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Child Psychology
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The Ontario


for Studies in Education

Toronto, Canada


OEC 2919T1







Origitial Title: ' Bornehave.Bamet" — ///. Translated from the Danish by David Pritchard .



Growth of the Powers of Observation Attention and Recollection .61 . Sensation VI. . 49 IV. V. and Will-Power . . I. . Imagination . . 3 II.CONTENTS CHAP.89 . . Morals. . . . 31 III. . . PAGE Casual Observations of Thought . . . m .




am of the opinion that the critical of extremely high value. examples of being as I sense is have quoted a number of and early criticism and doubt I . . criticism of others. 117 ff. 3 and should therefore be carefully cultivated in education..CHAPTER THOUGHT I CASUAL OBSERVATIONS OF in children in their everyday life we are in a position to obtain a far better insight into their WHEN constant intercourse with thought . extending even to the In Child Psychology. I. p.processes and for their general psychological condition be arrived at by means of tests than can . both when the its toys occupied playing with and in general conversation we child is very often find remarkable instances of thought-activity.

at this age the child's logic is generally very faulty. right up to the ceiling. but the grooves were ** R." I corrected her. was four years and three months old she saw four portraits in a book and There are three. lines so small ? snow. little sister shall have my toys. " " No. a few days later R. said : " When I am big." she objected " No. asked Why are the " and upon my replying : " Because the snow is hard. continued : : : " there were three. it's not . it's because there's so little snow (and the hard earth is therefore : just beneath)." Nevertheless. of our The some following day when out on one walks I scratched with lines in the my : walking-stick not very deep." She could in other words subtract one from four. . of the in the When said R. For example. there are four . or S. whereupon saying *' But when one was gone R." She has evidently expected development in herself.4 CHILD PSYCHOLOGY same I have been particularly on the alert to remark any evidence case of R.

" The four-year-old child has already a dis- tinct capacity to grasp phenomena.) the mirage of » A Danish song. is it . . . .'s omen. . . . . " : Now (the padlock) there laid. singing " Jutland between . four years and three months old. two seas. we put it stone laid ? ." in which an " emperor " clad only in a shirt. In the same period the grossest forms of analogy easily satisfied her. stuck one of her bare legs up from the cradle.CASUAL OBSERVATIONS OF THOUGHT 5 but has in this respect been quite lacking in a rational standard of measurement. the Runic is How is is a Runic stone ? How What do you lay a Runic stone that majestic ? .." which compares Jutland with a Runic wand. R. Thus she had often seen in the street a poster advertising " The Emperor's New Clothes. it mother explained that is R. lay one day in bed with a lock. Isn't it the eagle ? " (Danish." ^ Suddenly she said . . . R. exclaimed " Look. is extending one of his bare legs and when one . . "Jylland mellem tvende Have. see Tiny's day S. : emperor-leg. .



the desert (Danish, erken) and adds " The eagle is a bird, but the desert is a waste where there is nothing but sand." " Yes,'* " and no trees and no leaves." says R., " M. And no water." R. then asks " " How is it ? Is it a
: :










" Is R.


a piece of land







is it ?


as big as Frederiksberg Gardens ?


In this conversation we find an interesting





imaginative conception (the lock as a Runic stone) to the desire for an actual truthful

and it is interesting also to conception observe with what perseverance the child

seeks to


make the unknown clear by comwith the known the room, Fred;

eriksberg Gardens.

remarked an instance

of limited under-

standing of relativity

when R. was
She drew a

four years

and two months

and, that his head was too large, she observing " said That's a big head. Then he must have


big eyes too."





also a power-



neck to carry the big head.

But, never-

theless, she

made the body and limbs very
Her grasp

slender, especially the body.

proportion, in other words, did not extend farther than from the head to eyes and neck.

quite good line of argument can be followed by a child even at the beginning of
its fifth




R. was four years and

four months old her mother said to her " " Will But R. was not you look after S. ?

very enthusiastic, and answered



you rather,


you do


better ?


This was

but I cannot regard her remark otherwise than as prompted by
without doubt correct

cunning and indolence. Her high-minded motive was scarcely genuine.
the other hand, she was probably quite in earnest on the day after, when her " You may go down mother said to her into the street, but you must not go near " Then the tramway lines." R. answered
: :


I'd rather stop


here, for I

might forget."

Small children not only doubt they are even self-critical on occasions. They should


by no means be regarded and


treated as senseless





commanded and




but by helping a child to

develop its thinking powers we place a position to overcome difficulties.
R.'s critical powers were


plainly in evi-

dence in the following passage of arms. Her little sister pulled her hair and R. screamed. Her mother said excusingly " She doesn't " Then she understand," but R. objected
: :

could pull her own hair ; but she doesn't do that." The child's line of thought was evidently that S. had noticed that it hurt


she pulled her



and thereFor this

fore preferred pulling R.'s hair.

reason she declined to accept her mother's

apology for S. This guarded attitude was again in evidence two days later. R. would not eat her
food, said

and to entice her to do

so her


Very well



it is



and you are a strange lady who is paying a call. And so I ask you " Won't you have a

** " it would not have been thought aloud '* shown how she thought at her work " and learnt In play the child practises its physical and psychical instruments of work. is developed and prepared for the it. When R. Had not R." A real foundation of logic underlies the child's thought-processes at this stage of development. times. No thank you R. it would not spin. however. But when " the top fell she used to say That was " because it hit (the floor) and when some: . But regarding this branch of the . she would say " That was : because I didn't pull hard enough (when I turn it round with my fingers). from future.. among other things. and was especially pleased at being herself able to make it spin.CASUAL OBSERVATIONS OF THOUGHT cup " of cocoa ? 9 : " . was four years and five months old she played with great zest with her top." This evidence shows. that the child's play assists in developing the child's brain. interrupted hurriedly I have just had lunch at home. upon her placing it in position.

was four years and six " I think months old she said to her mother : ." slept at night." hoops and things " Yes." M. Suddenly she added : but I'm thinking now. but I only do what I like.'s : unfortunately one of the sorrowful duties of education to be continually clipping the is child's wings. not when " to bed. : No." Not without danger is the child's capacity for reflection for when allowed to flow unchecked. Thus one day when grandmother had helped the child in some task R. "I think like that.10 CHILD PSYCHOLOGY must refer to Child Psychology. at the risk of cutting them so short that the child finds itself unable to fly. when it grows up . 96 ff. and before you go think about ? What do you about " R. The child can be conscious of its thought- activity. too." M. " : "I thought you : R. said " You always do whatever I like. such indulgence often rouses exaggerated expectations. When best at night I don't think in the day. subject I p. I." It R. R. : it's light.

the name of which was The Soup. she said . could it ? " not without understanding of changes caused by growth and development. that by Her mother was sternly When R. and disappeared with " But that's only a story her." even able to expose an actual error of logic. . at an early period. one day saw a " picture. remarked: "They can just as well be eating something else. and said : " They (the buds) will be dark blue when they are big.CASUAL OBSERVATIONS OF THOUGHT Romance also 11 was criticised R. but R." " I to are child is The They eating soup. for a toad couldn't do that child is really. R. . reading Tommelise for her. heard a large toad came in through the window and picked up a walnut-shell in which Tommelise lay. was four years and six The months old she saw some dark-blue columbines with pale buds in a vase. When R. explained : her but not upon her." and thought that all was well. The title had acted upon me suggestively." She was right.

after When pause . for the sake of self-preservation. You bring in too much sand. said understand anything." R. " Oh. .. I told It's R.12 CHILD PSYCHOLOGY A child at the tender age of four and a half years may even practise deception. Grandmother thereupon looked angry. But R. you never approaching storm." Of course the child's critical powers also find vent in hair-splitting. was four years and seven months old our " You mustn't go housemaid said to her in and out like that without wiping your : feet. to was naughty and answered her grandmother rudely. One day. remarked a called that because it's blue and it's like a hat. bit its (Danish. wit. may When R. Blaahat —blue " name. sensing the R. not even when it's : funny. when four years and seven months." The little ! angel had * only been trying to be funny An tion extraordinarily of conscious recogni- was expressed by R. She causation plucked a deviVs hat) and asked her.

where she brought a fir-cone to me and not : asked : "What's this?" fully I did look care- at the cone and said said " A spruce- cone. stepping aside and picking this is up a spruce-cone." It is not easy to work out the exact thoughtprocess that took place on this occasion." but R.. and rely on itself. An tort extraordinarily logically exact re- was made by R. has been a little doubtful of the cone's name and I gave her therefore asked me . does not bow even to such a powerful suggestion as its father's explanation. a spruce-cone .CASUAL OBSERVATIONS OF THOUGHT retorted : 13 "I can go out if I like without wiping." The same day R. and when an incorrect answer she fetched a and make cone. " : No. later on the same "If you day. that one there is a fir-cone. Her mother said to her : . But spruce-cone to compare it sure that the other was a firin that a child any case the incident shows which is accustomed to look about. Probably R. and I went for a walk in Tisvilde Wood.

" M. was in position to explain that they were of impertinent in her her hair was being five years old. was even a criticism one little combed. R. upon my : retorted don't feel but R. but you I am mustn't keep screaming like that . " different colours. said " .14 CHILD PSYCHOLOGY ill are then you must go to bed. day when She was about It hurt her and she screamed. said . : I've kitten. but then it's ill : you who must go to bed when are ill. " : Now. " I have father and mother evidently assumed that appeared could simultaneously. that can't hurt "It's not your hair (and so you the pain)." it's you who " : One day R. inquired in con" The Great picture in later ." a " About a month nection with R. came and seen the seen its little told M.. M. quite through listening to it." The " child answered to wit Yes. tell it but R. word. who the two had not " asked : How you was not the same (cat each time) ? a Fortunately M.

but she has evidently understood that an entirely negative answer did not suffice. . for couldn't see it them And when it burns. burns every- thing right up." Also the comparatively 1 difficult which a naughty girl who plays with matches catches fire and is burnt up except for her in A children's poem shoes. has been aware of the logical necessity of examining every place . howbut you : " ever. answered remarked : But to this R." R. but finding this Yes. must not of course be taken as indi- cating that R. : she ? " M. she said didn't go everywhere.. " Not always. aged five years and six months." This. didn't the it fire burn ? the red shoes too . said isn't A " : When she does that she's shy. month later she displayed similar logic. asked Are there angels in Germany ? " I answered evasively "I didn't see any me " : : when I was there " . Her sister was rubbing her eyes. . .CASUAL OBSERVATIONS OF THOUGHT Bastian " i) : 15 " Why . explanation insufficient. whereupon R." But for all that task of " perhaps she is (shy).

too... failure on the following occasion.. — ^for that man (the keeper).16 CHILD PSYCHOLOGY putting oneself in another person's place and understanding that person's point of view years can be accomplished by a child in its sixth year. five " and six months said old." The day "I after she added think. : How lucky father's not a keeper. it's much better to go out and walk or do something else. six R." R. said the cupboard " : What was fell a piece of off. and when her mother. was indeed a piece missing. R. when . wishing to divert her attention from the pain. But Where's the blue piece gone " (which you say has just fallen off) ? Even a well-concealed verbal trap may five be avoided by the child.'* Such a reflective child is naturally not easy to deceive and the attempt was a old. In the Zoological Gardens R. saw that there that . it's boring : of course — . five years and months knocked herself against the corner of the kitchen cupboard. it's so boring looking after animals . but said never"Indeed! That didn't fall off theless : just now.

. with " some dried-up fruit on I said : They are dry. VOL. asked her mother " How long will you keep that pock-mark ? " M.CASUAL OBSERVATIONS OF THOUGHT 17 : years and six months old." " " don't you want to ? Miss X. An almost Jesuitical logic was evinced by R. " " Does it go away then ? She has thus detected the involuntary catch " till. R. Some days raspberries . corrected me and said " You mean too dry for all rasp: . I shall. answered " : : I shall said playfully keep it till I die. thus corrected the ? " expression Are you going " which was not sufficiently exact for her taste. one day when she was asked " Are you going into " " the water ? She replied Yes. and I were picking and upon her finding a branch later it. R. Shall you : : : . scar must be there even will not after is death but at the same time she it ob- viously quite aware that then be so annoying." R. 2 . however." R. III. five years and eight months old. as she was not actually on the way to the water. : "I shall nowy R." and realises underlying the word that the ..

