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NDT & Welding Consultant ASNT Level – III CSWIP 3.2, AWS – SCWI Reach me @

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CHENNAI No. Puram. 4th Cross Street Behind Athiparasakthi Temple Thillai Nagar. Trichy – 620 Email: kochi@bitndtindia.600 097 Tel: + 91 .O. Tel: + 91 .R. 38C/25. Peelamedu Varadharaja mill Bus stop Coimbatore – 641 004 Tel: +91 – 422. Peyoli Road Diagonally Opp. Eranakulam Kochi – 682 018 Tel: + 91 – 484 – 4050247 Mobile No: +91 98408 00863.431 4220 312 Mobile No: +91 98408 00863 Email: trichy@bitndtindia.044 – 4272 0054 Mobile No: + 91 98408 00863 Email: Chennai@bitndtindia. 3rd Pillaiyar Kovil Street Ekkattuthangal. +91 90375 23202 COIMBATORE BRANCH No.OUR SERVICES AT TRICHY BRANCH No. Chennai . Shastri Street COCHIN BRANCH Edatt Building. Sudheendra Hospital Kacherippady. 15.4371 614 Mobile No: +91 98408 00863 Email: Coimbatore@bitndtindia. 2nd . 14.

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(NDE) .



NON – DESTRUCTIVE TESTING (NDT)  End of the Examination material won’t get any damage and use further. . DESTRUCTIVE TESTING (DT)  End of the Examination material will get damage and No further use.

Energy absorption  Fatigue .Load resistance capability  Toughness .Ductility (flexibility)determination .Life calculation (cyclic loading )  Bend test .DESTRUCTIVE TEST METHODS  Tensile - Strength Determination  Hardness .







Destructing Testing Methods Liquid Penetrant Testing Magnetic Particle Testing (PT) (MT) Ultrasonic Testing Radiography Testing Electromagnetic Testing Acoustic Emission Testing Leak Testing Neutron Radiographic Testing Visual Testing Vibration Analysis Testing Thermal/Infrared Testing Proof Testing (UT) (RT) (ET) (AET) (LT) (NRT) (VT) (VA) (TIR) PRT) .Non .

Is specialised technique of material inspection which provide information about the condition of material & component without destroying them.NDT INTRODUCTION What is NDT?  NDT/NDE/NDI – Non-Destructive Testing/Evaluation/Inspection. .

NDT is one of the Quality control (QC) tool of various industries.  Aircraft  Automotive  Oil & Gas industry  Construction (welding & fabrication)  Casting & forging  Manufacturing (Pressure vessel/Valve)  Petrochemical Refinery  Ship building  Pipeline  Power generation & Nuclear . such as.

 Why NDT?  To ensure product reliability  To prevent accidents . save human life & avoid failure  To make a profit for user  To ensure customer satisfaction & to maintain the manufactures good name  To control manufacturing costs  To lower manufacturing costs  To maintain a uniform quality level  Do not change any properties of material .

length & width) and Evaluation  Leak Detection & Location Determination • Dimensional & Coating thickness Measurements  Structure and Microstructure Characterization  Estimation of Mechanical and Physical Properties  Stress (Strain) and Dynamic Response Measurements  Material Sorting (conductivity)and Chemical Composition Determination  Thickness & Hardness Measurements  Heat treatments condition & Corrosion thinning . Uses of NDT  Flaw Detection (Depth.

INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS NDT Can be applied to all levels of material usage  Raw materials Fabrication Finishing In-Service Overhaul .

Common Application of NDT  Inspection of Raw Products  Inspection Following Secondary Processing  In-Services Damage Inspection .

Inspection of Raw Products  Forgings  Castings  Extrusions .

Inspection Following Secondary Processing      Machining Welding Grinding Heat treating Plating .

Inspection of In-Service Damage  Cracking  Corrosion  Erosion/Wear  Heat Damage .

