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# CHE/ME 109 Heat Transfer in Electronics

## SOLUTIONS FOR EXTENDED (FINNED) SURFACES

FINS ARE ADDED TO A SURFACE TO PROVIDE ADDITIONAL HEAT TRANSFER AREA THE TEMPERATURE OF THE FIN RANGES FROM THE HIGH VALUE AT THE BASE TO A GRADUALLY LOWER VALUE AS THE DISTANCE INCREASES FROM THE BASE

## SOLUTIONS FOR FINS

BASIC HEAT BALANCE OVER AN ELEMENT OF THE FIN INCLUDES CONDUCTION FROM THE BASE, CONDUCTION TO THE TIP, AND CONVECTION TO THE SURROUNDINGS WHICH MATHEMATICALLY IS

## SOLUTIONS FOR FINS

FOR UNIFORM VALUES OF k AND h, THIS EQUATION CAN BE WRITTEN AS: THE GENERAL SOLUTION TO THIS SECOND-ORDER LINEAR DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION IS: AT THE BOUNDARY CONDITION REPRESENTED BY THE BASED CONNECTION TO THE PLATE: T = To AT x = 0, THE SOLUTION BECOMES:

## SOLUTIONS FOR FINS

NEED ONE MORE BOUNDARY CONDITION TO SOLVE FOR THE ACTUAL VALUES THERE ARE 3 CONDITIONS THAT PROVIDE ALTERNATE SOLUTIONS

## SO THE FINAL FORM OF THIS MODEL IS AN EXPONENTIALLY DECREASING PROFILE

WITH THIS PROFILE, THE TOTAL HEAT TRANSFER CAN BE EVALUATED CONSIDERING THE CONDUCTION THROUGH THE BASE AS EQUAL TO THE TOTAL CONVECTION

## TAKING THE DERIVATIVE OF (3-60) AND SUBSTITUTING AT x = 0, YIELDS

THE SAME RESULT COMES FROM A CALCULATION OF THE TOTAL CONVECTED HEAT

## SOLUTIONS FOR FINS

FINITE LENGTH WITH INSULATED TIP OR INSIGNIFICANT SO THE TEMPERATURE GRADIENT AT x = L WILL BE

## THIS LEADS TO A TEMPERATURE PROFILE OF THE FORM:

THE TOTAL HEAT FROM THIS SYSTEM CAN BE EVALUATED USING THE TEMPERATURE GRADIENT AT THE BASE TO YIELD

## SOLUTIONS FOR FINS

ALLOWING FOR CONVECTION AT THE TIP THE CORRECTED LENGTH (3-66) APPROACH CAN BE USED WITH EQUATIONS (3-64 AND 3-65) ALTERNATELY, ALLOWING FOR A DIFFERENT FORM FOR THE CONVECTION COEFFICIENT AT THE TIP, hL, THEN THE HEAT BALANCE AT THE TIP IS

## AND THE TOTAL HEAT TRANSFER BECOMES

FIN EFFICIENCY

THE RATIO OF ACTUAL HEAT TRANSFER TO IDEAL HEAT TRANSFER WITH A FIN IDEAL TRANSFER ASSUMES THE ROOT TEMPERATURE EXTENDS OUT THE LENGTH OF THE FIN REAL TRANSFER IS BASED ON THE ACTUAL TEMPERATURE PROFILE FOR THE LONG FIN

FIN EFFICIENCY

## SIMILARLY, FOR A FIN WITH AN INSULATED TIP:

FIN EFFECTIVENESS INDICATES HOW MUCH THE TOTAL HEAT TRANSFER INCREASES RELATIVE TO THE NON-FINNED SURFACE IT IS A FUNCTION OF RELATIVE HEAT TRANSFER AREA TEMPERATURE DISTRIBUTION CAN BE RELATED TO EFFICIENCY

HEAT SINKS

EXTENDED AREA DEVICES TYPICAL DESIGNS ARE SHOWN IN TABLE 3-6 TYPICAL LEVELS OF LOADING

http://www.techarp.com/showarticle.aspx?artno=337&pgno=2

## OTHER COMMON SYSTEM MODELS

USE OF CONDUCTION SHAPE FACTORS TO CALCULATE HEAT TRANSFER FOR TRANSFER BETWEEN SURFACES MAINTAINED AT CONSTANT TEMPERATURE, THROUGH A CONDUCTING MEDIA FOR TWO DIMENSIONAL TRANSFER THE SHAPE FACTOR, S, RESULTS IN AN EQUATION OF THE FORM Q`= SkdT

SHAPE FACTORS

THE METHOD OF SHAPE FACTORS COMES FROM A GRAPHICAL METHOD WHICH ATTEMPTS TO DETERMINE THE ISOTHERMS AND ADIABATIC LINES FOR A HEAT TRANSFER SYSTEM AN EXAMPLE IS FOR HEAT TRANSFER FROM AN INSIDE TO AN OUTSIDE CORNER, WHICH REPRESENTS A SYMMETRIC QUARTER SECTION OF A SYSTEM WITH THE CROSS-SECTION AS SHOWN IN THIS SKETCH

TEMPERATURE PROFILES

THIS SKETCH SHOWS THE CORNER WITH ISOTHERMAL WALLS AT TEMPERATURES T1 AND T2

TAKEN FROM Kreith, F., Principles of Heat Transfer, 3rd Edition, Harper & Row, 1973

TEMPERATURE PROFILES

THIS SKETCH SHOWS THE CORNER WITH ISOTHERMAL WALLS AT TEMPERATURES T1 AND T2 THE CONSTRUCTION IS CAN BE MANUAL OR AUTOMATED n LINES ARE CONSTRUCTED MORE OR LESS PARALLEL TO THE SURFACES THAT REPRESENT ISOTHERMS A SECOND SET OF m LINES ARE CONSTRUCTED NORMAL TO THE ISOTHERMS AS ADIABATS (LINES OF NO HEAT TRANSFER) AND THE NUMBER IS ARBITRARY

TEMPERATURE PROFILES

THE TOTAL HEAT FLUX FROM SURFACE 1 TO SURFACE 2, THROUGH m ADIABATIC CHANNELS AND OVER n TEMPERATURE INTERVALS IS:

THE SHAPE FACTOR IS DEFINED AS S = m/n, SO THE FLUX EQUATION BECOMES: . GENERATION OF THE MESH IS THE CRITICAL COMPONENT IN THIS TYPE OF CALCULATION .TABLE 3-5 SUMMARIZES THE VALUES FOR EQUATIONS FOR VARIOUS SHAPE FACTORS