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Ilango, Professor & Head, Department of social work, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli- 620 023 ** G. Sundharamoorthi, Guest Lecturer, Department of Social Work, Bharathidasan University Constituent College, Kurumbalur, Prambalur- 621 107 Abstract Background: Mostly Central to the profession of social work is a concern with social justice. "Social workers are dedicated to the welfare and self-realization of human beings... and to the achievement of social justice for all." Social work has been promoting social justice for some time all the way back to the settlement communities Social workers have a contribution to make in terms of one-on-one counselling and in shaping course of action. Generally fields of correctional many type unlawful events but researcher had taken one of seriously event of murder. Objectives: The aim of study solution to attempted the unauthorized activities through role of social worker.
Methods: This study was conducted among 51 respondents (31Male and 20 Female) using census method and hence used them for analysis of the study. A secondary data was the main source for the present study. The newspaper clippings that has appeared in the Dinamalar daily published from Tiruchirappalli from 1st January 2007 to 31st December 2007 was made use data collection. The study included element of questionnaire from the causes of murder, Legal action against accused, Using of Weapons, Time of murder, Mode of murder, Relationship with Victims. Data were analysed using simple table and cross table.
Results: According to self-report surveys, It is clear that the age distribution of respondents. Most of the respondents (55%) were in age group of 21 to 40 years and 19% of the respondents belong to 41to 50 years. It is explicitly clear that majority of (23.52%) of the respondents have become victim of the murder out of adultery and 20% of the respondents are out of revenge as well 9.80% of the respondents are due to dispute over property.
Majority (60.78%) of the accused was arrested and 13.7% of accused surrendered either before court or police station voluntarily. It is also still under investigation. Conclusion Mostly people concern and connection of unauthorized actions in this article, we have examined the viability of using a strong point focused perspective for correctional practice. A clear understatement is to say that these agree to and rehabilitative goals discussed in this article are not the goals of most correctional systems. The main social worker practice in different setting from different role as well as solve the different social problems. evident that 25% of the respondent’s cases were
Level of Correctional Setting, Different Problems, Reducing Social problems,
Main Role of Social Worker.
Introduction In the present day we need must role of social worker in different setting because high level of population and high rate of social problems. Central to the profession of social work is a concern with social justice. "Social workers are dedicated to the welfare and self-realization of human beings... and to the achievement of social justice for all." ―The social worker should Social work has been advocate changes in policy and legislation...to promote social justice.‖
promoting social justice for some time all the way back to the settlement communities. Treatment of sexual offenders, battering men, and their victims are other areas in need of enhanced social work services. Mental health counseling should be a high priority as well. An underlying assumption of this paper is that social workers, with their strengths, ethnic-centered awareness, have a major contribution to make to the field of criminal justice. Social workers have a contribution to make in terms of one-on-one counselling and in shaping policy. “What happens inside jails and prisons does not stay inside jails and prisons. It comes home with prisoners after they are released and with corrections officers at the end of each day’s shift. . . . We must create safe and productive conditions of confinement not only because it is the right thing to do, but because it influences the safety, health, and prosperity of us all”. — Commission on Safety and Abuse in America’s Prisons
Prison Location Analysis Almost everyone agrees that prisons must be built, but proper location of prisons is needed to facilitate the reach of correctional officers, police officials, and inmates’ relatives. Prison location analysis is a specialized application.
Clarify the Field of Study Explain why correctional populations continue to raise even though the rate of serious crime in the society. Understand how rising correctional populations affect the costs of corrections. List the kinds of crimes that cause people to enter correctional programs and institutions. Describe how crime is measured in the India List and describe the various components of the criminal justice system. List the major components of the corrections subsystem. Describe criminal justice as a system and as a process. Understand what is meant by social diversity and explain why issues of race, gender, and civilisation are important in corrections today.
American Correctional Association Code of Ethics
1. Members shall respect and protect the civil and legal rights of all individuals. 2. Members shall treat every professional situation with concern for the welfare of the individuals involved and with no intent to gain personally. 3. Members shall maintain relationships with colleagues to promote mutual respect within the profession and improve the quality of service. 4. Members shall make public criticism of their colleagues or their agencies only when warranted, verifiable, and constructive. 5. Members shall respect the importance of all disciplines within the criminal justice system and work to improve cooperation with each segment. 6. Members shall honour the public’s right to information and share information with the public to the extent permitted by law subject to individuals’ right to privacy. 7. Members shall respect and protect the right of the public to be safeguarded from criminal activity.