Pipe with damage Probe Signals produced by various amounts of corrosion thinning.Power Plant Inspection Periodically. power plants are shutdown for inspection. . Inspectors feed eddy current probes into heat exchanger tubes to check for corrosion damage.

cranes and other lifting devices. Wire Rope Inspection .Electromagnetic devices and visual inspections are used to find broken wires and other damage to the wire rope that is used in chairlifts.

Storage Tank Inspection Robotic crawlers use ultrasound to inspect the walls of large above ground tanks for signs of thinning due to corrosion. Cameras on long articulating arms are used to inspect underground storage tanks for damage. .

• A fatigue crack that started at the site of a lightning strike is shown below. • NDT is also used to find cracks and corrosion damage during operation of the aircraft. Aircraft Inspection .• Nondestructive testing is used extensively during the manufacturing of aircraft.

Jet Engine Inspection • Aircraft engines are overhauled after being in service for a period of time. . inspected and then reassembled. • Fluorescent penetrant inspection is used to check many of the parts for cracking. cleaned. • They are completely disassembled.

July 19. CrashSioux City.A defect that went undetected in an engine disk was responsible for the crash of United Flight 232. 1989 232 of United Flight . Iowa.

the tanks are inspected using radiography and ultrasonic testing. .Pressure Vessel Inspection The failure of a pressure vessel can result in the rapid release of a large amount of energy. To protect against this dangerous event.

Rail Inspection Special cars are used to inspect thousands of miles of rail to find cracks that could lead to a derailment. .

cracking and other damage can all affect a bridge’s performance.Bridge Inspection • The US has 578. • Corrosion. . • Bridges get a visual inspection about every 2 years. • The collapse of the Silver Bridge in 1967 resulted in loss of 47 lives.000 highway bridges. • Some bridges are fitted with acoustic emission sensors that “listen” for sounds of cracks growing.

Pipeline Inspection
NDT is used to inspect pipelines to prevent leaks that could damage the environment. Visual inspection, radiography and electromagnetic testing are some of the NDT methods used.

Special Measurements
Boeing employees in Philadelphia were given the privilege of evaluating the Liberty Bell for damage using NDT techniques. Eddy current methods were used to measure the electrical conductivity of the Bell's bronze casing at a various points to evaluate its uniformity.

For More Information on NDT
The Collaboration for NDT Education
The American Society for Nondestructive Testing

The selection of one method over another is based upon such variables as:  Type & origin of discontinuity  Material manufacturing processes  Accessibility of article  Level of acceptability desired  Equipment available  Cost .Selection of the NDT methods  In selecting the NDT method for the evaluation of specific discontinuities keep in mind that NDT method may supplement each other & that several NDT methods may be capable of performing the same task.

 ALL DISCONTINUITIES ARE NOT NECESSARILY DEFECTS.  Discontinuities: Any condition. is called a defect. It may not be defect if during the evaluation phase it is determined that the discontinuities interfere with the serviceability of the part or it does not meet the acceptance & rejection criteria. The discontinuity is then classified as a defect. . which breaks the continuity of the material/part. is called discontinuities. which interferes with the intended service of the material or part and is therefore objectionable.  While a discontinuity is an interruption in the normal structure of the part. DEFINITIONS  Indication: A response or evidence of a response accruing non-destructive tests.  Defect: Any discontinuity.

.relevant indications are caused by part configuration & they are not determine to the serviceability of the part. whether  Evaluation: A determination of the significance of relevant indication. (Accept or Reject as per specification)  Relevant Indication: Relevant indications are those that are caused by discontinuities in part.  Non Relevant Indication: Non . Interpretation: The determination of indications are relevant or non-relevant.

.  Service Discontinuity: Resulting due to interaction of stress temperature & environment.  Processing Discontinuity: Typical of mechanical working (Hot/cold) welding & heat treatment. casting & solidification process. Discontinuity are grouped into three categories  Inherent Discontinuity: Typical of melting.

