/SP-271-2839

Notice
This report was prepared as a n account of work sponsored by a n agency of t h e United States Government. Neither t h e United S t a t e s Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for t h e accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents t h a t its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein t o any specific commercial product, process, or service by t r a d e name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise, does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by t h e United States Government or any agency thereof. The views and opinions of authors expressed herein do not necessarily state or reflect those of t h e United States Govetnment or any agency thereof.

Acknowledgments
This document was prepared for t h e Solar Technical Information Program, US. Depattment of Energy, by Eugene S. Domalski and Thomas L. fobe, Jr. of t h e Chemical Thermodynamics Data Center, Chemical Thermodynamics Division, Center for Chemical Physics, and t h e Office of Standard Reference Data, National Bureau of Standards, Gaithersburg, Md; with assistance from Thomas A. Milne of SERI. I t is based on Thermodynamic Data of Waste Incineration, NBSIR 78-1479, August 1978, prepared for t h e American Society for Mechanical Engineers, Research Committee on Industrial and Municipal Wastes, United Engineering Center, New York, and also available as a separate hard-cover publication with t h e same t i t l e from t h e American Society for Mechanical Engineers. Sarah Sprague is t h e Information Program Coordinator for t h e Biofuels and Municipal Waste Technology Division, U.S. Department of Energy.

FZOPERTY OF US. GOVERNMENT

GOLDEN,COLORADO- 80401

-4

-7 . ; .I

THERMODYNAMIC DATA FOR BIOMASS CONVERSION AND WASTE INCINERATION
Eugene S. Domalski Thomas L. Jobe, Jr. National Bureau of Standards
and Thomas A. Milne Solar Energy Research Institute

September 1986

A PRODUCT OF THE SOLAR TECHNICAL INFORMATION PROGRAM prepared by t h e National Bureau of Standards under c o n t r a c t t o t h e Solar Technical Information Program of t h e Solar Energy Research Institute

Preface
Incinerators have continued to play a n important p a r t in reducing t h e amount and modifying t h e type of waste discharged to t h e environment. The ASME Research Committee on Industrial and Municipal Wastes was established in 1968. This committee recognized t h e need for greater understanding of combustion fundamentals if engineers are to design better incinerators to meet t h e challenge of improving t h e environment. I t , therefore, created a subcommittee on fundamental combustion studies.

The first report of the subcommittee, Combustion Fundamentals 'for Waste Incineration,
was published in 1974 [74ASM]. The purpose of t h e report was t o help engineers make better calculations and thereby design b e t t e r incinerators. The report was divided into two parts. Part one covered theoretical engineering methods of calculation and tables of equilibrium products of combustion with practical examples. Part two included t h e scientific theory and tables of thermodynamic properties.

In a second report of the subcommittee, Thermodynamic Data for Waste Incineration [78DOM/EVAJ, engineers were provided with thermodynamic data on materials t h a t are mixtures of various kinds and a r e often difficult t o describe using a single stoichiometric formula. These materials (i.e., animals, foods, plants, polymers, wood species, etc.) are encountered perhaps more often by engineers engaged in t h e disposal of municipal wastes than pure substances. The bulk of t h e data, consisting of gross heats of combustion (heating values) and specific heats, was intended t o be helpful in combustion calculations.
In t h e eight years since the issuance of t h e second report, biomass and biomass wastes have joined industrial and municipal solid wastes as major sources of solid fuel. In addition, widespread applications of gasification and pyrolysis are expected to join combustion as practical conversion processes in t h e 1990s. This report, under t h e sponsorship of t h e DOE Office of Renewable Technology, Biofuels and Municipal Waste Technology Division, doubles t h e number of materials listed, with major emphasis on different forms of biomass, both woody and agricultural. I t incorporates almost all of t h e materials listed in Thermodynamic Data for Waste Incineration and now provides information for more than 600 materials.

Contents

Introduction

..............................................................

1 2
9

Units and Definitions

...................................................... Thermodynamic Properties of Waste and Biomass Materials ..................... Agricultural Residues .................................................. Alloysand Metals ..................................................... Animals .............................................................. Biomass-Derived Materials .............................................
Foods Fossil Materials Inorganic Materials Paper Plant Materials (Non-Woody) PolymersandPlastics Polypeptidesand Proteins Refuse Rubber Materials Vegetableoils, Woody and Tree Materials Miscellaneous
References Appendix A Appendix B

9 33
35

................................................................ ....................................................... .................................................... ................................................................ ............................................ .................................................. .............................................. ............................................................... ...................................................... ........................................................ ..............................................
.........................................................
of t h e

67 77 103 127 137 143 167 191 201 207 213 233 305

. Combustionfor the Empirical Estimation........................... Formula Heats of of Carbonaceous Materials
A

................................................................
Additional Information on Heats of Combustion of Biomass Materials

313
323 326

.................................................... Appendix C. Symbols. Units. Conversion Factors. Atomic Weights ............... NameIndex ...............................................................

.

331
341

111

...

Introduction The general purpose of this collection of thermodynamic d a t a of selected materials is t o make property information available t o t h e engineering community on chemical mixtures, polymers, composite materials, solid wastes, biomass, and materials not easily identifiable by a single stoichiometric formula. Workers in many sectors need this type of information: construction engineers who require thermodynamic information on materials, safety engineers assessing the hazard potential of chemicals, chemical engineers concerned with industrial unit processes, and scientists who want thermodynamic d a t a for specific research projects. The specific purpose of this publication is t o provide engineers involved in combustion and thermochemical conversion with appropriate thermodynamic data so t h a t they can dispose of waste materials and utilize biomass for energy in a more effective and environmentally acceptable manner. The effective disposal of waste materials is a n import a n t part of t h e maintenance of a high-quality environment, and combustion/thermochemical conversion offers t h e most significant means of volume reduction for waste materials when compared t o other methods of disposal. In addition, t h e potential of biomass for energy is being increasingly recognized and realized. This com ilation of thermodynamic d a t a was prepared for t h e Solar Energy Research Institute SERI) by t h e Chemical Thermodynamics Data Center of t h e National Bureau of Standards. More than 700 materials have been compiled covering properties such as specific heat, gross heat of combustion, h e a t of fusion, heat of vaporization, and vapor pressure. The information was obtained from t h e master files of t h e NBS Chemical Thermodynamics Data Center, t h e annual issues of t h e Bulletin of Chemicat Thermodynamics, intermittent examinations of t h e Chemical Abstracts subject indexes, individual articles by various authors, and other general reference sources.

P

The compilation is organized into several broad categories; materials are listed alphabetically within each category. For each material t h e following are given: (1) t h e physical state, (2) information as t o t h e composition or character of t h e material, (3) t h e kind of thermodynamic property reported, (4) t h e specific property values for t h e material, and ( 5 ) citations to t h e reference list. A name index is provided t o assist a user in finding a specific material. Several appendices are also included. Appendix A gives an empirical formula t h a t allows heats of combustion of carbonaceous materials t o be predicted with surprising accuracy when t h e elemental composition is known. A spread sheet illustrates this predictability with examples from this report and elsewhere. Appendix B lists some reports containing heats of combustion not included in this publication. Appendix C contains symbols, units, conversion factors, and atomic weights used in evaluating and compiling t h e thermodynamic data.

products in the form of ash. See Heat Content. more extensive discussions are given in [74ASM]. Ash. Air-Drying. they are unchanged during combustion and a r e part of t h e ash.Units and Definitions The notation in t h e tables for thermodynamic quantities follows. The decrease in sample mass due t o air-drying. The symbols used a r e briefly defined below. This decrease is presumed to be moisture. they a r e converted t o their oxides. or refuse.0-4.0 MPa (20-40atm). G o s Calorific Value. In the case of materials such as coal. Enthalpy. associated with t h e sample. In those tables values were reported on a molar basis. The test d a t a calculated to t h e moisture condition of t h e sample as it arrived in t h e laboratory and before any laboratory processing or conditioning. A process of partial drying of a sample to bring its moisture content near to equilibrium with t h e atmosphere in which further reduction. Exceptions are noted. Here. The test data calculated t o a theoretical base of no moisture or ash r. 2 . because of t h e lack of definite stoichiometric compositions for most of the materials included. gaseous CO2 and N2. final temperature of 2Oo-35"C (6X0-95"F). P is t h e pressure. and dilute aqueous HC1 and H2S04. The conditions are: initial oxygen pressure of 2. and V is the volume. Air-Dry Loss. H. if small or t r a c e amounts of metallic elements are present. division. The residue remaining a f t e r ignition of a sample determined by a definite prescribed procedure. where U is t h e internal energy of t h e system. wood. in general. D y h i s . is defined by t h e equation: H = U + PV. The enthalpy. As-Received Basis. The test data calculated t o theoretical base of no moisture associated with r the sample. liquid water. rs Gross Heat of Combustion. D y Ash-Free Basis. The heat produced by combustion of one unit of substance at constant volume in a n oxygen bomb calorimeter under specified conditions. values of t h e thermodynamic quantities a r e given on a specific basis. t h a t in Combustion Fundamentah for Waste Incineration [74ASM]. for one gram or one pound (unit mass) of substance. See Gross Heat of Combustion. and characterization of t h e sample are to take place. I t is assumed t h a t if significant quantities of metallic elements are combusted. hthalpy Difference.

cal.184 J. Lf. for t h e complex materials considered here..15 K. t h e transition occurs at a single temperature. t h a t this correction is impractical. 273. qv(gross). the melting occurs at a single temperature. Heat of Sublimation. T(ref) is t h e reference temperature. The value is t h e heat absorbed (in J. 9273 or 9273. If measured calorimetrically. The numerical values for qv(gross) a r e given in J g-'. or 298.8 T K . The British thermal unit used is t h e thermochemical Btu. t h e transition process may t a k e place over a temperature range. between two temperatures.In accurate studies.15' If other than t h e kelvin scale is used. t h e values of qv (or AU) have not been converted t o t h e standard state (-AU"/M) [74ASM]. (Hr-HT(ref))/M = (qT-qT(ref)). depending upon t h e form of t h e equation. Usually..15 K. The specific isothermal gross heat of reaction at t h e specified temperature and at constant volume. t h e heat absorbed when one unit mass of t h e substance goes from t h e solid state to t h e gaseous state. or O R (Rankine. The calorie used is t h e thermochemical calorie. cal g-l. ) Heat of Fusion. . Gross Heat of Reaction. TOR = 1. The specific latent heat of transition (c'Htrs/M) at a pressure of 101325 Pa (1 atm). t h e precision of t h e measurements does not warrant such refinement. The specific latent h e a t of fusion (AHfus/M) at a pressure of 101325 Pa (I atm). For a pure compound. t h e value will be for a definite tempetature and pressure. The value is . H e a t of Transition. defined as I 4. If derived from t h e vapor pressure equation through t h e relation d(lnP)/d(l/T) = -AHVap/R. The joule (J) is t h e primary S energy unit. The value is t h e heat absorbed when one unit mass of t h e substance goes from one solid phase t o another solid phase. and Btu lb-'. For most of t h e d a t a reported here. t h e value refers t o t h e midpoint of the temperature range over which t h e equation is 3 . With t h e simple form 1nP = A-B/T. It is specified as qo. Heat Content. because of sample variability or measurement method.I . For a pure compound. where A is t h e molar U change in internal energy of t h e process. usually 0 K. Conversion factors are given in Appendix C. The difference in enthalpy. t h e observed heat is corrected for side reactions and t o a standard state in which all gases are at unit fugacity. t h e melting process may t a k e place over a temperature range. for one unit mass of substance. The value is t h e heat absorbed when one unit mass of t h e substance goes from t h e liquid state t o t h e gaseous state.The specific latent heat of vaporization (AHvap/M). . Some of t h e d a t a are of such low precision.OF. and M is t h e molecular weight. Heat of Vaporization. t h e value may be referred to a definite temperature and pressure. L. and 9298.. for t h e complex materials considered here. is equal t o -AU/M. or Btu) when one unit mass of t h e substance goes from t h e solid state to the liquid state. L The specific latent heat of sublimation (AHsub/M).15. The same considerations apply as for L. this is indicated as "C.

One bar is 100. fixed carbon (by difference). The saturated equilibrium pressure over t h e solid substance at a given temperature. U. Net Heat of Reaction.valid. Sublimation Pressure. where AU is t h e molar internal energy of t h e process. t h e t e r m proximate analysis does not include determinations of chemical elements or any determinations other than those named.. P (-AHO/M) [74ASM]. cP Numerical values for C are given in J g-l K-l. 4 . is equal to -AH/M. This value differs from q. A t conunless otherwise specified) for one unit mass of substance.1 . The specific isothermal n e t heat of reaction at the specified temperature and at constant pressure. t h e average molecular weight must be obtained to calculate t h e specific heat of Vaporization: Lv = AHvap/M. is modified according to t h e equation: U q + w. volatile matter. Unless otherwise specified. its internal energy. qP(net). s t a n t volume Cv = [a(U/M)/aT]. t h e values of q (net) have been converted to t h e standard state. C The change in enthalpy with temperature at constant pressure (1 a t m P ' = [a(H/M)/aTlp. The net heat of combustion is calculated from t h e gross heat of combustion at 2OoC (68°F)by subtracting 572 c a l g-l (1030 Btu lb-l) of water derived from one unit mass of sample. The value thus obtained is for one mole of gaseous species. to a n analysis sample. Net Heat of Combustion. and M is t h e molecular weight. Most of t h e data. The h e a t produced by combustion of one unit of substance at atmospheric pressure under conditions such t h a t all water in t h e products remains in t h e form of vapor. Proximate Analysis. The moisture content remaining in a sample after it has been airdried and milled down. Specific Heat. is added or removed. See Net Heat of Combustion. if necessary. q. is done on or by t h e system. P c a l g-' K-I. and ash. including both t h e water originally present as moisture and t h a t formed by combustion. This subtracted amount is not equal to t h e latent h e a t of vaporization of water (586 cal g-' at 20°C) because t h e calculation also reduces t h e data from the gross value at constant volume to t h e n e t value at constant pressure. The specific isothermal net heat of reaction at the specified temperature and at constant volume. internal Energy.(gross) in t h a t water formed is in t h e gaseous state.and Btu lb-l OF-'. though.3224 Pa). because of sample variability or measurement method.000 Pa. The conventional atmosphere is taken as 101325 Pa. The determination by prescribed methods of moisture. where AH is t h e molar change in enthalpy of the process. are of such low precision. and work. Net Calorific Value. Residual Moisture. and M is t h e molecular weight. When heat. Where possible. The appropriate factor for this reduction is 572 c a l g. t h a t the correction is impractical. qv(net) is equal to -AU/M. w. Values are expressed in pascals (Pa = Nam-') and in Torr (Torr = 133.

The determination of t h e volatile concentration (VCM) as described in 85JEN/EBE differs somewhat from the procedures described in t h e ASTM Standard Test Methods. The Fahrenheit scale. Vapor Pressure. all temperatures T involved in equations are absolute temperature (T. Ultimate Analysis. and oxygen in a dry sample. is defined as t("F) = 1. provided as a convenience for many measurements. In ASTM D 3175-77. In 85JEN/EBE. hydrogen. ash.K . is based upon t h e International Practical ) Temperature Scale. are clear and unambiguous by their definitions. The term "heat" has been used loosely in t h e scientific and engineering literature in t h a t i t does not differentiate clearly between processes at constant volume (U. Usage of thermodynamic state functions. Volatile Matter. A large assigned uncertainty usually indicates a variability of sample. Unless specifically indicated otherwise. such as the internal energy and enthalpy.11 t h e word '%eat" indicates specific conditions as described in various definitions. internal energy) and those at constant przssure (H. The percentage of oxygen is usually obtained by difference between 100% and t h e sum of t h e other determined elemental analyses. Multiple Sources of Data. ) Temperature. The loss in weight is the volatile fraction. these represent t h e original authors' estimates and are usually a measure of t h e reproducibility of their measurements. The determination of t h e percentages of carbon. Values are given in kelvins (symbol K .8t(OC) + 32. Those products exclusive of moisture given off by t h e sample as a gas or vapor determined by definite prescribed procedures. t h e weighed sample is n placed in a covered platinum crucible at 95OOC for exactly 7 minutes.) and in Torr (Torr 133. enthalpy). several references are found in t h e literature that report the same thermodynamic property for a particular material. chlorine. No a t t e m p t has been made t o assess t h e overall uncertainty of t h e d a t a included. nitrogen. Uncertainties. 9 Volatile Concentration.273.15. uncertainties are given for t h e values.The absolute temperature. The loss in weight is t h e volatile fraction. The Celsius ("Centigrade'1) scale (symbol "C)is used to indicate t h e temperature or temperature range for many reported measurements. I t is defined as t("C) = T(K) .3224 Pa). t h e sample is placed in a covered crucible at 600°C for 6 minutes followed by heating at 950°C for 6 minutes. not a low precision of measurement. The conventional atmosphere is taken as 101325 Pa. For some substances. The measured 5 . sulfur. When preceded by t h e words "gross" or "net. Use of Enthalpy versus Heat. The saturated equilibrium pressure over t h e li uid substance at a given temperature. Occasionally. T. Values are expressed in pascals (Pa = N-m. Standard Test Method for Volatile Matter i the Analysis of CoaZ and Coke.

(4) t r e a t m e n t of t h e experimental data. and a selection must be made as to which value is preferred. ( 5 ) dispersion of t h e results. 6 . t h e values tabulated are typical values selected from a large number of results for samples of a similar nature. For some materials (such as coals or wood species). The selection process is based upon t h e personal and professional opinion of a n evaluator after all property information for a material has been collected and examined. and ( 6 ) background or experience of t h e laboratory personnel carrying out t h e measurements.values are most often not equivalent. (3) number of measurements performed. Factors taken into consideration are (1) description of the method used t o carry out t h e measurements. (2) characterization of t h e material.

Agricultural Residues .

chlorine = 0.1 qv(gross) = 4410 c a l g-' qv(gross) 18450 J g-l net heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature. nitrogen = 1.76. determination performed at 30 a t m 02. Also t h e ultimate analysis of t h e elemental composition of t h e fuel (values in percent by weight dry basis) is carbon = 45. P P gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature.(net) = 7370 Btu l b l l q. solid.15. nitrogen = 0.03. q.(net) 4094 cal gq.02.60.79. and fixed carbon = 20. and residue ash) 6. ash content = 7. oxygen = 40. q. hydro e n = 5. sulfur = 0. hydrogen = 5. STRAW.(net) 17130 J g-l 85 JEN/EBE 9 .89. Also t h e ultimate analysis of t h e elemental composition of t h e fuel (values in percent by weight dry basis) is carbon = 46.40.(gross) = 4355 c a l g-1 q.72. q.and corrections applied for t h e formation of nitric and sulfuric acids. SEED.07.78. chlorine = 0.20.25.(net) = 17360 J g-l 85 JEN/EBE ALMOND HULLS. determination performed at 30 a t m 02. ash content = 5.Agricultural Residues ALFALFA. q.08. and fixed carbon = 22.1 qv(net) = 4149 cal g-' q. and residue (ash) = 7.01.(gross) = 18220 J g-' net heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature.60.36.96.(gross) = 7838 Btu lb-' q.solid. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature.(net) 7468 Btu lb. sulfur = 0. Material is considered biomass fuel and has proximate analysis values (in percent by weight dry basis) for volatile concentration (VCM) = 71.and corrections applied for t h e formation of nitric and sulfuric acids.00. Material is considered biomass fuel and has roximate analysis values (in percent by weight dry basis) for volatile concentration VCM) = 72.33.(gross) = 7937 Btu lb. oxygen = 40.

6 0. qv(gross) = 8609 Btu Ib. ash content = 1. nitrogen = 1. determination performed at 30 atm O.97.(gross) = 8337 Btu lb. and fixed carbon = 21. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature. q. nitrogen = 0 6 .04.98. determination performed at 30 atm O. ORCHARD PRUNING3 solid. oxygen = 42. hydrogen = 5. and corrections applied for the formation of nitric and . qv(net) = 18270 J g- 85JEN/EBE 10 .Agricultural Residues ALMOND. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature. sulfuric acids. and residue (ash) = 5.27. Also the ultimate analysis of t h e elemental composition of the fuel (values in percent by weight dry basis) is carbon = 51. and corrections applied for the formation of nitric and .01.63.(gross) = 4632 cal gi q.1 qv(gross) = 4783 cal g-' qv(gross) = 20010 J g-1 net heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature.02.16.29. qv(net) = 7817 Btu lb.30. Material is considered biomass fuel and has proximate analysis values (in percent by weight dry basis) for volatile concentration (VCM) = 73. and fixed carbon = 21.60.74. 1 qv(net) = 4343 cal g . sulfur = 0.90.(gross) = 19380 J gnet heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature. Also the ultimate analysis of the elemental composition of the fuel (values in percent by weight dry basis) is carbon = 44. qv(net) = 8144 Btu Ib-I qv(net) = 4524 cal g-l q.80. oxygen = 40. chlorine = 0. Material is considered biomass fuel and has proximate analysis values (in percent by weight dry basis) for volatile concentration (VCM) = 76.54. and residue (ash) = 1.45.(net) = 18930 J g-l 85 JEN/EBE ALMOND SHELLS.83. sulfuric acids.' q. sulfur .81. hydrogen = 5. ash content = 4.solid.

and residue (ash) 1.75.25. qv(net) = 8101 Btu lb.37. nitrogen = 1. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature.(gross) = 8570 Btu l b l l q. determination performed at 30 a t m 02.and corrections applied for t h e formation of nitric and sulfuric acids. sulfur = 0.59.(gross) = 19920 J g-' net heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature.71.30.73. and residue (ash) = 9.(gross) = 17310 J g-l net heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature.1 qv(net) = 4500 cal g-' qv(net) = 18830 J g-l BARLEY STRAW.90.Agricultural Residues BABASSU HUSKS. oxygen = 43. P gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature.29. ash content = 1.92. Material is considered biomass fuel and has roximate analysis values (in percent by weight dry basis) for volatile concentration VCM) = 79.(gross) = 4761 cal gq. qv(net) = 6987 Btu 1bT1 q. oxygen = 42. q.1 qv(gross) = 4 137 cal g-l q.70. Also t h e ultimate analysis of the elemental composition of t h e fuel (values in percent by weight dry basis) is carbon = 39. Material is considered biomass fuel and has proximate analysis values (in percent by weight dry basis) for volatile concentration (VCM) = 68. determination performed at 30 atrn 02. Also t h e ultimate analysis of t h e elemental composition of the fuel (values in percent by weight dry basis) is carbon = 50. solid. and fixed carbon = 18.(gross) = 7447 Btu lb. and fixed carbon = 20.81.80.(net) = 3881 cal gqv(net) = 16240 J g-' 85 JEN/EBE 11 . hydrogen = 5. ash content = 10. q. nitrogen = 0.27.04. solid.and corrections applied for t h e formation of nitric and sulfuric acids.26.3 1. hydrogen = 5.

13. q.(gtoss) = 17460 f g-l net heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature.' qv(net) = 4457 c a l g i qv(net) = 18650 J g 85JENlE6E 12 . I q.solid.25. determination f performed at 30 a t m 02. qv(net) = 8023 Btu lb.(gross) = 4739 cal g q.80. and residue (ash) = 5. qv(net) = 7021 Btu Ib. corrections applied for the formation of nitric and and sulfuric acids. qv(gross) = 751 1 Btu Ib.and corrections applied for the formation of nitric and sulfuric acids. sulfur = 0. and fixed carbon = 18. q. Also the ultimate analysis of the elemental composition o t h e fuel (values in percent by weight dry basis) is carbon = 42. Material is considered biomass fuel and has proximate analysis values (in percent by weight dry basis) for volatile concentration (VCM) = 75.(gross) = 4173 cal gq. f hydrogen = 5.' qv(net) 3901 cal gqv(net) = 16320 J g-' 85JEN/EBE BLACK WALNUT.59. ash content = 5. ash content = 0. oxygen = 43.54.30.93. hydrogen = 5.(gross) = 19830 J g net heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature.22. ORCHARD PRUNINGS. gross heat o combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature.69. determination performed at 30 a t m 02.97.78.Agricultural Residues BEAN STIRAW.05.01. and fixed carbon = 18. oxygen = 44.93. chlorine = 0. sulfur = 0.(gross) = 8531 Btu Ib. chlorine = 0.82. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature.53. and residue (ash) = 0. nitrogen 0. nitrogen = 0.77. Also t h e ultimate analysis of t h e elemental composition of the fuel (values in percent by weight dry basis) is carbon = 49.85. Material is considered biomass fuel and has proximate analysis values (in percent by weight dry basis) for volatile concentration (VCM) = 80. solid.83.01.' .

oxygen = 43. 1 qv(gross) = 4591 cal gq.(gross) 19030 J g.(net) = 17840 J g85 JEN/EBE CARDINAL GRAPES.' qv(net) = 4264 cal gi q.83.08. ash content = 2.(gross) = 8187 Btu lb. sulfur = 0.17. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature. Material is considered biomass fuel and has proximate analysis values (in percent by weight dry basis) for volatile concentration (VCM) = 78. corrections applied for t h e formation of nitric and and sulfuric acids. 1 q. VINEYARD PRUNINGS.1 net heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature. hydrogen = 5. chlorine = 0.63.(gross) = 19210 J g.61. VINEYARD PRUNINGS.04.and corrections applied for t h e formation of nitric and sulfuric acids.90. solid.1 85JEN/EBE 13 . solid. and fixed carbon = 19. ash content = 2. determination performed at 30 atm 02. and residue (ash) = 2.Agricultural Residues CABERNET SAUVIGNON GRAPES.22. Material is considered biomass fuel and has proximate analysis values (in percent by weight dry basis) for volatile concentration (VCM) = 78. qv(net) = 7675 Btu lb. qv(gross) = 8264 Btu lb. determination performed at 30 at m 02. Also t h e ultimate analysis of t h e elemental composition of t h e fuel (values in percent by weight dry basis) is carbon = 46. and fixed carbon 19.71.59. q.85. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature.17.20.(gross) = 4548 cal gq. nitrogen = 0.

qv(gross) 8230 Btu Ib. Material is considered biomass fuel and has proximate analysis values (in percent by weight dry basis) for volatile concentration (VCM) = 77.12. Also t h e ultimate analysis of t h e elemental composition of t h e fuel (values in percent by weight dry basis) is carbon 48. corrections applied for the formation of nitric and and sulfuric acids. hydrogen 5. hydrogen 5. q. oxygen = 41. sulfur = 0.07.Agricultural Residues CHENIN BLANC GRAPES. q. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature. ash content = 8.(gross) 19040 J g-l net heat o combustion: assume values refer to room temperature. Material is considered biomass fuel and has proximate analysis values (in percent by weight dry basis) for volatile concentration (VCM) = 67. oxygen = 33. f qv(net) = 7731 Btu lbl 1 qv(net) = 4295 cal gqv(net) = 17970 J g-l 85JEN/EBE 14 .13.98.28.86.(gross) = 8191 Btu Ib.51. solid.80. VINEYARD PRUNINGS. determination performed at 30 a t m 0 2 . and corrections applied for t h e formation of nitric and sulfuric acids. nitrogen = 0.1 qv(gross) 4572 c a l g-' q.23. nitrogen = 2. chlorine = 0.93. Also the ultimate analysis of the elemental composition of the f u e l (values in percent by weight dry basis) is carbon = 48.19.89.(gross) = 19130 J g-l net heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature. and fixed carbon = 20. determination performed at 30 a t m 02. and residue (ash) = 3.23.25.02.21.(gross) 4551 cal gq. ash content = 2. and fixed carbon = 23.10. and residue (ash) = 10.25.(net) = 7718 Btu lbl 1 qv(net) = 4288 cal g l qv(net) = 17940 J g85 JEN/EBE COCOA HULLS. sulfur = 0.95.' q. solid.

hydrogen = 5. Also t h e ultimate analysis of t h e elemental composition of t h e fuel (values in percent by weight dry basis) is carbon = 46. oxygen = 39.16.and corrections applied for t h e formation of nitric and sulfuric acids. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature. and fixed carbon = 29. and residue (ash) = 4. ash content = 3.21.01.28.1 qv(net) = 4546 cal g-' qv(net) = 19020 J g-l 85 JEN/EBE CORN COBS.72. Material is considered biomass fuel and has proximate analysis values (in percent by weight dry basis) for volatile concentration (VCM) = 66.and corrections applied for t h e formation of nitric and sulfuric acids.10. determination performed at 30 a t m 02. q.(gross) = 20050 J g-l net heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature.(gross) = 8626 Btu lbll q. nitrogen = 0. sulfur = 0.46. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature. and residue (ash) = 1. ash content = 1. chlorine = 0. DUST. qv(net) = 8183 Btu lb.40. nitrogen 0.45. oxygen = 45.58. qv(net) = 7543 Btu l b l l q. Also t h e ultimate analysis of t h e elemental composition of t h e fuel (values in percent by weight dry basis) is carbon = 50.47. and fixed carbon = 18. Material is considered biomass fuel and has proximate analysis values (in percent by weight dry basis) for volatile concentration (VCM) = 80.(net) = 4202 cal g i qv(net) = 17580 J g83JEN/EBE 15 .(gross) = 4792 cal gq.63.14. solid.70.58.87.(gross) = 8075 Btu lb.Agricultural Residues COCONUT FIBER.54.29. chlorine = 0. hydrogen = 5. q.1 qv(gross) = 4486 cal g-' qv(gross) = 18770 J g-l net heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature. sulfur = 0.05. determination performed at 30 a t m 02.36. solid.

(gross) = 17650 J g.65. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature. determination performed at 30 a t m 02. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature.1 net heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature. corrections applied for the formation of nitric and and sulfuric acids. ash content = 5.31. and residue (ash) = 6.(gross) = 16420 J g-l net heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature.10.59. q. and fixed carbon = 15.Agricultural Residues CORN STOVER.17. and residue (ash) = 16. oxygen 43. hydrogen = 5.' qv(net) = 3948 cal gqv(net) = 16520 J g-l 85 JEN/EBE COTTON GIN TRASH. ash content = 17.26. nitrogen = 2. nitrogen = 0.30. qv(net) = 7107 Btu Ib.solid.68. Material is considered biomass fuel and has proximate analysis values (in percent by weight dry basis) for volatile concentration (VCM) = 75.61. hydrogen = 5.solid.I qv(gross) = 3924 cal g-l q.and corrections applied for t h e formation of nitric and sulfuric acids. Also t h e ultimate analysis of the elemental composition of t h e fuel (values in percent by weight dry basis) is carbon = 39.01. Material is considered biomass fuel and has proximate analysis values (in percent by weight dry basis) for volatile concentration (VCM) = 67.60.56.60. chlorine = 0.38.(gross) = 4218 cal g-l q. and fixed carbon = 19.26. qv(net) = 6604 Btu lbll qv(net) = 3669 cal g T qv(net) = 15350 J g85 JEN/EBE 16 . oxygen = 36.58. determination performed at 30 atrn 02.09. qv(gross) = 7064 Btu lb.(gross) = 7593 Btu lb-I q. Also t h e ultimate analysis of t h e elemental composition of the fuel (values in percent by weight dry basis) is carbon = 43.25. sulfur = 0.

14. ash content = 1.01.63.06.30.08. sulfur = 0. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature. sulfur = 0. Also t h e ultimate analysis of t h e elemental composition of t h e fuel (values in percent by weight dry basis) is carbon = 39.72.14.(gtoss) 6810 Btu lbi 1 q.02. hydrogen 5. ORCHARD PRUNINGS.and corrections applied for t h e formation of nitric and sulfuric acids. Material is considered biomass fuel and has proximate analysis values (in percent by weight dry basis) for volatile concentration (VCM) = 65. nitrogen = 0.30. hydrogen = 5. Also t h e ultimate analysis of the elemental composition of t h e fuel (values in percent by weight dry basis) is carbon = 49. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature. determination performed at 30 a t m 02. and residue (ash) = 15. Material is considered biomass fuel and has proximate analysis values (in percent by weight dry basis) for volatile concentration (VCM) = 80. oxygen = 39. oxygen = 43. and fixed carbon = 18. nitrogen = 1. qv(net) = 7955 Btu lb. solid.1 qv(net) = 4419 cal g-' qv(net) = 18490 J g-' 85JENIEBE 17 .Agricultural Residues COTTON STALKS.10.47.20. ash content = 17.(gross) 3783 cal gq.82. solid.and corrections applied for t h e formation of nitric and sulfuric acids. and residue (ash) = 1. q. qv(net) = 6363 Btu lbl 1 qv(net) = 3535 cal gqv(net) = 14790 J g-l 85JENIEBE ENGLISH WALNUT.40. determination performed at 30 a t m 02.07.(gross) = 15830 f g-l net heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature.(gross) = 8445 Btu qv(gross) = 4692 cal gqv(gross) = 19630 J g-l $' net heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature. chlorine = 0.07. and fixed carbon = 17. q.37.10.

gros heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature.98. nitrogen = 1.(gross) = 4579 cal g-' q. chlorine = 0. I q.81.and corrections applied for the formation of nitric and sulfuric acids.solid. q. ash content = 9.91.26. and fixed carbon = 21. q. corrections applied for the formation of nitric and and sulfuric acids. sulfur = 0. determination performed at 30 a t m 02.86. determination performed at 30 a t m 02.41. Material is considered biomass fuel and has roximate analysis values (in percent by weight dry basis) for volatile concentration VCM) = 68.93.54.47.27.05.Agricultural Residues CEWURZTRAMINER GRAPES. VINEYARD PRUNINGS.(net) = 19140 J g 85 JEN/EBE 18 .(gross) = 19160 f g-' 85JEN/EBE GRAPE POMACE. hydrogen = 5. and fixed carbon = 20. oxygen = 30. Also t h e ultimate analysis of t h e elemental composition of the fuel (values in percent by weight dry basis) is carbon = 52.(gross) = 20340 J g-l net heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature.(gross) = 8750 Btu lb.solid.(gross) 8243 Btu Ib-' q.03. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature.(gross) = 4861 cal gq. and P residue (ash) = 8. Material is considered biomass fuel and has proximate analysis values (in percent by weight dry basis) for volatile concentration (VCM) = 77. ash content = 2.48. qv(net) = 8234 Btu lbl' qv(net) = 4575 cal g I q.

q. q.99? oxygen = 39. and corrections applied for t h e formation of nitric and sulfuric acids.69. and fixed carbon = 23. determination performed at 30 a t m Oz. Material is considered biomass fuel and has proximate analysis values (in percent by weight dry basis) for volatile concentration (VCM) = 75.(gross) = 9039 Btu Ib.Ol9 and residue (ash) = 0. sulfur = 0. and fixed carbon = 19.40. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature.47.Agricultural Residues MACADAMIA SHELLS. solid. VINEYARD PRUNING3 solid. Also t h e ultimate analysis of t h e elemental composition of the fuel (values in percent by weight dry basis) is carbon = 54. ash content = 3.04. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature.36.92? ash content = 0. Material is considered biomass fuel and has proximate analysis values (in percent by weight dry basis) for volatile concentration (VCM) = 77.49.41.(gross) = 8105 Btu lb-I q.(gross) = 4503 cal g-' qv(gross) 18840 J g-' 85 JEN/EBE 19 .68.' qv(gross) = 5022 cal gqv(gross) = 21010 J g-l net heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature.56. nitrogen = 0. qv(net) = 8604 Btu lbll qv(net) = 4780 cal gqv(net) = 20000 J g-l 85JEN/EBE MERLOT GRAPES. determination performed at 30 a t m 02? corrections applied for t h e formation of nitric and and sulfuric acids. hydrogen = 4.

00.32. b' qv(gross) = 4976 cal gqv(gross) = 20820 J g. and residue (ash) 1. hydrogen 5.(net) = 8441 Btu Ib.14. sulfur = 0. q. ash content = 3.03. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature. oxygen = 43.65. I qv(net) 4809 cal gqv(net> = 201 20 J g-l 85 JEN/EBE PEACH PITS. solid. nitrogen = 0.05.85. Material is considered biomass fuel and has proximate analysis values (in percent by weight dry basis) for volatile concentration (VCM) = 78. determination performed at 30 a t m 02.1 net heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature. ash content = 1. and fixed carbon = 18.(gross) = 51 12 c a l g-l qv(gross) = 21390 J g-l net heat of combustion: assume values refer to toom temperature. hydrogen = 6.19. qv(gross) = 8957 Btu I.10. solid. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature. sulfur = 0.16.81.(gross) = 9202 Btu lb-I q.48.23. nitrogen 0. qv(net) = 8636 Btu lb. oxygen = 39. corrections applied for the formation of nitric and and sulfuric acids. Also t h e ultimate analysis of t h e elemental composition of the fuel (values in percent by weight dry basis) is carbon = 53.59. determination performed at 30 atm 02. 1 qv(net) = 4689 c a l gq.90.12. Also t h e ultimate analysis of t h e elemental composition of t h e fuel (values in percent by weight dry basis) is carbon = 48. and residue (ash) = 1.Agricultural Residues OLIVE PITS.02. q.(net) = 19620 J g-' 85 JEN/EBE 20 . and fixed carbon = 19. corrections applied for the formation of nitric and and sulfuric acids. Material is considered biomass fuel and has proximate analysis values (in percent by weight dry basis) for volatile concentration (VCM) = 79.36.

1 qv(net) = 4190 cal g-' qv(net) = 17530 J g-' 85 JEN/EBE PINOT NOIR GRAPES.02. Material is considered biomass fuel and has proximate analysis values (in percent by weight dry basis) for volatile concentration (VCM) = 76. oxygen = 39.46. q.14.63.and corrections applied for t h e formation of nitric and sulfuric acids.77.83. determination performed at 30 a t m 02.89.01. nitrogen = 0. nitrogen = 1. and residue (ash) = 3. VINEYARD PRUNINGS. ash content 2.71.56.03.12. Also the ultimate analysis of the elemental composition of t h e fuel (values in percent by weight dry basis) is carbon = 45.86. and fixed carbon = 21. 1 qv(gross) = 4455 cal gqv(gross) = 18640 J g-l net heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature. oxygen = 43. solid.09. sulfur = 0. qv(net) = 7542 Btu lb.82.(gross) 8196 Btu 1bT1 qv(gross) = 4553 cal gq.46. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature. solid.(gross) = 19050 J g-l net heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature. hydrogen 5. Also t h e ultimate analysis of the elemental composition of the fuel (values in percent by weight dry basis) is carbon = 47.46.01.13. and residue (ash) = 7. chlorine = 0.Agricultural Residues PEANUT HULLS. and fixed carbon = 20. ash content = 5. corrections applied for the formation of nitric and and sulfuric acids. Material is considered biomass fuel and has proximate analysis values (in percent by weight dry basis) for volatile concentration (VCM) = 73. determination performed at 30 a t m 02. qv(net) = 7684 Btu lbl 1 qv(net) = 4269 cal g l qv(net) = 17860 J g85 JEN/EBE 21 .sulfur = 0. qv(gross) 8019 Btu lb. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature. hydrogen = 5.

1 net heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature. oxygen = 43. hydrogen = 5. ash content = 1. Material is considered biomass fuel and has proximate analysis values (in percent by weight dry basis) for volatile concentration (VCM) = 76. oxygen = 43. Also the ultimate analysis of t h e elemental composition of t h e fuel (values in percent by weight dry basis) is carbon = 48.04. qv(net) = 7770 Btu lbll qv(net) = 4316 cal g . gross heat o combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature.32. qv(gross) = 8286 Btu lb-I qv(gross) = 4603 cal g-l qv(gross) = 19260 J g-l net heat of combustion: assume values refer t o toom temperature. sulfur = 0.01.79.41. and residue (ash) 0 4 . nitrogen = 0. hydrogen = 5. .84.57.73. solid.56. and residue (ash) = 1.91. Material is considered biomass fuel and has proximate analysis values (in percent by weight dry basis) for volatile concentration (VCM) = 82. ash content = 0.51.28.99. chlorine = 0. corrections applied for t h e formation of nitric and sulfuric acids. qv(gross) = 10015 Btu 1 qv(gross) = 5564 cal gq. nitrogen = 0.03.90.50.and corrections applied for the formation of nitric and sulfuric acids. and fixed carbon = 16. qv(net) = 18060 J g85 JEN/EBE PRUNE PITS: solid. qv(net) = 9499 Btu lbll qv(net) = 5277 cal g-1 qv(net) = 22080 J g 85 JEN/EBE 22 . Also t h e ultimate analysis of the elemental composition of the fuel (values in percent by weight dry basis) is carbon 49.(gross) = 23280 J g. determination and performed at 30 atrn 02.13.8 gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature. and fixed carbon = 22. determination f performed at 30 a t m 02.Agricultural Residues PISTACHIO SHELLS.

97.00. qv(net) = 3650 cal g qv(net) = 15270 J g85 JEN/EBE 23 .47. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature.12.and corrections applied for t h e formation of nitric and sulfuric acids. chlorine = 0.34. qv(net) = 6569 Btu lb. determination performed at 30 a t m 02. oxygen = 35.Agricultural Residues RIBIER GRAPES. qv(gross) = 8226 Btu lb-' qv(gross) = 4570 cal g-' qv(gross) = 19120 J g-l 85 JEN/EBE RICE HULLS solid. hydro en = 4. Also t h e ultimate analysis of the elemental composition of t h e fuel (values in percent by weight dry basis) is carbon 40. and fixed carbon = 20. Material is considered biomass fuel and has proximate analysis values (in percent by weight dry basis) for volatile concentration (VCM) = 76.' . and corrections applied for t h e formation of nitric and sulfuric acids.solid. and residue ash) = 18.86. ash content = 3. ash content = 17.86. qv(gross) = 6944 Btu lb.40.(gross) = 3858 cal gq. nitrogen = 0.(gross) = 16140 J g-' net heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature. sulfur = 0.30.02. ? gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature. determination performed at 30 a t m 02. and fixed carbon = 16.' q. Material is considered biomass fuel and has proximate analysis values (in percent by weight dry basis) for volatile concentration (VCM) = 65.67.03.96. VINEYARD PRUNINCS.

Material is considered biomass fuel and has proximate analysis values (in percent by weight dry basis) for volatile concentration (VCM) 62. hydrogen 3.31. nitrogen = 0.36.42. WEATHERED (COLLECTED 1/2 YEAR AFTER HARVEST). and residue (ash) = 15. sulfur = 0. Also t h e ultimate analysis of t h e elemental composition of the fuel (values in percent by weight dry basis) is carbon = 41. ash content = 13.Agricultural Residues RICE STRAW (COLLECTEDAFTER HARVEST). qv(net) = 6599 Btu lbi' qv(net) = 3666 c a l g l qv(net) = 15340 J g85 JEN/EBE RICE STRAW. ash content = 24. solid.70. f q v h e t ) = 5920 Btu lb'l qv(net) = 3289 cal g-l q.00.34.90.93. corrections applied for the formation of nitric and and sulfuric acids. determination performed at 30 a t m 02.93.63. Material is considered biomass fuel and has proximate analysis values (in percent by weight dry basis) for volatile concentration (VCM) 69. chlorine = 0.(gross) = 3480 cal g-l q. hydrogen = 4. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature. Also t h e ultimate analysis of t h e elemental composition of t h e fuel (values in percent by weight dry basis) is carbon = 34. and fixed carbon 17.38.57. qv(gross) = 7004 Btu l b l l qv(gross) = 3891 c a l gqv(gross) = 16280 J g-l net heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature.78.60.25. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature. nitrogen = 0.08. and fixed carbon = 13. qv(gross) = 6264 Btu Ib-I q. determination performed at 30 a t m 0 2 . sulfur = 0.(gross) = 14560 J g-' net heat o combustion: assume values refer to room temperature. solid. and corrections applied for the formation of nitric and sulfuric acids.33. and residue (ash) = 25. oxygen = 36.16. oxygen = 35.33.(net) = 13760 J g-l 85 JEN/EBE 24 .

1 qv(gross) = 4549 f 43 cal g-l qv(gross) = 19033 f 180 J g-l 53BHA 25 . average moisture content.' q.(net) = 7787 Btu lb'l qv(net) = 4326 cal g-l qv(net) = 18100 J g-' 85 JEN/EBE SUGARCANE BAGASSE.58. Material is considered biomass fuel and has proximate analysis values (in percent by weight dry basis) for volatile concentration (VCM) = 77. Fibers obtained from shredding cane in a laboratory shredder and washing in running water for 24 hours t o remove all soluble substances. q. and residue (ash) = 5.5 1%. gross heat o combustion: assume value refers t o room temperature and is on a f moisture-free.(gross) = 4596 cal gq.54. Fibers were dried at 100°-1050C (212"-221"F) t o constant weight and pulverized to pass through 60 mesh sieve.30. q. ash content = 4. Nine varieties of Indian sugarcane were used. q.62.(gross) = 19230 J g-' net heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature.05.65.Agricultural Residues SAFFLOWER STRAW. 3. solid.71. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature. nitrogen = 0. and fixed carbon = 18. Value is a n average of gross heats of combustion of nine different varieties bagasse.(gross) = 8188 f 78 Btu lb. hydrogen = 1. oxygen = 46. determination performed at 30 atrn 02.66%.(gross) = 8273 Btu lb. Average ash content. solid. ash-free basis. The uncertainty is given as two times t h e standard deviation of t h e mean. 4.and corrections applied for the formation of nitric and sulfuric acids. Also the ultimate analysis of t h e elemental composition of t h e fuel (values in percent by weight dry basis) is carbon = 41.55.

t r u e fiber cell rind of stalk (50% dry weight of cane).38. f q.Agricultural Residues SUGARCANE BAGASSE.8 W J g-l 53PER 26 .18 S .190.35. Also the ultimate analysis of t h e elemental composition of t h e fuel (values in percent by weight dry basis) is carbon = 44.0 W c a l gqv(net) = 17782 . qv(net) = 7650 . sulfur = 0.(gross) 8190 . q..I 19037 . solid. fiber bundles contained in pith (15% dry weight of cane). 43%-52% fiber. and 2%-6% soluble solids (mostly sucrose).42 S . 1 qv(net) = 3881 cal gqv(net) 16240 J g-l 85JEN/EBE SUGARCANE BAGASSE. and residue (ash) = 9.45.(gross) of soluble m a t t e r called Brix = 7110 Btu Ib.' qv(gross) = 4 142 cal gq.27. chlorine = 0.(gross) qv(gross) q. and dense waxy nonfibrous epidermus (5% dry weight of cane).12. ash content = 11. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature. Material is considered biomass fuel and has proximate analysis values (in percent by weight dry basis) for volatile concentration (VCM) = 73.01.81. 1 4550 . and where S denotes t h e sucrose and W t h e moisture cont e n t % bagasse.42 S . solid. q.78.5 W cal g. and fixed carbon = 14.and corrections applied for t h e formation of nitric and sulfuric acids.48. nitrogen = 0.ree fiber = 8442 Btu Ib-'.95.9 W Btu Ib. gross heat of combustion: Formulas are derived from qv(gross) of dry.(gross) and where S denotes sucrose and W is moisture content % bagasse.4 W J g- net heat of combustion: Formulas are derived from deduction of l a t e n t h e a t of water vapor from q.(gross) = 17330 J g-l net heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature. hydrogen = 5.200.80.86. Material is fibrous residue from sugar c a n e after t h e c a n e is harvested and crushed to extract t h e juice.55.10 S .79.4 W Btu l b l l qv(net) = 4250 . Mill-run bagasse contains an average of 46%-52% moisture.average ash content = 3% of dry material. oxygen = 39. qv(net) = 6987 Btu lb.18 S .10 S .(gross) = 7456 Btu lb. determination performed at 30 a t m 02. ash. Substance is composed of pith (30% dry weight of cane).

07. chlorine = 0. q.(gross) = 4625 cal g-' q.71. and residue (ash) = 2. qv(gross) = 8325 Btu lb. Also t h e ultimate analysis of t h e elemental composition of t h e fuel (values in percent by weight dry basis) is carbon = 47. qv(net) = 7795 Btu lb. 1 qv(net) = 4331 c a l g l qv(net) 18120 J g85 JEN/EBE 27 . Material is considered biomass fuel and has proximate analysis values (in percent by weight dry basis) for volatile concentration (VCM) = 77. ash content = 2. determination performed at 30 a t m 02.77. solid. q. sulfur = 0. q.82. Also t h e ultimate analysis of t h e elemental composition of t h e fuel (values in percent by weight dry basis) is carbon = 47.07.35. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature. sulfur = 0. hydrogen = 5.(gross) = 4615 c a l g-l qv(gross) = 19310 J g-' net heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature.45.(gross) = 8307 Btu lb-I q.63. and fixed carbon = 20. determination performed at 30 a t m 02. oxygen = 42.(gross) = 19350 J g-l net heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature.75.03. and residue (ash) = 2.39.(net) = 4345 cal g.77.1 q.(net) = 18180 3 g- 85JEN/EBE TOKAY GRAPES. VINEYARD PRUNINGS.01.25.(net) = 7821 Btu lbi' q. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature.Agricultural Residues THOMPSON SEEDLESS GRAPES. VINEYARD PRUNINGS. solid.32. ash content = 2. hydrogen = 5.77. and fixed carbon 21.02. nitrogen = 0. chlorine = 0.93. Material is considered biomass fuel and has proximate analysis values (in percent by weight dry basis) for volatile concentration (VCM) = 76.53. nitrogen = 0.36.and corrections applied for t h e formation of nitric and sulfuric acids.and corrections applied for t h e formation of nitric and sulfuric acids. oxygen 43.

solid.(net) = 3623 cal gq. hydrogen = 5. and fixed carbon = 16. oxygen = 43.71. corrections applied for t h e formation of nitric and and sulfuric acids.68.(net) = 19020 J g-' 85 JEN/EBE WHEAT DUST. q.(gross) = 20180 J g-l net heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature. nitrogen = 3.(net) = 15160 J g-l 85JEN/EBE 28 . Material is considered biomass fuel and has proximate analysis values (in percent by weight dry basis) for volatile concentration (VCM) 78. and fixed carbon = 21.10.28. qv(gross) 8682 Btu lb.56.04. determination performed at 30 a t m 02. Also t h e ultimate analysis of t h e elemental composition of t h e fuel (values in percent by weight dry basis) is carbon = 41. sulfur = 0.16. ash content = 0.03.(gross) = 6969 Btu lb.38. gross heat of combustion: assume values r e f e r to room temperature. q.98. corrections applied for the formation of nitric and and sulfuric acids.21.19. and residue (ash) = 15. determination performed at 30 a t m 02. ash content = 13.71. qv(net) = 6522 Btu lb. oxygen = 35. and residue (ash) = 0. sulfur = 0. chlorine = 0. Also t h e ultimate analysis of t h e elemental composition of t h e fuel (values in percent by weight dry basis) is carbon = 49.(gross) = 4823 c a l g-l q. hydrogen = 5.47. 1 q. FOOD AND FIBER PROCESSING WASTE.' q.35.1 q.19.(gross) = 16200 J gnet heat of combustion: assume values refer to toom temperature. qv(net) = 8183 Btu Ibi 1 qv(net) = 4546 c a l gq. solid.(gross) = 3872 cal g .01.10. Material is considered biomass fuel and has proximate analysis values (in percent by weight dry basis) for volatile concentration (VCM) = 69.Agricultural Residues WALNUT SHELLS. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature.85. nitrogen = 0.

q. and fixed carbon = 19. Material is considered biomass fuel and has proximate analysis values (in percent by weight dry basis) for volatile concentration (VCM) = 76. ash content = 8.04.40.11. determination performed at 30 at m 02. oxygen = 39. and fixed carbon = 19. and residue (ash) = 11.(gross) = 17510 J g-' net heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature. hydrogen = 5.Agricultural Residues WHEAT STRAW.00.and corrections applied for the formation of nitric and sulfuric acids.and corrections applied for t h e formation of nitric and sulfuric acids. nitrogen 0. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature. solid.' q. sulfur = 0. Material is considered biomass fuel and has proximate analysis values (in percent by weight dry basis) for volatile concentration (VCM) = 71. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature. q. 1 q.28.(net) = 3941 cal g l qv(net) = 16490 J g85 JEN/EBE ZINFANDEL GRAPES.40. chlorine = 0.49.90. determination performed at 30 atm 02.20.99. ash content = 3. solid.80.30.(gross) = 7533 Btu lb.(gross) = 4185 cal gq. Also t h e ultimate analysis of t h e elemental composition of t h e fuel (values in percent by weight dry basis) is carbon = 43.(gross) = 8200 Btu lb.I qv(gross) = 4555 cal g-l qv(gross) = 19060 J g-l 85 JEN/EBE 29 . VINEYARD PRUNINGS. qv(net> = 7094 Btu lb.61.

101 1 0.0943 0.15 400 500 600 700 800 77 260 440 620 800 980 0.4452 sample 3 298.445%.4393 0.1014 0.1050 0.1045 0. 70.1064 0.%.02%.4565 67CHA/HUL 33 .75%.3787 0.15 400 500 600 700 800 77 260 440 620 800 980 0.1056 0.1016 0. 0.1091 0.15 400 500 600 700 800 77 260 440 620 800 980 0.466 1 0.4205 0.05%.425 1 0. 34.045%.104S 0.0905 0.4418 sample 2 298.01%.4243 0. nickel.0905 0.4347 0.0908 0.1064 0.4372 0.1056 0. 0. 0. (sample 1): copper.1016 0.02%.0905 0.1005 0. lead. nickel. zinc.1014 0. 65.22%.4435 0.1005 0.1011 0.3787 0. 0. 0.003%.0908 0. 79. lead. zinc. 29. 0.1 114 0.1039 0.0941 0.0941 0. iron. zinc.4230 0.K ) 298. 20.815%. iron.3946 0.1039 0.1 114 0. (sample 2): copper.3937 0. (sample 3): copper. 0. 0.0943 0.42%.002%.1091 0. 0. lead.1060 0.015%.0940 0. solid.3798 0.0905 0. iron. nickel.001%. 0.0940 0.1050 0. tin. specific heat: tern erature (KP (OF) sample 1 1 -1 CP(cal g. chemical composition in wt.18%.1060 0.002%.Alloys and Metals a-BRASS.3935 0.

238 0.4%.) p -1 Cp(J g K ) +K -? = 0.52%.Alloys and Metals 80 NICKEL-20 CHROMIUM. 0 gross heat of combustion: q (gross) is equal to t h e enthalpy of combustion.216 0.567 = 0. specific heat: 273-423 K (32"-302"F) C (Btu lb'l OF-') cP(cal -I K-') p -1 Cp(J g K ) -5 = 0.1 Lf = 95.222 = 0.260 0. manganese.45%.0825 + 7 6 x . 26.3 lb ft-j. carbon. x T T = 0.0952 + 4.578 x lod5 T = 0.216 0.4271 + 1.~ (169. Lf = 171. 0. density. composition: nickel.O . chromium. 659°C (1228OF).10705 + 2.087 heat of fusion: at t h e melting point. 77.904 0.933 x T T 55DOU/DEV ALUMINUM. iron. silicon. -AHcat P 25°C (77OF). 0.941 x T 873-1173 K ( I 112"-1652"F) C (Btu Ib-I O . qp(gross) = 13359 Btu lp.18 x T 423-873 K (302°-1112"F) Cp(Btu Ib. solid.59%. A1203.10191 + 4. product of combustion is a-corundum. 1. so id.996 1.5 J (more) 34 .25 cal Lf = 398.1 .62 x T = 0.K-l) 9 = 0.04%. atomic number.1 q (gross) = 7422 cal gqp(gtoss)= 31053 J g-l P 82WAG/EVA specific heat: -1 -1 Cp(J g K ) 298 500 700 77 441 801 0.3452 + 3.260 0.3983 + 1.64 x T = 0.5 Btu lb. 19.) F' P c (cal -I .712 g ~ r n .11390 + 2. 2.238 0. atdmic wt..98154.) F' Cp(cal -1 K-l) Cp(J g. 0. 13.1021 + 4.4%.

1060 0.0940 0.05%. nickel.4435 0.015%.4418 sample 2 298. 34.1011 0.3787 0. 0.4205 0. specific heat: tern erature (KP (OF) Cp(Btu lb-I O-) F' -I -1 Cp(J g K ) sample 1 298. 0.0905 0.01%.4230 0. zinc.22%. iron.1 114 0.0941 0.0943 0.101 1 0. 0.1064 0. iron.466 1 0.1050 0.002%.3787 0. 0.1045 0. lead. 0. 0.0908 0.0905 0.Alloys and Metals a-BRASS.0940 0. solid.15 400 500 600 700 800 77 260 440 620 800 980 0.445%.1005 0.3935 0. 65.1091 0.18%.3946 0. 29.4347 0.1016 0. lead.0908 0.02%. (sample 3): copper. zinc.1056 0.1064 0.1039 0.0943 0.002%. iron.4372 0.1045 0. 0.1056 0.425 1 0. chemical composition in wt.1039 0.1 I14 0. 79. zinc.15 400 500 600 700 800 77 260 440 620 800 980 0.15 77 400 260 500 440 600 620 700 800 800 980 0.045%. 70.1014 0.4452 sample 3 298.02%. 0.42%. nickel.4393 0.1060 0.0905 0.0942 0.3798 0.1050 0.4243 0. (sample I): copper.003%.0905 0.4565 67CHA/HUL 33 .3937 0.%. 20.001%. nickel. 0.1014 0.1016 0.1005 0. (sample 2): copper. lead.1091 0.75%. tin.815%. 0.

solid.52%.5 J (more) 34 .216 0.4%.238 0.238 0.10191 + 4.so id.). 77. density.4%.904 0. Lf = 171. carbon.1021 + 4.K' -) 5 = 0.59%.98154. 0.578 = 0.Alloys and Metals 80 NICKEL-20 CHROMIUM.3983 + 1.712 g (169. manganese.62 = 0.996 1.933 x T T T 55DOU/DEV ALUMINUM. -AH0 at c 25°C (77°F).11390 + 2. 659°C (1218'F). 4 gross heat of combustion: q. 2. silicon. q (gross) = 13359 Btu 1 qP(gross) = 7422 cal gqP(gross) = 31053 J g-l P 82WAGfEVA specific heat: Cp(J g-' K-I) 298 500 700 77 441 801 0.3 lb ft.222 = 0. composition: nickel.941 x x T T T 873-1173 K (1112°-16520F) Cp(Btu lb-I OF-') Cp(cal 4-l K ' -) Cp(J g.087 heat of fusion: at the melting point.3452 + 3.. iron.K-l) q1 = 0. 19.260 0. = 0.(gross) is equal to the enthalpy of combustion.0825 + 7 6 x .0952 + 4. chromium. A1203.10705 + 2.216 0. 0.04%. specific heat: 273-423 K (32"-302"F) Cp(Btu lb-I OF-') -I K -1 Cpbl Cp(J g. 13.45%. 0. atomic wt.5 Btu lb-I Lf = 95.260 0. product of con-bustion is a-corundum.64 x = 0.25 cal If= 398. 1.18 x x lo-' T T T 423-873 K (302"-1112"F) Cp(Btu Ib-I OF-') Cp(cal K' -) Cp(J g.K-l) 0. atomic number.4271 + 1. 26.567 x = 0.

539 = 0.4%.5%.196 + 2.Alloys and Metals ALUMINUM .00 x 10-9 T3 T2 + 4. magnesium.715 x 10.1914 + 1.470 1. = 10871 J g-l vapor pressure: tem erature ("CP (OF) 1060 1940 1509 1743 2039 2441 2748 3169 3702 4426 ?(atm) 1o-3 6 lo-* P(pa> 0.18 x 10-9 T3 58LUC/DEE 35 .2 x x T2 + 1.5%.11 x 10-9 T3 T2 + 4.828 + 10.1933 + 1.23.5.3 10132. 10 10- 101.896 T .470 1. specific heat: -120" to 425OC (-184" to 80O0F) Cp(Btu Ib-I OF-') Cp(cal g-I "C-') Cp(J g-' "C-') = 0.solid. P(psi) 1.903 x 10. aluminum.1. 0.o 63HUL/ORR ALUMINUM 2024-T4. 1.3%. copper. composition: copper. = 4676 Btu Ib.73 lo-' T . chromium.) F' Cp(cal g OC-') Cp(J g-l "C-') = 0.5 101325.5%.28. composition: zinc.61 x T .470 14.Continued heat o vaporization: at the boiling point.5%.696 x x x 101. 5.5%. f L.505 = 0.6.10 T3 T2 + 1.10 T3 T2 + 1. 2. 0.solid.64 x = 0.5 x 10-9 T3 58LUC/DEE ALUMINUM 7075-T6. 4.52 x x T . specific heat: -120" to 425OC (-250" to XOOOF) Cp(Btu lb-' O .198 + 2. manganese.6%.820 + 10.2.5 x x lod4 T .3 1013.1 101. 93. magnesium.470 1.' L. = 2598 cal gL.50 x = 0. 2441°C (4426'F). 1.260 x T .5 x x T2 + 1.

Lf = 23. vapor pressure: tem erature C°CP (OF) P(atm) 1o-6 1o - NPa) 0.4 Btu lb.470 I .5 101325.4 J g- 4-1 heat of vaporization: at the boiling point. 14.696 63HUL/ORR 36 . 48. -AHcat 0 P . CdO.3 Hpsi) 1. 112. 2441°C ( 4 6 F .0552 0.0577 0.41..470 1. 321°C ( 1 ' ) 60F.o 1013. 101 . .Alloys and Metals CADMIUM solid.470 1. 42') L = 382 Btu lb-I . L = 212 cal .5 lb ft-3). atomic wt.0552 0.242 0.' qP(gross) = 549 c a l ~ i qp(gross) 2297 J g P 82WAG/EVA specific heat: 298 400 500 77 261 441 0.1 101.470 x 213 415 385 725 477 891 597 1107 747 1413 ~ 10-'2 10- x x lo-. cal 30 Lf = 54.231 0.252 heat of fusion: at the melting point. gross heat of combustion: q (gross) is equal to the enthalpy of combustion.0603 0.0577 0. atomic number.0603 0. density.3 10132. 8. 25°C (77°F). q (gross) = 988 Btu lb.1 Lf = 1 . product of combustion IS cadmium oxide.642 g cm-3 (539.

123 0.123 0.470 1. 51. 1 q (gross) = 2619 cal qP(gross)= 10959 J g P P sfi 82WAG/EVA specific heat: tern erature (KP 298 500 700 (OF) Cp(Btu lb-l "FA') 0. gross heat of combustion: q (gross) is equal t o t h e enthalpy of combustion.5 15 77 441 801 0.2 g C I I I .128 -1 K-l) Cp(cal g Cp(3 g-l K-l) 0.3 1013. product of combustion is Cr203.538 heat of fusion: at t h e melting point 1903°C (3457°F).o 63HUL/ORR 37 . 24.~ (449. L = 1563 cal . atomic wt. solid. vapor pressure: tern erature C0CP 1252 1711 1937 2250 2665 (OF) 2286 3112 3519 4082 4829 P(atrn) 1o-3 6 1o-2 10- P(Pd 0.1 . density.107 0.3 10132. Npsi) 1. -AHcat 0 25°C (77°F).5 lb ft-3).470 14. L = 6542 J .9961. Lf = 170 Btu 1P-l Lf = 96 cal gLf = 400 J g-l heat of vaporization: at t h e boiling point 2665°C (4829OF). qp(gross) = 4715 Btu lb.107 0.470 1.696 x x x lo-: 10- I ..449 0. 7. L = 2814 Btu lb.128 0.470 1.Alloys and Metals CHROMIUM.1 101.5 101325. atomic number.

1018 0.020 0. L = 4780 J . atomic number. f Lf = 88.057 08 . composition range centering on 55 wt. q (gross) = 570.426 heat o fusion: at t h e melting point 1084°C (1983°F). solid.0922 0.7 0.' qP(gross) = 317.4 Btu Ib.1 cal gIf= 205.0971 0. product of combustion is cuprous oxide. gross heat of cornbustion: q (gross) is equal to t h e enthalpy of combustion. density.99.9 lb ft-').0001 1 0.. specific heat: values refer to specific alloy.1018 0.020 08 .4 -279.000026 0.4 . % Ni.4 0. tern erature (KP 1 (OF) Cp(Btu lb-I O-) F' Cp(cal g-l K . atomic wt. t h e other constantans should have specific heat within 5% of t h e following values. % Cu and 40 wt. 9.406 0.7 Btu lb.92 g cmd3 (556.6 P J g-l 82WAGlEVA specific heat: 298 77 441 801 500 700 0.023 0.283 0.4 J g-l heat of vaporization: at t h e boiling point 2573°C (4663°F). (more) 38 .1 cal g- P AH^ at 0 qp(gross) = 1326. I 1143 cal .000026 0.057 0.7 0.362 40KEE/KUR COPPER.546.386 0.6 -369.0922 0. L = 2057 Btu Ib-' . 29. Cu20. solid.097 1 0. % nickel. % copper and 45 wt. 25°C (77°F).Alloys and Metals CONSTANTAN. 63.~ ) Cp(J g-1 K -1 ) 50 100 200 -457. 60 wt. 1 Lf 49.

5659 (K) 64THA/KOH 39 . manganese.6309 x x T4 .continued vapor pressure: tern erature C0Cf 1118 1589 (OF) P(atm) Wa) P(pd 1.3866 + l.030 T4 + 1. specific heat: 273-1373 K (32'-2012"F) Cp(Btu lb-' OF-') T2 + 7.9.470 14.1765 x 0.l 7 T5 + 1.15%.30 x x T3 + 1.2172 T2 .00%-20.2 (J g-') = 0. 20.2.470 1..0924 T + 2. 101. 10 10- 63HUL/ORR HASTELLOY X.6035 x 10. 1: 0.27.3 10132.696 x x x 2044 2892 1830 3326 2142 3888 2573 4663 1o-6 10-3 lo-.8569 x x 10 11 T 3 -7.470 1.284 x x T4 -1.1429 (K) x T2 -3.2%-1. silicon.62 x lo-'' T6 . 0.3866 T + 9.0774 T5 + 9. iron.l 6 T4 + 7.19 T5 = 0.17 T5 T -1. 17.o 0.770 x = 0.922 x lo-' T3 + 1.113.77 x T2 + 4. composition: carbon.0924 + 4.0%.1.6473 = 0.2.4886 x x T3 .38 x 10.0%.812 x 10-9 T2 + 1.5 101325.Alloys and Metals COPPER . 42.50%-23.. 1.OO% max.q 3 2( B t U 1b-l) = 0.00%. solid.373 x T5 + 2.3 1013.0%-54.5774 T3 + 2. 1.OO% max.l 9 T6 .0464 (OF) qT'q273.4443 x loL5 T + 4.1020 x T + 8. cobalt.4.05%-0.887 x 10.4321 T2 . tungsten.219 x x T4 -3.l 4 T4 + 5. chromium.1037 + 2. 8.05%-2.575 T6 .310 T5 heat content: 273-1373 K (32"-2012'F) q ~ .3033 x 10.438 x x T3 -1.00%-10. molybdenum. 0.2 (cal g-') qT'9273. 0.00%.1 101. remainder nickel.50%.91 19 10.00%.1710 x 10.885 Cp(cal g-1 K -1 ) -1 -1 Cp(J g K x T -2.470 1.