8. Members shall refrain from using their positions to secure personal privileges or advantages. 9. Members shall refrain from allowing personal interest to impair objectivity in the performance of duty while acting in an official capacity. 10. Members shall refrain from entering into any formal or informal activity or agreement that presents a conflict of interest or is inconsistent with the conscientious performance of duties. 11. Members shall refrain from accepting any gifts, services, or favours that are or appear to be improper or imply an obligation inconsistent with the free and objective exercise of professional duties. 12. Members shall clearly differentiate between personal views/statements and
views/statements/positions made on behalf of the agency or Association. 13. Members shall report to appropriate authorities any corrupt or unethical behaviours for which there is sufficient evidence to justify review. 14. Members shall refrain from discriminating against any individual because of race, gender, creed, national origin, religious affiliation, age, disability, or any other type of prohibited discrimination. 15. Members shall preserve the integrity of private information; they shall refrain from seeking information on individuals beyond that which is necessary to implement responsibilities and perform their duties; members shall refrain from revealing non-public information unless expressly authorized to do so. 16. Members shall make all appointments, promotions, and dismissals in accordance with established civil service rules, applicable contract agreements, and individual merit, rather than furtherance of personal interests. 17. Members shall respect, promote, and contribute to a workplace that is safe, healthy, and free of harassment in any form.
Components of Corrections The purpose and goals of the correctional enterprise. Jails, prisons, correctional institutions, and other facilities. Probation, parole, and alternative and diversionary programs.
Federal, state, local, and international correctional offices and agencies. Counselling, educational, health care, nutrition, and many other services. Correctional clients. Corrections volunteers. Corrections professionals. Fiscal appropriations and funding. Various aspects of criminal and civil law. Formal and informal procedures. Effective and responsible management. Community expectations regarding correctional practices. The machinery of capital punishment.
Role of Corrections Policy Statement
1. The overall role of corrections is to enhance social order and public safety. Adult and juvenile correctional systems should. 2. Implement court-ordered supervision and the safe and humane detention of those accused of unlawful behaviour prior to adjudication. 3. Assist in maintaining the integrity of law by administering sanctions imposed by courts for unlawful behaviour. 4. Offer the widest range of correctional programs that are based on exemplary practices, supported by research and promote pro-social behaviour. 5. Provide gender- and culturally-responsive programs and services for detainees and adjudicated offenders that will enhance successful re-entry to the. 6. Community and that are administered within the least restrictive environment consistent with public safety. 7. Address the needs of victims of crime. 8. Routinely review and ensure that correctional programs are addressing the needs of correctional employees, the community, victims and offenders. 9. Collaborate with other professions to improve and strengthen correctional services and to support the reduction of crime and recidivism.
Social Worker Following Some Inspection 1. What difference did prison-based social work services make to meeting prisoners’ needs and reducing the risks they presented to others? 2. What did prisoners and key stakeholders think about prison-based social work services? 3. How efficiently and effectively did prison-based social work services operate? 4. What systems were in place for monitoring the performance of prison-based social work services and for improving the quality of these services? 5. How well supported were prison-based social work staff to carry out the work required of them? 6. How good was the leadership of prison-based social work services by the senior managers and elected members responsible for these services?
Supplementary Services (Various Locations) These programs/contracts serve a number of objectives including providing assistance to Probation Officers in the delivery of services in remote Aboriginal communities that are covered on an itinerant basis and to provide a cultural/community relevance to the delivery of justice (usually involving restorative approaches to justice delivery). The contracts allow for priority setting to occur within the context of the service schedules. Community development (as it relates to justice issues) is included as one of the central priorities. Alternative Measures Programs (Various Locations) Alternative Measures agreements typically require the offender to make amends to the community by completing tasks such as community service hours; and require the offender to apologize to the victim or restore property to the victim in order to repair the harm caused by the action.