" The fact that she has thought only of external moisture." I for my part had not said a word about the marking nor had we seen any toadstools previously that year and . to " which R. and asked how that had come about. does not affect the stringent accuracy of her criticism. a butterfly with the back half of its body missing." Some days red toadstool later. she " said That one has had spots when it was : I can see that because the others young have spots. . had perhaps eaten it. Besides. remarked That was nasty for I said that a bird : the butterfly — ^but not for the bird. — cannot be supposed for a moment that a little child could remember such a conit from the previous year. seeing an old specimen of without white spots and two young toadstools covered with spots.18 CHILD PSYCHOLOGY when it berries are dry hasn't been raining. and not taken into consideration the fruit's internal juice. Her imaginative powers found expression occasional She saw during this period. the fact that she had understood the reclusion .

grows on the same stalk" This last phrase shows that she is not simply old. plucked on this occasion both an old flower having mauve upper petals and a young but unfolded flower which was almost pure white and yet had a faint tinge of mauve in the It's Concerning the latter she it will be like the other when it's little blue : upper petals. R. A deliberate ruse may also be Naturally it would have been more satis- . " said a . for in the case of the pansy she forms her conclusion from the fact of both flowers growing on the same plant and therefore she expects the young one to . R.CASUAL OBSERVATIONS OF THOUGHT lationship between the 19 young and the old indhectly toadstools transpired about a month later. employed by a child of this age. become like the old. when five years and ten months old. for it repeating her line of thought with regard to the toadstools . and in recording " So I laughed ." .. I always the incident said do that when I don't know what to answer. had been asked by a lady about something or other.

" : But perhaps it's me who can't. laid for her mother a fortnight later..20 CHILD PSYCHOLOGY if factory ignorance less —but that she had openly acknowledged her is another matter. said to her mother. and added : " He thinks he can. the subject of which was that if one .up of other Psychological people as well as of themselves may express young children R. " Can you also remember that gate up on the " hill near the steps at K. was a trap which she R. one . you can't and she laughed exultantly. Far engaging. however. " summing . I can. however." she became less cocksure and said Afterwards. " Yes. I asked : " : : : can. after I had been dancing the polka with her itself in : : "Father can't dance the polka properly." isn't R." R. : " for there No. ." proved one day. five years and eleven months old. or perhaps indulgently.'s?" M. when her mother had been reading aloud a Self-observation was poem. Can you remember that gate down at Mrs. H.'s ? M." and she raised her shoulders contemptuously. "Yes.

said do tliat if I were you but if I were logic. I wouldn't thing wrong and R. The faculty cident." " R. . but however. . but it : is not because I do what R. If it couldn't be moved. who had heard it.. . always happy . it can be : : "Can too heavy. we couldn't have brought it here with us when we came here. objected " Yes." right. " but R." it's moved. she received the answer " No . did some" No. then?" Because I'm happy in any case. S. R. some days later. remarked Yes : But I'm . " asked What does that mean ? " and re" ceived the answer That if you always do : : what to is right this you are always happy. was displayed by R." M. : Far more subtle . excellence of the childish reasoning is also We shown by the following inhad a charwoman.CASUAL OBSERVATIONS OF THOUGHT 21 were true to the best in oneself one would always be happy.. who asked : the writing-table be moved?" As it is very heavy. She displays not only correct self-analysis but the child's natural joi^ de vivre. S. : is " ''Why is it.

displayed a very intelligent essential. A cruder form of criticism. six years and two months old. What does it : is lOne of Hans Andersen's stories in which the princess so aristocratic and sensitive 'that she cannot sleep because of a pea which lies underneath the mattress. was shown by R. Note. would presumably have behaved beautifully if she had been R. — . comprehension of the when she asked her mother to set : the following copy for her Mother and I are good friends. did. while on the contrary S. but omitted " the word good. she would have acted as S. six years old." and M. one day when I was reading "The Princess and the Pea"* to her." you. Trans. asked error. pointed out the " But R. has understood that if she had really been S.. She quite destroyed the romance of the story by her ruthless critique. however. When we came to the place where the pea " mentioned she said It must " have been a big pea otherwise (implying she could not have felt it through the matis : : tress).. wrote. R.22 CHILD PSYCHOLOGY it. then I would have done This can scarcely be interpreted otherwise than that R. R.

then perhaps the chairs will stand with their legs in the air and we shall sleep underneath the She exaggerates of course mankind's tendency to change. very interesting progress of thought." ." . don't mean. but when the people who are : : " now alive on the earth are dead . " V\^at do " " I R. that she sent her a thousand The was referred to : later. said : A R. Her grandmother had once letter written to R. you mean by that ? when we die." M. old. then.. even if a trifle irrelevant. is found in the following.CASUAL OBSERVATIONS OF THOUGHT mean to be friends : 23 ? " And upon " : receiving is the answer "It means that one Very * fond of the other." ^le remarked that is well. enough for (with friends '). and the child remarked "It was a joke your but it sending me a thousand kisses wasn't a joke that you loved me. but the basic thought beds. six years and five months I'm thinking that when we die we shall live differently. she was six years and four months kisses." The same capacity pressed understanding was ex- when old.

94. allowed S. " Why don't boys become ladies. would be funny.) in fun " you can't do that really (i.. But to her " mother R." R." For : : : she displayed a kindred To her mother she said then it would have the charm of the sur- and the unexpected. answered " That never " No. Towards her little sister R. it happens. mental process. vol.^) and R. whispered One of us (S. displayed extremely mature reasoning one day when we were gathering mushrooms. and praised her incessantly to the great joy of the little one. to win. and girls become men. ii. as things are now. . when six years and seven months old. R. was deliberately prising dishonest in order to please lier. six years ' See note. They were playing with Nipsenaal. p.) is playing serioHsly and the other (R." M. The day after.24 is CHILD PSYCHOLOGY correct. it is not : . She said of a mushroom which the real game). but if it did.e. and it is an extraordinary flight of fancy for a six-year-old child. and eight months old..

but then I {i. were going up the servants' staircase. then pretended that : she also did not know. " are also compre- hended by the child occasions and R. she six years her appeared in the role of exposer of little sister's hypocrisy. and R. one day to ^ my wife " I use a little many (rather many) hand- kerchiefs in these days. Another day. overhearing the incorrect expression. old. But S.CASUAL OBSERVATIONS OF THOUGHT she found 25 " : First of all I took it for a stone. was ^ down on me Danish. . showed that she was not so ignorant as she had pretended. where do we live ? " and went a story too high up. and the former alleged that she could not remember where they " lived." R.. and thereby stopped at the right door . and began shouting Where do we live . R. lidt mange.e. saw that it ended in air " that the head of the mushroom was and ten months raised off the ground). " Linguistic howlers . has on several her displayed I said knowledge in a : neat manner. S.

.26 CHILD PSYCHOLOGY remark I get at once with the Utile " : You said : A many . she under- stood the decisive point in a scene of The .. that was because she was so fond of him. R. who shuts the door. for then I shall be ruined ? " R. answered " Yes. month later. When Helge Rode's drama The Great Shipwreck.. said " Very likely.'* : : Hedevig fainted when her husband committed pertelling And upon M. R. not ? " added " not " lest she should fail to under- stand my : ironical correction. not? " She had therefore remarked the irregular placing of the negative. but it serves him right anyhow." R. Upon M. about a She that. said " : Well. her that jury in the court. .. upon her " : so often never anylater I said to thing. was seven years and three months old her mother told her the story of R. however. relating how the director said to " Emil Why must you capture me." had no difficulty in understanding Similarly. About a fortnight forgetting to shut the door after her I Who shuts the door . .

namely. But when we compare the above- the observations with intelligence-tests. that R. Well. Then said R. she was nicer to her father than so to the wild duck. between four and seven years of age. mentioned to another conclusion." Does not this long list of citations prove that a child in the period under discussion. By this means she would make " her father happy. : most then. and that to casual is not necessarily applic- able others. M. but precious thing she possessed.CASUAL OBSERVATIONS OF THOUGHT Wild Duck. reasons more and much better than assumed ? is generally The objection can it of course be raised that the evidence concerns one child only. we are forced The intelligence- tests prove. and of Hedevig wanting to shoot this wild duck which her father did not which was the like. told her 27 of the studio with chickens and pigeons and the wild duck. which she liked much. is not superior to other well-endowed children of the same .

trary We it should on the con- humour the child's need for under- on the right road to good and sound reasoning. insignificant being lacking comprehension. evident from the observations what an is objectionable practice in education it is to ignore the child's thinking-powers and treat it as a small. CHILD PSYCHOLOGY Therefore we may be allowed to conclude that her standard of reasoning is to be found also in the group of similar- aged children with other respects. the above recorded observations of the child's doubt standing and set and criticism show is especially of for what signal importance it educators to avoid weakening or undermining the child's trust in themselves by stifling the child's sense of criticism and. it whom if she is is But this equal in really the shows. by crushing . Besides. fact.28 age. for the latter understand far better than it is generally supposed. inter alia^ how extraordinarily careful in their speech parents and other adults should be in the presence of small children . when it is roused. Finally.

. criticise whatever other means of avoiding the issue comes most easily to mind.CASUAL OBSERVATIONS OF THOUGHT it 29 down without explanation with a or trite remark that children must not their elders.


any more than those of the adult. etc. begin to work without THE there them to work upon. in respect to the child's spontaneous ideas is there some more intimate and more profitable nourishment for the infantile thought-processes ? And shall the material be given the child in narrative form. in which are or discussed Chap. or more advantageous and more natural manner in which it can be made is there a . death.. III. creation. .CHAPTER II GROWTH OF THE POWERS OF OBSERVATION thinking-powers of the child cannot of course. But what is the best means of providing the child with this material. and being material for of it what kind shall it preferably be ? Shall be problems on fully life.

by further thought. p. Such methodical observation is new even in science . 103) I have . and in such case.82 CHILD PSYCHOLOGY its to swallow nourishment for forwarding mental development ? The answers to these questions must depend to a great extent upon whether the child can itself observe. one must not demand of it i. in what it it. its cap- able of adapting observations to assist But. a snap-shot collector.e. observations. if It is therefore already a great step it can be shown that the kindergarten-child is an interested and intelligent casual observer. especially if in addition it possesses to some extent the power of adapting and arranging In Child Pyschology its (I. a deliberate a scientific observation : and continuous inspection with a definite aim in view. the in- spired glance. which has so often been the starting-point for great discoveries. to it the scientist links also the casual observation. of course. is temporarily interested. is and whether its progress.



reported my observations on the evolution of the infantile powers of observation in the

period of

its life.


after a while, as

the years pass, the child's powers of observation grow, partly perhaps because of the
exercise of the organs of sense, but


and maybe

entirely, because of

the child's increasing thoughtfulness accompanying the process of observation itself.

This fact results in the received influences
being appreciated more and more effectively as time goes on. But in addition the
faculty of attention grows also,

and through

the thoroughness with which the child observes

In this


however, I shall confine

myself chiefly to the investigation of observation by means of sight ; for I have not been
a position to secure evidence of any importance concerning the evolution of the

remaining senses. One can with some justice protest that everything told to the child acts upon its


and that therefore the




comprehension shown by


evidence of

faculty of hearing


but this meaning







development of the faculty of hearing. If, however, it must be so, one must in justice
confine oneself to

what the

child picks


from what

people say in its environment.

myself with endeavouring mainly to elucidate the development of the sense of sight, the
faculty of observation on a diminished scale.

In the meanwhile I

For the purpose of education it is of the utmost importance to ascertain whether the
child evinces

any enthusiasm

in its capacity

as observer,



on the whole

remains passive towards the surrounding world's countless phenomena. In the event

being evident that the child



enthusiastic observer,

again of great value to form a reliable estimate of the

extent and strength of its powers of observaFor in good education one must build tion.

on the


natural tendencies,

in the

event of the latter being of value in the






— and



order to help the child
this reason,

forward in

it is



of such great interest to

watch over the

child's progress in its cap-

acity as observer.


things of course are those

which naturally attract the child's attention and which are observed by it. When R. was
four years and

two weeks


we went


a walk to see the Christmas shops. She was absorbed in all the windows wherein there

were displayed


marzipan and chocolate


coloured pictures, toys,

the other hand, bright colours or gleaming splendour do not attract her attention when the colours or the splendour is



in objects



which possess no intrinsic the child. For example, she

walked obliviously past the flower-shops with their beautiful blooms, and past a

window crowded with bright multi-coloured
lamp-shades. On one occasion she inquired the name of smoked eel ; but otherwise com-

She then noticed that one of the coins.86 CHILD PSYCHOLOGY and pletely ignored fish." She had noticed that they appeared somewhat smaller. Small things. quite a subtle observation. a Swedish 2-0re. was four years and two and three- quarter months old. was four years and five months old she was allowed. to ride on the top of a tram. meat. food on the whole. for the first time in her life. former the chalk should be purchased. however. A newspaper was being held over a red eiderdown upon which the sun was shining. to which adults usually pay no attention. A couple of days afterwards she saw . bread. cakes. and sat She immediately looking down on the street . said : " The ladies have become girls. When R. which the other lacked . frequently rouse the child's eager interest. she was given two 2-0re with pieces and told to buy a piece of chalk one of them. had a line round and with the it. When R. and R. When made four years and four months old R. asked " : Why's the newspaper red ? " She had noticed the reflection from the red silk.

saw an ant and said " Can you see the ant has two humps ? " She was verifying her previous observation.. . but afterwards more deliberately. having seen some crows in the Zoological " The crow shook its head Gardens. I saw.e." M. related " and some water came on me. consciously." R. asked " R. i." I Then : : it must have had some water " : in its beak. its beak was shiny. and then I say it. anyone told you to do that ? : : " Has " No. " I answered It's a wasp. first I think and then I speak." R.'''* At the age of four years and eleven " months she said First of all I think : a little. : It has two humps like an ant " . : When four years and six months old. Yes." Then said R. . too. Later in the day its when out walking R. When five years and one month old R. the forepart and the hinder-part.POWERS OF OBSERVATION an " insect 87 on a window and inquired its name. R. that body consisted of two clumps. was in this at first self-critical. as she learnt to know herself. Yes . un- but I can't help doing instance actually it.