50 wt.. 15.107 500 700 441 801 0. 0.148 0. manganese. %.09775 + 7. chromium. nickel.0 cal gLf = 272.solid. density.099 + 1. %.35 wt.04 wt. 7.Alloys and Metals INCONEL.70 wt. solid.7 lb ft-3).I 1 T3 T2 + 1. silicon.418 + 5.724 x x x = 0. specific heat: -120" to 982°C (-184O to 1 0 ' ) 80F Cp(Btu lb-I O . nickel.5 x x 10" T2 + 3.126 0. 1. %. 0. aluminum. 7.9 wt. 96. chromium. 0. 15 wt.00 wt.100 + 1.8.10 *3 58LUC/DEE IRON.0967 + 7.846 x 10.617 heat of fusion: at t h e melting point 1536°C (2797OF). Fe203. manganese. silicon.00 wt. %. 26.450 0. titanium. %.2. 96. 0. 96.10 T3 10. 73. 0.04 wt. %.86 g cm-3 (490. 0. %.30 wt.09 T .847. solid.0 J g-' P (more) 40 . gross heat of combustion: q (gross)is equal to t h e enthalpy of combustion.00 wt. product of combustion is hematite. %.978 x x 10. %. niobium. 94.8. 78 wt.71 10.1 1 T 3 T~ + 2.414 + 5 2 3 lod4 T .66 x 10. iron. 0. composition: carbon.20 wt.0 Btu 1 -I Lf = 65. atomic wt. 0.6.10 T3 T2 +.74 T2 + 2. %.00 wt.50 T . %. atomic number. composition: carbon. iron.10.22 = 0.2. at qp(gross) = 3175 Btu Ib-' q (gross) = 1764 cal P q (gross) = 7379 J P 82WAG/EVA specific heat: 298 77 0.10 T3 58LUC/DEE INCONEL "X".00 wt.148 0.6. specific heat: -120O to 982'C (-184' t o 1800OF) P OC-') Cp(cal Cp(3 g. 55.32 T2 + 9.526 0.098 T .95 x 10.) F' Cp(cal -I 0c-l) Cp(J g.366 x x x T . 2. 7. Lf = 117.25 = 0."C-I) 5 0. ANNEALED.284 = 0."C-') C (Btu Lb-I 5 OF-') = 0.107 0 I26 . -AHc 0 P 25OC (77°F).10 x x T .

composition of cast iron: base iron (Fe).5 10 1325.3164T . 2698 Btu lb.5.1.7) Xsi c qT-q273 (cal g-') = (0. heat content: The temperature range is (-140O0-160O0C) (2600"-2900"F).12.4.94) XFe + (0.1.470 1.5) Xsi 3 + (0. P. P 0. liquid. qy-q32(Bt~lb-l) = (0.+ + (2. vapor pressure: tern erature C0CP ( O F ) P(atm) 1o-6 I 0-3 lo-.1%-3.08) XFe + (0.t h e compound cementite (Fe3C). T is in K.3%-0.470 14.696 x x x 1326 1829 2080 2417 2875 2419 3324 3776 4383 5207 1: 0. .2%-4.1 L.98) XFe = (0.1 101.39021 + 989.73571 . P(psi) 1.2) X c + (0.2%.02%.2168T + 549.470 1.4) Xc + (0.9072T + 2300. X is weight fraction of substance. S = 0.1758T .Alloys and Metals IRON .470 1.7357T . and lesser el ement s such as Mn. and remainder Fe.0929T + 3473.5) X c + (0. and S A typical composition for ductile iron is C 3.3164T .47) XF.o P(Pa) 0.1) Xsi 73DUC 41 .3 10132. L. 10 10- 63HUL/ORR IRON.08%. the equation applies t o all cast iron and is the sum of individual heat content equations where t h e lesser elements are ignored.36) XFe 3 + (0. Si 1.2.9004T + 1494.53) XFe + (0.5%.3 1013. Mn = 0.1758T . = 1499 cal L = 6271 J .5002T + 830.Continued heat of vaporization: at the boiling point 2875OC (5207OF).8%. 101. CAST. and alloying elements of graphite ( C ) and silicon (Si).

128 0.470 1. = 855.3"F).0339 0.50 cal Lf = 23.470 1.137 0.2.1 . 11. x 19 . L = 368.142 heat of fusion: at t h e melting point 327. L.5 lb ft-3).0339 0.1 Npsi) 1.Alloys and Metals LEAD.3 10132.3 g (705. P 25°C (77'F).696 x x 615 956 1137 1388 1743 1139 1753 2079 2530 3169 10-'2 10- 101. solid. gross heat of combustion: q (gross) is equal to t h e enthalpy of combustion. atomic number.5 101325..0 J g- q1 heat of vaporization: at t h e boiling point 1743OC (3169°F).3 J vapor pressure: tern erature ("Cf (OF) P(atm) 10-4 lo-* 10j 10- P(Pa) 0. atomic wt. qp(gross) = 576 Btu lb-' qp(gross) 320 cal g-l qp(gross) = 1339 J g-' C AH^ at 0 82WAG/EVA specific heat: 298 500 600 77 441 621 0.470 1.0328 0.0305 0.470 14.3 1013.0305 0.0328 0. 82.1 Lf = 5. L = 204. 207.4 cal .90 Btu lb.4"C (621. density.0 Btu Ib. 63HUL/ORR 42 . product of combustion is Pb02. Lf = 9.

Lf = 4.135 heat of fusion: at t h e melting point -38.5939 g C K I .~ (848.644 c a l L = 295.470 1.o 0I . 10-z 10- 63HUL/ORR 43 . 638') L. 200.0333 0.84 101. . 4 F . atomic wt.76 483.135 0. 13. 80.44 J g-5-l heat of vaporization: at t h e boiling point 35638°C ( 7 . q (gross) = 194.735 cal Lf = 11.98 250. orthorhombic mercuric oxide.21 175.17 120.40 673.470 1.0333 0.5 101325. = 127.16 Btu lb-' L. vapor pressure: tern rature (OCY (OF) 14.95"F).0323 0.922 Btu lb-I Lf = 2.86"C (-37. 7') P . atomic number.0323 0.0323 0.58 57.3 1013. -AHc at 25°C ( 7 F .667 lb ft-')..470 1.3 10132.78 356.1 P q (gross) = 108. 0 gross heat of combustion: q (gross) is equal to t h e enthalpy of combustion. = 70. liquid.57 J .470 14.140 0.8 J P specific heat: 298 500 600 77 441 621 0.38 P(atm) Npa) Npsi) 1. HgO.59.696 x x x 348.51 248. density. product of combustion IS red.Alloys and Metals MERCURY.8 Btu lb. 101.2 c a l P q (gross) = 452.0323 0.

0% (maximum).106 0. 1 . manganese. %. tomic number. %.158 0. (555.6 Ib ft-4.06 Cp(cal g-l ~ .000026 0.37 0. corrosion resistant alloy. copper. solid. 8.02 x x T .39 x lo-' Tz + 2.0 I9 0.10 Cp(J g-1 K -I ) 1 50 100 200 300 -457.10 T3 58LUC/DEE NICKEL.66 x 10. 1. 67 wt..Alloys and Metals MONEL.126 Cp(cal g-1 K-l) Cp(J g-1 K -1 ) 0.097 + 1. qp(gross) = 1757 Btu 1P-l q (gross) = 976 cal gqP(gross) = 4084 J g-' P P specific heat: t e m erature (€8(OF) 77 441 675 801 298 500 630 700 C (Btu lb-I O .O% (maximurn).078 0. solid.663 0.000 11 0.09479 + 7.) F' P 0.09 0.43 QOKEE/KUR MONEL "K".126 0. remainder i copper. iron.158 0.2.11 T3 T .4 -279.444 0.4 wt. density. product of combustion is nickel oxide.0 19 0. silicon. -AHc at 0 25OC (77°F).solid. 0.5% (maximum). composition: nickel. 1.09 0. iron. composition: nickel.525 0.126 0. aluminum. manganese.525 (more) 44 .20 x = 0. %. %.106 0.6 -369.10 0.24 0. 58-69.90 g cn' r- gross heat of combustion: q (gross) is equal to t h e enthalpy of combustion.0 x loe7 T2 + 8. atomic wt.000026 0.126 0.10 T3 T . s specific heat: -120" to 982°C (-184" t o 1800°F) = 0. specific heat: t e m erature (KP (OF) Cp(Btu lb-l "F-l) 0.4 -99. 63%-70%.06 0.7. 28.717 x lo-' T2 + 3.150 = 0.1 ) 0.07 x 10.406 + 5. 2%-4%.549 x 10.4 80.25% (maximum). I wt. NiO.10.6 0. 30 wt. carbon. 2.

specific heat: -200" to 700°C (-382' to 1292'F) Cp(Btu Ib-l OF-') Cp(cal -I "C-') Cp(J g.016 = 0. 0.470 1.3 10132. sulfur. L. 1041. = 2761 Btu lb.8 x x T2 + 7. 768OC.11 T3 10.64 x lo-' T . phosphorus.470 14. solid.30-0.045 wt.13 wt.7 cal gLf = 300. composition: carbon.133 T2 + 4.12. SAE-1010.07 x = 0.5 101325.4 x x 10.3. = 6418 J vapor pressure: tern erature ("CP 1370 1882 2131 2444 2886 (OF) P(atm) 1O 6 j 10-2 P(Pd 0. 0.1 J g-l P-' heat of vaporization: at t h e boiling point 2886OC (5227°F).470 1. manganese. 0.035 wt. P(psi) 1.3 1013. 10 10- ii-1 1.696 x x x 2498 3420 3869 4431 5227 1: 0 . %.86 x T .08-0. 0.Alloys and Metals NICKEL .0102 + 1.1 L.1 Btu I Lf = 71.470 1. Lf = 129.Continued heat of fusion: at t h e melting point 1452OC (2626°F).1.60 wt.16 T2 + 17. % (maximum)."C-9 7 = 0. = 1534 cal L.0427 + 6.739 x T . %.10 T3 x curie temperature: 1415°F.1 101. % (maximum).10 T3 10.007185 + 9.o 63HUL/ORR STEEL.5 K 5 8L U C / DEE 45 .

7309 x lod3 T .K-l) T + 3. molybdenum.005%. 0.0064 x T .9. 17.7598 x 190-320 K (-118" to 116°F) Cp(Btu lb-I OF-') Cbcal 5-l) Cp(J g. 7. 10. 1.1 153 0.032 x 10-9 T3 T2 + 1.00345 + 9.1471 0.1354 0.10 T3 lod4 T . En-58C (sample I): chromium.1.21%.1232 0.5189 x x x T .980 x T .1277 0.377 x 10-9 T3 T2 + 9.073%. En-58B (sample 2): chromium.842 g c m .K-l) Sample 2 (En-588) 60-190 K (-352" to -118°F) = 0.0680 + T2 + 1. 0.1725 x T2 + 5.1232 0.6472 x = -0.02658 + 3.6893 = -0.4788 x T .6202 x 10-9 T3 T + 1.0758 x 10. nickel.323 x 10-I5 T2 + 2.6.1277 0.039%.1989 x 10.721 x Cp(Btu Ib-I OF-') Cp(cal-ql K-l) Cp(J g K-l) = 0.K ) q1 = 0.5343 0.20711 + 7.1471 x = -0.8%. 0.6 145 59MAR/RIX STEEL.04950 x x x 1. manganese. manganese.2. 0. 0.802 x 10 T .00635 + 8.1354 0.364 x 10-8 T3 190-320 K (-1 18" to 116°F) Cp(Btu lb-' OF-') Cp(cal9-1 K-l) Cp(J g. 0.9%. silicon. sulfur.09%. 0. phosphorus. manganese. 1. 0.315%.Alloys and Metals STEEL.2.-0.946 x 10-9 7 ' 3 lok3 T . 0. specific heat: tern erature (KP 323 400 490 589 682 (OF) 122 261 423 601 768 0. density. NPL NO.043 x 10-8 ~3 T2 + 4.036%.1191 x = 0.2686 x lo-' T3 66MAR 46 .4104 = 0. 0.1.5665 0.9535 x 10-8 T3 lod3 T . nickel.20%. composition: carbon. 17.10911 + 9. copper.01443 + 4.69%.2. 8.3932 = -0.9847 x T .11077 + 1.7%.1471 0.596 x loq6 T2 + 9.9206 x = -0. arsenic. chromium. specific heat: Sample 1 (En-58C) 60-190 K (-352" t o -118°F) Cp(Btu lb-I O .6460 = 0.5756 x .j at 15°C (59°F). solid.5 155 0.1. remainder is iron.2421 x T2 + 1. 19. annealed at 860°C (1580OF). 1.028%.7884 x lo-' T3 T2 + 1.04976 + 1. solid.2.73%.5492 x 10-7 T2 + 4.) F' Cp(cal Q-1 K-l) Cp(3 g. nickel.066%.10 T3 T2 + 3.449 x 10-9 T3 T2 + 3.05%.20819 + 7.0 12%.1 153 0.4824 0. STAINLESS.6.10885 + 6. aluminum.10922 + 6.

494 x 873-1173 K (1112°-16520F) x T T T 10-0. remainder is iron. manganese.K-'1 5 T . remainder is iron. 0.04 T-' T .074 x Cp(J g. 18.90 T-' = 0.5556T . manganese.2) 10-0. chromium.7778) 0.68%. O . carbon.23%. nickel. solid.58%.3%. 1%.0078(T-273.6770 + 9242 x x x 55DOU/DEV 47 .52%.32%.0078(0.0078(T-273.l ) = 0.2712/(T + 459.1618 + 2209 = 0.12451 + 1. nickel.10593 + 5. carbon.4845 + 1.42%.67) = 0.1158 + 3.solid.894 x = 0. 25.16. specific heat: 273-773 K (32"-932"F) Cp(Btu lb-' O .30%. 0. 0. 1I. silicon.Alloys and Metals STEEL.17.08%.K-l) 7 O-) F' = 0.427 x 55DOU/DEV STEEL. 0. 1.2) 10 Cp(Btu lb- Cp(cal -1 K-l) Cp(J g.7.) F' P -1 K-l) Cp(cal Cp(J g. 0. chromium.K ) = 0.41 x lod5 T .) F' = 0.4.0785 + 1. STAINLESS 446. 0. specific heat: 273-1 173 K (32"-1652"F) C (Btu lb-I. silicon.9667 Cp(cal ~ l 2 .1618 + 2209 = 0.3284 + 4. STAINLESS 347.

Lt = 1 .5 101325.3 1013.Alloys and Metals TIN. Lf = 25. ' ~ gross heat of combustion: q (gross) is equal to t h e enthalpy of combustion. atomic wt.4 Btu lb-I Lf = 14. 232°C (450°F). white.470 1. Lt = 7. 13°C (55OF) from Sn (grey cubic) to Sn (white tetragonal). 118.0543 0. tern erature (C 'P ( O F ) Ill5 1584 1836 2167 2623 Natm) Wa) P(psi) 1.. tetragonal* atomic number. 596 cal gL = 2495 J g-' .243 0.470 1.' qp(gross) = 1169 cal gi q (gross) = 4892 J g- P 8 2 WAG/E VA specific heat: 298 400 500 77 261 441 0.227 0.06 I7 0.0543 0. L = 1073 Btu 1P-l . J g-l 76 heat of fusion: at t h e melting point. density. 7. product of combustion is tin dioxide.1 c a l heat of vaporization: at the boiling point.6 Btu Ib.5 Ib ft-'). SnOZ. 2623°C (4753OF). 7') AH^ at 0 qp(gross) = 2105 Btu Ib.470 1.' Lt = 4 2 cal g. 50. x 10-5 lo-: 10- 63HUL/ORR 48 .06 I7 0.470 14.696 x 2039 2883 3337 3933 4753 Io 1o-6 -~ lo-: 10- I . vapor pressure: L .3 10132.258 heat of transition: at t h e transition point.0580 0. P 25°C (7F.o 0I .28 g ~ r n (454. 101. solid.71.0580 0.

0. lead. specific heat: 294-1033 K (70°-14000F) Cp(Btu lb. bismuth.O . 2. hydrogen.131%. oxygen.0071 0 0 10 .6 -441 4 .00069 0. 12. chromium. specific heat: there is a superconducting transition at 48 K (-450.00024 0. 0.799 x x x T + 1. hydrogen.0110 49 .506 T2 5610e WOODS METAL.1526 x = 0.( c a l 8 K-I) C.5 wt. low melting fusible alloy.(J g-7 K -1 ) .9.I Alloys and Metals TITANIUM.000057 0. 0. %. 96. composition: titanium.7 -455.00069 0.5 wt.40%. nitrogen.05%. 1. iron.1526 x = 0.8294 x T + 4.8 -454 -452 -448.555 10-7 T2 T2 T + 6.725 x = 0.4 Cp(Btu lb-I O-) F' Cp(cal g-1 Cp(J g-' K-l) 0. carbon.000 15 0.5 2 -456.6000 .) F' P C . solid.000057 0.00062 0. iron.0134 0. nitrogen.7 1%.5791 . 0. .076%. = 0.1384 . 0. composition: titanium.) F' Cp(cal -1 K-1) q Cp(J g.0460 54PARIQUA 3 4 0. 0.1434 .06%.4 -423.9.07%.00002 0. specific heat: 294-1033 K (70°-1400"F) C (Btu Ib-I O .8294 x T + 4. solid.1252 .0000 14 0.75%.00006 0.0071 0. composition: tin.048%.65%.799 10-8 T2 T + 1.0032 0.7"F).0297 0. carbon. 99. 0.00015 6 10 15 20 0.1302 . 25 wt. 95. Ti-75A. %.3.0000 14 0.1 0. -432.6. %.506 x T2 x 5610e TITANIUM. 0.0000048 0. 0. solid.555 x 10-7 T 2 T + 6.0068%. Ti-ISOA.0092%. 50 wt.725 x = 0. oxygen.0029 0. cadmium.0032 0.105%.6.K-l) = 0. 12. tern erature (KP (OF) 1.0000048 0.3.

470 1. ZnO.solid.4 Btu Ib.104 Cp(J g -1 K -1) 298 77 441 622 500 600 0. 1 .3 1013. 101 . density 7.388 0.0 cal gLf = 113. AH^ at 0 q (gross) = 2291. 101.' Lf = 27.0 J g-l heat of vaporization: at the boiling point.100 0. P 25OC (77°F).0928 0.434 heat of fusion: at t h e melting point.8 lb ft-3). product of combustion is zinc oxide.470 14.' qp(gross) = 1273.14 g ~ r n (445. 65. 321°C ( 2 ' ) 60F.2 J g P 82WAGfEVA specific heat: tern erature (KP (OF) Cp(Btu lb-I O-) F' C p b l g-1 K -I 0. 1: 0 ..0928 0. I = 760.Alloys and Metals ZINC. = 422.470 1. L.39. .0 cal-4qP(grosd = 5326.4 Btu lb.4 cal g . atomic number 30.4 J g. Lf = 48.~ gross heat of combustion: q (gross) is equal to the enthalpy of combustion. L = 1767. vapor pressure: tern erature (OCf (OF) 286 479 581 718 911 547 894 1078 1324 1672 Hatm) 1 o-3 6 lo-* Wa) P(psi) 1.104 0. 2441°C (4426°F).100 0.419 0. atomic wt.470 x x x 01 .3 10132.5 10 1325.6 Btu lb.o 1.696 LO 10- 63HULIORR 50 .

specific heat: 273-908 K (32"-1175"F) Cp(Btu lb-' OF-') Cp(cal -1 K -1 ) 5 Cp(J g.3872 = 0. < 20 ppm.080%.08548 = 0.4 J g.25744 + 9. carbon. 1.6 cal 9-l L = 44. 1489 ppm. 65 ppm. 0.35765 Cp(J g. nickel. silicon.3262 = 0.K-') = 0. for t h e a . 40 ppm.6 transition Lt = 19. oxygen. iron. 20 ppm.K ) heat of transition: temperature range: 81Oo-97S0C (1490"-1787"F).08548 = 0. tungsten. composition: tin. 0. solid.Alloys and Metals ZIRCALOY-2. 40 ppm. remainder is zirconium. hydrogen.08589 = 0. aluminum.04153 + 2. chromium.9880 x x x T T T 908-1083 K (1 175"-1490"F) Cp(Btu lb-I OF-') Cp(cal K-') Cp(J g-' K-l) = 0.35936 1248-1323 K (1787"-1922"F) C (Btu lb-l OF-') Cp(cal f1 P 5-l) = 0. 47 ppm. copper. 1 1 ppm. nitrogen.056%.1 Btu lb-I Lt = 10.06763 -+ 1.130%. 67ELD/DEE 51 . 0. < 125 pprn.46%.08589 = 0. hafnium.

K-l) = 0.1 Cp(J g. tungsten.06314 + 2.) F' Cp(cal 9-l K ' -) Cp(J g.152%. remainder is zirconium. nitrogen. 1380 ppm.K-l) = 0. carbon.) F' Cp(cal -1 K-1) Cp(J g. 36 ppm. 1.35861 1248-1323 K (1787O-1922"F) Cp(Btu Ib-' OF-') Cp(cal 9-l K.K' -) 5 = 0. chromium 0.6718 x x x T T T 873-1083 K (1112"-1490"F) Cp(Btu lb-I O . 60 pprn. specific heat: 273-843 K (32"-1058"F) Cp(Btu lb'l O .08548 = 0.35765 67ELD/DEE 52 . 10 ppm. solid. hafnium.Alloys and Metals ZIRCALOY-2 (LOW NICKEL). 20 ppm. iron. oxygen. 0. nickel.26418 + 8.08571 0.99%.32%. copper.08548 = 0. composition: tin.08571 = 0.0726 = 0. 150 pprn. < 40 ppm.1514 = 0.06843 + 1.

q. Tenebrio molitor. Invertebrate animal composed of two parts that open and shut. such as oysters and clams. mollusks. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature and a r e corrected for moisture and ash content.' q.(gross) = 8136 Btu l bl l q. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature and a r e corrected for moisture and ash content.Animals BARNACLE. invertebrate animal. A class of Molluscoida having bivalve shells. Mytilus californianus. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature and are corrected for moisture and ash content. q. q. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature and a r e corrected to an ash-free basis. crustacean of t h e order .(gross) = 6314 2 516 cal gq. Cirripedia. solid. Glottidiu pyramidczta. solid.(gross) = 7915 k 3852 Btu lb.(gross) = 26418 f 2159 J g-l P-' 6 lSLO/RIC BIVALVE.(gross) = 4397 k 2140 cal gqv(gross) = 18396 f 8954 J g-' 6 1SLO/RIC 55 .(gross) = 4520 cal gq.(gross) = 8280 Btu l b l l qv(gross) = 4600 cal gqv(gross) = 19246 J g-l 7 1PA1 BRACHIOPOD.(gross) = 18912 J g-l 71PAI BEETLE. solid. Balanus curiosus. solid. an insect of the order Coleoptera. qv(gross) = 11365 f 929 Btu 1 q.

chiefly fresh-water.(gross) = 19665 J g-l 7 1PA1 CILIATE.(gross) = 10091 f 1051 Btu Ib-I q. solid.(gross) = 39744 J g-1 6 1STR CHITOW Katherina tunicata. solid. For sample of 100% protein: qv(gross) = 9805 Btu Ib-l qv(gross) = 5447 cal g-1 q. solid. found in any exposed body of water. Leptodora kindtu. q. solid. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature and a r e corrected to an ash-free basis. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature and a r e corrected for moisture and ash content.Animals CATTLE.(gross) = 8460 Btu l b l l q. Class of Protozoa characterized by presence of cilia. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature and a r e corrected for moisture and ash content. results apply to total body of cattle.(gross) = 17098 Btu -p-l I qv(gross) = 9499 cal g q. q. entomostracan crustaceans.(gross) = 4700 cal gq. invertebrate animal.(gross) = 23451 A 2443 J g-l 6 I SLO/RIC 56 .(gross) = 5938 2 207 cal gqv(gross) = 24845 f 866 J g-l 6 I SLO/RIC CLADOCERA. of ten know as water fleas.(gross) = 10688 f 373 Btu 1 q.(gross) = 22790 J g-l For sample of 100% fat: q. mollusk of the order Polyplacophora.(gross) = 5605 f 584 cal g-l q. FQSS heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature and a r e corrected t o an ash-free basis. Tetrahymena pyriforrnis. q. A group of minute.

Trigriopus californicus.1 6 1SLO/RIC COPEPOD.(gross) = 22594 5 824 J g.(gtoss) = 5515 2 277 cal gq. a planarian worm of the phylum Platyhelminthes. q. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature and are corrected t o an ash-free basis.(gross) = 26301 2 1414 J g-l 6 1SLO/RIC FLATWORM. solid. q. BipaZium keuense.(gross) = 6286 . gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature and a r e corrected t o an ash-free basis.+ 338 cal gq. q. solid.solid. q. Large worm found in the tropics.' qv(gross) = 5400 2 197 cal gq.' q. A large subclass of crustaceans mostly minute in size found in both fresh and salt water. Calanus helgolandicus.(gross) = 9720 2 355 Btu lb.(gross) = 11315 2 608 Btu 1P-l q. Dugesia tigrina.1 6 1SLO/RIC 57 . TERRESTRIAL. A large subclass of crustaceans mostly minute in size and found in both fresh and salt water.(gtoss) = 23075 f 1159 J g-l 6 1SLO/RIC FLATWOIRM. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature and ate corrected t o an ash-free basis.(gross) = 9927 k 499 Btu lb.Animals COPEPOD.(gross) = 5684 2 124 cal g-' q. having the head end expanded into a semicircular plate.(gross) = 10231 k 223 Btu lb-l q.(gross) = 23782 t 519 J g.solid. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature and a r e corrected for moisture and ash content.

Tyroglyphus Zintneri.(gross) = 5706 cal gqv(gross) = 23874 J g-l P-' 6 1SLO/RIC GUPPIE.Pycnopsyche guttifer.(gross) = 10481 Btu lb-1 qv(gross) = 5823 c a l g-l q. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature and are corrected t o a n ash-free basis. insects having aquatic larvae. Chlorohydra viridissima. 1866 J g-' 6 lSLO/RIC 58 . CADDIS. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature and are corrected €or moisture and ash content. they are included in t h e Neuroptera.(gross) = 5808 2 446 cal gq. Small arachnids t h a t are parasitic in nature.(gross) = 24363 J g-' 6 1SLO/RIC HYDIIIA. solid. GREEN. solid. A small top minnow of t h e Barbados.(gross) = 5729 2 247 c a l gq. usually found attached to submerged objects. Trinidad.Animals FLY. solid. frequently kept as an aquarium fish. or constitute t h e order Trichoptera. qv(gross) 10312 f 445 Btu I q. the body is a simple tube with a mouth at one extremity.(gross) = 10271 Btu 1 q. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature and a r e corrected to a n ash-free basis. q.Lebistes reticulatus. q.(gross) = 24301 +. and Venezuela area.(gtoss) = 23970 f 1033 J g-l P-' 6 lSLO/RIC MITE. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature and a r e corrected t o a n ash-free basis. Small fresh-water hydrozoan polyps t h a t contain chlorophyll chromatophores. solid. qv(gross) = 10454 f 803 Btu 1 q.

each value is a mean of 12 determinations. C ~ Qpunctatus.739 2 (0. glycogen 233.3141%.3 Btu 1 q.898)%. TRUNK.137)%.469 2 (1.469 2 (3. total carbohydrate = 2.101)%.362) mg/lOO g. RNA = 100.406)%.) in length and captured at Aligarh in northern India. value is mean of 12 determinations with standard error of t h e mean. ash = 1. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature. Channa punctatus.(gross) = 46655.176)%.040 ? (0.0 q.523)%.5 f 1 78MUS/ JAF POND MURREL. Fish were filleted and musculature tissues taken from t h e posterior (tail) region. RNA = 23.113) ug/lOO mg.366 f (6.533 ? (0. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature. TAIL. qv(gross) = 20071.200 k (0.0 k 264. fat = 1.433 f (0.823 k (12. water = 73.146)%.(gross) = 39773.(gross) = 9506.325 2 (9.587 ? (0.535)%. DNA = 23.425) mg/100 g.933 i (0.337 2 (0. glycogen = 160. cholesterol 114. cholesterol = 156. Values in parentheses refer to standard error of t h e mean.706 2 (0.585) mg/100 g. solid.) in length and captured at Aligarh in northern India. Values in parentheses refer t o standard error of the mean.464) &lo0 mg. fat = 1.6 cal gq.8 q. Concentrations of t h e various chemical constituents a r e protein = 18. solid.489 f (0. water = 76.8 f 476.476) Pg/lOO mg. Fish were filleted and musculature tissues taken from t h e apex of t h e anterior (trunk) region.Animals POND MURREL. q.(gross) = 17110.8 2 401. total carbohydrate 3.1 k 1107. The specimens of this economically ~ Q important fresh water fish were 18-20 c m (7-8 in. each value is a mean of 12 determinations.6 Btu lbk 223.152)%.(gross) = 11151.855) &lo0 mg.000 2 (19.1 J g-l P-' 78MUS/ J A F 59 . DNA = 12.1 cal 2 933.672 f (2. ash = 1. value is mean of 12 determinations with standard error of t h e mean. The specimens of this economically important fresh water fish were 18-20 c m (7-8 in. Concentrations of t h e various chemical constituents are protein = 19.005) mg/g.213 f (2.

98.42 (% fat)] J g-l For the % protein range 18.(gross) = [5854 + 15.31 to 66.75 (% protein)] Btu lb. q. mean composition: protein.(gross) = [5327 + 40. fat.73.18%.28.23 (% fat)] 3 g.20%.(gross) = 131108 . 59.69: q.97 (% fat)] cal gq.00 to 5.(gross) = 5873 cal gq.15.(gross) = [9424 . BLOOD.97 (% protein)] cal g-l q.82% gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature..1 q. mean composition: protein.83 (% protein)] cal gq.(gross) = [9589 + 73.(gross) = [39430 .40.(gross) = 32543 J g-l For t he % fat range 33.80%.83 (96 fat)] cal g-l qv(gross) = 124493 + 66. solid.68: q.17I .Animals SHEEP.(gross) = [22288 + 171. protein and fat composition determined on ash-free dry basis for carcasses of 63 sheep.' q. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature. q.1 For the % protein range 94.42 (% protein)] J g-' 64PAL/REI 60 . 1.(gross) = [16963 . fat.32 t o 81.(gross) = [13383 . solid. 40. CARCASS.00: q.75 (% fat)] Btu lb.(gross) = El0537 + 28.80: q.(gross) = 17435 .(gross) = 10571 Btu I q. protein and fat composition determined on ash-free dry basis for materials from bodies of 63 sheep.23 (% protein)] J g-l P-' 6 4PAL / R EI SHEEP.(gross) = 7778 cal gq.(gross) = 24573 J g-' P-' For the % fat range 0.49 (% fat)] Btu Ib-I q.49 (% protein)] Btu 1 q.66.20 to 100.(gross) = 14000 Btu 1 q.

25. q.168.25 (% fat)] cal g-l qv(gross) = C22506 + 168.69. fat.33%.72: q.67%.(gross) = 19824 + 69.(gross) 6473 cal gq. solid.(gross) 27083 J g-l For the % fat range 18.(gross) = C39351 .45 (% fat)] Btu lb-I qv(gross) = 15379 + 40.40.25 (% protein)] Btu 1 q.96 (% protein)] J g-l 64PAL/REI SHEEP. mean composition: protein. 43. q.72.80 t o 79. INGESTA-FREE BODY. protein and fat composition determined on ashfree dry basis for bodies of 63 sheep.1 Animals SHEEP.41 (% protein)] J g-' 64PAL/REI 61 .(gross) = [16929 .(gross) = [9405 .45 (% protein)] B t u Ib-' q. qv(gross) = 11651 Btu 1 q. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature.05%.63: qv(gross) Cl6749 .41 (96 fat)] J g-l For the % protein range 20.43: qv(gross) = [9682 + 72.(gross) = 32054 J g-l For the % fat range 28. solid.28 to 81. HIDE.38.(gross) = [38932 .(gross) = 13790 Btu 1P-l qv(gross) = 7661 cal gq.160.25 (% fat)] Btu lb-I. protein and fat composition determined on ash-free dry basis for material from bodies of 43 sheep.96 (% fat)] J g-l For the % protein range 61.95%.(gross) = [5458 + 38. mean composition: protein.(gross) = [22836 + 160.(gross) = [9305 . gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature. fat.47 (% protein)] cal gq.47 (96 fat)] cal g-l q.20: q.37 to 38. 74.25 (% protein)] cal g-l q.57 to 71. 56.

(gross) [5428 + 38. q.42 to 87.86 (% protein)] Btu I q.38: q. protein ant fat composition determined on ash-free dry basis for viscera from bodies of 63 sheep. solid. mean composition: protein.Tegula funebralis. 33.88-73.38.(gross) = 12127 f 1553 Btu lb.(gross) = 801 1 c a l gqv(gross) = 33518 J g-l For t h e % fat range 26.1 q.(gross) = [16762 .162. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature and are corrected for moisture and ash content. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature and are corrected to an ash-free basis. 66. qv(gross) = 9144 Btu lbl 1 qv(gross) = 5080 cal gq.81 (% fat)] cal g-l q.81 (% protein)] c a l gq. (nauplu).(gross) = [9770 + 69.50%. solid. Artenia sp. invertebrate animal.38 (96 fat)] J g-l For t h e 96 protein range 12.(gross) = 21255 J g-l 7 1PA1 62 .86 (% fat)] Btu lb-I q.1 6 I SLO/RIC SNAIL.(gross) = [38961 . gastropod mollusk.50%.38 (% protein)] J g-l P-' 64PALIREI SHRIMP.Animals SHEEP. qv(gross) = 14420 Btu 1 q. solid.(gross) = [22711 + 162. VISCERA.(gross) = 6737 f 863 cal g-l qv(gross) 28188 f 361 1 J g. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature. BRINE. a brachiopod crustacean.69.(gross) = [9312 .12: q. fat.

solid. gross heat o cornbustion: assume values refer t o room temperature and are f corrected to an ash-free basis.(gross) = 8828 J 7 1PA1 63 .(gross) = 12532 . (without shell).Animals SNAIL.(gross) = 21 10 cal q. AQUATIC. echinoderm of t h e order Asteroidea. q. to room temperature and a r e corrected q. solid. Pisaster ochraceus.(gtoss) = 6962 2 510 cal g-l q. invertebrate animal. a gastropod mollusk.1 q. a spittle insect.(gtosd = 29129 2 2134 J g-l 6 1SLO/RIC STARFISH. PhiZenus Zeucophthalmus. solid. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature and a r e corrected for moisture and ash content.(gross) 9747 2 11 Btu 1 q. Succinea ovalis.(gtoss) = 5415 2 6 cal gq.(gross) = 226562 25 f g-l 6 1SLO/RIC SPITBUG. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer for moisture and ash content. qv(gross) = 3798 Btu lb.+ 918 Btu Ib-' q.

4 f g-l from wood pulp: q. gross heat of combustion: at 30°C (86°F) from cotton linters: q.(gross) = 7497 Btu Lb-l q.(gross) = 4172.6 3 g-l 50JES/PRO 67 . samples were oven-dried at 100°C (212°F) for 12 hours before measurements were made.(gross) 17426. Material has a repeating unit of (C. solid.6 Btu lb. C6H1206. solid. and ultimately t o glucose. assume room temperature. Extracted wood of northern red oak (Quercus rubru) was divided into three major chemical components and cellulose comprised 42.(gross) = 17026 J g-l 78MUR/MAS CELLULOSE. qv(gross) = 7325 Btu lb.) F' Cp(cal -1 K -1 9 Cp(J g. gross heat o combustion: oven dry basis.. modification of cellulose which has t h e highest degree of polymerization.K-l) = 0. repeating unit: C6H100S. and values a r e f reported in international British thermal units per pound. Cp(Btu lb-I O .0 c a l g-l q.' qv(gross) = 4069 cal gq.86%.70% a-cellulose [68McM].(gross) = 7509. hydrolysis can reduce cellulose t o a cellobiose repeating unit.5 x = -0.9044-(0.HloOs). FROM LOBLOLLY PINE WOOD. Pinus taeda. repeating unit: C6H 0O5.0 cal gq.9 x = -0.Biomass-Derived Materials a-CELLULOSE.0022)MC(%). solid.(gross) = 4165. C ].(gross) = 17455.14 x T T T 70Mch CELLULOSE.07146 + 4. 2H2201 1. The relationship between gross h e a t of combustion and moisture content (MC) given by t h e regression equation: anqv(Btu lb-I) = is 8. chief constituent of paper pulp: 46.01708 + 9. specific heat: 333-413 K (140"-284"F). constitutes about 60% of t h e composition of wood.2357 + 5. and converted below into thermochemical units. 1 q.

5 t o 7. 99. and easily pelletized. 0.14 x lom3T 70McM CELLULOSE TRIACETATE. Trade name Avic I (FMC Corporation).Biomass-Derived Materials CELLULOSE.(gross) = 4446.] q.76 f 10. repeating unit: Cl0Hl0O7. The 96 moisture of 7 samples = 4.K-l) q1 = 0. solid.01724 + 9. solid. and sulfate) was 62.910 0. t o t a l water-insoluble carbohydrate constituents of loblolly pine wood. 1.(gross) = 18602. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature.46 ppm. _+ gross heat of combustion: temperature = 28°C (82°F).64 J g-' 8lCOL/XIH CELLULOSE DIACETATE. qv(gross) 8003. very homogeneous. 9 measurements made. specific heat: 333-413 K (14O0-284"F).(gross) q.solid. HOLOCELLULOSE. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature. density. samples were oven-dried at 100°C (212°F) for 12 hours before measurements were made. average concentration of water soluble impurities (fluoride.(gross) = 4144. Pinus taeda. chloride.(gross) = 18876. Substance is microcrystalline and a calorimeter calibration test substance.(gross) 8120. nitrate.060 (sd.1439 g/mole.) Cp(cal K-') Cp( J g.543 c a l gq.7 Btu Ib. pH = 5.5 x T = -0.5 c a l g-l q. mean value is given with estimated uncertainty. The formula for Avicel combustion is C6H1005(c) + 602(g) + 6C02(g) + 5H20(liq). repeating unit: C 12H 1608.07213 + 4. q.1 q.1 J g-' 57TAV/LAM 68 .23558 + 5.).' q. and formula weight = 162. 7 I. 7460.2 Btu Ib. 18% holocellulose [68McM].2 c a l gq.577 Btu lb.36 g cm-' at 20°C (68OF). FROM LOBLOLLY PINE WOOD.04% ash.54 f 2. lot 1018-152 is a n acid hydrolyzed derivative of a dissolving grade of wood pulp.(gross) = 451 1.81% pure.9 J g-l 57TAV/LAM CELLULOSE.(gross) = 17340. F' Cp(Btu Ib-I O . correction for heat of wetting was made.17 ? 4. solid. repeating unit: C6H o05.9 x T = -0.

has fast filter speed.227 2 0. CH1.(gross) = 34727 J g-' as received. 1. absorbent cotton is almost pure a-cellulose. 10%.(gross) = 41 10 cal gq. f q. solid. ash free and moisture free 14940 Btu 1 q. ash. Balston. W. solid. specific heat: mean value in temperature range 25"-75OC (77'-167"F) for four measurements.(gross) = 33681 f g-'. 2. hydrogen. 70MAN/RAP DEXTRIN. 41. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature.(gross> 16945 J g-l q. dextrin is obtained in several different grades by-heating starch for varying lengths of time over the temperature range from 17Oo-24O0C (338O-464"F).(gross) q.887 is elemental analysis of thread used in combustion measurements. Paper is ashless and consists of almost pure cellulose. 89%.(gross) = 4108 cal gq. 93.(gross) = 8050 cal gq.77400. gross heat of combustion: at 25°C (77OF) qv(gross) = 7290 Btu lbll qv(gross) = 4050 cal gq.Biomass-Derived Materials CHARCOAL.217 2 0.(gross) = 7394 Btu l.5%. partial hydrolysis product of starch containing a variable number of glucose units. Material is No.013 52NEU 69 . gross heat o combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature. solid. solid. moisture. and will retain coarse and gelatinous precipitates.(gross) = 17188 J g-' 62GOO/SCO.(gross) = 14490 Btu 1 q. Cp(Btu lb-' OF-') Cp(cal -I "C-') Cp(J g. b' q."C-') 9 = 0. "good commercial fuel" q.(gross) = 7398 Btu lbl 1 q. ultimate analysis: carbon. volatile matter. P-' 55SPI COTTON (THREAD).5%.(gross) = 17196 J g-l 55MER/WAT FILTER PAPER.0%. proximate analysis: fixed carbon.908 2 0. staple fibers surrounding t h e seeds of various species of Gossypium. 1%. 2%.003 = 0.003 = 0. WOOD. nitrogen and sulfur. and R. general formula: CgH1005.(gross) = 8300 cal gq. WHATMAN.

values are reported in international British thermal units per pound and converted below into thermochemical units. upon complete hydrolysis yields fructose instead of glucose.solid. The relationship between gross heat of combustion and moisture content (MC) is given by the regression equation: anqv(5tu lb-l) = 8. q.(gross) = 8140 Btu Ib. solid. general formula: C H 0 . q. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature.(gross) = 7542 Btu I. q. inulin is the chief source of fructose.(gross) = 4188 cal gq.(gross) = 17523 J g-l 24MEI/MEY HEMICELLULOSE. assume values refer t o room temperature.(gross) = 18920 J g. b' q.(gross) = 7170 Btu Ib.0 103)MC(%). solid.(gross) 7538 Btu lb. 1 q. Extracted wood a&northern red oak (Quercus rubra) was divided into three major chemical components of which hemicellulose comprised 33. I qv(gross) = 4522 cal gq. repeating unit: C12HlGOa. I gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature. gross heat of combustion: oven dry basis.(gross) = 3983 cal gq.(gross) = 4190 cal gqv(gross) = 17531 J g-' 1887BER/VIE INULIN TRIACETATE.1 22KAR/FIO 70 .33%. q. solid.dried at 120°C (248OF)in vacuum over P205.8545-(0.' q.polysaccharide found in t h e liver and lo muscles of man and animals. can be hydro yzed to glucose.(gross) = 16666 J g-' 78MUR/MAS INULIN. repeating unit: C6H 1o 5similar in physical appearance t o starch except 0.Biomass-Derived Materials GLYCOGEN. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature.

1 q. 68GUL LIGNIN. 60%. Studies show t h at a dioxyphenylpropyl grouping is an important part of t h e polymer. q.7 x T = 0. Pinus taeda: solid. hydrogen. -Y gross heat of combustion: oven dry basis.2. general agreement prevails about t h e structure of lignin. Material is t h e major noncarbohydrate constituent of wood. oxygen. solid. q. 6%.(gross) 5900 cal g-l q. Extracted wood of northern red oak (Quercus rubra) was divided into t h r e e major chemical components of which lignin comprised 23. 34%. samples were oven-dried at 100°C (212°F) for 12 hours before measurements were made. The relationship between gross heat of comb stion and moisture = 9.28 x lo-' T = 0. values a r e reported in international British thermal units per pound and converted below into thermochemical units. HARDWOOD. LOBLOLLY PINE WOOD.81%. i t is a highly polymeric substance.K-l) = 0.0030)MC(%).000 derived principally from coniferyl alcohol (C1OHI 203) extensive condensationby polymerization. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature.Biomass-Derived Materials LIGNI".25660 + 3.(gross) = 24685 3 g-' 67RYD. specific heat: 333-413 K ( 140°-2840F).0733is content (MC) given by t h e regression equation: anqv(Btu lb (0.(gross) = 91 11 Btu lb-1 q. functions as a natural plastic binder for cellulose fibers. Cp(Btu Ib-l "F-l) Cp(cal 9-l K' -) Cp(J g. major (29.2579 + 4.4% lignin) [68McM] noncarbohydrate constituent of wood. cross linked. composition: carbon. solid. No empirical formula: CIOHl204. highly aromatic structure of molecular weight about 10.(gross) = 10620 Btu Ib.22 x lok3 T 70McM - 71 . with a complex.06133 + 7.(gross) = 5062 cal g-l qv(gross) = 21178 J g-' 78MUR/MAS LIGNIN. assume values refer to room temperature.

solid.3.(gross) = 18824 J g.(gross) = 6300 cal gq.(gross) = 7704 Btu lbi 1 qv(gross) = 4280 cal gqv(gross) = 17900 J g-l 73BAC/HAR STARCH. q. 6%. general formula: C6H10Og.. oven dried. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to toom temperature.203. 0% moisture. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature. q. 64%. q.polysaccharide is widely distributed in the vegetable kingdom and is stored in all grains and tubers.(gross) 4499 cal gq. Studies show that a dioxyphenylpropyl grouping is an important part of the polymer.(gross) = 17570 J g-l 55MER/WAT STARCH TRIACETATE. SOFTWOOD. 68GUL MANURE. qv(gross) = 7560 Btu Ib. PIG. 30%. solid. no general agreement prevails about the structure of lignin. hydrogen. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature.(gross) = 26360 J g-' P-' 67RYD.(gross) = 8098 Btu Ibi 1 q. oxygen. 1 qv(gross) = 4200 cal gq.Biomass-Derived Materials LICNIN. solid.I 22KAR/FIO 72 . composition: carbon. solid. faeces from hogs. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature.(gross) = 11340 Btu 1 q. empirical formula: C 10Hl I . repeating unit: C 12HI 608.

8775 Btu Ib-I qv(gross) = 4700 . aqueous sulfite.' q.2889 = 1. calcium and magnesium compounds. polysaccharide which of ten occurs in association with cellulose.(gross) = 17751. QUEBRACHO. tannin obtained from Aspidosperma quebrucho and Quebracho Zorentri imported as logs f rorn Argentina.(gross) = 4500 . gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature. repeating unit: C. aqueous. 2%-5%.(gross) = 19700 .8370 Btu l b i l q.K q1 = 0. aqueous sulfate.(gross) = 4242.0 Btu lb.2889 = 0. 55% solids non-neutralized spent liquor qv(gross) = 8100 . SPENT.9 J g-l 23KAR/FIO 73 .19500 J g-' fermented and stripped liquor qv(gross) = 8460 . occurs in large amounts (20%-40%) in cereal straws and brans. q. CHESTNUT.Biomass-Derived Materials SULFITE LIQUOR. dry extract from a wood-derived tannin. solids. specific heat: 298 K (77°F) Cp(Btu Ib-l OF-') Cp(cal 5-l) Cp(J g.Hx04.3152 = 1. specific heat: 298 K (77°F) C (Btulb-I OF-') Cp(cal P 5-l) q1 Cp(J g. also lignin sulfonate. dry powder obtained from concentrated solution produced from t r e a t m e n t of chestnut chips with water.2088 55KAN TANNIN EXTMCT.K = 0. 80%-90%.(gross) = 7637. 2%-4%. gaseous sulfur dioxide.4650 cal gqv(gross) = 18800 . solid. 2%-7%.3152 = 0.solid. gross heat of combustion: assume value refers t o room temperature. calcium and magnesium base waste liquor from pulping of wood by sulfite process.3188 55KAN XYLAN. and carbohydrates.20400 J g-l 69HUL TANNIN EXTRACT. xylose is t h e repeating unit. solid.8 cal gq.4875 c a l g-' q.

50 0. 1 q.45 28 . Prunus amygdalus. solid.(gross) = 16320 J g-l 55MER/WAT 77 .50 04 .92 1. specific heat: 4 to -40°C (40" t o -40°F).3"F).68 38 . 11. qv(gross) = 7020 Btu lb.3 20 10 0 -10 -20 -30 0.Foods ALMOIVDS.85 5.9 (OF) 40 30.43 -34.68 0.solid. q.60 05 .56 0. Phaseolus vuZgaris. (C '! 4.5 0.44 .2 -17. 4 4 moisture. the initial freezing point ' tern erature -0.3 -28.26% fat.5 1 2.6.43 0. and 4.98% water soluble solids. NAVY.60 0.0 -23. WHITE. 0. solid.5 3.(gross) = 3129 cal gq.98 3.6 0.43 0.67 -12.92 0.9OC (30.1 q.92 1. .8% water.34 2. GREEN.(gross) = 3900 cal g-l q.92 0.82 0.(gross) = 5632 Btu lb.09 18 .8 49STA BEANS.5 2.4 -4 0 -40 0.% gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature.94 . DRY. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature.2% moisture.0.82 0. chemical analysis: 87.(gross) = 13092 J g-l 55MER/WAT BEANS.

OF) -50 -25 0 25 50 55 -58 -13 32 77 122 131 Btu lb-I 00 .63 69. temperature ("C) (.63 208. Three samples were measured from different sources.00 9.79 122.02 heat o fusion: result is a mean value for temperature range -50" t o 55°C (-58" t o f 13 1"F).00 9.02 23. stearic.24 0.5 cal g-' Lf = 102.78 -58 0 25 50 55 -13 32 77 122 131 0. t h e oily portion of cow's milk composed of 88% of t h e glycerides of oleic.29 49. temperature Ho( t)-H0(-50 " C) Btu lb-I cal g-l ("C) -50 -25 (OF) J g-l 0.Foods BUTTERFAT. enthalpy difference: temperature range measured -50" t o 55°C (-58" to 131°F).00 16.28 208. and palmitic acids and 6% of the glycerides of butyric.0 17.78 288. caproic.44 67.85 89.25 49. SUMMER.3 Btu lb.03 278.1 Lf = 26. caprylic.17 Ho(t)-Ho(-500C ) cal g-l J g-' 0.32 273. stearic.0 J g-l 55RIE 79 .62 117.1 Btu Ib. caproic.66 101. and captic acids. Lf = 44.50 1 19. WINTER.72 66. and capric acids. and palmitic acids and 6% of the glycerides of butyric.80 283. Three samples were measured from different sources. - Lf = 47.48 24.00 39. solid.24 41. caprylic.00 37.93 124.74 97.72 89.3 cal g-l Lf = 110.79 65. The oily portion of cow's milk composed of 88% of t h e glycerides of oleic.1 Lf = 24.5 J g-l 55RIE BUTTERFAT. solid.87 0.97 heat of fusion: result is a mean value for temperature range -50" to 35°C (-58" t o 13 1"F).06 43. enthalpy difference: temperature range measured -50" to 55°C (-58" to 131°F).

and 3.93 3. Sample was unpeeled and cubed. 4.(gross) = 378 Btu Ib.05 7. q.73 1. and 8. 94.75 0.67 1.18 2.33 -6.58 0.98 0.73 0. Sample contained no leafy material.10 3.05 3.1 1 -6.76 2.34 0.52 0.82 0.4 -40 40 27. specific heat: 4 O to -4OOC (40" to -40°F).05 2. chemical analysis: 83.82 0.0% water.0 -23.0 1 1.83 4.3 -28.Foods CABBAGE.(gross) = 210 cal -1 q.solid. 0.45 0.1% water.14% fat.58 0.3OC (27.44 -1.93 8.8 20 10 0 -10 -20 -30 -40 0.l .0 20 10 0 0.43 2.94 0.67 -12.98 0.88 49STA 80 .48 0.48 0.66 -23.34 3.9 -34.18% fat. chemical analysis: 92.4 -40 -10 -20 -30 -40 0. specific heat: 4 O t o -40°C ( 0 to -40°F). capitata. solid. the initial freezing point 4' tem erature ('Cf (OF) 4.48 0.t h e initial freezing point = -2.73 0.67 -12.2 -17.32 3.73 0.94 0.1 q.58 0.94 2. Brassica olerucea var.8"F).64% water soluble solids.42 2.52 0.73 1.73 0. 0..94 2.75 0. l ° C (30.71% water soluble solids. solid.0 1 1. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature.O0F).44 -2.58 0.48 0.(gross) 880 J g -5 55MER/WAT CARROTS.40 0.1 1 0.40 0.0 40 30.2 .45 3. -17.1 1 0.66 0.9 -34.6% moisture.43 2.42 49STA CAULIFLOWER.3 -28.

ultimate analysis: carbon.02%. 0.(gross) = 4098 cal g-l qv(gross) = 17146 J g-' 66KAI. ash. solid.46%.0 Btu lbll Lf = 36. as received qv(gross) = 1708 Btu 1 q. COCOS nucifera. 68KAI/FRI COCOA BUTTER.67 33. 3. 1.(gross) = 4882 Btu Ib. 19.02%.39 35. hydrogen. 8.68 J g-' 0.00 8. q.(gross) = 949 cal gq. proximate analysis as received: moisture. 38. Lf = 63.47 316.34%. solid. 5.(gross) = 11347 J g-l 55MERIWAT 81 .(gross) = 27 12 cal gq. moisture.18%.94 148. sulfur. 3.22 -25 0 25 50 -13 32 77 122 55 131 heat of fusion: result is a mean value for temperature range -50" t o 55°C (-58" to 131 OF).42 73.1 q.02%.' q.15 18. 8. fixed carbon. oxygen. temperature ("C) -50 (OF) Btu lb-I H O (t )-H"(-50 O C) cal g-l 0.0 c a l gLf = 146. 71.4 J g-l 55RIE COCONUT. enthalpy difference: temperature range measured -50" t o 53°C (-58" t o 131OF).00 34.25 75.20 306. ash.22%.76 131. which is the mean molecular weight of the f a t t y acids present in t h e molecule = 194.10 76.85 136.(gross) = 3970 J g-' air dried qv(gross) = 7376 Btu lb. solid.2% moisture.10 63. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature.18%. 44.1 1%.34%. volatile matter. The amount of iodine absorbed and expressed as a percentage of t h e molecular weight (a measure of t h e proportion of unsaturated f a t t y acid present) called the iodine number = 38. nitrogen.65 -58 0.Foods CITRUS FRUIT. The saponification number.00 14. RINDS AND SEEDS. meat. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature. 17.1 1%.

0 4.9 -34.22 2. q.1% water.92 . gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature.07% fat. 10.52 2.56 .Foods CORN (MAIZE).48 0.92 1.(gross) 7200 Btu lb.01 1. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature.2 0. GREEN.0% moisture.58 -23.6"C (31.O"F).85 3.58 10 0 -10 -20 0.(gross) = 2002 Btu lb.48 0.1 ) 0. Vigna sinesis.32 0.92 1. Zea mays.63% water soluble solids.1 q.2 -17.85 5. Sample was unpeeled and cubed. solid.93 2. 0.(gross) = 4653 J g 55MER/WAT COWPEAS. t e m erature (C O! (OF) Cp(Btu lb-I O-) F' Cp(cal g-1 o c . solid.67 -12.(gross) = 16736 J g.0.(gross) = 11 12 cal q.45 0.0 20 09 . 76.0% moisture.1 55MERlWAT CUCUMBERS.49 -30 -40 0.3 -28.70 0. chemical analysis: 96.43 2.4 -40 0.45 3.32 0.53 0.1 q. solid.49 0. the initial freezing point = -0.(gross) = 4000 cal g-l q.70 0. and 1.88 495ta 82 .6. q. specific heat: 4" to -40°C (40" t o -40°F).05 2.44 40 31.53 0.

gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature. ANIMAL.K ) = 0. molecular weight about 33.(gross) 5840 cal gq. high cholesterol content.(gross) = 16330 Btu lb-' q.800.(gross) = 37950 J g-l 55MER/WAT 83 .(gross) = 17100 Btu 1 qv(gross) 9500 cal gqv(gross) = 39750 J g-l 55MERjWAT FAT. q.(gross) = 24435 J g-l 55MER/WAT FAT.l ) Cp(J g. q. solid.anhydrous. specific gravity. 10510 Btu 1 q. BARLEY.267 = 1. qv(gross) 10280 Btu 1 qv(gross) 5710 cal gqv(gross) = 23891 J g-l specific heat: temperature range: 273-298 K (32"-77"F).267 = 0. ether extracted. solid.) Cp(cal ~ l 5 . yellow. a crystallizable protein. semi-solid material of an egg. solid. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature.Foods EGG ALBUMIN. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature. mixture of glycerides of fatty acids.117 55MER/WAT. from egg white.(gross) = 9070 cal g-l q. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature. 72BER/KLI EGG YOLK.(gross) q. solid.95. F' Cp(Btu lb-I O . 0.

1.73%. 8. palmitic.33 mg KOH/g. 0. 14. ash. processed from cream of cow's milk. solid. BUTTER. and stearic acids.5496. nitrogen. hydrogen.(gross) 38660 J g-l 55MER/WAT FAT. qv(gross) = 17100 Btu 1 qv(gross) = 9500 cal gq. proximate analysis as received: moisture. I 1. ultimate analysis: carbon. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature.9145.(gross) = 9270 cal gq. 0.35%. sulfur. and caproic acids. 2. Saponification number 210-230.18%.5 1%. oxygen.(gross) = 9154 cal gq. 23.42%.Foods FAT. 0. 0.(gross) = 9240 cal g-l q. 0. 97. Specific gravity (15/15OC) = 0.81%. palmitoleic. solid. myristic. remainder (10%) is made up of glycerides of butyric. qv(gtoss) = 17136 Btu lb. qv(gross) = 16480 Btu 1P-l q.74%. caprylic. 0.64%. 3.00%. 0. 0. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature. and eiconsenoic. Material was extracted from animal fats to form a commercial lard and the acid value was 0. solid.36%. Fatty acids found in t h e oil: capric. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature.1 q.(gross) = 38300 J g-l 66KAI FAT. fixed carbon. lauric. stearic. 45. composed mainly of glycerides (90%) of oleic. gross heat of cornbustion: assume values refer to room temperature.11%.14%. 73. 15. oleic.28%. linoleic.00%.16%.00%. FRIED.43%.(gross) = 38785 J g-l 55MER/WAT FAT. BEEF. liquid. capric.(gtoss) = 9520 cal g-l q. ash.52%.1 q. volatile matter. 0. LARD. palmitic.(gross) = 16690 Btu 1P-l q. linolenic.(gross) = 39750 J g-l fat obtained by ether extraction qv(gross) = 16630 Btu lb. q.(gtoss) = 39832 J g-' 75KOM/DAN 84 .07%.

ether extract.1 fat obtained by ether extraction q.1%. solid. q.(gross) = 37950 J g.(gross) = 40120 J g. q.(gross) = 17100 Btu 1 qv(gross) = 9500 cal gq. linoleic.(gross) = 9070 cal gq. stearic. qv(gross) = 17260 Btu 1 q.(gross) = 38200 J g-' 55MERlWAT 85 .1 FAT.(gross) = 39000 J g-l 55MERlWAT FAT.(gross) = 9130 cal g-l q. OAT.(gross) = 16330 Btu 1 q. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature.Foods FAT. 30.(gross) = 16780 Btu 1 q. palmitic.(gross) = 9510 cal g-' q. PORK. MUTTON.1 P-' 55MER/WAT FAT. solid.(gross) = 17120 Btu Ib. 5. 55MERlWAT q. LARD. oleic. 17.(gross) = 39750 J g-l P-' fat obtained by ether extraction qv(gross) = 16430 Btu lb-I q. solid.2%. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature. 41. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature.7%. purified internal fat of the hog. Iodine number 46-66. f a t t y acid composition (typical): myristic.4%.1 q.(gross) = 9590 cal gq. Avena sativa. 1.(gross) = 39790 J g.(gross) = 9320 cal gq.9%. solid.

gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature. qv(gross) = 16330 Btu lb. RYE.(gross) = 16240 Btu 1 qv(gross) 9020 cal gqv(gross) = 37740 J g-' P-' 55MER/WAT FAT.5% moisture. q. q. solid. 6.(gross) 14560 J g- 55MER/WAT 86 .5% fat 6.1 qv(gross) 3480 cal g 1 . solid.Secale cereale. Triticum aestivum.(gross) = 6264 Btu Ib.17% moisture. Soia hispida. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature.(gross) = 15548 J g-l q.(gross) = 37950 J g-l 55MER/WAT FLOUR.F d s FAT. 3. 4.(gross) = 3716 cal gq. ether extract. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature. ether extract. WHEAT.1 q. SOY BEAN.3% fat qv(gross) = 6689 Btu lbi 1 q.(gross) = 9070 cal g-l q.

(gtoss) = 1796 Btu lp.(gross) = 4010 cal gqv(gross) = 16780 J g-l semolina. solid.(gross) = 4598 cal gq. q.(gross) 19236 J g-' 66KAI 87 . volatile matter.5 = 0. ash.73 g cm-3 . hydrogen. fixed carbon. temperature -250°C (482OF). 1.55%.(gross) = 4160 cal gqv(gross) = 17405 J g-' 55MER/WAT. 3.62%. 49. VEGETABLE. net heat of explosion: nonisothermal in air.8%.1 q.(gross) = 998 cal gq. sulfur.' q.06%. ultimate analysis: carbon.06%.55%. proximate analysis as received: moisture.K ) = 0. WHEAT.FLOUR. solid. 7. t h e finely ground and bolted meal of wheat. 10. 10. 4.57% moisture qv(gross) = 7488 Btu lb.10%.5% moisture qv(gross) = 7207 Btu lbl 1 qv(gross) = 4004 cal g . graham.68%. whole grain. Triticum aestivum. density. ash.(gross) = 4175 J g-' dry basis q. 0. as received q. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature.29%. oxygen. qp(net) = 333 Btu lb-I q (net) = 185 cal P q (net) = 774 J P specific heat: 100°-2500C (212"-48Z°F) Cp(Btu lb-l O .(gross) = 8276 Btu lb. nitrogen.(gross) = 16750 J gstandard patent. 37. 1 q.3% moisture q. 17.5 = 2.) F' Cp(cal 4-l 5-l) Cp(J g. 78.1 gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature.(gross) = 7218 Btu lbl 1 q. 69ABR/ABR FOOD WASTES.20%. 1. 0. 6.

72 16.9 -34.52 3.59 -30 -40 2.44 40 20 10 0 -10 -20 0. in the form of its anhydride collagen.56 0.95 0. an albumin type protein belonging to t h e scleroprotein class with t h e I t occurs in bones and fibrous animal tissue questionable formula C76H 240-#24S. THOMPSON SEEDLESS.62 0. solid.84 1. 0.49 0. which is converted into gelatin upon boiling with dilute acids. Sample was whole with short stem.49 0.95% by weight HCI.07 6.89 0.98 3.63 2 0. I t is particularly rich in glycine and lycine.4% water.62 0. no freezing point was observed.48 2 1.75 0.6% water soluble solids.52 -17.67 -12.84 1.14 2. and 15.4 -40 3.89 3.95 0. The acid mixture contained 5% by weight of HF and 19.34 2. t h e result is t h e average of 5 determinations.13 k 0. heat of solution: t h e value is for t h e material at 25°C (77'F) dissolved in t h e acid mixture at 75°C (167'F).2 4. chemical analysis: 81.Foods GELATIN.26% fat. dSolH = 19.6.56 0.58 Btu lbi 1 = 10. solid.32 cal-4AsolH = 44.23 3.0 -23. specific heat: 4 to -40°C (40' to -4OOF). ' .75 0.3 -28.18 49STA 88 .34 J g dSolH 52NEU GRAPES.

Foods

GROATS, SUN IX;solid; Grain has fat content of 8.1%. The relationship between the grain and the moisture content was determined. One third of t h e samples were not conditioned, one third were conditioned by adding distilled water and equilibrating for one week, and the rest were dried in a vacuum over CaC12 until they reached their respective moisture contents. Moisture content was determined by drying triplicate ground samples in a ventilated oven at 113OC (235°F)for 4 hours.

specific heat: straight line regression equations for t h e relation between t h e specific heat and moisture content where C is apparent specific heat and M is moisture P content (%). The apparent specific heat of water [C (w)] was calculated from the
equation.

P

= 0.0119 M + 0.257 Btu lb-' cP Cp = 0.0119 M + 0.257 cal K-l K-l Cp = 0.0498 M + 1.075 J g

-i !-'

C (w) = 1.447 Btu lb'l OF-' P C (w) = 1.447 c a l P C,(W) = 6.054 J
54HAS

HERRING OIL; liquid; The saponification number, which is the mean molecular weight of t h e f a t t y acids present in the molecule = 193. The amount of iodine absorbed and expressed as a percentage of t h e molecular weight (a measure of t h e proportion of unsaturated f a t t y acid present) called t h e iodine number = 120.
enthalpy difference: temperature range measured -50" to 55°C (-58" t o 131'F).
temperature ("C) (OF)
-50

Btu lb-I

H O (t)-Ho( -50 O C) c a l g-l
0.00 11.88 28.41 44.34 56.10 58.47

J g-'
0.00 49.7 1 118.87 185.52 234.72 244.64

-25 0 25 50 55

-58 -13 32 77 122 131

0.00 2 1.38 51.14 79.8 1 100.98 105.25

heat of fusion: result is a mean value for temperature range -50" t o 55OC (-58" to 13 1OF).

Lf = 22.1 Btu lb-I Lf = 12.3 cal
55RIE

89

Foods

HOMINY; from corn (maize); Zea mays; 10.96% moisture.

gross heat o combustion: assume values refer to room temperature. f
qv(gross) = 7175 Btu l b l l qv(gross) 3986 cal gq,(gross) = 16677 J g-'

55MER/WAT

HONEYDEW MELON; solid; chemical analysis: 92.6% water, 0.21% fat, and 2.83% water
soluble solids. Sample was cubed, seeds included, no rind.

specific heat: 4" to -40°C (40" to -40°F); t h e initial freezing point = -0.8"C (30.5"F).

4.44

- 0.83 - 6.67 -12.2
-17.0

-23.3 -28.9 -34.4 -40

40 30.5 20 10 0 -10 -20 -30 -40

0.92 0.92 1.85 0.94 0.68

0.58 0.53
0.50 0.48

0.92 0.92 1.85 0.94 0.68 0.58 0.53 0.50 0.48

3.85 3.85
7.74

3.93
2.85

2.43 2.22 2.09 2.0 1 49STA

LARD, AMERICAN COMMERCIAL; solid; The saponification number, which is t h e mean
molecular weight of t h e f a t t y acids present in the molecule = 202. The amount of iodine absorbed and expressed as a percentage of t h e molecular weight (a measure of t h e proportion of unsaturated f a t t y acid present) called t h e iodine number = 66.

enthalpy difference: temperature range measured -50" to 55°C (-58" t o 131°F).
temperature

H"(t)-H0(-50" C)
Btu lb-I cal g-l

("C)
-50 -25 0 25 50

(OF)

J g-'
0.00 38.74 113.85 205.8 1 279.70 289.87

55

-58 -13 32 77 122 131

0.00
16.67 48.98 88.54 120.33 124.70

0.00 9.26 27.21 49.19 66.85 69.28

heat o fusion: results is a mean value for temperature range -50" to 55OC (-58" to f 131'F).

Lf = 47.7 Btu Ibi 1 Lf = 26.5 cal gLf = 110.9 J g-l
55RIE
90

Foods

LARD, GERMAN COMMERCIAL; solid; The saponification number, which is t h e mean molecular weight of the f a t t y acids present in t h e molecule 202. The amount of iodine absorbed and expressed as a percentage of t h e molecular weight (a measure of t h e proportion of unsaturated f a t t y acid present) called t h e iodine number = 49.

enthalpy difference: temperature range measured -50" t o 55°C (-58' to 131°F).
temperature ("C) (OF) Btu lb-l
0.00

Ho(t)-Ho(-500C) cal g-l

s g-1
0.00 36.57 96.23 181.59 285.68 296.39

-50
-25

-58

0 25 50 55

-13 32 77 122 131

13.73 4 1.40 78.12 122.90 127.5 1

00 .0 8.74 23.00 43.40 68.28 70.84

heat of fusion: result is a mean value for temperature range -50" to 55°C (-58O t o

11F. 3')
Lz = 52.6 Btu lb: 1 L; = 29.2 cal g-'

Lf = 122.2 J g-l
55RIE MALTING BARLEY; solid; Grain was heavily husked; sample (A) was as harvested from field (germination was loo%), sample (B)was wetted by addition of water or water vapor, and sample (C) was dried in a vacuum at 30°C (86°F).

specific heak temperature range 273-291 K (32"-64"F),d a t a a r e mean values with standard error in parentheses and moisture content (M) on a wet weight basis.
Sample
M

%

(Btu lb-

(cal g-l K-')

cP

(f g-

cP -1 1 K )

A

B

C

1. 38 16.5 94 .

0.387(0.0026) 0.436(0.0026) 0.359(0.00 16)

0.387(0.0026)
0.436(0.0026)

0.359(0.0016)

1.619(0.0109) 1.824(0.0109) 1.502(0.0067)

54DIS

91

Foods

MARGARINE, TABLE; solid; a butter substitute, an emulsion of fats in milk serum, (the oleo margarine is t h e liquid fat from which margarine is made by hydrogenation). Two samples were used from different sources.

enthalpy difference: temperature range measured -50" t o 55OC (-58" to 132°F).
temperature

("C)
-50 -25 0 25 50 55

(OF)

Btu Ib-I

Ho(t)-Ho(-500C) cal g-l

J g-'
0.00 38.83 100.42 195.14 276.73 286.98

-58 -13 32 77 122 131

0.00 16.70 43.20 83.95 119.05 123.46

0.00 9.28 24.00 46.64 66.14 68.59

heat of fusion: result is a mean value f o r temperature range -50" to 55°C (-58" to

131°F). Lf = 46.4 Btu Ibl 1 Lf = 25.8 c a l gLf = 107.9 J g-'
55r1e

MARGARINE, COMMERCIAL; solid; a butter substitute which is a n emulsion of fats in milk serum, (the oleomargarine is t h e liquid fat from which margarine is made by hydrogenation). Three samples were used from different sources.

enthalpy difference: temperature range measured -50" to 55°C (-58"to 131°F).
temperature

("C)
-50 -25 0 25 50 55

(OF)

Btu Ib-I

H"(t)-H"(-50" C) c a l g-'
0.00

J g-1

-58 -13 32 77 122 131

00 .0 16.16 45.04 9I .08 121.43 125.86

8.98 25.02 50.60 67.46 69.92

0.00 37.57 104.68 211.71 282.25 292.55

heat of fusion: result is a mean value for temperature range -50" to 55°C (-58" to

131°F).

