SYMBOLS IN THE TEXT [...] Square brackets, or in recent editions wavy brackets "{...},” enclose words etc.

an editor thinks should be deleted (see "del."). [...] Square brackets in a papyrus text, or in an inscription, enclose places where words have been lost through physical damage. If this happens in mid-line, editors use "[...].” If only the end of the line is missing, they use a single bracket "[..." If the line's beginning is missing, they use .”..]" Within the brackets, often each dot represents one missing letter. [[...]] Double brackets enclose letters or words deleted by a copyist. (...) Round brackets are used to supplement words abbreviated by the original copyist; e.g. in an inscription: "trib(unus) milit(tum) leg(ionis) III" <...> diamond brackets enclose words etc. that an editor has added (see "suppl.") † An obelus (pl. obeli) means that the word(s etc.) is irreparably corrrupt. If only one word is corrupt, there is only one obelus, which precedes the word; if two or more words are corrupt, two obeli enclose them. (older editions sometimes dagger several words using only one obelus.) a dot under a letter (used for papyrus texts, inscriptions) means that an "a,” for example, seems to be an "a,” but the traces are very faint and it could conceivably be some other letter. SYMBOLS BELOW THE TEXT (Latin neuter adjectives (alia, alterum, etc) agree with implied verba or verbum) A B C (etc.) = the signs (sigla) of most important MSS labelled sequentially; thus in West’s Iliad, “A” = the 10th-c Venetus. E.g."δέ A B: τε C" = "the capital MSS A and B have δέ and C has τε. (" : " separates the readings). But often a MS (in older editions, any; in recent editions, a rarely used MS, too unimportant to have a siglum) is represented not by a siglum but by an abbreviation of its name, e.g. Laur. = (codex) Laur(entianus), or Vat. 226 = codex Vaticanus 226. a b c (etc.) = either (a) less important MSS, or else (b) families of MSS. (In a "family,” all its MSS tend to have the same or similar errors; so they seem descended from a common exemplar.) α β γ (etc.) = (usually) lost "hyparchetypes" (alias "proarchetypes,” alias "proexemplars"), i.e. conjectured lost MSS, from which the best ours seem to derive. So e.g. perhaps A B D descend from α, F M from β -- etc. (in older editions these Greek letters are also used for manuscript "families"; or occasionally for extant MSS.) A1 A2 A3 (etc.) = the main copyist's hand in A, a 2nd hand in A, a 3rd hand in A. Such a 2nd or 3rd hand is usually that of a corrector; so A2 or A3 is sometimes called Acorr.. A1 A2 A3 (etc.) Subscript numbers usually mean not mere correctors but actual copyists when there were more than one. I.e. one can discern that A1 copied everything till a certain page; then A2 took over; etc. Af B fm (etc.) often refer to scholia (see below, "Σ"); often named for the MSS in which they appear in their fullest form. So e.g. "δέ codd.: τε Af" might mean that in this place all the MSS (including A) read δέ, but in A, the f scholia (i.e. the ancient notes which F has in their fullest form) quote our passage and have τε.) a.c. = ante corr. = ante correctionem = before correction; e.g. "δέ] τε A a.c." means: "all copies (including A) have δέ, but A has τε before correction." ad = "at" or "on.” Usually used in citing ancient or modern commentary; so e.g. "Porfyrio ad Hor. c.4.29" = "see Porfyrio's commentary on Horace, Ode 4.29; there Porfyrio quotes our passage.” add. = addidit = added (tends to mean the same as "suppl.,” on which see below) addub. = addubitavit = "has doubted" al = alii or = alibi = elsewhere alii = others, i.e. (usually) other editors, or other manuscripts. alii alia = "here some (conjecture) some (words); others, other (words)"--us. written when no conjecture seems right. alterum τε = "the other τε” = "the second of the two τε 's.” (For example, see under "del." For its opposite see "prior.”) ante = before (both in time and space), e.g. "τε ante corr." = τε before correction. ap. = apud = at. See "ad" a.r. = ante rasuram, before erasure. ca. = circa = about, approximately. cf. = confer = compare. "Cf." is often followed by the number of a passage, in which you will find a usage similar to that which the editor posits here. (In old editions you sometimes see "cp." = "compare") ci. = cj. = conj. (q.v.) cod(d). = codex (codices) = mss. = manuscripts. E.g. "τε codd." = all MSS have this, but it seems wrong. Cf. "emend." coll. = collato codice (pl. collatis codicibus) = lit. "with that MS collated" (i.e. after collating that MS); or else = collato loco (pl. collatis locis) = lit. "with that reading compared.”