38 CHILD PSYCHOLOGY saw a gentleman who was walking past trip and fall down. . When old R. very * Menneskets Udvikling. some on a and some plant-louse holes in a pine-tree. walk along thinking of someand yet I always look out that But perhaps I'm different. and so had neglected to look where he was going. in her concluding remark. was five years and seven months we went for a walk in Tisvilde Woodt and galls of the gall-gnat finding there beech-leaf. the suspicion that her condition was perhaps not quite the same as the gentleman's in question. He explained that he had been walking along thinking of something else." She here expressed not only self-observation but also.'^ With regard to the drawing of a bison facing this page she said. heard this and later on said me " : How can you fall down through else ? walking along thinking of something I very often thing else I don't fall. to R. When five years and eleven months old she was looking at the pictures in my book Human Evolution. she asked what they were.

. Hi.[To face p. SS—vol.

39—vol.[^faie p. Uu .

e. and you can see plainly a little of the : When whole moon" knew {i. dimly-shining part of the moon. " where the stress shall Three weeks later R.e. which was three " Yes. also the earth-lighted." and of the picture of an : Australian's skull she said ugly. of which she The following day she drew attention to a linguistic phenomnaturally nothing). R. enon . is He's lost a front tooth little no.POWERS OF OBSERVATION " rightly : 89 It's Zoo. was six years and four months old I showed her the moon. "Oh! He ." tion. for it not quite like the one in the (the latter) hasn't a hump like that on its head. it's days old at the time. This is point there (of the a really excellent observaintelligent and shows an comprehension of something quite foreign to the experience of a five-year-old child. and finding some empty as well as some containing . from the words how the sound be laid). and I were ing collect- vineyard-snails shells . for she said " : You is can't see (i. for there's a root). he's lost two. She said pretty.

." This observation is so acute that I at all events am convinced that very few children indeed have made it. He reads off. said ceitedly (i. I wouldn't be able . six years old. and I were visiting the Zoological Gardens one day when she saw some crested-pigeons and said " : You can see that they are father and mother. I shell). for one has some funny feathers on its head. I can understand when Father reads.) reads but if I hadn't heard them (the tales) before. six years and ten months old." R. very clear that she consider it nevertheless of interest that R..e. hearing and eight months it X. Even if it cannot be called an exact observation. to understand it at all.. leaf (i. R.. very conbetter that he shows or something it of the sort) . read Hans Andersen's Fairy " : Tales aloud.e.. .40 CHILD PSYCHOLOGY she said it. living snails. " : When it's there's a hanging to that there It is I know for Father " is a living animal in the is using her powers of observation. but I think it's funnier when he (X.

Un- — . And just as I have succeeded in may ascertaining the existence of great powers of observation in the child. for the pigeons were of two different breeds. while the other's feathers were pointed. has been of special interest to me to ascertain at what stage the child of the age It under discussion begins of its own accord to use method in its observation.POWERS OF OBSERVATION 41 however. methodical verification one may " " almost say scientific observation. either in its actual process of observing or afterwards itself of when endeavouring to convince learnt the accuracy of the observation. the one having fan-like ends to its head-feathers. which for offer to the educator a natural basis further development. so have I also found indications of methodical proceedings which I regard as a sign that the child already in the kindergarten age displays an aptitude for exact. was not quite correct. for I have from experience that observations which have the character of a " discovery " very well be previously known to the child.

four years and six months old. and finding the eggs. accompanied one of my classes on a botanical excursion and listened to an explanation of ." it to pieces. She asked her mother what the thick lump at the base of a narcissus is called. and received the answer that it is called the ovary and that there are eggs in it. was four years and months old she evinced perhaps even deliberation in greater this respect.42 less this CHILD PSYCHOLOGY tendency were so neglected. the and thorough observation would scarcely be so seldom encountered as it is now. Some days later she picked up a narcissus and said I " : I'm going to pull see the eggs. even in many ways hindered and partly stultified in its development both at school and to a certain extent faculty of accurate in the home. five Wlien R. 37.. one example of an observation I being verified. asked " it those there ? "Is One day R. for it want to She then tore : asunder. nay. in the case of the ant on p. have already given.

flowers. It (we saw yesterday) on the road. : Gardens " Wild it's R. On " : some wild and asked chervil. five years and two months said to a lady who had drawn . Don't like that at all her portrait I've seen myself so often in the looking-glass. and everything. again has to an discovered how gain experience with the assistance of experiment." Closely related to the verification is the experimental method of procedure.POWERS OF OBSERVATION the difference 43 between wild chervil and the following day she saw gout -weed." also a verification was which R. stalks. five When years and four months old she was jumping up and down on a sofa." chervil in Frederiksberg What's that " : ? " see I . made old. stage R. on the high back of which stood a little vase filled with flowers. wherein one examines the phenomenon by means of experiment for the purpose of ascertaining whether observation is in keeping at with early expectation. : when " she. Can you like those leaves. I said to her " : Mind the vase .

" Truly a typical : experiment. for nice. she received the advice to put some small " it tastes pieces of bread in the soup.'s experiment consequences. I showed her a photograph of about fifty men. for asked more. with far-reaching power of pedagogic Nor was R. it tastes nice. took a pencil and you find me ? about five : . contented herself with putting one piece only in the soup." and she replied : " I push it further in (towards the wall) and then I watch to see if it comes further out. When five years and six months old she was eating some rhubarb soup. a observation. auto- experimental faculty. and asked " R. and having finished her piece of toast." But R. I discovered another form of deliberate methodical observation in her when she was years and ten months old. There being no more.44 doesn't CHILD PSYCHOLOGY fall down." Thus there matic clearly exists an innate. with the vase a purely fortuitous and unique occurrence. tasted it and " said Yes. " Can among whom was myself.

She probably recollected that she had been praised for her systematic search for me in the picture . it turned mauve. R. afterwards. when she five About a month years and eleven was playing with her Nipsenaal and lost one on the floor. was also fully self-conscious when at the age of six years she sat painting and made a little discovery in connection with colour- She cried out suddenly mixing. The fact that she did not succeed in recognising me at once is another matter. I took red '* . and thus had been fully conscious of her method. : . for which she received due praise. floor-boards separately. first and then blue. Look. one by one. until she found her toy. She " then said to her mother Look how I " find Nipsenaal and then examined the months old. and then they turned mauve.POWERS OF OBSERVATION pointed it 45 first at one portrait and there- after systematically followed the faces row by row to find me. look . and does not lower the value of her methodical investigation." The following is another example of de- .

offered the feel this left " objection No.46 liberate CHILD PSYCHOLOGY method." Still clearer in respect to conscious demon- was R. thinner. old. but I will show you answering " violet leaves. it's as it R. six years and seven months old. seeing R." No doubt . six years and four months said : and upon my No. isn't .'s reply one day when she. then we can see. The other one's thick because I've been sucking my fingers. finger (the corresponding one on the it's hand)." she remarked We can That's a violet . showed me " a finger of her right hand and said It's stration : much too joint). . didn't know (the difference between) I monkeys' hands and men's hands before saw them (together) in a picture.. to which it No." thick here (in front of the second I assured her " : should be : " . " the leaves of a pilewort. " " : : hold I them side by side. her explanation it is of doubtful value but is clear enough that she attempts to prove her statement by direct comparison of the two corresponding fingers.

birch-leaf 47 afterwards. the date not being R. for I beech-leaf to see the difference. .POWERS OF OBSERVATION Some time recorded. on this difference." occasion desired to show off to her mother and has therefore exaggerated the frequency but in any case there of her comparisons is no doubt at all that she has mastered . Then she added : "I always do I pick something from each tree to see the It is possible that R. but birch- leaves to be toothed and of another shape." and found beech-leaves to be smooth- edged and " round " (oval). this. the principle of comparison. in : was walking along with a her hand when she said to " Please tell her mother me when we want to pick a She did come to a so beech-tree.


in one and the same person. This rule. there is is not without exceptions in of . On the other hand. exerted by and. power III. or the converse. for found many persons a specially in strong VOL. or so interdependent as to allow one to assume that there are necessarily great powers of recollection where there exist great powers of attention . the ability to recollect is as a rule proportionately stronger the more thoroughly the person's attention has been fixed on the thing observed. one of the essential .CHAPTER attention it III ATTENTION AND RECOLLECTION when THE whole. a child observes is on the senses. foundations of its power to recollect but attention and recollection are by no means identical. —4 recollection certain . however.

where a pair of lying. it is seldom indeed that I cannot remember where I have seen them. for scissors is example. in other respects they remember badly in spite of close attention.50 respects. while. hitherto been particularly strong but she invariably are. although it cannot be claimed that I with interest S. Her memory has not . If it is asked. CHILD PSYCHOLOGY even when they do not exert a high degree of attention . . knows exactly where her things and can often enlighten other members where their belongings My wife on the contrary of the family as to are to be found. contrariwise. am consumed scissors . for the the family and has oral exactly same peculiarity. 1 have had abundant opportunities in my own family to observe both adults and children in this myself remember very imperfectly both what I read or hear. contrary. whatever I have seen sticks fast. I . even when but on the exerting my whole attention matter. although the observation may have been quite casual and concerning a mere bagatelle.

however. but recollects very inaccurately the whereabouts of particular objects. In the following pages it will be shown how well R. with any degree of success .'s herself has is deposited of them. the memory exactly same character. the accelerating holds good evolution in the it is psychical sphere of action by increasing powers Nor is a high collection. and he who lacks a fairly well-developed memory . even when and she R.'s ability to give in- formation as to the whereabouts of casually observed articles. recollects in many respects.ATTENTION AND RECOLLECTION has an excellent 51 memory for all that she has heard or read. or to speak more generally." He who is not able to concentrate his attention on a single task cannot observe. although she seldom re- members the position of articles other than her own belongings. As a general that rule. sense. and does not possess in the least degree S. of attention accompanied and rede- intellectual velopment attainable without these latter " faculties.

life." and she has main- tained steady development in this respect.52 CHILD PSYCHOLOGY acquire is cannot the sum of experiences which essential. . although one was coloured while the other was merely a black and white newspaper print. When but very little more than four years old she saw from the top of an omnibus a coloured picture of Mona Lisa in the window " of a book-shop and pointing said Lady . said " We were Gentlemen doorway in Vesterbrogade : » P. I. 59 fi. at an early stage has established the she has a good ^ fact that memory : this may be seen from numerous examples in Child Psychology. R.. for the purpose of succeeding in It is therefore well growth of worth while to study the attention in the child. and the its evidence of developing memory. or at all events useful. When she was four years and one month old we entered a where a gentlemen's outfitter was displaying some dummy " " and R.'^ She had succeeded in recognising the picture. we saw in Politiken.

: although sort had seen - nothing of the pre- since harvest time." is But the explanation as in this case obvious. four months viously.ATTENTION AND RECOLLECTION 53 here the day before yesterday. One day R. namely. in order to impress them . for which reason its concentrates such close attention on play. Children are especially good at bering things connected rememsome with their play." In reality it had been a She displayed. Unfor- tunately the practice of education is seldom based on this premise. You thought (incorrectly) it was hard by the town-hall (in the children's sand-playground). games interest it the child intensely. poked my asphalt and said stick against " : It's hard here. fortnight ago. that the child shall preferably gather its experiences with the the same interest and attention as case in its is games. much more striking powers of recollection when on the same day she saw a however. picture of a man " That's what she with a scythe and said " they reap grass with .