Lf = 47.5 Btu lb- 1 Lf 26.4 cal g- 1 Lf = 110.5 3 g- 1
55r1e

92

Foods

MEAL, CORN (MAIZE); Zea mays; 11.79% moisture.
gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature.

q,(gross) = 6881 Btu lb- 1 qv(gross) = 3823 cal g-l qv(gross) 15995 J g-l 55MER/WAT
MEAT, COOKED SCRAPS; solid; ultimate analysis: carbon, 59.59%; hydrogen, 9.47%; oxygen, 24.65%; nitrogen, 1.02%; sulfur, 0.19%; ash, 5.08%; proximate analysis as received: moisture, 38.74%; volatile matter, 56.34%; fixed carbon, 1.81%; ash, 3.1 1%.
gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature.
as received

dry basis
7628 Btu lb- 1 4238 cal g-l 17731 J g-'

qv(gross) qv(gross) q,(gross)

qv(gross) = 12450 Btu 1 q,(gross) = 6917 cal gq,(gross) 28942 J g-'

P-'
66KAI

OATS; Avena sativa; solid; rolled; 8.66% moisture.
gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room tempera ure.

q,(gross) = 8208 Btu lb;' q,(gross) 4560 cal gq,(gross) = 19080 J g-'
55MERIWAT

93

Foods

OATS, SUN 11; solid; Grain has fat c o n t e n t of 4.5%. The relationship between t h e grain and t h e moisture c o n t e n t was determined. O n e third of t h e samples w e r e n o t conditioned, one third w e r e conditioned by adding distilled w a t e r and equilibrating for one week, and t h e rest w e r e dried in a vacuum over CaC$ until t h e y reached t h e i r respective moisture contents. Moisture c o n t e n t was determined by drying triplicate ground samples in a ventilated oven at 113°C (235OF) for 4 hours.

specific heat: straight line regression equations for t h e relation between t h e specific h e a t and moisture c o n t e n t where C is apparent specific h e a t and M is moisture P The content (%I. apparent specific h e a t of w a t e r [C (w)] was calculated from t h e P equation for M = 100%.
Cp = 0.0078 M + 0.305 Btu lb-1 OF-' C 0.0078 M + 0.305 c a l -1 K-l C P 0.0326 M + 1.276 J g K-l

P

!

C,(w) = 1.085 Btu lb-I OF-' tJ C,(w) = 1.085 c a l C (w) = 4.540 J g P
54HAS

PEANUT BUTTER, HARDENED; solid; The saponification number, which is t h e mean molecular weight of t h e f a t t y acids present in t h e molecule = 189. The amount of iodine absorbed and expressed as a percentage of t h e molecular weight (a m e a s u t e of t h e proportion of unsaturated f a t t y acid present) called t h e iodine number = 78. Material is called Biskin.
enthalpy difference: t e m p e r a t u r e range measured -50" to 55°C (-58' to 131°F).
temperature

("C)
-50
-25 0 25

(OF)

Btu Ib-I
0.00

H'(t)-H" (-50 O C) cal g-l

3 g-l
0.00

-58

-13
32 77 122 131

50 55

16.20 42. I9 83.20 116.15 120.42

00 .0 9.00 23.44 46.22 64.53 66.90

37.66 98.07 193.38 269.99 279.91

heat o fusion: results is a mean value for t e m p e r a t u r e range -50" to 55°C (-5SO t o f 132°F).

Lf = 43.4 Btu l b l l Lf = 25.2 c a l gLf = 105.4 f gdl

94

51% fat. Sample was unpeeled.6.13 1.83 0.3 0.98 3.24 12 . and cubed.4% water. solid.(gross) = 5472 Btu lb. solid.10 13.56 0.63 0.3 -28. chemical analysis: 79. Carya illinoensis. 4.44 5. s p i f i c heat: 4O to -40°C (40" to -40°F).51 4.30% moisture.88% moisture.24 1.46 0.93 1.(gross) = 6392 Btu Ib.51 0.0 0. q.9 -34.84 49STA PECANS. tern eratute C0CP (OF) .47 2.67 -12. 4. Arachis hypogaea.4 -40 4. and 12. cored. solid.44 40 20 10 0 -10 -20 -30 -40 0. BARTLETT. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature.Foods PEANUTS.20 0.' qv(gross) 3040 cal gqv(gross) = 12720 J g-l 55MERIWAT PEARS. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature.46 0.64 2. 0. q.1% water soluble solids.02 3.2 -17.98 3.83 06 .0 -23.(gross) = 3551 cal g-' qv(gross) = 14857 J g ' 55MER/WAT 95 . no freezing point was recorded.44 0.1 q.

216 + 0.393 + 0. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature.437 W = 0. qv(gross) = 6937 Btu Ib.009 M + 0.20) Cp(Btu Ib-l O .K- g-' P C (w) 1.644 + 1.50) (0. solid.282 Btu lb-' OF-' C . 79. Grain has fat content of 0.4%-2. The relationship between t h e grain and t h e moisture content was determined. apparent specific h e a t of water [C (w)] was calculated from t h e The P equation for M 100%. Moisture content was determined by drying triplicate ground samples in a ventilated oven at 113°C (235°F) for 4 hours. 0.182 Btu lb-l O F .) F' Cp(cal K-1 Cp(l g. white. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature.038 M + 1. and t h e rest were dried in a vacuum over CaC12 until they reached their respective moisture contents. proximate analysis: moisture. (W > 0.1%.780 W = 0. 70YAM RICE. q.9% moisture.' qv(gross) = 3854 c a l gq. specific heat: straight line regression equations for t h e relation between t h e specific heat and moisture content where C is apparent specific heat and M is moisture P content (%I.437 W = 1.182 cal P C. protein.0.828 W 55MER/WAT. carbohydrates.(gross) = 1526 Btu I q.5%. with a moisture content (W)range of 0.009 M + 0. One third of t h e samples were not conditioned.8%.50 > W > 0. 12. 16. fat. 2%.4%.180 3 g.946 1 g 54HAS 96 . solid. one third were conditioned by adding distilled water and equilibrating for one week. Oryza sativa.904 + 3.0%. Cp 0.K-l) g-' = 0.393 + 0. 0. solid. fraction. ash.(gross) = 16125 J g. fiber.(gross) = 848 cal gqv(gross) = 3548 J g-' specific heat: at 303 K (86OF). WHITE.1 55MERlWAT RICE.780 W = 0. polished.7%.23 to 0.83 wt.282 cal 5-1 PC 0.216 + 0.(W) = 4. FULLY FINISHED (ITALIAN ORIGIN).K-l) q-' O-) F' 0.POTATO. 0.' P C (w)= 1.264 W Cp(Btu lb-I Cp(cal K-l) Cp(3 g.

335 cal -1 K-l P C. = 0. The relationship between t h e grain and t h e moisture content was determined.0107 M + 0. Grain has f a t content of 0.287 Btu lb-I OF-' cP Cp = 0.335 Btu Ib-I OF-' Cp(w) = 1. Moisture content was determined by drying triplicate ground samples in a ventilated oven at 113°C (235°F) for 4 hours. solid. solid.0%.0381 M + 1.0107 M + 0.109 J g.(W) = 5. ROUGH (ITALIAN ORIGIN).265 Btu lb-I OF-' cP = 0. and t h e rest were dried in a vacuum over CaCI2 until they reached their respective moisture contents.4%-2. The relationship between t h e grain and t h e moisture content was determined. Grain has fat content of 0. The apparent specific h e a t of water [C (w)] was calculated from t h e P equation. specific heat: straight line regression equations for t h e relation between t h e specific heat and moisture content where C is apparent specific heat and M is moisture P content (%).201 J g K-1 P -5 C (w) = 1. The apparent specific heat of water [Cp(w)l was calculated from t h e equation. Moisture content was determined by drying triplicate ground samples in a ventilated oven at 113OC (235°F) for 4 hours.265 c a l -1 K-l = 0.Foods RICE. SHELLED (ITALIAN ORIGIN). = 0.496-296.-1 C (w) = 1.586 J g K-1 -7 54HAS RICE. specific heat: straight line regression equations for t h e relation between t h e specific h e a t and moisture content where C is apparent specific heat and M is moisture P content (%).197 Btu lb-I OF-' P C (w) = 1.0091 M + 0. One third of t h e samples were not conditioned.H.0448 M + 1. and t h e rest were dried in a vacuum over CaCI2 until they reached their respective moisture contents.287 c a l -I K ' C = 0.008 J 54HAS 97 .197 cal P CP(w) = 5. One third of t h e samples were not conditioned. oen third were conditioned by adding distilled water and equilibrating for one week. one third were conditioned by adding distilled water and equilibrating for one week.0091 M + 0.

0 J g-l 55RIE 98 . and sample C was dried in vacuum at 30°C (86°F)(germination was 39%).90 21.417(0.24 88.0032) 0.00 8. temperature ("C) (OF) -50 -25 0 25 -58 -13 32 Btu lb-I H"(t)-H"(-50 O C) c a l g-l 0.9 9.0040) 1. The saponification number.d a t a are mean values with standard error in parentheses and moisture content (MI on a wet weight basis (%). gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature. Sample A was as harvested from field (germination was 41%).Foods RICE.0037) 0.0167) 54DIS WALNUTS.0040) 0. 1 Lf = 27. enthalpy difference: temperature range measured -50" to 55°C (-58" to 131°F).02 38.2 0.358(0.35 272.0032) 0.43 50 55 131 121. 5972 Btu Ib. sample B was wetted by addition of water or water vapor.14 1 17.377(0. which is t h e mean molecular weight of t h e f a t t y acids present in the molecule = 193.00 16.09 0.52 J g-1 0. liquid.(gross) 55MER/WAT WHALE OIL. solid.00 37.79 65.0037) B C 0.498(0.6 Btu Ib.0134) 1.577(0.4 17(0. 3. HARDENED. specific heat: temperature range 273-291 K (32"-64"F).9 cal gLf = 113.66 heat of fusion: result is a mean value for temperature range -50" to 55°C (-58" to 131°F). Lf = 48. SWAMP PADDY.11 77 122 71. Grain was heavily husked rough rice ftom t h e Gold Coast area.96 283. ENGLISH.24 67.17 39.97% moisture. solid. JugZans regia. Sample M % A C (Btu lb(calg'1 K-1) 1 -1 (J g.745(0.' 3318 c a l gqv(gross) = 13882 J g-l qv(gross) q.58 165.358(0.K ) cP 11. The amount of iodine absorbed and expressed as a percentage of t h e molecular weight (a measure of t h e proportion of unsaturated f a t t y acid present) called t h e iodine number = 72.0155) 1.5 14.377(0.

(gross) = 17115 3 g-l 55MERlWAT 99 .00 11.44 -50 -25 0 0.00 21. q.2 cal 55RIE WHEAT.36 246. temperature ("C) (OF) -58 -13 32 77 122 131 Btu lb-' H "( t)-H"(-50 C ) cal g-l O J g-l 0.1 qv(gross) = 4090 cal g-l q.94 6 1. 8.61 255. Lf = 27.29 heat of fusion: result is a mean value for temperature range -50' to 55°C (-58" t o 131'F).5% moisture. enthalpy difference: temperature range measured -50" t o 55'C (-58" t o 131°F).4 Btu Ib-1 Lf = 15. Triticum aestivum. liquid.33 128.65 46.00 49. The amount of iodine absorbed and expressed as a percentage of t h e molecular weight (a measure of the proportion of unsaturated f a t t y acid present) called t h e iodine number = 120.Foods WHALE OIL.09 110.24 196.79 30.22 25 50 55 55.(gross) = 7362 Btu lb.93 58.32 0. which is t h e mean molecular weight of t h e f a t t y acids present in t h e molecule = 192.47 106.17 84. UNREFINED. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature. The saponification number.

0021) 0.284 J g-' K-' Btu Ib'l cal J O F ' 54DIS WHEAT.333(0. Material is a Canadian hard red spring wheat.0029) 0.367(0.07 Btu Ib-I P C (w) = 1.263 cal C = 0.333(0. Samples of this batch were conditioned by drying in a n oven (at either 60" or 113°C) or by addition of liquid water in air-tight jars.331(0. Germination was either 100% or 0%.7 10.0113) 1.10 P C.07 cal P C (w) = 4.01699 cP C (w) = -0.89 Btu lb-I OF-' P C (w) = 0.307 c a l -I K-I M + 1.8%-7.0163) 1. specific heat: temperature range 273-291 K (32"-64"F).7%.3 13.89 cal K-l CP(w) = 3.72 f g K-1 P -5 -' M = 0.741(0.7%-23.30 c a l P C (w)= 5.0027) 0.00591 M + 0.00406 = 0.5 15.7% O F ' C (w) = 0.406 J g-' K-' M = l.03059 M + 1.48 J P M 7.00406 Cp = 0. Material is a soft white grain of French origin grown as a highyielding winter or spring variety.367(0.3 lO(0.02473 M + 1.0121) 54DIS 100 .29 1.0020) 0.0029) 17.297 Btu Ib-I OF-' Cp = 0.307 Btu Ib-I OF-' M + 0.0024) 0.0100) 1.0084) 1.263 Btu Ib-I OF-' K-l Cp = 0. specific heat: temperature range 273-291 K (32O-64OF).447(0.10 P C (w) -0.01036 M + 0.42 M + 0.447(0.393(0.0024) 0.0088) I .243 J g K-1 Cp -7 C (w) = 1.8% Cp = 0.00591 M + 0.7% P 0.318(0.04335 M + 1. M % P P (Btu Lpl lb0.0020) 0.44 I g P Cp = 0. solid.1 4. data a r e mean values with standard error in parentheses and moisture content (M) is given in % on a wet weight basis.0027) 0.6% Cp 0.297 c a l -1 K-1 Cp = 0.870(0.0024) 0.89 1.0100) 1.0039) 0.100 I g-' K-l P C (w) = 1. BERSEE. Moisture P content was determined in a ventilated oven at 113°C (235°F)for 4 hours and calculated as a percentage of wet weight. 1 NORTHERN MANITOBA.Foods WHEAT.0%-1.30 Btu 1b-l OF-' P C (w) 1.536(0.4 I6(0.3 1S(0. solid.7%-33.398(0.00731 M + 0. Straight line regression equations for computing t h e specific heat (C ) at different moisture contents (MI in percent are below.3 1O(0. Grain had a n initial moisture content of 13.665(0.01036 M + 0.(W) = -0. The apparent specific heat of water [C (w)] was computed from t h e regression equation by writing M = 100%.0024) 0.0039) 0.416(0.398(0. P M = 23.9 I .336 Btu lb-I OF-' Cp = 0.002 I ) 0.00731 M + 0.336 cal -I K-l C = 0.297(0. NO.

Fossil Materials .

409 0. 1.5 62. sulfur.567 0. volatile matter. nitrogen.71%. ash free and moisture free: carbon. "C Cp(J g 0°C 1.51% 0. 2.600 Softening Point.00%.904 2.77%. 7.80%. and sulfur).382 Cp(Btu lb-l 212°F 0. 1. hydrogen.382 100°C 300°C 0.425 0.5 c-') 200°C 0°C 0. 2.520 0.409 0.83%. nitrogen.5 62.510 62BAR. "C 39.1 144.567 0.3%.572 0. 1.518 0. ANTHRACITE.463 0.463 0.527 572°F 0.472 0. grass heat o combustion: assume values refer to room temperature. solid.5 96.5 205.393 2. moisture. aromatic.520 0. 94. ultimate analysis of combustible.176 2.425 0. oxygen. mixture of pataff inic.71 1 1. 0. Softening Point. solid. 1.372 2. "F 103.205 300°C -1 100°C 39.13%. f ash free and moisture free qv(gross) = 14890 B t u 1 q.(gross) 13310 Btu 1 qv(gtoss) = 7393 cal gq.5 1.Fossil Materials ASPHALT.(gross) = 8273 cal gq. specific heat: Venezuelan distilled asphalt.527 0.572 0. proximate analysis: ash.(gross) = 34616 J g-l as received q.(gross) = 30931 J g-' P-' 18POO. 15LOR 103 .455 Cp(cal g-l 392°F 0.167 2.472 0.455 0.600 Softening Point.7 32OF 0.5 96.778 1.975 1.39%.598 -1 C ) 200°C 2. 40SAA/HEU COAL.5%. and heterocyclic hydrocarbons (containing oxygen. loss on air drying.937 1.

88%. volatile matter. 22. 76. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature. ultimate analysis of combustible. 1. 2. %. 4.145 wt. moisture. moisture. 15LOR COAL.(gross) = 18008 3 g-l 18POO. sulfur.(gross) 33806 J g-l 8 lKIR/COL COAL.15 wt. National Bureau of Standards (NBS) Standard Reference Material (SRM) 1632a.(gross) = 6915 cal gq. BITUMINOUS (HIGHGRADE).48 wt.(gross) = 28931 J g. 0.(gross) = 8080 c a l g-l q. 1.0%.88%. ash free and moisture free q.4%. 1.(gross) = 8237 cal gq. nitrogen. 10.(gross) = 4304 c a l g-l q. ash free and moisture free as received q. 2. %. solid. 5.(gross) 14830 Btu 1 q. proximate analysis: ash. 33. 26. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature. oxygen.(gross) = 12450 Btu 1P-l q.99%.(gross) = 15600 Btu 1 qv(gross) = 8667 c a l gq.solid. sulfur content.99%. loss on air drying. I. proximate analysis: ash.09%. 16. 1. qv(gross) = 14534 Btu lb-I q. hydrogen. sulfur.1 1%.(gross) = 36262 J g-' as received P-' q. nitrogen. 32. ash content. 13%. values a r e on a moisture-free. 6.14%. %.84%. volatile matter.79%.Fossil Materials COAL. ash free and moisture free: carbon. gross h e a t of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature. Residual moisture.88%.6%. oxygen. 2. ash free and moisture free: carbon. 4. loss on air drying. 85. ultimate analysis of combustible. ash-free basis. BITUMINOUS (LOW GRADE).80%.1 qv(gross) = 7747 Btu lb-I q.1 18POO.4%.03%. BITUMINOUS. 15LOR 104 .1 8%. hydrogen.(gross) = 34462 J g. solid.

2%. 10.(gross) = 28475 J g-l sample 2. ultimate analysis of combustible.96%.(gross) = 32029 J g-l 18POO.32%. 82.(gross) 13900 Btu 1 7723 c a l g32313 J g-l P-' sample 2.(gross) = 6806 cal g-' q. proximate analysis: ash. SEMI-ANTHRACITE. 15LOR COAL. (sample 2) ultimate analysis of combustible. 2. oxygen. 7. solid. ash free and moisture free: carbon.30%. ultimate analysis of combustible.55%. 10.3%. proximate analysis: ash. 4.5%.(gross) = 4581 c a l g-l q. ash free and moisture free as received q. oxygen.76%. 15LOR COAL. proximate analysis: ash. as received q. 23.40%.17%.8%.6%.0%. ash free and moisture free: carbon.40%. 5. oxygen. hydrogen. proximate analysis: ash.(gross) = 19166 J g-l 18POO. nitrogen.83%.(gross) = 8784 cal gq.36%. 92. 15LOR 105 . moisture. volatile matter. volatile matter.6%. 11. 12. loss on air drying. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature.38%.98%. 17. moisture.97%.(gross) = 14930 Btu I q. loss on air drying. loss on air drying. 2.49%.99%. moisture.57%. nitrogen.(gross) = 34709 J g-l sample I. 3.solid.(gross) = 35953 J g-l 18POO. (sample 1) ultimate analysis of combustible.(gross) q. ash free and moisture free: carbon. ash free and moisture free: carbon.50%. 76.18%.(gross) = 13170 Btu 1 qv(gross) = 7314 cal g30601 J g-l q. ash free and moisture free a s received q. solid. volatile matter. as received q. 1.1 q.(gross) = 36751 J g-' qv(gross) = 13780 Btu 1 q.5%. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature. hydrogen. 5. loss on air drying.1 q.08%. 11.(gross) = 8593 cal gq. hydrogen. 0. 39.74%.33%. 15. hydrogen. 55.38%. 1. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature.(gross) = 8246 Btu Ib.22%. sulfur. 1. 82. 1. ash free and moisture free q. 5.38%. 1. BITUMINOUS (MEDIUM GRADE).13%.(gross) 7655 cal gq. ash free and moisture free q. 5. 1.Fossil Materials COAL. nitrogen. sample I. 44. sulfur. CANNEL. 7. nitrogen. 1.26%.(gross) = 8296 cal gq. 2.(gross) qv(gross) q. moisture.(gross) = 15470 Btu 1 q.(gross) = 15810 Btu 1 q. 4. oxygen. volatile matter.59%. sulfur.15%.(gross) = 12250 Btu lb. sulfur. 3.

(gross) = 36867 J g-l as received qv(gross) = 14370 Btu 1 qv(gross) = 7983 cal gqv(gross) = 33401 J g-l 18POO. 0. ash. sulfur. 26. (sample 2. hydrogen. dry): fixed carbon. ultimate analysis of combustible. sulfur. as received q. (sample I. sample 1. 0.08%.1 IXPOO. 69. 44.(gross) = 10100 Btu 1 q. hydrogen.79%.70%.(gross) = 561 2 cal gq.60%.(gross) = 8687 Btu lb-I q. as received q. solid.5%.31%. produced from the destructive distillation of gas-coal in gas retorts.(gross) = 23479 J g-' sample 2.58%. solid. ash free and moisture free: carbon. 6.86%. 2. 4. 0.56%. loss on air drying.0%.(gross) = 881 I cal gq. as received): fixed carbon.1 qv(gross) = 6516 cal g-l qv(gtoss) = 27265 J g-' as received q. ash. 18. dry): fixed carbon.(gross) = 4826 cal g-l q. 92. volatile matter. 0.Fossil Materials COAL. (dry represents sample as drawn from retort before quenching). sulfur.(gross) = 9137 Btu lb.(gtoss) = 13800 Btu 1 q.(gross) q.80%.65%.76%.(gross) = 11 180 Btu 1 q.(gross) = 15860 Btu 1 q.75%. 2.00%. 1. sulfur. f ash free and moisture free qv(gross) = 11729 Btu lb.41%. solid. 4. 2. 89. nitrogen. dry q. moisture. 17.75%. 4.3%. dry P" q.47%. 15LOR COAL.89%. volatile matter. 1. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature.60%.40%.80%. proximate analysis: ash. 0. 2. 76. ash. 59. 0. (sample 2. as received): fixed carbon. (sample 1. 22.35%. sulfur. gross heat o combustion: assume values refer to room temperature. oxygen. proximate analysis: ash. ash f r e e and moisture free: carbon.1 5076 cal g-l q.56%. volatile matter.30%. 22. 24. moisture. volatile matter. 17.66%. ash free and moisture free q. moisture. 0.(gross) = 32076 J g-l P-' 18POO.(gross) 621 1 cal gq. moisture.(gross) = 25988 J g-l sample 2.(gross) = 21236 J g.98%. loss on air drying. 10. ultimate analysis of combustible. 15LOR COKE.17%.7 1%.36%. volatile matter. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature.(gross) = 20192 J g-l sample I. oxygen. 3.(gross) = 7666 cal gq.51%. sulfur.45%. SEMI-BITUMINOUS. 67. 0.17%.0%. ash. 6. volatile matter. nitrogen. 1 1WHI/BAR 106 . SUB-BITUMINOUS.46%. 0.

Fossil Materials

COKE; solid; produced from t h e destructive distillation of bituminous coal in beehive ovens; (sample I): fixed carbon, 91.43%; volatile carbon, 1.27%; sulfur, 0.51%; ash, 6.09%; (sample 2): fixed carbon, 79.83%; volatile carbon, 1.05%; sulfur, 2.13%; ash, 15.75%; water, 1.22%.

gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperatures; corrected for moisture and ash content.
sample 1 q,(gross) = 14420 Btu 1 qv(gross) = 801 1 cal gq,(gross) = 33520 J g-' sample 2

P-'

q,(gross) = 13890 Btu 1 q,(gross) = 7718 cal gqv(gross) = 32292 J g-l

18POO COKE; solid; produced from the destructive distillation to red heat of petroleum; fixed carbon, 98.05%; volatile carbon, 0.50%.
gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature.

q,(gross) = 14510 Btu lb- 1 q,(gross) = 8063 cal g-l q,(gross) = 33734 J g-l
18POO

COKE BREEZE; solid; ultimate analysis: carbon, 94.79%; hydrogen, 1.5 1%; oxygen, 1.48%; nitrogen, I. 19%; sulfur, 1.03%; proximate analysis: ash, 12.05%; moisture, 10.77%; volatile matter, 4.92%; loss on air drying, 10.1%.
gross heat o combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature. f

ash free and moisture free qv(gross) = 14470 Btu 1 q,(gross) = 8038 cal gq,(gross) = 33632 J g-l

as received
qv(gross) = 11170 Btu 1 q,(gross) = 6204 c a l gq,(gross) = 25958 J g-l

P-'

P-'
18POO; l5FER

107

Fossil Materials

FUEL, AVIATION; liquid; petroleum fraction with B.P. range 175O-35OoC (347O-662'F) (kerosine). Military jet fuels labeled JP-3, JP-4, JP-5, etc. Commercial jet fuels labeled as ASTM types A, A-1, or B.
net heat o combustion: A is t h e aniline point, in degrees Fahrenheit, identifying t h e f minimum equilibrium solution temperature for equal volumes of aniline and sample. G is the API gravity defined as: API gravity (deg) = 141.5/(sp. gr, 60/60°F)-131.5. Tables are provided in ASTM Specification D 1405 to calculate q (net)if sulfur impurities are known. P
Aviation gasoline, Grades 100-1 30 and 1 15- 145:

q (net) = [18049 + 0.0833 (A P qp(net) = [lo027 + 0.0463 (A qp(net) [41954 + 0.1938 (A
Jet fuels:

x x x

G)] Btu Ib-I GI1 cal
G)1 J g-

q1

JP-3
q (net) = [17951 + 0.1057 (A x GI1 Btu 1P-l qP(net) = 19973 + 0.0587 (A x GI] cal gqp(net) = 141728 + 0.2456 (A x G)] 3 g-l P
JP-4

q (net) = r17989 + 0,1057 (A x G)] Btu I P q (net) = [9994 + 0.0587 (A x GI] c a l gqp(net) = (41815 + 0.2456 (A x G)] J g-l

P

JP-5

q (net) = [17926 + 0.1057 (A x G)] Btu 1 qP(net) = [9959 + 0.0587 (A x GI]c a l gqP(net) = [41668 + 0.2456 (A x G)] J g-l P Kerosine, Jet A or A-1 (see ASTM Speciation I) 1655): q (net) = [17932 + 0.10930 (A x G)] Btu lb- 1 P(net) = [9962 + 0.06072 (A x GI] cal g-l q P q (net) [41680 + 0.25407 (A x G)] J g-l

P

68AST

108

Fossil Materials

FUEL, AVIATION; liquid; petroleum fraction with B.P. range 175"-35OoC (347'-662'F).
gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o 25OC (77OF).
aviation gasoline, grade 91-96: q,(gross) = 20232 Btu lb-I q,(gross) = 11240 c a l qv(gross) = 47028 J aviation gasoline, grade 100-130: qv(gross) = 20288 Btu Ib- 1 q,(gross) = I1271 c a l q,(gross) = 47158 J 48LET/MAT

FUEL, COED-1 FMC WESTERN KENTUCKY COAL DERIVED; liquid; Material was
refined by fractionation. Composition was nitrogen = 40 pprn, sulfur = 0.05 wt. %, aromatics = 24.8%, C9 t o C16 n-alkanes = 3.90 wt. %, and hydrogen = 12.80 wt. %. The freezing point is -48°C (-54°F).

net heat o combustion: assume values refer to room temperature; where net h e a t of f combustion [q (net at 25"C)I = gross heat of combustion [q (gross at 25OC)I - 91.23 H, where H = hydrogen weight % of the sample.
q,(net) = 18294 Btu lb-l q,(net) = 10163 c a l qv(net) = 42523 J

76HAZ/HAL

FUEL, COED-2UTAH COAL DERIVED; liquid; Material was refined by fractionation. Composition was nitrogen = 42 ppm, sulfur = 0.04 wt. %, aromatics = 24.I%, Cg t o
C16 n-alkanes = 7.14 wt. %, and hydrogen = 12.98 wt. %. The freezing point is -40°C (-40 OF).
net heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature; where n e t heat of combustion [q (net at 25"C)] = gross heat of combustion [q (gross at 25'C)] - 91.23 H, where H = hydrogen weight 96 of t h e sample,

18327 Btu Ib- 1 q,(net) q,(net) = 10207 cal q,(net) = 42705 J 76HAZ/HAL

109

Fossil Materials

FUEL, COED-3 WESTERN KENTUCKY COAL DERIVED; liquid; Material was refined by
fractionation. Composition was nitrogen = 40 ppm, sulfur = 0.05 wt. %, aromatics = 4.7%, C9 to c 1 6 n-alkanes = 3.73 wt. %, and hydrogen = 13.34 wt. %. The freezing point is -5OOC (-58°F).
net heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature; where net heat of combustion [q (net at 25"C)I = gross heat of combustion [q (gross at 25"C)I - 91.23 H, where H = hydrogen weight % of t h e sample.

qv(net) = 18383 Btu lb-I q,(net) = 10213 c a l qv(net) = 42730 J
76HAZ/HAL

FUEL, COED-4 UTAH COAL DERIVED; liquid; Material was refined by fractionation. Composition was nitrogen = 43 ppm, sulfur 0.03 wt. %?aromatics = 6.1%, C9 to C16 n-alkanes = 7.45 wt. 96, and hydrogen = 13.62 wt. %. The freezing point is -40°C (-4OOF).

net heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature; where net heat of combustion [q (net at 25"C)] gross heat of combustion [q (gross at 25"C)I - 91.23 H, where H = hydrogen weight 96 of t h e sample.
qv(net) = 18465 Btu Ib- 1 qv(net) = 10258 c a l q,(net) = 42921 J
76HAZ/HAL

FUEL, COED-5 WESTERN KENTUCKY COAL DERIVED; liquid; Material was refined by fractionation. Composition was nitrogen = 37 ppm, sulfur = 0.03 wt. %, aromatics =
24.194, Cg t o CI n-alkanes = 5.48 wt. 96, and hydrogen point is -56.7OC -70°F).

f

12.81 wt. %. The freezing

net heat of Combustion: assume values refer to room temperature; where net heat of
combustion [q (net at 25'C)] = gross heat of combustion [q (gross at 25"C)] - 91.23 H, where H = hydrogen weight 96 of the sample. qv(net) = 18282 Btu lb-l qv(net) = 10157 cal qv(net) = 42495 J
76HAZ/HAL

110

Fossil Materials

FUEL, JP-9 RAMJET; liquid; Material is a blend of 10.3 wt. 44 methylcyclohexane, 68.4 wt. % of exo-tetrahydrodicyclopentadiene,and 21.2 wt. % of t h e hydrogenated
dimers of norbornadiene whose empirical formula is C14Hlz; the empirical formula for t h e blend is C10.529H16.202. Recovery of C 0 2 from the combustion products gave a mean value of 99.630%.

gross heat of combustion: The reference temperature is 298.13 K (77°F). Value is mean with standard deviation of t h e mean.
q,(gross) = 19204.49 2 1.40 Btu lb-l q,(gross) = 10469.16 2 0.78 c a l qv(gross) = 44639.77 2 3.26 J net heat of combustion: The reference temperature is 298.15 K (77'F). with standard deviation of the mean. q,(net) = 18160.7 ? 4.3 Btu lb-' qv(net) = 10089.3 f 2.4 c a l q,(net) = 42213.6 f 10. 3
7SSMI/GOO Value is mean

FUEL, PARAHO OIL SHALE DERIVED; liquid; Material was refined by delayed coking and fractionation. Composition was nitrogen = 680 pprn, sulfur = 0.03 wt. %, aromatics = 26.0%, Cg t o C16 n-alkanes = 36.33 wt. %, and hydrogen = 13.74 wt. %. The freezing point is -33.3"C (-28°F). net heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature, where net heat of combustion [q (net at 25"C)I = gross heat of combustion [q (gross at 25OC)I - 91.23 H where H = hydrogen weight % of sample.
qv(net) = 18532 Btu lb-I q,(net) = 10296 cal qv(net) = 43077 J
76HAZ/HAL

FUEL, PETROLEUM-A DERIVED; liquid; Material was produced by drilling. Composition was sulfur = 0.11 wt. %, aromatics = 18.2%, C9 to C16 n-alkanes = 16.00 wt. %. The freezing point is -48.9"C (-56°F).
net heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature. q,(net) = 18518 Btu lb-I q,(net) = 10288 c a l qv(net) = 43044 J
76HAZ/HAL

111

Fossil Materials

FUEL, RJ-4 RAMJET; liquid; Material, exo-tettahydrodi (methylcyclopentadiene) is a mixture of isomers in which the location of t h e methyl groups is unknown. Recovery of C 0 2 from combustion products gave a mean value of 99.983%.

gross heat of combustion: The reference temperature is 298.15 K (77OF). Value is
mean value with standard deviation of t h e mean. q,(gross) = 19396.22
?

1.44 Btu lb- 1

q,(gross) = 10775.68 f 0.80 cal qv(gross) 45085.45 f 3.35 J g-

Y1

net heat of combustion: The reference temperature is 298.15 K (77OF). Value is mean value with standard deviation of t h e mean.
qv(net) = 18275.6 +, 4.1 Btu lb- 1 qv(net) = 10153.1 2 2.3 cal qv(net) = 42480.6 5 9.6 J
78SMI/G00

FUEL, R J 4 RAMJET; liquid; Material is a complex mixture of isomers, all of formula C1.$H20. Carbon dioxide .recovery from combustion products was 99.983 k 0.006% of tha expected.

gross heat of combustion: temperature, 298.15 K (77°F).
q,(gross) = 19427.95 q,(gross) = 10793.31 q,(gross) = 45159.20

4.16 Btu Ib- 1 ? 2.31 cal ? 9.68 3 g2

9-1

net heat of combustion: temperature, 298.15 K (77°F).
qv(net) = 18275.39 q,(net) = 10152.99 q,(net) = 42480.13 4.16 Btu lb- 1 ? 2.31 cal ? 9.68 J
?

77GOO/SCO

FUEL, RJ-4-I RAMJET; liquid; Material, endo-tetrahydrodi (methylcyclopentadiene), is a mixture of isomers in which t h e location of t h e methyl groups is unknown. Recovery of C02 from combustion products gave a mean value of 99.962%.
gross heat of combustion: The reference temperature is 298.15 K (77OF). Value is mean with standard deviation of t h e mean.
q,(gross) = 19374.55 f 1.03 Btu lb- 1 q,(gross) = 10763.64 k 0.57 cal q,(gross) = 45035.07 t 2.38 J (more)

K-l) = 0.(net) = 42431.9 f 0.(gross) = 44070.15 K (77OF). qv(net) = 17971.49 2 1. is t h e heat capacity of t h e substance in equilibrium with urated vapor.948 x T = 0.00 J g q.) F' Cp(cal 9-l K .1 q.00056 lo-' T) 2 0. 298. qv(net) = 18254. and uncertainties are standard deviations at either end of t h e measurement range. liquid.4259* gross heat of combustion: temperature. and C.2 c a l q.0852880 + 8.5 k 4.K-l) 79SMI/SCO FUEL.15 K (77'F). Material is a blend of exo-tetrahydrodicyclopentadiene and the hydrogenated dimers of norbornadiene and used without further drying. 298.1 q.2 J 78SMI/G00 FUEL.0905 x (0.9 J g-l heat capacity: temperature range 260-340 K (9"-153"F). liquid.(gross) = 10533.(net) = 9983.058212 + 0.00056 x x lo-' T) 2 0. Material is a blend of JP-10 (exotetrahydrodicyclopentadiene) and 3 hydrogenated dimers of norbornadienes.24 c a l -1 q.~ ) Cp(J g.(gross) = 18959.0002 (mean and standard deviation of t h e mean).013913 + 0.0055 c a l g Cs(Btu lb-I OF-') Cs(calq-1 K-1) = 0. The root mean square deviation of results was 0.2725 f 0. RJ-6 RAMJET.Fossil Materials FUEL.7438 x T C.0 Btu lb.5 f 0.10963 = (0.10 2 0. Cp(Btu lb-I O .4 Btu lb. heat capacity: Temperature range was 260-467 K (9'-381 OF).15 K (77°F).4 f 2. The 1961 atomic weights and thermochemical calorie were used. Value is mean with standard deviation of mean.97 x T = 0.1 qv(net) = 10141.00234 80SMI/THO 113 .2939 + 6. The ratio of C 0 2 recovered t o mass of sample burned was 3.Continued net heat of combustion: The reference temperature is 298.31378 + 4.58 f -5 net heat of combustion: temperature. RJ-4-I RAMJET .45869 T) f 0.(J g. 0.43 Btu lb. RJ-6 W J E T .8 f 0.3568450 + 3.6 k 9.2 cal g-l qv(net) = 41774. The empirical formula calculated from this ratio is CH1.

87%. Partial composition was sulfur = 0.06%.6696. C2H6 5. H e = 0.23 H. pentanes 0. CHq = 72. Canadian sample was refined by delayed coking and fractionation.32%. (sample A).396.9978 2 (sample D) = 0. C2H6 = 6. CH4 = 86.9%. and heptanes = 0.2%. 2 = PV/RT: at 15. pentanes = 0.7 10 6 J m-3 sample B sample C q. He = 0. propane = 0.2 x 106 J md3 q.01 wt. n-butane = 0.52%. C2H6 = 3. C 0 2 = 0. ) CH4 = 94.OO%. sample A q.(gross) = 999 Btu(SCF)-' q. isobutane = 0. net heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature. aromatics = 19.19%.04%. N2 = 7.2%.22%. C2H6 = 6. liquid. n-butane = 0.2%. isobutane = 0. He = O.N2 = 0.80 x 106 cal rn-3 q.04%.50 wt.(net) = 18436 Btu lb.03%.89 x 106 cal m-3 q.(gross) = 8. N2 = 15. hexanes 0. where SCF is standard cubic foot. %.06%. %. n-butane = 0.(gross) = 9. Cc)z = 0.(gross) = 9.9978 2 (sample 8)= 0. q.49%.1%.Fossil Materials ~ i .I q. where H = hydrogen weight % of t h e sample.91.12%. FUEL.9979 6 1MAS/EAK 114 .28%. and heptanes = 0. (sample B .2%.(gross) = 8. Cg to c 1 6 n-alkanes = 9. composition in mole percent. hexanes = 0.3 x lo6 J m-3 sample D q. and hydrogen = 13. pentanes = 0. %.03%.06%.(gross) = 958 Btu(SCF)-l q. isobutane = 0. gas.04%. and heptanes = 0. C 0 2 = 0.51 x 106 cal m-3 qv(gross) = 35. (sample C .(gross) = 1028 Btu(SCF).50 wt.5%. hexanes = 0. The freezing point is -53. CH4 84. gross heat of combustion: at 15. pentanes = 0.6396.01%. hexanes = 0.31%. and heptanes = 0.24%. 2 (sample A) = 0.(gtoss) = 37.8%.2396. NATURAL.(gross) = 1101 Btu(SCF)-l q.32%.02%.2%.56OC (60°F) and 101325 Pa (I atm). isobutane = 0.8%.3"C (-64°F).56OC (60°F) and 101325 Pa (1 atm). TAR SANDS (ALTERNATIVE JET FUEL). where net heat of combustion [q (net at 25OC)] = gross heat of combustion [q (gross at 25"C)I .6%. C 0 2 = 0.3%.0 x lo6 J rn-3 compressibility factor. He = 0.(gross) = 38.07%.(net) = 10242 cal q.84%.2896. (sample D).9974 2 (sample C)= 0. propane 3. ) propane = 2.7%.(gross) = 41. N2 = 2. n-butane = 0.67%.I q.7%.(net) = 42853 J 76HAZ/HAL GAS.15 x 106 cal m-3 q. propane = 1.01%.

4336 Y lo-' ( t + 459.(gross) = I 1106 cal q. auto-ignition temperature: octane rating temperature "C "F 248 258 412 478 496 774 54SET 63 73 87 GASOLINE. cycloparaffins.1 q. a mixture of volatile hydrocarbons with boiling points ranging from 140°-3900F (branched-chain paraffins.0315 .5152 x x x x (t + 459.6713 Cp(J g-l " C .1 q.67) (t + 459. low vapor-pressure residues of paraffin oil distillation products. Cp(Btu lb-I OF-') Cp(cal g-I "C-') = .6.3. a mixture of volatile hydrocarbons with boiling points ranging from 60"-198°C (140"-390"F) (branched-chain paraffins.(gross) = 20079 Btu lb.1. specific heat: In the temperature range: -193" to -73OC (-315" to -99OF).' ) (more) 115 .67p + 4.(gross) = 19990 Btu Ib. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature.67)2 + 2.0481 x (t + 459.(gross) = 46466 J q. APIEZON N.2684 .2. solid. liquid.7606 x ( t + 459.Fossil Materials GASOLINE.9982 x ( t + 459. cycloparaffins.67)3 = .4581 x ( t + 459.1.0115 = .67)2 + 1.(gross) = 46673 3 48LET/MAT GREASE.1378 + 2. Production motor gasoline: regular grade premium grade q.8554 x x + 1.67) (t + 459.0315 .67)' + 5.3.67) x ( t + 459. and aromatics).(gross) = 11155 cal q. liquid. and aromatics).

445 0.858 0.(K) logLoP(Torr) loglo P(Pa) 57HERIREI I16 .84 3.626 0.543 0.421 0. low vapor-pressure residues of paraffin oil distillation products. L = 354.44 1.679 0.679 1.32 2.57 3.6 19 .6 1. ralues are given below P tern erature (C 'P -73 -63 -53 -43 -33 (OF) -99 -81 -63 Cp(Btu Ib-I O-) F' -45 -27 -9 -23 -13 -3 7 17 23 27 37 47 57 9 27 45 63 73 81 99 117 0. average molecular weight 410 f 70.421 0.468 0.445 0.59 2.468 0.76 3.4 J .344 0.1 . APIEZON P.281 0.7 2.899 0.538 2.392 0.6 18 . L = 152.Fossil Materials GREASE.626 0.853 0.5 Btu Ib.543 0. C is anom lous.6 22 .899 0.392 0. heat of vaporization: temperature range 40"-160°C (104"-320"F).7590 T.7590 T-: (K) = 16.62 0.301 0.554 0. APIEZON N .Continued In the temperature range -73" to 57OC.64 17 . (-99O to 124"F).03 .858 0.70 cal .18 12 .853 0. = 13.91 . L = 84. vapor pressure: temperature range 40"-160"C (104"-320"F).554 0. solid.344 0.301 0.28 I 0.25 69BUN/ASH 135 GREASE.538 0.

517 0.0004330 0. low vapor-pressure residues of paraffin oil distillation products.1518 0.5180 0.4 -279. solid. I = 70.201 2.635 1 0.27.5180 0.281 1 0.7050 T. low vapor-pressure residues of paraffin oil distillation products.88 c a l L.66 .084 2.362 0.526 0. L. = 204.7050 T-l1 (K) = 14. 5 50 100 150 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 350 -450.98 Btu lb-I L.447 0.4 -189. L = 22.6 170.6 116.52 . = 87.447 0. heat of vaporization: temperature range 4Oo-16O0C (104°-3200F).515 1A70 2. L. low vapor-pressure residues of paraffin oil distillation products.4 .101 2.4 . also contains a n aluminum soap.(€0 57HER/REI GREASE.63. solid.00 1035 0. = 293.5259 0.00 1035 0. average molecular weight 460 ? 60. APIEZON T.64 .07746 0.5 J vapor pressure: temperature range 4Oo-16O0C (104°-3200F).6 0.6 44.4 .4 -369.2149 0. heat of vaporization: temperature range 40"-160"C ( 104'-320°F).200 67WES/CHI 117 .54 .3241 0. specific heat: specific heat is anomalous between 205 and 320 K. solid.1761 1.5259 0.07746 0. average molecular weight 660 2 100.2149 0.899 1 1.7045 T-: (K) = 14.5022 0.362 0. APIEZON S. loglo P(Torr) loglo P(Pa) = 12. APIEZON R.163 2.54 Btu lb.(K) 57HER/REI GREASE.167 2.28 I 1 0. log10 P(Torr) loglo P(Pa) 12.7045 T.08 cal .1518 0.6 80.498 0.526 0.6 152.517 0.1 .4 8. = 48.5022 0.2 J vapor pressure: temperature range 4O0-16O0C (104"-320°F).498 0.99.Fossil Materials GREASE.

86.12%. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature. 13.(gross) = 46390 f 73LEN/HIP LIGNITE.5. 17. API gravity. ash free and moisture free q. liquid.(gross) = 10841 c a l q. 14.1 q.(gross) = 11087 c a l q. 0. 13.35%. 64.5.(gtoss) = 6132 c a l gq.5%.(gross) = 5638 Btu lb-I qJgross) = 3132'cal g.1 q. hydrogen. 43. mixture of hydrocarbons with boiling points ranging from 180"-300°C (356'-572"F).(gross) = 4503 cal g-l q.1 q.8%.00%. as received q.Fossil Materials . (sample I) ultimate analysis: carbon.3 ppm. sulfur. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature. 43.(gross) = 19957 Btu lb-' q.8019 g cm-3 at 24°C (75°F). 30. 50. total naphthenes. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature. hydrogen. 20. oxygen.2%.6%. 58 ppm.2%. sulfur.30%. hydrogen.30%. 1. nitrogen. nitrogen. total naphthenes. .7%. volatile matter. oxygen. 0. total paraffins. q.(gross) = 5353 cal g-l q.8%. total aromatics. 25.37%. hydrogen.32%. sulfur. ALASKA. 3. 99 ppm. sample I . 10.9%.3%.6%.(gross) = 8105 Btu Ib.(gross) = 18841 J g-l sample 2. 14. 0. 23. I .42%. 68.(gross) = 11040 Btu 1 q. volatile m a t t e r .7703 g cm-3 at 24OC (75OF). 85. density.7%. ash free and moisture free q.(gross) = 43360 J 73LEN/HIP 118 . proximate analysis: ash. API gravity.17%. ultimate composition: carbon. 15LOR NAPHTHA. 29. Lignite is also called Brown Coal. nitrogen. proximate analysis: ash.3%.32%.27%. loss on air drying.3%. t o t a l aromatics. ultimate analysis: carbon. moisture. 2. 31.(gross) = 9635 Btu Ib. solid.72%.86%.1 P-' qv(gross) = 13104 3 g-l 18POO. density. 39.5%.(gross) = 19514 Btu Ib. 0.(gross) = 22399 J g-l sample 2. 50. 4. loss on air drying. 39. sulfur. q. 4. total paraffins. moisture. (sample 2) ultimate analysis: carbon. as received q. 63. liquid.(gross) = 25656 J g-l sample I . KEROSINE.54%.

(gross) 46934 J 73LEN/HIP NAPHTHA.0%.1%. 13.6%. 61. total aphthenes. 14. API gravity.6%.95%. 54. 85.8449 g cm-'at 24°C (75°F). liquid.9%. f gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature. JET.4. 9.(gross) = 11217 c a l q. ultimate analysis: carbon. 10. 0. sulfur. 30. 44.9%.1 q. 9. 85. f qv(gross) = 19845 Btu lb. density.1%. 59. API gravity. 760 ppm.(gross) = 20277 Btu lbq.4%. sulfur compounds. LOW BOILING. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature. hydrogen. hydrogen. 0. q.at 24°C (75°F).7559 g an-' at 24OC (75°F). ultimate analysis: carbon. HIGH BOILING. 0.(gross) 10287 c a l q.0%. liquid. 132 ppm.000 ppm density.(gross) = 47132 J 73LEN/HIP 119 . sulfur. 34.9. 10. 6 . density. liquid. 59. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature. gross heat o combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature. density.(gross) = 11025 c a l q. 0. total naphthenes. 90. q. total naphthenes. API gravity.8%. 16.6%. total aromatics.6%. ultimate analysis: carbon.(gtoss) 20191 Btu lb.8%. total paraf ins. t o t a l olefins.1 q.3%. hydrogen. sulfur.(gross) 46129 f 73LE /HIP NAPHTHA. liquid. 357 ppm.9%.9%.7559 g cm.(gross) = 18517 Btu lb. total paraffins. 7.1%.2. total paraffins. sulfur. API gravity.1 q. total aromatics. 376 ppm. total naphthenes. hydrogen. ultimate analysis: carbon.(gross) = 11265 cal q. q.5.8%. 83. 14.6%. AROMATIC. 86. 30.Fossil Materials NAPHTHA. 0. 0. total aromatics. 18. t o t a l aromatics.(gross) = 43040 J 73LEN/HIP NAPHTHA.7981 g cm-3 at 24°C (75°F).05%. total paraf ins.

gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature.04 q. API gravity 33.6 .'(gross) = q.8399.3780d 2 Btu Ib. oils from paraffin base crudes are systematically high by about 2%.4%.0. upper pour point = -12"C.9%. X = (%H20 + %ash + %S) specific heat: The equation provided is based on over 100 measurements made at t h e National Bureau of Standards over t h e temperature range 273-477 K (32"-400"F). %. specific gravity 60/60°F = 0. 86. hydrogen. q.1 q.0.8 q.018 q. Alaskan (North Slope).(gross) .5 (%S) Btu lb.(gross) .8429.7577 + 3.0.8914. %. Zakum (export). sulfur compounds. FUEL.(gross)X + 94. 22. 0.3880 + 4.8553 g cm-' at 24°C (75°F). wax content = 6. wax content = 7.8709. wax content = 7. upper pour point -15"C. specific gravity 60/60"F = 0. %. !i gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature.equation assumes crude oil to be water. upper pour point -l"C. wax content < 1 wt. Barrow Island.(gross) = 17570 Btu 1 q. t o t a l aromatics. The experimental results differ from t h e values calculated from this equation by less than 2%. specific gravity 60/60"F = 0. CRUDE.(gross) = 9763 cal gq.1 P q.) F' Cp(cal -I K -1 ) Cp(J g. %. Iranian l i g h t (export). density. q. ultimate analysis: carbon. ash. liquid.5 x = (0. 1. specific gravity 60/60°F = 0. 29CRA OIL.4d2 J g-l where d is the specific gravity at 60/60"F. T)/dz where d is the specific gravity at 60/60"F.(gtoss)X + 22. sulfur. wax content = 5.0 wt. specific gravity 60/60"F = 0.1 (96s) J gq.8786.39 x T)/dj T)/dz. with a maximum deviation of 4%. 29. 172 ppm. combustion products are gaseous C 0 2 and liquid HZO.1811 + 8.(gross) = 40847 J g-l P-' 73LEN/HIP 120 . specific ravity 60/60"F = 0.5 (%S) c a l q. and liquid H20 as combustion products.01 q.1%.(gross) .'(gross) 4-1 where qv'(gross) is h e a t of combustion at constant volume of crude oil yielding ash. and sulfur free.5 wt. wax content = 6.K-l) q = (0. Kuwait export). t o t a l naphthenes 45.0 wt. wax content = 20. oils from naphthene base crudes are systematically low by about 2%.(gross) = 22320 .1 x = (0.6%. specific gravity 60/60"F = 0. %.2100d 2 c a l g-l q. oils from mixed base crudes are in good agreement.8568. 13. upper pour point = 24"C. SO*.(gross) = 12400 . liquid. upper pour point -21"C.8%. gaseous C02.8256.(gross)X + 40. %. upper pour point < -5O"C. Cp(Btu lb-I O . Libyan (Tobruk export).5 wt.7 wt. ADMEG.8732.0 wt. Iranian Heavy (export). total paraffins. upper pour point = -32"C.0.3%.(gross) = 51881. %. q '(gross) = 1.Fossil Materials OIL.

5%.79 . 38.(gtoss) = 19759 Btu lb.Fossil Materials OIL.8415 g c . heat of vaporization: Lv = 108. liquid. temperature range 4O"-16OoC (104'320°F). L = 336. sulfur.67 . = 60. API graviiy. 0.5%. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature.(gross) = 45957 J 60GOO/LAC OIL. 13.25 cal L. 3 ppm.30 . 41. 261 ppm.47 cal .7 J . Apiezon C: average molecular weight 450 2 70.5925 T-:(K) = 13.1 q. vapor pressure: loglo P(Torr) loglo P(Pa) = 9. gross heat o combustion: 25°C ( 7 F f 7') q.(gross) = 19771 Btu lb-I qv(gross) = 10984 cal q.3. PARAFFIN. GAS. low vapor-pressure residues of paraffin oil distillation products. total paraffins. q. L = 80. = 11.5100 T-'\K) = 11. 2. m' 35.5925 T. hydrogen. density. PARAFFIN.at 24OC (75°F).(gross) = 10977 cal q.5100 T. repeating unit: CH . temperature range 40" 160°C (104O- L = 144.1 L.1 .liquid. liquid.(K) Apiezon E: average molecular weight 290 2 30.89 1.(K) 57HER/REI 121 . 17.4%. = 252.1 J vapor pressure: loglo P(Torr) loglo P(Pa) 32OOF).2%. 86. total aromatics. total naphtheQes.85 Btu lb.(gross) = 45927 J 73LENJHIP OIL. nitrogen.42 .4%. sulfur compounds.8%. ultimate analysis: carbon.45 Btu lb.

gross heat of combustion: temperature was 5°C (77°F) and estimated standard deviation for three runs is less than 5 c a l gSample I qv(gross) = 2176.I qv(gross) = 1212.Fossil Materials OIL. 79CRAlORN 122 . and combustion analysis indicated: H*O(liq).0 cal q.0 Btu Ib.4 J t.(gross) 2182. samples were combined with benzoic acid in a 1:l ratio. Material c a m e from the Anvil Points mine in Colorado and was ground mixed and split after experiment was completed to provide representative samples for analysis.1 q. gross heat of combustion: temperature was 5°C (77°F) and estimated standard deviation for three runs is less than 5 cal gSample I q. Chemical analysis of sulfur shows 67% is present as sulfides. and t r a c e amounts as sulfates. and S02(g).7 c a l g-l q.1 q. RAW SHALE.7 Btu Ib. Material c a m e from t h e Anvil Points mine in Colorado and was riffled and split before retorting and combined with benzoic acid in a 1:l ratio to achieve complete combustion in the bomb calorimeter.(gross) = -274. I Sample I1 q.(gross) = -118. and SOZ(g). C02(g).2 Btu Ib. To achieve complete combustion. 33% as organic sulfur.8 J 79CRA/ORN OIL.5 J .3 Btu Ib. Chemical analysis shows that the sulfur present is primarily sulfides with traces of sulfates.. Combustion analysis indicated: H20(liq). solid.(gross) = -65.9 J g-l Sample I1 qv(gross) = -27.solid.(gross) = 5058.(gross) -15.4 c a l qv(gross) = -64. N2(g). SPENT SHALE.2 c a l qv(gross) = 507 1.1 qv(gross) = 1209. NZ(g). CO*(g).

highly organic soil containing partially decomposed vegetable matter and having more than 50% combustible content.(gross) = 8743 Btu l b i 1 q. 6.34%. sulfur. moisture. 1 q. brown.22%. ash. air-dried.68%.83%.44%.1 sample 4. gross heat o combustion: assume values refer to room temperature.10%. 8. 12. air-dried. black. 6.Fossil Materials PEAT. 0. fixed carbon. brown fibrous. 7.62%. sulfur. solid. 0.(gross) = 4576 cal gq. q. data are f calculated to a dry basis.(gross) = 9920 Btu lbll q.(gross) = 4857 cal gq. sulfur. 23. sulfur.(gross) = 8237 Btu lb. ash. 0. ash. moisture. ash. air-dried.93%.(gross) = 19146 J g. 50. 16. 0.79%.(gross) = 551 1 cal gq.69%.65%. qv(gross) = 7695 Btu lbl 1 q.(gross) = 4275 cal gqv(gross) = 17887 J g. 24. air-dried. q.61%.92%. 7. q. sample 1. raw.(gross) = 23058 3 g-' sample 3. moisture. moisture.1 18POO sample 2. volatile matter.99%.(gross) = 20322 J g-' 11DAV 123 .

Inorganic Materials .

heat o dehydration: approximate dehydration temperature is 675°C ( I 24OF). which swells 12-fold when wetted with water. AH(dehydration) = 52 Btu lb-I AH(dehydration) = 29 cal g-' bH(dehydration) = 121 J g-' 54ALL BENTONITE. AH(dehydration) = 79 Btu lb-' AH(dehydration) = 44 c a l g-' AH(dehydration) = 184 J g-l 54ALL . heat of dehydration: AH(dehydration) is derived from endotherrns in t h e differential thermal analysis (DTA) curve. solid. PEMBINA. WYOMING. a colloidal clay (aluminum silicate) containing a montmor illonite. solid.Inorganic Materials BENTONITE. neglecting endotherms around 110°C (230'F) at which adsorbed water is evolved. a colloidal clay (aluminum silicate) containing sodium montmorillonite. neglecting endotherms around 110°C (230°F) at which adsorbed water is evolved. f AH(dehydration) is derived from endotherms in t h e differential thermal analysis (DTA) curve. Two endothermic peaks appear in t h e curve giving peak temperatures of 408°C (766OF)and 663°C (1225OF).

4 129.9 2 2.96 120-200 248-392 210-290 4 10-554 260-350 500-662 149-293 moles HqO lost 4 AH .6 2 0. I 70-170 158-338 250-320 482-608 120-160 248-320 230-325 446-6 17 45-100 113-212 125.5 3.2 76.53ACcH8.9 2 l. 6 1.1 4ACs0.5 2 5 2. Material is obtained by leaching weathered deposits of granitic rock to remove quartz and mica.1 2 2.0 C1.5 82.9 61.9 93.t C a S 0 4 .190 248-374 230-300 446-572 240-340 464-644 16 .190 257-374 250-300 482-572 120.nH20. Cs=CaS04.6 19.9 2 A H (kJ gmol-l) 204.97AH1 1.9 4.2 '2. 4.8 321.97AH5.75 f 0.solid.1 384850 f 5590 4949k 3 4 61877 2 1247 26273 f 1C 5 35432k3440 55771 t 9 3 4300 t 1247 136740 f 103 3 23220 2 4859 26273 f 41 S 10793 2 12 7 20167 k 3 3 7 40119 f 18 6 78604 f 4 8 9 '3.9 ? 7. 19AH9.5 1ACs2.3 2 k 11.0 A H (Btu lb mol87935 ? 3 'r 18361 f 3 S 138331 k 3 2 5 35 . A=A1203? H=H20.7 11. 48.9 1.# 213.0 2 0 5 .0 2 0.0 f 24.3 '1 .2 22. neglecting endotherms around 110°C (230°F) at which adsorbed water is evolved.7 ? ? 8 2.7 f 0.8 1.8 42.yA1203 .9 2 2.9 46.Inorganic Materials I : CEMENT HYDRATES.2 10.07AH6. CHINA.9 5.3 70HEN/STR CLAY.4 2 0.1 f 2.97AH 12.4 f 0.03AH3.2 2 0.3 6.9 ? 0.7 76.3 3 2.51 f 0.2H2O) plus impurities. and Cc=CaC03).1 1.54H30.98 43.8 5 11.6 2 2. Sample is composed mainly of kaolinite (Al2O3.2SiO2.7 2 2. AH(dehydration) = 207 Btu lb-I AH(dehydration) = 115 c a l AH(dehydration) = 481 J 54ALL 128 .7 14.1 95-125 203-257 140-200 284-392 240-3 I0 464-590 C3.8 12.3 61. (C=CaO. solid.0 f 5.7 2 2 31.1 2 9.8 143.1 54.0 2 13.O C2. AH(dehydration) is derived from endotherms in t h e differential thermal analysis (DTA) curve. heat of dehydration: approximate dehydration temperature is 547°C ( I 01 7°F).6 25.7 14.8 3 1.2 34.5 23 c3. 2.9 318.4 65-145 3. heat of dehydration: gaseous water formed.5 2 10.5 f 0. general formula: xCa0.mCaC03 .0 2 2.3 2 4.0 2 11.94H 12.5 895.7 182.7 f 7. ternkcl utute range "C "F C3.

PLASTIC KAOLIN. heat of dehydration: approximate dehydration temperature is 544°C (1 0 1 1OF). Material is a clay mineral composed mainly kaolinite (40% alumina.1 AH(dehydration) = 381 J g-' 54ALL CLAY. AH(dehydration) is derived from endotherms in the differential thermal analysis (DTA) curve. solid.xH20. solid. neglecting endotherms around 110°C (230°F) at which adsorbed water is evolved. MOROCCAN NO. heat of dehydration: approximate dehydration temperature is 664°C (1227°F). of heat of dehydration: approximate dehydration temperature is 547°C (1017OF). 4. solid. neglecting endotherms around 110°C (230°F) at which adsorbed water is evolved. AH(dehydration1 is derived from endotherms in t h e differential thermal analysis (DTA) curve. 55% silica plus impurities and water).Inorganic Materials CLAY. HALLOYSITE (DJEBEL DEBAR). AH(dehydration) = 164 Btu lb-I AH(dehydration) = 91 cal g. neglecting endotherms around 110°C (230°F) at which adsorbed water is evolved. AH(dehydration) = 41 Btu lb-I AH(dehydration) = 23 c a l AH(dehydration1 = 96 J 54ALL 129 . K.1 AH(dehydration1 = 104 cal AH(dehydration1 435 J 54ALL CLAY. Material is a clay mineral with a kaolinite composition. AH(dehydration) is derived from endotherms in the differential thermal analysis (DTA) curve. AH(dehydration1 187 Btu lb. where x indicates a variable amount of water. Material is a kaolin type mineral composed of a hydrated aluminum silicate with generalized formula AL2O3SiO2 .

083 x lo3 T-l (K) -396. 12.674 x (t + 459.837 x T2 + 3.59 x lo-' T2 373-850 K (212"-1071"F) Cp(Btu Ib-I c (cal -I K' -) Cp(J g K -1 ) p -? = 0. 3.2 (J g.8. AIZ03.Inorganic Materials I / CLAY. B203.1728 x T2 -0. heat of dehydration: approximate dehydration temperature is 542°C (1008°F).1.9728 + 3.67) + 2 4 x .63 x loh3 T . solid (Corning 7740). Na20.3. PYR€X.78 x = 0.083 x 103 T. Material is a white high-plasticity burning clay composed of hydrated aluminum silicate of generalized formula AI2O3SiO2 -xH20.3.80 x T2 -1.829 x T .100 x lod2 T .2.382 x 104 T -2 x lo4 (t + 459.67)-' 68HAG/COO.2325 T + 4-39 x T2 + 8. 2.) = -170.88 + 0.878 x = 0.2325 + 4. neglecting endotherms around 110°C (230°F) at which adsorbed water is evolved.784 + 0.~ ) Cp(J g. AH(dehydration) = 128 Btu 1 AH(dehydration) = 71 cal gAH(dehydration1 297 J g-l 54ALL GLASS.66%. heat content: 373-850 K (212"-1071"F) Q-932 (Btu 1b-l) qT-9273.67) . AH(dehydration) is derived from endotherms in the differential thermal analysis (DTA) curve.382 x lo4 T-l (K) specific heat: 173-293 K (-148" to 68°F) Cp(Btu lb-I cP(cal K . 80.SO2. solid.93%.67)-l (t/"F) = -94. 0.80%. where x indicates a variable amount of water.2 (cal 9-l) qT-9273.67)' -2.9728 T + 1.1.025 + 1. 63GAT/KRE 130 .619 x lo4 (t + 459. K20.2 T .619 T .45%.2325 (t + 459.1788 + 3.14%.245 + 2.4 (t + 459. .K-l) y1 = -0.98 + 0. NEWTON ABBOT BALL.2325 + 8.

65%.67)2 .1347 T + 9.14 + 1.17 + 0.46 + 1. solid (Lillie 1).76 + 0.0138 x 104 T-I (K) 68HAG/COO GLASS.2 (Gal qT-qZ73. CaO. SODA-LIME.1.7.4937 T (K) 68HAGlC00 131 .0733 x = 0.36 x (t + 459.76%. 16. Na20. 73.) F' Cp(cal 5-l) Cp(J g.37 + 0. 9. 73.4523 heat content: 850-1200 K (1071°-1701"F) q~-q32 (Btu 1b-l) qT-9273.3570 = 1. SODA-LIME.2 (J g- ql) -114.3570 = 0.2 (Cd qT-9273.76%.3471 T (K) = -637.5636 T + 4.67)-l (t/"F) = -36. Si02.466 + 0. 9. Cp(Btu lb-I O .0138 x 104 T-2 heat content: 273-850 K (32"-107I0F) qT-932 (Btu 1b-l) qT-qz73.1347 + 1. 16.1347 + 1.2 (J g.4937 heat content: 850-1200 K (1071"-1701"F) qT-432 (Btu lb'l) qT'q273.K = 1.K ) g-' 0.) 8') = -65.liquid (Lillie 1).67)-2 T + 2.55 + 0. specific heat: over the temperature range 850 to 1200 K (1071"-1701"F).67) + 5. CaO.5636 + 8.86 x lo3 ( t + 459.1347 (t + 459.66 x T2 .) ql) = -121.423 x 103 T-2 lod4 T + 1.423 x lo3 T-l (K) = -152.083 x x (t + 459.2.3570 T (K) -664.2 (J g.4523 T (K) 68HAG/C00 GLASS.59%.28 + 0.81 + 0.67) + 7.3471 T ( O F ) = -152.K' -) f-l = 0. Si02.932 = 0.OF-') Cp(cal K-l) Cp(J g.86 x lo3 (t + 459. Na20.65%.042 x T2 .t h e specific heat appears to be independent of temperature.Inorganic Materials Cp(J g. specific heat: 273-850 K (32"-1071"F) Cp(Btu lb.59%.3570 T ( O F ) 7 -158.2 (Gal qT-q273.

3804 x 10-8 T2 T . MgO.nearly all water eliminated by heating in N2 at 500°C 72vuc/vuc 132 . 3. solid. 1. 65.6497 x T .21%. specific heat: 273-579 K (32"-583"F). A1203. 57.76%.3%. traces.3.7. K20.16053 + 7. solid.61%. A120gt 0. 0.SILVER A.5.3%. solid.1542 = 0.9%.4333 x lod4 T Cp(J g.12393 + 1. 96.8292 x x x lo" T . other m e t a l oxides. Si02. 0.1.45388 + 1. MgO.Inorganic Materials I GLASS.K-l) 0.23608 + 6.1%. a mixture of clays. synthetic ion-exchange re$n.51852 + 5.2319 x 10-a T2 28 JAE/ROS ZEOLITE. hydrated alu+minum silicates containing alkali or alkaline earth metals.2. . 2.2532 x = 0. CaO.9969 x T 68CAMlVAN PORCELAIN.K-') = 0.10863 T . A1203.4%. VYCOR.08%. 90% Ag relative to Na (932°F).2509 = 0.20698 + 1.3. usually containing at least 25% aluminum.7546 x 10-9 T2 lod4 T . mean values C (Btu lb-I OF-') Cp(cal P K-') = 0. 0.10848 + 2.9 = 0. specific heat: at 310 K (98OF).7124 x lo-' T2 x = 0.5%. sample 2: Si02.685 x 10-9 T2 T . specific heat: 273-1873 K (320-291Z°F) sample 1 Cp(Btu lb-I OF-') Cp(cal Q-1 K-1) Cp(J g.86600 + 4. 28. Fe2O3.) F' Cp(ca1q-l Cp(J g. Fe203. 41.4%.1711 + 1. 1.K-l) sample 2 Cp(Btu Ib-I O .962 x T = 0. and feldspar.14%.2269 x T2 ~ . B203. Sample 1: 502. quartz.1%.

hydrated aluminum silicates containing alkali or alkaline e a r t h metals. synthetic ion-exchange resin. specific heat: at 310 K (98°F). Cp(Btu Ib'l OF-') Cp(cal -1 K-l) 9 = 0.227 = 0.227 = 0. solid. SODIUM A. nearly all water eliminated by heating in N2 at 500°C (932°F).Inorganic Materials ZEOLITE.950 Cp(J g.K-l) 72vuc/vuc 133 .

