Martinledwards. Iridescent. Pan48. Gareth E Kegg. Dingodec. Peter Greenwell. Conversion script. BeckiGreen. Richard Tompkins. Awiseman. Samsonfest. Harizotoh9. Wickedjacob.wikipedia. Tim Long. Kakoui. Geach.Television. Ageekgal. Back ache. Katharineamy. Betacommand. Starwarsrebel. Gcm. Pearle. Eldumpo. 6ii9. DVdm. JamieTheFoool. Lexy lexy. Mwanner. Pfalstad. Δ. AlbertusmagnusOP. DataSurfer.org/w/index. Richardguk. Bogbumper. Londo06. AxelBoldt. Smurfandbuffalo. Woohookitty.php?oldid=536443391  Contributors: A3oertENG.kt. Zanoni. ForestH2. Lugstaz. Francs2000. Rwiseman97. Philippe277.org/w/index. Hyperfunnel. Nilfanion. Mütze. KibaFangz. Anthony Winward. Fbv65edel. Colonies Chris. Whitepaw. Mikesmash. Tassedethe. Tregoweth. Zippanova.org/w/index. EdGl. Ilikeeatingwaffles. Ouinniehkg. Materialscientist. TheParanoidOne. Moscowconnection. Adamshappy. Simharrison. Tzartzam. Whittydw. Mattbr. John. MisterMorton. Jza84. Endraia. Bryanpotter. RickK. Tooga. Richardyee. Dadofsam. Philwelch. Wikemilia. Alan Liefting. Anakinjmt. Dougweller. RogueJedi86. Ruy Pugliesi. Stevo1000. PhilipB. Mym-uk. Rodhullandemu. John88888. Shaft121. Tedius Zanarukando. Azalea pomp. Drphibes. Achmelvic. Andrewmears. Rangek. Nick Number. Lihaas. Lilac Storm. Sjones23. Jjthanel. Funkeh the Ballon. SamK311. Jdjerich. Vaidehi Garg. Flatterworld. Beebemark. Dancingcyberman. Jrockley. Xezbeth. Gabbe. 438 anonymous edits Anthony Daniels  Source: http://en. MikeWazowski. Mel Etitis. Mickea. Beck's. Globe01. AbigailAbernathy. Keith Edkins. Klundarr. Woohookitty. Sugar Bear. Bob Re-born. 168 anonymous edits Caravan of Courage: An Ewok Adventure  Source: http://en. Ehrenkater. PabloCreep. ADL1983. Picapica. Pinkadelica. All Hallow's Wraith. Ipman128. Faithlessthewonderboy. Dl2000. DShamen. 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