Interview and drive test tips
WCDMA Introduction and Overview
•WCDMA concept and Architecture •Spreading and Scrambling •Codes and Channels •Code tree •Rake Receiver •Soft, Softer and Hard hand over •Power control - fast and slow
WCDMA – Drive test Overview using TEMS Investigation
•TEMS Parameter for WCDMA •Optimization Tips for WCDMA •WCDMA Tools for Drive Test •3G Voice Call Testing •3G Packet call & Video call testing •3G Drive test KPI overview •3G Optimization overview
WCDMA Frequency and Spectrum
•Uplink=1920MHz -1980 MHz •Downlink= 2110MHz -2170MHz •Bandwidth=60 MHz Actual B.W assign to operator is 5MHz And out of that 3.84 MHZ is utilize. In WCDMA frequency reuse factor =1 because time and frequency remains constant.
•In WCDMA first following process is done before Reading BCCH frequency. Slot Synchronization Frame Synchronization Scrambling Code CPICH is pilot which will read BCCH information After Synchronization . In WCDMA following Channels use for various function in UL/DL. Downlink:Uplink:1.DL DPCH 1.UL DPDCH 2.DL CCPH 2. UL DPCCH 3. P-CCPH 3. UL CPCH 4. S-CCPH 4. UL PRACH 5. SCH 5. HS-DPCCH 6. PICH 7. CPICH (primary and secondary) 8. AICH
WCDMA Spreading process
•Spreading:.W of the signal beyond the bandwidth normally required to accommodate information. For Spreading OVSF code are used which is known as Orthogonal variable spreading factor code . Process gain = 10 log (chip rate/bit rate) As bit rate increase process gain decrease .This is used to increase the B. Scrambling – Scrambling is used on top of the spreading so . Cell breathing is situation where cell foot print decrease due to large amount of user access the network beyond the capacity of that particular cell. it does not change the signal bandwidth but only makes the signal from different source separable from each other. Spreading factor=chip rate/symbol rate .
.process gain •As per Eb/No is fixed for each service for Ex: voice =2 and video=4 •Ec/N0= 2.84Mchips in WCDMA.
•Ec/No= Eb/No .•Eb /NO= Bit energy/Noise energy
•Ec/No = Chip Energy /Noise Energy.10= -8 for voice(for voice -8 is good limit) •Ec/N0= 4-18= -14 for video(for video -14 is good limit) •Process gain(voice) = chip rate/bit rate= 10dB •Process gain (video) = chip rate /bit rate= 18dB •Chip rate = 3.
Power Control types
For Speech drive Test
Mobile TX power Received signal strength indication Target Signal to interfere ratio Signal to interfere ratio Speech quality mean opinion square Dedicate channel
SQI MOS Algorithm
Downlink Dedicate channel BLER%
Currently serving Cell Measured neighbor.Active Set.UMTS Absolute radio frequency channel number
.Defined Neighbor Detected Neighbor.Undefined strong detected server UARFCN DL.
CPICH RSCP .90 kbit/s: 24 dBQ •5.75 kbit/s: 19 dBQ
.1 to 5 •6. SQI MOS .2 Kbit/s: 30 dBQ •10.-20 dBm to -140 dBm for each rake finger. •2. SQI .Ranges for Radio Parameter
•1. SIR .70 kbit/s: 27 dBQ •5.Ms TX power – -44 dBm to 60 dBm •4.-20dBQ to 30 dBQ •7 .95 kbit/s: 28 dBQ •7.-15 dBm to -140 dBm for each rake finger. UTRA Carrier RSSI . •5. •3.-30 t0 20 db (signal interfere ratio measured on DPCCH ) •12.15 kbit/s: 21 dBQ •4.0 to -34 dB. CPICH EC/No.2 Kbit/s: 28 dBQ •7.40 kbit/s: 27 dBQ •6.
Between -5 to -10 •Soft Handoff – 35% of total time
.Drive Test KPI
•Parameter•RSSI – In Between -75 to -85 dbm •RSCP – In Between -75 to -85 dbm •Ec /Io – In Between -8 to -10 db •FER – 1% or 2% •Ms TX Power .
Coverage wholes •Ec /No.for good Throughput and removing pilot pollution. •UE Plot .To Check Neighbour Relation.Use full Plots
•Server Plot – Useful to find out Swap or Overshooting. •4th best Server – Echno should be > -10db •5th best Server – Echno should be > -10db
. •RSCP Plot.