Paper .

(gross) = 17980 J g-' 66KAI q. 6.21%.84%. 11. 75. solid. volatile matter. volatile matter. 5.16%.93%. oxygen. 44. 1. 5. 0. nitrogen.1 1%. ash.50%. 5.(gross) = 7263 Btu Ibi' qv(gross) = 4035 cal gq.15%.(gross) = 16882 J g-' 137 . 0. 83.10%. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature. 12.00%. hydrogen.07%. 6.(gtosd = 7735 B t u Ibi 1 qv(gross) = 4297 cal gq. 0.92%.01%. hydrogen.73%. 5. 0. oxygen. fixed carbon. solid.09%. as received dry basis q.47%.74%.80%. proximate analysis as received in percent by weight: moisture.92%.59%. ash. oxygen.27%. 77. 1.90%. 0. proximate analysis as received in percent by weight: moisture. as received q. 6.(gross) = 3915 cal g. ash.(gross) = 16382 J g-' dry basis qv(gross) = 7434 B t u qv(gross) = 4130 cal gqv(gross) = 17280 J g-l $' 46KAI FOOD CARTONS.34%. hydrogen. ultimate analysis in percent by weight: carbon.70%. ash.08%. 0. as received qv(gross) = 7047 Btu lb-I q. 6.1 q.(gross) = 4034 cal gqv(gross) = 16877 J g-' dry basis qv(gross) = 7711 B t u Ib-I qv(gross) = 4284 cal g-l q. 44. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature. ultimate analysis in percent by weight: carbon. 5. sulfur. sulfur. fixed carbon. 6. volatile matter. 9.24%. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature. solid.83%.(gross) = 7261 Btu Ib. proximate analysis as received in percent by weight: moisture. 41. nitrogen.93%.1 1%.' q.(gross) 17924 J g-l 66KAI CORRUGATJiD BOX.20%. nitrogen.Paper BROWN PAPER. 43. sulfur. ash. 44. fixed carbon.06%. ultimate analysis in percent by weight: carbon. 47. ash.

sulfur. 0. I 1. volatile matter.55%. as received q.(gross) = 3046 cal 5.9 1%. q. ash. 43. volatile matter.(gross) = 12746 J g 66KAI NEWSPRINT. I q. 0. 23. solid.(gross) = 4433 cal gq.1 q. 66.(gross) = 14161 1 g-l MAGAZINE.95%.14%.(gross) = 3546 cal gq. 4.(gross) = 5483 Btu Ib.03%. 81. 32. 1 qv(gross) = 4714 cal gq. nitrogen.72%. ultimate analysis in percent by weight: carbon.48%.(gross) = 6383 Btu l b l l q.09%.41%. 0. 4.09%.07%. as received dry basis qv(gross) = 5258 Btu lb. 1. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature. fixed carbon. 4. sulfur. ash.56%.(gross) = 18548 J g-l dry basis q. I . 13. fixed carbon.' q. ash.10%.(gross) = 3385 cal gq.47%.Paper JUNK MAIL. 73. 13. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature.97%. nitrogen.87%. fixed carbon. ash.03%. proximate analysis as received in percent by weight: moisture.(gross) = 8485 Btu lb. ultimate analysis in percent by weight: carbon. hydrogen.17%.39%. proximate analysis as received in percent by weight: moisture. 37. proximate analysis as received in percent by weight: moisture.09%.(gross) 2921 cal g-l qv(gross) 12221 J g-l q.(gross) = 7979 Btu Ib.16%. oxygen.(gross) = 19724 J g-l 66KAI 138 . 6. volatile matter.1 1%. 49. 38. solid. sulfur.43%. 9. 0. ash. 42. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature.03%.05%.52%. hydrogen. 7. nitrogen. solid. ash. ultimate analysis in percent by weight: carbon.43%. oxygen.32%. as received dry basis q. hydrogen. 0. I q.(gross) = 14835 S 66KAI qv(gross) 6093 Btu Ib. 5. 5.12%. 22. oxygen.74%. 0.

(gross) = 26347 J g-l P-' q. 6.17%. 4.(gross) = 27289 J g-l P-' 66KAI 139 .17%.25%. 8.(gross) = 11740 Btu 1 q. hydrogen.18%.71%.77%. ultimate analysis in percent by weight: carbon. 0.(gross) = 17075 J g-l q. sulfur.18%.Paper 45. 0. solid. oxygen.(gross) = 4081 cal g-l q. 1. 45. 9. proximate analysis as received in percent by weight: moisture. oxygen.(gtoss) = 6297 cal gq.(gross) = 7708 Btu lb. nitrogen. 59.(gross) = 6522 cal gq.(gross) = 11330 Btu 1 q.13%.46%.64%. q.20%. 2.92%. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature. ash. fixed carbon. ash.08%. ash. proximate analysis as received in percent by weight: moisture. 84. volatile matter.45%.10%. qv(gross) = 7346 Btu lb-' q. 0.30%.12%. 90.22%. volatile matter. sulfur.1 qv(gross) = 4282 cal g-l qv(gross) = 17917 J g-' 66KAI WAXED MILK CARTONS. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature. 30.45%. 4. 2. 1. ash. hydrogen.50%. nitrogen. fixed carbon. 3. 0.

Plant Materials (Non-Woody) .

1 q.(gtoss) = 8350 Btu Ibl 1 qv(gross) = 4639 cal gq.I q. sulfur.1 82VAN/BAR 143 .7%.(gtoss) = 8456 Btu IbT 1 qv(gtoss) = 4698 cal gqv(gross) = 19656 J g. Stachys sylvatica.17%. lipids. Surface soil pH = 7.1 qJgross) = 3430 c a l g-' qv(gross) = 14351 J g-' AZaria nana (brown) qv(gross) = 5850 Btu Ib.(gross) = 13598 J g-l 71PAI ARCHANGEL (WOOD BETONY OR BLIND NETTLE).7. assume values refer to room temperature. current year's growth q.1 woody tissue q. soil class is sand-silt loam.(gross) 3250 cal g-l q.1%. solid.(gross) 7393 6 t u lb. Samples of current year's annual growth and woody tissue of large rangeland shrubs were collected from 1 1 sites in several intermountain states. chlorophyll-bearing organisms occurring in both salt and fresh water. 3. Mean content of woody tissue: ash. proteins.03%. solid. 6.Plant Materials (Non-Woody) ALGAE.(gross) = 19410 J g. 25%.7. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature and are corrected for moisture and ash content. The species has a n aestival (summer) type vegetation period.2 .1 q. Artemisia tridentata. gross heat of combustion: assume values r e f e r t o room temperature and values are calculated t o a dry basis. contain minerals. a source of iodine. 0. moisture. solid. The plants have t h e following constitution: 33% of the weight is represented by t h e stem axis and 67% by leaves.(gross) = 3750 cal g-l qv(gross) = 13690 J g-' Fucus distichus (brown) qv(gross) = 6174 B t u lb. sulfur. Material is an integral part of t h e ecosystem at t h e herbaceous layer level of t h e mixed fir and beech forest in t h e Pulmonario (rubro) Abieti-Fagetum area of t h e Bucegi mountains (two different stations) in Romania. ulva rigida (green alga) qv(gross) = 6750 Btu lb. q. Mean content of current year's growth: ash. 0.(gross) 4107 cal g-' q.(gross) = 17184 J g-l 73PAU/BRE BIG SAGEBRUSH. gross heat of combustion: oven-dry weight. value is mean of a n average of values from 3 to 5 plants from each site. amino acids. moisture. 56%.

Char was obtained from heating t h e sample to 500°C (932°F)in nitrogen. solid.1 qv(gtoss) = 4790 cal g-l qv(gross) = 20030 J g.Artemisia tridentata. assume values refer to room temperature.(gross) = 19960 J g-' char (from 500°C heating) q.(gross) = 30650 J g. dry basis.(gross) = 8010 cal g-l q.(gross) = 33350 J g-' P-' 82SUS BIG SAGEBRUSH. freeze-dried t o < 10% moisture content.25 inch diameter with foliage removed and freeze dried to < 10% moisture content.Plant Materials (Non-Woody) BIG SAGEBRUSH. assume values refer to room temperature.7%. gross heat of combustion: ash-free. STEMS.I 82SUS q. fuel q. Artemisia tridentata.7%.1 82SUS BRACKEN FERN.(gross) = 5240 cal g-' q.(gross) = 33520 J g. fuel char (from 500°C heating) q.(gtoss) = 7330 cal gq. Stem samples were branches less than 0. Char was obtained from heating the sample to 500°C (932°F) in nitrogen. solid.24% and char yield = 38. Cured samples were air-dried at room temperature. FRONDS.(gross) = 13190 Btu 1P-l q. dry basis. fuel q.(gross) = 9440 Btu Ib-I q. Composition is ash = 2. solid.Pteridium aquilinurn.(gross) = 8590 Btu lb-I qv(gross) = 4770 cal g-' q. dry basis.1 q. Composition is ash 9.(gross) 8620 Btu lb.1 144 .(gross) = 21940 J g. gross heat of combustion: ash-free.1 char (from 500°C heating) q.(gross) 14420 Btu lb.10% and chat yield = 25.1%.(gross) = 7970 cal gq. FOLIAGE. Composition is ash = 7. Char was obtained from heating the sample to 500°C (932°F)in nitrogen. assume values refer to room temperature.(gross) = 14350 Btu 1 q.83% and char yield = 27. gross heat of combustion: ash-free.

Stellaria nemorum. solid. gross heat of combustion: assume values r e f e r t o room temperature and values are calculated t o a dry basis. nitrogen = 0. determination performed at 30 a t m 02.25. The plants have t h e following constitution: 33% of t h e weight is represented by t h e s t e m axis and 67% by leaves. qv(gross) = 7662 Btu Ib-' qv(gross) = 4257 cal g-' q.99. sulfur = 0.Plant Materials (Non-W d y ) BROAD-LEAVED STITCHWORT (WOODSTARWORT). and fixed carbon = 20. Cardamine buzbifera.47.' qv(net) = 3898 cal gi qv(. Material is an integral part of t h e ecosystem at t h e herbaceous layer level of t h e mixed fir and beech forest in t h e Pulmonario (rubro) Abieti-Fagetum a r e a of t h e Bucegi mountains (two different stations) in Romania. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature and values are calculated t o a dry basis. and residue (ash) = 8. Material is considered biomass fuel and has roximate analysis values (in percent by weight dry basis) for volatile concentration VCM) = 71. P gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature. ash content = 7. The species has an aestival (summer) type vegetation period.(gross) = 4099 cal g-l qv(gross) 17150 J g-' 73PAU/BRE CATTAILS.90.(gross) = 17810 J g-' net heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature.(gross) 3588 cal gqv(gross) = 15012 J g-' 73PAU/BRE BULBIFEROUS TOOTHWORT (ThTH-CRESS). hydrogen = 5. The plants have t h e following constitution: 33% of t h e weight is represented by t h e s t e m axis and 67% by leaves. solid. 6458 Btu lb.13. solid.04. corrections applied for t h e formation of nitric and and sulfuric acids. oxygen = 42. qv(gross) = 7378 Btu lb-l q. Material is an integral part of t h e ecosystem at t h e herbaceous layer level of t h e mixed fir and beech forest in t h e Pulmonario (rubro) Abieti-Fagetum area of t h e Bucegi mountains (two different stations) in Romania. qv(net) 7017 Btu lb.(gross) q.53. The species has a vernal (spring) type vegetation period.let) = 16310 J g85 JEN/EBE 145 . Also t h e ultimate analysis of t h e elemental composition of t h e fuel (values in percent by weight dry basis) is carbon = 42.38.' q.57. chlorine = 0.74.

solid. Char was obtained from heating t h e sample t o 500°C (932°F) in nitrogen.(gross) = 7830 c a l gq. t h e number of measurements is 3.1 qv(gross) 4121 c a l g-' q. gross heat of combustion: ash-free.1 84.Plant Materials (Non-Woody) CHEATGRASS. solid. solid.(gross) = 14100 B t u 1P-l q. was determined at 5OOOC (932OF)while t h e temperature was increased stepwise. of mean . assume values refer to room temperature.1 Btu lb-I ca1q-l J g(more) ash-free dry weight basis std dev. one of t h e dominant species of a 65-yeat-old climazonal oak forest (Quercetum petraeae-cerris) on brown forest soil. Bromus tectorum. The plants have t h e following constitution: 33% of t h e weight is represented by t h e s t e m axis and 67% by leaves. fuel qv(gross) = 8330 Btu lb.7%.(gross) = 32770 J g-l 82SUS CLOVEROOT (HERB BENNET).(gross) 7636 4242 17749 8725 4847 20280 36. Dactylis pozygama. at 300 m above sea level located in t h e southern part of t h e Bukk Mountains of north Hungary.1 q.2 20. Material is aerial plant air-dried at room temperature. Geum urbanum. The species has a n aestival (summer) type vegetation period.4%. dry basis.(gtoss) = qv(gross) = q. qv(gross) 7418 Btu Ib. gross heat of combustion: assume values r e f e r t o room temperature and values a r e calculated t o a dry basis. gross heat of combustion: at 20 a t m oxygen pressure. Material is a n integral part of t h e ecosystem at t h e herbaceous layer level of t h e mixed fir and beech forest in t h e Pulmonario (rubro) Abieti-Fagetum area of t h e Bucegi mountains (two different stations) in Romania.(gross) = 19360 J g-' char (from 500°C heating) q. assume values refer to room temperature.46% and char yield = 21.(gross) = 4630 c a l g-l q. dry weight basis aboveground living material q. Material is a herb.(gross) = 17242 J g-' 73PAU/BRE COCKS-FOOT GRASS. then ground and pelleted. Composition is ash = 6. The ash content = 12. Samples were dried at 85°C (185OF). CURED.

1 47.(gross) = 3664 c a l g i q.(gross) = roots 7306 4059 16983 ash-free dry weight basis std dev.(gross) = 15330 J g73PAU/BRE COWSLIP LUNGWORT.5 169 Btu Ib-l cal J g- q1 q1 75PAP q. qv(gross) = 7200 Btu lb.(gross) = 768 1 4267 17853 8620 4789 20037 85. The species has a n aestival (summer) type vegetation period. The plants have t h e following constitution: 33% of t h e weight is represented by t h e stem axis and 67% by leaves.3 198 B t u Ib-I cal 3 g- COLTSFOOT. solid. The plants have t h e following constitution: 33% of t h e weight is represented by the stem axis and 67% by leaves.Plant Materials (Non-Woody) COCKS-FOOT GRASS .(gross) = q.(gross) = q.1 qv(gross) = 4000 cal g-l q. qv(gross) = 6595 Btu l b l l q.(gross) = 16736 J g-l 73PAU/BRE 147 . gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature and values are calculated t o a dry basis. of mean 8680 4822 20 175 72.9 40.Continued dry weight basis aboveground dead material q. PuZrnonaria rubra. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature and values are calculated to a dry basis.(gross) = qv(gross) = q. The species has an aestival (summer) type vegetation period. Material is an integral part of t h e ecosystem at the herbaceous layer level of the mixed fir and beech forest in the Pulmonario (rubro) Abieti-Fagetum area of the Bucegi mountains (two different stations) in Romania. Material is a n integral part of t h e ecosystem at t h e herbaceous layer level of the mixed fir and beech forest in t h e Pulmonario (rubro) Abieti-Fagetum area of the Bucegi mountains (two different stations) in Romania.solid. TussiZago farfara.

8.(gross) q.5%.AtripZex canescens. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature and values are calculated t o a dry basis.35%.08%. value is mean of a n average of values from 3 to 5 plants from e a c h site.(gross) 17874 J g-l 73PAU/BRE FOURWING SALTBUSH. sulfur.1 qv(gross) 3984 cal g-' qv(gross) = 16669 J g-l 73PAU/BRE ENCHANTER'S NIGHTSHADE. q.2. 9.Plant Materials (Non-Woody) ! i .' qv(gross) = 4505 cal gq. Viola reichenbachiana. Mean content of woody tissue: ash.I 82VAN/BAR 148 .solid.3%. gross heat of combustion: oven-dry weight.9%. moisture.0 . solid. Material is an integral part of t h e ecosystem at the herbaceous layer level of t h e mixed fir and beech forest in t h e Pulmonario (tubro) Abieti-Fagetum area of t h e Bucegi mountains (two diffe. 0.' 4272 cal gq. Circaea Zutetiana. Samples of current year's annual growth and woody tissue of large rangeland shrubs were collected from 7 sites in several intermountain states.(gross) = 18050 J g-l woody tissue qv(gross) = 8109 Btu Ib. DOG VIOLET. Material is an integral part of the ecosystem at the herbaceous layer level of t h e mixed fir and beech forest in t h e Pulmonario (rubro) Abieti-Fagetum area of t h e Bucegi mountains (two different stations) in Romania.(gross) = 7690 Btu lb. The species has an aestival (summer) type vegetation period. current year's growth qv(gross) = 7765 Btu l b i 1 q. Mean content of current year's growth: ash. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature and values are calculated t o a dry basis.rent stations) in Romania.(gross) = 7171 Btu Ib. The plants have t h e following constitution: 33% of t h e weight is represented by the s t e m axis and 67% by leaves. Surface soil pH = 7. 57. solid. moisture. soil class is sand-silt loam. 3.5%. The species has an aestival (summer) type vegetation period.(gross) = 18849 J g. q.(gross) = 4315 c a l gq. 0. sulfur. The plants have t h e following constitution: 33% of t h e weight is represented by t h e s t e m axis and 67% by leaves. assume values refer to room temperature. 29.

(gross) = 17606 J g-' 73PAU/BRE 149 .27% and char yield = 25. Veronica chamaedrys. fuel qv(gross) = 9960 Btu lb.1 82SUS t GERMANDER SPEEDWELL (ANGEL'S-EYE). The species has an aestival (summer) type vegetation period. qv(gross) = 7574 Btu lb.' qv(gross) = 4208 c a l gq.Plant Materials (Non-Woody) GALLBERRY. The species has a vernal (spring) type vegetation period. solid. solid. Material is a n integral part of t h e ecosystem at t h e herbaceous layer level of t h e mixed fir and beech forest in t h e Pulmonario (rubro) Abieti-Fagetum a r e a of t h e Bucegi mountains (two different stations) in Romania. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature and values are calculated t o a dry basis. dry basis. q.(gross) = 23140 J g-' char (from 500°C heating) qv(gross) = 14460 B t u I qv(gross) = 8030 cal gq. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature and values are calculated to a dry basis. solid. gross heat of combustion: ash-free. The plants have t h e following constitution: 33% of the weight is represented by t h e stem axis and 67% by leaves. FOLIAGE. assume values refer t o room temperature. The plants have t h e following constitution: 33% of t h e weight is represented by t h e s t e m axis and 67% by leaves.(gross) = 18092 J g-' 73PAU/BRE GLABER CRESS.(gross) = 33610 J g.4%.Rex glabra. Cardamine ghnduligera. freeze dried t o < 10% moisture content.(gross) = 7783 Btu l b i 1 qv(gross) = 4324 cal gq.1 qv(gross) = 5530 cal g-l q. Composition is ash = 2. Char was obtained from heating the sample t o 500°C (932°F) in nitrogen. Material is an integral part of t h e ecosystem at t h e herbaceous layer level of t h e mixed fir and beech forest in t h e Pulmonario (rubro) Abieti-Fagetum area of t h e Bucegi mountains (two different stations) in Romania.

Samples of current year's annual growth and woody tissue of large rangeland shrubs were collected from 3 sites in several intermountain states. Sarcobatus vermiculatus. Geranium robertianum. 1. moisture. 48. 20.96%. qv(gross) = 71 12 Btu lb.0%. LAWN CLIPPINGS.(gross) = 4618 c a l g-l q.2%. proximate analysis on a n as received basis: moisture. soil class is sandy loam-clay loam. sulfur.50%. 0.1 1144 c a l 4787 J 66KAI GREASEWOOD. 0. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature. sulfur.42%. volatile matter.(gross) = 16531 J g-l 73PAU/BRE 150 . value is mean of a n average of values from 3 to 5 plants from each site. oxygen. 4. nitrogen.42%.Plant Materials (Non-W oody) GRASS. The plants have t h e following constitution: 33% of t h e weight is represented by t h e stem axis and 67% by leaves. hydrogen.9.46%.18%. 0. 34.9 . sulfur. 75.I 82VANlBAR HERB ROBERT (RED ROBIN). current year's growth 6599 Btu IbT 1 q.64%. moisture. ash. fixed carbon.24%. 1. solid.55%. dry basis q. 6. The species has an aestival (summer) type vegetation period.24%.7%.solid.(gross) 8312 Btu Ib-' q.5.46%. 5. assume values refer to room temperature. gross heat of combustion: oven-dry weight. Material is an integral part of the ecosystem at t h e herbaceous layer level of t h e mixed fir and beech forest in t h e Pulmonario (tubro) Abieti-Fagetum a r e a of t h e Bucegi mountains (two different stations) in Romania. 36.43%. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature and values are calculated to a dry basis. 0.I qv(gross) = 3951 c a l g-l q.(gross) qv(gross) = 3666 c a l gq. ultimate analysis: carbon.(gross) = 19322 J g-l as received qv(gross) qv(gross) qv(gross) 2059 Btu lb.46%. solid. ash. Surface soil pH = 7. Mean content of woody tissue: ash. 18.' qv(gross) = 4726 cal gqv(gross) = 19774 J g. 4.(gtoss) = 15339 1 g-' woody tissue qv(gross) = 8507 Btu Ib. Mean content of current year's growth: ash.

(gross) = 7970 cal gq.6%.H. Char was obtained from heating t h e sample to 500°C (932°F)in nitrogen. Mean lipid content was 1.1 73PAU/BRE 151 . N. Material is aerial plant air dried at room temperature. ALPINE TUNDRA.(gross) = 8282 k 52 Btu lb. qv(gross) = 7783 Btu lb. Composition is ash = 9. gross heat of combustion: ash-free. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature and values are calculated t o a dry basis. dry basis. Festuca idahoensis.1 q. q. solid.(gross) = 19251 f 121 J g-' 62BLI IDAHO FESCUE.1 qv(gross) = 4324 cal g-' qv(gross) = 18092 J g.43 ? 0.(gross) = 33340 J g-l P-' 82SUS IRISH SHAMROCK (EUROPEAN WOOD SORREL). The species has an aestival (summer) type vegetation period.1% of volatile-free dry weight. Samples ground and oven-dried at 80°C (176'F). Samples of 20 species of herbs were collected in t h e alpine tundra of Mt.Plant Materials ( No n. OxaZis acetoselza.1 q. Washington.(gtoss) = 8670 Btu lb. fuel q.(gross) = 4820 c a l g-' qv(gross) = 20160 J g-' char (from 5 O O O C heating) qv(gross) = 14340 Btu 1 q.W dy ) HERBS.45% and char yield = 24.(gross) = 4601 ? 29 c a l g-' q. solid. CURED. The plants have t h e following constitution: 33% of t h e weight is represented by t h e stem axis and 67% by leaves. solid. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature and are corrected for moisture and ash content. Material is a n integral part of t h e ecosystem at t h e herbaceous layer level of t h e mixed fir and beech forest in t h e Pulrnonario (rubro) Abieti-Fagetum a r e a of t h e Bucegi mountains (two different stations) in Romania. assume values refer t o room temperature.

Plant Materials (Non-Woody) JUPITER'S-DISTAFF. solid. MyceZis muratis. qv(gtoss) = 8042 Btu lb. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature and values are calculated to a dry basis. Athyrium filix-femina. Satvia glutinosa. The plants have the following constitution: 33% of t h e weight is represented by t h e s t e m axis and 67% by leaves. The plants have t h e following constitution: 33% of t h e weight is represented by t h e s t e m axis and 67% by leaves. The species has a n aestival (summer) type vegetation period. Material is an integral part of t h e ecosystem at the herbaceous layer level of t h e mixed fir and beech forest in t h e Pulmonario (rubro) Abieti-Fagetum a r e a of t h e Bucegi mountains (two different stations) in Romania.1 73PAU/BRE 152 . The species has a n aestival (summer) type vegetation period.I qv(gross) = 4532 c a l g-l qv(gross) = 18962 J g-l 73PAU/BRE LADY FERN.solid.' qv(gross) 4075 c a l gqv(gross) = 17050 J g-' 73PAU/BRE LETTUCE MURALIS. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature and values are calculated t o a dry basis. Material is a n integral part of t h e ecosystem at t h e herbaceous layer level of t h e mixed fir and beech forest in t h e Pulmonario (rubro) Abieti-Fagetum a r e a of t h e Bucegi mountains (two different stations) in Romania. The plants have t h e following constitution: 33% of t h e weight is represented by t h e stem axis and 67% by leaves. solid. qv(gross) 8158 Btu Ib. 1 qv(gross) = 4468 cal gqv(gross) = 18694 J g. Material is a n integral part of t h e ecosystem at t h e herbaceous layer level of t h e mixed fir and beech forest in t h e Pulrnonario (rubro) Abieti-Fagetum area of t h e Bucegi mountains (two different stations) in Romania. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature and values are calculated t o a dry basis. qv(gross) 7335 Btu lb. The species has a n aestival (summer) type vegetation period.

The plants have t h e following constitution: 33% of t h e weight is represented by t h e stem axis and 67% by leaves.1%. one of t h e dominant species of a 65-year-old climazonal oak forest (Quercetum petraeae-cerris) on brown forest soil. qv(gross) = 7808 Btu lb. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature and values are calculated to a dry basis.(gross) = 4427 c a l gq. Material is a herb.2%.Plant Materials (Non-Woody) MALE FERN? Dryopteris fitix-mas. gross heat of combustion: at 20 a t m oxygen pressure. solid. solid. qv(gross) = 7969 Btu lb. 4.(gross) = 18150 J g-l 73PAU/BRE MEADOW-RUE ISOPYRUM. roots = 7. Ash content of aboveground living material = 8. The ash content was determined at 500°C (932°F)while t h e temperature was increased stepwise.' qv(gross) = 4338 cal gq.6%. Material is a n integral part of t h e ecosystem at t h e herbaceous layer level of t h e mixed fir and beech forest in t h e Pulmonario (tubro) Abieti-Fagetum area of t h e Bucegi mountains (two different stations) in Romania. solid. MeZica uniflora. Material is a n integral part of t h e ecosystem at t h e herbaceous layer level of t h e mixed fir and beech forest in t h e Pulmonario (rubro) Abieti-Fagetum area of t h e Bucegi mountains (two different stations) in Romania. The species has an aestival (summer) type vegetation period. The plants have t h e following constitution: 33% of t h e weight is represented by t h e stem axis and 67% by leaves. Isopyrum thdictroides. of mean 7709 4283 I7920 8397 4665 19518 77 .(gross) = qv(gross) = qv(gross) = ash-free dry weight basis std dev. t h e number of measurements is 3. then ground and pelleted. at 300 m above sea level located in t h e southern part of t h e Bukk Mountains of north Hungary.' q.3 8 Btu lb'l cal g-l J g-' (more) 153 . gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature and values are calculated to a dry basis. Samples were dried at 85°C (185'F).1 73PAU/BRE MELIC GRASS. The species has a vernal (spring) type vegetation period. dry weight basis aboveground living material q. aboveground dead material = 12.(gross) = 18523 J g. assume values refer to room temperature.

5 Btu lb-l cal 9-l 36 J g75PAP MERCURIALIS PERENNIS.(gross) = 3727 cal gq.0% of t h e volatilefree dry weight. qv(gross) = 7938 2 130 Btu I q.Plant Materials (Non. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature and values a r e calculated t o a dry basis. and is a European poisonous plant with t h e foliage yielding an unstable blue dye.6 32. The plants have t h e following constitution: 33% of t h e weight is represented by t h e stem axis and 67% by leaves.0 Btu Ib-' cal ash-free dry weight basis std dev. q.(gross) = 7972 4429 18531 863 1 4795 20062 15 8.(gross) 18450 2 293 J g-l 62BLI I54 .(gross) = 7657 4254 17799 8730 4850 20292 57. Mean lipid content was 1.(gross) = 6709 Btu Ibi 1 q. Washington. of mean roots q.H. Material is an integral part of the ecosystem at t h e herbaceous layer level of t h e mixed fir and beech forest in t h e Pulmonario (tubro) Abieti-Fagetum a r e a of t h e Bucegi mountains (two different stations) in Romania.W d y ) i : MELIC GRASS . N. Samples of 7 species of mosses were collected in t h e alpine tundra of Mt.(gross) = 4410 2 70 c a l gq.(gross) = q. Samples were ground and air-dried at 80°C (176°F). solid.(gross) = q.(gtoss) = 15594 J g-l 73PAU/BRE MOSSES. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature and are corrected for moisture and ash content. ALPINE TUNDRA. The species has an aestival (summer) type vegetation period.(gross) q. solid.Continued dry weight basis aboveground dead material qJgross) = q.

proximate analysis as received: moisture. Carex montana. FLOWER GARDEN? solid.(gross) = 3699 Btu lb. nitrogen. assume values refer t o room temperature. of mean 8689 4827 20 196 5.09%. gross heat of combustion: at 20 a t m oxygen pressure.26%. 46. 40. at 300 m above sea level located in t h e southern part of t h e Bukk Mountains of north Hungary. 3. sulfur. 13 Btu lb-l cal J g- aboveground dead material qv(gross) qv(gross) qv(gross) = 7092 3940 16485 8305 1.(gross) = 8032 Btu lb. roots = 6. 2.(gross) = 2055 cal q. 35. as received dry basis q.63%. 8. aboveground dead material = 14.5 324 Btu lb-' cal J g- q1 75PAP P ANTS.4%.5 308 Btu lb-l ca1q-l J g- roots qJgross) = q. then ground and pelleted. solid. Ash content of aboveground living material = 8. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature. Samples were dried at 85OC (185"F). t h e number of measurements is 3. ultimate analysis: carbon. oxygen. 1.I q.34%.(gross) = 8599 J 155 . The ash content was determined at 5 O O O C (932°F) while t h e temperature was increased stepwise.3%.64%. hydrogen. one of t h e dominant species of a 65-year-old climazonal oak forest (Quercetum petraeae-cerris) on brown forest soil. Material is a herb.08%. ash.61%. 32 4614 19305 73.Plant Materials (Non-Woody) MOUNTAIN RUSH.6 31 . 53.21%. ash. 0.(gross) = 8042 4468 18694 8575 4764 19933 140 77.7%. volatile matter.1 qv(gross) = 4462 cal g-l qv(gross) = 18671 J g-' 66KAI q. dry weight basis aboveground living material qv(gross) = qv(gross) = qJgtoss) 7580 4222 17667 ash-free dry weight basis std dev. 6.94%.18%. fixed carbon.(gross) = q.

Samples of current year's annual growth and woody tissue of large rangeland shrubs were collected from 6 sites in several intermountain states.4 14.) 4.7. assume values refer t o room temperature. 0. 55.6 17832 16979 16845 16832 17686 16573 17807 16393 17489 16343 18054 70BOY RUBBER RABBITBRUSH.(gross) (cal g-l) 4262 4058 4026 4023 4227 396 I 4256 3918 4180 3906 4315 (J g-') 13.Plant Materials (Non. 7.6 17. moisture.C.5 10. dry basis. Mean content of woody tissue: ash. assume values refer to room temperature.0 10. near Aiken.(gross) = 5080 cal g-l qv(gross) 21270 J g-' char (from 500°C heating) q.5 . solid class is sandy-clay loam.37% and char yield = 33.5 14.20%.1 $' woody tissue q.(gross) = 8420 Btu Ibi 1 q.7%.3%. fuel qv(gross) = 9150 Btu Ib-l q.(gross) = 4678 cal gqv(gross) = 19573 J g-' XZVANIBAR SAW-PALMETTO. Composition is ash = 5. plants taken from Par Pond. 2. Serenoa repens.9 11.0%.1 21..04%. Species Typha latifotia Hydrotrida carol inensis Brasenia schreberi Utricularia inflata Nelumbo lutea Myriophyttum heterophyltum EZeocharis acicularis Najas guadalupensis Nymphaea odorata Ceratophyllum demensum Nuphar advena Protein Content g (100 g dry wt. sulfur. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature. VASCULAR AQUATIC.W d y ) PLANTS. US. 44. gross heat of combustion: ash-free.(gross) = 20217 1 g. solid. samples dried at 60°C (140'F) and pulverized to pass 40 mesh screen. Char was obtained from heating the sample t o 500°C (93PF)in nitrogen. value is mean of an average of values from 3 to 5 plants from each site.7%. Samples were freeze dried t o < 10% moisture content. sulfur. moisture. solid.4%. FRONDS. Mean content of current year's growth: ash. AEC Savannah River Plant. Surface soil pH = 7. S. Chrysothamnus nauseosus.9.1 qv(gross) = 7720 cal gdl qv(gross) = 32290 3 g-l 82SUS 156 . 0. current year's growth qv(gross) = 8698 Btu q.1 (Btu 1b-l) 7672 7304 7247 7241 7609 7130 766 1 7052 7524 7031 7767 q.(gross) = 4832 cal gq. gross heat of combustion: oven-dry weight. solid.(gross) = 13890 Btu Ib.4 12.1 14.

Samples were ground and oven-dried at 80°C ( 1 76°F).3 3. Material is a herb. The ash content was determined at 500°C (932°F) while t h e temperature was increased stepwise.7.0 Btu lb-l cal J g- 7983 4435 18556 8707 4837 20238 67.(gross) = 4932 k 33 cal gqv(gross) = 20635 2 138 J g-' 62BLI 157 . Samples of 9 species of shrubs were collected in t h e alpine tundra of Mt.Plant Materials (Non-Woody) SEDGE GRASS. roots = 8. N.3%. one of t h e dominant species of a 65-year-old climazonal oak forest (Quercetum petraeae-cerris) on brown forest soil.1 37. solid.5 15 Btu lb-I cal J gash-free dry weight basis std dev. then ground and pelleted. Mean lipid content was 1.6%.3 156 Btu lb-I cal f-' J g- 75PAP SHRUBS. at 300 m above sea level located in t h e southern part of t h e Bukk Mountains of north Hungary.97 2 0. 21. assume values refer to room temperature.(gross) = 7893 4385 18347 8827 4904 205 18 38. Ash content of aboveground living material = 9. t h e number of measurements is 3.0%. q. dry weight basis aboveground living material qv(gross) = qv(gross) = qv(gross) = 7817 4343 18171 8492 4718 19740 6. Carex micheZii.3% of the volatile-free dry weight. Samples were dried at 83°C (183"F).(gross) = 8878 2 89 Btu lbl 1 q. ALPINE TUNDRA. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature and are corrected for moisture and ash content. DECIDUOUS.5 90. gross heat of combustion: at 20 a t m oxygen pressure. aboveground dead material = 10. Washington.H. solid. of mean y1 q1 aboveground dead material qJgross) = qJgross) = qv(gross) = roots qv(gross) qv(gross) = q.

q. 1. CUTTINGS. oxygen.71%. sulfur. Mean lipid content was 3. Samples of 11 species of shrubs were collected in t h e alpine tundra of Mt.(gross) 4188 c a l gq.I qv(gross) 5098 t 48 cal g-' qv(gross) 21330 ? 201 J g-l 62BLI SHRUBS.5 1%. 5. 69.81%. EVERGREEN. hydrogen. The species has a n aestival (summer) type vegetation period. solid. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature and values are calculated t o a dry basis. Fragaria vesca. 2. solid.00%.18%.(gross) 2709 Btu lb-' qv(gross) = 1505 c a l q. ? gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature and a r e corrected for moisture and ash content.44%. as received dry basis qv(gross) = 8741 Btu Ib-I q. fixed carbon.5% of the volatile-free dry weight. 40. ash. 25.72 0. The plants have the following constitution: 33% of t h e weight is represented by the stem axis and 67% by leaves. 0.54%.19%. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature. volatile matter.(gross) = 17523 J g-l 73PAU/BRE 158 . 0. qv(gross) = 9176 f 86 Btu lb.(gross) = 6299 J SOW-TEAT STRAWBERRY (WOODLAND STRAWBERRY). nitrogen. ALPINE TUNDRA.Plant Materials (Non-Woody) SHRUBS.(gross) = 4856 c a l g-' q. solid. EVERGREEN. proximate analysis as received: moisture.(gross) = 7538 Btu lbl 1 q. ultimate analysis: carbon.61%. 48. Material is a n integral part of t h e ecosystem at t h e herbaceous layer level of the mixed fir and beech forest in t h e Pulmonario (rubro) Abieti-Fagetum a r e a of t h e Bucegi mountains (two different stations) in Romania. Samples were ground and oven-dried at 80°C ( I 76°F).(gross) = 20318 f g-l 66KAI q. ash. Washington. 6.01%. N.H.

gross heat of combustion: oven-dry weight. Mean moisture content of current year's growth.(gross) = 18740 J g-l woody tissue qv(gross) = 8206 Btu lb.(gross) = 4483 c a l gq. current year's growth q. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature and values ate calculated to a dry basis.(gross) = 8062 Btu lb.Plant Materials (Non-Woody) SPREADING RABBITBRUSH. Surface soil pH = 7.2%. 52.7.(gross) = 18757 J g-l 73PAU/BRE STINGING NETTLE. solid.1 q. Chrysothamnus Zinifolius. of woody tissue.7%.1 qv(gross) 4559 cal g-l qv(gross) = 19075 J g-l 82VANlBAR SPURGE ALMOND.(gross) = 3804 c a l g-' qv(gross) 15916 J g"' 73PAU/BRE 159 .7. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature and values are calculated to a dry basis. Urtica diocia. Material is an integral part of t h e ecosystem at t h e herbaceous layer level of t h e mixed fir and beech forest in t h e Pulmonario (rubro) Abieti-Fagetum area of t h e Bucegi mountains (two different stations) in Romania.(gross) = 4479 c a l g-l q. The plants have t h e following constitution: 33% of t h e weight is represented by t h e stem axis and 67% by leaves. value is mean of a n average of values from 3 t o 5 plants from each site. Euphorbia amygdatoides.3 . Samples of current year's annual growth and woody tissue of large rangeland shrubs were collected from 2 sites in several intermountain states. The plants have t h e following constitution: 33% of t h e weight is represented by t h e s t e m axis and 67% by leaves. assume values refer t o room temperature.I q. solid. qv(gross) = 8069 Btu lbl I q. soil class is loamy sandsilt loam. The species has an aestival (summer) type vegetation period.solid. 59. qv(gross) = 6847 B t u lb. The species has an aestival (summer) type vegetation period. Material is a n integral part of t h e ecosystem at t h e herbaceous layer level of t h e mixed fir and beech forest in t h e Pulmonario (rubro) Abieti-Fagetum area of t h e Bucegi mountains (two different stations) in Romania.

(gross) = 17744 J g 73PAU/BRE 160 .18.(gross) = 7634 Btu lb. Galium odoraturn. oxygen = 39. solid. qv(net) = 16310 J g 85 JEN/EBE SWEET WOODRUFF.(gross) = 17390 J g-l net heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature.35.' .08.(gross) qv(gross) = 4156 c a l gq.' qv(net) = 3898 c a l 9 . 7447 Btu Ib.75. 1 q. Material is an integral part of the ecosystem at t h e herbaceous layer level of t h e mixed fir and beech forest in the Pulmonario (rubro) Abieti-Fagetum area of the Bucegi mountains (two different stations) in Romania.Telekia speciosa. and fixed carbon 18. solid.(gross) = 4045 cal g q.(gross) = 7281 Btu lb. chlorine = 0. corrections applied for the formation of nitric and and sulfuric acids. 1 qv(gross) = 4241 cal 6. q. q. hydrogen = 5. q. The plants have t h e following constitution: 33% of t h e weight is represented by t h e stem axis and 67% by leaves.Plant Materials (Non-Woody) SUDAN GRASS. Material is an integral part of t h e ecosystem at t h e herbaceous layer level of t h e mixed fir and beech forest in t h e Pulmonario (rubro) Abieti-Fagetum area of the Bucegi mountains (twodifferent stations) in Romania. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature. nitrogen = 1.47. The species has a n aestival (summer) type vegetation period. determination performed at 30 a t m 02.21.60. Also t h e ultimate analysis of t h e elemental composition of the fuel (values in percent by weight dry basis) is carbon 44.65. The species has an aestival (summer) type vegetation period. and residue (ash) 9.58. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature and values are calculated to a dry basis. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature and values are calculated t o a dry basis. Material is considered biomass fuel and has proximate analysis values (in percent by weight dry basis) for volatile concentration (VCM) = 72. qv(net) = 7017 Btu Ib. The plants have t h e following constitution: 33% of t h e weight is represented by t h e stem axis and 67% by leaves. q.13. ash content = 8.(grass) = 16924 J g' 73PAU/BRE TALL OXEYE. solid. sulfur = 0.

solid. solid. qv(gross) = 7963 Btu lb. Material is an integral part of t h e ecosystem at t h e herbaceous layer level of t h e mixed fir and beech forest in t h e Pulmonario (rubro) Abieti-Fagetum area of t h e Bucegi mountains (two different stations) in Romania. Petasites albus. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature and values a r e calculated to a dry basis. Material is a n integral part of t h e ecosystem at t h e herbaceous layer level of t h e mixed fir and beech forest in t h e Pulmonario (rubro) Abieti-Fagetum area of t h e Bucegi mountains (two different stations) in Romania. Anemone nemorosa. solid. The species has an aestival (summer) type vegetation period. I qv(gross) = 4424 c a l gqv(gross) = 18510 J g-' 73PAU/BRE WHITE BUTTERBUR.(gross) = 6802 Btu lbi 1 qv(gross) = 3779 c a l gq. The plants have the following constitution: 33% of t h e weight is represented by t h e stem axis and 67% by leaves. q. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature and values a r e calculated t o a dry basis. The plants have t h e following constitution: 33% of t h e weight is represented by t h e s t e m axis and 67% by leaves. qv(gross) = 8134 Btu lbll q. Material is an integral part of t h e ecosystem at t h e herbaceous layer level of t h e mixed fir and beech forest in t h e Pulmonario (rubro) Abieti-Fagetum a r e a of t h e Bucegi mountains (two different stations) in Romania.Plant Materials (Non-W oody) TOUCH-ME-NOT. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature and values are calculated t o a dry basis. The plants have t h e following constitution: 33% of t h e weight is represented by t h e s t e m axis and 67% by leaves.(gross) = 15811 J g-l 73PAU/BRE WINDFLOWER (WOOD ANEMONE). Impatiens noli-tangere.(gross) = 45 19 cal gqv(gross) 18907 J g-l 73PAU/BRE 161 . The species has a vernal (spring) type vegetation period. The species has an aestival (summer) type vegetation period.

6 45. solid. solid.3 131 Btu lb-' cal J g- q1 aboveground dead material qv(gross) = qv(gross) = q.(gross) = q.(gtoss) = ash-free dry weight basis std dev.9 192 Btu lb-I ca1q-l J g75PAP WOOD SEDGE.3 31. Material is a herb. I gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature and values are calculated t o a dry basis. then ground and pelleted.(gross) = 7888 4382 18334 8636 4798 20075 27. assume values refer to room temperature.7%. The plants have t h e following constitution: 33% of t h e weight is represented by t h e s t e m axis and 67% by leaves. The ash content was determined at 500°C (932°F)while the temperature was increased stepwise.1 73PAU/BRE 162 .0 1. roots = 11. q. Ash content of aboveground living material = 6. 50 62. Samples were dried at 85°C (185"F). Material is an integral part of the ecosystem at the herbaceous layer level of the mixed fir and beech forest in the Pulmonario (rubro) Abieti-Fageturn a r e a of t h e Bucegi mountains (two different stations) in Romania.(gross) = 8050 4472 18711 9025 5014 20979 82.(gross) = q. aboveground dead material = 8. Poa nemoratis.O%. at 300 m above sea level located in the southern part of the Bukk Mountains of north Hungary. The species has a n aestival (summer) type vegetation period. Carex sylvatica. dry weight basis aboveground living material qv(gross) = qv(gross) = q. gross h e a t of combustion: at 20 atrn oxygen pressure.Plant Materials (Non-Woody) I WOOD BLUEGRASS. one of the dominant species of a 65-year-old climazonal oak forest (Quercetum petraeae-cerris) on brown forest soil.8 Btu lb-' cal 9-l J g- roots q.(gross) = 4175 cal gqv(gross) = 17468 J g.0%. of mean 7884 4380 I8326 8390 466 1 19502 56. t h e number of measurements is 3.(gross) = 7515 Btu lbi 1 q.

The species has a n aestival (summer) type vegetation period. The species has a vernal (spring) type vegetation period. qv(gtoss) = 7879 Btu lb.Plant Materials (Non-W oody) YELLOW ARCHANGEL (DEAD NETTLE). gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature and values are calculated t o a dry basis. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to toom temperature and values are calculated to a dry basis. 1 q. The plants have t h e following constitution: 33% of t h e weight is represented by the s t e m axis and 67% by leaves. The plants have t h e following constitution: 33% of t h e weight is represented by t h e stem axis and 67% by leaves. qv(gross) 8158 Btu lb.(gross) 18313 J g-' 73PAU/BRE YELLOW WOOD ANEMONE. Material is a n integral part of t h e ecosystem at t h e herbaceous layer level of t h e mixed fir and beech forest in t h e Pulmonario (rubro) Abieti-Fagetum area of t h e Bucegi mountains (two different stations) in Romania. solid. Anemone ranunculoides. Material is a n integral part of the ecosystem at t h e herbaceous layer level of t h e mixed fir and beech forest in the Pulmonario (rubro) Abieti-Fagetum area of t h e Bucegi mountains (two different stations) in Romania. Larnium galeobdolon.(gross) 4532 cal gqv(gross) = 18962 1 g-l 73PAU/BRE 163 .1 qv(gtoss) = 4377 cal g-l q. solid.

Polymers and Plastics .

043 0.00024 0.00089 0.6 -445 -441.237 0.0046 0.0086 0. solid.0542 0.0130 0.7 -455.4 -432.0040 0. encapsulating.0021 0.0 159 0.8 -454 -452 -448. trademark for synthetic resin of the phenol-formaldehyde type.029 0.0667 0. laminating.6 -445 -44 1.4 -333.0054 0.0000 14 0.001 1 0.347 0.0065 0.4 -423. specific heat: 4 6 8 10 15 20 30 40 50 70 90 -452 -448.Polymers and Plastics ARALDITE.017 0.057 0.0272 0.0130 0.0000 14 0. solid.04 18 0.0082 0.01 34 0.00 1I 0.0020 0.00225 0.4 -387.0 100 0.179 0.449 53HIL/SMI 167 .083 0.0032 0.0 192 0.0046 0. proprietary trade name for a series of epoxy resins used for casting. surface coating and as an adhesive.057 0.0 17 0.121 0.000057 0.00021 0.0054 0*0020 0. FORMITE VIIIOS.0 I94 0.083 0.4 -432.5 2 3 4 6 8 10 15 20 -456.4 -369.029 0.043 0.0159 0.000057 0.0169 0.0065 0.0032 0.4 0.0100 0.00006 0.0040 0.0194 0.4 0.08 11 54PAR/QUA BAKELITE VARNISH.00021 0. specific heat: tern erature (K P (OF) 1.0021 0.4 -405.4 -297.0046 0.4 -423.

373 0.0008 I 0. ash. 0.195 T + 5. 0. 0. 0. 90.694 5 50 100 150 200 220 255 -450 -370 -280 -190 -100 -64 - 1 0. solid.373 0.220 0.084 0 I53 .244 0.37 = 1.464 0. 0 I %. polymerized at 5°C (36°F).100%.98%.136 0. phenyl-6-naphthylamine. 88.122 1. hydrogen.869%.022 1. phenyl-6-naphthylamine. 8.0034 0 3 18 . .1%.506 + 2. sulfur.170%. 01 11%.688 lod5 T + 1.Polymers and Plastics BUTADIEm-STYREM COPOLYMER.316 + 4.77 x x x 0.220 0. ash.18%.405 for temperature range: 255-330 K (0"-135"F) Cp(Btu lb-I OF-') Cp(cal K' -) Cp(J g. oxygen. X-454. 0.0008 1 0.190 0.94 2. specific heat: tern erature (€8("F) -370 -280 -190 -100 . GL-422.423 0. oxygen.268 0. 0.464 0. 10. composition: carbon.03 53bFUR/McC 168 .423 0.56 1. specific heat: temperature (K) (OF) Cp(Btu lb-I O-) F' Cp(cal g-1 K-l) Cp(J g-1 K -1 0.794 1.872%.83 T + 3. sulfur. polymerized at 50°C ( I 22°F).485 0.235%.268 0.569 0. 0. 9.322 + 1. 42. 0.076 0.solid.485 0.464 0.081%.000 x x x 10-7 T2 10-6 T2 10-6 T2 55FUR/McC BUTADIENE-STYRENE COPOLYMER.076 0. composition: carbon. hydrogen.244 0.K' -) q1 = 0.10 80 134 Cp(Btu Ib'l OF-') Cp(cal g-1 K -1 ) Cp(J g-l K-l) 50 100 150 200 250 300 330 0.58%. styrene. 0.136 0 I90 .14%. .35 1 0.153 0. styrene.084 0.405 0.056%.92 1.77 1.

098%. repeating unit: C4Hg02S.405 O-) F' -1 -1 Cp(cal g K ) -1 -1 Cp(J g K ) 15 50 100 150 195 225 -433 -370 -280 -190 -109 -55 0.147 0.6882 x x 10-7 T2 10-6 T2 x T2 55FUR/McC BUTENE-1-POLYSULFONE. specific heat: t e m erature (KP (OF) Cp(Btu lb-I 0.5 J g-l 59IVI/KEI 169 .016 0.9 J g-l 591VI/KEI cis-BUTEm-2-POLYSULFONE.solid.483 T + 1.067 0.7 Btu lb.3 k 3.081 0.6 f 26 cal g-' .29 x = 1.K' -) q1 = 0.1 q.3337 + 6. ash.(gross) = 24040. styrene.812 x lo-' T + 3.1205 = 0. solid.(gtoss) = 5744.15%.396 + 2.338 0. polymerized at 5°C (41OF).Polymers and Plastics BUTADIENE-STYRENECOPOLYMER.5 Btu lb-I q.(gross) 59IVI/KEI trans-BUTENE-2-POLYSULFONE.0 16 00 1 .4 k 10.7 ? 2 5 cal g-l . composition: carbon.8 Btu lb.147 0.(gross) = 10342 2 4. solid. 10.(gross) = 5745.1%.874 1. hydrogen.262 0.096 1.693 225-330 K (-54' t o 135°F) F' Cp(Btu Ib-l O .(gross) = 5748. X478. 0. gross heat of combustion: at 25°C (77OF) 10340 2 4.61%. oxygen.8 cal g.) Cp(cal K' -) Cp(J g.(gross) 24050. solid. 0. 89. gross heat of combustion: at 25°C ( 7 F 7') q.4008%.209 0.4228 + 3. sulfur. q.1 q. 22.8 0. phenyl-6-naphthylamine.209 0.0 2 10.9 J g-' q.1 q. 0.432 x T + 4.443%.617 0. repeating unit: C4H802S.(gross) = 10347 k 6.405 0. q.9 k 15. gross heat of combustion: at 25°C (77°F) q. repeating unit: C4Hg02S. 0.048%.(gross) = 24035.262 0.

3 2 3. q. 28. duPont de Nernours and Company trade name. nitrogen.2 Btu lb. (polyoxymethylene).Polymers and Plastics isd3UTENE POLYSULFONE (2-methylpropene polysulfone).1 k 0. 99. hydrogen.44%.1 Btu l b l l qv(gross) = 3735. repeating unit: CH20. 0. I qv(gross) 5753.8 Btu Ib.(gross) = 17673 J g-l ISROT/WAL DELRIN. a solid solution of cellulose nitrate and camphor or other related plasticizers.8 J g-l 67FRA/MIS 170 .4 k 12.1 cal gqv(gross) = 15741.9 f 7. formula C2H4N4.1 q. repeating unit: C4H8OZS.3%.97%. 1 qv(gross) = 3762.(gross) = 4224 cal g-l q. solid.7 2 3.(gross) 7284. solid.(gross) = 10356 ? 5. 66.8 cal g-' qv(gross) 16933.(gross) = 6772.3 2 3.4 2 2. unspecified organic additives.7%.8 f 1 Btu lb-I q. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to toom temperature. 4. crystallized resin granules. Celanese Corp. gross heat of combustion: at 25°C (77°F) unhardened qv(gross) = 6723. elementary analysis: carbon.(gtoss) = 4047.2 2 2. E. of America trade name.1 J g-' 59IVI/KEI CELLULOID.9 2 8. gross heat of combustion: at 25°C (77°F) q.60%.I. gross heat of combustion: at 25°C (77OF) q. solid.(gross) = 15628.4 f 1.1 J g-l hardened q.9 cal gqv(gross) 24071.3 J g-l 63PAR/MOS DICYANDIAMIDE (TECHNICAL).7 cal gq. solid.(gross) = 7603 Btu Ib.

5 ? 10.4'-dihydroxydiphenyl2. UNHARDENED.1 q. 74.4 t 1. empirical formula C39H4008.5. 17.Polymers and Plastics DURETHAN U20.9 2 1. gross heat of combustion: at 25°C (77'F) q.6 7.99%.2'-propane.9 cal g y q. the unhardened resin plus phthalic anhydride.1 q. gross heat of combustion: at 25°C (77°F) q.9 J g 67FRA/MIS EPILOX EGL.0 f 2 5 cal g-l . a diepoxide from epichlorhydrin plus 4.9 J g-l _+ _+ 67FRA/MIS EPILOX EG1. 7.(gross) = 30266.9 cal gq.(gross) = 14161 f 4.(gross) 11199 k 3.4 Btu l. hydrogen.solid.5. a polyurethane from 1.4-butanediol and hexamethyldiisocyanate. empirical formula C31H36O5.(gross) = 32915.74%. q. elementary analysis: carbon.3 2 7.5 Btu lb. solid. oxygen.(gross) = 7867.27%.4 Btu lb. 1 b q.(gross) = 7233. gross heat of combustion: at 25°C (77°F) q.(gross) = 6221. solid. formula Cl2HZ2O4N2.5 J g-' 67FRA/MIS 171 .(gross) = 13021 3. HARDENED.(gross) = 26030.

8 f 2. (E.1 0.03 0. specific heat: 1 2 3 4 6 8 10 15 20 30 40 60 80 100 -457.4 -3514 .014 -423.2 0.8 -454 -452 -448.9 f 9 6 J g-l .005 0.4 -279.02 0.4 -445 -44 1 4 .1 Btu Ib-I q. repeating unit: C5H802.0005 0.Polymers and Plastics GLYPTAL.) Cp(cal -1 K-l) 5 Cp(3 g.07 0. (polymethylmethactylate).000048 0.(gross) = 26442.K-l) = 0.(gross) = 6367.0000072 0.29 0.19 0. F' Cp(Btu lb-I O .002 0.79 1.6 01 .19 0.05 0. 0.49 0.I.002 0.343 = 0.4 0.6 -455. 0.4 -405.0005 0.4 -387.0002 0.00003 0.03 0.15 59KEE/SEI LUCITE.0000072 0.20 0.4 0. -432. 38GUC/FOR 172 .343 = 1.05 0. duPont de Nemours and Company trade name).005 0 0 I4 . -315.000048 0.003 0.003 0.3 cal g-l q. gross heat of combustion: at 25°C (77°F) qv(gross) = 11462 f 4.0007 0.435 67FRA/MIS.007 00 14 .275 00 .275 0.002 0. specific heat: assume values refer t o room temperature.0002 0. trademark for synthetic resins and plasticizers prepared from a polyhydric alcohol and phthalic anhydride.07 01 . solid. solid.12 0.0002 0.

(gross) = -9862.19%.1 2 1.70%.74 + 0. nitrogen. gross heat of combustion: temperature = 25°C (77"F)..39 + 1.8 t 1. hydrogen. E.6 f 1. a melamine-formaldehyde polymer.001 in. 20.(gtoss) = 22928. q.746%. result had a mean C02 recovery of 99. thick. 17. 34.1 q.6 Btu lb.(gross) = -22925.(gross) = 5480. 32. gross heat of cornbustion: at 25°C (77OF) q.(gross) = 6699. solid.9 f 2. 41.(gross) = 3721. nitrogen. type A polyester film and is a copolymer of ethylene glycol and terephthalic acid. HARDENED.2 c a l g-l qv(gross) = 15572.0 f 5. solid. Material measured was a polyester 0. solid.3 Btu lb-I q. Material measured was 100-gauge. Repeating unit is (C12H1204)n.pressure = 30 a t m oxygen.51%. hydrogen.2 5 2.0560RH J g-l 70MAN/RAP 173 . a melamine-formaldehyde polymer. 43. gross heat of combustion: temperature = 298.30 + 0.47%. oxygen pressure = 30 a t m .0 J g-l 67FRA/MIS MYLAR FILM. solid.4543RH Btu Ib.(gross) = 3861.1 q.(gross) = 6950.(gross) = 16156.1 q. UNHARDENED.3 cal g-' q.(gross) = -5479.9 ?: 6 J g75AND/BAR 2. with a n empirical formula (C10H804). elementary analysis: carbon. I.Polymers and Plastics MELINEX FILM. qv(gross) = 9864.07%.5-METHYLOLMELAMINE. empirical f ormula C1 I H2004N 12.2 Btu lb.4 J g-l 67FRA/MIS 2. gross heat of combustion: at 25°C (77°F) q. oxygen.26%. empirical formula C5.27%.9 f 5. elementary analysis: carbon. value given is expressed as a function of humidity (where RH is relative humidity in %).2524RH c a l g-l q.5HllO2. duPont d e Nemours and Company t r a d e name. oxygen.3 2 2. 5. 5.15 K (77OF).4 c a l q.5Ng.53%.5-METHYLOLMELAMINE.

282 0. 1%.242 0.3 16 0.439 0.Polymers and Plastics NORYL RESIN 111.178 0. 47%.393 0.4 Btu lb-I Lf = 0.503 O-) F' Cp(cal g-1 K-l) Cp(J g-l K-l) 0.242 0.005 0.044 174 .184 70ba1 -78 286 0.013 1.103 C ( 18 1O -2 17 O F) O Lf = 0. 5%.745 1.205 1. composition: polystyrene.021.005 0. polyethylene.316 0. 47%. 2. polybutadiene. polyphenylene oxide.393 0.282 0.439 0. h e a t of fusion: 83O .8 J g specific heat: tern erature (KP 194 277 298 323 373 424 482 519 (OF) Cp(Btu lb-I 0. (E.I. solid.044 Cp(J g-l K-l) 0.483 0.178 0.105 -110 39 77 122 212 304 408 475 0.2 ca1-q-l Lf 0.503 specific heat change at glass transition temperature: tern erature (KP 212 414 (OF) C (Btu lb-l P Cp(cal g-l K' -) 0. duPont d e Nemours and Company t r a d e name).483 0.837 2.322 1.021 0.644 1.

Polymers and Plastics

NYLON-6; solid; (poly-E-caprolactam); repeating unit: C6H1 NO.

gross heat of combustion: at 20°C (68OF)
slow condensation rapid condensation

q,(gross) = 13640 Btu 1 q,(gross) 7575 cal gq,(gross) = 31694 J g-'

P-'

q,(gross) = 13660 Btu 1 q,(gross) = 7587 cal gq,(gross) = 31744 J g-l

P-'

Mirarnid H: 25OC (77°F)

q,(gross) = 13417 ? 5 0 Btu Ib; . I q,(gross) = 7454.1 2 2.8 cal gq,(gross) = 31188.0 2 11.7 J g-l
specific heat: 273-433 K (32"-320°F); amorphous nylon-6. Cp(Btu lb-I O F - ' ) Cp(cal d?q-') Cp(J g- deg )

g-'

= -0.047 + 8.3 = -0.085 + 1.5 = -0.356 + 6.3

x x x

T

T
T

melting point: maximum melting temperature is 225°C (437'F)

heat of fusion: at 225°C (437°F)
Lf = 81 B t u I' b ; Lf = 45 cal gLf 188 J g-'

57KAC; 55MAR/SMI; 67FRA/MIS

NYLON-6; liquid; (poly-E-caprolactam); repeating unit: C6Hl lNO.
specific heat: 433-553 K (320"-536"F) Cp(Btu Ib-I O - ) F' Cp(cal-q-l K-l) Cp(J g K - l ) 0.5708 + 1.867 x = 0.485 + 3.36 x = 2.029 + 1.406 x
T T T

3JMAR/SMI

175

Polymers and Plastics

I ; .

NYLON-6,C; solid; (polyhexarnethyleneadipamide); repeating unit: C 2H22N202; average rnol. wt. 11000.

gross heat of combustion: at 2OoC ( 8 F 6')

qv(gross)= 13650 Btu I q ( r s ) = 7581 cal g,gos q,(gross) = 31719 J g-l
Ultramid A q,(gross) 13579 f 4.3 Btu lb- 1 q(rs) ,gos 7543.8 ?: 2.4 cal g- 1 q ( r s ) = 31563.3 2 10.0 J g- 1 ,gos
specific heat: 273-553 K (32"-536"F) Annealed Sample

(K)
273 293
313

(OF)

Cp(Btu lb-I

O-) F'

32 68

0.31 1

0.31 1

1.30 1

0.333
0.367

333
353

373 393 413 433 453 473 493 513 523 533
543 553

104 140 176 212 248
284 320 356 392 428 464 482

0.424 0,468 0.505 0.548 0.583 0.642 0.620 0.646 0.664
0.80

0.333 0.367 0.424
0.468

1.393 1.536 1.774
1.958

0.505 0.548 0.583 0.642 0.620 0.646 0.664
0.80 1.13

500 518 536
(OF)

1.13 2.75
1.3

2.113 2.293 2.439 2.686 2.594 2.703 2.778 3.347 4.728
11.51 5.439 3.138

2.75
1.3

0.75

0.75

Drawn Sample

(K)
273 293
313
333

32 68

0.302 0.345

104 140

353

176

0.376 0.420 0.458

0.302 0.345 0.376 0.420 0.458

1.264 1.443
1.573

1.757
1.916

(more)

176

Polymers and Plastics

NYLON-6,6

- Continued
-1 Cp(J g

Drawn Sample

(K)
373 393 413 433 453 473 493 513 523 533 543 553

(OF)

K -1)

212 248 284 320 356 392 428 464 482 500 518 536

0.479 0.503 0.528 0.542 0.560 0.582 0.567 0.676 1.55 6.5 1.35 0.75

0.479 0.503 0.528 0.542 0.560 0.582 0.567 0.676 1.55 6.5 1.35 0.75

2.004 2.105 2.209 2.268 2.343 2.435 2.372 2.828 6.485 27.20 5.648 3.13%

melting point: Drawn

Filaments
M.P., " C M.P., OF Melting Range, "C Melting Range, OF
259 498
18 32

Annealed 262 504

30
54

heat o fusion: f Drawn
Filaments 53.1 29.5 165.3 Annealed 59.9

33.3 139.3
57KAC; 53WIL/DOL; 67FRA/MIS

177

Polymers and Plastics

NYLON-6,lO; solid; ribbon; (polyhexamethylenesebacarnide);repeating unit: C16H30N202; average mol. wt. 9250.

specificheat: ribbon
-1 -1 CP(J g K 1

273 293 313 333 353 373 393 413 433 453 473 493 513 523 533 543 553

32
68

104 140 176 212 248 284 320 356 392 428 464 482 500 518 536

0.327 0.373 0.420 0.486 0.512 0.518 0.53 1 0.561 0.592 0.588 0.686 1.95 0.737 0.639 0.627 0.632 0.639

0.327 0.373 0.420 0.486 0.512 0.518 0.53 1 0.561 0.592 0.588 0,686 1.95 0,737 0.639 0.627 0.632 0.639

1.368 1.561 I .757 2.033 2.142 2.167 2.222 2.347 2.477 2.460 2.870 8. I59 3.084 2.474 2.623 2.644 2.674

melting point: 225°C (437°F); melting range 30"-40°C (54'-72"F)
heat of fusion: ribbon

Lf(Btu Ib-l) Lf(cal 9-l) L&J g- )

47.3 26.3 1io.o 53WIL/DOL

PHENOL-FORMALDEHYDE RESIN, HARDENED (EDELKUNSTHARZ8); solid; empirical for mula C I 3HI 202.

gross heat of combustion: at 25°C ( 7 F 7')

q,(gross) = 13598 f 3.8 Btu Ib-1 q,(gross) = 7554.3 2.1 cal g-' q,(gross) = 31607.2 ? 8.8 J g-l
67FRA/MIS

178

Polymers and Plastics

PHENOL-FORMALDEHYDE RESIN, UNHARDENED; solid; empirical formula 1 qH14'3* gross heat of combustion: at 25°C (77°F)
qv(gross) = 12968 2 3.6 Btu lb- 1 q,(gross) = 7204.2 2 2.0 cal g-l q,(gross) = 30142.4 2 8.4 J g-' 67FRA/MIS

POLYACENAPHTHYLENE; solid; amorphous; repeating unit: C 2Hg; degree of
polymerization -600 units.

gross heat o combustion: at 25°C (77°F) f

= 16898 ? 3.6 Btu Ibl1 q,(gross) = 9388.0 f 2.0 cal gq,(gross) = 39279.4 f 8.4 f g-l
q,(gtoss)

68 JOS

POLYALLYLPHTHALATE; solid; empirical formula C14H 40.
gross heat of combustion: at 25°C ( 7 F 7')

q,(gross) 11934 k 3.8 Btu Ib- 1 q,(gross) = 6629.8 f 2.1 cal g-l q,(gross) 27739.1 2 8.8 J g-l
67FRA/MIS

POLYBUTADIENE 41OF; solid; analysis: carbon, 88.47%; hydrogen, 1 1.160%; sulfur, 0.083%; oxygen, 0.12%; ash, 0.34%; phenyl-8-naphthylamine, 0.10%; repeating unit: C4H6; polymerization is carried out at 5°C (41 OF).
specific heat:

tern erature

(€8
50

(OF)

Cp(Btu Ib-l OF-')
0.08532 0.15832 0.224 16 0.359 0.433 0.47 1 0.4940

Cp(cal g-1 K -1

Cp(J g-1 K -1 )
0.3570 0.6624 0.9379 1.50 1.81 1.97 2.067 53aFUR/McC

-370 -280 150 -190 200 -100 250 - 10
100
300

330

80 134

0.08532 0.15832 0.224 16 0.359 0.433 0.471 0.4940

179

Polymers and Plastics

I

POLYBUTADIENE 122°F; solid; analysis: carbon, 88.66%; hydrogen, 11.180%; sulfur,
0.150%; oxygen, 0.145%; ash, 0.097%; phen I-6-naphthylamine, 0.12%; repeating unit: c ~ H polymerization carried out at 50°C 132OF). ~ ;

r

specific heat:

50 -370 100 -280 150 -190 200 -100 250 - 10 300 80 134 330

0.08640 0.15777 0.22299 0.3967 0.4326 0.4680 0.49 19

0,08640 0.15777 0.22299 0.3967 0.4326 0.4680 0.49 19

0.36 15 0.6601 0.9330 1.66 1.81 1.958 2.058

53aFUR/McC

POLY-1-BUTENE;solid; isotactic; 34% crystallinity; repeating unit: C4H8; degree of
polymerization -800 units.
gross heat of combustion: at 25°C (77°F)

q,(gross) = 19996.9 0.9 Btu Ib-1 q,(gross) = 11 109.4 + 0.5 cal 9-l q,(gross) = 46481.7 f 2.1 J g_+

68 JOS

POLY-i-BUTENE;

(Sample I ) viscous liquid; mol. wt. -4900; (Sample 2) amorphous solid, rubberlike; mol. wt. -200000; 0.033% ash; (Sample 3) solid; Opanol B 100; repeating unit: C4Hg.

gross heat of combustion: at 25OC ( 7 F 7')
Sample 1 q,(gross) 20123.6 q,(gross) = 11179.8 q,(gross) = 46776.3 Sample 2 Sample 3

2.3 Btu Ib- 1 2 1.3 cal ?: 5.4 J g
_+

q,(gross) = 20122.4 ?: 7.7 Btu lb- 1 qv(gross) 11 179.1 f 4.3 cal g-l q,(gross) 46773.4 k 18.0 J g-l

q,(gross) = 20116.4 2 3.6 Btu Ib- 1 q,(gtoss) = 11 175.8 k 2.0 cal q,(gtoss) = 46759.5 f 8.3 J
49PAR/MOS; 67FRA/MIS

180

5 Btu 1bl1 q. particle size 100 mesh. repeating unit: C2H2F2.4 f 0.(gross) q.(gross) = 34615.7 Btu lb.(gross) = 8273.2 f 1.1 q.(gross) = 13307 ? 2.9 J g-' 68505.7 f 2.8 Btu lb. q.(gross) 4527. repeating unit: C8H80.8 J g-' Makrolon. gross heat of combustion: at 25OC (77°F) q. General Electric t r a d e name.8 J g-' XSIN/STU POLY-1.6-DIMETHYLPHENYLENEETHER.8 2 1.9 J g-l 68JOS POLY-4.1 2515. e m pir ica 1 formula C16H1403* gross heat of combustion: at 25°C (77°F) PKU T 22 qv(gross) 13336 f 3.4 c a l gq. gross heat of combustion: at 25'C (77'F) qv(gross) = 14892 2 2. q.Polymers and Plastics POLY-I.(gtoss) q.150 units.9 f 1. degree of polymerization . degree of polymerization -300 units. purity 99. 20% crystallinity.6 Btu Ib-' q.5 Btu I b l1 q.8 Btu lb.0 c a l g-l qv(gross) = 30998.7 J g-' 64GOO/LAC POLY-2.9 f 5. 67FRA/MIS 181 .4 cal gq. 20% crystallinity.so1id.2 f 3.7 f 2. solid.2 2 8.(gross) = 30931.4 J g-' Lexan.1 cal g-' 10523.1 f 5.1 f 0. gross heat of combustion: at 25'C (77'F) q. solid.1 c a l g-' qv(gross) = 30998.(gross) = 7408.9 mol %. repeating unit: C2H2C12.4 cal g-' 14765.0 ? 8. solid.0 f 8.1 f 2.(gross) = 7392.(gross) q.(gross) 6352.(gross) q.Q'-DXOXY DIPHENYL-2.(gross) = 7408.2-PROPANE CARBONATE.l-DIFLUOROETHYLENE(polyvinylidene fluoride). 1-DICHLOROETHYLENE (polyvinylidene chloride).1 3529.(gross) 13336 f 3. solid.

repeating unit: C2H4.6829 -280 -100 200 250 273.1 q. linear polymer.3936 0.1 cal q.7 f 3. crystallinity 72% q. molecular weight.0 cal 8. gross heat of combustion: at 20°C (68°F) 14359 5 9. 5'-di-tert-butyl-4'-hydroxphenyl) propionate) me ham] added to polymer by manufacturer. qv(gross) 19905.(gross) = 19932.(gross) = 33376.3537 0.7 f 2.6 Btu Ib.3936 0. solid.10 32 77 116 188 320 360 1.0029 0.Polymers and Plastics POLY-E-ENANTHOLACTAM.3537 0.8 B t u Ib.4 2 8.2839 0.5904 Cp(J g-l K-I) -442 0.1632 0.(gross) = 11058.5 c a l g-l q. crystallinity 96%.6 t 23.2 2 5.1 J specific heat: SRM 1475 temoerature (K) ' 10 100 (OF) Cp(Btu lb-' OF--) 0. gross heat of combustion: at 25°C (77'F) SRM 1475. methyl group content.15 298.4376 0.8 J SRM 1475 modified by recrystallization under high pressure.9 Btu lb.(gtoss) 57KAC POLYETHYLENE.002%. 0. repeating unit: C7HI 3N0.0040 2.1 7977.4702 74SPL/JOH.4790 0.1 2. 0. ash content.9784 g degree of crystallinity determined t o be 72%.-ave.(gross) 46332.4800 1. ern-'.6468 1. wt. density at 23OC (73"F). solid.(gross) = 46269.0 I23 0.2839 0.1 ? ? q. NBS Standard Reference Material (SRM) 1475.0 J g-l qv(gross) q.8308 2. 52000.4790 0. 73CHA/BES 182 .4376 0.1632 0.0029 0.6 q.5 2 3. 0.(gross) = 11073.5904 0.15 methyl groups per 100 carbon atoms.1877 1.15 . 111 ppm of anti-oxidant [tetrakis-(methylene-3(3!.