line 9" edd.") def.” loc. etc. coll. or = infra = below. (emend. τε" (or "τε γράφεται"). E..g. = in litura = "on top of an erasure. = editores = editors. vett. = post rasuram.r. = delevit = "deleted. the editor stresses that he is guessing. or gr. Hude coll.” (These "edd. in the text itself. Deest and desunt are used especially for inscriptions and papyri. "τε om. ins. = post correctionem = after correction (see under "a. emends to ὁμοίως on the basis of the scholium. = fragmentum = fragment γρ. "A omits τε. or mg. (usually) the word(s) that a MS has in this place. = omittit or omisit = omits or omitted. = correctio = correction.9" = "Snell conjectures -βρόντα in MSS is a corruption of -βρέντα. So e. = initium or ad initium = "near the beginning" (of the line. = editores veteres = old (usually 15th or 16th-century.” E.3" = "Hude defends τε here. 'I conjecture'). = deteriores (codices) = inferior MSS. "τε P. "post τε dist. in his text an editor prints .g.21. = inscriptum (or -a) = written into interl. deleted the 2nd τε" dett. = inferior = inferior." are sometimes cited because they may have used good MSS now lost. = litterae = letters. = fortasse or forsan = perhaps. meaning he has seen that variant reading in another MS.” P.” Or e. i.) "is written" ("are written").conj.") m.c. (pl. E.m. = in margine (see 'marg. E.) fr. (When the variant is not thus labelled in the MS itself. τε. "τε in mg. = infra = below. = inter lineas = "this word is interlinear.) inscr.")." = " MSS have ὅμως ὢν. copyist ac M = before correction pc M = after correction 2 M = 2nd hand marg. e.g. So e. = expunxit: has deleted. usually by this same abbrev. e.g. E.. "τε def.t. E.) = Π (pl. loc.) has defended.g. which occurs in Paean 12. inf.Oxy. loc." = "earlier editors deleted the 2nd τε. corr. desunt = word(s) missing. "ὅμως ὢν] ὁμοίως Leutsch e schol. ΠΠ) = Pap. "τε deest L" = τε is missing in L.) em.” m.g.) = papyrus.e. see e. = dubius = doubtful or dubiter = doubtfully. = manus = hand. cont.” e. = mutavit = has changed nonnulli = nonnulli editores = some editors om. = emendavit (emendat) = emended (emends) clearly corrupt place in MS.g. after an erasure .vett. 12. apparatus has not "γρ. Leutsch. the τε which I print is an emendation. "deest. i. or fors. a gap in the transmitted text.") ll. Wil.g.e." del. of the word.” or a blot (see "ras. (PP. ("Om. and Italian) editors or editions.)" = "the best MSS have δε.g. lect. conieci) = 'conjectures' ('conjectured'. dist. = (lit.e. Wil. A" = τε is missing in A (lit. deest or pl. "τε is my conjecture").r. or in lit." = "Wil.. = contulit.” or dele vi = "I have deleted."but "v." = "Wilamowitz conjectured te. "τε conieci" = "I have conjectured τε" (i. = margen = margin. "δέ] τε γρ. E. Snell e Pae. 15 ll. lower. fort.” for which see below." is normally used when the modern editor feels certain that the omission was made in error.c.” "about 15 letters are missing. papp.” p. i.l. = γράφεται (pl. "-βρόντα ] -βρέντα conj. γράφονται) = (lit.” or "τε Πcorr " = "in the papyrus τε was written by the corrector. Wil. by Wilanowitz.g. later. "alterum τε del. edd. = loco citato = in the passage cited lit.e. = distinxit = has punctuated. or (perf. = inseruit = inserted lac.g. = in rasura (see "ras") i.” Or e..g.” written between the lines. compared. = lectio = reading. "te conj.g. probably right. E.” exp. vett. Often refers to a period.” when he feels less certain of this. = manus recentior = a more recent copyist mut. 7.g. init... (I.) "with (that) place compared. "desunt ca." = "τε (was written) in the margin.g. = in textu = in the text. = litt. e or ex = "from" or "on basis of. i.') inf. = locum or locus = place (in a work).g. e. unlike us.. and in his apparatus says: "τε] δε codd. 1356" = the Oxyrrhynchus papyrus 1356 has τε. p. under "ll. = conicit (coniecit. applies to variants so-labelled in the MS itself.r. conceivably.g. Α2" means that next to δέ a second hand in A has written "γρ. "alterum τε del. = emend.) i. comparing its use in that passage with its use here.” ms(s) = manuscripts (no difference between this and "codd. Hude" = "Hude punctuates with a full stop after τε. = defendit = defends. edd.e." dub. = lacuna = lacuna.