Condition for Radio Environment
•Pilot Pollution – RSCP >= -85dBm & Ec /Io =< -10 dB Coverage Limited – RSCP <= -85dBm & Ec /Io => -10 dB Poor Radio ConditionRSCP <= -85dBm & Ec /Io =< -10 dB Good Coverage – RSCP >= -85dBm & Ec /Io => -10 dB
3G –voice call testing
SCFT-Single Cell Functional Test •Before the single site verification. It is
important for the optimization engineer prior to any
–Alarm Check –Cell Status Check –Parameter Check
•Alarm Check / Cell Status Check
–The product support engineer will be responsible for checking and resolving all the alarms. we should only ensure the following conditions have been met.
Cell reselection parameters. Neighbor List. –Functions: LA/RA update. CPICH Ec/Io. Rx Antenna Swap Test –Settings: Frequency & SC. 3G<->2G Cell reselection. PS Attach & Detach. VP (MT & MO).3G –voice call testing
•Site Verification Items: –Installations: CPICH RSCP. LAC/RAC. Voice/VP/PS soft handover. Voice (MT & MO). SMS (MT & MO). PS service. Voice 3G->2G handover
one for the terminating call and another one for the originating call.
one for the terminating call and another one for the originating call. Test the
voice communication quality
.Testing On CELL site
–Items: Voice Call (MT & MO) –Purpose: Verify the voice call function is normal and the voice call quality is good –Method: Make the dialing test of 3G voice service between two 3G mobiles. Test the
voice communication quality –Items: Voice Call (MT & MO) –Purpose: Verify the voice call function is normal and the voice call quality is good –Method: Make the dialing test of 3G voice service between two 3G mobiles.
Notes: Check the RSCP from scanner
. check the RSCP changed or not. If no change happened.Feeder Connection Check
Test Process Items: Antenna swapping test Purpose: Verify the Rx feeder installation is right. it means that the feeder is correct. Method: Switch the transmitter from one feeder to another.
•Scrambling Code Setting is wrong –The Scrambling Code may be wrong in RNC. the CPICH RSCP is 20dB lower than
before. following problems have been found
–Scrambling Code Setting is wrong: The scrambling code from scanner and mobile is different from the planning
–After feeder swapped. maybe the
. check the datasheet in RNC. –If the Scrambling Code from scanner is the same as that of another sector in same site planned.Problem and Solution
•In the site verification.
DATA drive window
Channel quality index
Modulation technique As 64 QAM is utilized so less HSDPA throughput is less.Data Drive Parameter with low through.
Case-2 with high throughput
In this case 16 QAM is used 100% and Throughput is high
DSCH(High-Speed Downlink Shared Channel) packet is high than also throughput is decreases.16QAM.2Mbits speed can be achieved •In case of moving Vehicle – 800kbits to 1. •Latency time is round trip time from server and for 3G it should be 150 ms for 32 bit data . •For high through put 16QAM and 64QAM should be utilized high Utilization •So. if There is less Utilization of QPSK in downlink than data throughput is also high’ •CQI is like SQI in speech which ensure good channel quality for data transfer.64QAM. •Retransmission of HS.Data Drive
•There is 3 modulation technique QPSK. •Application throughput is always 85% of physical layer data rate throughput because at application level IP inclusion and overhead information will be there.
. •In case of stationary Data Test.2 Kbits speed can be achieved.
•The modulation scheme and coding is changed on a per-user basis depending on signal quality and cell usage. but in good radio conditions 16QAM and 64QAM can significantly increase data throughput rates. The initial scheme is Quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK). •CQI. while 16QAM offers up to 3.8 Mbit/s peak data rates.g. Additional codes (e.6. With 5 Code allocation.Channel quality information may include carrier level received signal strength indication (RSSI) and bit error rate (BER). •Data Throughput will be also depend on MS class which support 5. I •Channel quality indicators are messages that are sent on a communication system (such as a mobile communication system) that provide the remote connection (e.10 and 15 codes resp. QPSK typically offers up to 1. base station)
. 10. 15) can also be used to improve these data rates or extend the network capacity throughput significantly.g.
Drive Test tool for drive
•Sony Ericsson C702 (capable of Scanning) •Sony Ericsson Z750i (capable of Scanning) •PCTel SeeGull LX WCDMA 2100 •PCTel SeeGull LX Plus WCDMA 2100 •Global Sat BU-353 (NMEA-0183) •Garmin 10 Mobile Bluetooth (NMEA-0183)