7 2 14. anionic.4 J sample 3 q. crystallinity 50%.9 t 33.2 2 5.1 q. CH2C12. samples with different degrees of polymerization.6 J g-l sample 4 q.94 2 2. wt.19 cal g-' q. (sample 3) low density.70. Marlex.8 cal gqv(gross) = 42307.6 2 3. solid.9 2 6. repeating unit: C2H4.45 2 9.(gross) = 19968. Mirathen H. Density was 0. (sample I ) high pressure. solid. solid.1 AH(po1ymerization) = . repeating unit: CqHlO.(gross) = 46485.(gross) = 46415. (sample 4) high density.69 f 3.4 Btu lb.5 ? 1.pressure was 30 atrn oxygen.(gross) = 8905.(gross) = 18201.11 heptane by polymerization in and material was a white powdery solid.(gross) = 16030.2 2 8.5 cal g-l q.9 2 4.2.0 cal q.7 J g-l 68JOS POLY(OXY-2-METHYL-l. Repeating unit (C7H 120)n was formed from endo-2-methyl-7-oxa n. crystallinity 98%.95 5 7. gross heat of combustion: at 25OC (77°F) sample 1 q.(gross) = 19985.(gross) = 19945. mol. q.(gross) = 10111.2 Btu lb.0 J g-l 7JAND/BAR 183 .(gross) = 11080.5 2 19.9 cal g-' AH(po1ymerization) = -296.(gross) = 11093.1 q. 18000-20000.(gross) = 37262. b' q.8 cal q.6 2 0.(gross) = 46362.Polymers and Plastics POLYETHYLENE.3 Btu Ib. gross heat of combustion: at 25°C (77°F) q. gross heat of combustion: temperature = 25OC (77"F).(gross) = 46202. (sample 2) linear.7 2 3. 63PAR/MOS. nC7H120(liq) + (C7H120).4€YCLOHEXYLENE).8 2 11.(gross) = 11102.(gross) = 19876.0 Btu l.6 cal g-' q. (solid) AH(po1ymerization) = -127.I q.6 f 3.7 2 14.2 J g-l 49PARIMOS.1 q.8 2 2.823 g a' icyclo C2.5 2 8.3 Btu Ib-' q. -34000 units and -13000 units gave t h e same heat of combustion.15 J g-l heat of polymerization: temperature = 25OC (77'F). mean value was based on percentage recovery of C02.6 Btu lb. 67FRA/MIS P0LY-a-METHYLSTYRENE.3 J sample 2 q. amorphous.(gross) = 11042.94 Btu Ib.9 f 2.

I q.8 f 9.8 2 2.4 2 4. solid.(gross) = 17853 f 4.1 q.9 J g q.(gross) q.2 cal 46368.6 J g.2 Btu Ib.(gross) 19944.(gross) = 9909.6)-toluene diisocyanate. solid.Polymers and Plastics POLYPROPYLENE.(gross) = 46112.1 q. 68JOS POLYUREA (POLYHARNSTOFF).I q.(gross) 9921.2 +.(gross) = 41510.(gross) q.1 q.3 Btu Ib.1 q.2 f 5.2 5 cal 9.3 16. amorphous q.(gross) = 17858 .0 J g-l isotactic.I qv(gtoss) = 9928.5 Btu lb.5 .4 Btu Ib.1 q.1 J g-l 67FRA/MIS 184 .1 67FRA/MIS. empirical formula C15H1804N4. gross heat of combustion: at 25°C (77'F) isotactic.3 2 4 Btu Ib-1 11082.6 Btu lb.5 q. solid.2 Btu lb.9 f 3.4 Btu lb.(gross) = 9900.2 J g-4 .(gross) = 41515. gross heat of combustion: at 25°C (77'F) q.0 f 13. polymer of a adipic acid diamide plus (2.5 .9 k 4 Btu lb.+ 2. untangled q.+ 2.0 cal g.7 f 12. gross heat of combustion: at 25°C (77°F) isotactic.(gross) = 17821 f 5.(gross) = 41463.0 2 1. 58% crystallinity Polypropylene VK 166.0 J gatactic.+ 3.(gross) 2: 11021.1 Btu lb-: q.(gross) = 41423.(gross) = 10717 r 3.1 q. repeating unit: C8H8. 67FRA/MIS POLYSTYRENE.(gross) = 5954.7 3 g-' _+ polystyrol P70 q. 1.4 cal q.3 f 5.(gross) = 9922.4-2.2 J 63PAR/MOS.I q.1 cal g-l q.(gross) = 41499. 40% crystallinity qv(gross) = 17838 k 5.7 f 21.3 J g-' degree of polymerization -4000 units q.(gross) = 46360.5 t 7.0 cal g-l q. repeating unit: C3H6.(gross) = 2491 1. amorphous polystyrol BW qv(gross) 17860 2 7.(gross) = 11080.0 2 10.(gross) = 19838 k 9.7 cal gq.1 cal g-l q.(gross) 19948.4 f 2.

3 J g-l 58SIN/STU PROPARGYL AZIDE POLYMER.31 1 0.1 q. Polymer was formed when an alcohol-water solution of propargyl bromide and sodium azide was refluxed and t h e product (C3H3N3)n appears t o be primarily a 4-methylene-l. and value given is per monomer unit.184 0.373 0. qv(gross) = 9454 ? 22 Btu lb.492 0.059 2.289 70BAI 185 . ABS I.' qv(gross) = 4374.492 0.57.069 0. Repeating unit is (-CH2CHCI-).97 wt.561 2.059 0. and 0 = 1. change at glass transi ion -2mperature: A C ~ (g-' K-') J 188 -121 377 217 0.518 0.264 specific hea.770 1. mean values were corrected for HN03 formation.(Btu Ib-I OF-') IJ Cp(ca1 g-1 K-l) 0.373 0. copolymer of styrene-acrylonitrile = 76% and polybutadiene = 15%.31 1 0. gross h e a t of combustion: temperature is 25°C (77OF).(gross) = 21974 ? 50 f g-' 73HOU/HUM RESIN.541 Cp(J g -1 K -1 ) 163 -166 -69 39 77 131 225 315 399 0.3-triazole polymer ( t h e 5 methylene configuration is also possible). solid.338 0. solid.541 0.414 1.338 0.(gross) = 5252 ? 12 cal g-l q. Analysis found C = 44. specific heat: temperature (K) (OF) 217 277 298 328 380 430 477 C.518 0. qv(gross) = 7874.167 2.Polymers and Plastics POLYVINYL CHLORIDE.069 0.301 1. i t is a synthetic thermoplastic polymer.2. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature.7 mole %. solid.8 cal gqv(gross) 18304.240 0.04.07..014 0. H = 4.240 0. sample was dried under vacuum at 100OC.0 14 0.004 1.184 0. N = 49.% (oxygen is due t o water t h a t is occluded or chemically bound). Purity is 99.7 Btu lb.

10 26 44 98 134 188 0.7408 0.04821 0.074 transition temperatures: 293 K (20°C) (68°F) 303 K (30OC)(86°F) heat of transition: for t h e temperature range 280-310 K. (poly-1 I-aminodecanoic acid).(gross) = 4461.Polymers and Plastics RILSAN.(gross) = 1196.9526 1.0 ? 42 J ggross heat of combustion in fluorine: 25OC (77°F).3 f 3.3857 0.22768 0. solid. (E.3 Btu lbi 1 q. combustion products are gaseous carbon dioxide and carbon tetrafluoride. 2. gross heat of combustion in oxygen: at 25°C (77OF). combustion product is carbon tetrafluoride. density.13380 0.8 f 0.17706 0.24402 0. 52FUR/McC 186 .17706 0.7 2 10.1 J g-' specific heat: Cp(Btu lb-I 50 100 150 200 250 270 280 310 330 360 OF-') -370 -280 -190 -100 .20 17 0. q.24187 0.22768 0.24 187 0. (polytetrafluoroethylene). q.(gross) = 2478.24402 0.(gross) = 36987.012 1.24809 0.0 caf g-l q.2 cal g-l q.(gross) = 5007.8 ? 8.2 g ~ r n .038 1.021 1.I. duPont de Nemours and Company trade name).5598 0. repeating unit: C4F4.4 J g-l 67FRA/MIS TEFLON solid. empirical formula C HzlON. 15.7 Btu lb-' Lf = 8.24809 0.1 k 18 Btu Ib-l q.8 ? 1.25669 0.25669 0.~ .21076 0.09218 0.09218 0.(gross) = 2154.7 cal gq.88 18 0.(gross) 10371.13380 0.04821 0.72 cal Lf 67DOMIARM.3 2 2. gross heat of combustion: at 25OC (77OF) q ( toss) = 15913 2 4 Btu lb-l q$ross) = 8840.21076 0.

9 f 8. 1 . nitrogen.41%.7 ? 3 6 Btu Ib.(gtoss) = 3800.91%. hydrogen.(gross) = 13900.4 J g-l 67FRA/MIS 187 .0 cal gq.49%.(gross) = 6840. gross heat of combustion: at 25°C (77°F) q. 35. q.Polymers and Plastics TROCKENLEIM (DRYING GLUE).19%. 30. elementary analysis: carbon. oxygen.4 2 2. empirical f O ~ I n U l aC3H602N2. solid. 6. a urea-formaldehyde resin. 27.

Polypeptides and Proteins .

0 1874 0.42 f 0. q.7096 0.5.2153 0.01 0.04 1.34 0.1696 0.10 77 80 0. gross heat of combustion: assume values r e f e r t o room temperature.85%.26 17 0.57 J g-l specific heat: t h e apparent molal specific heat of a protein solution of 0.65%.1 mol drn-3 glycine buffer with pH = 3. 7%.Polypeptides and Proteins BOVINE CHYMOTRYPSINOGEN A.00448 0. 15.3090 0.04 75PRI/PLO 191 .01 0.35 c a l g-l 26.31 t 0.2929 1. nitrogen. heat of denaturation: protein solution is 0. phosphorus.8%.00448 0.43 Btu Ib. tern erature (KP (OF) 77 104 Cp(Btu lb-I OF-') Cp(cal g-1 K-l) 0.5.7%. thermochemical calorie used. A proteolyic enzyme found in t h e intestine t h a t catalyzes t h e hydrolysis of various proteins (especially casein) t o form polypeptides and amino acids.15 300 (OF) Cp(Btu lb-I O-) F' Cp(cal g-1 K -1 ) 0.1 mol dm-3 glycine buffet at pH 3.9050 1. solid. hydrogen.2153 0.3 109 0.01 1. 22.3008 69HUT/COL CASEIN.1696 0.9008 1.1120 0.3 109 -442 -280 -190 -100 .(gross) = 23700 ? 800 J g-l P-' 55MER/WAT CHYMOTRYPSINynonaqueous. carbon.01 * 0.4686 0. 53%. A denaturation H A denaturation H AH denaturation 11. oxygen.180 mass % in a 0.180 mass % in a 0.(gross) = 5670 k 200 cal gq. sulfury 0.34 ? k -1 -1 Cp(J g K ) 298 313 0. 0. specific heat: temperature (K) 10 100 150 200 250 298.3090 0. of 25646.31 0. Anhydrous material is a protein from beef pancreas made up of 245 amino acids with mol. solid.(gross) = 10210 k 360 Btu 1 q. wt.1 120 0.1 6. MILK.30 t 0.2617 0.

As received: ash content.(gross) = 21550 f 400 J g-l 15ROTlWAL 192 .03 0.5577 1.40 14 0.8%. water content not determined. hydroxyproline.406 1 0.(gross) = 9270 f 180 Btu lb. converted to gelatine by boiling with water. %) Cp(Btu lb-I O-) F' cP(cal g-l K' -) Cp(J g -1 K 1 -1 0 1.4602 1. can absorb 5 t o 10 times its weight of water.1 Ash free and moisture free q. with water.6%-0.3490 0.3490 0. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature. solid.6795 1.(gross) 7920 Btu Ib.3723 0.49 17.Polypeptides and Proteins I COLLAGEN. and glycine.96 4. a protein obtained from collagen by boiling skin. tendons. fibrous protein t h a t comprises t h e major portion of t h e white fiber in connective tissues of t h e animal body. ligaments.5309 1.1 qv(gross) = 18410 J g. 0.40 14 0.56 6.699 1 1.' qv(gross) 5150 f 100 cal gq. q.3659 0.1 q.406 1 0. specific heat: 298 K ( 7 F 7') moisture content (wt. chief amino acids present are proline.3659 0. solid.02 1.(gross) 4400 c a l g. bones.4280 0.3723 0.7908 55KAN GELATINE.4280 1. etc.

7%.0%.7 24732.4 24573.6 23937. oxygen. proline. etc. 21.(gross) cal g-l 5797.] which remains after washing t h e starch out of flour with water.9 5873.7%.1 24488.8 66PON 86 95 122 158 230 193 .6 ("C) 30 35 50 70 110 (OF) Btu lb-' 10436 10572 10168 10298 10403 J g-l 24258. typical composition: carbon. nitrogen. denaturation 30 35 50 70 110 86 95 122 158 230 10775 I0640 10399 I0457 10535 5986. gross heat of combustion: variation with thermal denaturation temperature. simple vegetable protein found in gluten. solid.3 591 1. mixture of proteins found in t h e seeds of cereal grains [wheat. denaturation temperature q.1 24181.1 variation with concentration of aqueous alcohol used in extraction.5 23634. hydrogen. amino acids of glutens are glutamic acid.9 24171.8 24306. 17.2 5648.(gross) c a l g-l 5891 5869 5942 6028 J g-l 10600 10560 10700 10850 24648 24556 24861 24221 66PON GLUTEN. sulfur. also called prolomin.2 5809.8 5721.7%. and arginine. alcohol % 40 50 60 70 Btu lb-I q. corn (maize). gross heat of combustion: variation with thermal denaturation temperature.3 5852.3 5777.1 5779. solid. 52.8 25046. leucine. 1. 6.Polypeptides and Proteins GLIADIN.9%.

3 5583. zinc present (as ZnO) = 0. BOVINE ZINC.2541 0.(gross) = 31393.I q.1 192 0.2089 0. wheat protein soluble in dilute alkalies.2996 0.6 23359.(gross) = 7303.0 5699.0632 1.2535 1.1 192 0.(gross) cal g-l 5710. solid.1 ? 6. gross heat of combustion: variation with thermal denaturation temperature.(gross) = 13462 ? 12 Btu Ib-I q. (C508H7520150N130S12Zn).2611 69HUT/COL PHENYLALANINE POLYMER.3014 0.(gross) = 7479. denaturation temperature q.9 ("C) (OF) 30 86 95 Btu lb-l 10278 10315 10050 10177 10260 3 g-1 2389 I. gross heat of combustion: at 25OC (77°F) benzene soluble qv(gross) = 13506 ? 11 Btu Ib.30 I4 0.2089 0.1 J g-l benzene insoluble q. repeating unit: C9H9N0.1 5730. 1 23975.3 23848.00475 0.4 66p0n 35 50 70 110 122 158 230 INSULIN. specific heat: 10 100 200 250 298.2996 0. solid.67%. 1 5654.8740 I .4 ? 25.9 J g-l 52BRE/TER 194 .95%.6 ? 28.2 ? 6.10 77 80 0.0 1987 0.0 cal g-l q. t h e anhydrous material from beef pancreas made up of 16 amino acids arranged in two chains connected by sulfur bridges.15 300 -442 -280 -100 .254 1 0.00475 0.Polypeptides and Proteins 1 GLUTENIN.9 cal g-l qv(gross) = 31292. solid.7 23656. The ash content = 0.4987 0.

and certain goats). 8%. sulfur product aqueous H2S04.2 J g-l 59KOZ/SKU SARCOSINE POLYMER. 0. fat. proline. sulfur.3 ? 1.(gross) = 24100 3 g-l P-' STMER/WAT WOOL. solid.~ .(gross) = 5760 cal gq. gross heat of combustion: at 25OC (77'F) q. staple fibers obtained from the fleece of sheep (and also alpaca.2 cal gq. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature.Polypeptides and Proteins POLY-N-ETHYL-N-METHYL PROPIONAMIDE.(gross) = 9898 Btu qv(gross) = 5499 cal gqv(gross) = 23008 J g-l $' 3 lPAS/KON 195 . solid. 15%. dry basis.(gross) qv(gross) qv(gross) 1 14525 ? 1. leucine.8 Btu Ibl 8069. 49.9 T 17. 8%. vicuna. typical composition: water.4%. 31.5%.0 ? 4. protein chains (keratin) bound together by disulfide cross linkages. arginine. iron. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature.6 Btu Ibl qv(gross) = 5626. 10%. and calcium.0 cal g33762. globulin protein from egg yolk. repeating Unit: CgH13NO.3%.7%.(gross) = 10370 B t u 1 q.4 2 4. sulfur content of wood sample.(gross) 23540. density. gross heat of combustion: at 25°C (77°F) 1 qv(gross) = 10128 2 7. carbohydrate. chief amino acids: cysteine and cystine. remainder includes small amounts of elements such as phosphorus. repeating unit: C3H5N0. 16. 16%.44 g ~ r n . glutamic acid.solid. solid. 1. 3.6 J g-l 52BRE/TER VITELLIN. q. protein. q.9%.

19.4% p icr ate. q. q. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature. sulfur product aqueous H2S04.(gross) = 9882 Btu Ib. I q. solid. salt formed from reaction of wool with picric acid.(gross) = 9868 Btu lbil qv(gross) = 5482 cal gqv(gross) 22937 J g-l 3 I PAS/KON WOOL OXALATE.(gross) 22970 J g-l 31PAS/KON WOOL 6-NAPHTHALENE SULFONATE. solid.I q. solid. sulfur product aqueous H2S04. salt formed from reaction of wool with oxalic acid. q. 18.9% 6-naphthalenesulf onate.1 qv(gross) = 5490 cal g-' q.(gross) = 5043 cal g-l qv(gross) 21 LOO J g-l 3 1PAS/KON I96 . salt formed from reaction of wool with 6-naphthalenesulf onic acid.(gross) = 9648 Btu Ib. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature. solid. salt formed from reaction of wool with acetic acid.Polypeptides and Proteins . gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature. 2.(gross) = 9077 Btu Ib. sulfur product aqueous H2S04. I WOOL ACETATE.(gtoss) = 5360 cal gq. q.22% oxalate. sulfur product aqueous H2S04. 0.30% acetate.(gtoss) = 22426 J g-' 3 I PAS/KON WOOL PICRATE.

3 cal gq.3% cystine. q.1 Btu 1 q. q. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature.(gross) = 5609 ? 2. 3.(gross) = 9824 Btu l b i I qv(gross) = 5458 cal gq.(gross) = 10100 2 4. sulfur product aqueous H ~ S O ~ . salt formed from reaction of wool with sulfuric acid.solid.1 3 1 PAS/KON WOOL pTOLUENESULFONATE. and 16.(gross) = 23468 ? 9. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature and are corrected for moisture and ash content. 6. solid. q. salt formed from reaction of wool with p-toluene-sulfonic acid. material is a keratin containing 14.Polypeptides and Proteins WOOL PROTEIN. sulfur product aqueous H2S04. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature. 2.9% sulfur.85% nitrogen.21% sulfate.6% p-toluenesulfonate.6 J g-l 64PAL/REI WOOL SULFATE.(gross) = 9625 Btu 1bT qJgross) = 5347 cal gqv(gross) = 22372 J g. solid.(gross) = 22836 3 g-l 31PAS/KON 197 .

Refuse .

(gross) = 5446 cal qv(gross) = 22785 J Sample 2. 14. D. tested during 1979. waxes.I q. %.1 q.095 wt. 24.(gross) = 9253 Btu lb. 5. solid. sulfur content. Residual moisture.13 wt. 11.1 q. gross heat of combustion: value is average of two trials. 1978 and Jan.5 mm particle size for laboratory test analysis. tested during Dec. tested during June and July 1978.1 q. Samples a r e dry shredded garbage (essentially free of glass and metals).(gross) = 8621 Btu lb. %. 96.80 wt.(gross) = 18752 f g-l 81KIR/COL 20 1 . q. 0.(gross) = 8540 Btu lbqv(gross) = 4744 cal g-l q.18 wt. Residual moisture.(gross) 21522 J g-l Sample 3.090 wt.265 wt. Ref use-derived fuel-3 (RDF-3) was obtained from the National Center for Resource Recovery (NCRR). 6.(gross) = 5144 cal g-' q. q. assume values refer t o room temperature. solid.14 wt. Residual moisture. %. 0.(gross) 4422 cal g-' qv(gross) = 18500 J g-' sample B q.(gross) = 9796 Btu lb. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature.(gross) = 4792 cal g-' qv(gross) = 20050 J g-' 77JEN/EAT REFUSE-DERIVED FUEL. ash-free basis.(gross) = 4482 cal g-l q. sulfur content.(gross) = 4790 cal g-' q. 96. q. 5. ash content. 0. sulfur content. %. and oils. %.1 q. Washington.C. 1979.(gtoss) = 8062 Btu -1 q.(gross) = 19850 J g-' 1 sample C q.031 wt. The refuse material contained significant amounts of reduced carbonaceous materials such as plastics. %. Sample I. ash content.62 wt.(gross) 8626 Btu lb. sample A q. %. values are on a moisture-free.(gross) = 7959 Btu lb.(gross) = 20040 J g-l sample D q. ash content.Ref use REFUSE. Sample was airdried and processed t o 0.

%.(gross) = 5867 cal gq. as content. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature.1 qv(gross) = 5221 cal g-' q&ross) = 21846 J g-l Sample 3. laboratory test analysis.095 wt. qv(gross) 9525 Btu-' q.65 wt. q. Cockeysville. %. %.(gtoss) = 24546 J g. Residual moisture.065 wt. operated by Teledyne National. Md. qv(gtoss) = 10553 Btu 1P-l q. tested during 1979. 0. Sample 1. %. 3.Refuse REFUSE-DERIVED FUEL.48 wt.80 wt.87 wt. 11. ash-free basis.26 wt. sulfur content. ash content. residual moisture. values are on a moisture-free.14 wt. Refuse-derived fuel-3 (RDF-3) was obtained from Americology. %. 5.(gross) = 21953 J g Sample 2. Refuse-derived fuel-3 (RDF-3) was obtained from t h e Baltimore County Resource Recovery Facility.1 q. %.. %. ash content. 0. Milwaukee.796 wt. 5. 0. %. solid. 0. sulfur content.5 mm particle size for laboratory test analysis. 4. sulfur content.(gross) 5247 cal q. %. 22. Residual moisture. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature.24-wt. ash-free basis. %. sulfur content.(gross) = 5295 cal qv(gross) = 22155 J g SLKIR/COL REFUSE-DERIVED FUEL. 15.(gross) = 9392 Btu lb. Sample was air-dried and processed t o 0. residual moisture. values are on a moisture-free. Wis.(gross) 9438 Btu Ib. 96.I 8 I KIRICOL 202 .52 wt. 29. 96.006 wt. Sample was air-dried and processed t o 0 5 mm particle size for . q.solid. ash content.

1 maximum q. ash-free basis.(gross) = 21983 J g-' 8 1KIR/COL REFUSE-DERIVED FUEL. solid. Residual moisture. solid. chlorine. magnetic metal removed. 1%-66. 20. dry basis.(gross) = 9451 Btu lb. 0. 1. ash content. and has a particle size of about 0. A synthetic ref use-derived fuel (RDF) has been developed at the National Bureau of Standards (NBS) and is designated as a standard reference material (SRM 1657).5 in.0%. and 5 mass % alumina.(gross) = 2597 cal gaverage q.3%-50.42 mm (-40 mesh). The composition of t h e synthetic RDF is approximately 80 mass % microcrystalline cellulose. solid. 9. and less. q. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature. ash content. particle size of 1. ash-free) 85COL REFUSE.(gross) = 5333 J maximum q.(gross) = 5020 Btu lbl 1 average q. Louis. Residual moisture content.1 maximum q.71 wt. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature.7 mass %. All components have a nominal particle size of 50 micrometers.6%-21.(gross) = 2295 Btu lb. Bridgeport.(gross) 3029 Btu lb. 13. gross heat of combustion: values refer t o 25OC (77°F).14%-0.05%-0. 1I. 12.(gross) = 4221 cal g-l maximum q. %. A sample of ECO FUEL-I1 RDF was obtained from Combustion Equipment Associates.3%. 3.46 wt.(gross) = 5254 cal gq.(gross) = 5963 Btu lbll (dry-basis) q.(gross) = 7598 Btu lb.1 %52.627 wt.34 f 0. q.(gross) = 11669 J g-l 74WIS/SUT 203 .2%.(gross) = 7430 Btu lb.' average q. unclassified material. 0. Conn. sulfur content.40%. MUNICIPAL.(gross) = 3315 cal g.1 minimum q. (batch 2) from 99 samples collected November 1973 through January 1974. 0.(gross) = 4675 Btu lb.(dry-basis) qv(gross) = 13870 J g-l (dry-basis) q. classified material.(dry.95%.(gross) = 1275 cal minimum q. values a r e on a moisture-free. 0.1 minimum q. sulfur.13%-0.(gross) = 4128 cal g-' maximum q. ash-free) qv(gross) = 4159 cal gi (dry. 7.94%.(gross) = 2789 cal gaverage q. 0.(gross) = 1683 cal minimum q.(gross) = 17270 J g-' average q. chlorine.(gross) = 7481 Btu Ib. batch 1 minimum q.(gross) = 17400 J g. 15 mass % silica.(gross) = 17661 J g-' average q.' q.28%.4%. waste from t h e city of St.(gross) = 10867 J g-' batch 2 minimum q.' (dry.54 mass %. (batch 1 ) from 210 samples collected April 1972 through February 1973. ash.Ref use REFUSE-DERIVED FUEL. light fraction only: moisture. heavy fraction of waste removed by air-density separation. ash-free) q. %.01%-0. with only magnetic metal removed: moisture.(gross) = 7041 J maximum q. %. ash. sulfur.

7%.2%. 1. coke. square mesh. vegetable matter. solid. pottery. 5. 4. etc. passin 1/4 in. coal. f sample 1 (dry basis) qv(gross) = 5598 Btu lbf 1 q. moisture. glass. animal matter.9%. glass.(gross) = 13012 f g-l sample 2 (dry basis) q. 17. 10.5%.1%. x 1/4 in. waste from a n English town. 34. etc. (sample I) (on dry basis): paper. 10. 36.3%. metal. 3.7%.6%. fines. 7 gross heat o combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature. 0.5%. metal. coke cinders.4%. rags.. 5.Ref use REFUSE..' q. wood.(gross) = 7308 Btu lb.0%. a. passing 1/4 in. and other noncombustible matter. 16.0%.8%. animal matter. cinders.3%. moisture. (sample 2) (on dry basis : paper. coal.1%. vegetable matter. 1.8%. square mesh.(gross) 4060 cal gqv(gross) 16987 J g-l 55SPI 204 .1%. fines. 45. 23. 0.3%.0%.9%. pottery. MUNICIPAL. 29. 4.(gross) = 31 10 c a l gq. 0. rags. 0.nd other non-combustible material. wood. x 1/4 in.

Rubber Materials .

12 1. amax No.9%).42. a n organic liquid.4 -369. styrene-butadiene. agerite HP (0. agerite resin D (0. and redax (0.4 -99. modifier = 0.6 12 1.3%).004 0. 1 (0.6.146 0.3%). % styrene.3%). ash = 0. There are four types of rubber used in tires: natural. soap as sodium oleate 0.90 44RAN/FER 207 .(gross) = 17000 Btu lbq. and a combustible gas of undetermined heating value (the process produced a mass loss of 65%).50. composed of 1-3 butadiene and 25 wt.0067 0.00 10 0. solid. gross heat o combustion: f solid residue q. solid.4 80.081 0.37. f a t t y acid as oleic acid = 0.2%).454 Cp(J g-1 K -1 ) 0.8%). sulfur (1.454 Cp(cal g-1 K . phenyl-beta-naphthylamine = 0.I ) 0. Gross heats of combustion were determined for t h e solid residue and organic liquid.4%). The destructive distillation of tires resulted in a solid residue.0067 0.028 0.1 q.92.146 0. Analysis of material gave t h e following in percent by weight: carbon = 88. HAF (28. microcrystalline wax (0.3%). A typical compounding formula for passenger t i r e treads made out of natural rubber: smoked sheet (57.268 0.(gross) = 40000 J g-' 1 organic liquid q.Rubber Materials DISCARDED AUTOMOBILES TIRES.4 -279.2607.26% 0.4 -441.954. specific heat: t e m erature (KP (OF) 5 10 50 100 200 300 Cp(Btu lb-' OF-') 0.6%).(gross) 13000 Btu lb. polyisoprene. hydrogen = 10.(gross) = 7200 cal g-' q.9%). stearic acid (1.44. and polybutadiene. zinc oxide (2%).4%).00 10 0.6%).(gross) = 30000 J g-' 74COL/DOW GR-S RUBBER. reogen (1.(gross) = 9600 cal g-' q. and amount soluble in ethanoltoluene azeotrope = 5. philrich 5 (2.0%1 0. antozite 675 (2.33% -450.6 0.

12%.1 %-0. 0.(gross) 19355 Btu Ib.(gross) = 10627 cal q. ether insoluble fraction. 25% ether insoluble.1% ash q. 0.352 0.4% ash qv(gross) q.017 0. specific heat: 15 20 50 100 200 300 -432 -423 -369 -279 -99 80 0. extracted with water and ethanol.(gross) = 45196 J sample 2. 0.(gross) = 44464 3 34JES/CUM 208 .02% ash sample 2.02% ash.(gross) = 10784 cal q.084 0. I54 0.(gross) = 44961 J q.8"F).1 Lf = 3.1 q. ash content average 0.(gross) = 19465 Btu lb.89 heat of fusion: at 110°C (51.154 0.017 0. 75% ether soluble.452 0. prepared by digestion of latex with steam at 190°C (374°F) and extraction of resins and products of hydrolysis with alcohol and water.15% ash q.(gross) = 19411 Btu lb. 0. ether insoluble fraction.(gross) = 45247 J sample 2. 0. (sample I): latex.028 0.44 I .I q. benzene-insoluble constituents averaged 0.344 0.344 0. (sample 2): latex.028 0. trypsin treated.073 0. gross heat of combustion: 30°C (86°F) sample 1.Rubber Materials i l PURIFIED NATURAL RUBBER HYDROCARBON.7 J g 35BEK/MAT RUBBER.(gross) = 19343 Btu Ib.99 cal Lf = 16.(gross) = 10746 cal q.(gross) q.(gross) = 19129 Btu Ib. 0. soluble in ether.03%. solid. ether soluble fraction.1 q.3%. solid.646 1. Lf = 7.1 qv(gross) = 10814 cal q.084 0.452 0.18 Btu Ib.(gross) = 45120 J sample 2.117 0. digested with water at 190°C (374'F).8% ash q.(gross) = 10802 cal q. Nitrogen content was about 0.7% ash q.1 10753 cal 44991 J sample 2. 1.(gross) = 19444 Btu Ib-' q.

pr ducts are a liqu'd distillate with a heat of combustion qv = 40000 J g (10000 c a l g.Rubber Materials RUBBER-SULFUR COMPOUNDS.) (18000 Btu lb.(gross) = 7800 c a l gq. maximum sulfur content .8 32 .4 0.2 1. Natural rubber 46 Smoked sheet SBR 1712 cis-Polybutadiene Reogen K-Stay G Stearic acid Zinc oxide Agerite resin D Agerite HP Antozite 67s Microcrystalline wax Philrich 5 HAF ISAF Sulfur Amax No.9 0. q.(gross) = 700 c a l gq.7 0. sulfur as gaseous SO2.S 1.4 2 0.(gross) 32640 J g-l P-' 74COL/DOW 209 .3 2 2 gross heat of combustion: at 30°C (86"F).37828 m J g-' m is grams of sulfur per gram of compound 34 JES/CUM TIRE.(gross) = 3000 J g-' P-' gross heat of combustion: value for the tire residue remaining a f t e r heating to 1000°C (1832°F).(gross) = 45150 . y varies between 0 and 3.(gross) = 1260 Btu 1 q.4 0.8 0.3 0.7 - - 1. typical compounding formulae for passenger t i r e treads.6 SBR cis-polybutadiene* % 1.2 1.f ) and a combustible gas.5 2.9 1.(gross) = 10791 .9041 m cal g-' q.8 11.3 *SBR is styrene-butadiene rubber gross heat of decomposition: at 375°C (707°F) t h e mean value is for random samples of black-sidewal t i r e tread.5 0.6 46.3 0. x varies between 1 and 4. -' P q. 29. I Amax Redax 57. solid.9 28.3 2.8 0.3 - 0.3 2.(gross) = 14000 Btu 1 q. solid. q. repeating unit: [(C3H8).

Vegetable Oils .

oleic = 4. q. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature.01241 T .292 + 0.10.22.1987 x T2 + 9.1 q.1 82GOE/SCH CASTOR OIL. water and sediment (% by volume) = trace.474 x lo-' T3 46CLA/ WAL 213 .2. oil from seeds of t h e castor bean.Vegetable Oils BARLEY OIL. and sulfur (% by weight) = 0. and ricinoleic = 89.9537 kg/L. obtained by ether extraction. Iodine number 83 a f t e r heating at 100°C (212°F) for 3 t o 6 hours at 2-3 mm pressure.264 x 10-8 7-3 = -5. carbon residue (% by weight) = 0.41281 + 1. ash (% by weight) 0.8820 x 10-9 T3 = -1.60. liquid.4892 x lo-' T2 + 3. Hordeum vulgare. t h e phosphorus = 3. peroxide value (milliequivalents of peroxide pet 1000 g sample t h a t oxidize KI during test conditions) 9.K- q-' = 0.965 g ~ r n at ~ . specific heat: 298-548 K (77"-527"F) Cp(Btu lb-I O . oil from barley.85.05192 T .01. q.(gross) = 16036 Btu lb. The vegetable oil has a chemica composition of up t o 3 f a t t y acids linked to a glycerine molecule with ester linkages.09.1.(gross) = 8909 cal g-l q.2259 x T . density is 0.(gross) = 16330 Btu 1 q.01. linoleic = 1.265 + 0.8650 x T2 + 2. Ricinus communis.945-0. liquid. chief constituent: glyceride of ricinoleic acid ( 12-hydroxyoleic acid). liquid. t h e f a t t y acid composition in percent by weight is palmitic = 1.(gross) = 37274 J g. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature.25°C (77°F). Saponification number 175-183.) F' Cp(cal Cp(J g.21.6.27.(gross) = 9070 cal gqv(gross) = 37950 J g-' P-' 55MER/WAT CASTOR OIL. Density = 0.3. The acid value (number of mg of KOH needed t o neutralize free fatty acids in 1 g sample) = 0.0 ppm. stearic 3.

00 15.(gtoss) = 16330 Btu Ib.79 69.45 20.35 86.6 cal gLf = 128.(gross) = 37950 J g-l 55MERIWAT 214 .62 124.(gross) = 9070 cal g-l q.Vegetable Oils COCONUT OIL.00 35. temperature ("C) (OF) H"(t)-H0(-50 "C) B t u Ib-I cal g-1 J g-l 0.0 J g-l Lf Lf 55RIE COCONUT OIL. and linoleic acids.1 q. The amount of iodine absorbed and expressed as a percentage of t h e molecular weight (a measure of the proportion of unsaturated fatty acid present) called the iodine number 10.5%) acids. 1 30.1 Btu Ib. q. COCOS nucifera.00 8. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature. Saponification number 253-262. capric. remainder made JP of glycerides of capyrlic. liquid.72 49.37 -50 -25 0 25 50 55 -58 -13 32 77 122 131 0.97 129.69 208. enthalpy difference: temperature range measured -40" to 55°C (-58" to 131°F). which is the mean molecular weight of the fatty acids present in the molecule = 255. extracted from coconut meat.43 71.22 0.32 290.21 37. mixture of glycerides of lauric (-48%) and myristic (-17. liquid. stearic. oleic. palmitic.79 heat of fusion: result is a mean value for temperature range -50" t o 55°C (-38" t o 131°F).50 300. 55. The saponification number.30 89.

ash (% by weight) 0.0 ppm. sitosteral.07. oleic = 13.60. oleic. q. The vegetable oil has a chemical composition of up t o 3 f a t t y acids linked t o a glycerine molecule with ester linkages. 2%. and linoleic = 57. linked to a glycerine molecule with ester linkages. 1%. stearic 0. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature.48. extracted from corn (maize). Zea mays. linolenic = 0.(gross) = 39468 J g-' 82GOE/SCH 215 . carbon residue (% by weight) = 0. water and sediment (% by volume) 0.24. 46.33.4%. liquid. 3. stearic = 1.16. t h e phosphorus = 8. Density = 0.11.9095 kg/L.5%. water and sediment (% by volume) = trace.01. The acid value (number of mg of KOH needed t o neutralize free f a t t y acids in 1 g sample) = 0.67. stearic.0 ppm. Iodine number 117-130.24.(gross) = 16980 Btu 1 qv(gross) = 9433 cal gq.3%.89.01. f a t t y acid composition: palmitic. qv(gross) = 16993 B t u 1 qv(gross) = 9441 cal gqv(gross) = 39500 J g-l 82COE/SCH CORN OIL (MAIZE). peroxide value (milliequivalents of peroxide per 1000 g sample t h a t oxidize KI during test conditions) = 64. unsaponifiable. liquid. t h e f a t t y acid composition in percent by weight is palmitic = 28. The vegetable oil has a chemical composition of up to 3 f a t t y acids I. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature.85. I .6%. and arachidic = 0.4. qv(gross) = 16700 Btu lbqv(gross) = 9280 c a l g-l q. oleic = 25. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature.9148 kg/L.0%. t h e phosphorus = 7.27. carbon residue (% by weight) = 0.Vegetable Oils CORN O L liquid. and sulfur (% by weight) = 0.24. ash (% by weight) = 0.(gtoss) = 38830 J g-l 1 55MER/WAT COTTONSEED OIL. t h e f a t t y acid composition in percent by weight is palmitic 11.01.04. peroxide value (milliequivalents of peroxide per 1000 g sample t h a t oxidize KI during test conditions) = 18. 98. The acid value (number of mg of KOH needed t o neutralize free f a t t y acids in 1 g sample) = 0.01.51. typical analysis: triglycerides. linoleic. and sulfur (% by weight) = 0. Density = 0. linoleic = 60. 42.8.

oleic (-33%).2398 x 10-6 T2 = 2. HYDROGENATED.16 0.62 107.1875 x T2 46CLAIWAL COTTONSEED OIL.33 250.4.00 13.9822 x T + 5.4962 + 8. temperature ("C> -50 (OF) Btu lb-I H"(t)-Ho(-500C) cal g-l J g-l 0.00 23. Iodine number 6.before measurement. which is t h e mean molecular weight of t h e f a t t y acids present in t h e molecule 195.92 g ~ m .I Lf = 16. specific heat: 353-543 K (176'-518"F) Cp(Btu lb-I O . enthalpy difference: temperature range measured -50" t o 55°C (-58" to 13 I OF).5363 .19 33.16 86. Lf = 30.7 1 260.00 55.2439 .K ' -) q = 0.42 48. stearic (-2%).83' 201.86 112.91-0. liquid.liquid.) F' -1 K-l) Cp(cal Cp(J g.1. chief constituents a r e glycerides of palmitic (-21%).31 -25 0 25 50 55 -13 32 77 122 131 heat of fusion: result is a mean value for temperature range -50" t o 55°C (-58' to 131OF). The saponification number. oil ~ .7 1 -58 0.74 60. The amount of iodine absorbed and expressed as a percentage of t h e molecular weight (a measure of t h e proportion of unsaturated f a t t y acid present) called t h e iodine number = 107. was heated at 100°C (212°F)for 3 to 6 hours at 2-3 mm of Hg t o remove moisture. REFINED.8 cal 55RIE 216 .7376 x T + 1.19 139. yellow oil from various Gossipyium species.8265 x 10-7 T2 = 0. 0. and linoleic (-44%) acids.859 x lo" T + 3.92 62.I2 59. densi iy.5.2 Btu Ib.Vegetable Oils COTTONSEED OIL.

2.(gross) 40482 J g-' 82GOE/SCH GROUND NUT SEED OIL. F a t t y acids found in t h e oil: lauric (0.05. Density = 0.85. The vegetable oil has a chemical composition of up to 3 f a t t y acids linked to a glycerine molecule with ester linkages.(gross) = 9675 cal gq.23. linolenic = 6.75. t h e phosphorus = 0.9210. oleic = 79.07. gross heat o combustion: assume values refer to room temperature.1 q. stearic (2. The acid value (number of mg of KOH needed to neutralize f r e e f a t t y acids in 1 g sample) = 0. linolenic (1. and rnyristic = 0. arachidic 2. q.62%). carbon residue (96 by weight) = 0.1 mg KOH/g.36. water and sediment (% by volume) 0. liquid.(gross) = 17118 Btu lb.38%). and erucic (0.0 ppm. Specific gravity.42 ppm. The acid value (number of mg of KOH needed t o neutralize free f a t t y acids in 1 g sample) = 0. The vegetable oil is a genetic variant of normal safflower oil and has a chemical composition of up t o 3 fatty acids linked t o a glycerine molecule with ester linkages. t h e f a t t y acid composition in percent by weight is palrnitic = 2.55%).(gross) = 17416 Btu 1 q.51.60%). and erucic = 58.9021 kg/L.9044 kg/L.30%). palmitic (17. water and sediment (% by volume) trace. (15/15"C) = 0. and sulfur (% by weight) = 0.(gross) = 39790 J g-l 75KOM/DAN HIGH OLEIC SAFFLOWER OIL. oleic (39.(gross) = 39516 J g-' 82GOE/SCH 217 .12. behenic = 0. linoleic = 12. liquid.09. Material was extracted from industrially stored oil seeds and the acid value was 10.86.23.00%). t h e phosphorus = 12.86. carbon residue (% by weight) = 0. linoleic = 9. palmitoleic (0.001.15%). arachidic = 0. stearic 0.02. t h e f a t t y acid composition in percent by weight is palmitic 5. and sulfur (% by weight) = 0. q.40%).26.01. ash (% by weight) = 0.Vegetable Oils CRAMBE OIL. eicosenoic (2. lignoceric = 1.(gross) = 9510 c a l g-l q. f qv(gross) 17000 Btu 1 qv(gross) = 9445 c a l gq.80. Density = 0.5.46. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature. liquid.70. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature. peroxide value (rnilliequivalents of peroxide per 1000 g sample that oxidize KI during test conditions) = 13.24.6. oleic = 18. ash (% by weight) = 0.00.34. linoleic (37. stearic = 1.00%). peroxide value (rnilliequivalents of peroxide per 1000 g sample t h a t oxidize KI during test conditions) = 26.36.

81 mg KOH/g. density.5%).03.~ .26%). water and sediment (96 by volume = trace.77%).20.41604 + 6.7.1.K-l) = 0.2434 x x x x x T2 + 2. carbon residue (% by weight) 0.(gross) = 39307 J g-l 82GOE/SCH LINSEED OIL. ash (% by weight) = 0.6.0%). The acid value (number of mg of KOH needed t o neutralize f r e e fatty acids in 1 g sample) = 0. Density = 0. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature.41.0 ppm.9272 + 2. oleic (21. specific heat: sample was heated at 100°C (212°F) for 3 to 6 hours under a pressure of 2-3 rnm of Hg t o remove moisture.1.(gross) = 9395 c a l g. linoleic (12.70. iodine .1 q. stearic (5.94.1420 T2 + 1. The vegetable oil has a chemical composition of up to 3 fatty acids linked to a glycerine molecule with ester linkages. qv(gross) = 17073 B t u 1 qv(gross) = 9485 c a l gq. linoleic = 18. 0.9526 = -0.930-0.number 172.2492 T2 + 5.929 g a' n. and sulfur (% by weight) = 0.92. t h e phosphorus = 6. t h e f a t t y acid composition in percent by weight is palmitic = 4.6518 T . palmitic (-5%). Linum usitatissiurnurn.5%) acids.01.938 g ~ m . linolenic (-25. equations valid 30"-270OC (86"-518"F). I.4288 -1. Density (15°C) = 0. P gross heat of combustion: assume values r e f e r t o room temperature.2267 x x x T3 lo-' T3 10-8 T3 46CLA/WAL 218 . oleic (-5%). and linolenic (51.98%).chief constituents a r e glycerides of linoleic (-61.6898 x T . stearic = 2. oleic 19.4922 T . and linolenic = 54. and stearic (-3.4606 + 6. Material was extracted from industrially st red oil seeds and t h e acid value was 3.(gross) = 16910 Btu lb'l q. q.32%). liquid. peroxide value (milliequivalents of peroxide per 1000 g Sam le t h a t oxidize KI during test conditions) 33.Vegetable Oils 1 : LINSEED OIL. liquid. obtained from dried seeds of flax. liquid.9236 kg/L.67%).01.22. F a t t y acids found in t h e oil: palmitic (8.(gross) = 39685 J' g-l P-' 75KOM/DAN LINSEED OIL. (flaxseed oil). Cp(Btu lb-I OF-') C+al K-1 q1 Cp(J g.

(gross) = 39620 J g. obtained by ether extraction. stearic. The saponification number.1 Lf = 18.23 62. liquid. liquid. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature.Vegetable Oils LINSEED OIL.(gross) = 9470 cal gq. enthalpy difference: temperature range measured -50" t o 55°C ( .1 55MERIWAT 219 . Saponification number 185-1 96. obtained from oats. The amount of iodine absorbed and expressed as a percentage of t h e molecular weight (a measure of t h e proportion of unsaturated f a t t y acid present) called t h e iodine number = 176. temperature ("0 -50 -25 0 ("€9 -58 -13 Btu Ib-I.56 J g-I 0.32 37.00 43.18 155.77 203. mixture of glycerides of several f a t t y acids.89 252.(gross) = 17050 Btu 1 q.7 1 108.01 87.41 112.2 cal 55RIE OAT OIL. chiefly glycerides of oleic acid.61 heat of fusion: result is a mean value for temperature range -50" t o 55°C (-58" t o 131OF). Avena sotiva.(gross) 37365 J g-l P-' 55MERlWAT OLIVE OIL.58 67. 16070 0tu I q.8 Btu Ib.00 26 1. with lesser amounts of palmitic.73 60. Lf 32. and linoleic acids.5 8 O t o 131°F).(gross) q. UNREFINED.75 32 25 50 55 77 122 131 18.(gross) = 8930 c a l gq.00 Ho( t)-H"(-SO"C) c a l g-l 0. which is t h e mean molecular weight of t h e f a t t y acids present in t h e molecule = 190. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature. q. liquid.23 48.00 10. 0.

08 Ho(t)-Ho(-50"C) c a l g-1 0.99 73. The saponification number. HARDENED. The amount of iodine absorbed and expressed as a percentage of t h e molecular weight (a measure of t h e proportion of unsaturated f a t t y acid present) called t h e iodine number = 96.79 0.71 262.32 72.00 9.10 62.74 85. temperature .1 133. enthalpy difference: temperature range measured -50" t o 55°C (-58" to 131°F).49 50.24 36.98 H"(t)-H"(-50° C) c a l g-' J g-l 25 50 55 -58 -13 32 77 122 131 0. temperature ("C) -50 -25 0 (OF) Btu lb-' 0.01 J g-l 0.00 50 55 -58 -13 32 77 122 131 91.2 Btu Ib.96 294.00 16.1 J g-l 55r1e 220 .3 1 212.98 171.00 37.5 Btu lb. The amount of iodine absorbed and expressed as a percentage of t h e molecular weight (a measure of t h e proportion of unsaturated fatty acid present) called t h e iodine number = 60.50 34.58 131.73 117.84 62.02 heat of fusion: result is a mean value for temperature range -50" t o 55°C (-58O t o 131°F).75 144.("C) -50 -25 0 25 (OF) Btu lb-I 0.10 70.04 272. Lf Lf Lf 57.51 112. which is t h e mean molecular weight of the f a t t y acids present in t h e molecule = 194.55 126.00 17.02 20.00 9.Vegetable Oils OLIVE OIL. Lf Lf 36.63 65. which is t h e mean molecular weight of t h e f a t t y acids present in the molecule = 199. solid.1 20.8 cal g.22 304.55 41.1 31. enthalpy difference: temperature range measured -50" t o 55°C (-58" t o 131°F). The saponification number.3 cal 55r1e PALM OIL.00 39.02 heat of fusion: result is a mean value for temperature range -50" t o 55°C (-58" to 131OF). ITALIAN? liquid.

which is t h e mean molecular weight of t h e f a t t y acids present in t h e molecule = 200.37 0. The saponification number.14 124.0 c a l g-' Lf 133.65 22.71 123.88 heat of fusion: result is a mean value for temperature range -50" t o 55°C (-58" t o 131OF).Vegetable Oils PALM OIL.30 69.6 Btu lb.9 J g-l 55RIE . liquid.97 129.68 118.25 38.30 52.38 0.07 0. temperature ("C) (OF) -50 Btu lb-I H "(t)-Ho(-500C) c a l g-l f g-l -25 0 25 50 55 -58 -13 32 77 122 131 0.4 Btu lb.95 68.00 8.03 21. The saponification number.06 heat of fusion: result is a mean value for temperature range -50" to 55°C (-58" to 131 O ) F.14 94. The amount of iodine absorbed and expressed as a percentage of t h e molecular weight (a measure of t h e proportion of unsaturated f a t t y acid present) called the iodine number = 16. enthalpy difference: temperature range measured -50" to 55°C (-58" t o 131°F).78 90. which is t h e mean molecular weight of t h e f a t t y acids present in t h e molecule = 242.57 40.08 208.00 9.45 275.00 37.82 290.8 c a l g-l Lf = 107.9 J g-l 55RIE PALM-KERNEL OIL. enthalpy difference: temperature range measured -50" to 35°C (-5S0 to 131OF).30 218. UNREFINED.93 286.1 Lf = 32. The amount of iodine absorbed and expressed as a percentage of t h e molecular weight (a measure of t h e proportion of unsaturated f a t t y acid present) called t h e iodine number = 55.53 49.00 15.00 16. Lf = 57.1 Lf = 25.43 71.50 300.75 -25 0 25 50 55 -13 32 77 122 131 0. Lf = 46.00 36. temperature ("C) (OF) -50 -58 Btu lb-I H "( t)-Ho (-50 "C) c a l g-l J g-l 0.82 65. liquid.19 93.75 89.

1 Lf = 19. ash (% by weight) 0.74 90. enthalpy difference: temperature range measured -50" t o 55°C (-58" t o 131 OF). and sulfur (94 by weight) = 0. UNREFINED.52. liquid.I P-' 82GOE/SCH PEANUT OIL.85 66.21 62.28. which is t h e mean molecular weight of the f a t t y acids present in t h e molecule = 192. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature.24.0 16.87 t o 55°C -50 -25 0 23 -58 -13 32 50 55 77 122 131 00 .16 155.23. water and sediment (% by volume) = trace. The saponification number.01. 1000 g sample t h a t oxidize KI during test conditions) 82.0 c a l ' to 55RIE 222 . temperature ("C) (OF) Btu lb-l Ho( "( -50"C) t)-H cal g-l 0.14 210.00 9.95.93. Density = 0. The acid value (number of mg of KOH needed to neutralize free f a t t y acids in I g sample) 0. oleic = 48.39.08 J &-I 0.7.2 Btu Ib.32? behenic = 2. liquid. t h e phosphorus = 9 0 ppm. The amount of iodine absorbed and expressed as a percentage of t h e molecular weight (a measure of t h e proportion of unsaturated f a t t y acid present) called t h e iodine number 92. The vegetable oil has a chemical composition of up t o 3 f a t t y acids linked to a glycerine molecule with ester linkages. and lignoceric = 1.12 1 16. linolenic = 0. arachidic = 1.90 39.08 260.74 heat of fuslm: result is a mean value Lx temperature range 131°F).38 112. peroxide value (milliequivalents of peroxide per . qv(gross) = 171 15 Btu 1 qv(gross) = 9508 cal gqv(gross) = 39782 J g. carbon residue (% by weight) = 0.9026 kg/L.38? stearic = 2.005. linoleic = 31.53 50.29 64. Lf 34. t h e f a t t y acid composition in percent by weight is palmitic = 11.62 270.20.36 37.Vegetable Oils PEANUT OIL.

with small amounts of palmitic (-8%) and oleic (8%) acids.000 T + 4. chief constituents are glycerides of linoleic (-39%) and linolenic (-46%) acids.410 = 1. The amount of iodine absorbed and expressed as a percentage of t h e molecular weight (a measure of t h e proportion of unsaturated f a t t y acid present) called t h e iodine number = 146.41 207.3 Btu lb. which is t h e mean molecular weight of t h e f a t t y acids present in t h e molecule = 193. enthalpy difference: temperature range measured -50" to 55°C (-58" t o 131O F ) . Iodine number 186.2. Lf = 33.1 Lf = 18.008 x x x T + 3. The saponification number.16 38.68 0.499 = 0. liquid. temperature ("C) (OF) -50 -25 0 25 50 55 -58 -13 32 77 122 131 B t u Ib-' 0.10 49.30 H"(t)-H"(-SO"C) cal g-l J g-1 0.1. obtainet from seeds o PeriZZa ocimoides. 22F oil was heated at 100°C ( 1 ' ) for 3 to 6 hours at 2-3 mm of Hg t o remove moisture.1 1 114.00 11.17 63.58 89.94 265. density.69 159.5 cal 55RIE 223 .086 T + 1.K-l) q = 0. 0.00 20.66 61.5350 + 1.93-0.7081 .2.Vegetable Oils PERILLA OIL. specific heat: 279-543 K (43"-518"F) Cp(Btu lb-' OF-') -1 K-1) Cp(cal Cp(J g.09 68. liquid.39 110.4082 .00 46. ~ .before measurement.94 g ~ m .184 x x x T2 10-6 T 2 10-6 T2 46CLA/WAL POPPY SEED OIL. BLEACHED.78 255.50 heat o fusion: result is a mean value for temperature range -50" t o 55°C (-58" to f 131°F).

(gross) = 40648 J 75KOM/DAN 224 . The amount of iodine absorbed and expressed as a percentage of t h e molecular weight (a measure of t h e proportion of unsaturated f a t t y acid present) called t h e iodine number = 105. palmitoleic (0.49%). stearic (1.27 26.42 -58 -13 32 77 122 131 heat of fusion: result is a mean value for temperature range -50" to 55°C (-58' to 131OF).1 q. liquid. linoleic (15.87 J g-' 0. REFINED.75 91.44961.6 1 62.53 50. Material was extracted from industrially stored oil seeds and t h e acid value was 10.48 64.77 ("C) -50 -25 0 25 50 55 (OF) cal g-l 0. F a t t y acids found in t h e oil: palmitic (3.Vegetable Oils RAPE OIL. eicosenoic (9.12%).93%). The saponification number.79 11 1.42 27 1. linolenic (6.00 16. enthalpy difference: temperature range measured -50" to 55°C (-58" t o 131°F).9134. temperature H"( "(-50 C ) t)-H Btu Ib-I 0. and erucic (47. liquid.75 26 1. which is t h e mean molecular weight of the f a t t y acids present in t h e molecule = 175.(gross) = 9715 cal q.29%).00 38. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature.6 Btu Ib-I Lf 19.8 cal 55RIE RAPESEED OIL. Lf 35.00 21 1.84%). qv(gross) 17487 Btu Ib.00 9.77%).77 mg KOH/g.10 112.69 47.46 116.32%). The specific gravity (15/15OC) 0. oleic (14.

qv(gross) = 16780 Btu lb.(gross) = 16560 B t u I q. linoleic = 22.006. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature. and sulfur (% by weight) = 0. oil extracted from rye grain.1 q.01. The acid value (number of mg of KOH needed t o neutralize free f a t t y acids in 1 g sample) = 0. The vegetable oil has a chemical composition of up t o 3 f a t t y acids linked t o a glycerine molecule with ester linkages.2. liquid.9144 kg/L. liquid.4.70.01. qv(gross) = 17001 Btu 1 q.93. Secale cereale. stearic = 1.85.0 ppm. The acid value (number of mg of KOH needed to neutralize free fatty acids in 1 g sample) = 1. ash (% by weight) = 0.9115 kg/L. carbon residue (% by weight) = 0. oleic = 64. water and sediment (% by volume) trace.89. and linolenic = 8. gross heat of combustion: assume values r e f e r to room temperature. and sulfur (% by weight) = 0. peroxide value (milliequivalents of peroxide per 1000 g sample t h a t oxidize KI during test conditions) = 30.(gross) 9200 cal gq. qy(gross) = 17083 Btu 1 qv(gross) = 9491 c a l gqv(gross) = 39709 J g-l 82GOE/SCH RYE OIL.(gross) = 9445 cal gqv(gross) = 39519 J g-l 82GOE/SCH 225 .23. Density = 0.40. carbon residue (96 by weight) = 0. peroxide value (milliequivalents of peroxide per 1000 g sample t h a t oxidize KI during test conditions) = 56.(gross) = 38495 J g-l 55MER/WAT SAFFLOWER OIL. The vegetable oil has a chemical composition of up t o 3 f a t t y acids linked t o a glycerine molecule with ester linkages. t h e phosphorus = 18. liquid.(gross) = 9320 cal g-' qv(gross) = 38990 3 g-l obtained by ether extraction q. stearic 0. and linoleic = 77.30. t h e phosphorus = 20. oleic = 11.30. water and sediment (% by volume) = trace. t h e f a t t y acid composition in percent by weight is palmitic = 3.58.14.0 ppm.25. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature. t h e f a t t y acid composition in percent by weight is palmitic 8.Vegetable Oils RAPESEED OIL.054. Density = 0. ash (% by weight) = 0.49.60.

and sulfur (96 by weight) = 0.Vegetable Oils SESAME OIL.4 250.79 260.3 cal 9-l Lf 68. peroxide value (milliequivalents of peroxide per 1000 g sample t h a t oxidize KI during test conditions) = 22. Density = 0. t h e f a t t y acid composition in percent by weight is palmitic = 13. The amount of iodine absorbed and expressed as a percentage of t h e molecular weight (a measure of t h e proportion of unsaturated f a t t y acid present) called t h e iodine number = 110.24 59.00 10.3 Btu Ib-I Lf = 16.01.25. temperature H"( t )-H (-50 O C) O ("C) -50 (OF) Btu Ib-l c a l g-l J g-1 -25 0 25 50 55 -58 -13 32 77 122 131 0. ash (% by weight) = 0.00 18.78 48.92. t h e phosphorus = 10. liquid. carbon residue (% by weight) 0.4. water and sediment (% by volume) = trace. The vegetable oil has a chemical composition of up t o 3 f a t t y acids linked t o a glycerine molecule with ester linkages.14.(gross) 39349 J g-' P-' 82GOE/SCH 226 .40 86.84.9133 kg/L. oleic = 52.94 62. Lf = 29. The saponification number.83 107.70 201 8 .96. The acid value (number of mg of KOH needed to neutralize free fatty acids in 1 g sample) = 4.19 0.2 J g- 55RIE SESAME OIL. stearic = 3.0 ppm.00 42. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature.93 149.47 64.01.79 heat of fusion: result is a mean value for temperature range -50" to 55°C (-58' t o 131°F). enthalpy difference: temperature range measured -50" to 55°C (-58' to 131OF). liquid.89 112.33 0. qv(gross) 16928 Btu 1 qv(gross) = 9405 cal gq.10. and linoleic = 30.26 35. which is t h e mean molecular weight of t h e f a t t y acids present in t h e molecule = 189.

average composition: proteins.5. The saponification number. t h e bean of Soia hispida (Leguminosae).55 (mote) -25 0 25 -58 -13 50 55 32 77 122 131 0. linoleic = 55.Vegetable Oils SOYBEAN OIL.53.0 ppm. t h e f a t t y acid composition in percent by weight is palmitic = 11.4. specific heat: sample was heated at 100°C (212°F) for 3 t o 6 hours under a pressure of 2-3 mm of Hg to remove moisture.(gross) = 17046 Btu 1 qv(gross) 9470 c a l gq. temperature ("C) -50 (OF) Btu lb'l 0. which is t h e mean molecular weight of the f a t t y acids present in the molecule = 190. enthalpy difference: temperature range measured -50" t o 55°C (-58" to 131OF).(gross) = 39623 J g-l 82GOE/SCH SOYBEAN OIL.93 252. remainder urease raff inose.01. Density = 0. water and sediment (% by volume) = trace.2. liquid.912 x = 0. oils. q.76 262.00 18. saponins.8470 x = 0. liquid.64 152.371 x 3 K -1 10-8 T 3 46CLA/WAL SOYBEAN OIL. and isoflavone. density is 0.5.858 x T .47779 + 5.26.95 H"(t)-Ho(-50aC) c a l g-l J g-' 0. carbon residue (% by weight) = 0.03911 + 2. 40%. iodine number 122-134.00 42. The vegetable oil has a chemical composition of up to 3 f a t t y acids linked t o a glycerine molecule with ester linkages.1957 x lo-* T .10 T3 T2 + 5. The amount of iodine absorbed and expressed as a percenta2e of the molecular weight (a measure of the proportion of unsaturated f a t t y acid present) called t h e iodine number = 133.2622 x = 0.925 g Saponification number 189-193. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature.474 x T2 + 9. stearic = 3.30 203. Cp(Btu Ib-I OF-') c (cal K-') Cp ( J g T . phosphatides.40 48. stachyose.20.52 87. oleic = 22.34 65. t h e phosphorus 32.667 x 10-9 T3 T2 + 2. at 15°C (50°F). peroxide value (milliequivalents of peroxide per 1000 g sample t h a t oxidize KI during test conditions) = 44.75.74 60.75 227 . The acid value (number of mg of KOH needed t o neutralize free f a t t y acids in 1 g sample) = 0.5. and sulfur (94 by weight) = 0. 2%.16362 + 1. and linolenic = 6.9138 kg/L.15.41 62.7171 x 10. REFINED.3 I.19 36. 18%. phytosterins.74 112.01. ash (% by weight) = 0.73 108.00 10. liquid.27.

REFINED .66%).0 to 55OC (-58" t o 5' Y Lf = 32. and linolenic (2.15.81 mg KOH/ Specific gravity (15/15OC) = 0.(gross) = 9570 cal gq.10%). liquid. SEED OIL. The vegetable oil has chemical compositi of up to 3 f a t t y acids linked t o a glycerine m d e c u l e with ester linkages.0 ppm.23.(gross) 39575 J g-l P-' 82GOE/SCH SUNFLOWER.(gross) = 9459 cal gq. liquid.Continued heat of fusion: result is a mean value for temPerature range . Material was extracted from industrially stored oil seeds and t h e acid value was 3.9 cal Lf = 74. the-fatty acid composition in percent by weight is palmitic = 6. The acid value (number of mg of KOH needed t o neutralize f r e e f a t t y acids in 1 g sample) = 0.(gross) = 40041 J g-l 75KOMlDAN 228 .93. q.01.stearic (9.06% . oleic (23. carbon residue (% by weight) = 0.Vegetable Oils SOYBEAN OIL. ash (% by weight) = 0.73. Density = 0. stearic = 3.7. Fatty acids found in t h e oil: palmitic (7.01. qv(gross) = 17226 Btu 1P-l q.33%). t h e phosphorus = 15.2 Btu Ib-' Lf = 17. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature. and sulfur (% by weight) = 0. peroxide value (milliequivalents of peroxide per 1000 g sample t h a t oxidize KI during test conditions) = 10.9 J g- y1 55RIE SUNFLOWER OIL.08.(gross) = 17026 Btu I q. B gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature.9208. oleic = 16. linoleic (56.9161 kg/L. and linoleic = 73. water and sediment (% by volume) trace.41%).26.