LOP. Excess reinforcement  Planar flaws are considered more severe than Volumetric flaws because of higher stress concentration associated with them  Flaw location Vs severity: Surface flaw is much more severe than internal flaws. Solid inclusion.  Interaction of adjacent flaw: As per ASME boiler & Pressure Vessel Code – XI. Convexity. Under fill.Type of Flaw Vs Severity  Planar Flaws: Crack. Concavity. LOF. Undercut & Root concavity  Volumetric Flaws: Burn through. Slag inclusion & Porosity  Weld Profile Defects Undercut. When the spacing between two . This is because of higher stress intensity factor associated with surface flaw. Overlap.

Recommended Rules for care & operation of heating boiler VII. Recommended Rules for care of Power Boilers . Electrodes & Filler Metals Part D . Non-destructive Examination VI. II. Power Boilers Material specification Part A – Ferrous Material Part B – Non-ferrous Material Part C – Welding rods.BOILER AND PRESSURE VESSEL CODE SECTIONS I.     III. Construction of Heating Boilers V.Properties Subsections NCA(Nuclear component) – General requirements for Division 1 & 2 IV. ASME .

Pressure Vessels   Division 1 Division 2 – Alternative Rules IX. Rules for in service Inspection of Nuclear Power Plant Components – Division 1 XII. Welding & Brazing Qualification X. Rules for construction transport tankers & continued service of .VIII. Fibre glass – Reinforced Plastic Pressure Vessels XI.

5  ASME B 31.3  API 1104 Structural Welding Bridge Welding code Power Piping Process Piping Cross Country Pipeline .SOME IMPORTANT CODES  AWS D 1.1 code – Steel  AWS D 1.1  ASME B 31.

ASME SECTION – V FOR NDT TESTING  Article 2 – RT Examination  Article 5 – UT Examination  Article 6 – PT Examination  Article 7 – MT Examination  Article 9 – VT Examination  Article 8 – ET Examination  Article 10 –LT Examination .

Nondestructive Examination (How to look) AWS B1.11 Guide for the Visual Inspection of Welds AWS B1.10 Guide for the Nondestructive Inspection of Welds .


 Personnel Qualification & Certification in Non-destructive Testing.  American National Standard/ASNT Standard for Qualification & . It is not intended to be used as a strict specification:  ANSI/ASNT CP – 189 – 1995  ANSI – American National Standard Institute  ASNT – The American Society for non destructive testing.  Recommended Practice No: SNT – TC – 1A 2001  Society for Non-destructive Testing (SNT)  Technical Council – TC  First Document – 1A  This document is intended as a guideline for employers establish their own written practice for the qualification of nondestructive testing personnel.

specific tests & specific evaluation. Interpreting Codes & Designated the test method & technique to be used . Trainees shall work with a certified person under the direction on NDT Level II or Level III & shall not independently conduct any tests for or write a report of test results.Certification of NDT Personnel is the responsibility of the employer & is usually at three levels.  Level–I is qualified to perform specific calibration.  Trainee: A person who is not yet certified to any level shall be considered a trainee.  Level–III must be capable & responsible for establishing Techniques.  Level–II is qualified to set up & calibrate equipment & to interpret & evaluate results with respect to codes standards & specifications must be able to prepare written instructions & report test results.

Practical Examination The SNT–TC–1A document recommends that NDT Level-III. Personnel shall be examined in the following areas: A. Basic Examination .The SNT – TC – 1A Document recommends that Level-I & Level-II NDT Technicians be examined in the following areas: A. General Examination B. Specific Examination C.

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WELDINING DISCONTINUITIES            Porosity Undercutting Lack of penetration Slag inclusion Lack of root fusion Cracks Incomplete fusion Tungsten inclusion Internal concavity (suck back) Burning through Overlap .

CASTING DISCONTINUITIES         Sand inclusions Gas inclusions Shrinkage Hot tear Crack Cold shut Un fused chaplets Chills .

Porosity .



Undercut .





Lamellar Tearing .

Incomplete Fusion .


Arc Strikes .



Lack of side-wall fusion Lack of root fusion Lack of inter-run fusion Lack of penetration .