Community Family Justice Centre (One Location) The Community Family Justice Centre provides family services (family mediation) to Aboriginal people who are contemplating separation or divorce. Through a cooperative approach the people involved in the dispute meet with third parties who assist them in discussing ways of settling their differences. The mediator helps the participants find their own solutions and does not make a decision for them. The intent and benefit of this process is that it encourages reconciliation and healing within the community - thus, solutions to local matters fit the priorities and culture of the community.
Brief Literature Review We are dealing here with the literatures of two separate enterprises -- criminal justice and mental health counseling. Whereas the criminal justice emphasis is largely on the state
enterprise and legal prerogatives, social work, in its mental health component has as its focal point, the individual within the system. Theodore Zeldin, (1994) the most insidious impediment to compassion is a cynical, Criminal recidivism rates, debates over treatment effectiveness, and general political conservatism, legislators have turned to a punitive, severe sentencing approach that is immensely popular with the general public. Criminal justice system, accordingly, are for law enforcement, punishment and custody, not for prevention or treatment. And yet the focus on cognitive errors is one which can easily be adapted (but from a positive rather than a negative perspective) to help women believe in themselves and in their potential. Bayse (1996) terms the moral-cognitive approach serves to encourage male inmates’ awareness of how they described their victims so as to arouse feelings of guilt and self-disgust. Perhaps this focus may be warranted with the type of person for whom they were designed, the diagnosable psychopath or man without a conscious, no called the person with antisocial personality. Helping victimizers to empathize with their victims, to stop devaluing them, is instrumental in helping them mature ethically and to quit using people.
The American Correctional Association (1997), a professional organization which advocates for the professional interests of workers in jails, prisons, and the community maintains a focus on rehabilitation and treatment as proper correctional goals. During the annual Congress of Correction, The ACA (1997) adopted the following policies for correctional professionals and agencies recommending substance abuse treatment and parent training programs to break the cross-generational ―cycle of violence.‖
Rapp (1998) concluded that although research is limited to two experimental (involving a control group), one quasi-experimental, and three non-experimental studies, results have been consistently positive. The focus of the studies was persons with severe mental disorders, and the success rate was measured in terms of a reduction in the need for hospitalization and an unanticipated generalization of success in other areas such as sociability and community involvement. These positive results, although limited in scope, augur well for clients who are involved in a close treatment relationship for emotional problems, a relationship characterized, as Rapp terms it, by trust, friendliness, reciprocity, and purpose.
Loucks (1999). Research based on the strengths model in work with female offenders is even scarcer. Impressive results are being reported from New Zealand in correctional workers’ use of family group conferences to address youth crimes; such conferences which resolve conflict through restorative justice avoid the negatives that accompany traditional sentencing practices. Costs have fallen dramatically and the reoffending rate significantly reduced.
Crime A violation of a criminal law Prison A state or federal confinement facility that has custodial authority over adults sentenced to confinement. Felony A serious criminal offense; special one punishable by death or by incarceration in a prison facility for more than a year Misdemeanour A relatively minor violation of the criminal law, such as petty theft or simple assault, punishable by confinement for one year or less Infraction A minor violation of state statute or local ordinance punishable by a fine or other penalty, but not incarceration, or by a specified, usually very short term of incarceration Correctional Clients Prison inmates, probationers, parolees, offenders assigned to alternative sentencing programs, and those held in jails Violent Crime Interpersonal crime that involves the use of force by offenders or results in injury or death to victims In the FBI’s Uniform Crime Reports, violent crimes are murder, forcible rape, robbery, and aggravated assault. Property Crime Burglary, larceny, theft, motor vehicle theft, and arson as reported in the FBI’s Uniform Crime Reports. Crime Index An annual statistical tally of major crimes known to law enforcement agencies in the United States Note: The FBI suspended use of the term crime index in 2005, while the usefulness of the terminology is reviewed. Crime Rate The number of major crimes reported for each unit of population. Criminal Justice The process of achieving justice through the application of the criminal law and through the workings of the criminal justice system Also, the study of the field of criminal justice
Criminal Justice System The collection of all the agencies that perform criminal justice functions, whether these are operations or administration or technical support. The basic divisions of the criminal justice system are police, courts, and corrections. Adjudication The process by which a court arrives at a final decision in a case Arraignment An appearance in court prior to trial in a criminal proceeding Institutional Corrections That aspect of the correctional enterprise that involves the incarceration and rehabilitation of adults and juveniles convicted of offenses against the law, and the confinement of persons suspected of a crime awaiting trial and adjudication