Unusual events. bury onelose oneself so that one temporarily forgets oneself in and is all else for . It is therefore that it is so overwhelmingly important to arrange all educational activity in such a manner that it may interest the pupil in the highest possible degree. Nevertheless the play can very well be pre- pared and arranged by parents. As regards play. R. four years and one month old. or others. preparing to go to a Sunday school to see some magic-lantern pictures. remarking that it was there she had seen the magic " lantern on a previous occasion. to enter into something. also naturally make a deep impression. is remembered. teachers. Saw a . was greatly interested. and are therefore remembered for a long time. the success is probably greatest when the child is left to its own devices. the one thing which one absorbed and experience acquired under this stress of strong interest clings fast to the brain.54 CHILD PSYCHOLOGY upon : firmly its memory. however.. By interest I mean self.

. Many children's games tend to exercise attention automatically . at least three months Another unusual event which made a deep impression upon R. was four years and four months old her mother and aunt turned the skipping-rope. When R. She had seen the picture previously.. " succeeded for the first time in jumping " in at the right moment. play with a skipping-rope. the for instance. referring to a picture of the deposed Chinese childemperor and a screen with birds on it. When four years and two months old she said one day Do you remember that old man we saw out at Damhus Lake ? He was so old and spoke : " so funnily ." she said. he said he lived in Copenhagen and ." We had seen and a half months previously. was a meeting with an intoxicated old man.ATTENTION AND RECOLLECTION little 55 boy with a bird. At the same period R. the I can't remember. was able to remember eight man what to buy when sent on an errand into the town for her mother. and R. making six jumps .

replied old fox' (i.'s recollection extended over a period of one year with regard to an . was four years and nine months old I showed her a nettlebutterfly sitting on a flower and said " We saw one like that at Tisvilde (a month " Yes." When four years and eleven months old.e. one day early in November said to her mother " Do you remember Father made a : wreath of earth once when we were out in the country ? What was the place called ? " The incident took place at the churchyard in the spring of 1912. Although it is a little doubtful which of these above two occasions was referred to.' a picture). about two and a half years. previously.56 CHILD PSYCHOLOGY She tried again several times. with before failing. there is no doubt in the follow- ing case that R. and was much attracted by the game. When R. Even towards phenomena it which has no immediate connection. The big fox. and it's like the before)." R. the child can display great attention and therefore remember well. : * : ' R. or perhaps one and a half years.

i. That was. . but a R. "No. brief recollection ing.ATTENTION AND RECOLLECTION 57 incident which took place in the Sunday" Do school. it was that time the plate was . we were walking past an dead tree in Frederiksberg Gardens. however." But when the lady had replied : " " gone R. and her mother met a lady who had been staying at the same boarding-house as we in the summer of 1911. said to her mother Yes. a good three and a The lady asked R. She said to me you re: song-book at the Sunday school. half years previously. was five years and one month old.e. when R. : Can you remember me ? Can you remember that I gave you a picture ? " R. said " That's where the goose lay in the old : " tree (on its nest). R. and you stood by the piano and sang ? " It had all happened about a little member you had a year before . five compared with the followyears and three months old. I can remember . and I am quite positive that the incident had not been discussed later.. It had happened the previous April. One January.

almost It is also a year previously. " (inside a puff-ball." which was quite But she had had no opportunity of smelling a pea-pod since the summer. replied true. of recollection hitherto re- The examples corded refer exclusively to visual-memory. if said to me " : We see they last are white (inside). could also remember well by means of her other senses. that autumn." actually And she was right . five years and seven months must look and old.. to distinguish from a toad- When R. When does she was five to six years old her leaf mother gave her a tulip- and asked " : " : What it smell like ? " R. a plate had been broken by R. A pea-pod. was four years : months old she asked me remember once I was going to change " " Dollies with S. But R. evidence of her good memory that one day as we were collecting fungus R.58 CHILD PSYCHOLOGY broken. Do you remember at the white ? it summer we looked stool). because we found that and seven " Can you .

ATTENTION AND RECOLLECTION the one its (I 59 had) squeaked when we squeezed " " " was This stomach ? discovery made towards the end of October 1914. to observe her memory but it exceeds the bounds of the kinder- garten age. i. about two years and five and a half months before. where she hears so many things told and read. . there have been numerous opportunities in these respects . the dolls having long ago come to grief and been thrown away.e. After R. began attending school. so that the examples will be recorded elsewhere.


the more fantastic tion. a process of un- all between and But at conscious verification commences.CHAPTER ideas acquired IV IMAGINATION THE among its by the child serve other things as material for and the smaller flights of imagination . It merely changes its character and becomes more and more held cognition of reality . not necessarily imply that the child's imagination diminishes in scope and power. to which shows nearer a decided tendency approach This does and nearer to reality. the child. in check by the re- the child and simultaneously grows more and more aware of . its imagina- there being no sense of proportion its at imaginative pictures a certain point in reality. the child's development.

said : her doll.e. tion. was It's it. surrendering to the child's growing knowledge that it is inconsistent with reality. " playing play with not alive then it's fi. In Child Psychology. when of four years and two months but when you " alive . Among their children's imaginative creations animistic conceptions are of special interest.. (i. with which S. you IP. old.62 CHILD PSYCHOLOGY what are merely imaginative pictures lacking the stamp of reality.. I have discussed in detail the strong tendency of the child to imbue inanimate objects with life. Thus R.^ first which deals with children in their four years. 12$ . These also possess the advantage of being comparatively easy to follow in their formation and decay. I. But in the course of time this tendency disappears. For every fresh adaptation of previous demands imagination or to be more exact is an outcome of imaginaexperiences . and what are efforts of imagination founded on reality.

e. four years . however. On the very next day after the foregoing incident with the " dolls she asked Why can't you see the " This question legs move in a picture ? can only mean that she still retains the She. When R.. With the help im- agination therefore. the doll can be brought to life. to which she was giving " milk " out of tiny cups. the motive power of which is not understood by the child. R. although the child is at the same time perfectly aware of its being inanimate. lacked complete enlightenment on the subject. Live people can drink the dolls are not alive.IMAGINATION pretend it's 63 of alive). which beings are should therefore Objects such as motor-cars and trains. Having completed the mother i. circle she said to her " properly . still : belief that pictures of living. are living still regarded as even in its fifth year. was four years and one week old she sat one day playing with her dolls. human something move. and : " therefore cannot drink properly.

the child can readily change its mind and express a belief of there perhaps being hope of their coming to life again. upon my " saying of something in a shop-window That is for Dolly.. It is an anthropomor- phosis. nature. seeing and one month a motor-car slow down and stop said Now it's tired. in Frederiksberg Gardens "Now the geese are going off their clothes.64 CHILD PSYCHOLOGY old. when she comes to life. I therefore the results are beings or at least human-like." received the stategraciously ment and remarked " : Yes. saw some geese and remarked: to bed.'*^ They just take She has probably imagined something of that the geese have no special this kind : ." Even concerning things already regarded : " as dead. however." The child's animism is. Thus R. four years and one month old.. four years and one month old. child recreates things in its own image of human. something more than a mere bringing to or life animating. The . witnessed an example of this one day when R.

same four analogising caused years and one and a half months. VOL." she ing " How can dolls be made demanded : " thus at the stage of believing that by some means or other dead dolls can be imbued with life. a week " creation presented later. III. — 5 . She asked : Why : can't dolls eat ? " Upon my reply- Because they are not alive.. to say on "It's my little girl's her sister's birthday : (the doll's) birthday. Presumably unconscious an outcome of the R." Her doll must not be eclipsed by S.IMAGINATION 65 nightdress or bed. This attitude of alive ? is " She mind causes no confusion provided the stage of development be sufficiently childish. One can very well understand therefore that the ancient Babylonians and Hebrews found no difficulty in believing that their creators fashioned a couple of figures out of clay or dust. and then breathed life into them. but simply take off their clothes (feathers ?) and then lie down to sleep. The actual process of a problem for R. too.

however. fall she can't down (and be killed as is R. shall.). nevertheless. but Lise had to wait until it was her bedtime. but the pleasure is great . there is no reason to deny the treat. was about four years and two months old she placed Lise (her doll) in a window so that it could look out and said : — " Lise ^for is allowed to look out of the window. Even when regarded as dead be permitted to enjoy the child's own experiences. For instance. result in the child treating it it as dead. This process of analogy-forming showed itself in a particularly noticeable manner when R. because R.. The bad eye. just as R. when R. and as the doll cannot be it killed. accidentally knocked out one of Lise's eyes.'s eye had once been treated when she had torn the skin . had to be sprinkled with collodion. or rather the hole. for she's not alive." R. herself not allowed to look out of the window on account of the danger. four years and two months old.66 CHILD PSYCHOLOGY The recognition that a doll is not alive does not. could not buy the col- .

gradually realised. it's not half as pretty surprised little as the other (cloak).'s remark when. She said Why. aged four years and four months. The strength of analogies and the tendency displayed by the child at this period to identify everything with itself shown in R. four years and four months old. between the child and other living beings however. some its days previously.IMAGINATION lodion before the doll's bedtime detail exactly as it 67 — in every happened to R. The difference is. : that's only a bodice . had evidently no idea that her little sister was as yet incapable of drawing any such comparisons. seeing a its dog with said tongue hanging out of its mouth Why's the dog allowed to walk along with its tongue out of its mouth and me not ? " But she at once supplied an : " . sister (then How will aged one year and three months) be when she wakes up and sees it." R.. R. she saw her is also mother wearing a short cloak instead of the " customary long one.

but.68 CHILD PSYCHOLOGY " : answer Oh. four years and eleven months old. thus far at all events there analogy. has run out. R. most crude. .. and even that she herself ate afterwards." When : on the contrary.'s analogising continues is R. assumes nevertheless that the dog is forbidden to walk with its tongue out . Towards her little sister. of course. it can't underso can't help realisation stand what you say to and what of it does. it. Have a " turned to me said : : " rissole ? I'll " and thereupon give her a piece of rye bread and then eat it myself afterwards. offered her doll a piece of bread." R. repre- senting a rissole. instead. Realism and common sense loom large in the foreground of imagination. picked up Lise and Lise's lease of life. (who was one and a half mother year old) that I have gone down to the yard. was four years and eleven months old she hid behind a door. and said to her " Tell S. on the contrary. R. R." But despite her the dog's inability to understand. would not waste the valuable rissole. having eaten dinner.

This was quite beyond R. it is in principle exactly the same thing as that which the child does when it imagines its dolls Andersen makes the and other things to be alive and . and shortly afterwards the lights on the staircase as usual went out automatically. for she " : How can the the light know when the (of man case) I reaches ? bottom the stair- " have observed no evidence of conceptions religious a later age than the above. can be made by observing how the child reacts towards the pseudo-animism of fairy tales. For example. from which of course it does not ideas necessarily follow that they die pletely. indicate When about five years and nine months old R. came a bad cropper. ball when Hans and the top talk. Some one went down the stairs. however.IMAGINATION But stand it is «9 not so easy for children to underphenomena which may seem to life.'s mental horizon said . —at this nature — apart of animistic from away com- A kind of counter-verification.

by the window and took a walnut-shell lay. she said : for a toad couldn't do that. was six years old we . The child upon hearing the it fairy tale must therefore in the early stages of its development regard as reality ? continue but how long does this belief As far as R. with it. " was reading " The Flint and Steel she said : fairy tale to her. was concerned it .70 CHILD PSYCHOLOGY possessed of human attributes. Her mother read Tommelise to hearing her. was noticed that she reacted strongly when four years and five months old. " / wouldn't tree. One day when R. stage where doubt was the normal state . how the toad came in in and upon R. could it ? " the story's R. for No one else had questioned when and I she was four years and six months old. for have crawled down into a there are only small animals there " (knowledge acquired from rambles in the wood with the school children). had evidently arrived at a autlienticity. which Tommelise and hopped out through the window " But that's only a story.

her criticism took quite a different form." we came to the transformed mermaid and Oh. R. when the princess lay dreaming that she saw a dance. old witch. That's a fairy tale. said : she can't dream it before she has shut her R. said drily when the curtain went up she a picture. it's the prince and upon my telling her that the mermaid had been given a medicine by an .'s logic is eyes. R." She thus did not find the landscape a complete illusion. while a number of " But children danced round her. for said R." When. however." not quite clear. but presumably she has reasoned something after this manner : that if the .IMAGINATION 71 were looking at pictures in Andersen's Fairy " Tales and she asked Why has a little : mermaid a said tail ? " Upon my that mermaids " : swam explaining about in the sea she Then only a fairy tale. was about six years and three months old. and saw " SnowWhit e " acted by children with dancing and tableaux. so she can't see it. too. : " It's like Later also. and that " : it had transformed her.