Plate Sample – Weld Root Welding Process MMA (SMAW) Slag Inclusion Crater Pipe Lack of Root Fusion Lack of Root Penetration Lack of Root Fusion .

Plate Sample .Weld Cap Welding Process MMA (SMAW) Porosity Incomplete Filled Groove Lack of fusion Cap Undercut Intermittent Slag Inclusion Cap Undercut Intermittent Cap Undercut Intermittent Arc Strike Arc Strike Note: spatter and surface slag requires removal. arc strikes require blending and crack detection .

Six Most Common NDT Methods • • • • • • Visual Liquid Penetrate Magnetic Particle Ultrasonic Eddy Current X-ray .

Visual Inspection (VT) .

Visual Inspection Tools .

sewer lines. Bores copes.Visual Inspection Tools Most basic and common inspection method. . such as air ducts. Robotic crawlers permit observation in hazardous or tight areas. railroad tank cars. magnifying glasses and mirrors. Tools include fiberscope. Portable video inspection unit with zoom allows inspection of large tanks and vessels. reactors. pipelines.


Heat distortion. undercutting. . excessive buildup.. Bores copes & Tape measures or calipers. incomplete slag removal. Flashlights. Under fill.Visual Inspection  Visual Inspection is the most & least common inspection method  VT reveals spatter. Dimensions& poor penetration . cracks.  Typical tools for VT consist of Fillet gauges Magnifying glasses.

Visual Inspection Gauges  Fillet gauges measure  The “Legs "of the weld  Convexity (weld rounded outward)  Concavity (weld rounded inward)  Flatness .


Visual Examination Advantages Disadvantages  Easy • Requires experience  Quick  Inexpensive  Comprehensive  Simple tool  Need clean. lighted area  Surface only  Good Eye Vision Needs .

Surface Inspection Dye Penetrate Inspection . Visual Inspection .

Eddy Current Inspection .Sub-surface Inspection Magnetic Particle Inspection .

Radiographic Inspection .Internal Inspection Ultrasonic Inspection .

Dye Penetrant Inspection .

Liquid Penetrant Inspection Dye Penetrant Inspection (DPI) Penetrant Flaw Detection (PFD) Penetrant Testing (PT) Liquid Penetrant Testing .

Plastic and Metal  PT dose not require the part to be Magnetized. .Liquid Penetrant Inspection  Only for Surface breaking flaw inspection  Applicable to all Non-porous. Glass. Non-absorbing materials  Liquid penetrant inspection uses colored or fluorescent dye to check for surface flaws  PT will not show sub-surface flaws  PT can be used on Both metallic and Non metallic surfaces such as Ceramic.


PROCESS FLOW CHAT  Surface preparation        Penetrant application Dwell Time Removal of excess penetrant Drying (Not universally required) Application of developer Inspection Post cleaning and protection .


Penetrant Inspection Penetrant Application .

Penetrant Inspection Dwell Time .

Penetrant Inspection Excess penetrant removal .

Penetrant Inspection Developer application .

Penetrant Inspection Indication showing .

True Indication – Visible Dye Penetrant Method .

True Indication – Fluorescent Dye Penetrant Method .

Colour Contrast Fluorescent .

Examination Advantages Disadvantages  Easy application  Cleaning before and after  Open Surface flaw only  Requires smooth surface  Temperature dependent  Not applicable to Porous  Quick  Inexpensive  Simple equipment  Easy interpretation  High Sensitivity metal Applicable to complex  Compatibility of Chemicals geometry  Non need electric in put .

Magnetic Particle Inspection .

Magnetic Particle Inspection • Method detect surface and sub-surface • • • • indications Applicable only for FERRO Magnetic materials Magnetic field induced in component Maximum depth up to 6mm only Defects revealed by applying ferromagnetic particles .

Basic Principle : Flux Leakage Defect No Defect N S N S .

