•Pre - Lab Report •Post – Lab Report

Silva, Lourdes

Mercado, Mary Joy

Pangilinan, Alyssa Pamela Ventilacion, Isiah Bernard

Permeability is a separation process where in the semi-permeable membrane acts as a barrier that controls the rate and movement of various molecules between two liquid phases, two gas phases, or a liquid and a gas phase.

 Va = kdh dL Hydraulic gradient Volumetric flow rate per unit cross-sectional area .

     also called the void fraction is the measure of the empty space in a material It is a ratio of the void volume to the total volume of the material. It is usually ranges from 0-1. or in percentage 0-100% Є = Vv VT .

 To determine the permeability and the filtration grain diameter of the porous granular media (sand) .

5mm and approximately 0.     Permeability and Fluidization Apparatus Pre-sieve sand (ds > 0.1 °C calibration) .54kg) Electronic balance 50-mL beaker (2pcs) Thermometer (0.

   Preliminary Operation Experimental Procedure Shutdown .

0611 .07166 0.2556 1.6333 .7975 17. Va (mm/s) 4.191 0.9662 14.125 9.114 0.6778 .02255 0.2582 dh/dL Manometer Difference (mm H2O) 95 97 114 122 169 233 323 420 390 346 321 275 .01061 0.09389 0.1170 0.12944 0.122 0.694 .05389 0.01922 0.420 0.323 0.10783 0.03527 200 100 0 0.06333 0.06778 0.1410 11.346 0.8696 5.5278 0.390 0.2524 7.275 Velocity.226 0.321 0.Flow rate 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 600 500 400 300 Head Loss (mm H2O) 0.04944 0.2117 7.5389 .0584 4.7944 2.2194 9.9222 1.9529 13.095 0.03333 0.00694 226 191 125 1.1667 1.7833 1.9389 1.5278 0.9412 15.3333 2.1645 13.1437 4.097 0.5278 .8192 4.2944 1.169 0.233 0.

ε = volume of void space total volume occupied 100 100 ε = 100 = 0. Determine the porosity.67 150 . ε. of the bed.

 Determine the permeability. of the filter media ( such as sand) K = ρg ε³ (d/6)² 5μ (1-ε)² . k.

of mm H2O. Headloss = ∆P/ ρ ∆P = difference in manometer reading ρ = density of the water. Determining the Head Loss. h. 1000kg/m³ .

 Determining the Velocity. Va in mm/s Va = Kdh dL Headloss = ∆P/ ρ Length (height of the media inside the perspex column) =constant K = Va = ε³ (d/6)² ρg _________________ 5μ (1-ε)² .

ε)² (6/d)² K ε³ dL = ρg ρg (d/6)² ε³ 5μ (1-ε)² d = ___________ . using the Kozeny-Carman Equation Va =KK dh ε³ (d/6)² = ρg Va = ρg 5μ (1-ε)² dL ε³ (d/6)² dh 5μ (1-ε)² dL dh = 5μVa (1 . d. Determine the filtration grain diameter.

5 h 1 increasing flowrate decreasing flowrate 0.5 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 Va 12 14 16 18 20 Figure 1. . The relationship between Head Loss (h) and Flow Velocity (Va).2.5 head loss (h) vs flow velocity (Va) 2 1.

1 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 Va 12 14 16 18 20 Figure 2.0.5 0.4 dh/dL 0.6 hydraulic gradient (dh/dL) vs flow velocity (Va) 0. The relationship between Hydraulic Gradient (dh/dL) and Flow Velocity (Va) .2 0.3 0.

The exploitation of natural resources. such as groundwater and petroleum. This is the simplest level in analysis of reservoir in oil mining. is partly dependent on the properties of porosity and permeability. They are intrinsic characteristics of these geological materials.  . It is important to know the permeability of the rock. Oil mining is the most relevant field in chemical engineering that applies the concept of permeability. What are the importance of knowing the permeability of a given porous medium ? Porosity and permeability are two of the primary factors that control the movement and storage of fluids in rocks and sediments. or the reservoir. to calculate how easily the hydrocarbons will flow out of them.

A viscous fluid will have a hard time passing a low porosity media.   . Yes. What operating parameters must be considered in determining the permeability of a given porous media ? Does the choice of liquid affect the result of the experiment ? The operating parameters are the grain size diameter and the porosity of the granular media.

and things will low permeability would be things like granites and other igneous porphyries. Things with high permeability would be things like beach sand or a loosely packed sandstone. What is the importance of having a high or low permeability of certain material ? Permeability is the capacity of a rock or sediment to move water or other fluids through it's pore space.  .

the apparatus should be calibrated well to become more accurate and less to errors. This may be because of technical errors involved. The liner relationship between Hydraulic Gradient and flow velocity cannot be observed. However. Based on the data gathered in the experiment. the apparatus is in good condition. It is highly recommended that before starting the experiment. it shows that the flowrate is directly proportional to its pressure drop. there are some discrepancies in the experimental data. Leaks and other important factors must be check before doing the experiment.  . As you increase the flow rate. More importantly. the pressure inside the column is also increasing causing the granular material to move.

Only valve 5 & 6 must be open. Valve 1 & 4 MUST be closed at the start of zero flowrate reading.   When increasing flowrates always open the Valve 5 to releave pressure on the rotameter and allow a good passage of air. . Always look for the bubble cap to prevent the over pressuring or open the bubble cap when calibrating to prevent bubble from building up.

because air will penetrate the whole system.   . Always open the faucet during the experiment to maintain the proper amount of water in the head tank. Loss of water would give an error on your reading. Do not open Valve 5 & 6 in the same manner when calibrating. therefore water will not move. When the water on the sides of water manometer reaches the extreme points close Valves 5 & 6 and open Valve 4.

Smith.Unit Operation of Chemical Engineering 6th Ed by McCabe. Harroitt  Transport Phenomena and Separation Process by Geankoplis  Physical Chemistry 6th Ed by Levine  Physical Science by Keith  Instrumentation and Design of Chemical Eng’g Equipments  Perry’s Chemical Engineering Handbook 8th Ed  .

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