Non institutional corrections (Also Community Corrections) That aspect of the correctional enterprise that includes pardon, probation, and parole activities, correctional administration not directly connectable to institutions, and miscellaneous [activities] not directly related to institutional care Corrections All the various aspects of the pre-trial and post-conviction management of individuals accused or convicted of crimes Mores Cultural restrictions on behaviour that forbid serious violations—such as murder, rape, and robbery—of a group’s values Folkways Time-honoured ways of doing things although they carry the force of tradition, their violation is unlikely to threaten the survival of the social group. Criminal Law (Also Penal Law) That portion of the law that defines crimes and specifies criminal punishments Profession An occupation granted high social status by virtue of the personal integrity of its members. Evidence-Based Penology (Also Evidence-Based Corrections)
The application of social scientific techniques to the study of everyday corrections procedures for the purpose of increasing effectiveness and enhancing the efficient use of available resources
Corrections Professional A dedicated person of high moral character and personal integrity who is employed in the field of corrections and takes professionalism to heart Professional Associations Organized groups of like-minded individuals who work to enhance the professional status of members of their occupational group Certification A credentialing process, usually involving testing and career development assessment, through which the skills, knowledge, and abilities of correctional personnel can be formally recognized
Racism Social practices that explicitly or implicitly attribute merits or allocate value to individuals solely because of their race
Roles of Correctional Counsellors Prison Counsellors Counsellors employed by state prisons and county jails assess inmates to determine risk of re-offending, anger and impulse control, substance abuse, mental health, education and adjustments to prison life, according to Key Sun, a former correctional counsellor and author of "Correctional Counselling: A Cognitive Growth Perspective." Counsellors in correctional facilities counsel inmates and provide case management, which involves matching needs with available services and treatments. They also maintain and update records on the inmates they counsel and serve as witnesses in disciplinary hearings for offenders in their caseloads. Sun cautions that while correctional counselling is designed to rehabilitate, the physical environment of prison often limits the effectiveness of interventions. Community Correctional Counsellors
Counsellors in parole and probation offices, also known as community corrections officers, have more diverse and flexible roles, according to Sun. Their most important role involves supervising offenders to ensure they do not re-offend or violate the terms of their probation or parole. These terms may include requiring regular visits to probation or parole officers, maintaining a job, completing education or substance abuse treatment requirements, or prohibiting certain behaviours such as substance abuse or gang activity. In addition, community correctional counsellors make home visits to offenders and their families, and provide needed interventions, such as mental health care, job training, substance abuse counselling and education. Community correctional counselling is designed to increase offenders' problem-solving and coping skills, enabling them to deal with their situation.
Interactions Sun writes that some community correctional counsellors engage in restorative justice, or conflict resolution activities that bring together criminal offenders and their victims or victims' families. These activities focus on accountability for offenders and healing for victims, according to Sun. Caseloads Whether in a correctional facility or community setting, correctional counsellors are responsible for handling multiple offenders. A counsellor’s caseload size varies by agency, setting and types of offenders, according to the U.S. Bureau of Labour Statistics. Dangerous inmates and other high-risk offenders can consume a majority of a correctional counsellor’s time.
1 Although crime rates are at their lowest level in more than 20 years, correctional populations have been increasing because of get-tough-on-crime attitudes, the nation’s War on Drugs, and the increasing reluctance of parole authorities, fearing civil liability and public outcry, to release inmates.
2 Growth in correctional populations and in spending has led to a dramatically expanding correctional workforce and to enhanced employment opportunities within the field.
3 The crimes that bring people into the American correctional system include felonies, which are relatively serious criminal offenses; misdemeanours, which are less serious crimes; and infractions, which are minor law violations. 4 Two important sources of crime statistics are the FBI’s Uniform Crime Reports (UCRs), published annually under the title Crime in the United States, and the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS), published by the Bureau of Justice Statistics under the title Criminal Victimization in the United States. The UCR reports information on eight major crimes: murder, forcible rape, robbery, aggravated assault, burglary, larceny-theft, motor vehicles theft, and arson. The NCVS provides a detailed picture of crime incidents, victims, and trends. While UCR data are based upon crime reports made to the police, NCVS data are derived from annual nationwide surveys of American households.