15%) acids. oil was heated at 100°C ( 1 ' ) for 3 to 6 hours at 2-3 mm of Hg pressure to remove moisture.5324 + 2.60 50.00 9.53 268.Vegetable Oils SUNFLOWER OIL.33 161.5641 = -2. 22F Iodine number 154.K-l) q-' = 0. The amount of iodine absorbed and expressed as a percentage of t h e molecular weight (a measure of t h e proportion of unsaturated f a t t y acid present) called t h e iodine number = 135.22 115.2178 T2 + 5.50 209. oleic (. The saponification number.92 69.37651 + 7.942 g ~ r n .6053 + 7. Lf = 34.9928 x T .48 90.53 258. 0. stearic (. specific heat: 293-473 K (68'-39Z°F) Cp(Btu lb-l OF-') Cp(cal K' -) Cp(J g. enthalpy difference: temperature range measured -50" t o 55°C (-58"t o 131°F).936-0.08 61. which is t h e mean molecular weight of the f a t t y acids present in t h e molecule = 186. density.15 J g-l -58 -13 25 50 55 32 77 122 131 0.2 Btu Ib*1 Lf 19.1. a yellow drying oil from t h e nuts of t h e trees Aleurites COrdQta and Aleurites fordii.1%). glycerides of eleostearic (-80%).00 39. palmitic (-4%).79 64.6.0447 x T .9479 = -0.47 c a l g-l 0. liquid.0881 T2 + 1.9475 x lo-* T . UNREFINED.0954 x x x 10-9 T3 10-8 ~3 10-8 T 3 46CLA/WAL 229 .40 heat o fusion: result is a mean value for temperature range -50" t o 55°C (-58" to f 13 1O ) F. liquid.40 38. and ~.1.00 16.before measurement.0 cal 55RIE TUNG OIL. temperature H (t)-H' (-50 C ) O ("C> -50 -25 0 (OF) Btu Ib-I 0.4687 x x x T2 + 2.4.14 111.

(gross) = 16850 Btu 1 q. q. Triticum aestivurn. from wheat grain. liquid.Vegetable Oils WHEAT OIL. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature.(gross) = 37950 J g-l 55MER/WAT 230 .1 q.(gross) = 39162 J g-l oil obtained by ether extraction qv(gross) = 16330 Btu Ib.(gross) = 9360 cal gq.(gross) = 9070 cal g-l q.

Woody and Tree Materials .

Overall mean specific gravity for whole t r e e = 0.(gross) = 8248 Btu Ib. small parts whole t r e e q.(gross) = 4415 cal g. values not corrected for moisture or ash contents.(gross) = 4726 cal g-' q.07%.(gtoss) 7947 Btu lb.(gross) = 4582 cal g-l q. a r e on an as-determined basis.1 qv(gross) = 4425 cal g-' qv(gross) = 18514 J g-' large parts q. hence.(gross) 8507 Btu lb-I q. AZnus rubru. solid.) in diameter and roughly equivalent t o tops and branches) and large parts with t h e weighted proportion of small (25%) and large (75%) material in t h e whole tree. 0. 6. ultimate analysis: carbon.37 (oven dry weight and green volume).8%.(gross) = 18472 J g-l 55CHA/MIT ASH. q.(gross) 4543 cal g-' q. nitrogen. BARK.27%. solid. ash free. gross heat of combustion determined on 1 g samples of air-dried bark. solid. ash content = 3. EUROPEAN BLACK. 0. ash. assume values refer to room temperature.Woody and Tree Materials ALDER. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature.18%.1 q. moisture content 5. gross heat of combustion: 20°C (68°F). q. 49.1 q. Bark proportion of whole t r e e = 23%.1 q.(gross) = 19008 J g-' qv(gross) = 7965 Btu lb. gross heat of combustion: oven-dried.64 c m (1/4 in. AZnus gzutinosa.1%. Fraxinus excelsior. hydrogen.(gross) = 19774 J g-' 1883GOT 233 .(gross) 8177 Btu lb-I q. Each tree was separated into small parts (being less than 0.57%. RED.(gross) = 19171 J g-l 81GEY ALDER.air-dried at 110°-1150C (23Oo-24O0F).

(gross) = 20159 J g-l leaves: qv(gross) = 9214 Btu 1bI1 q. Fraxinus pennsytvanica. bole wood qv(gross) = 8356 Btu lb. mean basal stem diameter = 7.(gross) = 8672 Btu Ib. values a r e on a dry weight basis.(gross) = 4818 cai gq.I q. 1 q. Material was collected from t h e southern Atlantic and Gulf coastal plains in bottom-.996.and wet flat-land natural stand sites.(gross) = 21418 J g-l gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature. solid. reported values were averaged over all positions of similar plant tissue for each t r e e and six trees per species were used. GREEN.(gross) = 51 19 cal gq.1 q.(gross) 79NEE/STE ASH. assume values refer t o room temperature. 3 twigs: q. Samples were dried at 7OoC (158'F) t o a constant weight.1 qv(gross) = 4618 cal g. branches = 1.71%. ash content (proportion of oven dry weight) of components of sample: wood = 0.(gross) = 4575 cal g i q. Mean age = 12 years.' q.9%.0 cm.(gross) = 4694 cal g .7% and leaves = 4.1 q. qv(gross) 19640 J gbranch bark q. mean stem bark (proportion of dry weight) = 12.(gross) = 4642 cal gq. Fraxinus pennsyZvanica.(gross) = 8422 Btu lbi 1 qv(gross) 4679 cal gq. gross heat of combustion: oven dry weight basis.(gross) = 4768 cal g-l qv(gross) 19949 J g-l bark: qv(gross) = 8312 Btu lb.Woody and Tree Materials ASH. twigs = 2. solid.1 qv(gross) 4857 cal g-l qv(gross) 20322 J g.396. wood: qv(gross) = 8582 Btu lb.2%.(gross) 4681 cal q.(gross) = 19585 J g-l 82COW/FRE 234 .(gross) 19577 J g-l branch wood qv(gross) = 8449 6 t u lbl' q.(gross) = 19142 J gfoliage q.(gross) = 8426 Btu lb-I q. bark = 6. swamp.(gross) = 19422 J g-l bole bark qv(gross) = 8235 Btu lbi 1 q.(gross) = 19322 J g-l branches: 8743 B t u lb. GREEN.

(gross) = 4664 (33) c a l g-l q.327 = 0. Bole samples were composed of cross sections taken from four positions along length of each tree (at the base. thermochemical calorie used and values were expressed on a dry matter basis and adjusted for heat of formation of nitric acid.(gross) = 19602 (251) J g-l bole without bark branch with bark P-' q. 0. two-thirds.(gross) = 190514 (138) J g-l foliage q.K-l) 12DUN 235 . gross heat of combustion: Assume values refer to room temperature. raxinus americana.1 qv(gross) = 4799 c a l g-l qv(gross) = 20079 J g-l q. one at top of t h e stem). air-dried at 105'-110"C (221"-230°F).(gross) = 8395 ( 5 9 ) Btu lb-I q.(gross) 201 17 (297) J g-l branch without bark P-' q.(gross) = 8680 (175) Btu Ib-I q. density.327 = 1. Material came from various locations in New Hampshire.(gross) = 8638 Btu lb.) F' Cp(cal -1 K -1 1 g = 0. specific heat: 273-379 K (3Z0-223OF) Cp(Btu Ib-I O .solid.63 g cm- F. Fraxinus americana. Bark was removed from half of each bole and branch sample and all samples were oven-dried at 85°C (185'F) to a constant weight.Woody and Tree Materials ASH.(gross) = 8654 (128) Btu 1 q. Branch samples were composed of cross sections taken from four positions along length of each of four branches (one branch from four positions in t h e live crown of the tree). WHITE.368 Cp(J g. All tests were made at 99% confidence level and numbers in parentheses are standard errors. solid. bole with bark qv(gross) = 8433 (108) Btu 1 qv(gross) = 4685 (60)cal gq.(gross) = 4808 (71) c a l gq.(gross) = 4822 (97) cal g-' qv(gross) = 20175 (406) J g-l 8 1MUS/HOC ASH. WHITE. one-third.

PopuZus tremufoides. 0. freeze-dried to < 10% moisture content.(gross) 13940 B t u I 7740 c a l g32400 J g-l 82SUS 236 .(gross) = 19602 J g. assume values refer to room temperature.1 55CHA/MIT ASPEN.377 12DUN ASPEN.97% and char yield = 27.43 g cm -P specific heat: 273-379 K (32"-223"F) Cp(Btu lb-' OF-') Cp(cal -1 K-l) Cp(J g.(gross) q. FOLIAGE.(gross) = 8433 Btu lb. Composition is ash = 4.5%. density. dry basis.329 = 1. Po ufus trernuloides. solid. ash content = 2.(gross) q.(gross) = 22650 J g-' 1 char (from 500°C heating) q. solid. QUAKING.(gross) = 5410 c a l g-' q. PopuZus tremuloides.(gross) = 9740 Btu lbq. gross heat of combustion determined on 1 g samples of air-dried bark.8%.Woody and Tree Materials I ASPEN. air-dried at 105"-110°C (221 "-230"F). QUAKING. solid. ate on an as-determined basis.1 qv(gross) = 4685 c a l g-' q. fuel q. hence. q. BARK. Char was obtained from heating t h e sample to 500°C ( 3 ' ) in nitrogen.329 = 0. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature. QUAKING. moisture content = 5.8%. values not corrected for moisture ot ash contents. 92F gross heat of combustion: ash-free.K-l) 7 = 0.

Woody and Tree Materials

ASPEN, TREMBLING; Populus tremuloides; solid; Material c a m e from various locations in New Hampshire. Bole samples were composed of cross sections taken from four positions along length of each tree (at the base, one-third, two-thirds, and at t o p of t h e stem). Branch samples were composed of cross sections taken from four positions along length of each of four branches (one branch from four positions in t h e live crown of t h e tree). Bark was removed from half of each bole and branch sample and all samples were oven-dried at 85°C (185°F)to a constant weight. gross heat of combustion: Assume values refer t o room temperature, thermochemical calorie used and values were expressed on a dry m a t t e r basis and adjusted for heat of formation of nitric acid. All tests were made at 99% confidence level and numbers in parentheses are standard errors.
bole with bark q,(gross) = 8782 (50) Btu lbr 1 q,(gross) = 4879 (28) cal gq,(gross) = 20414 (117) J g-l bole without bark q,(gross) q,(gross) 8905 (56) Btu lb;' 4947 (31) cal g20698 (130) f g-' branch with bark qv(gross) = 8957 (61) Btu Ibl 1 qv(gross) = 4976 (34) cal gqv(gross) 20820 (142) 3 g-l branch without bark q,(gross) 8773 (32) Btu lbl I qv(gross) = 4874 (18) c a l gq,(gross) = 20393 (75) J g-l

q,(gross)
foliage

q,(gross) = 9648 Btu lb;' q,(gross) = 5360 cal gq,(gross) = 22426 J g-l 8lMUS/HOC

BEECH; Fagus atropunicea; solid; air-dried at 105"-110°C (22l0-23O0F);density, 0.75 g ~ m - ~ .

spe5fic heat: 273-379 K (3ZD-223"F) C (Btu lb-I OF-') -1 fj ) -1 Cp(cal-q P Cp(J g ' ) K
= 0.326 = 0.326 = 1.364

12DUN

237

Woody and Tree Materials

BEECH; Fagus silvatiea; solid; ultimate analysis: carbon, 49.06%; hydrogen, 6.1 1%;
nitrogen, 0.09%; ash, 0.57%.

gross heat o combustion: 20°C (68"F), air-dried at 110°-1150C (230°-2400F), ash f free.
q,(gross) = 8624 Btu Ib- 1

q,(gross) = 4791 cal g-l q,(gross) = 20046 J g-l
1883GOT

BEEFWOOD (SHE-OAK); Casuarina equisetifolia; solid; Material is considered biomass fuel and has proximate analysis values (in percent by weight dry basis) for volatile concentration (VCM) = 78.94, ash content = 1.40, and fixed carbon = 19.66. Also the ultimate analysis of t h e elemental composition of t h e fuel (values in percent by weight dry basis) is carbon = 48.61, hydrogen = 5.83, oxygen = 43.36, nitrogen = 0.59, sulfur = 0.02, chlorine = 0.16, and residue (ash) = 1.43. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature; determination performed at 30 atm 02, corrections applied for the formation of nitric and and sulfuric acids.
q,(gross) = 8363 Btu lb;' q,(gross) = 4646 cal gq,(gross) = 19440 J g-l

net heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature.
q,(net) = 7856 Btu Ib;' qv(net) = 4364 cal gqv(net) = 18260 J g-'
85 JEN/EBE

W d y and Tree Materials

BIRCH; Betula a h ; solid; ultimate analysis: carbon, 48.88%; hydrogen, 6.06%; nitrogen, 0.10%; ash, 0.29%; oxygen, 44.67%.
gross heat o combustion: 20°C (68"F), air-dried at 110"-115°C (230°-2400F), ash f

free.
q,(gtoss) = 8588 Btu l b l l q,(gross) 4771 c a l gq,(gross) = 19962 J g-l

1883GOT
air dried one hour at 105°C (221°F) qv(gross) = 8458 Btu lbi' q,(gross) = 4699 cal 6 ; q,(gross) = 19661 J g

22PAR/DAV
BIRCH, PAPER; BetuZa papyrifera; solid; Material c a m e from various locations in New Hampshire. Bole samples were composed of cross sections taken from four positions along length of each tree (at t h e base, one-third, two-thirds, and at top of t h e stem). Branch samples were composed of cross sections taken from four positions along length of each of four branches (one branch from four positions in t h e live crown of the tree). Bark was removed from half of each bole and branch sample and all samples were oven-dried at 85OC (185°F)t o a constant weight,
gross heat o combustion: Assume values refer to room temperature, thermochemical f calorie used and values wete expressed on a dry m a t t e r basis and adjusted for heat of formation of nitric acid. All tests were made at 99% confidence level and numbers in parentheses a r e standard errors.

bole with bark qv(gross) = 9207 (56) Btu lb;' qv(gross) = 5115 (31) c a l gqv(gross) = 21401 (130) J g-l bole without bark

branch with bark q,(gross) = 9245 (70) Btu IbT I q,(gross) = 5136 (39) c a l gq,(gross) = 21489 (163)J g-l branch without bark q,(gross) = 9074 (54) Btu lbi' q,(gross) = 5041 (30) c a l gq,(gross) = 2 1092 (I 26) J.g-l

q,(gross) = 8948 (86)Btu lbi I q,(gross) = 4971 (48)cal gq,(gross) = 20799 (201) J g-l
foliage qv(gross) = 9428 Btu lb-' q,(gross) = 5238 cal g ; ' q,(gross) = 21916 J g

81MUS/HOC

239

Woody and Tree Materials

BIRCH, PAPER; BARK; Betula papyrifera; solid; gross heat of combustion determined on 1 g samples of air-dried bark; ash content = 1.5%; moisture content = 4 8 . .%

gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature; values not corrected for moisture or ash contents; hence, a r e on an as-determined basis.
qv(gross) q,(gross) q,(gross) 9434 Btu Ib- 1 5241 cal g-l 21928 J g-l

55CHA/MIT BIRCH, YELLOW; BetuZa atleghaniensis;solid; Material came from various locations in New Hampshire. Bole samples were composed of cross sections taken from four positions along length of each tree (at t h e base, one-third, two-thirds, one at top of t h e stem). Branch samples were composed of cross sections taken from four positions along length of each of four branches (one branch from four positions in t h e live crown of the tree). Bark was removed from half of each bole and branch sample and all samples were oven-dried at 85°C (185°F) to a constant weight.

gross heat o combustion: Assume values refer t o room temperature, thermochemical f calorie used and values were expressed on a dry m a t t e r basis and adjusted for heat of formation of nitric acid. All tests were made at 99% confidence level and numbers in parentheses a r e standard errors.
bole with bark q,(gross) 8838 (175) Btu 1 q,(gross) 4910 (97) cal gqv(gross) = 20543 (406)J g-l branch with bark

P-'

qv(gross) = 9002 (247)Btu lb'l qv(gross) = 5001 (137)cal g- 1 q,(gross) = 20924 (573)J g-' branch without bark q,(gross) = 8917 (101) Btu lb-I qv(gross) = 4954 (56) cal g-l q,(gross) = 20728 (234)3 g-l

bole without bark
q,(gross) = 8498 (133)Btu lb- I q,(gross) = 4721 (74)cal g-l q,(gross) = 19753 (310) f g-' foliage q,(gross) = 8503 Btu lb- I q,(gross) = 4724 cal g-l q,(gross) = 19765 J g. -'

81MUS/HOC

Woody and Tree Materials

BIRCH, YELLOW; BARK; Betula alleghaniensis;solid; gross heat of combustion determined on 1 g samples of air-dried bark; ash content 1.7%; moisture content =
5.2%.

gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature; values not corrected for moisture or ash contents; hence, a r e on an as-determined basis.
qv(gross) 9076 Btu q,(gross) = 5042 cal gqv(gross) = 21096 J g-l

$'
55CHA/MIT

BLACKGUM; Nysscz sylvatica; solid; air-dried at 105"-1 10°C (221" 2 0 F ; density, -3') 0.52 g
specific heat: 273-379 K (32O-223'F)
C (Btu lb-l O - ) F' P Cp(cal 5-l) Cp(J g- K

q-'

= 0.325 = 0.325 = 1.360

12DUN

BLACKGUM; Nyssa sylvatica; solid; Material was collected from the southern Atlantic and Gulf coastal plains in bottom-, swamp- and wet flat-land natural stand sites. Samples were dried at 70°C (158°F)to a constant weight; reported values were averaged over all positions of similar plant tissue for each tree and six trees per species were used.

gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature; values a r e on a dry weight basis.
bole wood
branch wood
qv(grOSS) = 8564 Btu lbl' q,(gross) = 4758 cal gq,(gross) = 19907 J g-l

qv(gross) = 8465 Btu lb-l q,(gross) 4703 cal g-l q,(gross) 19677 J g-l
bole bark

branch bark

qv(gross) = 8397 Btu lb-I q,(gross) = 4665 cal g-' q,(gross) 19518 J g-'
foliage q,(gross) = 8991 Btu lb- 1 q,(gross) = 4995 cal g-l q,(gross) = 20899 J g-'

qv(gross) = 8456 Btu lb-I q,(gross) 4809 cal g-l qv(gross) = 20121 J g-1

82GOW/FRE

24 1

Woody and Tree Materials

BLACKGUM, BARK; Nyssa syZwtica; solid; gross heat of combustion determined on 1 g samples of air-dried bark; ash content = 7.2%; moisture content = 6.0%.
gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature; values not

corrected for moisture or ash contents; hence, are on a n as-determined basis.

q,(gross) = 7936 Btu fbi 1 q,(gross) = 4409 cal gq,(gross) = 18447 J g-l
55CHA/MIT

BOXELDER;Acer negundo; solid; Each t r e e was separated into small parts (being less
than 0.64 c m (1/4 in.) in diameter and roughly equivalent to tops and branches) and large parts with the weighted proportion of small (25%) and large (75%) material in the whole tree. Overall mean specific gravity for whole tree = 0.36 (oven dry weight and green volume). Bark proportion of whole tree = 14%.
gross heat of combustion: oven-dried, assume values refer to room temperature.

small parts qv(gross) = 7981 Btu lbll q,(gross) = 4434 cal gq,(gross) = 18552 J g-' large parts q,(gross) = 8190 Btu Ib;' q,(gross) = 4550 cal gqv(gross) = 19037 J g-l

whole tree qv(gross) = 8138 Btu Ib; I q,(gross) = 4521 cal gq,(gross) = 18916 J g-l

81GEY

242

(gross) q. The ash content was determined at 500°C (932°F) while t h e temperature was increased stepwise. mean age = 11 years. Material is a shrub. ash content (proportion of oven dry weight) of components of sample: wood = 0. mean stem bark (proportion of dry weight) = 9.(gross) 4881 cal gqv(gross) = 20422 J g-l twigs: q. wood: qv(gross) = 8809 Btu l b l l q.9%.(gross) = qJgross) = 8318 4621 19334 8375 4653 19468 57.5%. assume values refer t o room f temperature.(gross) = 5028 c a l gi q. then ground and pelleted. mean basal stem diameter = 8. assume values refer to room temperature. 20242 J g q. leaf = 9.(gross) qv(gross) leaves: 8708 Btu lbl' 4838 c a l 6 . root = 6. branches = 1. Ash content of stem and branch wood = 0.(gross) = 9050 Btu Ib.78%.7 53.13%. Acer negundo.6%. at 300 m above sea level located in the southern part of the Bukk Mountains of north Hungary. Ligustrum vuZgare.(gross) = 4894 cal gqv(gross) = 20477 J g-l bark: qv(gross) = 7778 Btu 1bT qv(gross) = 4321 cal gqv(gross) = 18079 J g-l branches: qv(gross) 8786 Btu lb. Samples were dried at 85°C (185"F). gross heat of combustion: at 20 a t m oxygen pressure.' q. bark = 9.0%.(gross) = 21037 J g 79NEE/STE CABBAGE WOOD.' q. solid.2 31. gross heat o combustion: oven dry weight basis.8 133 Btu lb-I cal J g- q1 stem and branch bark (4 measurements) qJgross) = qv(gross) = qv(gross) 8194 4552 19046 8624 4791 20046 96.7%. dry weight basis ash-free dry weight basis std dev. one of the dominant species of a 65-year-old climazonal oak forest (Quercetum petraeae-cerris) on brown forest soil. of mean stem and branch wood (4 measurements) qv(gross) = q.97 cm. and leaves = 6. twigs = 2.8%.7 225 Btu lb-l c a l g-1 cal g-l (more) 243 .Woody and Tree Materials BOXELDER. solid. stem and branch bark = 4.9%.2%.

solid.Woody and Tree Materials I CABBAGE WOOD .50% and char yield = 28.(gross) = q.324 = 0.1 q.(gross) = 9430 B t u Ib.6 120 Btu lb-' cal J g- q1 75PAP CEDAR.Continued dry weight basis leaf (5 measurements) q.(gross) qv(gross) = 8168 8771 4873 20389 51. air-dried at 105°-1100C (221 '-230OF).356 Cp(J g.(gross) = 8438 4688 19615 ash-free dr! weight basis s t d de of mean 9268 5149 21543 67. FOLIAGE.(gross) = q. dry basis.(gross) 5240 cal g-' qv(gross) = 21910 J g-l q. specific heat: 273-379 K (32"-223OF) C (Btu Ib-l OF-') C P ( c a l q l 7-l p = 0. fuel char (from 500°C heating) q.(gross) = 13490 Btu 1 q. Composition is ash 3. assume values refer to room temperature. Adenostoma fascicdatum. f r e e z e dried to < 10% moisture content. gross heat of combustion: ash-free.6%. Char was obtained from heating t h e sample to 500°C (932°F) in nitrogen. density.6 157 Btu lb-' ca1t-l J g- root (4 measurements) q.(gross) q. RED*Juniperus virginiana.(gross) = 7490 cal gqv(gross) = 31350 J g-l 82SUS 244 .5 4538 18987 28. solid.324 = 1.K- 12DUN CHAMISE.7 37. 0.46 g cm -3 .

03. Also t h e ultimate analysis of t h e elemental composition of the fuel (values in percent by weight dry basis) is carbon 46.08.(gross) = 4370 cal g-' q. determination performed at 30 a t m 02. and residue (ash) = 7. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature. q.19.1 qv(gross) = 4448 cal g-' qv(gross) = 18610 J g-' net heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature. qv(gross) = 8006 Btu lb.1 qv(gross) 4794 cal g-l qv(gross) 20058 3 g-l 1883GOT 245 . genus Prunus. ash content = 6. sulfur = 0. and fixed carbon 18.17. chlorine 0.Woody and Tree Materials CHAPARRAL.(gross) = 18282 J g-l air dried one hour at 105OC (221°F) qv(gross) = 8629 B t u lb.and corrections applied for t h e formation of nitric and sulfuric acids. gross heat of combustion: assume values r e f e r to room temperature.90.13.54.26.02. hydrogen = 3. Material is considered biomass fuel and has proximate analysis values (in percent by weight dry basis) for volatile Concentration (VCM) 75.85% moisture qv(gross) = 7866 Btu lb-' q. oxygen = 40. solid. solid.68.(net) = 7563 Btu l b l l qv(net) = 4202 cal gqv(net) = 17580 J g-l 85JEN/EBE CHERRY. as received: 8. nitrogen = 0.

mean basal s t e m diameter 8.3 47. mean stem bark (proportion of dry weight) = 9. gross heat of combustion: oven dry weight basis.solid. wood: q.(gross) = 20359 J g-l leaves: q. at 300 m above sea level located in t h e southern part of t h e Bukk Mountains of north Hungary.(gross) = 19941 J g-l bark: qv(gross) qv(gross) qv(gross) branches: q. assume values refer t o room temperature.(gross) = 4866 c a l g-l q. s t e m and branch bark 10.(gross) CHERRY. mean age 12. Cornus mas. branches = 0.(gross) = 8172 4540 18995 8987 4993 20891 29. CORNELIAN.3 Btu lb'l cal J g- q1 stem and branch bark (4 measurements) qv(gross) q.(gross) = 4766 c a l gq.1 79NEE/STE 8906 Btu Ib. one of t h e dominant species of a 65-year-old climazonal oak forest (Quercetum petraeae-cerris) on brown forest soil. Material is a tree.(gross) = 8579 B t u l b l l q.7%.4 68. gross heat of combustion: at 20 a t m oxygen pressure.6%.1 5232 cal g-' 21891 J g-l q.6 Btu lb-' cal 9-l J g(more) 246 . Samples were dried at 85'C (185"F).I W d y and Tree Materials CHERRY. The ash content was determined at 500°C (932°F) while t h e temperature was increased stepwise.3 years.(gross) q.(gross) = 8759 Btu lb-l q.(gross) = q.I q.(gross) = 4841 cal g-l qv(gross) = 20255 J g. ash content (proportion of oven dry weight) of components of sample: wood = 0.(gross) 9418 Btu Ib. leaf = 14.(gross) = 8714 Btu lb.0%. dry weight basis ash-free dry weight basis std dev.then ground and pelleted.9 cm. Ash content of s t e m and branch wood = 0.(gross) q. of mean stem and branch wood (3 measurements) q.1 4948 cal g-l 20702 J g-l twigs: q.3%.2%.0%. assume values refer t o room temperature.796.4196.5 16. twigs 1.(gross) = q. bark 4.8%. root 8. solid.(gross) 8404 4669 19535 8462 470 1 19669 20. Prunus serotina. and leaves = 5.3 11.9%. BLACK.

0 54.327 = 0.(gtoss) q. specific heat: 273-379 K (32"-223"F) Cp(Btu lb-l O .4 Btu Ib-l cal7-l J g75PAP CHESTNUT.8 37. of mean 66. air-dried at 1O5"-11O0C (221"-230°F). Lecythis costariconsis. density.K ) g-' = 0. density.327 = 1.317 0. 0.K q1 = 0.CORNELIAN .32 g ~ m .1 155 Btu lb'l cal q1 J g- root (4 measurements) qv(gross) q.(gross) = 8008 4449 18615 8726 4848 20284 23.(gross) = 7177 3987 16682 8343 4635 19393 ash-free dry weight basis std dev.326 12DUN COCOBOLA NEGRA.368 12DUN 247 .(gross) = qv(gross) = q. solid. from Costa Rica.4 13.317 = 1.) F' Cp(cal 5-l) Cp(J g. 0. soli .Woody and Tree Materials CHERRY.~ . Castanea Lentata.92 g cm- . specific heat: 273-379 K (32O-223"F) Cp(Btu lb-I OF-') Cp(cal 5-l ) Cp(J g. air-dried at 105"-110"C (221 "-230°F).Continued dry weight basis leaf ( 5 measurements) q.

(gross) = 18769 J g-l 81GEY COTTONWOOD.36 (oven dry weight and green volume).(gross) = 4312 cal g 1 .1 whole t r e e q. gross heat of combustion: oven-dried. Populus deltoides.(gross) = 17941 3 g.I q.1 4416 cal g-l 18477 J g-l whole tree qv(gross) = 8075 Btu IbT I qv(gross) = 4486 cal gq.(gross) 7949 Btu Ib.64 cm (1/4 in.(gross) = 7718 Btu Ib.64 cm (1/4 in. solid. MISSOURI.(gross) = 4385 cal gq.) in diameter and roughly equivalent to tops and branches) and large parts with the weighted proportion of small (25%) and large (75%) material in the whole tree. small parts q.1 q.(gross) = 18041 f g- 81GEY 248 .) in diameter and roughly equivalent to tops and branches) and large parts with t h e weighted proportion of small (25%) and large (75%) material in t h e whole tree.(gross) = 7893 Btu lbll q. assume values refer to room temperature.Woody and Tree Materials COTTONWOOD. Bark proportion of whole t r e e = 19%. Populus deztoides. Overall mean specific gravity for whole tre e = 0.(gross) = 7762 Btu Ib. NEBRASKA. q.(gross) = 18347 J g-' large parts q. small parts q.(gross) q. Bark proportion of whole t r e e = 28%. gross heat of combustion: oven-dried.(gross) 8451 Btu Ib. solid. Overall mean specific gravity for whole t r e e 0. Each t r e e was separated into small parts (being less than 0.32 (oven dry weight and green volume).(gross) = 4288 cal g-l q.(gross) = 19644 J g-' large parts q. assume values refer t o room temperature. Each t r e e was separated into small parts (being less than 0.(gross) q.1 q.(gross) 4695 cal g-l q.

then ground and pelleted. stem and branch bark = 6.3%.3 27.(gross) = 786 1 4367 18272 8570 476 1 19920 27.4 26. BLOOD-TWIG.(gross) = q. at 300 m above sea level located in t h e southern part of the Bukk Mountains of north Hungary. assume values refer t o room temperature. root = 8.(gross) = q. solid. gross heat of combustion determined on 1 g samples of air-dried bark. Material is a shrub.6%.6 28.(gross) 8300 461 1 19292 834 1 4634 19389 50.9 113 Btu lb-I ca1q-l J g- leaf ( 5 measurements) q. one of t h e dominant species of a 65-year-old climazonal oak forest (Quercetum petraeae-cerris) on brown forest soil.(gross) = 7414 41 19 17234 8633 4796 20066 49.4 115 Btu lb-' cal9-l f g- root (3 measurements) q. of mean stem and branch wood (3 measurements) q.(gross) q. solid.(gross) = 8525 4736 19815 9104 6058 21 163 48.(gross) = qv(gross) = q.0 15. AMERICAN. Cornus aanguinea. Ash content of s t e m and branch wood = 0. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature.(gross) = q.8 Btu lb-' ca1q-l J g75PAP ELM. BARK.3%.7%. gross heat of combustion: at 20 a t m oxygen pressure.0 62. Samples were dried at 85°C (185"F). are on an as-determined basis.(gtoss) 16087 J g-' JJCHA/MIT .1 118 Btu lb" cal J g- q1 stem and branch bark ( 5 measurements) q.1%.(gtoss) 3845 cal gq. leaf = 14. hence.(gross) = q.3%. moisture content 6.(gross) = q. q. ash content = 9. dry weight basis ash-free dry weight basis std dev. values not corrected for moisture or ash content. Ulrnus arnericana.Woody and Tree Materials DOGWOOD. The ash content was determined at 500°C (932°F) while t h e temperature was increased stepwise.(gross) = 6921 Btu lbl 1 q.

(gross) = 4641 cal gq.97.' qv(net) = 4357 cal gqv(net) 18230 3 g-l 85 JEN/EBE 250 .64gcm- Y. ash content = 0. air-dried a 105°-1100C (221 '-230OF). sulfur = 0. and fixed carbon = 17. and residue (ash) = 0.solid. f q.01.76.00..360 )lid. qv(gross) = 8355 Etu lb. 0.30.13.325 = 1. hydrogen = 5. density. WHITE. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature. Material is considered biomass fuel and has proximate analysis values (in percent by weight dry basis) for volatile concentration (VCM) 81.87.Zmus arneril-ma.325 = 0. oxygen = 43. determination performed at 30 a t m 0 2 . Also t h e ultimate analysis of t h e elemental composition of t h e fuel (values in percent by weight dry basis) is carbon = 49. specific heat: 273-379 K (32"-223'F) Cp(Btu lb-I OF-') C (cal -1 K -1 ) p -1 Cp(J g K ) ! 12DUN EUCALYPTUS CAMALDULENSIS.(gross) = 19420 J g-' net heat o combustion: assume values refer to room temperature. = 0. and corrections applied for t h e formation of nitric and sulfuric acids.Woody and Tree Materials ELM.82.42.' q. nitrogen = 0.72. chlorine = 0.(net) 7843 Btu lb.

' q. solid.(gross) = 8325 Btu lb. sulfur = 0. Material is considered biomass fuel and has proximate analysis values (in percent by weight dry basis) for volatile concentration (VCM) = 81.93. qv(gross) 8273 Btu lbi' qv(gross) 4596 cal gqv(gross) = 19230 J g-' net heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature.55.10. and fixed carbon = 17. oxygen = 45.and corrections applied for t h e formation of nitric and sulfuric acids. oxygen = 44. q.30.(gross) = 4625 cal g-l q. determination performed at 30 a t m 02.41.(net) = 18030 J g85 JEN/EBE EUCALYPTUS GRANDIS.(net) = 4309 cal g l q.Woody and Tree Materials EUCALYPTUS GLOBULUS. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature. ash content = 1.20.and corrections applied for t h e formation of nitric and sulfuric acids. hydrogen = 5. determination performed at 30 a t m 02. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature.52.18.89.18.39.60.1 q.01. hydrogen = 5. nitrogen = 0.(net) = 7808 Btu lb-I q. Also t h e ultimate analysis of t h e elemental composition of t h e fuel (values in percent by weight dry basis) is carbon = 48.(net) = 4338 cal gil qv(net) = 18150 J g85 JEN/EBE 25 1 . and residue (ash) = 0. chlorine 0. nitrogen 0. and fixed carbon = 16. ash content = 0.15. q.(net) = 7757 Btu lb. sulfur 0. and residue (ash) 1. q.(gross) = 19350 J g-l net heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature.13. Also t h e ultimate analysis of t h e elemental composition of t h e fuel (values in percent by weight dry basis) is carbon = 48.92. Material is considered biomass fuel and has proximate analysis values (in percent by weight dry basis) for volatile concentration (VCM) = 82.01. solid.33. chlorine = 0.08.12.

0.1 qv(gross) = 4680 c a l g-l qv(gross) = 19600 J g. NEEDLES. and nitrogen = 8. air-dried at 110'-1 lSoC (230"-240"F).4%.28%. hence.(gross) = 7740 cal gq. 50. Abies balsamea. Abies balsarnea.5%. are on a n as-determined basis.(gross) = 9182 Btu Ib. total sugar = 130.1 q. ultimate analysis: carbon.1 q. q. qv(gross) = 8861 Btu lbi 1 q. ash content = 2. dry basis.(gross) = 21079 J g-l I883GOT FIR. solid. BALSAM. values not corrected for moisture or ash contents. Populus spp. q. ash.7.(gross) = 21343 J g-l 78SHA/LIT .(gross) = 4923 c a l gq.05%..(gross) = 9068 Btu lbl 1 qv(gross) = 5038 c a l gq. 0. 5. assume values refer to room temperature. moisture content = 6. ash free.(gross) = 13930 Btu 1 q.(gross) 32370 J g-l 82SUS FIR.36%. Pinus silvestri. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to toom temperature.8.7. solid. solid. fuel q. gross heat of combustion: ash-free. Composition is ash = 0. gross heat of combustion determined on 1 g samples of air-dried bark. gross heat of combustion: values refer to ash-free dry weight and assume values refer t o room temperature.Woody and Tree Materials EXCELSIOR. 0. Char was obtained from heating the sample t o 500°C (932°F) in nitrogen. nitrogen. gross heat of combustion: 20°C (68'F). Dead wood was air-dried at room temperature. BARK. Samples were removed from 7-year-old trees and had a concentration (in milligrams per gram ash-free dry weight) of starch = 41.92%.3%. crude fat = 101.(gross) = 20598 J g-l 55CHA/MIT FIR. solid. DEAD WOOD. BALSAM.35% and char yield 15.(gross) char (from 500°C heating) 8430 Btu lb. hydrogen.(gross) = 5101 c a l g-l q.

air-dried at 105'4 10°C (221"-230"F).(gross) = 23960 3 g-l chat (from 500°C heating) P-' q.) F' Cp(cal yl2-l) Cp(J g. dry basis.368 12DUN FIR. DOUGLAS. fuel q. Wood was air-dried at room temperature. DOUGLAS. BARK.(gross) = 7140 cal gqv(gross) = 29890 J g-l 82SUS 253 . gross heat of combustion: ash-free. solid. = 0. Bark samples were air-dried at room temperature.(gtoss) 4840 cal g-l qv(gross) = 20250 J g-l char (from 500°C heating) qv(gross) = 13720 Btu 1 qv(gross) = 7620 cal gq. Pseudotsuga menzeisii.(gross) = 12860 Btu 1 q. Char was obtained from heating t h e sample to 5 O O O C ( 3 ' ) in nitrogen.(gross) = 31900 J g-l 82SUS FIR. Composition is ash 1. Composition is ash 0.Woody and Tree Materials FIR.K ) -9. fuel q.15% and char yield 20. 0. density. dry basis.(gross) = 10310 Btu 1 qv(gross) = 5730 cal gq. Pseud tsuga taxifolia.1%.48 g cm specific heat: 273-379 K (32"-223OF) Cp(Btu lb-I O . DOUGLAS. 92F gross heat of combustion: ash-free. solid.25% and char yield = 37. Pseudotsuga menzeisii.327 1.(gtoss) 8710 Btu lb-I q.327 = 0. Char was obtained from heating the sample to 5 0 O O C (932°F) in nitrogen. solid. assume values refer to room temperature. assume values refer to room temperature.2%.

(gross) 5510 cal g-l qv(gross) = 23050 J g-l char (from 500°C heating) qv(gross) 13360 Btu 1 qv(gross) = 7420 cal gq. Composition is ash = 0.(gross) 13640 Btu 1 q.(gross) = 7580 cal gq.1 q. gross heat of combustion: ash-free. DOUGLAS.(gross) = 31710 J g-' 82SUS qv(gross) = 9590 Btu lb. Char was obtained from heating t h e sample t o 500°C (932OF)in nitrogen. Samples were air-dried at room temperature. solid.(gross) = 31050 J g-l P-' 82SUS 254 . Char was obtained from heating the sample t o 500°C (932°F)in nitrogen. assume values refer to room temperature. freeze-dried to < 10% moisture content.18% and char yield = 22.16% and char yield = 40. Composition is ash = 4.(gross) = 8640 Btu lb. Lumber was air-dried at room temperature. ROTTEN WOOD. Char was obtained from heating the sample to 500°C (932°F) in nitrogen. DOUGLAS. solid. LUMBER. dry basis. DOUGLAS.(gross) = 22300 J g-l FIR.(gross) = 7630 cal g-l q.(gross) = 13740 Btu Ib-I q.2%. fuel q. assume values refer t o room temperature.1 q. fuel q.(gross) = 20090 J g-l char (from 500°C heating) q.1 q.(gross) = 4800 cal g-l q.(gross) = 5330 cal g-l q. solid. FOLIAGE. Pseudotsuga menteisii.(gross) = 9920 Btu lb. dry basis. Pseudotsuga menzeisii. fuel char (from 500°C heating) q.6%.(gross) = 31940 J g-l 82SUS FIR. gross heat of combustion: ash-free. Composition is ash = 0. Pseudotsuga menzeisii. assume values refer to room temperature.2%. dry basis.25% and char yield = 29. gross heat of combustion: ash-free.Woody and Tree Materials FIR.

(gross) = 5350 c a l g-l q. and fixed carbon = 16.(gross) = 7650 cal g-' q. assume values refer t o room temperature. hydrogen = 5.Woody and Tree Materials FIR. q. gross heat of combustion: ash-free.00. and residue (ash) = 0.(gross) = 20250 J g-l FIR. diameter with foliage removed and freeze-dried t o < 10% moisture content. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature. assume values refer t o room temperature. STEMS.05.58. Char was obtained from heating t h e sample t o 500°C (932°F)in nitrogen.(gross) = 22380 J g-l char (from 500°C heating) qv(gross) q.49% and char yield = 20.(gross) = 8710 Btu lb-I q. nitrogen = 0. Composition is ash = 2.(gross) = 4768 c a l gqv(gross) = 19950 J g-' net heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature.(net) = 18740 J g85 JEN/EBE 255 .(gross) = 4840 cal g-l q.98.17.(gross) = 13770 Btu lb. Char was obtained from heating t h e sample t o 500°C (932°F)in nitrogen.01.01. gross heat of combustion: ash-free. q.7%.57% and char yield = 27. dry basis.(net) = 8062 Btu lb. GRAND.25 in. DOUGLAS.(net) = 4479 cal g . determination performed at 30 a t m 0 2 . chlorine = 0. q.02. Also t h e ultimate analysis of t h e elemental composition of t h e fuel (values in percent by weight dry basis) is carbon = 49. and corrections applied for the formation of nitric and sulfuric acids. fuel q. Stem samples were branches < 0.25. ash content = 0.(gross) = 32000 J g-l 82SUS q.(gross) = 8583 Btu lbll q. WHITE. fuel char (from 500°C heating) q. Pseudotsuga menzeisii. solid. solid. solid.75.(gross) qv(gross) 13640 Btu I 7580 cal g-' 31710 J g-l P-' 82SUS FIR. oxygen = 44. Abies grandis. dry basis.9%. Composition is ash = 0.' q. sulfur = 0. Wood sample was air-dried at room temperature. Material is considered biomass fuel and has proximate analysis values (in percent by weight dry basis) for volatile concentration (VCM) = 83.1 q.(gross) = 9630 Btu lb-I q.

6.(gross) 9338 Btu lb. gross heat of combustion: ash-free.3%.(gross) = 8750 Btu lb. Char was obtained from heating the sample to 500°C (932'F) in nitrogen. Composition is ash = 0. assume values refer t o room temper at ur e .1 5188 cal g-l 21707 J g-l 5 duff q. Char was obtained from heating t h e sample to 500°C (932°F) in nitrogen.(gross) = 4920 cal g-l q. WHITE.15% and char yield = 21.(gross) 31900 J g-' 82SUS 256 . WHITE.46%.(gross) = 20340 J g-l char (from 500°C heating) q. The layer was collected from t h e understory of t h e forest floor.(gross) = 4860 cal g-l q. Abies concolor. Samples were air-dried at room temperature.(gross) 7620 cal gq.67%. ash-free. fuel q. California. Average yearly decomposition of t h e forest floor for white fir is: litter.(gross) 4939 c a l -1 20665 J g q. dry basis. 1. fuel q.(gross) = 21472 J g-l 78AGEIWAK FIR. assume values refer to room temperature.(gross) q. dry basis.(gross) litter qv(gross) q. Abies concotor.(gross) = 13720 Btu 1F-l q. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature. Abies concolor. gross heat of combustion: ash-free. solid.1%.1 q.(Gross) = 20570 J g-l char (from 500°C heating) q.(gross) = 7930 c a l gq.(gross) = 8850 Btu Ib. Wood samples were air-dried at room temperature. solid. WHITE.1 q.(gross) = 14270 Btu I q.(gross) = 33180 J g-l 82SUS FIR. ROTTEN WOOD.(gross) = 9238 Btu lbi 1 q. Material was obtained from Whitaker's Forest in Tulare County. with predominant soil series of Shaver sandy loam derived from granitic parent material. Composition is ash = 0.Woody and Tree Materials FIR. branch-twig qv(gross) = 8990 Btu lb-I q.55% and char yield = 22. duff. solid.(gross) = 5132 cal gq.

. BARK. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature. specific heat: 273-379 K (32'-223'F) gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature. Tsuna canadensis. ash content = 1.(gtoss) = 8626 Btu l b i I q. qv(gross) 8802 Btu lb. gross heat of combustion determined on 1 g samples of aG-dried bark. 66FRY 257 . WESTERN Tsuga heterophylh. 0. hence. air-dried at 105"-11O0C (221 '-230'F) density. q. solid. I q.6%. EASTERN. air-dried.(gross) 20050 J g-l 12DUN.(gross) = 4890 cal gq. are on an as-determined basis. solid. values not corrected for moisture or ash contents. 68KAI/FRI.45 g c m-3 .(gross) 20460 J g-l 55CHA/MIT HEMLOCK.Woody and Tree Materials HEMLOCK.2%. moisture content 6.(gross) = 4792 c a l gq.

I q. trunk and main-stem plant parts q.1 q.(gross) = 7765 Btu lb.(gross) = 17841 J g-l main-stem wood q.3 J g-l 83LEO HEVEA (RUBBER TREE).(gross) = 4654 cal g.(gross) = 4430 f 1 .2 Btu lb. milled t o a powder and pelleted in units of about 1 g each.(gross) = 8062 f 30. Material c a m e from mature trees growing on Rengam series soils in Kuala Lumpur.(gross) = 5000 cal g-l q.Woody and Tree Materials I HEVEA (RUBBER TREE).8 cal q. Samples were oven-dried at 80°C (176OF) to constant weight. and pelleted in units of about 1 g each. used 30 atm oxygen.1 q. assume values refer to room temperature.(gross) = 9000 Btu lb-I q. Malaysia.1 q. cal q.(gross) = 18535k 70.(gross) = 19472 J g-l t tunk bark q.(gross) = 20920 J g-' main-stem bark qv(gross) = 7675 Btu Ib.1 q. CLONE RRIM 527.(gross) = 8689 Btu Ibi 1 q.(gross) = 7897 Btu lb. milled to a powder. assume values refer f t o toom temperature.(gross) = 8377 Btu lb.2 Btu Ib-I 68 q. gross heat of combustion: dry weight basis.(gross) = 4264 cal g-' q. used 30 a t m oxygen.8 cal g-' q. q. solid. Material came from mature trees growing on Rengam series soils in Kuala Lumpur.(gross) = 18740 ? 70.(gross) = 18682 f 70.3 J g-' leaves q.(gross) = 4387 cal g .(gross) = 4479 k 16. Samples were oven-dried at 80°C (176'F) to constant weight.(gross) = 18305 J g-' trunk wood q. solid.(gross) 4375 cal g-l q.(gross) = 4465 f 16.(gross) = 18050 J g-l branch wood q. 1 q.2 Btu 1 q.(gross) = 7974 f 30. gross heat o combustion: dry weight basis. Malaysia.(gross) = 4372 cal 5.(gross) = 4827 cal gq.1 q.(gross) = 18355 J gleaves plus petioles plant parts q.3 J g- s' petioles q.(gross) = 4314 cal g-l q. qv(gross) = 18292 3 g 83LEO 258 .(gross) 20196 J g-l branches qv(gross) = 7870 Btu lb. branch bark q.' q.(gross) = 7875 Btu lb.(gross) = 8037 ? 30.

(gross) = 9094 Btu lb-' qv(gross) = 5052 cal g-l qv(gross) 21138 J g ' 83LEO HICKORY. assume values refer to room temperature. used 30 a t m oxygen.(gross) = 17626 J g-l air-dried one hour at 105°C (221°F) q.(gross) = 7906 Btu lbi 1 qJgross) = 4392 cal g. CLONE RRIM 707.(gross) = 4437 cal gq. solid.(gross) = 8455 Btu lbi 1 q.(gross) = 4213 cal g-l q.(gross) = 4697 cal gq. gross heat of combustion: dry weight basis. q. solid.(gross) = 19652 J g-l 22PAR/DAV 259 .' q.Woody and Tree Materials HEVEA (RUBBER TREE). Malaysia.(gross) = 18564 J g-l leaves plus petioles plant parts branches q.(gross) = 7583 Btu lb-' q. genus Carya. Material came from mature t r e e s growing on Rengam series soils in Kuala Lumpur.(gross) = 18376 J g- q. milled to a powder. Samples were oven-dried at 80°C (176°F) t o constant weight.30% moisture q. and pelleted in units of about 1 g each. trunk and main-stem plant parts qv(gross) 7987 Btu Ib. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature. as received: 10.

Carya spp. 6.(gross) = 9260 Btu lb.(gross) 7538 Btu lbi 1 q ( ross) 4188 cal gq$ross) = 17523 J g-' foliage q.1 qv(gross) 5150 cal g-' q.1 q. ultimate analysis: carbon.(gross) = 19313 J g-' bole bark q. 8536 Btu lb.(gross) = 17595 J g-' HORNBEAM.(gross) = 4512 cal gq.9%.(gross) = 4576 cal gq.(gross) = 19146 J g-' 82GOW/FRE branch wood q.(gross) = 7565 Btu lb. nitrogen. BARK.and wet flat-land natural stand sites.. gross heat of combustion: 20°C (68"F). solid.(gross) = 4616 cal g-l q. bole wood q. Composition is ash = 17. 0. 48. 0.(gross) q.ash free.(gross) = 8237 Btu Ibi 1 q. values are on a dry weight basis. Juniperus osteosperma. solid. air-dried 110°-1150C (230"-240°F').(gross) 31880 J g-' 82SUS . gross heat of combustion: ash-free.20%. swamp.Woody and Tree Materials HICKORY. Samples were dried at 70°C (158'F) to a constant weight. solid.1 q.(gross) = 8122 Btu lb.' q. Material was collected from the southern Atlantic and Gulf coastal plains in bottom-.(gross) = 4742 cal g-' q. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature.(gross) 21530 J g-l char (from 500°C heating) 13720 Btu 1 q. fuel q. assume values refer to room temperature.(gross) = 18878 J g-' branch bark q. reported values were averaged over all positions of similar plant tissue for each tree and six trees per species were used. Bark was air-dried at room temperature. dry basis.06%.50%. ash. hydrogen.(gross) = 7620 cal gq. Carpinus betulus.74% and char yield = 27.(gross) = 8309 Btu lb. Char was obtained from heating the sample t o 500°C (932'F) in nitrogen.' q.(gross) q. UTAH.99%.(gross) = 19841 3 g-l 1883GOT JUNIPER.(gross) = 4203 cal gq.

(gross) = 7390 cal g-l q. Composition is ash = 4. Char was obtained from heating t h e sample to 500°C (932'F) in nitrogen. dry basis.7%.(gross) = 32290 J g ' - P-' 82SUS . STEMS. gross heat ofcombustion: ash-free. assume values refer t o room temperature. solid.(gross) = 30590 3 g-I 82SUS JUNIPER.19% and char yield = 20.(gross) = 30930 J g-l 82SUS LARCH. assume values refer t o room temperature.2%. fuel char (from 500°C heating) q. gross heat of combustion: ash-free. dry basis. Char was obtained from heating th e sample to 500°C (932°F) in nitrogen. solid. UTAH.(gross) = 23280 f g-l qv(gross) = 13160 Btu 1 qv(gross) = 7310 cal gq. Stem samples were branches less than 0.22% and char yield = 24.(gross) = 20660 J g ' - q.(gross) = 13310 Btu lb-I q.(gross) = 7720 cal gq. assume values refer t o room temperature. diameter with foliage removed and freeze-dried t o < 10% moisture content.(gross) = 4940 cal g-' q. W -2d was air-dried at room temperature.(gross) = 19830 f g-' char (from 500°C heating) qv(gross) = 13890 Btu 1 q. FOLIAGE. gross heat of combustion: ash-free.1 q.W d y and Tree Materials JUNIPER. freeze-dried to < 10% moisture content. fuel q. fuel char (from 500°C heating) qv(gross) 10020 Btu 1 qv(gross) = 5560 cal gq.(gross) = 8530 Btu lb-' q.(gross) = 4740 cal g ' q. Char was obtained from heating t h e sample to 400°C (932'F) in nitrogen. UTAH. Juniperus osteosperma. Composition is ash = 0. Juniperus osteosperrna. dry basis. Composition is ash = 6.25 in. Larix occidentalis.05% and char yield = 26. solid.5%.(gross) = 8890 Btu lb.

Woody and Tree Materials LARCH.(gross) = 4558 cal g" q. gross heat of combustion determined on 1 g samples of air-dried bark. Composition is ash = 1. 8204 Btu lb. values not corrected for moisture or ash contents. 1 q. assume values refer to room temperature.7%. solid. ash content 1. Bark samples were freeze-dried at room temperature.1 q. solid.(gross) 32150 J g-l 82SUS LARCH. Char was obtained from heating the sample to 500°C (932°F) in nitrogen. BARK.1 char (from 500°C heating) q. Char was obtained from heating t h e sample t o 500°C (932°F) in nitrogen.(gross) = 8700 Btu lb-I q. solid.(gross) = 19071 J g-' 55CHA/MIT 262 .6%.(gross) = 13830 Btu lb. assume values refer t o room temperature.(gross) = 30540 J g-' P-' 82SUS LARCH. WESTERN. dry basis.(gross) = 10250 Btu I qv(gross) = 5690 cal gq.(gross) = 23820 J g-' char (from 500°C heating) P-' q. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature. gross heat of combustion: ash-free. Larix occidentdis.20% and char yield 37. Wood was air-dried at room temperature.(gross) 13140 Btu 1 q. fuel q.(gross) 7680 cal g-' q. hence. BARK. LUMBER.3%. gross heat of combustion: ash-free. moisture content = 6.17% and char yield = 23. fuel q. Composition is ash = 0. are on an as-determined basis. Larix accidentatis.7%.(gross) = 4830 cal g-' qv(gtoss) = 20220 J g.(gross) q.(gross) = 7300 cal gq. dry basis. Larix occidentalis.

volatile matter.(gtoss) 4600 cal g-l q. branch material qv(gross) = 8300 Btu Ib-l q.(gross) = 20100 J g-l samples with intermediate amounts of throughfall q.(gross) = 19700 J g-l floral material qv(gross) = 8600 Btu lb. 6.1 1%.29%. 4. sulfur.4%.(gross) = 8300 Btu lb-I q. hydrogen. oxygen. ash.16%. 0. 95.(gross) = 4800 cal g-' q.25%. solid.0%. An even-aged stand of Nothofagus with a sparse subcanopy vegetation was chosen having the following percentage of ground covers (rejecting t r e e base points). solid. RIPE HARDWOOD MIXTURE.97%. 66. low-altitude. and vascular plants.4%.(gross) = 20100 J g-1 samples with negligible amounts of throughfall q.92%. including material from rainfall.(gross) = 19200 J g-l (more) 263 . 19.(gross) = 20629 f g-l 66KA1 LITTER FALL. 52. 6. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature. proximate analysis as received: moisture.2%. fixed carbon. ash. New Zealand Nothofagus solandri variety forest.1 q. litter or soil. bryophytes. Material was collected for one year in a 79-year-old. gross heat of combustion: dry weight and assume values refer to room temperature. exposed roots. 0. TREE.(gross) 8600 Btu lb. Throughfall was taken as suspended and dissolved material tainwashed from t h e plants. 4.(gtoss) = 4700 cal g-l q. 9. as received q. 0. 3.82%. nitrogen. surface-washings from plants. 30.34%.(gross) = 7990 Btu lbqv(gross) 4439 cal g-' qv(gross) 18571 J g-l 1 dry basis q.Woody and Tree Materials LEAVES. ultimate analysis: carbon.(gross) = 4930 cal gq.15%. and recretions from leaves.1 q.99%.(gross) = 4800 cal gel q.(gross) = 8874 Btu l b l l q.

solid. q.(net) 18550 J g-' 85 JEN/EBE MADRONE. hydrogen = 5. chlorine 0.80.73. Material is considered biomass fuel and has roximate analysis values (in percent by weight dry basis) for volatile concentration VCM) 80. hydrogen 5.OO.26. sulfur = O.97.Woody and Tree Materials LITTER FALL . Also the ultimate analysis of the elemental composition of the fuel (values in percent by weight dry basis) is carbon 50. and corrections applied for t h e formation of nitric and sulfuric acids.44.0 I .57. q.00. determination performed at 30 a t m 0 2 .1 q.71. sulfur 0.(gross) = 471 I cal g-l qv(gtoss) 19710 J g-l net heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature.08. oxygen 41. nitrogen = 0.Continued samples with large amounts of throughfall q.99. qv(net) = 7980 Btu Ib.(gross) = 7700 Btu lb-I q.(gross) = 18000 J g-l 72BAG LOCUST. and corrections applied for the formation of nitric and sulfuric acids. Arbutus rnenzeisii. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature. ash content = 0.96.95. and fixed carbon = 16. and residue (ash) = 1. Material is considered biomass fuel and has proximate analysis values (in percent by weight dry basis) for volatile concentration (VCM) = 82. and fixed carbon = 18.(gross) = 4639 cal g-l qv(gross) = 19410 J g-l net heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature. nitrogen 0.1 q.(net) 7830 B t u l b i I qv(net) = 4350 cal gi qv(net) = 18200 J g- 85JENEBE . Also the ultimate analysis of t h e elemental composition of t h e fuel (values in percent by weight dry basis) is carbon = 48. BLACK.(gross) 4300 cal g-' q.93. P b 0 gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature.(gross) = 8350 Btu Ib.02.I qv(net) = 4434 cal g-1 q. oxygen = 44.06. and residue (ash) = 0. chlorine 0. determination performed at 30 atrn 0 2 . qv(gross) 8479 Btu lb.94.Ol. solid.57. ash content = 0.

chlorine 0.(gross) = 31410 J g-l 82SUS 265 . and residue (ash) = 1.00. air-dried at 105"-1 10°C (221"-230'F).68. fuel q. hydrogen = 5.(gross) = 19300 J g-l net heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature. GREENLEAF.17.7%. ArctostaphyZos.~ . 0. specific heat: 273-379 K (32"-223"F) Cp(Btu lb-I O .18. solid. Also the ultimate analysis of t h e elemental composition of t h e fuel (values in percent by weight dry basis) is carbon = 48.1 q.02.(gross) = 13940 Btu I q.351 Cp(J g K-l) 12DUN MANZANITA. Material is considered biomass fuel and has proximate analysis values (in percent by weight dry basis) for volatile concentration (VCM) = 81. freeze-dried t o < 10% moisture content. assume values refer t o room temperature. gross heat of combustion: ash-free. from Thailand.Woody and Tree Materials MA1 CHAMPAH. qv(net) = 7783 Btu lbll qv(net) = 4324 cal g l q. oxygen = 44.323 = 1. nitrogen = 0. and fixed carbon = 17. solid.01.323 = 0. Composition is ash = 3. determination performed at 30 at m 02.32 g ~ m .89.(gross) = 46 13 cal g-l q. solid.94. and corrections applied for the formation of nitric and sulfuric acids. ash content = 0. Char was obtained from heating the sample to 500°C (932°F) in nitrogen.(gross) = 5190 cal g-' qv(gross) = 21730 f g-l char (from 500°C heating) q. q. dry basis.(gross) = 8303 Btu lb-I q.29.82.(gross) = 9330 Btu lb.) F' Cp(cal-q -1 K -1 1 = 0. sulfur = 0. density. FOLIAGE.(net) = 18090 J g85JEN/EBE MANZANITA.19% and char yield = 30. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature.(gross) = 7750 cal gq. Arctostaphylos gZanduZosa. MicheZia.

ash.(gross) q. ash. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature. 30 . volatile matter.9 27. Material is a tree.10%. 19.8 43. oxygen.(gross) qv(gross) = 8343 4635 19393 8440 4689 19619 30. fixed carbon. leaf = 10. solid. gross heat of combustion: at 20 a t m oxygen pressure. genus.10%.(gross) = q.(gross) = 19050 J g-' 68KAI/FRI. ultimate analysis: carbon. 50.3%.(gross) q.(gross) 7837 4354 18217 8732 4851 20297 54 . 0. hydrogen.' q. stem and branch bark = 9.(gross) q. 4.(gross) q. dry weight basis ash-free dry weight basis std dev. q. Samples were dried at 85°C ( S ' ) then ground and pelleted.(gross) = 7879 4377 18313 8750 4861 77.1%.50%. 0. Ash content of stem and branch wood = 1. 39. 66FRY MAPLE. proximate analysis as received in percent by weight: moisture.40%. ash content was determined at 500°C (932°F) while the temperature was increased stepwise. one of the dominant species of a 65-year-old climazonal oak forest (Querceturn petraeae-cerris) on brown forest soil.7 69. 13 Btu lb-l cal Jg- root (4 measurements) q.0%. sulfur.9 Btu lb-I cal q1 q-' J g- stem and branch bark ( 5 measurements) qv(gross) = q.3%.7 116 B t u lb'l cal Jg- leaf (6 measurements) q. 4. 0.1 16.0%. Acer campestre. of mean stem and branch wood (4 measurements) q. The ISF.0%. 5.6%. root = 10.Woody and Tree Materials I MAPLE.2%. HEDGE.90%. at 300 m above sea level located in t h e southern part of the Bukk Mountains of north Hungary. nitrogen.7%. Acer.(gross) = 4553 cal gq. solid.2 20338 181 Btu lb-I cal9-1 J g- 75PAP 266 . assume values refer to room temperature.(gross) = 8195 B t u lb. 76.(gross) = qv(gross) = 7607 4226 17682 8429 4683 19594 49.

(gross) = 20050 (59) J g.8 cm. Acer rubrum. and at top of t h e stem). two-thirds.(gross) = 4770 cal g-" qv(gross) = 19958 J g-l leaves: q. RED. q. bark = 6. assume values refer t o room temperature.(gross) = 4815 (26) cal gq. mean a g e = 12.796.7 years.51%.Woody and Tree Materials MAPLE.(gross) 8957 Btu lbl 1 qv(gross) = 4976 cal gq. wood: q.(gross) = 20 146 (109) J g-l branch without bark q. branches 1.' q.(gross) = 8734 (43) Btu lb-I q ( ross) 4852 (24) cal g-l q$ross) = 20301 (100) J g-' (more) 267 . 1 qv(gross) = 4557 cal gq.(gross) = 201 17 J g bark: twigs: qv(gross) = 8586 Btu Ib-' q.(gross) = 4854 (21) cal gq.(gross) = 4808 cal 6 .1 bole without bark q. Material came from various locations in New Hampshire.(gross) = 20820 J g-l qv(gross) = 8203 Btu lb. mean basal stem diameter = 7. RED.(gross) = 8626 (25) Btu lb. solid.5%? and leaves = 5.(gross) = 20309 (88) J grl branch with bark q. Bole samples were composed of cross sections taken from four positions along length of each tree (at the base.(gross) = 19066 J g-l branches: qv(gross) = 8568 Btu l b l 1 q.4%. Branch samples were composed of cross sections taken from four positions along length of each of four branches (one branch from four positions in the live crown of the tree). Acer rubrum.(gtoss) = 8467 (47) Btu lbi 1 q.(gtoss) = 8737 (38) Btu lbll q. mean stem bark (proportion of dry weight) = 10. one-third. bole with bark q. solid. Bark was removed from half of each bole and branch sample and all samples were oven-dried at 85°C (185'F) to a constant weight gross heat of combustion: Assume values refer t o room temperature.1%.' q.(gross) = 8654 Btu Ib. thermochemical calorie used and values were expressed on a dry matter basis and adjusted for h e a t of formation of nitric acid.(gross) = 19916 J g-' 79NEE/STE MAPLE. ash content (proportion of oven dry weight) of components of sample: wood = 0. All tests were made at 99% confidence level and numbers in parentheses are standard errors.(gross) = 4792 (14) cal gq.2%. twigs = 2. gross heat of combustion: oven dry weight basis.(gross) = 4760 c a l gq.

values a r e on a dry weight basis.(gross) = 4445 cal g-l q.(gross) = 19397 J g-l branch bark qv(gross) = 7650 Btu lb. q. Samples were dried at 70°C (158OF) t o a constant weight.1 q.(gross) = 8345 Btu Ibi 1 qv(gross) = 4636 cal gq. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature.(gross) = 9 119 Btu lb. 1 q.Woody and Tree Materials I MAPLE. RED. Acer rubrum.1 qv(gtoss) = 4250 cal g-l q. Material was collected from the southern Atlantic and Gulf coastal plains in bottom-.(gross) = 20372 J g-' SZGOW/FRE 268 . reported values were averaged over all positions of similar plant tissue for each t r e e and six trees per species were used.(gross) = 8764 Btu lb. solid.(gross) = 17782 J g-l foliage q.(gross) = 19610 J g.(gross) = 4869 cal g-l q.Continued foliage q.I q. bole wood branch wood b' qv(gross) = 8437 Btu I. swamp.(gross) = 18598 J g-l q.1 bole bark q.(gross) = 21196 J g-l SlMUS/HOC MAPLE. RED .(gross) = 5066 cal gq.and wet flat-land natural stand sites.(gross) 8001 Btu lb.(gross) = 4687 cal gq.

(gross) = 18610 J g-l q. Overall mean specific gravity for whole tree = 0.368 12DUN 269 .327 = 1. SUG R.64 c m (1/4 in.(gross) 4484 cal g-l qv(gross) = 18761 J g-' large parts qv(gross) = 8006 Btu lb. specific heat: 273-379 K (32"-223"F) Cp(Btu lb-I OF-') Cp(cal -1 &) Cp(J g. air-dried at 105°-1100C(221"-230°F).327 = 0. Each t r e e was separated into small parts (being less than 0. Bark proportion of whole t r e e = 19%. solid. gross heat of combustion: oven-dried.40 (oven dry weight and green volume). Acer saccharurn. 1 qv(gross) = 4448 cal gq. assume values refer t o room temperature.(gross) = 8071 B t u Ib-I q.66 g cm- 4. Acer saccharinurn. SILVER.Woody and Tree Materials MAPLE. solid. small parts whole t r e e q. density.(gross) = 8023 Btu Ibqv(gtoss) = 4457 cal g-l qv(gross) = 18648 J g-l 1 82GEY MAPLE. 0.K ' -) q = 0.) in diameter and roughly equivalent t o tops and branches) and large parts with the weighted proportion of small (25%) and large (75%) material in t h e whole tree.

Branch samples were composed of cross sections taken from four positions along length of each of four branches (one branch from four positions in the live crown of the tree). bole with bark q. All tests were made at 99% confidence level and numbers in parentheses are standard errors. SUGAR.1 qv(gross) = 4873 (102) c a l g-l qv(gross) 20389 (427) J g-l branch without bark qv(gross) = 8863 (103) Btu lb-l qv(gross) = 4924 (57) c a l g-l qv(gross) = 20602 (238) J g-l q. q.1 q.(gross) = 16970 J g. Acer saccharurn.(gross) = 20393 (122) J g-' foliage branch with bark qv(gross) = 8771(184) Btu Ib.0%. BARK. gross heat o combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature.(gross) = 20234 (368) J g-l bole without bark q.Woody and Tree Materials I MAPLE. Material came from various locations in New Hampshire. gross heat o combustion: Assume values refer to room temperature. two-thirds. one-third.1 q.(gross) = 4056 c a l g-l q.1 55CHA/MIT . moisture content = 6. Bole samples were composed of cross sections taken from four positions along length of each tree (at the base. solid.3%. solid. values not f corrected for moisture or ash contents. Bark was removed from half of each bole and branch sample and all samples were oven-dried at 85°C (185'F) t o a constant weight.(gross) = 8705 (158) Btu 1 q.(gross) = 4874 (29) c a l g-' q. gross heat of combustion determined on 1 g samples of air-dried bark. Acer saccharurn.1 q.(gross) = 8773 (52) Btu Ib. hence. ash content = 6.(gross) = 4836 (88) c a l gq. SUGAR. are on a n as-determined basis.(gross) = 20966 J g-l 81MUS/HOC MAPLE. one at top of t h e stem).(gross) = 501 1 c a l g-l q.(gross) = 7301 Btu lb. thermochemical f calorie used and values were expressed on a dry matter basis and adjusted for heat of formation of nitric acid.(gross) = 9020 Btu lb.

61%.9 29. assume values refer to room temperature. one of t h e dominant species of a 65-year-old climazonal oak forest (Quercetum petraeae-cerris) on brown forest soil. Acer tataricurn. gross heat of combustion: at 20 atrn oxygen pressure.Woody and Tree Materials MAPLE.(gross) = 8298 4610 19288 834 1 4634 19389 52.(gross) = q. The ash content was determined at 500°C (932°F) while t h e temperature was increased stepwise. root = 5.(gross) = q. pelleted.8%.6%. Samples were dried at 85°C ( 8 ' ) then ground and 15F. at 300 m above sea level located in t h e southern part of t h e Bukk Mountains of north Hungary.(gross) q.(gross) = 7970 4428 18527 861 1 114 4784 20016 63. Material is a tree. I I8025 134 Btu lb" c a l ~ ' f g75PAP 27 1 .(gross) = q. solid.4 123 Btu lb-I ca1q-l J g- stem and branch bark ( 5 measurements) q.(gross) = q. Ash content of stem and branch wood = 0.8 32.(gross) = q.(gross) = 7754 4308 8235 4575 19142 57.5 266 Btu lb-' cal7-l 3 g- leaf ( 6 measurements) qv(gross) = qv(gross) = q.(gross) = 8046 4470 18720 8525 4736 19815 110 61.2 256 Btu lb-I cal J g- q1 root (3 measurements) q. dry weight basis ash-free dry weight basis s t d dev.5%. stem and branch bark 7. of mean s t e m and branch wood (3 measurements) q. leaf = 5. TATARIAN.