Animistic conceptions are naturally not the only form of mental pictures indulged in by the child. prevent R. months old. is no reason why the child should be deprived Children. world of fantasy. not see as the audience does how therefore does she learn that the children One must indeed be a little lenient when interpreting the children's dance as the dream of the princess. for the princess does . was drinking chocolate. so many children dancing round her there fishy with the explanation it. four years and three plays. must be something that she is it dreaming all. Among other things its games are often regarded as miniature theatrical When R. from and there listening to them with pleasure ..72 princess is CHILD PSYCHOLOGY really dreaming it. of this valuable source of spiritual develop- however. The realisation that fairy tales are not are there ? true does not. there ought not to be children there and that as there are . she hit . must not be allowed to remain clinging fast to their ment. of course.

rang. When " sold " tried to four years and one month old R. Good-bye. But upon her rolling the paper together it assumed the form of a cornet. It's for In Denmark it is the general custom to drink chocolate on birthdays.* of playing that it 78 was my birth- by feet my as She went out into the passage. Immediately she said 1 " : It's a cornet. what free play she gives to her imagination and she repeated this game time after time without discovering her mistake. inter alia^ she make me a muff from newspapers. stamped. It can be seen . came again. rang an imaginary bell and said " It's your birth- day. marked time noisily with her if climbing the : stairs. A strange lady has come to drink chocolate with you." After drinking a little. stood side. But each time she represented a fresh visitor. ." She evidently felt constrained to come out to the stair: case to thank me chocolate in my although she drank the room. me various things ." and said " Thank you.IMAGINATION on the idea day. " R.

. . Will you play ? . It proves how haphazard and chaotic the tion are. sud- denly conceived the whole room to be full of girls. to whom she Yes. R. you may play." all " A by herself in the middle of the dining: room. One morning some days later. with whom she played. come little later she began to dance " announced along. . . Only people with nice names to play.74 CHILD PSYCHOLOGY So easily was she induced by the you. called to mind a . allowed is . She rushed " over to a bookcase and said Oh." accidental folding of the paper to abandon her original plan. " . or at child's efforts of imagina- any rate can be. here's : some one I must get hold with us ? . . Your name ran into it ? She then the girls other there : room and asked the imaginary " May : thereupon and she play with us ? back to Trive. ." Later in the day R. and a lot more are coming. . and to her mother's question there many girls here ? " answered : " Are " Yes. . What's your is name are Trive. of.

and now went for a " motor drive " on a chair.IMAGINATION 75 motor drive she had had some days before. She put hat and coat and gloves " but as she was walking past her mother on old. was. . R. now you've knocked my hat off. She then left it : and went and " " sat in lot it a corner. imagined herself preparing for a " walk. was the errand-boy. quite a wrong thing to do " R. became very cross and said There. A similar incident took place on another occasion. An inkling of the intensity of the working of the child's imagination is gathered when one unintentionally happens to disturb the R. remarking ! What a of ladies there are here (exactly as has happened when accompanying her mother on a call)." Of such small import was a caress in comparison with the world of fantasy. " " when she was playing shop with her mother. when about four years and two process. and came but when her mother in with some goods . This . : Mother.. . months the latter stroked R.'s hair. for however.

way home was she said to her mother " : What : M. flying-top. intensely. no. "No. I suppose." R. because it could fly round In the midst of this world of imagination." . It is this fantasy- enlargement which gives things their real value in the child's mind. She called it a top. she didn't. " was playing school with her grandmother.7<J CHILD PSYCHOLOGY her she said kissed " : No. realism is none the less real. Yes. that was it. when four years and seven months old. then ? : : " : a flying-top the yard. R. boys " . I'm the errand-boy. it the lady called the top ? " I don't know. When four years and two months old R. however. but in the " flying -top. A crowd of invisible children." M. "A " " R." The secret in this connection no doubt consists in the fact that imagination exaggerates what happens to such a degree that the child can no longer distinguish fact from fancy. was one day presented with a top and whip.." a shop the top was called a On the fact which interested R.

then said to them . and grandmother had to them. what are you about ? You have not eaten your food " and then : — devoured all the raspberries herself. but they would not come. " I expect I'd better call R. for called to : you're so old. here are two fir-cones. operates clusively with her imagination." The children then sat down to eat. she at other times feel the need of can some object or other. and R. When four years and eight months old. But when she came back and saw that all the raspberries were untouched. put a raspberry before each of them all the way round the table. It was time for them come up out of the water where they were bathing. then they'll obey better. ex- Although sometimes R." one and a little one . which she then creates according to necessity. she said we something which can be children ? Yes. and preparing to start for the : " Haven't beach with her mother. she ex" claimed Children. She chose a big but when her mother .IMAGINATION and girls. 77 were present.

" Just as they were on the point : of returning *' home from the suddenly " girls ? : Yes. R. she said little Quite an insignificant detail may serve as a spring-board for the child's imagination. objected No.. was dancing with her mother. These colours probably attracted R. But later . received a girl-doll with white cloak and red dress." S. said *' Do stop singing. Mother there's : . was given a boy-doll dressed in grey clothes. But suddenly R. while S." R. they're both children. some one playing. But only in her own . while the girl could not and after that she " For could talk. when about four years and eleven months old. who at the same time hummed a melody. he When six years and one month old R. but —where are the beach.78 CHILD PSYCHOLOGY : " It's a mother with thereupon remarked " her child.'s eye." imagination. for she looked very dissatisfied and desired to exchange with on she discovered that the boy could squeak when his stomach was pressed. preferred the boy.

) : : : ." and began her wild dance all over again. was six years and six months old she one day began dancing and kicking her legs about with great abandon. then you're no good I must find some one else. phantom who " and R.IMAGINATION 79 R. Yes. she sang " : Now he's dead. Suddenly She then : asked another " . with pleasure replied danced round the room with him. Such lively outbursts. Oh. Then she stood up and began to sing a mournful song in a voice deep down in the throat." threw herself down on the floor and bowed her head in despair." R. are very uncommon with R." But soon afterwards she sang " Now I must go and find another." engaged. danced towards an invisible " Will you be engaged to gentleman and sang " me ? The gentleman was made to answer " " But I am married. If her behaviour may . at the same time stretching : : " I see his white out her hand theatrically coffin. an imaginary ball. and was seeking a (Our housemaid had recently become R. She When was at fiance. however.

e. tested as regards its conformity with reality.80 CHILD PSYCHOLOGY be regarded as a trustworthy measure of " fantastic " her state of mind. i. Imagination. it may be taken for granted that the latter has grown more and more subdued during the evolution-period under discussion. whilst the latter constantly being brought to earth and verified. however. does not confine " " itself alone to the more form of poetic expression. It is therefore worthy of in- vestigation to ascertain whether other forms are to be found in the childish mentality at this period of its life. also a characteristic of For imagination is the scientist and the inventor. It is therefore far from true is that this form of imagination requires less . consists only in the fact that the imagination. man of and the merchant finding new methods between the " free. and former transcends the bounds of reality and enters the realm of dreams. of trading or hitherto unexplored markets. The difference " poetic the imagination of the scientist. as well as the creative affairs.

R. when the mother went away removed the lid the little girl and out flew a bird. when four years and two months was listening to a story of a little girl whose mother gave her a box perforated with small holes to enable her to see what was inside. The poet the inspired child. In the case of the scientific imaginalike tion. but she was forbidden to take Nevertheless off the lid. for instance. without the team being necessarily less mettled. As might be expected. The poet's fantasy most akin to the but infantile.. old. the constantly maintains a tight critical faculty hold of the reins. is Quite in fact is the reverse. and the thereto related forms. the child essentially free and untrammelled. frequently Traces of it. imagining in potential form. At the same moment the mother came back and told her that she had intended III. " free " fantasy. VOL. imagination combined with verification far less is found in children less precociously and than the however.IMAGINATION cultivation than the free 81 fantasy. may be detected. —6 .

besides. endeavoured to explain thunder to herself. R. and could therefore quite well be replaced by the picture of a child.82 CHILD PSYCHOLOGY to give her the bird. : said " : When it the thunder hears a cart rumble. She asked her mother " What is it ? How does it thunder ? " Receiving " the reply You cannot understand it : considerable yet it it nobody knows exactly what " is. but that now." she said No. she put a little picture of a child in a cardboard box. you don't know what is yourself. when four years and four months old." But shortly afterwards she . pricked a number of " small holes in the lid and asked Was " it like this the holes were in the box ? : She was verifying her impression of the box the bird on the contrary needed no con. and although the exerted result was wrong she : imagination in her verification." line of She displayed here a similar thought . will thunder again I expect. As soon as R. as she had been disobedient. had heard the story. it should go back to the bird-dealer. firming..

is harmony with savage's foresight. after is in principle the same method as that employed in analoscientific visionary. gous cases by the One form to life. of imagination which is true or rather feels the need to be in reality. Which. ." she said " : Is it or something like that ? " flying-machines By a fluke she has really approached very closely to the truth without understanding it. has not satisfied her : for a little later she said thunder ? " And receiving completely " Where does it " the reply : . however. 83 who believed that the thunder came past with his goats. menon. Up in the air. ceives it to be something living which hears when Tlior drove But R. probably con- the rumbling of the cart and ansv jrs back by rolling and rumbling. Conversely. come of lack of imagination. This theory. too. The habit of living in the is moment an out- without thought of the future. But she has thought experience among the known facts of her to explain the unknown phenoall.IMAGINATION to that of the old Norsemen.

She began crying. "All right." At the age of five years and one month foresight again neatly expresses itself in her remark " : I'm very happy." later And when was she a couple of days promised a handkerchief : "It would by her grandmother she said some one else can be nice to have two give me another one. had torn one of her pictures to pieces.. can't find one. did so on one occasion when S. "but you'd better if me two. R. I shall have the other." give said R. . so I shall have another one gets torn. four years and four months old. but her mother comforted her with a promise to buy a new picture for her. and then when I . for I have two red pencils..84 it CHILD PSYCHOLOGY is a sign of growth of imagination when a child begins to display interest in the future." When was four years and ten months old she " Mother. given a 2-0re and said : do you know what I'm going to do with all the 2-0res I get ? I shall keep them in a box and then buy a big doll with them when I'm grown up.

five R. old." and thereupon drew a with a circular head. for the other. when day five years and months one borrowed my drawing-triangle for use as a ruler. man Probably something of the same kind occurs when the child acquires a principle.IMAGINATION That's so nice. But after a while she drew a circle by running the pencil round the hole pierced in the "I can use it to draw triangle and said : heads with." course is difficult to judge how much . rare . She had been discussing the subject difficulty with her mother and said : "I Of of always do the most for difficult thing first. however. remarked one in R." Inventiveness is 85 now if I lose one I have being the adaptation of a familiar object for a ginative activity.. although such an acquirement I feel sure is in any case it is seldom observed. when it it comes last it's so tiring. when of she was five years and four months old. I have. another phase one form of of it ima- new purpose.

and told her that the Nile 800 (Danish) miles * long. her sentiment of the moment improvised on the spur but the whole speech is suggests that her remark the result of previous experience. of therefore interest that R.'s egotism blinded her to the possibility that S. In similar manner R.86 CHILD PSYCHOLOGY is . thought out for herself another idea when I was talking about Egypt. for she's so little she doesn't know how nice it tastes." R.. said to me needn't have a piece of it. is She re- marked *' : Oh ! And it's one mile from Tisvilde to Helsinge. : upon " S. To put tion It is is oneself in another person's posialso an outcome of imagination. . finding a boletus edulis. > One Danish mile is equivalent to about four English miles. She evidently pictured to herself the length of the Nile by thinking of it as 800 times the distance from Tisvilde to Helsinge. might enjoy the new experience.

or at all events of teaching the difference between fiction and reality. example by ridiculing its ideas. . and both these forms of mental activity should be allowed free play and plentiful nourishment during adolescence. reality the task of correcting and leave to the errors of imagination. fantastic kind.IMAGINATION Thus the kindergarten tion child's 87 imagina- not only be of the unbridled. verifying type . The adult shall endeavour always to be for childish when in the presence of children. but may also be of the more may realistic. But it would be a grievous mistake to seek by unnatural means to dwarf the child's lively imagination. excessive Should the child evince an tendency to imaginative flights the latter may be subdued by diligent intercourse with reality.


CHAPTER state of V SENSATION AND WILL-POWER THE glad. spirits low Happiness. be healthy and of normal intelligence there are no reasonable grounds for the child not to feel glad for existence. and is *9 one the basic . therefore. of is the normal state of children. boisterous. can only gain ascendancy through bad bodily health or depression of mind. The child delighted. general mind is in the wellis healthy normal child a defined feeling of happiness. bad temper always temporary and evanescent. noisy is according to circumstances . and no threatening future to For it and. as long as a person is able to live in the moment and ignore the future. face . cheerful. provided it And has no responsibilities to darken the present.