This indication can be visually detected under proper lighting conditions.Magnetic Particle Inspection The part is magnetized. Finely milled iron particles coated with a dye pigment are then applied to the specimen. These particles are attracted to magnetic flux leakage fields and will cluster to form an indication directly over the discontinuity. .

Defect Orientation Defect at 90 degrees to flux : maximum indication .

Defect Orientation >45 Degrees to Flux Acceptable indication : .

Defect Orientation <45 Degrees to Flux acceptable indication : Un .

Magnetic Particle Visible Indications .

Magnetic Particle Fluorescent Indications .

Examination Advantages Disadvantages  Easy to perform  Ferromagnetic material only  Economical  Quick result  Can go over thin coating  Electricity usually required  Arc strikes reduce sensitivity  No substantial internal flaw  Near surface flaws detectable  Reliable  Difficult on rough surfaces  Requires skill interpreter  No permanent record  Handy  Part should be Clean .

Radiographic Inspection .



Cobalt60.  Radiation is absorbed by the test piece  Thick or dense areas absorb more  Thin or open areas absorb less  Film measures passed radiation providing indication  Light areas represent areas hard to penetrate . Ceasium-137 .Radiographic Examination  Radiation is passed through the test piece  Test by X –ray or Gamma ray & General depth up to 200mm  General gamma ray source – Iridium-192.

Radiation Source

Radiographic Principle – Differential absorption

Radiographic Inspection
Lower density Higher density

Radiographic Inspection
Radiograph of weld showing: Crack Slag Lack of fusion Porosity Undercut

The radiation can come from an X-ray generator or a radioactive source. High Electrical Potential Electrons + X-ray Generator or Radioactive Source Creates Radiation Radiation Penetrate the Sample Exposure Recording Device .Radiography The radiation used in radiography testing is a higher energy (shorter wavelength) version of the electromagnetic waves that we see as visible light.

The part will stop some of the radiation.Film Radiography The part is placed between the radiation source and a piece of film. The film darkness (density) will vary with the amount of radiation X-ray film reaching the film through the test object. = less exposure = more exposure Top view of developed film . Thicker and more dense area will stop more of the radiation.

Radiographic Films .

Examination Advantages Disadvantages  Detects surface and  Planar discontinuity     • •  internal  Provides permanent record (to scale!)  Accurate • Direct image of flaws • Real .time imaging  Can be used on most materials orientation Radiation hazard Initial cost Requires skilled operators/ interpreters Must access both sides Sensitive to defect orientation Limited ability to detect fine cracks Limited by material .

Ultrasonic Inspection .


Ultrasonic testing (UT)  Ultrasonic testing (UT) is a method of determining the size and location of discontinuities within a component using High frequency sound waves. A sound wave is directed through tested material  Sound waves reflect at interface of different medium  General depth detection 200 inch .  Ultrasonic waves will not travel through air therefore flaws will alter the echo pattern.  Sound waves are sent through a transducer into the material and the shift in time require for their return or echo is plotted.

pulse crack echo back surface echo crack 0 2 4 6 8 10 plate Flaw detector screen (CRT screen) .Impedance  High frequency sound waves are introduced into a material and they are reflected back from surfaces or flaws. and inspector can visualize a cross section of the specimen showing the depth of features that reflect initial sound. f  Reflected sound energy is displayed versus time.

Sound Spectrum Audible Range 200 kHz 70 kHz 1-5 MHz Usual steel testing range Ultrasonic testing range 16Hz 256 Hz 20 kHz 15 MHz .

Inspection .

Inspection .

UT Field Inspection .



Examination Advantages Disadvantages  Deep penetration  Immediate result  Detect depth. length. size  Smooth surface Required  Skilled operator required  Difficult for Fillet welds • The weld must be reasonably also  Versatile & low cost  High sensitivity than any other NDT • Does not depend on defect accessible from both sides • There is a dead zone for defect detection close to the surfaces • Is more a sizing tool than a orientation • Defect height can be exactly detecting tool • Need experienced interpreter • Calibration required determined • Permanent print is available .