Composition is ash = 3. q. ash. 0. qv(gross) = 8296 Btu l b l l qv(gross) = 4609 cal gq.(gross) = 7380 cal g-l q. room temperature.(gross) = 4756 cal g-l q.1 q. BLACK. nitrogen. hydrogen. dry basis.Woody and Tree Materials I OAK. 0.1 q. Quercus peduncutata. gross heat of combustion: ash-free. ultimate analysis: carbon. solid.46% and char yield 28.37%. The litter was air dried at room temperature.16%.(gross) = 30880 J g-l 82SUS 27 2 .(gross) = 2 1270 J g-l q.1 q. 6. Char was obtained from heating the sample to 500°C (932°F) in nitrogen. air-dried one hour at 105°C (222 O ) F.(gross) = 9150 Btu lb. fuel char (from 500°C heating) q.9%. assume values refer to room temperature.09%. DEAD FOLIAGE.02%. ash free.(gross) = 13290 Btu lb. gross heat of combustion: 2OoC (68°F). 50.(gross) = 5080 cal g-' q.(gross) = 19284 J g-l species not identified.(gross) 8562 Btu lb. air-dried at 110"-115°C (230"-240"F). Quercus velutina.(gross) = 19899 J g-' 22PAR/DAV OAK.

shade-adapted leaf = 6. then ground and pelleted. branch wood 1.(gross) = 8518 4732 19799 8620 4789 20037 38.4%.(gross) = qJgross) = qv(gross) = 8545 4747 19861 8582 4768 19949 35.8 19. assume values refer to room temperature.9 83.3 41. dry weight basis trunk wood (4 measurements) q. The ash content was determined at 500°C (932°F) while t h e temperature was increased stepwise.(gross) = 7997 4443 18590 8926 4959 20748 30.0 47.7%.0 21. light-adapted leaf = 6.(gross) = qJgross) = qJgross) = 8363 4646 19439 8694 4830 20209 85. trunk bark = 10. root = 6.1 88.3 ash-free dry weight basis std dev.9 q.1 16.3 127 Btu lb-I ca1q-l J g- twig (4 measurements) q. of mean Btu lb-l cal y1 J g- branch wood ( 3 measurements q.% gross heat of combustion: at 20 a t m oxygen pressure.(gross) = q. at 300 m above sea level located in t h e southern part of t h e Bukk Mountains of north Hungary.5 30.(gross) = q.q-l J g- trunk bark (4 measurements) qJgross) = q.7 69.Woody and Tree Materials OAK. Material is a tree. solid.(gross) = 7675 4264 17841 8440 4689 19619 54.3 173 Btu lb-' cal9-l J g(more) 273 . Ash content of trunk wood = 0.5%.9%. one of t h e dominant species of a 65-year-old climatonal oak forest (Quercetum petraeae-cerris) on brown forest soil.(gross) = q. DURMAST.(gross) = Btu lb-I cal 5-l J g- branch bark (4 measurements) q.3 Btu lb-' ca1. Samples were dried at 85°C (l8S0F). .2 197 Btu lb-I cal4-l J g- light-adapted leaf (5 measurements) q.(gross) = q. acorns = 2 6 .0%.0%. branch bark = 9. Quercus petraea.3%.(gross) = qJgross) = qv(gross) = 8698 4832 202 17 9259 5144 21522 74.1%. twig = 3.

Woody and Tree Materials OAK. q.(gross) = 8089 4494 18803 8692 4829 20205 47.(gross) = q. gross heat of combustion determined on 1 g samples of air-dried bark.(gross) = 8030 Btu Ibi 1 q.) = 9.0389-(0. The relationship etween gross heat of combustion and moisture content (MC) is given by: enqv(Btu lb.(gross) = q. DURMAST .(gross) = 4767 cal gq. NORTHERN RED.Continued dry weight basis ash-free dry weight basis std dev.33%. ash content = 5. hemicellulose.(gross) = 19945 J g-' 78MUR/MAS OAK. of mean shade-adapted leaf (5 measurements) qv(gross) = qv(gross) = qv(gross) = 8329 4627 19359 8905 4947 20698 59. Quercus rubra. Quercus rubra. P gross heat of combustion: oven-dry basis. values are reported in international British thermal units per pound and converted below into thermochemical units. are on a n as-determined basis.1 55CHA/MIT 274 .4%.0 32. values not corrected for moisture or ash contents. qv(gross) = 8581 Btu lb.(gross) = 4461 cal gq. solid. assume values refer to room temperature.(gross) = qv(gross) = qv(gross) = 8377 4654 19472 8604 4780 20000 15 8.(gross) = 18665 J g.1 34 Btu Ib-I cal J g- F1 root (3 measurements) q. solid. 1 q.86%. hence.4%. and lignin.5 111 Btu Ib-I cal J g- q1 75PAP OAK.81%. 33. NORTHERN RED.0107)MC(%) for EFW. moisture content = 4. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature. Material was extractive-free wood (EFW) comprising cellulose.7 26. 23. BARK. 42.8 137 Btu lb-I cal J g- c' acorns (3 measurements) q.

solid.(gross) = 20410 (105) J g bole without bark qv(gross) 8654 (45) B t u lb. All tests were made at 99% confidence level and numbers in parentheses ate standard errors. air-dried at 0. Bole samples were composed of cross sections taken from four positions along length of each tree (at t h e base. one-third.K-l) . Bark was removed from half of each bole and branch sample and all samples were oven-dried at 85°C (185°F)to a constant weight.Woody and Tree Materials OAK. Q ercus rubra. two-thirds. Branch samples were composed of cross sections taken from four positions along length of each of four branches (one branch from four positions in t h e live crown of t h e tree).(gross) 201 17 (130) J g-' $' 275 .(gross) = 4967 cal gq.(gross) q. thermochemical f calorie used and values were expressed on a dry matter basis and adjusted for heat of formation of nitric acid.density. ~ .(gross) 4808 (25) cal .(gross) = 8654 ( 5 6 ) Btu qv(gross) = 4808 (31) cal gq.l: g q.331 = 0.(gross) = 8941 Btu Ib. RED. 105"-110"C (22I0-23O0F). solid. Material came from various locations in New Hampshire. gross heat o combustion: Assume values refer to room temperature.62 g c m -3 .9 = 0. Quercus rubra.(gross) = 20782 J g-l 82MUS/HOC branch with bark q.331 = 1.1 q.385 12DUN OAK. bole with bark qv(gross) = 8780 (45) Btu qv(gross) = 4878 (25) c a l g-l q. specific heat: 273-379 K (32"-223"F) Cp(Btu lb-I OF-') Cp(cal 4-l C ( J g. RED.(gross) = 201 17 (105)J g foliage q.(gross) q.(gross) 8797 (56)Btu Ibl 1 4887 (31) cal g20447 (130) J g-l branch without bark q. 1 q. and at top of t h e stem).

40.and corrections applied for t h e formation of nitric and sulfuric acids. ash content = 1.and corrections applied for t h e formation of nitric and sulfuric acids.' q. solid. qv(net) = 7628 Btu Ib. Material is considered biomass fuel and has proximate analysis values (in percent by weight dry basis) for volatile concentration (VCM) 73. BARK. qv(gross) = 18400 J g 85JEN/EBE OAK.49. P gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature. hydrogen 5. oxygen = 44. sulfur 0. ash content = 1. TAN. ash content = 3. Material is considered biomass fuel and has proximate analysis values (in petcent by weight dry basis) for volatile concentration (VCM) = 83. Also t h e ultimate analysis of t h e elemental composition of t h e fuel (values in percent by weight dry basis) is carbon = 47.12.81.03. and fixed carbon = 15. TAN. and residue (ash) 2. qv(gross) q.40. Material is considered biomass fuel and has roximate analysis values (in percent by weight dry basis) for volatile concentration VCM) = 80. SAPWOOD. and fixed carbon 17.01.93. corrections applied for t h e formation of nitric and sulfuric acids.12. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature.93.1 85JEN/EBE . TAN.67. qv(gross) = 8204 Btu lb.36.00. determination performed at 30 a t m 02. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature.01.(gross) qv(gross) 8144 Btu Ib. solid.W m y and Tree Materials OAK. determination performed at 30 a t m 02.(gross) = 4398 c a l 5. determination and performed at 30 a t m 02. 1 qv(gtoss) = 4558 cal gqv(gross) = 19070 J g. solid.11.' qv(net) = 4238 cal 81 qv(net) = 17730 J g- 85JEN/EBE OAK. chlorine = 0.62. nitrogen 0. qv(gross) 7916 Btu lb. and fixed carbon = 23.1 4524 c a l g-l 18930 J g-l net heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature.

4%.0 100 Btu lb-I cal J g- twig (4 measurements) qv(gross) = q.(gross) q. content was determined at 500°C (932'F) while the temperature was increased stepwise. light-adapted leaf = 5. trunk bark = 8.2%.(gross) = 8386 4659 19493 9146 508 1 2 1259 43.2 55.W d y and Tree Materials OAK.(gross) = q. branch wood = 1.(gross) = qv(gross) = 8523 4735 1981 1 8617 4787 20029 30.3%. one of the dominant species of a 65-year-old climazonal oak forest (Quercetum petraeae-cerris) on brown forest soil.4%. Samples were dried at 85°C ( 8 ' ) then ground and pelleted. acorns = 2. Material is a tree.1%.(gross) = qv(gross) = q.9 70.7 133 B t u lb-l cal Jg- branch bark (4 measurements) qJgross) qv(gross) = q. branch bark = 8. TURKEY.9 q.(gross) = q. Ash content of trunk wood = 1.(gross) = qv(gross) 8395 4664 19514 8510 4728 19782 57. assume values refer to room temperature.(gross) qv(gross) 890 1 4945 20690 9412 5229 22878 41.8 Btu Ib-l ca1q-l J g(more) 277 . of mean Btu Ib-I cal J g- r1 trunk bark (7 measurements) q. solid. gross heat of combustion: at 20 a t m oxygen pressure.3%. shade-adapted leaf = 6.(gross) 7708 4282 17916 8404 4669 19535 43.3%.2 24.6%.1 31. twig = 5. The ash 15F.0 100 Btu lb-I cal q-1 J g- branch wood (3 measurements) q.(gross) = 8332 4629 19368 8807 4893 20472 99.7 ash-free dry weight basis std dev.2 24.(gross) 95. dry weight basis trunk wood (3 measurements) q. Quercus cerris.2 22.1 23 1 Btu lb-I cal J q1 a- light-adapted leaf ( 5 measurements) q.1%. at 300 m above sea level located in t h e southern part of t h e Bukk Mountains of north Hungary.4 16. root = 4.

(gross) = qJgross) = 8233 4574 19138 8627 4793 34.(gross) = 19987 f g-l bark: twigs: q. 93 80.1 q.(gross) = 19899 J g7 9NEE/ STE 278 .(gross) = 8320 Btu Ib.8 cm. 34 cal f-I J g- root (3 measurements) q.7%.(gross) qv(gross) 81 18 4510 18870 8289 4605 19267 15 Btu lb-I 81 . wood: q. WATER. ash content 1. Quercus nigra.(gross) = 9151 Btu Ib-1 q.(gross) = 8599 Btu Ib-I qv(gross) = 4777 cal g-l q.7 Btu 1b-l cal J g- 1.Woody and Tree Materials OAK.0 113 Btu Ib-I cal J g- acorns (3 measurements) qJgross) = q.(gross) = 8672 Btu Ib-I q.7 20054 75PAP OAK.1%.8%. mean stem bark (proportion of dry weight) = 14. TURKEY .(gtoss) 5084 cal g-' q. . mean basal stem diameter = 9.(gross) = 4622 cal g-l' q.3%. of mean shade-adapted leaf ( 5 measurements) qv(gross) q. solid.(gross) = 8561 Btu Ib-l q.(gross) = 19338 J g-l branches: q. mean age = 11. twigs = 2 6 .(gross) = 4756 cal g-l 1 q. bark = 6.(gross) 21271 J g-l q. and leaves 3.(gross) = 4818 cal g-l qv(gross) = 20159 J g-l leaves: q.Continued dry weight basis ash-free dry weight basis std dev.(gross) = q.(gross) = qJgross) = 8653 4807 201 12 9227 5126 21447 48.6 27.3 years. assume values refer to room temperature.% gross heat of combustion: oven dry weight basis.

reported values were averaged over all positions of similar plant tissue for each tree and six trees per species were used.Woody and Tree Materials OAK.325 = 0.(gross) = 19146 J g-' branch bark qv(gross) = 8289 Btu Ibil q. density.(gtoss) 4576 cal g-l q.(gross) = 4605 cal g .1 q.(gtoss) = 19334 J g-' foliage 82GOW/FRE OAK. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature. values ate on a dry weight basis. solid.1 q.78 g specific heat: 273-379 K (32"-223"F) Cp(Btu Ib" O-) F' Cp(cal -1 K-1) 7 Cp(J g.(gross) = 4621 cal g-l q. WATER. air-dried at 105"-110"C(221"-230°F). qv(gross) = 19267 J gbole bark qv(gross) = 8393 Btu I' b . qv(gross) = 4663 cal gqv(gross) = 1951o J q. 0.360 12DUN 279 . Quercus nigru. WHITE.325 = 1. solid. bole wood branch wood qv(gross) = 8237 Btu lb. Samples were dried at 70°C (158°F)to a constant weight. Quercus alba.(gross) = 8318 Btu lb.and wet flat-land natural stand sites. swamp.K' -) = 0. Material was collected from the southern Atlantic uf and G l coastal plains in bottom-.

solid. BARK. chlorine = 0. ash content = 10. solid. hence. gross heat of combustion determined on 1 g samples of air-dried bark.38.(gross) 4641 cal g-l q. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature.5%. Also t h e ultimate analysis of t h e elemental composition of t h e fuel (values in percent by weight dry basis) is carbon = 49. qv(net) 7886 Btu lb.7%. and residue (ash) = I . q.04. values not corrected for moisture or ash contents. Material is considered biomass fuel and has proximate analysis values (in percent by weight dry basis) for volatile concentration (VCM) = 81. Quercus alba. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature.(gross) = 3886 c a l gq. WHITE.20.(gross) = 19420 J g-l net heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature. are on an as-determined basis. oxygen = 43.52.(gross) = 8355 Btu lb.35.and corrections applied for t h e formation of nitric and sulfuric acids.01.(gross) = 16259 J g-' 55CHA/MIT .28.13.' qv(net) 4381 cal gq. ash content = 1. qv(gross) 6995 Btu lbil q. determination performed at 30 atm 02. nitrogen = 0.48. and fixed carbon = 17.I q.Woody and Tree Materials OAK.6 I. moisture content = 6. hydrogen = 5. WHITE.(net) I8330 J g-l 85 JEN/EBE OAK. sulfur = 0.

solid. Bark was removed from half of each bole and branch sample and all samples were oven-dried at 85°C (185'F) t o a constant weight. JACK. Branch samples were composed of cross sections taken from four positions along length of each of four branches (one branch from four positions in t h e live crown of the tree). two-thirds.(gross) = 9407 Btu lbi 1 qv(gross) = 5226 cal gq.7%. moisture content 6.(gross) = 9031 (58) Btu lb.' q. one at top of t h e stem). Pinus strobus.6%.(gross) = 9049 (59) Btu lb-' q.(gross) = 21866 J g-' 8 lMUS/HOC PINE.(gross) = 5017 (32) cal gq. solid. BARK.(gross) 4867 cal g-l qv(gross) = 20364 J g-l 55CHA/MIT 28 1 . one-third.(gross) 5027 (33) c a l g-' q. Pinus banlcsiana. All tests were made at 99% confidence level and numbers in parentheses are standard errors.(gross) 20991 (134) J g-' foliage q. gross heat of combustion determined on 1 g samples of air-dried bark. gross heat o combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature.Woody and Tree Materials PINE. thermochemical calorie used and values were expressed on a dry matter basis and adjusted for heat of formation of nitric acid. qv(gross) = 8761 Btu lb.(gross) = 21033 (138) J g-' bole without bark q. EASTERN WHITE. hence. values not f corrected for moisture or ash contents. ash content 1. bole with bark branch with bark qv(gross) = 9679 ( 3 6 ) Btu lbl 1 qv(gross) = 5377 (31) c a l g" qv(gross) = 22497 (130) J g-' branch without bark q.(gross) 9182 (49) B t u lb-' qv(gross) = 5101 (27) c a l g-l q. are on a n as-determined basis.1 q. Bole samples were composed of cross sections taken from four positions along length of each tree (at the base. Material c a m e from various locations in New Hampshire.(gross) = 21343 (113) J g-' q. gross heat of combustion: Assume values refer to room temperature.

moisture content = 5. ash content = 2. Cp(Btu lb-I O-) F' = 0.0%.29058 + 4. 6.01153 + 9. DUFF. specific heat: 333-413 K (140"-284"F). solid. Material is partially decomposed pine litter called the IIFII layer air-dried at room temperature.497 = 0. assume values refer to room temperature.91% and char yield = 38. Char was obtained from heating the sample to 500°C (932OF)in nitrogen.34781 + 6.(gross) = 23260 J g-l char (from 500°C heating) P-' q.06 = 0.08% [68McM]. values not corrected for moisture or ash contents. are on an as-determined basis. LODGEPOLE. BARK.(gross) = 31450 J g-l 82SUS PINE. solid. 0. fuel qv(gross) 10010 Btu 1 q.(gross) = 10190 Btu Ib-' q. gross heat of combustion: ash-free.Woody and Tree Materials PINE LITTER.(gross) = 13530 Btu 1P-l q. hence.04824 + 3.(gross) = 5560 cal gq. EXTRACTIVES.56 x x x T lod3 T T 70McM PINE. C (Btu lb-' OF-') Cp(cal P K-~) Cp(3 g.(gross) = 23686 J g-' 55CHA/MIT 28 2 . specific heat: 333-413 K (140"-284"F).06945 + 1 0 . solid.K-l) q1 = 0. Pinus Eaeda. solid. unexttacted specific gravity.2761 = 0.9 = 0.(gross) = 5661 cal g-' q. dry basis. Pinus contorta.9735 x x T T T 69McM PINE. mean extractive content. gross heat of combustion determined on 1 g samples of air-dried bark.(gross) = 7520 cal gq. residue obtained from alcoholbenzene extraction of loblolly pine wood. samples were oven-dried at 100°C (212°F)for 12 hours before measurements were made. q.6%. samples were oven-dried at 100°C (212°F)for 12 hours before measurements were made. Composition is ash = 31. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature.25406 + 5. Pinus taeda.49 (oven dry weight and green volume). LOBLOLLY. LOBLOLLY.8%.

gross heat of combustion: ash-free.Woody and Tree Materials PINE.21% and char yield = 29. LONGLEAF. Char was obtained from heating th e sample to 500°C (932°F) in nitrogen.337 Cp(J g.7%. air-dried at 0. Pinus palustris. solid.(gross) = 5260 cal g-l qv(gross) = 22020 J g-l chat (from 500°C heating) q. Crude protein levels averaged 4. PINYON. dry basis. Pinus edulis. gross heat of combustion: ash-free. Pinus contorta.410 105°-110"C (221'-230"F).(gross) = 13510 Btu 1 q.(gross) = 9470 Btu lb. assume values refer t o room temperature.(gross) = 9530 Btu lb-I q.K ) = 1. fuel q. specific heat: 273-379 K (32"-223"F) Cp(Btu lb-I OF-') = 0. density.(gross) = 7670 cal gqv(gross) = 321 10 J g-l P-' 82SUS PINE.(gross) = 7510 cal gqv(gross) = 31400 J g-l 82SUS 283 . dry basis. solid.(gross) = 22140 J g. LODGEPOLE. Char was obtained from heating the sample t o 500°C (932°F)in nitrogen. Composition is ash 2. Material was frozen and subsequently dried or preserved in 70% alcohol and then dried. FOLIAGE. solid. Samples were taken at mid-crown position.1 q. freeze-dried to < 10% moisture content.337 Cp(cal ~ ~ 5 . qv(gross) = 8951 Btu lbll q ( ross) = 4973 cal gq$ross) = 20807 J g-' 68BOA/KIC PINE. fuel q. at 6300 and 5700 feet altitude. 12DUN PINE.1 char (from 500°C heating) qv(gross) = 13810 B t u I q. FOLIAGE.~ . solid. assume values refer t o room temperature. gross heat of combustion: air-dried weight. freeze dried to < 10% moisture content. in May and November.52% of air-dry weight.22% and char yield = 26. NEEDLES. and from young and old trees.l =)0. assume values refer to room temperature. LODGEPOLE.2%. Pinus contorta. Composition is ash = 3.68 g ~ r n .(gross) = 5290 cal g-l q.

assume values refer t o room temperature. gross heat of combustion: ash-free. Samples were conditioned t o moisture equilibrium at 27°C (80°F) and 30% relative humidity.(gross) = 20020 J g. qv(net) = 8088 Btu lb.Woody and Tree Materials I . solid.(gross) = 32400 J g-l p-' 82SUS PINE. Stem samples were branches < 0. Pinus eduZis. solid. q.(gross) q. fuel q.06. PONDEROSA.30. hydro en = 5.17. STEMS.(gross) q. solid.(gross) 9630 Btu lb. and residue ash) 0. Material is considered biomass fuel and has proximate analysis values (in percent by weight dry basis) for volatile concentration (VCM) = 82.54.1 q.(gross) = 4785 cal g.1 qv(gross) 4626 ? 38 cal g-l qv(gross) = 19355 k 159 J g-' 67ROB. Also t h e ultimate analysis of t h e elemental composition of t h e fuel (values in percent by weight dry basis) is carbon = 49. ash content = 0. 64BRO PINE. diameter with foliage removed and freeze-dried t o < 10% moisture content.36.1 net heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature.(gross) = 7740 c a l gq. qv(gross) 8327 2 68 Btu Ib. Char was obtained from heating the sample t o 500°C (932°F) in nitrogen.01. Composition is ash = 2.and corrections applied for t h e formation of nitric and sulfuric acids. nitrogen = 0. determination performed at 30 atm 02.1 5350 c a l g-l 22390 J g-' char (from 500°C heating) qv(gross) = 13940 Btu I q. Pinus ponderosa.(gross) 8613 Btu Ib.23% and char yield = 22. PINYON. and fixed carbon = 17.3%.25.25 in. chlorine = 0. PINE. dry basis.99. sulfur 0.03.29. moisture content of wood -6%.1 q.' qv(net) = 4493 c a l gqv(net) = 18800 J g-l 85JEN/EBE . PONDEROSA. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature. oxygen = 44. k gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature.

gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature. PONDEROSA.(gross) = 9029 Btu lbl 1 q.39% and char yield 25. PONDEROSA. PONDEROSA.2%. California. Wood was air-dried at room temperature. branch-t w ig litter q.(gross) = 5689 cal g-l q. Char was obtained from heating the sample to 500°C (932°F)in nitrogen.(gross) = 9283 Btu lbl 1 q.1 q. assume values refer t o room temperature.33% and char yield = 19.(gross) = 13990 Btu 1 q. Pinus ponderosa.1 q.1 q.(gtoss) = 5016 cal g- q. Pinus ponderosa. fuel qv(gross) 8960 Btu lb. Average yearly decomposition of t h e forest floor for ponderosa pine is: litter.(gross) = 22010 J g-l P-' 82SUS 285 . A2 78 FOLIAGE. 11.(gross) = 20x20 J g-l char (from 500°C heating) qv(gross) 14130 Btu 1 qv(gross) 7850 cal gqv(gross) = 32850 J g-' 82SUS PINE. Composition is ash = 2. duff. ash-free.16%. 2. dry basis. fuel char (from 500°C heating) q.(gross) = 5157 cal gq. solid.(gross) = 9470 Btu lb. The layer was collected from t h e understory of t h e forest floor.(gross) = 20987 J g-' duff q.Woody and Tree Materials PINE.(gross) = 10240 Btu lb.(gross) = 5260 cal g-l q. gross heat of combustion: ash-free.(gross) 4980 cal g-l q. assume values refer to room temperature. Pinus ponderosa.(gross) = 21577 J g-l q.5%. gross heat of combustion: ash-free. Composition is ash = 0.(gtoss) = 7770 cal gq. solid.(gross) = 23803 J g-' 78AGE/WAK PINE. dry basis. Char was obtained from heating the sample to 500°C (932°F)in nitrogen. solid.(gross) 32510 J g-l q. Material was obtained from Whitaker's Forest in Tulare County. freeze-dried t o < 10% moisture content.80%. with predominant soil series of Shaver sandy loam derived from granitic parent material.

CA 77 FOLIAGE. PONDEROSA.1 P-' 82SUS PINE. BARK. fuel q. Char was obtained from heating the sample t o 500°C (932°F) in nitrogen.Pinus ponderosa.(gross) = 9860 Btu lb.9%.(gross) 5480 cal g. Pinus ponderosa. Composition is ash = 3. DEAD FOLIAGE. assume values refer to room temperature. PONDEROSA.1 q.(gross) = 13740 Btu 1 q. gross heat of combustion: ash-free.63% and char yield = 29. fuel q.(gross) = 9470 Btu lb-I q. PONDEROSA.(gross) = 7880 cal g-' q.(gross) 30470 J g.5%.4%. freeze-dried to < 10% moisture content.(gross) = 22910 J g-l char (from 500°C heating) q. PINE. Pinus ponderosa. Composition is ash = 2.1 q. gross heat of combustion: ash-free.(gross) = 31940 3 g-l 82SUS 286 . solid. Bark samples were air-dried at room temperature.75% and char yield = 26. assume values refer to room temperature. Char was obtained from heating the sample to 500°C (932°F)in nitrogen.(gross) = 13110 Btu 1 qv(gross) = 7280 cal gq.1 q.(gross) = 22010 J g-l char (from 500°C heating) q. Char was obtained from heating t h e sample to 500°C (932°F) in nitrogen.(gross) = 20550 J g-' char (from 500°C heating) q. solid.Woody and Tree Materials I . The litter was air-dried at room temperature.1 q.(gross) = 14190 Btu lb.(gross) = 8840 Btu lb.(gross) = 7630 cal gq. assume values refer to room temperature. gross heat of combustion: ash-free.52% and char yield = 46. fuel q. dry basis.(gross) = 32980 J g-l 82SUS PINE. solid. dry basis. Composition is ash = 0.(gross) = 4910 cal g-l q.(gross) = 5260 cal g-l q. dry basis.

3%. Composition is ash = 2. Pinus ponderosa.24% and char yield = 20. freeze-dried t o < 10% moisture content. solid.(gross) = 22270 J g-l char (from 500°C heating) qv(gross) = 13990 Btu 1 q. dry basis. freeze-dried to < 10% moisture content. Pinus ponderosa. gross heat of combustion: ash-free.0%. MT 78 FOLIAGE.(gross) = 5010 cal g-' q.Woody and Tree Materials PINE. gross heat of combustion: ash-free.61% and char yield = 26.(gross) = 32600 J g-l 82SUS PINE.(gross) = 9640 Btu lb.(gross) = 32510 J g-' P-' . Char was obtained from heating the sample t o 500°C (932°F) in nitrogen. Lumber was airdried at room temperature.(gross) = 14120 Btu 1 q. Composition is ash = 0. dry basis. Char was obtained from heating the sample t o 500°C (932°F) in nitrogen. Pinus ponderosa.(gross) = 9020 Btu lb.94% and char yield = 29. solid. fuel q.(gross) = 7840 cal gq. Chat was obtained from heating t h e sample to 500°C (932°F) in nitrogen. dry basis.(gross) = 22400 J g.(gross) = 7770 cal gq. 82SUS 287 . PONDEROSA. PONDEROSA. HEARTWOOD LUMBER. fuel q. MT 77 FOLIAGE.(gross) = 20970 J g-' q. gross heat of combustion: ash-free. Composition is ash = 2.(gross) = 5350 cal g-l q.1 char (from 500°C heating) qv(gross) = 14030 Btu lb-' qv(gross) = 7790 cal g-' q. fuel char (from 500°C heating) q.1 q. assume values refer t o room temperature. assume values refer to room temperature.9%. PONDEROSA.(gross) = 5320cal q.1 q. assume values refer t o room temperature.(gtoss) = 32820 J g-l P-' 82SUS PINE.(gross) = 9580 Btu 1 q. solid.

Material was obtained from Whitaker's Forest in Tulare County. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature. moisture content = 6 4 . hence.(gross) = 9300 B t u Ib. Composition is ash 1. branch. with predominant soil series of Shaver sandy loam derived from granitic parent material. The layer was collected from the understory of t h e forest floor. freeze-dried t o < 10% moisture content. 8. SLASH. Pinus tambertiana.(gross) = 21543 J g-' q.(gross) = 21430 J g-l duff qv(gross) qv(gross) q. assume values refer to toom temperature. .(gross) = 5 122 cal g-' q. SUGAR. fuel q. gross heat of combustion determined on 1 g samples of air-dried bark.(gross) = 2 I6 I0 f g-' char (from 500°C heating) q.Woody and Tree Materials PINE.(gtoss) = 5170 cal g-' q. gross heat of combustion: ash-free. SLASH. solid.' q ( ross) = 5001 cal gq$ross) = 20924 J g-l 55CHAIMIT PINE. California. Char was obtained from heating the sample t o 500°C (932'F) in nitrogen.% gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature.6%.(gross) 9365 Btu lb. qv(gross) = 9002 Btu lb.1 q. solid. ate on a n as-determined basis.(gross) = 7580 cal g-I q.t wig litter qv(gross) = 9268 Btu lbi' qv(gross) 5249 cal gq.60%.56%.(gross) = 13640 Btu q. solid. values not corrected for moisture or ash contents. dry basis. BARK.(gross) = 31700 J g-l P-' 82SUS PINE. Average yearly decomposition of the forest floor for sugar pine is: litter.(gross) 9220 Btu Ib-1 q.1 5203 cal g-' 21769 J g-' 78AGElWAK 288 .5%. ash content = 0. Pinus elliottii.Pinus elliottii. 2. ash free.54% and char yield = 29. duff. FOLIAGE.

gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature.69% moisture air-dried one hour at 105°C (221°F) q. WESTERN WHITE. Pinus monticola.53% and char yield = 34. fixed carbon. as received: 10.1 q. Composition is ash = 3.76%. DEAD FOLIAGE.Woody and Tree Materials PINE. Char was obtained from heating the sample to 500°C (932°F) in nitrogen.K ) = 0. assume values refer t o room temperature. Pinus strobus. qv(gross) = 8266 Btu lb. air-dried at 105"-110"C (221"-230°F). 66FRY POPLAR. gross heat of combustion: ash-free. volatile matter. dry basis. solid. 78. assume values refer to room temperature.(gross) = 19213 J g-l 68KAI/FRI. WHITE. The litter was airdried at room temperature.(gross) = 21760 J g-l char (from 500°C heating) q.385 12DUN PINE.1 qv(gross) 5200 cal g-' q. 7.(gross) 13370 Btu 1 q.0%. 14. SAWDUST. fuel q.(gross) = 7430 cal gq.(gross) = 31080 J g-l 82SUS PINE.10%.14%.) Cp(cal ql5-l) Cp(J g.0%. WHITE. ash.(gross) = 8645 Btu lbl I q.(gross) = 4592 cal g-l q. specific heat: 273-379 K (32"-223"F) F' Cp(Btu lb-I O .(gross) = 9360 Btu lb.331 = 1.(gross) = 7722 Btu lbi 1 qv(gross) = 4290 cal gqv(gross) = 17948 J g-' 289 . 0. solid.(gross) = 4803 cal gqv(gross) = 20096 3 g-l 22PAR'iDAV q. a s delivered: moisture. gross heat of combustion: air-dried. Pinus strobus. proximate analysis. 0. density. solid.331 = 0.25 g ~ m ' ~ . genus Populus.

Also the ultimate analysis of the elemental composition of t h e fuel (values in percent by weight dry basis) is carbon 48.43.496.I q.63%.7 cm.69. and fixed carbon = 16. determination performed at 30 a t m 02.and corrections applied for the formation of nitric and sulfuric acids.10. branches 1. solid.' q.45.(net) = 18190 J g- 85JEN/EBE POPLAR.(gross) = 4782 cal gqv(gross) 20008 J g-' leaves: q.(gross) = 5067 cal gqv(gross) = 21200 J g-1 290 . Material is considered biomass fuel and has proximate analysis values (in percent by weight dry basis) for volatile concentration (VCM) = 82.(gtoss) 4819 cal g-l q.(gross) = 19380 J g-l net heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature.33.(gross) = 8640 Btu Ib. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature. twigs 2. and leaves = 5. hydrogen = 5.4%. assume values refer to room temperature. wood: q.32. chlorine = 0. sulfur 0. bark 4. ash content = 1. Liriodendron tulipifera.(gross) = 20083 J g-' 79NEE/STE twigs: qv(gross) = 8608 Btu Ib.(gross) = 20162 J g-' bark: qv(gross) = 8336 Btu Ibl 1 q.(gross) = 9121 Btu l b l 1 q. q. solid. qv(net) = 7826 Btu lb. mean stem bark (proportion of dry weight) = 20. and residue (ash) 1.' q. nitrogen = 0.4%.01.(net) = 4348 cal g l q. ash content (proportion of oven dry weight) of components of sample: wood = 0.85.(gross) = 19376 3 g-l branches: q.(gross) = 4631 cal gq. gross heat of combustion: oven-dry weight basis. YELLOW.(gross) = 8674 Btu Ib.Woody and Tree Materials I POPLAR. mean age = 14 years.3%.47. oxygen = 43. I q.35. mean basal stem diameter = 9.(gross) = 8337 B t u lbl I qv(gross) = 4632 cal gq.2%.(gross) = 4800 cal gq.

(gross) 4659 cal gq.(gross) = 4738 cal gq.(gross) = 4736 cal gqv(gross) = 19815 3 g-l leaves: $' qv(gross) = 9158 Btu lb-I qv(gross) = 5088 cal g-l qv(gross) 21288 J g-l q.(gross) = 19824 J g.59.1 79NEE/STE 29 1 .1 qv(gross) = 19376 J g. and total extractives. calcium. assume values refer to room temperature. mean age = 10. wood: q.(gross) = 19493 J g-' 79BOW/BLA REDBUD. 0. mean stem bark (proportion of dry weight) 9. mean basal stem diameter = 6. ash content (proportion of oven dry weight) of components of sample: wood = 0. 0. 12. solid. branches = 1.(gross) = 8386 Btu Ibl 1 q. gross heat of combustion: oven dry weight basis.9696. Average ash content is 0.08.(gross) = 8755 Btu lb.1 branches: twigs: q. Cercis canadensis. Sample specimens were composite wood/bark from 4-year-old trees of seven hybrids. potassium.5%.2%.06.35. q. twigs = 2. Selected nutrients given in percent of oven-dry weight a r e phosphorus.1% and 16.596.(gross) = 8525 Btu q. bark = 5. 0. magnesium.5 cm.2%. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature.Woody and Tree Materials POPULUS HYBRIDS.3 years. 0. Holocellulose and pentosan a re 67.(gross) = 8528 Btu lbl I q.80% of oven-dry weight.2% extractive f r e e oven-dry weight.1 q.6%. solid. and leaves 5.(gross) = 4864 cal g-l q.2.(gross) = 20351 J g-' bark: qv(gross) = 8336 Btu lb-l qv(gross) = 4631 cal g. respectively.

55. qv(net) = 8393 Btu l b l l qv(net) = 4663 c a l gi qv(net) = 19510 J g85 JEN/EBE REDWOOD.' q.36.Woody and Tree Materials I REDWOOD.44. oxygen 42.92. ash content = 1.28.(gross) = 21 140 J g-' 85 JEN/EBE .1 qv(gross) 4952 cal g-l qv(gross) = 20720 J g-l net heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature. and fixed carbon = 29.40. Material is considered biomass fuel and has proximate analysis values (in percent by weight dry basis) for volatile concentration (VCM) = 79. ash content 0.64. ash content = 0.(gross) = 8914 B t u lb. solid. Material is considered biomass fuel and has proximate analysis values (in percent by weight dry basis) for volatile concentration (VCM) = 80. HEARTWOOD.(gross) = 19580 J g-l 85JEN/EBE REDWOOD.03. Also t h e ultimate analysis of t h e elemental composition of t h e fuel (values in percent by weight dry basis) is carbon = 50. determination performed at 30 a t m 02. determination performed at 30 a t m 02.60.(gross) = 4680 c a l gq.and corrections applied for t h e formation of nitric and sulfuric acids. and fixed carbon = 19. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature. qv(gross) = 8424 Btu Ib. hydrogen = 5. solid.and corrections applied for t h e formation of nitric and sulfuric acids. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature.and corrections applied for t h e formation of nitric and sulfuric acids.05. BARK. and residue (ash) 0. q. qv(gross) = 9095 B t u lb. nitrogen = 0. and fixed carbon = 19.17.02. Material is considered biomass fuel and has proximate analysis values (in percent by weight dry basis) for volatile concentration (VCM) 68. chlorine 0.I qv(gross) = 5053 c a l g-l q.96. determination performed at 30 a t m 02.98. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature.88. sulfur = 0. solid.72.

21. SAPWOOD. Material was obtained from Whitaker's Forest in Tulare County.19.67. 11. ash content 0.' qv(gross) 5123 cal gq. and fixed carbon = 18. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature.(gross) = 9026 Btu lb.(gross) = 21435 J &-I q. solid.18. branch-twig duff qv(gross) = 9225 Btu lb. GIANT.(gross) = 20310 J g-l 85 JEN/EBE SEQUOIA.1 q.(gross) = 9196 Btu lbq. Sequoiadendron giganteurn. ash-free.77%.(gross) = 5014 cal g-l q. determination performed at 30 a t m 02. solid. Material is considered biomass fuel and has proximate analysis values (in percent by weight dry basis) for volatile concentration (VCM) = 80. Average yearly decomposition of t h e forest floor for giant sequoia is: litter. MILL WASTES. The layer was collected from t h e understory of t h e forest floor. California.1 qv(gross) = 4936 cal g-' qv(gross) = 20652 3 g-' litter q.(gross) = 5109 c a l g-l qv(gross) = 21376 J g"' 78AGEIWAK 293 . and fixed carbon 19. ash content = 0.(gross) = 4854 cal g-l q.12. with predominant soil series of Shaver sandy loam derived from granitic parent material. solid.and corrections applied for t h e formation of nitric and sulfuric acids.Woody and Tree Materials REDWOOD. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature. qv(gross) 8738 Btu lb. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature. 2.1 q.(gross) = 8885 Btu lb. determination performed at 30 a t m 02.63. Material is considered biomass fuel and has proximate analysis values (in percent by weight dry basis) for volatile concentration (VCM) 81. duff.and corrections applied for t h e formation of nitric and sulfuric acids. q.(gross) = 20980 J g-' 85JEN/EBE REDWOOD.40%.

solid.0%.35%.(gross) = 8046 Btu lb. Material is mixed sawdust and bark residue coming directly from t h e mill (generated t h e same day) collected from 6 mills around Baton Rouge. fixed carbon. assume values r e f e r to room temperature. moisture content = 6. SAWMILL RESIDUE. ultimate analysis: carbon. Picea mariana. The average moisture c o n t e n t is 107%. collected from 6 sawmills near Baton Rouge. solid.19%. ash content = 2. Louisiana. qv(gross) = 8246 Btu Ib. solid. proximate analysis as received: moisture.07%. assume values r e f e r to room temperature.76%. a r e on an as-determined basis.4 Ib ft-3. when moderately packed t h e average density 24. sulfur. air-dried at 80°C (176'F) q.82%. 0. average density 29. gross h e a t of combustion determined on 1 g samples of air-dried bark. 20. ft-3.44%. The average moisture content is 184%. values not corrected for moisture or ash contents.5%. BARK.solid. 5 I . 3.(gross) 4454 c a l g-l q.1 qv(gross).1 qv(gross) = 5304 cal g-l qv(gross) = 22 19 1 J g.41%. ash. ash. BLACK. volatile m a t t e r .(gross) = 9547 Btu Ib.4 1%.(gross) = 8017 Btu lb. q. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature.1 q. I .= 4470 cal g-l qv(gross) = 18702 J g-' 76CAS/CHO SPRUCE.(gross) 18635 J g-l 76CAS/CHO SOUTHERN HARDWOOD. hydrogen. and value is a n average. gross heat of combustion: oven-dry weight. moisture.13%. Material is mixed sawdust and bark residue from hardwood t r e e s a f t e r i t has been piled and exposed t o t h e weather. 4.' qv(gross) = 4581 cal gqv(gross) = 19167 J g-' 55CHA/MIT 294 .(gross) 1360 c a l qv(gross) = 5692 J g \ -5 -1 68KAI/FRI SPRUCE. Abies Zasiocarpa. Louisiana. hence. nitrogen. 6. PILED. gross heat of combustion: assume values r e f e r to room temperature.20%. 3.0 Ib green wt. BALSAM. 0. gross heat of combustion: oven-dry weight. 74.1 as received qv(gross) = 2448 Btu Ib.I q. SAWMILL RESIDUE. q. and value is a n average. FRESH.Woody and Tree Materials I SOUTHERN HARDWOOD.

samples were dried for 8 hours in a vacuum oven at 103OC (217°F). gross heat of combustion: at 2OoC (68OF).) F' PCp(cal 51 .(gross) = 19430 J g-l 55CHA/MIT SPRUCE.31%. ash content = 2.0645 3. bark specimens oven-dried at 152OC (306°F). NORWAY. 6. Picea engehannii.(gross) = 4644 cal g-l q. carbon.K ) 9-1 = 0.(gross) = 21309 J g-' 1883GOT SPRUCE PINE.04%.3.3383 . solid. values not corrected for moisture or ash contents. BARK.20%.2472 + 5.5%.2822 T + 5. 0.Woody and Tree Materials SPRUCE.5855 x 0. specific heat: 333-413 K (140"-284"F) Cp(Btu lb-I OF-') Cp(cal -1 K-1) Cp(J g-' K-') = 0. Pinus gZabra. solid. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature.1 Cp(J g. gross heat of combustion determined on 1 g samples of air-dried bark.137 x loL2 T + 2. solid. 50.201 x T T T 68KAI/FRI SPRUCE PINE.004 x = -0. ENGELMANN. air-dried at 110°-1150C (230°-2400F).5%. BARK.4489 x x x T + 1. moisture content = 5.1 qv(gross) = 5093 cal g-' q. Pinus abies.7859 .(Btu lb-' O . q. specific heat: 333-413 K (140°-284"F) C. Pinus glabra.(gross) = 8359 Btu lb.0091 + 1.1. qv(gross) = 9167 Btu Ib.1493 x T2 T2 10-5 T2 68KAI/FRI 295 . hence. nitrogen. ash free. solid.577 x = -0. ash.2.1 q. 0. hydrogen.37%.2882 . are on an as-determined basis.0389 + 4.

(gross) 8384 Btu lb. mean stem bark (proportion of dry weight) = 16.39 g cm -3. RED*Picea rubens. gross heat of combustion: oven dry weight basis.(gross) = 4721 cal gq.(gross) = 19598 J g-l leaves: q.389 12DUN SWEETGUM. solid.(gross) = 19673 J g-l q.7%.) F' Cp(cal .' q.(gross) = 4569 cal gqv(gross) = 19117 J g-l branches: q.(gross) = 19753 J g-l bark: q. wood: twigs: q.K-') 0. branches 2.0 cm. solid.(gross) = 4658 cal gq.47%. air-dried at 1O5"-11O0C (221'20F.3%.1 q. ash content (proportion of oven dry weight) of components of sample: wood 0. and leaves = 3.(gross) = 19489 3 g. -3') 0.(Btu Ib-' O . mean age = 10 years.0%.9%.0%.1 &) IJ density.(gross) 8224 Btu Ibl 1 q.(gross) = 8498 Btu lbl' q.332 = 1. q Cp(J g.. specific heat: 273-379 K (32'-223"F) C. Liquidambar styraciflua. assume values refer to room temperature. twigs 3.Woody and Tree Materials I SPRUCE.(gross) = 4684 cal gq. mean basal stem diameter = 7.(gross) = 8431 Btu lbll q.(gross) = 4702 cal g-l q.(gross) = 8464 Btu Ib. bark = 5.1 79NEE/STE 296 .332 = 0.

(gross) = 17560 J g-' foliage qv(gross) = 8500 Btu lb. BARK.1 4552 cal g-l 19046 J g-' branch wood qv(gross) = 8239 Btu Ib.(gross) = 4390 cal g-l q. Liquidambar styraciflua. a r e on an as-determined basis.2%.1 qv(gtoss) = 4577 cal g-l q. reported values were averaged over all positions of similar plant tissue for each t r e e and six trees per species were used. qv(gross) = 7450 Btu Ib-I q. swamp. Samples were dried at 70°C (158OF)t o a constant weight. values not corrected for moisture or ash contents.(gtoss) = 19150 J g-l branch bark q. hence.(gross) = 7902 B t u lb-I q.(gross) = 4197 cal g-l q.7%. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature. gross heat of combustion determined on 1 g samples of air-dried bark.(gross) 19757 J g-l 82GOW/FRE SWEETGUM. solid.(gross) = 7555 Btu lb-I q.(gross) = 4139 cal gi1 qv(gross) = 17318 J g 55CHA/MIT 297 . solid. moisture content = 6.1 qv(gross) = 4722 cal g-l q. Liquidambar styraciflua. ash content = 5.Woody and Tree Materials SWEETGUM.(gross) = 18368 3 g-l bole bark q.and wet flat-land natural stand sites. values ate on a dry weight basis. Material was collected from the southern Atlantic and Gulf coastal plains in bottom-. bole wood qv(gross) qv(gross) qv(gross) 8194 Btu lb.

8%. mean age = 11. Bark proportion of whole tree 18%.(gross) = 19347 J g. gross heat of combustion: oven-dried. solid.596. and leaves = 4. mean basal stem diameter = 9. twigs 1.(gross) = 19995 J g.(gross) = 18836 J g-l large parts q. ash content (proportion of oven dry weight) of components of sample: wood = 0.(gross) = 8323 Btu lb-I q.Woody and Tree Materials SYCAMORE. wood: q. PZatanus occidentaZis. solid.(gross) = 8561 Btu l b y qv(gross) = 4756 cal gq.1 q.3%.' qv(gross) = 4872 cal gq.7%. branches = 1. assume values refer t o room temperature.(gross) = 4624 cal g-l q.(gross) = 19899 J g-l twigs: qv(gross) = 8770 Btu lb. assume values refer to room f temperature.6%.1 whole tree qv(gross) = 8269 Btu lbi' qv(gross) = 4595 cal gqv(gross) = 19221 J g-l 8lGEY SYCAMORE.1 bark: q.(gross) = 4502 cal g-l q. Each t r e e was separated into small parts (being less than 0. PZatanus occidentalis.(gross) = 4779 cal g. AMERICAN.1 branches: qv(gross) = 8741 Btu lb-I qv(gross) 4856 ca1g-l qv(gross) 20318 J g-l 79NEE/STE .4 em.) in diameter and roughly equivalent to tops and branches) and large parts with the weighted proportion of small (25%) and large (75%) material in t h e whole tree. mean stem bark (proportion of dry weight) = 8.(gross) 8602 Btu lb-' q. gross heat o combustion: oven dry weight basis. bark = 4.64 cm (1/4 in.3 years. Overall mean specific gravity for whole t r e e = 0.42 (oven dry weight and green volume).(gross) = 21635 J g. small parts q.(gross) = 8104 Btu lb-' q.(gross) = 20384 J g-' leaves: qv(gross) 9308 Btu lbll qv(gross) = 5171 cal gq.54%.

BARK.(gross) = 4690 cal g-' qv(gross) = 19623 J g-' b tanc h bark q. Char was obtained from heating t h e sample to 500°C (932°F) in nitrogen.and wet flat-land natural stand sites.(gross) = 4850 c a l g-' q. dry basis.(gtoss) = 8532 Btu Ib-I q. ash content 5. hence. reported values were averaged over all positions of similar plant tissue for each t r e e and six trees per species were used.(gtoss) 4113 cal g-' q. gross heat of combustion: ash-free. Composition is ash = 34. moisture content 6.(gross) = 8575 Btu lb-l q.(gross) = 19933 J g-' branch wood q.(gross) = 32020 J g-' 82SUS TUPELO:.(gross) 19435 3 g-I bole bark q. values not corrected for moisture or ash contents.(gross) = 19832 f g-' (more) 299 .(gross) = 8442 Btu lb. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature. bole wood qv(gross) = 8361 Btu lb. solid. Nyssa aquatica. solid. Sample material was top layer of black-spruce understory.(gross) = 20290 J g-' char (from 300°C heating) q.4%.8%. solid.1 q.(gross) = 13780 Btu 1 q. assume values refer t o room temperature. Material was collected from t h e southern Atlantic and Gulf coastal plains in bottom-.(gross) = 8730 Btu Ib-' q. INTERIOR.10% and chat yield = 33. gross heat of combustion determined on 1 g samples of air-dried bark.(gtoss) 4740 cal g-l q.Woody and Tree Materials SYCAMORE:.(gross) 7650 cal gq. swamp.AMERICAN. Samples were dried at 70°C (158°F) t o a constant weight.(gross) = 17209 3 g-l 55CHA/MIT TUNDRA. PZatanus heterophyh. Hylocomium splendens and Pleurozium schreberi.1 q.5%. values are on a dry weight basis.1 q. WATER. qv(gross) = 7403 Btu lb. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature. a r e on an as-determined basis.(gross) = 4764 cal g-l q. fuel q.(gross) = 4645 cal g-' q.

1%.8 Btu Ib-I cal J g- q-' 75PAP 300 .(gross) 8548 4749 19870 9146 508 1 21259 42.(gross) 8305 4614 19305 9041 5023 21016 35. Ash content of stem and branch wood = 0.8 23. WATER . root = 8.(gross) q.(gross) 20502 J g-' 82GOW/FRE WARTY-BARKED SPINDLE TREE. then ground and pelleted.0 38 Btu lb-l cal J g- c1 stem and branch bark ( 5 measurements) q.Continued foliage q.7%. solid.8 99. at 300 rn above sea level located in t h e southern part of the Bukk Mountains of north Hungary. dry weight basis ash-free dry weight basis std dev.Woody and Tree Materials TUPELO. of mean s t e m and branch wood (3 measurements) qv(gross) q. gross heat of combustion: at 20 a t m oxygen pressure. assume values refer t o room temperature.9 192 Btu lb-I cal J g- q1 root (3 measurements) q.6 19. one of t h e dominant species of a 65-year-old climazonal oak forest (Quercetum petraeaecerris) on brown forest soil.5%.(gross) q. Samples were dried at 85°C (185"F).(gross) = q. stem and branch bark = 6. Material is a tree.(gross) = q.(gross) q. The ash content was determined at 500°C (932°F) while the temperature was increased stepwise.(gross) 8215 4564 I9096 9074 504 1 21092 82.3%. Eonyrnus verrucosus. leaf 9.8 82.(gross) q.1 qv(gross) = 4900 cal g-l q.(gross) q.(gross) = 849 1 4717 19736 8548 4749 I9870 16 9.(gross) = 8820 B t u Ib.6 45.6 Btu Ib-' cal J g- leaf (5 measurements) q.

solid.W d y and Tree Materials WILLOW.(gross) = 7922 Btu lb.(gross) = 8017 Btu lb-l qv(gross) = 4454 cal g-l qv(gross) = 18636 J g. Each tree was separated into small parts (being less than 0. BARK. hence. gross heat of combustion: oven-dried. SaZix nigra. Bark of whole t r e e = 25%.0%. ash content 6. values not corrected for moisture or ash contents. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature. gross heat of combustion determined on 1 g samples of air-dried bark.38 (oven dry weight and green volume).) in diameter and roughly equivalent to tops and branches) and large parts with t h e weighted proportion of small (25%) and large (75%) material in t h e whole tree.7%.(gross) = 16661 J g-l JXHA/MIT WILLOW.(gross) = 7168 Btu lbl 1 qv(gross) = 3982 cal gq. assume values refer to room temperatule. SANDBAR.1 q. small parts q. Salix exigua. q.(gross) = 18414 f g-' 8 1GEY 30 1 . solid.64 c m (1/4 in. moisture content = 6. Overall mean specific gravity for whole tree = 0.(gross) = 7943 Btu lb.(gross) = 4401 cal g-l q. BLACK.1 whole tree q.1 qv(gross) = 4413 cal g-l qv(gross) = 18464 J g-' large parts q. are on an as-determined basis.

Miscellaneous .

383 c a l 4 .1351. cellulose nitrate..6. 1.60 g ~ m .50/50 AN/TNT.Miscellaneous AMATOL.K-1 71USA.59 g ~ r n .67010. 1 1. = 0. 60/40 AN/TNT. an explosive mixture of ammonium nitrate (AN and trinitrotoluene (TNT).(gross) = 2107 cal q.3200.8 .0 . q.$.14% nitrogen ~ grade B (guncotton) C6H7.(gross) = 4176.(gross) = 7577 J g- 9-1 specific heat: for t h e temperature range 293-353 K (64'-176"F) for 50/50 AN/TNT mixture. mononitrocellulose: dinitrocellulose: ttinitrocellulose: cellulose nitrate. Density of cast material: 80/ZO AN/TNT. fraction q.0.64 gross heat of combustion: at 30°C (86'F) for EO.27 grade C (type 11) C6~7. ~ .(gtoss) = 8816 3 60140 AN/TNT q. 7OCOX/PIL.25427N Btu lb-I q.(gross) = 2194 Btu Ib.76% nitrogen [C6H8N20. [ C 6 H ~ N 0 7 I x . the degree of nitration is measured by the percent of nitrogen in the ester.(gross) = 5100 J 50/30 AN/TNT q. 74DEC/WAR 305 . calculated from the composition of the mixture.(gross) = 3793 Btu lb.14126N cal g-' q. cellulose nitrate. 6SWAG/EVA CELLULOSE NITRATE.N . N = wt. 80/20AN/TNT .48 grade C (type I) CgH7.(gross) = 3260 Btu Ib-I q.l K-I Cp = 1.34 grade D (pyroxylin) C6H7.1 q. cellulose nitrate.1 qv(gross) = 1219 cal q.(gtoss) = 18I 1 cal q.602 J g.68N2.74010. gross heat of combustion: 25°C (77°F).(gross) = 7316.46 g crn-'.~ .36N2. solid.383 Btu Ib-' OF-' =P Cp = 0.26N2.4 .(gross) = 17472.67010.59103N J g-l SOJES/PRO.33N2. 1.115 nitrogen. solid. < < . 1. I 1% nitrogen [ C G H ~ N lIx. Cellulose does not form nitrate in a stoichiometric manner. ~ O 14.

The branches (excluding tips). cyclotrimethylenetrinitr mine (RDX). t h e tissue correction for endothermy was used t o ensure accuracy. Africa.(gross) 1777 2 379 Btu I 987 2 210 cal g4130 2 880 J g-' P-' 79VEL/KIN CORAL BRANCHES. ammonium nitrate (AN).40%. 7OCOX/PIL. There was a 50% water loss per gram dry weight. assume values refer t o room temperature. solid. Because of high CaC03 content. 14 samples were used. The 2 c m apex of t h e branches were oven-dried at 55°C (131°F) t o constant weight. q.25 = 1. Because of high CaC03 content of t h e tissue. There was a 41% water loss per gram dry weight. 14 samples were used. calculated from the composition of t h e mixture.Miscellaneous CORAL BRANCH TIPS. aluminum. Samples were taken from 14 colonies. assume values refer t o room temperature.25 = 0.EuniceZZa papiZ2osa.68 ? 0.80 mg g-'. and ramification points were oven-dried at 55°C (131'F) t o constant weight. 76WAG/EVA.EuniceZZa papillma. Material was t h e mesoskeleton of t h e gorgonian tropical reef-building coral (Octocorallia) from t h e Atlantic side of Cape Peninsula. 68WAG/EVA.68 g c m -3 . 18%. Samples were taken from 14 colonies.1 q. gross heat of combustion: mean values were for dry weight basis. 73KRI/LIC 306 .(gross) q.21%. 21%.63 ? 0.62 mg g-f. Africa.solid.(gross) 3379 c a l g-l qv(gross) 14138 J g-l specific heat: 268 K (23°F) Cp(Btu lb-I Cp(cal Cp(7 g. trinitrotoluene (TNT). gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature.K q-' 5-l) 1 = 0. Material was the mesoskeleton of t h e gorgonian tropical reef-building coral (Octocorallia) from t h e Atlantic side of Cape Peninsula.05 7 1USA. Th relationship of organic protein nitrogen t o tissue weight is 3. gross heat of combustion: mean values were for dry weight basis. middle sections of branches. solid. The relationship of organic protein nitrogen to tissue weight is 3.(gross) qv(gross) q. correction for endothermy was used t o ensure accuracy. 1. density. 6082 Btu lb. qv(gross) qv(gross) qv(gross) 1549 k 327 Btu 1 860 2 182 cal g3600 2 760 J g-l P-' 79VEL/KIN DBX.

gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature and are corrected for moisture and ash content.8 2 2.5 c 1 g-' qv(gross) = 32740 ? 2 J g- 7 38DEW/HAR 307 . 17530 f 6. gross heat of combustion: at 25'C (77"F). (lanolin). National Carbon Co.167 + 7. qv(gross) 14106 f 3.(gross) = 40756 k 14.(gross) = 12664 f 4.(gross) = 7836. a mixture of diphenyl and diphenyl oxide. qv(gross) = 14085 ? 0. Dow Chemical Co. CEYLON. ARTIFICIAL.3 Btu lb. WOOL. average of 2 samples.(gross) 9741 f 3 5 cal g .9 B t u lb.K-') q1 = 0.111 x 0.6 Btu lb-l q. gross heat of combustion: at 25OC (77"F). specific heat: 323-513 K (12Z0-464'F) Cp(Btu lb-l OF-') CJcal K-I) Cp(J g. liquid.096 x T T T 60BOW/GAR FAT. corrected for ash content.3 Btu -p-l 1 q.(gross) = 7035. 0. BUCKINGHAM.(gross) 32785 f 10 J g-l 38DEW/HAR GRAPHITE.40 x = 0. solid.Miscellaneous DOWTHERM A. q. Main constituents a r e cholesterol esters of higher molecular weight fatty acids. spectroscopic grade.8 5 2.2% ash.699 + 3. average of 2 samples. corrected for ash content . solid.6 J g-l 64PAL/REI GRAPHITE. solid.). (trademark.1 qv(gross) = 7825. gross heat of combustion: at 25°C (77'F).0 f 0.356 + 4.0 c 1 g-l qv(gross) = 32789 2 8 J g- 7 38DEW/HAR GRAPHITE.4 cal g-' q. solid. average of 2 samples q. 2.25% ash.(gross) q.1 q.

having a density of 2.3280 0.3397 1.3844 0. (sample 1) annealed at 2200°C (3992*F). % vegetable-tanned Cp(Btu lb" OF-') Cp(cal g-l K .3724 1. 3.(gross) 32786 4 4 J g -7 38DEW/HAR LEATHER.Miscellaneous GRAPHITE.3949 1.(gross) = 14083 k 5.1 Btu 1 b l1 q.6083 I .(gross) = 7844.PYROLYTIC.3274 0. solid.3202 0.0 c a l gq.204 g ml-( (sample 2) annealed at 3O0O0C (5432'F).4 129 0. TICONDEROCA.(gross) = 14121 +. corrected for ash content.3844 0.3280 0.(gross) = 14105 2 1.7 cal gq.6083 1.32 2.4 Btu Ibl q.3202 0.(gross) = 7836.7276 (more) 308 .3730 0.59 3.~ ) C+J g-l ~ .20 7.265 g ml-'.3334 0.(gross) = 7823.3844 0.Total gas content is less t a n I ppm.3 1 10.1 q.3698 1.9 k 3.(gross) = 32735. solid. gross heat of combustion: at 25'C (77OF). 0.3844 0.8 Btu lb.15 I . increasing its strength and abrasion resistance.1 2 7.3334 0.0 i 1.average of 2 samples.6046 1.3835 0.6 J g-l 65LEW/FRI GRAPHITE.5606 1.3274 0. t h e tanning agent produces a transformation in t h e protein composition of t h e skin rendering i t resistant t o putrefactive bacteria. an animal skin or hide t h a t has been permanently combined with a tanning agent.3835 0.(gross) 32823.4 129 I .2 k 12.33% ash.81 0.3730 0. specific heat: 298 K (77°F) moisture content. gross heat of combustion: at 25°C ( 7 F 7') sample 1 q.0 c 1 g-l q.85 6. q.9 0 1.83 9.9 2 1. having a density of 2.1 J g-' sample 2 1 q.

2918 0.3893 0.98%.3438 0.1 q.59 9.3266 0.4098 0. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature.3893 0. 42.OO%. 14.69 7. SHOE.3458 0.3841 0. 5.5192 1.3576 0.4242 1.12 4.(gross) = 16847 J g-l .3737 0.4426 1. solid.3665 1. proximate analysis as received in percent by weight: moisture.363 1 1.4962 1.83%.46 14.16%.23 11. 5.(gross) = 7249 Btu Ib.) F' Cp(cal g -1 K -1 Cp(J g-l K ' -) 3.01%.32%.(gross) = 18203 J g-l 66KAI q.23 9. volatile matter.4098 13. hydrogen.3606 1.3576 0.I q.23 0. % chrome-tanned 0 1. 7.Continued moisture content.5088 55KAN LEATHER. 21.3287 0.96 chrome-retanned 0 1.4535 1. 22.39 11.3448 0.3753 1. oxygen.7246 Cp(Btu Ib-' O . sulfur. ash.(gross) = 4351 cal g-l q.3404 0.2740 1. fixed carbon.3474 7.3631 0. nitrogen.3841 0.607 1 1.3287 0.3606 0.12%.3474 0. as received dry basis qv(gross) = 7832 Btu lb. ash.26%. 22.3737 0.98 0.2209 1.2918 0.46%.4468 1.3266 0.(gross) = 4027 cal g-' q.3045 0.29 0. ultimate analysis in percent by weight: carbon.3404 0.6288 1.Miscellaneous LEATHER .5636 1.3448 0.86%. 57.07 0.52 2.3045 0. 1.

solid.54 260. 8.5%. cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine(RDX).57 131 0.Miscellaneous NEAT'S FOOT OIL.65 g gross heat of combustion: 25OC (77OF).00 9.75 270.37 90. 50/50 PETN/TNT. unmodified polystyrene. 1. density.32 62.96 heat of fusion: result is a mean value for temperature range -50" to 55°C (-58" to 131°F).90%.00 17. REFINED.58 112.0 cal -. Lf = 34. 7OCOX/PIL 310 .(gross) = 2774 cal g-l qv(gross) = 11606 J g-l 71USA.76 0. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature.00 4 I .89 29. The saponification number. temperature ("0 -50 -25 0 25 50 55 ("F) -58 -13 32 77 122 Btu Ib-I Ho(t)-Ho(-500C) cal g-l J g-l 0. liquid. 55RIE PB-RDX.32 64. q. enthalpy difference: temperature range measured -50" t o 55°C (-58" to 13 1O ) F.5%.18 116.(gross) = 12665 J g-l 71USA PENTOLITE. which is t h e mean molecular weight of t h e f a t t y acids present in t h e molecule 194. qv(gross) 4993 Btu Ib.1 q.1 Lf = 19.65 50.(gross) = 3027 c a l g-l q.38 124. a n explosive mixture of trinitrotoluene (TNT) and pentaerythritol t e t r a n i t r a t e (PETN). solid.06 210. 1.89 53. dioctyl phthalate. calculated from the composition of t h e mixture.(gross) = 5449 Btu Ib-I q.2 Btu lb. The amount of iodine absorbed and expressed as a percentage of t h e molecular weight (a measure of t h e proportion of unsaturated f a t t y acid present) called t h e iodine number = 69.

256 x lo-' T = 0. specific heat: 453-593 K ( 5 ' 6 8 F 36-0') Cp(Btu lb-I O . t h e reaction was completed by adding benzoyl peroxide and maintaining t h e solution at 50°C (122°F) for another 24 hours until it became sufficiently viscous.(gross) cal g-l 1109 ? 10 1168 +_ 23 1301 f 8 J g-' 4640 4887 2 2 30 25 20 42 96 5443 2 33 74RAS/KIS SANTOWAX R. solid.(gross) = 12385 J g"' 71USA PROPELLANT.). Monsanto Co. (trade mark. %) Btu lb-I 1996 ? 18 2102 ? 41 2342 2 14 q.(gross) = 6948 c a l gqv(gross) = 29070 J g-l P-' 76GIR/ARO PROPELLANT. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature. solid. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer to room temperature.372 + 3.) F' Cp(cal -1 +) Cp(J g.ammonium perchlorate composite propellant.(gross) = 12506 Btu 1 q. OS/AP. Material is a phenolformaldehyde casting resin used as a binder fuel.1 qv(gross) 2960 cal g-l q.K-') 5 = 0. q. solid.929 + 2. BAKELITE RESIN BINDER FUEL.452 x T 60BOW/GAR 31 1 . copolymer (wt.Miscellaneous POLYVINYL NITRATE. repeating unit: C2H3N03. Oxygen-styrene copolymer was prepared by passing oxygen at 1 a t m through styrene for 24 hours in t h e presence of azobisisobutyronitrile.222 + 5.86 10-4 T = 0. liquid. used in explosive applications. gross heat o combustion: assume values refer to room temperature. (OS/AP) = (oxygen-styrene copolymer) . f qv(gross) 5328 Btu lb. mixture of terphenyl hydrocarbons.

47%. 4.(gross) 3756 cal gq. repeating unit: CH2.15%. freezing point 53"-55"C (127"-131°F). hydrogen.51%. semi-solid mixture of hydrocarbons having a melting point range from 380-60°C (100"-140"F). ash. sulfur.68%.09%. gross heat of combustion: 25°C (77°F) q. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature. gross heat of combustion: assume values refer t o room temperature. 35. proximate analysis as received in percent by weight: moisture. hard 0. fixed carbon. 6. 8. 32. volatile matter. qv(gross) = 19890 Btu lb.1 q. 30.26%.(gross) = 3550 cal gqv(gross) = 14854 J g-' dry basis q. ultimate analysis on dry basis in percent by weight: carbon.colorless or pale yellow petroleum jelly. density. oxygen. nitrogen.34%. ash.(gross) = 11050 cal q.73%.08%.solid. 55. 20. as received qv(gross) = 6390 Btu Ib.(gross) = 6761 Btu q.(gross) = 15714 3 g-' $' 66KAI VASELINE. solid.Miscellaneous I1 VACUUM CLEANER CATCH. wax. 5.69%.902 g crn-'. solid.1 q.(gross) = 19888 Btu lb-I qv(gross) = 11049 cal qv(gross) = 46229 J 56MAG 312 . PARAFF N. 1.(gross) = 46233 J 56ROT/BEC WAX.