: Again." : . A couple of days later the housemaid said " Look. four years and one month old.90 CHILD PSYCHOLOGY reasons for the fascination they possess for adults. upon my wife one day exclaiming " How sweet S. could smooth hair curl. the other hand. fringe. is. was four years old we were standing by the side of S. and it annoyed her. S. R. On or there can co-exist other im- simultaneously with the normal." R. " and I remarked of her rattle "Wliat a : When but R. this optimistic condition may be darkened by sentiments of dislike. cheerful state of mind. said ." She would not be put in the shade by her little sister. standing at her : side began suddenly to fumble with her but not she obviously nothing succeed in making her fine." R.. Jealousy is one of the most frequently observed of pulsive feelings the latter. immediately picked pretty rattle up a box having a picture on its lid and . " said " : This is prettier. has curls. said " I'm just as sweet.'s cradle.

It is more than probable that his behaviour flattered her . Children are so extraordinarily apt to self-centred. R. old. it is still 91 in a easier to and years preferred. although I made no comment. If others therefore happen at any time to have shown them attention." But it is useless to attempt : to shield one's children against flattery. she " He is so pleased repeated several times with me. an Frederiksberg elderly gentleman smiled at her. four in was walking Gardens with me.. she asked Did they : When . although one would imagine it an easy task to expose the falsity of it. and in play made as if to run down a hill after her. they quickly learn to expect as a matter of course to be the centre of discussion. make it feel flattered One day when R. for. and heard that there had been visitors " the previous evening.SENSATION AND WILL-POWER Although very easy to excite jealousy child. because become too much of by the very nature their psychical composition they are the central point of existence. was four years and one month old.

Even when there is no direct occasion to taste the joys of flattery. When " : R." her stay in Tisvilde in the summer. Her mother was occupied with said to her in fun and " : You are the R. " Yes. Yes.92 CHILD PSYCHOLOGY ? No." It is thus very easy to flatter un: " awares. " " : : : : back Presumably a boy has told her that he remembered her from in the summer. at the age of four years and two months. the child seizes the least hint of an opportunity . do you know what " a boy has (done) ? " M. was four years and four months old or other said R. asked Mother.." Yes. you were in bed and asleep. He has seen me from right : ask where I was " M. No. the other one you know is coyly nicer." : that it that was what the lady said was sensible to tie the spade to the " (toy) bucket.. I said to her in some connection " That was sensible. for example." R. interpolated naughtiest girl I know . what has " " he ? R. as. but didn't " Some days you tell them where I was ? ** later R. R. S." The lady's remark had made .

R. : lying dark. has not once been afraid of the dark. apart for from the previously sake. and she when the lady praised the arrange- ment. " : Why. " : light in the passage (sometimes) ? " Because otherwise it's too dark. cry so much of an " " Because the M. Fear and the instinctive tendency to flee from danger is much less prevalent in the kindergarten child than in the earlier ages. then. mentioned evening when she desired the room lighted the doll's When about four years and one month old she " asked Why does S. answered evening ? " to which R. remarked room is in darkness " in the That doesn't matter." M. In any case. herself who had thought life means But of it prolonging the of the felt spade. I like : : . ." Totally strange experiences. that she related " " sensible the story each time the word was used this — in spite of the fact that it was of not even R. the further. flattered was her toy. have we to turn on the R.SENSATION AND WILL-POWER 93 such a deep impression on R.

on a merry-go-round. although she camouflaged " follows I'm not much afraid. six At the age of months." : it as But she has obviously felt some anxiety. she became anxiety. when R. the water immersing her ankles. . she suddenly Do vipers come when you sing ? " revealed itself Vanity unashamed one . she calmed down again very four quickly. for One example. sitting filled with a very real but useful day. arouse knowledge. She screamed violently with terror but. her own courage years and when : evaporated. may It so occurred old. as soon as she once more came up on dry land. four years and three months had the misfortune to step into a waterconduit. And once when we were out in Tisvilde Wood. when on the ground " stopped and asked : singing.. she said riding " of a little boy who screamed He's afraid." Soon afterwards. and I told her of a viper in the heather. consequences of which are of beyond the course child's fear. however.94 CHILD PSYCHOLOGY possibly unpleasant.

shall She said to her mother "I : saults for the painter. a feeling which . but takes good care that the deed is observed. R. was bathing in company with myself and one of my pupils who had come on a visit." whom she was deeply : interested. he does. She walks out until the water reaches right up to her armpits. When the others fail to admire " her courage joy. said to-wit " Let me stand so that the strange boy can : see me." R." apparsufficiently she shouts with In the most flagrant ently quite naturally." M. cases she calls out loudly : " Look ! Again. four years and seven months old." Modesty is. "Yes.. : turn somer" He won't take any notice. I like it so much when he nods to me. he nods to me. she made strenuous efforts to attract the attention of an artist in Father.SENSATION AND WILL-POWER 95 day when R. on the contrary." off She is impelled by her desire to show into exhibiting great courage in bathing. who as usual was about to run out into the water with me..

. for she raised the objection Yes. but why then ? do little girls wear bathing-dresses " Here.. asked: the side of the path.96 CHILD PSYCHOLOGY is at this stage child's completely foreign to the R. asked " " ? do ladies wear : Why bathing-dresses I replied : " Because they are so big. As a result of this incident atmosphere of secrecy now surrounded the whole proceeding. nature. accepted modesty my explanation as ." but " : this failed to satisfy her completely. . however. she displayed her absence of she. when she had finished she said in a whisper. although we were quite alone : knickers right off " You can take my (until after we had had an " our bathe)." as and I therefore proposed we should retire among some fir-trees at R. Possibly also it was a consequence of the above-mentioned incident that R. was anything to On the contrary. press. four years and eight months '* when out with me our children call desired to it . old. when we were bathing. But "Why?" She had not the slightest inkling that there conceal. again.

" The child. dearly.'s are Mrs..SENSATION AND WILL-POWER satisfactory 97 when I replied " : Their parents wish it." : . X. III." however. may. pression of which so often gives the imbeing apathetic towards the sufferings of others. four years and eleven months egotism old. . " that's because she's rather it She can't hear down there (in the " beneath) when I whisper.. prompted by pure R. can she ? R. is nice because S." This rather seems to indicate six : months said to her VOL. but I don't know why. . said to her mother : Why are your ? hands always so clean and white X. probably in most cases through lack of understanding. however.. display extraordinary sympathy in the form of tact. Thereafter she added in a whisper old. by her remark he gives : " Uncle K. Thus R. But the child's flat is love of not excited by the ethical valuation object . . not. . . loved Mrs. four years and nine months " old. 7 . me so many bricks. showed her point of view very clearly it the is . aged five years and mother "I love you so much.

" She fails to realise that the mirth is caused by the humour in the story. for they'll Oi:?ly frequently : " You : laugh. Extraordinary vanity was displayed by R.*' Probably also an outcome of vanity that the child becomes so annoyed upon suspecting that it is being ridiculed. four years and eleven months I it old..'* capable of being deliberately dishonest when it is a question of retrieving " its five years and four honour.. " to see how look is when I am eating." for R. child is The .> four years and two months old. exclaims mustn't laugh (at me)." and R. but assumes that she herself is the object of ridicule. Vanity also : *' replied : Ye-s. S.'s hair will be darker than R.'s. prompted her re" I think joinder to her mother's remark S.98 CHILD PSYCHOLOGY that the motive for the love was not exclusively the mother's kindness towards S." R. said to her mother " You mustn't tell any one.. the fairest (girls) are the prettiest. when she one evening asked to borrow a mirror. five years old.

flattery. was skipping." : .. At the age of five years and eleven months she had not improved in this respect. and did not succeed in accomplishing so many : successful jumps as on the preceding attempt. " why won't you have your hat on ? and the in : child then blurted out the truth : " Because I have ribbons round my hair. She had some silk ribbons bound round her hair. happen ? rope is too small ." account of the child's overweening interest in itself. falls On on fertile ground." grown She must have known quite well that she was talking nonsense.." said R. for I've learnt to knit. and as she was about to go down to play said " I won't have a hat on It it's too hot. even when not intended as such. her mother felt being late " anxious and asked R. whereupon " How did that her grandmother asked " " " I expect the Oh. what do you mean . . October. if only for the reason that she had " learnt " to knit in the interval between the two skipping bouts.SENSATION AND WILL-POWER 99 months old. and now I've bigger.

rather. She " Are said to her mother you glad that it's personality were expressed : " you who decide what children shall do ? M. because children themselves don't know what to do. Would you be glad if it were you who " " R. people tell all little children that they are sweet. Yes. but some of them are : : naughty. . when she was five years and ten months old. five years old.." Self-esteem and the tendency to assert her by R." R. well. expressed sympathy in a charming manner one day when her little sister was crying through having been scolded. decided ? Yes. " No. for then I shall decide for myself. but some one must do it. said " Indeed ? " " I so sweet. R. R." A month later she recurred to the matter and said : : : " I look forward to growing up.100 CHILD PSYCHOLOGY and eight one day " I'm when we were out walking. : : : months every one says I'm so sweet. " retorted Ye-s." With the intention of lowering her self-esteem a trifle " I said Oh." But R." R.

" when R. hummed " " Think of the time when the mist : shall Do you have vanished. it shall be (sung) And like that. on the wall-paper. said tired I like "It's sad I can hear that it's sad. it being sad.SENSATION AND WILL-POWER went to " Don't her." and asked her " " like that ? R. Can you remember that and five now ? " six years When the months old R. very sad. Her mother had been singing Mother. : " . ' " (a Comprehension of the opposite emotion was clearly displayed on her seventh birth- day : for she said jolly." . 101 : put her arm round her and said but you mustn't scribble cry. I am I will sleep now." M." When six years and eleven : months old she sing said to her mother " Please : me a funeral song. awfully To-day has been so Sometimes things can be so : " very. . . It couldn't be like this : ' : the fox he ran to the farmer's house cheerful song). S. Yes. feel showed that she could quite consciously sentiment expressed : in songs.

scattered reminiscences of special interest for the child's everyday life and the whole of its activity are in reality expressions of But the enormous energy displayed by the child in this connection is well worthy will.102 CHILD PSYCHOLOGY is As regards will-power there no need to publish other presumably than a few . But will-power neverAt the time theless has its limitations. they could undress and hat.. and being strongly urged to desist " said It's no good my saying that I won't : bite my nails. of note. used to bite her nails. Similarly.. and S. lace boots — but not tie the laces in a bow—put on cloak and and any offers of assistance invariably met with determined opposition. etc. it itself. for I'm sure not to remember. and strongly objects to help it considers Both R. at the age of superfluous." On the other hand. when she was four years old R. etc. a fact of which the is sometimes well aware." " can do it always. It will " " " " four years could put on their own stockings. only two months later she . wash child their hands. take off their knickers and shoes.

We were out walking. That pupil is considered believing that the greatest specially energetic who labours strenuously. just for a : " Won't you have little way ? " R. It is also quite possible that she " been " in replied : " had willing secret quite as consciously before her mother's question. and to When her mother's inquiry a ride now. she began to feel tired. But this is wrong. No. even when finding the work tedious. for I will be strong. There may be so many .SENSATION AND WILL-POWER remember what to buy 103 could concentrate her attention so well that she was able to in the town when sent out for single articles. is far too its In often ignored. especially At all events the latter by pedagogues. was four years and ten months old I observed in her for the first time a conscious exertion of energy. however. This fact. play the child exerts its will to a high degree. R. I will not ride." and she walked all the way home. speak and act as if amount of willpower is exerted when work is done despite lack of interest.

I haven't : Oh. to be able to "pull itself to" and labour gether regardless of disinclination. R. was therefore especially strong- day when she.104 CHILD PSYCHOLOGY all motives having nothing at will-power. fore is The will there- strongest all. ability. to do with make such a although it is naturally of great value for a person. even . too. was digging on the beach. five years and eight months old. for willed one when " it it was time to go home she said has been splendid. with interest. that it And is desire which drives the machine. under the illusory or true belief that it is " playing." By arranging work so that the acquire capacities. exactly as . and thence follows that the playing child the child should as far as is practicable knowledge. and a child. which tend to pupil industrious. filled but labours unconsciously. its child believes it to be play one trains it in the best possible manner for its work of the future. when the subject does not "will" at absorbed. the truth of the old adage must nevertheless not be forgotten.