5 Criminal justice agencies are said to make up the criminal justice system. The main components of the criminal justice system are (1) police, (2) courts, and (3) corrections. Each can be considered a subsystem of the criminal justice system.
6 The major components of the corrections subsystem are jails, probation, parole, and prisons. Jails and prisons are examples of institutional corrections, while probation and parole are forms of non-institutional corrections.
7 The term criminal justice can be used to refer to our system of justice, or it can refer to the activities that take place during the justice process. Criminal justice agencies, taken
together, make up the criminal justice system. Since the activities of criminal justice agencies routinely involve other agencies, the word system encompasses not only the agencies of justice but also the relationships among those agencies. The justice process, on the other hand, refers to the events that unfold as a suspect is processed by the criminal justice system.
8 Corrections refers to all aspects of the pre-trial and post-conviction management of individuals accused or convicted of crimes.
9 Professionalism in corrections is important because it can win the respect and admiration of others outside of the field. Moreover, professionals are regarded as trusted participants in any field of endeavour. This chapter also discussed seven aspects of a professional attitude.
10 Social diversity encompasses differences of race, gender, and ethnicity. Social diversity is important in corrections today because it impacts individual correctional clients, influences correctional populations and trends, affects the lives and interests of those working in the field of corrections, and may help determine the structure and functioning of correctional institutions, facilities, and programs.
CJEC Estimated Prison Population versus Actual Prison Population
The Role of a Correctional Psychologist
A Correctional psychologist is a healthcare professional who provides psychological services to inmates in a penal institution (Haag, 2006). According to both Haag (2006) and Smith and Sabatino (1990), the prison psychologist is responsible for assisting in the rehabilitation of inmates and in their reintegration into society. The responsibilities of a prison psychologist include: (a) psychological assessment, (b) delivery of rehabilitative programming, (c) staff consultation, (d) addressing the psychological concerns of inmates in segregation, (e) crisis assessment and intervention for staff and inmates, (f) court testimony, and (g) research activities. However, the main responsibility of the Correctional psychologist is traditional psychological services such as counselling, assessments, and interventions (Ogloff, 1995).
Trust & Confidentiality
Developing trust with inmates, especially for individuals perceived to be in authority, is another barrier in achieving a therapeutic relationship (Anderson, 1999; Gagliardo, 2000). There is fear among inmates that information obtained in a therapeutic relationship could be used and may hurt or benefit their prospects for parole. Although psychologist informs inmates of their rights to confidentiality, this basic fear will keep most inmates from seeking psychological services (Gagliardo, 2000; Morgan et al., 2004).
Complementing the working alliance model is Rogers. (1992) view on the necessary conditions for therapeutic change. These include:
1. Two persons are in psychological contact. 2. The first, whom we shall term the client, is in a state of incongruence, being vulnerable or anxious. 3. The second person, whom we shall term the therapist, is congruent or integrated into the relationship. 4. The therapist experiences unconditional positive regard for the client. 5. The therapist experiences an empathic understanding of the client’s internal frame of reference and endeavours to communicate this experience to the client.
6. The communication to the client of the therapist empathic understanding and unconditional positive regard is to a minimal degree achieved. (p. 827)
Motivation and Task Setting
Offenders are typically characterized by a lack of motivation, which becomes a concern for psychologists who request homework to be completed in therapy. Psychologists need to set limits on behaviour regarding attendance, participation, degree of involvement, and completion of homework (Pan & Lin, 2004; Williamson, Day, Howells, Bubner, & Jauncey, 2003). Rules of therapy also have to be set early and clearly Psychologist may be able to assist in motivating an offender in wanting to set goals. However, offender willingness to address identified
Misuses of Psychological Information
Haag (2006) discusses the abuse of psychological information that can occur frequently in institutional environments. There is an obligation on the part of psychologists to ensure that the information they obtain about an inmate is used for appropriate purposes. It is common for correctional staff to focus on negative information obtained in psychological reports and ignore any positive information written about inmate. This bias can also lead to .psychologist
The issue of multiple relationships is a frequently occurring ethical issue in the correctional environment (Haag, 2006). A survey completed by members of the American Psychological Association (APA) found that the second-most frequently reported ethically troubling incident involved dual or blurred roles with clients (Scott, 1985). Clearly, dual role conflicts are not unique to the field of Correctional psychology. However, the potential for such conflicts is undoubtedly harder to avoid in the prison environment. Working with inmates requires clear explanations of one’s potential roles as well as explanation of other treatment barriers within a secure setting (Scott, 1985).