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NBSIR 78-1479.. L. 19 pp. S. P. H. K.. Thermochim. J. 443 (1976). J ... Gibson. K.. G.. . V. TechnoZ.. Ill. and Singh. W. J. E. Manag. G.. Acta Bot. AIAA J. E. Eatough. and Hansen.. W. K. Kishore. J. D i v . 347 (1975).. pp. Acad. J. Kornan.. E. Splitstone. 2053 (1975). R. 611-616 ( 1974). 6. Proceedings of the Fourth Mineral Waste Utilization Symposium. Sci. 255 (1978). H.. 41 (1975).. 75AND/BAR 75KOM/DAN 75PAP 75PRI/PLO 76CAS/CHO 76GIR/ARO 76HAZ/HAL 76WAG/EVA 77GOO/ SCO Cassens. Papp.. D . Rockets 13. Jensen.. No. NBStR 76-1034 (1976). V. Andruzzi. and Klumb. and fobe. and Johnson.. Evans. H. Air Force . W... E. 12. 77JEN/EAT 78AGE/WAK 78DOMlEVA 78MUR/MAS 78MUS/ JAF 319 . 177-183 (1974). G. 2893. Girdhar. L.... Spacecr. G. 10. H. For. 54. D. Ward.. K.. South. Smith. D. and Freedman.. SOC.. O f Sci. Privalov. 57 (1978). 139 (1978). Wagman. D. D. H. D. Res. P. K. R. S. 9-10 (1974). V. P. and Jafri. Chem. Research NBS 78A. I. W.. W. and Filimonov. Zvesti 29. 3. T.. 167 pp. 700 (1977). Chem.. and Plesch. Jr. Domalski. H. A. Downs. Hall. L . K . N.. R. V. Am.. N.. 7. . Rastogi. R.. and Choong. FueZ Chem. Ed. L. Wisely. Mustafa. R. and Arora.. D. Bureau of Mines and t h e IIT Research Institute) May 7. B. H.. S. 219 (1976). W. Wood Sci. B. 15. L. Parker. W. Scott. and Schumm..? Evans.. Aleshin (cosponsored by t h e U. 153-159 (1974). W. J. and Moore. V. A. H. W. L.. 21.74COL/DOW 74DEC/WAR 74RAS/KIS 74SPL/ JOH 74WIS/SUT Collins. AFOSR-TR-1308. and Danielova. Hung. Plotnikov. and Solash. Therrnochim. Preprint. Acta 10. Fish. E. J.. R. Ecol. No.. A. Chem. P. (1977). Chem. f. J. R. Wakimoto. and Osborn. F. Therrnodyn.H. Makromol. Murphey.. L. Good. Decker. J .L.. Chem. Acta 8. M. Prepared for ASME Research C o m m i t t e e on Industrial and Municipal Wastes. Agee. D. 21. L. 176.. L.S. K. V. E. Chicago. E. T. and Biswell. D. Lumberman 223. T. (1978). 256 (1975).. Barns. Sutterfield. J. 11 (1976).. 191-195. and Master.. Hazlett. E. F. 8 (1974).. W.

and Good. Conf. K . C.. J . Centrat Hardwood For.. 82GOE/SCH 82GOW/FRE 82SUS 82VAN/BAR 82WAG/EVA Van Epps. R. Air Force O f Sci. Blankenhotn. 83LEO 320 . J. W...78SHA/LIT 78SMI/G00 79BOW/BLA 79CRA/ORN 79NEE/STE 79SMI/SCO Shaw. A. Bailey. I(1983). Thomas.. 11. L. J. B.. D . and Murphey. Schwab. E. A. 404 (1982). D. 1472 (1982). Lee-Bechtold. J. Parker. . ( 1978). Gammon. C. 455 (1979). E.. P. BioZ. and Hocker. W. 209 (1981).. 13. A. and Heakin. 11 pp. H. Thermochim.. W. J . D. Project No. K. 8. (1979).... S. NBSIR 81-2278. B.. Rubber Res. E. For. Res.. Barker.. J. For. 10 pp. f. A. Frederick. K. I. and Johnson. J. . S. AFOSR-TR-78. S. .. Churney. AFOSR-ISSA 80-00004. Inst. J. Callanan. K. . K. J. Schumm. Wagman. J. R. Research N BS ( . Sci.. Res. and Good.. 31. 2 ( 1982). and Good. 384 (1982). Res. Wood Sci. Geyer.. 364 (1 978). R... For. E. R. and Nuttall. W.. A. Susott. Air Force O f Sci.. 8. Acta 34. Bowersox. W. Smith. D. J . P. E. M. Malays. H.. Trans. f. Smith. G. Jr. G. 8 1COL/XIH 8lGEY 8 1KIR/COL 8 IMUS/HOC Musselman.. G. Res. Halow. J. V. Final Tech. H. C. Pryde. M. K. S. W. (1981). and McKell. ASAE 25.1069.. Leong. 239 (1979).. Lee-Bechtold.. P. Kirklin. S. Evans. Crawford. Neenan.. Scott. L. Decker. S. 79VEL/KIN 8OSMI/THO Smith. 1982. A. Colbert. Velimirov. 86. Can. P.. . D. D.. Wood Sci. Can. N... 349 (1979). B. and Domalski... S. 11. ( 1980). Phys. Mar. D. Colbert.. Data 11. and Clark. K. M. Summary Rep. R.. . Res. 22 ( 1982).. Air Force O f Sci.. L.. D. Xiheng. D. C. and Kirklin. C. f. 28. R.. G. H. Gower.. A. Sci. C. A. C.. Range Manag.. f. 0S) 655 (1981).. 257 (1979). R.. N. E. Lum. and Steinbeck. K. W. G. M. W. 35. 50. AFOSR-TR-80-0076. R e f . Osborn. J. Gammon. 409 (1981). 4th. P. and Durzan. and King. H . T. For. 2308/8 I. H. Supplement No. H.... Goeting.. He. N.. W. W. R. Ornellas.. 19 pp. Contract No. Little.. Abramowitz. T. J. D. Daugherty. D. 25. R.. and Chem.

85COL 85fENIEBE Colbert. Energy Biomass Wastes. 9th. 1 (1985). J. Jenkins. M. 321 ... and Ebeling. ( 1985). Chemical Thermodynamics Division. M. J. National Bureau of Standards Certificate SRM 1657. C. 1985. B.

1. + sulfur-free basis. hydrogen. sulfur.5%. on 15 samples of biomass and 5 samples of char and found average etrors from the measured values of 1. nitrogen.0686 S kJ/g Note that in general the last two terms will be very small compared t o t h e first three.696.(H2) are the heats of combustion of carbon and hydrogen. Solar Energy Research Institute) In modeling biomass reactions and reactors i t is necessary t o have values for t h e heats of formation and combustion of t h e various materials considered. The error of actual measurements of composition and heats of combustion probably exceeds this. it seems t h a t the above equations form a reliable basis for predicting biomass thermochemical d a t a where measured heats a r e not available.0. The equation in the modified SI form is: HHV 0. Reed (1985) has extended t h e IGT equation t o a wide variety of carbonaceous materials. In the Survey of Biomass Gasification (Reed. 1979) Graboski and Bain used this formula.6%. The above equations were used t o calculate thermal data for the biomass-related materials shown in Table A-1.0. The heat of formation can be calculated from the heat of combustion from using the equation: where AH$) and AH. and tars taken from t h e literature but not included in this handbook.51.58 A + 29.78 H . 0.1978) HHV = AHc = 146. A collection of representative data for biomass and wastes appears in the main body of this publication. as well as two others. and ash respectively). while t h e heats have not been measured. oxygen.092 nc + 1. Reed. the composition of carbonaceous materials is known or can be estimated.45 S Btu/lb (where C.Appendix A A FORMULA FOR THE EMPIRICAL ESTIMATION OF THE HEATS OF COMBUSTION OF CARBONACEOUS MATERIALS (Thomas B.12 (0 + N) .7% and 2. and can form a supplement t o the representative heats of combustion shown in this publication.322 nH . S.0153 A + 0.58 C + 568. the Institute of Gas Technology developed a formula for predicting t h e higher heating values (heat of combustion) (HHV.1% respectively. charcoals. ash-free. In some cases.5% respectively. H. so t h a t this suggests t h a t the method can be used for all biomass solids.341 C + 1. The average absolute error for each of these materials was 1.6. 323 . This equation was derived by correlating t h e thermal data with t h e composition on more than 700 samples of coal. This table includes representative samples of biomass. In 1978.322 H .916 yN o) kJ/mole on a dry. The equation is also useful in the molecular form: AH^ 4. N.1. and 2. dry basis) of coal (IGT. Thus. (where ni is t h e number of moles of each element in the formula) to estimate t h e h e a t of combustion for biomass in which the formulas a r e given. 2. pyrolysis oils.53 (0+ N) . and A are the weight' percents of carbon.

5 7.. 77 NA NA 1.029 * 280 Boutgeois 275 Bourgeois Tillman Reed (1981) Reed (1981) Reed (1981) Reed (1981) Reed (1981) Reed (1981) Reed (1981) Diebold Diebold Diebold Diebold 549 57I 641 94I 625 625 625 so0 60.1 42.0 I5 0.025 Sec T a r s . II 00 0.4 6 4 40.5 5.5 87 27. 6 2 47.62 28.4 .024 0.40 2.1 84 2.031 -0. 76 57. I7 00 0.9 . 26 57 .025 .88 2. 77 8.022 -0.008 0. . 1.I 57 .5 8. ash-free basis.8 36.010 2.02 29.44 Diebold Diebold Diebold 54.7 . 53 .1 55 .8 57.28 21.5 5. 000 .9 05 2. 68 63 .50 2.3 2.59 34.1 03 22.09 33.20 NA Avg Abs e r r o r 0.96 29.7 00 1 .004 NA Diebold Tillman Tillman Reed (1981) Bourgeois Bourgeois Reed (1985) 51. 6 2 41. degrees Celsius.47 .Run 55 Reference Composition Dry.5 5. 5.8 18 34.8 63.7 ..015 0.5 37. 89 1. 50 .3 51.8 84. 93 53 .63 33.1 02 20.2 34 . 2.Table A-I. 1.60 33. 33 18.0I I 0. Run 53 FP Char. 04 2.016 0 0 I2 .98 31 7 .1 2.42 24.36 31. 22 8. 6 1 41.055 -0.49 50 .0 I6 0.7 7.9 08 NA NA -0.009 -0.2 .08 33.32 3.3 12 1.002 0. 86 80. 1I 00 -0.85 2.77 20. 48 32.2 Avg 33.82 2. 65 2. 5. 59 .4 -0.5 47 26. Run X Secondary Tars Sec Tats .002 Avg Abs e r r o r 0. 25.6 15 1.035 -0.37 33.029 0. 32 84. 38 .6 68. 28 . 19 31. 28 46.3 25 -0. 39.2 32.4 71 26. 5 6 44.I 52.3 . 1.9 2.5 96 .I 9. 69 1. Wt% C H 0 Heat of Combustion Measured Calculated HHV-kJ/g HHV-kJ/g Error (Meas-Calc) Measured * * Mok Mok 43.Run 56 Sec Tats .7 92 2. 6. 38 84 .9 05 19.0 27 32.30 22.016 -0.2 6 0 42. 37 .1% 29.93 28.5 3. 3. 12.82 28.92 33. 31 12. Run 59 FP Char.25 33.0 I5 -0.0 39 2. 16 77.22 18. 26 50. 26 . I 31 2.3 5.7 22 Abs e r r o r -0. Chestnut & Oak Charcoal Fir Bark C h a r Grass Straw Char Rice Hull C h a r Redwood Charcoal Oak Charcoal Oak Charcoal Redwood Charcoal FP Char.I 82. 59 .7 38 .07 31.4 5. Calculated and Measured Heats of Combustion for Various Biomass Materials Using an Empirical Formula Name Biomass Components Cellulose (Avicel) Lignin (Indulin) Biomass Pine Sawdust Maple Douglas Fir Paper Maritime Pine Chestnut & O a k "Typical biomass" Primary Oils Primary Oils R 35CS Primary Oils R 40CS Primary Oils R 40PS Chars Torref ied Pine Torr.09 Avg Abs e r r o r * Temperature of formation.016 21.Run 59 650 Diebold 730 Diebold 825 Diebold 8.40 34. Run 54 FP Char.035 -. 54 7. 70 1. 56 .3 6.81 24. 3.44 34. 19 .

J.: Park Ridge. 153. July 1979. Solar Energy Research Institute.Private Communication. Noyes Data Corp. . US. Vol. Wood as an Energy Source.” BioEnergy 84.B. Bourgeois. VA 22162). (1978). 325 . Tillman. J. SERI/TR-33-239. D. eds.A.P. (1985). and J. Diebold. Thermochemica Acta. Antal. Egneus and A. (1978). Solar Energy Research Institute. T. Department of Commerce. (National Technical Information Service. Dort. Available from NTIS. p 48.. W. Coal Conversion Systems TechnicaZ Data Book. Springfield. (198 I). Reed. and M. Private Communication.P. Academic Press: New York. Originally published as Survey o f Biomass Gasification. In Press. (1985). Elsevier Applied Science Publishers: London.. NJ. “Totrefied Wood from Temperate and Tropical Species. 5285 Port Royal Road. Mok. J. 111. 3 VO~S. Ellegard. DOE Contract EX-76-C-0 1-2286. ( I 985). Biomass Gasification-PrincipZes and Technology. ed. Institute of Gas Technology (IGT). p. ( I 985).References for Appendix A Reed.B. T. H.

which works well for both whole biomass and chars.M.45 S + This correlation. and (c) t h e IGT correlations (see below). 3. (b) t h e Tillman correlation (see below).N+o + 39. and land-based crops.51.M. Three correlations are compared for whole biomass and for chars: (a) The historical Dulong-Berthelot equation: HHV (Btullb) 146. Correlation equations a r e derived to predict heating values (dry basis) from (a) ash content only. Lake Buena Vista. (1978).53 (0 N) . Graboski. Institute of Gas Technology. HHV(Btu/lb) = 146. Bain (1981). from ultimate analysis. In Reed. orchard prunings. Ebeling (1985). this is only a sampling and shows the diversity of sources of such published information. Again.76 C + 621 H . Coal Conversion Systems Technical Data Book.) 2. N.B. DOE Contract EX-76-C-0 1-2286. is discussed and applied in Appendix A of this publication. New York: Academic Press. Available NTIS. materials for which heats have been determined.96 S. Institute of Gas Technology.. Still. A. (1978).J. Noyes Data Corporation: Park Ridge. and oxygen content from ultimate analysis.Appendix B ADDITIONAL INFORMATION ON HEATS OF COMBUSTION OF BIOMASS MATERIALS The main body of this publication contains several hundred listings of measured heats of combustion of biomass materials. based on experimental d a t a for 62 samples of field crop residues. often special. B.6. Develops correlations.58 C + 568. Springfield. and R. Also listed are names and addresses of several likely continuing sources of new information on heats of combustion of biomass materials. and (d) a combination of carbon. Listed below a r e several references t o additional. Florida. vineyard prunings. 3 26 . VA. and J. M. 1985.A. forest residues. Uses t h e simple correlation: HHV (Btu/lb) = 188 C-718 4. References t o Correlations and General Remarks about Biomass Fuel Values 1. Jan. Wood as an Energy Resource.78 H . (Several entries in this handbook come from this source. "Correlation of Physical and Chemical Properties of Terrestrial Biomass with Conversion'' in Energy from Biomass and Wastes I X . Tillman. D. pp. 4 1-7 1. Biomass Gasification: Principles and TechnoZogy. ed. Jenkins. (b) ash and volatile m a t t e r from proximate analysis. food and fiber processing wastes.58 A + 29. T. hydrogen. this is only a small sampling of the extant data. (c) carbon only.

Ottawa. Fiber Fuels Institute. (February 1983. Arizona S t a t e University. Paul. MN 55101) 327 . A set of formulas of a type commonly used by combustion technologists is also provided for estimating combustion system heat losses and net recoverable h e a t energy per pound of fuel as-fired. Ince.18 MJ/kg for softwood materials (i. Forest Service. Kryla.M. Standards Specifications Development. in some instances.) compared t o 19. Calorific d a t a a r e also presented for hybrid poplar and for several foreign species commonly planted in Canada. Fisher.700 Btu lb'l for materials with ash ranging from 0. Contract No. and in a forthcoming Summary Report. pp.8% t o 28.7%. Ontario. Forest Products Laboratory. and lipids from 5. Variation between reported values for a component of a particular species was found t o be generally less than 5% but. Heating values (dry basis) vary from 7400 t o 12. A survey of reported d a t a on higher heating values for various species of wood and bark fuels is provided.9%. COD-2982-83. DOE Interim Report No. St. Forintek Canada Corp. J. stem wood. In a multi-year program for DOE. Final Report. 310 Cedar St. A reference source is provided for estimating t h e amount of heat energy t h a t may be recovered using wood or bark fuel in a typical furnace. Peter 3. (February 1984). 2.7% to 46. Determination of Available Heat of Combustion Data for Canadian Woody Species. A. protein from 0. 45-47. based on fuel higher heating value. Arizona. Kuester's laboratory has measured t h e heats of combustion and composition of more than 100 highly diverse forms of biomass (from almond shells to skunkbrush).August 1982. DE-AC02-76CS40202.9%. t h e overall mean calorific value was found t o be 21. and excess air. B. foliage. 3.)." American Forest. cellulose from 17. (October 1984). Phase I Activities.1% t o 14. A literature review was conducted t o obtain reliable.8%. (Fiber Fuels Institute. USDA.1% to 25. etc. experimentally determined calorific data for t h e various components of Canadian tree species.3%. (1979). 6. Baker. Tempe. boiler.A. Kuester. s t e m bark.. stack gas temperature. J.L. "New Findings on Wood Fuel Values.1% to 35. (1985). GTR FPL 29. Canada.5.. How t o Estimate Recoverable Heat Energy in Wood or Bark FueZs. moisture content. 51-52. ENFOR Project P-256. J.35 MJ/kg for hardwoods. Results have been reported in Conversion of Cellulosic Wastes to Liquid FueZs. and ambient temperature assumptions. For indigenous species. exceeded 10%. References t o Extensive Collections of Heats of Combustion of Biomass Materials 1.e. lignin from 7. Information was obtained for 48 tree species native t o Canada and is presented in tabular form. or hot air combustion heat recovery system. A general discussion of t h e heating value and burning characteristics of cord wood for home heating.

Hough. University of Florida. Asheville.R. 10. J. 2.A. ORNL/Sub/8 1-9050/ I. Y .T. Chang. Turpentine.R.. A.P. "Heat of Cornbustion. E. Roberts... For many samples. For. Elsevier Applied Science Publishers. P. Res.This report contains as received and dry-basis heating values for about 50 samples of pelletized fuels from forest and agricultural residues. (1984).M. W. (1983). MD. and L. D. et al. Corvallis. Murphey. 14. D. 12. Wang. Schwab. (1980). 11. Heakin.L.K. and A. 6.J..C. Inst. Southern Forest Experiment Station. (1979). (1982)." TAPPI 38 ( 5 ) 315. Leong. l'Gross Heat of Combustion of Living and Spruce Budworm-Killed Balsam Fir. Ash Content. J. (1985). (1983). Roberts. Rockwood. Caloric Value of Some Forest FueZs of the Southern United States. Huffman. 328 9. and S-C." Transactions of the ASAE 25 ( 6 ) 1472.W. P. D. Corder. and wastes.H." In Fundamentals of TherrnochemicaZ Biomass Conversion.L. Howard.A. M. Government Institutes. ultimate and proximate analysis.W. Blankenhorn." Wood and Fiber Science 16 ( 4 ) 518. 5. S. Daugherty.J. Goering. 4 . R. Huffman. ''Calorific Value of Wood as Affected by Sample Particle Size and Radial Position in Stem. (1983). Merrill.K. S.'' Wood Science 1 1 (4)257. ash analysis. Research Bulletin 14. and W. T a l o r i m e t r i c Analysis of Fungal Degraded Wood. peat. Kryla.P. D. 7. Biomass as an Alternative Fuel. (1981). Inc.V.R.P. 12 489.V. "Chemical Composition of Common North American Pulpwood Barks.B. T.A. 8. Kossuth." J . Energy and Chemicah from Woody Species in Florida.E. and S-C. Milne. Mitchell.R. New York. C. C.Wang. (1955). J . Sinclair.B. W. Selected Publications of Biomass Heats of Combustion 1.K. Blankenhorn. Edited by R. and Caloric Content of Paraquat-Treated Slash Pine. "Resin Acid. T. "Determination of Calorific Values and Energy Content in Hevea Trees. and S. J.E. ." Wood Science 13 (1) 26. Overend. Ottone.W. Malaysia 31 ( I ) 1. (1973). Rubb.. Wood and Bark as Fuet. Barnes." Wood Science 5 ( 3 ) 194. "Heat of Combustion of Various Southern Pine Materials. 3. Pryde. "Energy Value of Paraquat-Treated and Resin-Soaked Loblolly Pine. Forest Research Laboratory." Wood and Fiber 16 (3) 398. (December 1969). 'Fuel Properties of Eleven Vegetable Oils. USDA Forest Service Research Note SE-120. and physical properties are also reported. Kossuth. Jr.PE and R. 13. S. Baldwin. Bowersox.. Res. Nutrient Content and Chemical Content of Populus Hybrids. Oregon State University. E. C. and S. NC. S. (August 1973)." Can.: Rockville. Gainesville. Hall. Mudge.

Postal Service Bldg. Peoria. 9. Portland. Agricultural Research Service. Major activities in short-rotation forestry for energy. 1100 Robert E. P. P.. Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. USDA. IL 61604. Western Regional Research Center (WRRC). CA 9470 I. P. 4. DOE Biofuels and Municipal Waste Technology Division Woody Species Program. Forest Service. 800 Buchanan St. LA 701 13. Forest Service. Box 2451. CO 80526.W.. Southern Forest and Range Experiment Station. Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station. UT 84401. USDA. R.. Northern Regional Research Center (NRRC). Forest Service..O. Ottawa. Forest Service. Northeastern Forest and Range Experiment Station. 13. Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station. University Street. Paul. Broomall. Forintek Canada Corporation.. Southern Regional Research Center (SRRC). 800 Chemin Montreal Road. St.. Baileys. 1960 Addison St. 1992 Folwell Ave. Agricultural Research Service. Mermaid L . MN 55108. D. P. Southeastern Forest and Range Experiment Station. US. Forest Service. USDA. Burlington.R. 12. Agricultural Research Service. USDA. . 705 Spear Street. 5. Forest Service. Ranney. Box 19687. North Central Forest and Range Experiment Station. USDA. Forest Service.O. 809 NE 6th Ave. USDA. 2. Asheville. Blankenhorn. 10. 7.O. Madison. (P.15. TN 37830. USDA. 8. Northeastern Forest and Range Experiment Station. USDA. 16. 370 Reed Rd. Philadelphia. PA 191 18. NC 28804. Ontario.lI Wood Science 15 ( I ) 19. 1815 N. Box X. n. 6. Eastern Regional Research Center (ERRC). 329 3. 240 W. Oak Ridge National Laboratory.. CA 94710. USDA. LA 70179. 507 25th St. 14.O. Lee Blvd. "Calorific and Porosity Development in Carbonized Wood. New Orleans. PA 19008. New Orleans. USDA. Agricultural Research Service. Forest Service. Sources of Information-Government Programs. and P. (1982). 11. OR 97232. J. Forest Products Laboratory.. Box 968. Oak Ridge. Canada K16 325. Ogden. Berkeley.T. 1. Prospect Ave.O. Forest Service. USDA. USDA. 701 Loyola Ave.... 600 E. WI 53705. VT 05402. 200 Weaver Blvd. USDA. 15. Berkeley. Fort Collins. Box 5 130. USDA. Pacific Northwest Forest and Range Experiment Station. Forest Service.

. P O Box 5677. Russell (Richard 8. Athens. GA 30613. Beltsville Agricultural Research Center.)Agricultural Research Center.. 18. 330 . Agricultural Research Service. Agricultural Research Service. USDA. USDA. College Station Rd. Beltsville. MD 20705.17..

or Gibbs function.Appendix C SYMBOLS. ATOMIC WEIGHTS Symbols for Thermodynamic Quantities The symbols indicated in this Appendix are those adopted by t h e International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC). 1969. The commonly encountered t e r m free energy in American work on thermodynamics almost invariably refers t o Gibbs energy.TS compressibility factor: 2 = pV/nRT heat capacity specific heat capacity (heat capacity divided by mass) heat capacity ratio: C /Cv P Joule-Thomson coefficient thermal conductivity thermal diffusivity: a = 1/pCp coefficient of heat transfer cubic expansion coefficient: u = (aV/aT) /V P isothermal compressibility: k = -(aV/ap)T/V pressure coefficient: B = (ap/aTIV . CONVERSION FACTORS. accepted but not recommended by IUPAC. Gibbs f r e e energy. Also indicated a r e other commonly used symbols and names of quantities not accepted by IUPAC. NOTE: The Gibbs energy is frequently called f r e e energy. This usage of t h e t e r m f r e e energy and t h e symbol F a r e being discouraged by t h e IUPAC because of confusion with t h e Helmholtz energy and t h e common European usage of F for t h e latter.TS Massieu function: J = -A/T Gibbs energy: G = H . Symbols in parentheses are alternates. UNITS. Planck function: Y Primary Symbols -G/T thermodynamic t e m p e r a t w e (absolute temperature) Kelvin temperature Celsius temperature molar gas constant Boltzmann constant heat work internal energy enthalpy: H = U + pV entropy Helmholtz energy: A = U .

relative activity of substance B activity coefficient.I chemical potential of substance B relative molecular mass (also called "molecular weight") Avogadro constant number of molecules absolute activity of substance 8: 1~ = exp(uB/RT) fugacity amount of substance osmotic pressure ionic strength: I = I C I = 7 . (The general equation for a chemical reaction is 'vgB = 0. [Example: B. 1 H2 + 0 2 . molality basis activity coefficient.S area volume time mass density (mass divided by volume) pressure relative atomic mass (also called "atomic weight") v t m P P A.H20 = 01 e x t e n t of reaction: (dc = dng/Vg) equilibrium constant degree of dissociation charge number of a n ion B (positive for cations. positive for products). for t h e reaction H20 + H2 + 3 02. cjzi 2 I f m i z i L or 1 xB mole fraction of substance B: = nB/cini -- mass fraction of substance B volume fraction of substance B molality of solute substance B (amount of B divided by t h e mass of solvent) concentration of substance B (amount of B divided by the volume of t h e solution) mass concentration of substance B (mass of B divided by t h e volume of t h e solution) stoichiometric coefficient of substance B (negative for reactants. . mole fraction basis activity coefficient. concentration basis osmotic coefficient Selected Symbols for Other Quantities in 'hermodynamics A. negative for anions) activity.

NOTE: The elementary entities must be specified and may be atoms. second: The second is t h e duration of 9 192 631 770 periods of t h e radiation corresponding t o t h e transition between t h e two hyperfine levels of t h e ground state of t h e cesium-I33 atom.16 of t h e thermodynamic temperature of t h e triple point of water.Base Units and Supplementary Units Name of Unit meter kilogram second kelvin ampere candela mole radian steradian placed 1 meter apart in vacuum. molecules. ampere: The ampere is t h a t constant current which. ions.International System (SI) SI . of negligible cross section. if maintained in two straight parallel conductors of infinite length. in t h e perpendicular direction? of a surface of 1/600 000 square m e t e r of a black body at t h e temperat u r e of freezing platinum under a pressure of 101 325 newtons per square meter. Definitions of the SI Base Units meter: The meter is t h e length equal t o 1 650 763. kelvin: The kelvin is t h e fraction 1/273. mole: The mole is t h e amount of substance of a system which contains as many elementary entities as there a r e carbon atoms in 0. would produce between these condu ors a force equal t o 2 x 10 newton per meter of length. or specified groups of such particles. and Prefixes SI Symbol T G M k h da d C Prefix Name tera Multiplication Factor aiga m FI n P f a mega kilo hecto deka deci centi milli micro nano pic0 femto atto 333 . electrons? other particles. Quantity length mass time temperature electric current luminous intensity amount of substance plane angle solid angle Symbol m kg S 3 K A cd rnol rad sr candela: The candela is t h e luminous intensity.73 wavelengths in vacuum of t h e radiation corresponding t o t h e transition between t h e levels 2plO and 5d5 of t h e krypton-86 atom. The kelvin is used both for thermodynamic temperature and for thermodynamic temperature interval.012 kilogram of carbon-12.Units of Measurement . k Logram: The kilogram is equal t o t h e mass of the international prototype of t h e kilogram.

.A-' Wb-rn-2 H T Irn cd-sr rn -2 .I SI Derived Units (Partial Listing) Symbol for SI unit force pressure energy Definition of SI unit Qther Definitions newton pascal joule watt coulomb volt ohm siemens farad weber henry tesla lumen lux hertz N Pa rn kg sd2 m-' .kg .-I C v D W.cd.A-' V.sr S Ix Hz -1 334 .A-l A V-l S F Wb c * v-l v-s Wb.s** N * m-2 J rn2 kg s-' rn 2 mkg.5 -3 - N-m power electric charge electric potential difference electric resistance electric conductance electric capacitance magnetic flux inductance magnetic flux density luminous flux illumination frequency W f .

The exact relationship is: 1 BtuIT = (4. 335 .806 65 N 101 325 N-m-2 (101 325/760) N. lb Definition 2.6 x lo6 J 4.8) x 453.m-2 13.Other Units Exactly Defined i Terms of SI Units (Partial Listing) n Name length mass force pressure pressure pressure energy energy inch pound (av.273.5951 x 98 .) kilogram force atmosphere tort millimeter of mercury kilowatt-hour thermochemical calorie" thermochernical Btu* IT calorie* * * IT British thermal unit*** degree Rankine Symbol in.1868/1.35 J** energy energy 4.671.59237. [T(OR) = l. [T("R) = t("F) + 459.056 J* * ** 5/9 energy temperature (thermodynamic) temperature temperature volume "R "C "F 1 K***** degree Celsius degree Fahrenheit liter K****** - * ** *** The thermochemical calorie and thermochemical Btu are used in this publication.1840/1.59237 [T("R) = l.8t("C) + 321. The exact relationship is: 1 Btuth = (4. [t("C) = T(K) .St(OC) + 491. IT refers to International Tables (International Steam Tables).453 592 37 kg kgf atm Torr mmHg kWh calth Btuth calIT BtuIT 9.151.184 J 1054.54 x lo-' m 0.665 x 10-2N-rn- 9 3.671.1868 J 1055.8) x **** ***** ****** ******* 453. [t("F) = 1.ST(K)].

O F Celsius degree .K In t h e chemical literature. authors occasionally identify t h e calorie or British thermal unit as either t h or IT. but rarely is the joule subscripted in any way.cal joule .1868 J 336 .1840 J I calIT = 4.therrnochernical units IT .J British thermal unit ." C Kelvin .g pound .B t u gram .lb Fahrenheit degree . Energy Conversion Factors I calth = 4. An absence of any subscripting to indicate t h e kind of energy unit is t h e more common occutrence.International Steam Table units calorie .Conversion Factors Subscript: Subscript: Abbreviations: t h .

= R To/po *Physical Constants were taken from t h e International Council of Scientific Unions. The digits in parentheses following a numerical value represent the standard deviation of t h a t value in terms of t h e final listed digits.0568 (26) cm3 a t m rno1-l K'I 8.987 19 ( 6 ) calth rnol-' K-l Molar Gas Volume.Temperature Conversion Factors: 1. V 0.02241383 (70) m3 rnol-I (at To = 273.67 + O F = 459. 11. 1973. 337 .67) + 'F]/1.) O R "F =K =K = "R 459. R 82.67 + O F Phvsical Constants* Gas Constant. CODATA Bulletin No.15 + "C r(459.8("C) + 32 273.31441 (26)J mol-I K-' 1.15 K and po = 1 a t m ) V. .8 (1.8)K (18K . Dec.

12 35.E. Chem.453 51.75 2 3 39.9216 137. Pure & Appl.9332 63.9961 2 6 58.26 151.L. (b) Unnilpentium.50 2 3 g g r A A 85 56 97 4 83 5 35 48 55 20 Bk Be Bi B Br Cd m r g g cs Ca Cf C Ce c 1 Cr cu co Cm DY Es Unq UnP Unh Uns Er Eu Fm F 98 6 58 17 24 27 29 96 66 99 104 105 106 107 68 A r g r A g A A A A A 63 100 9 167.0 1218 208. IUPAC Commission on Atomic Weights and Isotopic Abundances The atomic weights of many elements a r e not invariant but depend on t h e origin and treatment of t h e material.41 132.811 k 5 79.998403 (a)-(d) Systematic names: (a) Unnilquadium. unless otherwise noted.9804 10. 653-674 (1984).96 2 3 g g A 18.9054 40. The values of fir(€)given here apply to elements as they exist naturally on earth.948 74. Martin. (c) Unnilhexium. The footnotes to this Table elaborate t h e types of variation t o be expected for individual elements.011 140. Holden and R.33 9.078 k 4 12. When used with due regard to t h e footnotes they are considered reliable t o k1 in t h e last digit.904 112.546 2 3 162. 56. Alphabetical order in English Names Actinium * A lu m in iu m Americium * Antimony (Stibiurn) Argon Arsenic Astatine* Barium Berkelium* Beryllium Bismuth Boron Bromine Cadmium Caesium Calcium Californium* Carbon Cerium Chlorine Chromium Cobalt Copper Curium * Dysprosium Einsteinium * Element 104" (a) Element 105* (b) Element 106" (c) Element 107* (d) Erbium Europium Fermium* Fluorine Symbol Ac A1 Atomic Number Atomic Weight Footnotes A Am Sb Ar As At Ba 89 13 95 51 18 33 26.98154 A 121.Atomic Weights of the Elements 1983 (Scaled t o -r (12C)=12) A N. (d) Unnilseptiqqm 338 .

9045 192.0983 140. 28 41 7 102 76 8 46 15 78 94 84 Mn Hg Md Mo Nd Ne NP Ni Nb N No 0s 58.80 138.207 102.305 54.07 2 2 150.82 126.25 2 3 69.4678 k 3 101.9304 1.69 92.9064 14.9380 200.36 2 3 Ru Sm 339 .9665 178.0067 0 Pd P Pt Pu Po K 190.94 144.59 f 3 196.42 30.2 15.2 6.941 ? 2 174.22 ? 3 55.Atomic Weights 1983 (cont'd) Names Francium* Gadolinium Gallium Germanium Gold Hafnium Helium Holmium Hydrogen Indium Iodine Iridium Iron Krypton Lanthanum Lawrencium* Lead Lithium Lutetium Magnesium Manganese Mendelevium* Mercury Molybdenum Neodymium Neon Neptunium* Nickel Niobium Nitrogen Nobelium* Osmium Oxygen Palladium Phosphorus Platinum Plutonium* Polonium * Potassium (Kalium) Praseodymium Promethium* Protactinium* Radium* Radon* Rhenium Rhodium Rub id iurn Ruthenium Samarium Symbol Atomic Number 87 64 31 32 79 72 2 67 1 49 53 77 26 36 37 103 Atomic Weight 157.08 2 3 19 59 61 91 88 39.00794 ? 7 114.49 ? 3 4.9055 ? 3 207.9055 83.59 ? 3 95.179 Fr Gd Ga Ge An Hf He Ho H In I Ir Fe Kr La Lr Pb Li Lu Mg 82 3 71 12 23 101 80 42 60 10 93 .24 2 3 20.847 ? 3 83.97376 195.002602 ? 2 164.967 24.9994 f 3 106.9077 Pt Pm Pa Ra Rn Re Rh Rb 86 75 45 37 44 62 186.723 2 4 72.

3c Element ha5 no stable isotopes. Substantial deviations in atomic weight of t h e element from t h a t given in t h e Table can occur.I Atomic Weights 1983 (cont'd) Names Scandium Selenium Silicon Silver Sodium (Natrium) Strontium Sulfur Tantalum Technetium * Tellurium Terbium Thallium Thorium" Thulium Tin Titanium Tungsten (Wolfram) Uranium * Vanadium Xenon Ytterbium Yttrium Z inc Zirconium Symbol Atomic Number 21 34 14 47 11 38 16 Atomic Weight 44. A A Radioactive element t h a t lacks a characteristic terrestrial isotopic composition.224 2 2 g geologically exceptional specimens are known in which the element has an isotopic composition outside t h e limits for normal material.39 2 2 91.9479 Footnotes sc Se Si Ag r Na Sr S Ta Tc Te Tb r A T 1 Th Tm Sn Ti W U 73 43 52 65 81 90 69 50 v Xe Yb Y Zn Z r 22 74 92 23 54 70 39 30 40 127.98977 87.85 f 3 238.9059 X Y 65. tabulated A.96 ? 3 28.29 f 3 173.383 232. however (most notably in ocean water).038 1 168.95591 2 1 78.62 32.60 f 3 158. X Thorium has a well defined (mononuclidic) composition in minerals with only rare exceptions. Y Uranium is the only element with no stable isotopes but which has a characteristic terrestrial composition of long-lived isotopes such that a meaningful atomic weight can be given for natural samples.0289 50. The difference between t h e atomic weight of t h e element in such specimens and t h a t given in t h e Table may exceed considerably t h e implied uncertainty.0855 k 3 107. In certain places. m modified isotopic compositions may be found in commercially available material because i t has been subjected to a n undisclosed or inadvertent isotopic separation.88 f 3 183.9254 204. 340 . r range in isotopic composition of normal terrestrial material prevents a more precise -r (E) being given.9342 118.9415 131. measurable quantities of Thorium 230 (Ionium) c a n be found.8682 f 3 22.710 f 7 47.066 f 6 180.04 2 3 88.(E) value should be applicable t o any normal material.

.........BARK BIRCH.................................................................... .................................................... 34 ............................ 34 1 .............................. STRAW ALGAE ALMOND HULLS ALMOND............................................................................................................................. .................................. PEMBINA BENTONITE................................. 35 ..................................................... 167 ................................................. WHITE.......... 213 ....... 234 . GREEN ASH... HARDENED 2.......................... TREMBLING ASPHALT BABASSU HUSKS BAKELITE VARNISH............. .................................................................................. 305 ........................................................................................ 9 ................ UNHARDENED 80NICKEL-20CHROMIUM a-BRASS a-CELLULOSE................... 9 .......................... 143 ............. 35 .... 236 ................. SEED......................... 11 ...... DRY BEECH BEEF SUET........ 173 .................................................................................................................. ..................................... .... RED.......................... QUAKING ASPEN............................................................................................... FROM LOBIBLLY PINE WOOD ALDER................ 55 78 127 127 143 144 144 239 239 240 240 241 .. 236 ......................FOLIAGE ASPEN...................... 10 ................. GREEN BEANS................................. 238 .......... WYOMING BIG SAGEBRUSH BIG SAGEBRUSH...................................... 233 .......................................................................................Name Index Page 2.................................................................................................................................................................................... 77 ............ 34 ...............................5......... 173 ................................ 12 .... 33 ......... 235 ............................................................ 233 .................. BARK ALFALFA............................................................................................................................ PAPER BIRCH... 11 ........................................................... 143 .............. YELLOW................................................... ....... NAVY........................................................... 10 .................................. ........................................................... . EUROPEAN BLACK ALDER... QUAKING.............................................. PAPER...................................................................................METHYLOLMELAMINE............ 77 ............. BARK ... 67 .......... 237......................................................... QUAKING............................................ WHITE ASPEN........ .. YELLOW BIRCH................................................................... STEMS BIRCH BIRCH................ 77 ..................................................................................... 55 ............................. 78 ................ ORCHARD PRUNINGS ALMONDSHELLS ALMONDS ALUMINUM ALUMINUM 2024-T4 ALUMINUM7075-T6 AMATOL ARALDITE ARCHANGEL (WOOD BETONY OR BLIND NETTLE) ASH ASH............. 233 ...........5-METHYLOLMELAMINE......... 236 ............ 238 ...BARK ASPEN.... ....................................... 103 ............................ COMMERCIAL BEEFWOOD (SHE-OAK) BEETLE BEETS BENTONITE................. 167 ........... FOLIAGE BIG SAGEBRUSH............... 2 3 7 .... FORMITE VIIIOS BARLEYOIL BARLEY STRAW BARNACLE BEAN STRAW BEANS.....................................................................................

..................... 245 ........... VINEYARD PRUNINGS CADMIUM CARDINAL GRAPES........................ FOLIAGE CHAPARRAL CHARCOAL.......................................... 14 CHERRY ............................ 169 ................................... 55 ..................................................... 37 CHYMOTRYPSIN ........................................................................ SUMMER BUTTERFAT... 168 ............................. 36 .......I Name Index Page BIVALVE BLACK WALNUT........................ ORCHARD PRUNINGS BLACKGUM BLACKGUM................................................................................................................................ RED CELLULOID CELLULOSE CELLULOSE DIACETATE CELLULOSE.................... 305 .. 68 .. 244 ............................................. HOLOCELLULOSE.............................. 80 . 144 ...................................................................... 244 ..........................................................................................................68 .... 55 ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ X-478 BUTENE-1-POLYSULFONE BUTTERFAT.............. 169 342 . BLACK ....................................... X-454 BUTADIENE-STYRENE COPOLYMER.......... FROM LOBLOLLY PINE WOOD CELLULOSE NITRATE CELLULOSE TRIACETATE CEMENT HYDRATES CHAMISE.................................................................................................................................... VINEYARD PRUNINGS CARROTS CASEIN............... 191 ...... 145 56 ........................................................................... 241 ...... 246 CHERRY............................................................ 145 ............................. 145 ........................................ BARK BOVINE CHYMOTRYPSINOGEN A BOXELDER BRACHIOPOD BRACKEN FERN....... 242.............. GL-622 BUTADIENE-STYRENE COPOLYMER........................................ 170 ........................ 69 ... 169 ......... 79 .......................................... CURED CHENIN BLANC GRAPES........................................................................................................................ 213 .......... 56 cis-BUTENE-2-POLYSULFONE ................. WOOD CHEATGRASS.................................................................. VINEYARD PRUNINGS ........... 247 CHITON .................................................................................... 13 .................................................................................... ..................................................................................... 191 .................. 242 ................. 137 ......................................................................................................... 246 CHESTNUT ...... CORNELIAN ........................................ 128 ..... 68 .................................................. 80 ................................. 146 .... WINTER CABBAGE CABBAGE WOOD CABERNET SAUVIGNON GRAPES............................. FRONDS BROAD-LEAVED STITCHWORT (MOODSTARWORT) BROWN PAPER BULBIFEROUS TOOTHWORT (TOOTH-CRESS) BUTADIENE-STYRENE COPOLYMER.......................................... 168 .......................... 56 CHROMIUM ...................... 68 .... 243 .......................................................................... MILK CASTOR OIL CATTAILS CATTLE CAULIFLOWER CEDAR................................................... 243 ................... 80 .............. 191 CILIATE ...................................... 67...... 79 .................................................................................... 13 ................... 12 ........ 245 CHERRY........

............... ............................. ................. ....................................................... BITUMINOUS COAL............................................................ .K........................................... 107 107 192 147 38 57 38 306 ............................................................................................................................................................... ........ .................................................................................................... MISSOURI COTTONWOOD........ ANTHRACITE COAL............ ........ SUB-BITUMINOUS COCKS-FOOTGRASS COCOA BUTTER COCOA HULLS COCOBOLA NEGRA COCONUT COCONUT FIBER............................... BITUMINOUS (HIGH GRADE) COAL.......................................................................... SEMI-ANTHRACITE COAL............................................................................................................PLASTIC KAOLIN CLAY.............................................................. .................................................................. .................. CHINA CLAY............. .............................. GREEN CORNCOBS CORNOIL CORNOIL(MAIZE) CORNSTOVER CORRUGATED BOX COTTONGINTRASH COTTONSTALKS COTTON(THREAD) COTTONSEED O L I COTTONSEED OIL.................. ......................... NEWTON ABBOT BALL CLOVEROOT (HERB BENNET) COAL......... ...................................... ..................... ........................... BITUMINOUS (LOW GRADE) COAL..... ...........................................HYDROGENATED COTTONSEED OIL. ........................................... . .................4 CLAY......................................... .................................................. .......... ............................................... .... .............................................................. ............. ........................................................................................... DUST COCONUTOIL COKE COKE BREEZE COLLAGEN COLTSFOOT CONSTANTAN COPEPOD COPPER CORALBRANCHTIPS CORAL BRANCHES CORN (MAIZE)..................................................... ................MOROCCANNO...................... ............. .................................................. ............................. ......................................... ................................... ......................................................... 81 56 128 129 129 129 130 146 103 104 104 104 105 105 105 106 106 146 81 14 247 81 15 214 106............................................................................. CANNEL COAL. ............................................... SEMI-BITUMINOUS COAL................... .................................. .................... ................................. . ......................................................... RINDS AND SEEDS CLADOCERA CLAY............. HALLOYSITE (DJEBEL DEBAR) CLAY....... 306 82 15 215 215 16 137 16 17 69 215 216 216 248 248 82 147 217 ..................... .................................... ................................................................................................................................................Name Index Page CITRUS FRUIT............... ............... NEBRASKA COWPEAS COWSLIP LUNGWORT CRAMBEOIL ..... . ................. ............................................ REFINED COTTONWOOD.............................................. ............................................................................................ .......................................................................................................................................... ... ............................................ BITUMINOUS (MEDIUM GRADE) COAL......................................................................................

.................................. DOUGLAS......................... ........................................... ......... 85 ..................... .. ..................BEEF FAT.......................................................................................... GRAND FIR.................. DOUGLAS.................. DOUGLAS......................................... TERRESTRIAL FLOUR......................................................................................................... ELM. .................................. DOUGLAS..... WHITE............... 252 .............................. 86 ........................................................ BUTTER FAT..... . RYE FAT................. EGG YOLK ......................................................................................... WHITE FIR.......BLO0 D............................................. BALSAM.................................................................................................. 255.......................................... ORCHARD PRUNINGS ..................... .........BARK FIR.......... NEEDLES FIR.....................................TWIG DOWTHERMA DURETHAN U20 EGG ALBUMIN ................ ELM....................................................... ............................... 256 256 ................ ........................................................................................................................... EPILOX EGI. 57 . WHITE ........................... HARDENED EPILOX EGI.................................................. ......... 255 ................ BARLEY FAT.............................................. LARD FAT..................................... 254 254 ........... SOY BEAN 82 306 170 69 170 207 148 249 307 171 83 ............... DOUGLAS FIR.................................................................................. ............. 255 ................... 307 ....... BALSAM...................................................... ENGLISH WALNUT...................... ... ................................................. ..................... .................. 57 ...............................................................BARK ........................... WOOL FILTER PAPER WHATMAN FIR FIR......... ..................... ............ DOUGLAS................................................... ..... ........................................................ ........................................ .......................................................... AMER1CAN....... 253 ................................................................ FRIED FAT............................. 86 ............................................................... ..................... LUMBER FIR........................................................ PORK FAT.................... 253 ........... 85 ........ 252 ............................ MUTTON FAT................................................................................ 69 ... 85 .......................................................................... .................................................................................................. ANIMAL FAT............................................ 252 ....ROTTEN WOOD FLATWORM FLATWORM........ 86 83 249 250 148 17 171 172 250 251 251 252 83 83 84 84 84 84.. ....... 254 ........STEMS FIR..... OAT FAT........... 85 ............Name Index Page CUCUMBERS DBX DELRIN DEXTRIN DICYANDIAMIDE (TECHNICAL) DISCARDED AUTOMOBILES TIRES DOG VIOLET DOGWOOD................................................BARK FIR........................... DEAD WOOD FAT............ WHEAT FAT.................. ROTTEN WOOD FIR............................... FOLIAGE FIR.................. ENCHANTER'S NIGHTSHADE ..................................... UNHARDENED EUCALYPTUS CAMALDULENSIS EUCALYPTUS GLOBULUS EUCALYPTUS GRANDIS EXCELSIOR.............................................

. ...................... ................. .... .............. ...................................... APIEZONP GREASE... * * .................. ............................................................................. ...... 115 ................................. . ......................................... PARAHO O L SHALE DERIVED I FUEL........................... ........ ..... .. ....................................... NATURAL GASOLINE GELATIN GELATINE GERMANDER SPEEDWELL (ANGELISEYE) GEWURZTRAMINER GRAPES.....2 ...... PYREX GLASS.............. 87 58 137 -87 148 108..... RJ-4-1 RAMJET FUEL...... ...... VEGETABLE FOURWING SALTBUSH FUEL................... ........... ................ 111 .............................................. .................... .... .... ............................ ........ ........... .................................. 194 .......................................... ........ ....... 193 ................... ..... .......... ........... TICONDEROGA GRASS..................... CEYLON GRAPHITE................................................................................................................... PYROLYTIC GRAPHITE..................... APIEZONR GREASE................................................. 18 ....................................... .. 149 ....................... . ...... ...................... APIEZONT GREASEWOOD .... ........................... * ........ ............................................... COED-2 UTAH COAL DERIVED FUEL.. ....................................... ............................... AVIATION FUEL...... .................... .................................................................... ............WHEAT FLY............................................... THOMPSON SEEDLESS GRAPHITE......................... 172 .................. CADDIS FOODCARTONS FOOD WASTES..... ........R J-4 RAMJET FUEL...... ...................... ......... APIEZON S GREASE.. ................... 193 ..... ..... 131 ......... ...... ............... ........... APIEZON N GREASE.......... .... ......................... ....................................... 11............Name Index Page FL0UR..............................................R J-6RAMJET FUEL................................ 70 ...................................................................... 109 109 109 110 110 110 115 .................. 149 .............. BUCKINGHAM GRAPHITE............GASOLINE FUEL7JP-9RAMJET ......................................................................... ......... FOLIAGE GAS. 131 ................................ 307 307 307 308 308 150 ......................................................................... ........ ... .....................SOD A-LIME GLASS................ . ARTIFICIAL GRAPHITE................... ........... 132 .... .......... ................Ill ... 88 ............................................. 149 ......... .................................. COED-1 FMC WESTERN KENTUCKY COAL DERIVED ..................... 207 ........ ....... ... . 18 ................................ LAWN CLIPPINGS GREASE. 192 ............................................... COED-4 UTAH COAL DERIVED FUEL...... ..... 114 ............... ............ 130........ 113 ................ 114 ................. COED-3 WESTERN KENTUCKY COAL DERIVED FUEL....................................... VYCOR GLIADIN GLUTEN GLUTENIN GLYCOGEN GLYPTAL GR-SRUBBER GRAPE POMACE GRAPES.......... .............................................. ........... -112 ........... FUEL....................................................................................... ....................................... .. ... COED-5 WESTERN KENTUCKY COAL DERIVED FUEL.............. TAR SANDS (ALTERNATIVEJET FUEL) GALLBERRY.... 88 .......... PETROLEUM-A DERIVED FUEL.............. . * * l l l FUEL............... 345 115 116 117 117 117 150 . VINEYARD PRUNINGS GLABER CRESS GLASS.................... ......

........................................... .................... CLONE RRIM 527 HEVEA (RUBBER TREE)..........................................Name Index Page GROATS. 346 91 42 308 309 263 152 71 71 71 .......... 40 ................................ 259 .. 151 ............................................................ GERMAN COMMERCIAL LEAD LEATHER LEATHER............... SHOE LEAVES........................... LOBLOLLY PINE WOOD .... 257 .................. LUMBER LARCH....................................... BARK HEMLOCK............................................................................ HARDWOOD LIGNIN..... 151 .................................................... CURED INCONEL.............. 89 ... ....... TREE.......................................................................... 39 .............. 90 ..................................................................... 150 ................. AMERICAN COMMERCIAL LARD.... 70 ................................ 58 ...... UTAH.............................. 170 ...................... WESTERN HERB ROBERT (RED ROBIN) HERBS................STEMS JUNK MAIL JUPITER'S-DISTAFF KEROSINE LADY FERN LARCH LARCH................. 258 ..... 152 .................. WESTERN....................................217 ........................................................................................................................... 138 .. 70 ........................................................................................................................................................................................................ 217 ........... ............. 70 ....................... 58 ........................................................................ 40 ..........FOLIAGE JUNIPER........ ............ 261 ................................................. 90 ................................................................... 260 .......... RIPE HARDWOOD MIXTURE LETTUCE MURALIS LIGNIN LIGNIN........CAST iso-BUTENE POLYSULFONE (2-methylpropene polysulfone) JUNIPER. ALPINE TUNDRA HERRING OIL HEVEA (RUBBER TREE) HEVEA (RUBBER TREE)........................ 151 ................. ............................................... 90 ............................... 260 ... 194 ....... 260 .............. 255 ...... BOVINE ZINC INULIN INULIN TRIACETATE IRISH SHAMROCK (EUROPEAN WOOD SORREL) IRON IRON.............................. 262 .............. ................................. 261 ..................... CLONE RRIM 707 HICKORY HIGH OLEIC SAFFLOWER O L I HOMINY HONEYDEW MELON HORNBEAM HYDRA................................................................... 40 ...................................................... SUN IX GROUND NUT SEED O L I GUPPIE HASTELLOY X HEMICELLULOSE HEMLOCK..................................... UTAH..................... 118 .............................................BARK JUNIPER......................... ............... GREEN IDAHOFESCUE.. 152 ................................................................................................................................................................... 261 ................ ....... EASTERN...... 89 ................................................................. 259................................... BARK LARD............... ANNEALED INCONELttX" INSULIN.................................................................. ................................................................................... 262 .................................................................................. UTAH...................................................................................................... 262 ............ 42 ............................... 257 ................................................................................................................................................................. BARK LARCH.................

.......................................................................... ........................................ BLACK LUCITE MACADAMIASHELLS MADRONE MAGAZINE MAICHAMPAH MALE FERN MALTINGBARLEY MANURE............... ............................... ALASKA NAPHTHA.............................................................................. ......... ........................................................................................................ ........................................................ ................................... TABLE MARGARINE.......................................................... ................ .................................................................................. ....................................................... ................ .......................................... HEDGE MAPLE............... .............................................................. ......................................... GREENLEAF.......................................... FOLIAGE MAPLE MAPLE................................................... .... ............................................................................................... .SUGAR............. ................... .............................. ............................ .......................Name Index Page LIGNIN......... 6 ................... ..................TATARIAN MARGARINE....................................................... ................................................................................................. 268 269 269.......BARK MAPLE... ............ J E T NAPHTHA........... ..... ................................................................................................... LOW BOILING NEAT'S FOOT OIL................... SOFTWOOD LIGNITE LINSEED OIL LINSEED OIL............................................................................................................................................................. ..................................... VINEYARD PRUNINGS MITE MONEL M0NEL"K" MOSSES. CORN (MAIZE) MEAT. ...................... COOKED SCRAPS MELICGRASS MELINEX FILM MERCURIALIS PERENNIS MERCURY MERLOT GRAPES......................................... ......... .......... ......................................................................... REFINED NEWSPRINT NICKEL NORYL RESIN 111 NYLON4 NYLON-6..................... ....................... .................................... ....................................................................................... ............................................. 270 270 271 92 92 153 93 93 153 173 154 43 19 58 . ............................... ............................................... .............................................. ALPINE TUNDRA MOUNTAINRUSH MYLAR FILM NAPHTHA........ ....... .......................... HIGH BOILING NAPHTHA................................................... UNREFINED LITTER FALL LOCUST....................................... PIG MANZANITA MANZANITA............... 265 266 266 267.......... ............................................................. ..................... ................................. SILVER MAPLE...................................................................... RED MAPLE............................................... 347 .......................................................... 72 118 218 219 263 264 172 19 264 138 265 153 91 72 245 ................................ .......................... AROMATIC NAPHTHA....................... ............................................................................. COMMERCIAL MEADOW-RUE ISOPYRUM MEAL................................................... ................... ..... SUGAR MAPLE................. 44 44 154 155 173 118 119 119 119 119 310 138 44 174 1 7 ~ 176 .........................................................................................

............................................... 263 ........................ 40 ............................ 42 ..... 346 71 71 71 ..... 308 .......................................... 258 ................................................................ 39 ..... 152 ............. .................................................................. 150 .................................................. 262 ............................................................... 89 ....... CURED INCONEL........... 151 ....... 194 ......................................... 91 ............................................................................................................. ..................................... 217 ..................... SHOE LEAVES................... 260 ......... GREEN IDAHOFESCUE.............................................. 152 - - ......................................................... .......................................................................... ANNEALED INCONEL'X" INSULIN............................................................................................ BOVINE ZINC INULIN INULINTRIACETATE IRISH SHAMROCK (EUROPEAN WOOD SORREL) IRON IRON.......................................... 151 ..... 261 ............ 70 ............................................................... WESTERN........ 261 .. FOLIAGE JUNIPER................................... 217 .......................... 262 .......................................................................... 259................................. 257 ..............UTAH.................................... BARK LARD............................................BARK JUNIPER................................................................................................................ 40 ......... 262 ................................................................ UTAH............. 260 .................................................... 261 .............. 90 ............ 90 ................................. RIPE HARDWOOD MIXTURE LETTUCE MURALIS LIGNIN LIGNIN................................................................................................................................................................................................. 40 ...................................... WESTERN HERB ROBERT (RED ROBIN) HERBS..... TREE............... 258 ................................................................................................................................................... CLONE RRIM 707 HICKORY HIGH OLEIC SAFFLOWER OIL HOMINY HONEYDEW MELON HORNBEAM HYDRA........... 58 .............................. 257 .....................................STEMS JUNK MAIL JUPITER'S-DISTAFF KEROSINE LADYFERN LARCH LARCH.............................................. CLONE RRIM 527 HEVEA (RUBBER TREE).................................CAST iso-BUTENE POLYSULFONE (2-methylpropene polysulfone) JUNIPER. 70 ......................... 90 ....... LOBLOLLY PINE WOOD ' ............................ 41 ............................ HARDWOOD LIGNIN.............................................. ALPINE TUNDRA HERRING OIL HEVEA (RUBBER TREE) HEVEA (RUBBER TREE)................................................................................................................... EASTERN..........................................................................................I Name Index Page GROATS............ 118 ........... 260 ............. 259 ... 151 ............. AMERICAN COMMERCIAL LARD................ 70 .................... BARK HEMLOCK........... 138 ............. 309 ... GERMAN COMMERCIAL LEAD LEATHER LEATHER....................... 58 ....................... 89 .................................. 152 ....................... LUMBER LARCH. BARK LARCH.................. UTAH...... 170 ......................... SUN IX GROUND NUT SEED O L I GUPPIE HASTELLOYX HEMICELLULOSE HEMLOCK........

.................... SUGAR PINE......... YELLOW POPPY SEED OIL......... DEAD FOLIAGE PINE. NEEDLES PINE............................................................ MT 77 FOLIAGE PINE........................................................... 180 ........................... 284 .. 2-PROPANE CARBONATE POLY-€-ENANTHOLACTAM POLY-=-METHYL STYRENE POLY-iso-BUTENE POLY-N-ETHYL-N-METHYL PROPIONAMIDE POLYACENAPHTHYLENE POLYALLYLPHTHALATE POLYBUTADIENE 41°F POLYBUTADIENE 122°F POLYETHYLENE POLYPROPYLENE POLYSTYRENE POLYUREA (POLYHARNSTOFF) POLYVINYL CHLORIDE POLYVINYL NITRATE POND MURREL...... 22 ..Name Index Page PINE.... I-DIFLUOROETHYLENE POLY-I-BUTENE POLY-2.............................................................. 288 ..................................................................... 156 ................................FOLIAGE PINE........ PONDEROSA....................... 181 ............................ 180 ................... WHITE................................................................................. PONDEROSA PINE......................................................................................... BLEACHED POPULUS HYBRIDS ................ 182....... 185 ....................................... 283 .......................... PINYON...... 184 ................... LODGEP0LE............................... PONDEROSA......................................................................................... 290 .. CA 77 FOLIAGE PINE.................... LODGEPOLE.......4'-DIOXYDIPHENYL-2.................................. 155 .................................................... 287 ....... 182 ....... 181 .... TAIL PONDMURREL........... 285 ........ 59 ................ 289 .................................................... 21 ............................................. HEARTWOOD LUMBER PINE.............................. PONDEROSA........................ 286 ...................... 4-CYCLOHEXYLENE) POLY-I....................................................FOLIAGE PINE... 184 .... PINE.... PINYON. LONGLEAF PlNE............... 283 .... 284.......... FLOWER GARDEN PLANTS...................... BARK PINE...... 287 ................................ SLASH..................................FOLIAGE PINE........................................................................... 181 ......... 283 . VASCULAR AQUATIC PLASTIC COATED PAPER POLY(0XY-2-METHYL-1.. 289 .................... 181 ....... 285 ... PONDEROSA..................... 223 .................... PONDEROSA............................................... 286 .......... 179 ............. 183 ........................................................ 179 ..... PONDEROSA............ 6-DIMETHYLPHENYLENE ETHER POLY-4.BARK PINE.................... 288 ..................... 290 ..... DEAD FOLIAGE PINE.............................................. 59 ........ 311 ................................. TRUNK POPLAR POPLAR................................................................. MT 78 FOLIAGE................................................................................................... 179 ................................... 183 .................................................... WESTERN WHITE............. 183 ........ 195 ....... VINEYARD PRUNINGS PISTACHIOSHELLS PLANTS.....................................................................................SAWDUST PINOT NOIR GRAPES.... 184 .......... 286 ................................ 287 ...... 1-DICHLOROETHYLENE POLY-I........ 289 ............... 283 . PONDEROSA.. A 2 78 FOLIAGE PINE....................... 291 349 ................ 139 ...................................................................... 180 . WHITE PINE..................................STEMS PINE......... 289...... SLASH.............................................................................. 288 ......................................

................................................................................................ NORTHERN RED...BARK PINE LITTER..... LODGEPOLE.... 178 - .................................................................................................. 276 ... 179 ............... 120 ........282 ....................... PARAFFIN OIL......... PEANUT HULLS ..................................................................................I Name Index Page NYLON-6910 OAK OAK......................................................................................................... HARPENED (EDELKUNSTHARZ B) PHENOL-FORMALDEHYDE RESIN.................................... 310 .................................................................................................... 121 ........................................................................................................................SAPWOOD OAK..... 120 ................... DURMAST OAK............................... 282 .......................................... ITALIAN OLIVE PITS PALMOIL........... 272 ..... 123 .................... TAN............................................. 219 ...... 9~ ............. 279............. WHITE.......... N O R T H E R N R E D OAK.................................................................... ................................ SUN11 OIL....................... PEANUTOIL.......................... 194 .......................... 220 20 ...................................... HARDENED PALMOIL................................................................ RAW SHALE OIL................ LOBLOLLY............................ 122 .................................... 279 . EXTRACTIVES PINE................... DEAD FOLIAGE OAK............................................................ 276 ....... 223 .... PEACH PITS ................................................... 280 .......................... 282 ....... BARTLETT PEAT PECANS PENTOLITE PERILLAOIL PHENOL-FORMALDEHYDE RESIN................. 9 5 ............................................. 281 ......... BARK OATOIL OATS OATS................... SPENTSHALE OLIVEOIL OLIVEOIL............................ 272 ........... UNHARDENED PHENYLALANINE POLYMER PINE9EASTERNMHITE PINE. LOBLOLLY PINE............................ TAN......................... 277 ....... WATER OAK................................................................................................... 94 .......... 278.... JACK........... 280 ......UNREFINED PEANUTS PEARS.. 122 ..... .. BARK OAK..........FUEL OIL........................................................................CRUDE 011.... 95 ... BARK ................................... UNREFINED PALM-KERNELOIL ........................................................................................................................................................................ 281 ........................................................................................................................................... ................BARK OAK.......... HARDENED.................................... PB-RDX ............. WHITE OAK............................ 219 ........................................................................................... ....... RED OAK.............. 282 348 20 94 21 222 222 .................................................... 273 .............................................................................. 274 ........ .. 276 ........................................................................................ BLACK................................................. 121 ........ 274 .. TURKEY OAK. PEANUT BUTTER.............. PEANUTOIL .......................................................... ............................. DUFF PINE................ 93 .......................... 2 7 ~ ........ 220 221 222 310 ..... TAN OAK......GAS OIL.....178 ...............................................

...................................... 4? 46 .......... ......................................................................................................... 160 TANNIN EXTRACT.......... 47 ................ 296 ........ SAWMILL RESIDUE................. BARK SPRUCE................... 73 TANNIN EXTRACT............... RED SPURGE ALMOND STARCH STARCH TRIACETATE STARFISH STEEL........................................................................................................................... .............. 298 SYCAMORE......... 159 .............................. 295 ............................................... AMERICAN ............................. QUEBRACHO ............................ 63 ...........T i-75A ......................... ............................................................................................................................................................... 19 STEELSSAE-1010 STEEL......................... AQUATIC SOUTHERN HARDWOOD................... 29............ 297 SYCAMORE ................................................................ 27 TOUCH-ME-NOT .. BARK SPRUCE................... PILED SOW-TEAT STRAWBERRY (WOODLAND STRAWBERRY) SOYBEANOIL SOYBEANOIL................................ BARK SPRUCE............................. 229 .. 45 .......................................................................................................................... 72 .............. 140 ...................... ENGELMANN................................................................................ 26 ...........................BARK ................................. UNREFINED SUNFLOWER... 62 ....... 1... SAWMILL RESIDUE............................................. ............... 295 .................. 49 TOKAY GRAPES............................................................................ 169 SNAIL SNAIL..................................................T i-ISOA .................................. 73 .............................................. 22..9 ......... BLACK.................................................... 294 ........................................................................................................... 227 ...... STAINLESS 347 STEEL......... 72 .................................................................. REFINED SPITBUG SPREADING RABBITBRUSH SPRUCEPINE SPRUCE PINE........................... 49 TITANIUM............ ............................. 48 TIRE ..... 63 ...................................... STAINLESS 446 STINGING NETTLE SUDANGRASS SUGARCANE BAGASSE SULFITE LIQUOR.............................................. VINEYARD P R U N I N G ............................................................. 294 ............................. 159 ................................................ SPENT SUNFLOWEROIL SUNFLOWER OIL............................I86 THOMPSON SEEDLESS GRAPES................ CHESTNUT ................... BALSAM SPRUCE.......... 73 TEFLON ...... 25............................. 160 .......... 294 .............................................. 298 SYCAMORE.................................. VINEYARD PRUNINGS .............................. 27 TIN .........................................209 TITANIUM....................... 228 ............... 158 ............. 294 .. ....... 227 ............................................ AMER1CAN..... 29............... 297 .. NORWAY SPRUCE........Name Index Page ................................... NPLNO...................... 299 TALLOXEYE ..... 46 .......................................... FRESH SOUTHERN HARDWOOD............................................ I61 trans-BUTENE-2-POLYSULFONE ................................................ SEED O L I SWEET WOODRUFF SWEETGUM SWEETGUM........................................................ BARK 35 1 .... 6 3 ......... 296............................ STAINLESS STEEL................

............. VISCERA .......... WEATHERED (COLLECTED 1/2 YEAR AFTER HARVEST) .... 208 RUBBER RABBITBRUSH ......................... 22 .................................. 185 96 ................................................................. BRINE ........................ 97 RICE STRAW (COLLECTED AFTER HARVEST) ....................................................................... 201..................... 60 SHEEP................................... 156 SEDGE GRASS ............ HEARTWOOD ..................NameIndex 'i Page ............................. EVERGREEN.............. 60 SHEEP.................................................................. OS/AP PRUNE PITS PURIFIED NATURAL RUBBER HYDROCARBON RAPE OIL..................................................... 201 REFUSE......................... 311 ........................................................................ 202.................... 350 ..................................... ROUGH (ITALIAN ORIGIN) .. INGESTA-FREE BODY ...... 186 RUBBER .... 195 SAW-PALMETTO................. 209 RYE OIL ...................................................................................................................... 2 9 ~ REDWOOD............................................... SWAMP PADDY ............................ ALPINE TUNDRA ............................................................................................................................................ 62 SHRIMP........................................................................ 96 RICE HULLS ..... 293 REFUSE ......... 61 SHEEP.......... CARCASS .......... 1 8 ~ RIBIER GRAPES.................................... 97 RICE................................................................ 24 RICE STRAW..... 311 ........................... 224 ........................ 96 RICE......... 62 SHRUBS...................... 156 RUBBER-SULFUR COMPOUNDS ........... BARK ................................................................................................................. 98 RILSAN ............................................................... 293 REDWOOD................................................. 225 SAFFLOWEROIL ............... 225 ......................................................... 208 ............................. GIANT ...................................................... BAKELITE RESIN BINDER FUEL PROPELLANT......... 132 ......................................... 24 RICE.......... 224............................. FRONDS ................................. VINEYARD PRUNINGS ............................... 25 SANTOWAX R . BLOOD ............ 157 SHRUBS.. I 226 SHEEP.............. 293 SESAME O L ................................ DECIDUOUS.............. 204 REFUSE-DERIVED FUEL ............ 157 SEQUOIA................................................................ REFINED RAPESEED O L I REDBUD .............................................................. ALPINE TUNDRA ..... 203...... 311 SARCOSINE POLYMER ........................ *61 SHEEP... MILL WASTES ......... MUNICIPAL .......................... FULLY FINISHED (ITALIAN ORIGIN) .. CUTTINGS............................ ABS I ................... 292 REDWOOD......................... SAPWOOD .......................................... 23 RICE................. 158 PORCELAIN POTATO............................. 225 SAFFLOWERSTRAW ....... EVERGREEN................ 291 REDWOOD ........................................................ SHELLED (ITALIAN ORIGIN) ........................................................................................................................................................................... ......................... ....... HIDE .......................... 292 REDWOOD...................................................... 23 RICE .. WHITE PROPARGYL AZIDE POLYMER PROPELLANT.............................. 203 RESIN.. 158 SHRUBS....................

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