" thinking : that there were more there. sport and such-like are therefore the natural of expression of a child's will. was picking mushrooms " with me. six years and seven months old. dancing.. mode Every winter R. please look over on the other side (of the path)." What more could be desired ? Play. write. before even going to school. she said Now.. the form of later on. But of course other motives than intellectual interest or unconscious desire for exercise can be the motive power.. and not realising that I was the better judge of where to find mushrooms. That they have acquired these is accomplishments so soon. and " calculate. and. it has been so splendid.SENSATION AND WILL-POWER 105 had time to paddle. . When R. and practises Desire of her own accord for hours at home. have learnt to read. " play that R. S. quite opposed to my theories . drives the machine. others On this occasion as on " all was extremely diligent for mushrooms from motives searching she It is in " in of ambition. dances by herself.

counting. to learn it. When R. at four years and three months old she could 10. and already. as for calculation. when four years and four months old." self Eight days later she amused her- S. beyond A month to later 5.106 CHILD PSYCHOLOGY it but has wholly come about owing to their desire. i. Owing to their games imitations of what they see happen round them. as a rule. then learnt to count with certainty 4. she could count with certainty made an occasional mistake when that number was exceeded but . was four years and one month old she later had some hair-pins and could count with certainty to 4. they have naturally " " at writing and reading through played seeing their parents thus employed every day . and on she has taught it to S. She herself discovered how to add and subtract. she and I pushing to and fro between us but she had not . saying for example " When I take 2 away (from 4) there are : 2 left. by counting to 10. own persistent being. elder playfellows have influenced R.e. offered one count accurately to .

the help of bigger girl-friends. R. But she could not as . and has observed of her own accord that P has one " hump. counted the cakes and cakes .g. letter several As she showed such letters I interest in little. large old.. writing their names in capitals underneath. a feat which S.SENSATION AND WILL-POWER day to count up to 100. drawing helped her a systematically. At the same period R. draws letters from the headings in the newspapers. outlines of various animals. D one big hump over its whole O is a round bun. months old. 107 suc- and almost ceeded in doing so with a little assistance It was all accomplished through at the tens. four years and months Mouse. has not as yet. began to " draw " letters. and length. etc. and this practice C the half of an O. Cat. e. after baking " of shingle. in her That was incorporated games I saw for instance when she. then she drew the same capital times and counted the total. attempted. five I drew for her." B two four years five and " " humps. " four years and four months old.

By the time she was five years old she could write all the ciphers. could also write single words such as Sonja. quickly learnt to recognise all the letters and numbers and after that she often played " " school and wrote. etc. Later on. Father. and both the large and the small letters.108 CHILD PSYCHOLOGY understand the yet sound-value of y the letters. R. which stood next after mother. S. but when five years and six months old she could write out all the ciphers and count to 100. . I then pointed to Cock which stood I wrote. and . etc. and by employing matches and pieces of matches as capitals. having again read mother. has been less precocious. At five years and four months old she wrote down all the numbers to 100. other but example. With the assistance of this letter-drawing and counting. Ruth. But she learnt by her mistakes to keep her eyes open. but she read Agnes. Mother. she read Agnes. It came also before the picture after mother. for M under a picture of a cock.

On found that R.SENSATION AND WILL-POWER As I 109 do not consider it beneficial for the child to learn to read at such an early age. began to insist given at the age of six on learning. when the phonetic method is employed . nothing at all R. or rather reading. she was years and two months I an ABC. writes. as she often does quite on her spelling . learnt extraordinarily easily to pick up the phonetic values of the letters. in this direction herself has been done to encourage . that proved correct. because I expected that the school would use this particular book. but it would undoubtedly be still easier if were not so utterly illogical. words without assistance. an anticipation the whole it was and she very quickly succeeded of her own accord in spelling. and S. The Children's Danish Reader and ABC. When R. And although am of the con- viction that ABC is Otto Jespersen's system and the rational one. I chose for R. but when R. It is not difficult for a normally endowed child to learn the elementary principles of the art of reading.


accord, the few mistakes she



are caused almost exclusively through her

guiding herself by the pronunciation of the words. As she is unable to read properly,


in consequence has seen very

few words

her orthography is naturally not a copy of what she has seen, but, on the contrary, in a certain sense, is the reprospelt,

duction of the original verbal sound. I therefore quote the following piece from the

time when she was seven years and two " old



Pas paa Kan du



saa en Abe

i et




og Sonja Komr,^^

Tiger leb efter Mai, (Correct version
Ole saa en


Pas paa, kan du


i et


Tiger leb efter mig.


og Sonja


In English Look out, can you Ole saw a monkey in a cage. A tiger


ran after me.

Mother and Sonja are coming,





scholars disagree

to an extraordinary UNFORTUNATELY degree as to the


of morals



It is

only necessary to examine what our


of affairs.
It being the




the subject, to realise the deplorable state


of education to inculcate,


other things, correct behaviour, conor will,

duct of one's

might therefore

be supposed that

educators might just

as well discontinue their efforts forthwith. Fortunately, however, matters are not so bad as they seem for on certain vital rules

of morality there exists

agreement not only among the authorities but also among all normal persons in a civilised community.


it is

Granted that

doubtful whether morals

in the first instance

have their source

in the




the individual, or in society's the individual, this does not

obviate the fact that the practical rules of

viewed broadly,




everywhere, just as little as that in the practice of education one has to take into
consideration both the

demands made by

the public, whether of a small or a large community, and the claims of the individual

would be quite erroneous to assume that the child as regards moral



and moral behaviour






from individual an

differences the child passes through

it development, reaches a similar standard to that of the





of its environment. in Child Psychology,

As has been stated
the baby

utterly without morals, an un-







progress in

its first

four years as regards


— when undetected is wrong. praise. through force home. and not the moral conception that thieving even VOL. went with little sister." Evidently she understood quite well that the bricks were not hers or something she was allowed to take .. and R. III. me and to the hospital to visit her was permitted to play with wooden bricks. blame. On I the way home little she said to I me " : When I'm with sister play with bricks. 8 . it was the remorse- fear of being seen that alone prevented her from stealing the less It is the " authority public opinion " to which she bows. as in the case of R. or punishment. but at the same time she was so little developed that bricks. when four years old.MORALS state of 118 respect." acquires its moral development by means of experience. mind in this In the kindergarten age a child which neither attends school nor hears moral precepts in its example '*the Ten Commandments. can take them when no one's looking. as for of example or casually given advice. S.

wool must cavity and said stop there." start biting It your nails again ? " R. inquired Aren't you going " " into the other room ? : " You M. again displayed fear of authority dentally eyes. in R. four years and two months old. : was true she bowed to authority.114 CHILD PSYCHOLOGY dis- In other words. and don't pushed (the eye in) and that would be a pity. when she acci- displaced one of her doll Lise's She stuffed some cotton-wool in the " The cotton. for Father mustn't see that the : eye is gone . but only because it was on the spot." Her mental attitude was exactly analogous a month biting when she was her nails.. because I've broken my doll. . : Why ? Will you then " Yes." and shortly " afterwards R. for then he'll be : us say who has for then he'll be sorry. she was not moral in position." But later on she changed her defence and said tearfully "We won't tell Father. but behaved correct manner a conventionally from a sense of fear. Her mother later lying in bed said to her : mustn't bite your nails. let angry with me.

two small presents. but to create a diversion she rang up (on an imaginary telephone) to Dr. she was playing Nipsenaal with her mother. one of the pins. Seeing herself detected.. H." This had the desired effect upon R. however. A month later. The request was not unnaturally refused. whereupon R. she showed remorse for having behaved naughtily to her grandmother. four years and three months old. disguising it. and understood quite well the wrongness of her behaviour when. asked her to buy a third.MORALS On 115 the other hand R. Grandma had given R. was ashamed. and . as far as lay in her power. hit ! This " resulted in the latter exclaiming : again. became angry and struck her grandmother. the child looked thoroughly ashamed. and upon looking back again she caught R. The latter's attention was dis- tracted for a moment from the game. You will have your Grandma to beg pardon before we can be good friends What. her of displacing in the act age being then four years and four months. but R.

" " Yes. Some days wrongly when out with her mother in Frederiksberg Gardens. but she wouldn't. afterwards shouting out from " No. displayed a more conscious understanding of having behaved later." R. Soon afterwards her : grandmother took her hand and said " There. She asked if she might be allowed to run round alone." said R. but made no attempt finished. to beg her pardon. I have hit Grandma. surprised at having escaped so " and so we won't say anything to . so I R. but her mother being afraid of her becoming preoccupied and losing her way. She gave to give hit her in the chest and kicked her." Having me two presents and I asked her me another. Father and Mother when they come home I have only been good. said : In spite of this the child succeeded in slipping away and making a circuit of the grounds.116 said CHILD PSYCHOLOGY " : Hallo —Yes. became extremely amiable towards her grandmother." . easily. now we're friends again and you are a good joyfully. girl once more.

for when you say you want to do something and I say " quickly. the authority of the parents. e. and I don't like that. M. At frequently observed by the child. has the greatest influence. comes into operation." do it another time " " which for . you'll only tell me that I mustn't and I won't either." example is the decisive factor and the thing which comes first.. But her mother and R. then " Yes. on another occasion when R." " park : I've run round after presumably her in delight at having been able called to : to find the way.g. then we shall finish No. R. or is most this age ." : Yes. and then " it's so unpleasant. wanted to put both stockings on.MORALS the 117 all. But it was fear authority conquered the desire to run round. In exceptional cases the child may in addition mould itself after a model which pushes . unless special sympathy or some other factor. came slowly up to her and said " I know." said R." M. . Similarly. more " Very well. : mother's angry. said let " : me do one." you mustn't.

. came to light on the occasion when R. although toning down as time passes. a grey : canvas one. .118 CHILD PSYCHOLOGY others. On the next day " she asked Oughtn't there to be some flowers on it ? I think it's like a boy's hat.'s friend saying an awfully hat. who replied Not at all " but to this R..' " Sorry to Nora. objected " You shan't say that. : : The significance. she said Sorry " ! : " . When I said ' ' ' No offence. however. The ** children in the courtyard call it a : navvy's hat. and became very pleased with her new headgear. usually acknowledged. The child's egoism. became the possessor of a new hat. of sympathy in the creation of a prototype." It's But upon nice all R. five years and five months old. into the back- ground. said : " to the housemaid. is nevertheless still predominant in the years vmder discussion. The importance of the first example is made evident in the following dialogue : R." it the child decided that was as should be. four years and seven months old.

Father could have had one. They frequently tell lies quite unconsciously. of of enough for me. but from widely is as well differing reasons. is seldom they tell untruths . however. but in the above case. said. had some sweets. four years 119 and eight months old." Not one.MORALS Thus when R. when five : months old." This course... she said to the maid " Won't you have one ? Then there will be : eight (left) . or prevaricate for the sake of showing On the of avoiding a difficulty. that's egoism may. S. Untruthfulness. who is more close-fisted and reserved than her sister. at all was no more than one would expect in every child of the same age. but they are also known to off. is children. prevalent in all known. it and not a common state events. one day to me years and six " If I more had sweets (than six). it contrary. or through incorrect recollection . be only a peculiarity of certain children. affairs. through confusing their mind-pictures with reality. could be sacrificed from six.

but I said no when Grandma allowed R. " day : She related on the following Grandma gave an orange. It*s to five sometimes. The explanahave been added gift of the larger R. evinced genuine contrition at the age of years and two months old.. possessing the corresponding disposition when." Similarly years and two months. however. Her little sister was standing with a pointed pair of five . asked deceive if it was sour. : because it's the prettiest." tory phrase would scarcely had her real motive for the piece been sheer generosity. told five years and to her one month an untruth from such visit motives on the occasion of a grandmother. however.120 CHILD PSYCHOLOGY The deliberately from motives of politeness.. besides not generally regarded as im- R. latter doubtful is is but indispensable accom- plishment which moral. having been given two pieces of chocolate. it not acquired until later. assumed the society veneer without. she said " Dine (her friend) shall have the largest. when old. It was rather sour.

" But seeing her mother's eyes fixed upon her. let " You mustn't S.MORALS scissors 121 : in her hand. Something similar occurred no doubt when R. replied That'd be a good scissors.. said to her little sister : "You lout . have the pointed poke her eyes out. but an entirely spontaneous understanding that she had behaved wrongly. Later on in the afternoon R. who had been : : "I pondering over the matter remarked didn't say lout for I said afterwards .. then at last we should be alone. five years and three months old.. and M. said to R. as Ellen says. bursting into tears.. saying that she must never use such an expression. she turned very red in the face and. she will : job.. as Ellen says^ Her guilty conscience has whispered to her directly upon her employ- . who obviously assumed that in such a case " S. In this case of it was neither the the fear of influence education nor authority that affected her." R." Her mother immediately reproved her. kissed first her mother and then her sister. would die.

necessary." and refrained from eating it. wrong thing has gradually grown very pronounced in R. but R. at the age of five years and four months. The younger child ate hers at once. failing. said it till Grandma comes (so keep that she can see : " I shall it). theoretic instrucit is but also of great import- ance for the child to be able to adapt the present to life's general scheme. ing the undesirable epithet and she has it thereupon over.'s case I observed this tendency first on the occasion when. first In R. or in the event of these tion. fear of doing the The .122 CHILD PSYCHOLOGY . — quotation hastened in the to of change to a hope smoothing things In the acquisition of satisfactory moral habits. not only are good prototypes. In this connection it is of interest to ascertain when the child begins to control the impulse of the moment with thoughts of futurity. but she evinced great impatience for the arrival of her grandmother. she and her little sister were given Easter eggs.