= saec. v v. suppl. (There is a difference between this and "γρ. For examples. see "vel sim.v." = "Hude conjectured τε .” recc. Hellenistic or Byzantine note(s). e. (See below under Σ). voces) = word(s). means the same as "s. but is very uncertain. post = after pot. = in ras.e. perhaps ancient. (In classical Latin. Ἀρχέλαος. = vulgo = commonly. = plerique = very many or most (editors or MSS). see under "e or ex" and "emend.g. or (sometimes) scholiast.) = varia lectio (variae lectiones) = variant reading(s) in the MSS.s.” prob. perhaps Italian renaissance. 16th-century Italian. X sometimes = Σ. v. Wil.v.g. agreeing'). 3" referring to the third paragraph of the ancient life of Thucydides. (pl. = suprascriptum (pl.g. Usually used when the editor is citing someone else's conjecture. e. 'vulgate' text of the rennaissance.) = versus = verse(s). on top of. qu. i. "τε is my emendation. vid. = supplevit (or supplet) = in effect "supplied. = potest quoque (?) = "it could be also". = reliqui = the other (MSS)." on that see "γρ. = sub voce = under the word or heading. or superior. e." suprascr. = scil.") vd. pl.e. Wil. and much contaminated. e.] .i. Σ (pl. but it might be a lambda.g. in my text I print in diamond brackets a word that the MSS omitted. refers to actual square brackets which an editor has put round a corrupt place) sim. it means late Byzantine. ΣΣ) = scholium (pl. "τε scripsi: de codd. they ceased to be copied (so that few survive).” For Latin MSS this usually means 15th. "<τε>. = plures = most (editors or MSS). In the early middle ages. an erasure. the Suda (a Byzantine encyclopedia) has τε where it quotes this passage in its entry for Archelaos. (a note by Snell. subscripta) = this word (or words) is written below the line. vox (pl. v el = or.ll. "prius τε" = the first τε (for its opposite. this is the normal word for "word. qu. = sequens (pl. uel similia (or -es) = "or some similar word(s)". ς" = "the following letter perhaps is ς. referring to a blank space in line 3 of a papyrus): "3 sq. tent." = as it seems. (pl.) attempted. lit.l. transp. : colon in the apparatus separates different variants and / or conjectures ] single square bracket in the apparatus separates the reading printed in the text (= usually that given by most MSS) from the variants and conjectures. the remaining (MSS) schol. s. but remarks taken from them were written in the margins of the texts.”) vulg. fort. changed the word order or line order).s. (pl." -.” E. scripsi = "I have written". s. v ett. "τε in ras.g. e. Usually they are rather unimpressive variants that look like mere conjectures." = "τε supplied by Wil. e.pler. see "alterum"). = supra lineam = above the line (in effect.e. (re a papyrus reading) "Ν] pot. scholia). "tent." subscr.e. "or some similar conjecture(s)" (usually applied to mere conjectures that are plainly not worth much). Λ" = "the letter seems to be a nu. A" = "A has τε (written) over an erasure. = vita = life. for Gk. which he thinks right. usually in the form "ut vid. certainly.g. perhaps in a purer state. "δε pro τε A" = "A has δε instead of τε. the MSS have δε . = supra = above. = in rasura = on. tried. v el sim." prius (or prior) = the earlier (of the two). = similia = similar (words). but not always.g. recte = rightly." marks a conjecture that could be right.g "τε Suda s. sequentia) = following. = (ad)probavit = has agreed.) = scholium (scholia). has approved (or = the present participle probante). Often used not for "verse" in our sense but just for a "line" of writing. Hude prob.").l. sc. scholl. = scilicet = no doubt. in place of.” and my apparatus says "τε suppl. e. -. = vide = see (imperative). apparently." s. plur." sq. Wilamowitz agreed" (or abl.") secl. = subscriptum (pl. = transposuit & transtulit = transposed (i.g." [adapted from University of Dallas Classics Dept. ras. = veteres (codices | editores | editiones) = old (MSS | editors | editions) (See above under "edd.g. e. = seclusit = has bracketed as corrupt (usually. = saeculum = century. = videtur = seems. 'with Wil. pro = instead of.see "s. vit. = sscr. Scholia sometiems quote or reflect the text as it was in ancient times.” s. v v. e. e. "τε coni. sup. = tentavit = (lit. = vel simile.g. v.” i. "vit. Many originated in ancient commentaries published separately from the text like modern commentaries. Often refers to the corrupt. Thuc. referring to an ancient biography. rell. = recentiores. suprascripta) = this word (or words) written above the line. = suprascr. & transt. "later (MSS).s.

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