She became very upset and said Ella's doll " : I've pulled the so sorry arm I off ...MORALS When five 123 years and four months old she went to a friend's home with a message. telling a story. and connection knocked loudly several times on the door before obtaining an answer. and " lay awake thinking about it " the Some days later she had the misfortune to tear an arm off the doll same evening. R. Shortly afterwards R. with the result that it fell and broke . : " You are suspecting the truth said to R.. as recounted above.. Her mother. in this At last : the friend's brother came and said " " angrily What's all this noise about ? an occurrence which R. She had placed a cup in a dangerous place. however." Besides prevaricating out of politeness. eliciting a confession. when five years and six months old. told an untruth to escape unpleasantness. am so sorry. however. I am . of one of her play-fellows... took much to heart. but she put the blame on the housemaid. having ." without.

On the other hand. a new one. " Which would you rather asking me " She wished to appear (have me do) ? : obedient. But who was it : put the cup in a wrong place " replied without hesitation : ? " R. R. but of this she said nothing. in connection masking egoism behind apparent nobility was already one of R. then I did.124 CHILD PSYCHOLOGY sister's ball trodden on her and broken it. " Never said mind. displayed of indifference to me cither .'s accomplishments at the age of five years The not uncommon ruse of and eight months. and felt sure that it was a matter way. on the contrary. Pos- of R. went out quite willingly to tell the house- maid that she was the sibly the cause guilty person. She obviously preferred to continue her game. you couldn't help we will buy S.'s volte-face and con- fession was her exemption from punishment with the ball. I asked her whether she would walk with me to the post office." and having obtained her mother's forgiveness. showed I it it . a month later. to me with signs of deep regret.

" down Later in the day." She very ordinary bowl was " " Wliat a pity and said immediately : . nevertheless. but R. it was " . She has probably assumed that the " valuable." is for When she was five any considerable time. who said " You must not do " Then that." M. I sat was the here because I thought most sensible (thing to do). A little ." whereupon R. it). having been reproved for disobedience by her mother. upon her mother coming in to sweep up the pieces. cried and denied the accusation. feeling sure. said "It wasn't me. that she unable to bear it Her obedience was strong and rational. that she : was the culprit said " : Yes." R. sat down on the bed with ostentatious haste and volunteered the information : " it Yes. years and ten months old : some water had been upset from a flower" Who has vase. and her mother inquired done this. replied : : I'll stop (doing growing quite Untruthfulness so torments R.MORALS clear signs of remorse one 125 day when she had been unfortunate enough to smash a sugarbowl.

was the guilty one . I was the one who did one occasion only has R. came out said into the kitchen to her I mother and " : Mother I want to tell you some- thing it." and the " : child it then confessed immediately No.. to . On was six years and two months old and attending a dancing academy at the time.. One day she told her mother that she had been selected to show the other children lar how a : particu- dance was to be performed.126 later she CHILD PSYCHOLOGY even persuaded S. but a few minutes later R.. said " It can't be true." ../. Finally her mother pretended to believe that S.. but her mistook her instructions and reported that it was R." She had evidently wished to be one of those selected to be an example for the other . little sister kitchen and say that go out into the had spilt the water S. being greatly interested in the art and exerting herself to the utmost to excel in it. who knew this to be impossible. M. been detected She in an untruth based on braggadocio. isn't either.

" Finally. when her mother said to her that the children in her had been very noisy. R. was reproved by " her mother You have not been nice : towards O. which. seven years and one month old. that's not the " What is reason. six years and ten months old. was equally straightforward. class " replying : Yes. lately. that's quite true." But she quickly added " No.MORALS pupils . however. 127 hence her lying boast. R.." and upon my inquiring : : am it then ? " lie she said " : Because it (the cup) It mustn't underneath the bed." One day R. I must admit. replied " : Yes. although I am a child too (and had helped to make the noise). a month later. betrayed very clearly that her disposition did not always correspond to her deeds. Again. Her had dropped a cup which rolled under " I'll the bed. she was honourable enough to confess immediately. said pick it up. and R." to which R. for sister : then I good (and so deserve praise)." was . they talked and they shouted.. having for several days been on very bad terms with the housemaid.

influence from environment kind.'s entry into school. always of the most desirable seven years and two months R." was instructed to say that they were the fiance's big and little sister. added " : Luckily no one asked. in the event of any one were. first and such foremost authority. not easy to observe for the moral disposition. or in moments of hesitation between right and wrong. as the above-quoted examples show. . only shows itself when morality is outraged. in de- asking them who they scribing the incident. old. when accompanying the housemaid to the royal " dockyard to visit her young man. the motive power in her moral machinery was. In reality the . But in addition there may as well have been other motives. as a rule. fellow-feeling. sympathy and are The latter. however..128 CHILD PSYCHOLOGY in reality the little thus matter itself which had actuated the Neither is paragon of virtue. the moral ego. R.." Before R.

VOL. But as long as the child's disposition is in harmony with the demands is of its accepted as surroundings its conduct correct without further criticism. .MORALS child. shall It imitates and is approved of. does not dwell to any appreciable extent on moral problems. as a rule. is rare as the adult. inasmuch as the large majority of people unconsciously carry their moral standard in themselves. and garded as moral or immoral. still less can it be expected that the child be conscious to any appreciable degree of the morality of its acts. III. It neglects to punished. That thing which is least irksome for the educator will. which cator's it will frequently fall in with the edu- own everyday consideration of Deeper what deserves to be redisposition. just as the adult. In both ways permanent habits are formed. be extremely liable to be accepted as good besides . imitate and is corrected or 9 . 129 every moment of the day is moral or doing something which is either immoral. owing to love of comfort.

mainly decided by the parents' wishes and will.130 CHILD PSYCHOLOGY child the being disciphned of into a it self- satisfied feeling its done what encing pleasure pleasure elders wish when . or the nation. From the unit when consciously individualistic standard of the age of babyhood it glides more and more into a more comprehensive morality. however. are in essentials the child's conception of what is of importance. with is the kinder- in the majority of cases both . The family's requirements. such as the community tion. not to mention least concep- mankind. which. Of larger entities. has and experiof dis- a self-reproachful feeling has opposed the wishes or will of the authorities. the child has not the Theoretic moralising children of therefore. It pays other or little heed to the well- being of people. in the majority of cases. unless they of are relatives otherwise members the household. The family is the child's world. in connection garten age. scarcely surpasses what one may call family morality.

in extremely rare cases can they by reasoning be made to understand how an action is moral or immoral. when they pose as educators either of younger children or of their dolls and they are as children.MORALS illogical 131 their and unnecessary. partly through imagination occupying itself with the greater society of which the child hears and reads. by associating " than the home. This moral conduct. for a larger " example. is . a rule very strict in their demands. They must acquire moral education by means of example of and authoritative training in habits Only good and correct behaviour. In order to achieve a higher standard they must first and foremost have their sphere of experience enlarged. Indeed children's assistance on the whole as regards education should by no means . for example. society with This comes about partly through friends. gradually acquired by apparent. with its accompany- ing moral theory.

" and a little later Open your mouth.132 CHILD PSYCHOLOGY undervalued. She kept giving S. : sister's digestion. . younger for example. been a very stout " her little sister's " morale R. repeating each " If time the words you please. has and seven months the old. little sister (so that I can see whether you have chewed it all up). She said with some bread and presented " : S." Another day drilled her sister in polite deportment." and : then " She her turning to her grandmother About shall learn to say thank you. it Chew " : well. display ex- understanding in the educating relatives.'* Occasionally a child ceptional of may even R. when R.. be Even at an early age children are to a great extent co-operators in the education of their smaller brothers and sisters. she I said : mustn't touch palm. something. guardian of with a keen eye for any failures to obey its For instance.''' a month later she displayed anxiety for said. was four behests. have she smacked her fingers. years " S. little sister.

" Four months later R.MORALS when " four S. : some toys No. five years and ing before a : three months old. which S.. pointed to a " cat and said Look. you mustn't do that. when " Yes.. when you have a you must keep your legs under the blanket. S. had received a smacking R." Actual knowledge may said to shifting who was also be dispensed in this manner. four years when and eleven months old. stand- shop window. You are very good in other ways. Can you see there's a white one on " the other side ? and when.. : spread her wings over S. but you mustn't do that. but remember next time only to pick the : red ones. she sat in bed pro- nouncing one difficult word after the other. little sister. there's a little black cat. went to " her and said kindly Don't cry. seeing her crying. One day of strict five S." .. little S. . for picking unripe raspberries in disregard injunctions to the contrary. as R. repeated to the best of her ability. 133 years and eleven months old. years old. again she said cold.

R.134 CHILD PSYCHOLOGY Soon afterwards R.. although S. EDINBURGH .. went up to her sister. received a scolding and began crying. having scribbled on the wall-paper. : . S. was only two years and three months old. but you mustn't write on the wall-paper. put one arm " round her waist and said Don't cry. Now don't forget." ntlNTBD BV MORRISON AND GIBB LTD.. began to teach her sister the alphabet. One day S. five years and eleven months old.

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representative of

modern Norwegian feminine


reveals a high standard, and one which is quite on a level with the best Ent;lish fiction of the day— in fact, we cannot think of an Knglish
hoaV. of this type



quite as gen A." —Liverpool Couner.
. . . .


is finely imagined. central figure, Jenny Scotsman. interesting as a study in temperament."




" — Midland Counties Express. a fine story of the wild. animal lovers. net Cloth " Should be read by every armchair philosopher who has temporarily Westminster Gazette. . ' . The material for a good many entrancing nature study lessons can be drawn from the vivid pages. . . ." Times Literary Supplement." "One "All of the best fish stories the busy." —Sportsman. restless life we have — Court Journal. . forgouen what a terrible thing life really is. read. . it hardly be put not a book to nag at. . Observer." "One — ." Nottingham Journal. but down before the Angling readers will follow Grim's adventures with keen relish. The book is also interesting in " itself Schoolmaster. .. a wonderfully told story. will be read with GRIM The Story Grown 8vo of a Pike 6s. Once taken up. lo be read with delight by John "Will be ' gratefully welcomed by every lover of animals. end " " is reached." all o' — Court Journal. .Nature Studies by SVEND FLEURON (Danish) KITTENS By SVEND FLEURON Cloth (Danish) Translated by DAVID I'KITCIIARD 6s. — of the best of recent animal studies Weekly DtspaUh. may It is to enjoy.." — "Anglers who have battled with pike taste. wonderful book." is — Field. . will find the story well to their " It is ." The story is attractively told." London^ s Weekly. and river.. " Svend Fleuron a Danish writer with such naturalists as Richard JefTeries or Ernest who may chalkngc comparison Thomson Seton. and creek pulsates study. net Crown 8vo "A "A fascinating study . among the best of its class.. little of ditch. . delight by all lovers of cats." through the pages of this brilliant piscicultural — Outlook.

" Dundee best study of English traits Advertiser. in print. and with ungrudging admiration and sympathy.. Worster " The writes with rare knowledge and fond zest. — " Mr. his summing up on the various volumes of sketches. lays stress it expounds on the ethical value of Mr. Mr." Daily 7'elegraph. his critical appreciation of the exact niche in literature which each of them fills." Scotsman. (English) 2s." which has yet appeared of Schoolmaster.'' Aberdeen Free " It /'ress. full 6d. to cover with criticism and good sense one of the best essays work. all command respect. in many ways good book on " Packed from cover . "A charming and understanding England. — study Rudyard the best Kipling's "A Kipling. . . Worster's intimate knowledge of every portion of Kipling's writings. Kipling's ." Public Opinion. Kipling's work. in criticism yet devoted to Mr. net and the discussions of varied and graphic presentation. charming analysis " Court Journal. . .. " The treatment is WORSTER singularly fresh .MERLIN'S ISLE A Study of Rudyard Kipling's England By W. — .


3c.4 R225Cv.1 Rasmussen # Child )sycholoc UJ CO 3 0005 02056270 1 .155.

4 R225C V. thought.The kindergarten child. 3 Rasmus sen Child psychology .155. imagination and feeling Date Due .

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