Over the years specific changes have occurred to set the stage for a contemporary assessment protocol for psychologists working in corrections. First, the Correctional Service of Canada authored a clinically oriented manual called Forensic Psychology: Policy and Practice in Corrections, which described best practices for psychologists working in correctional settings (Ogloff, 1995). Secondly, psychologists at the national level facilitated changes to the referral
Biases in Report Writing
Correctional psychologists often evaluate individuals who have engaged in heinous crimes (e.g., robbery, assault, and rape). The offences committed often result in harm to other people, and being subjected to this information tends to stir the psychologist’s emotions (Arcaya, 2000). Personal biases rather than the factual material ensuing from an assessment of the client’s background, or the client’s behaviours may arouse psychologist’s emotions (Arcaya, 2000). How a psychologist reacts to a client’s personality and characteristics can distort therapy. This is known as countertransference. Countertransference refers to the psychologist’s emotional reactions elicited by a client (White, 2003b). It is composed of two responses: those based on
Main Themes Rehabilitation of Prisoners Prepare Offender Community Involvement Need Based Programme Therapeutic Individual Interventions Family Ties Sub Themes Psychosocial Functioning Crime Prevention Recidivism Reporting Writing / Courts of Law Complaints and Requests
Main Role of Social Worker in Correctional Setting 1. Communicator. 2. Enabler 3. Animator 4. Guide 5. Counsellor 6. Collaborator 7. Consultant 8. Innovator 9. Model 10. Motivator 11. Catalyst 12. Advocate 13. Facilitator 14. Mediator 15. Educator
Corrections Act 2004
The Corrections Act 2004 (external link) came into force on 1 June 2005 and repealed and replaced the Penal Institutions Act 1954. It introduced reforms that reflect modern conditions and approaches to how the Department manages offenders and is in line with other recent criminal justice reforms. The Corrections Act emphasises that public safety is of central importance and now requires that the Department has to consider victims’ interests when managing offenders. The key provisions of the Act include:
Establishing the purpose and guiding principles of the corrections system; Replacement of the term 'inmate' with the term 'prisoner'; Requiring the Department to devise individual management plans for prisoners and provide programmes, within resources available, for their rehabilitation and reintegration into society; Prisoners’ minimum entitlements are in the Act rather than the regulations and are more consistent with the United Nations Standard Minimum Rules for the Treatment of Prisoners; An expanded complaints system, which widens the role of inspectors to cover offenders on community-based orders or sentences; A more effective searching regime in prisons to detect unauthorised items, including drugs; Improving the prison disciplinary offence regime; confirming that prisoners may be represented by counsel in certain circumstances, establishing the position of hearing adjudicator to conduct disciplinary hearings, providing for lawyers as well as Justices of the Peace to be appointed as Visiting Justices, and creating a single set of clearly specified disciplinary offences; More information-sharing between the Department and the Police, including information on released, highest-risk offenders; Information-matching with the Immigration Service; The chief executive and prison managers to obtain advice from communities significantly affected by corrections policies and practices; Decisions to segregate prisoners for security reasons or to protect other prisoners need to be reviewed at least monthly, instead of every three months, and a decision to segregate prisoners on these grounds for more than three months must be approved by a Visiting Justice; The chief executive may only order one 14-day extension to detention in a police jail, with any further extensions having to be authorised by a Visiting Justice; and, The end to contracts for the private management of prisons.
Corrections Regulations 2005 While the Act contains matters of principle and a policy framework for the corrections system, the Corrections Regulations 2005, which also came into force on 1 June 2005, provide for matters of detail and implementation. The new Regulations are made pursuant to the Corrections Act 2004 and replace the Penal Institutions Regulations 2000. Many of those regulations have been carried
forward, but the new Regulations include provisions on some matters not previously dealt with in regulations, because of changes made in the Corrections Act. Some matters referred to in the repealed Regulations, for example, those dealing with prisoners’ minimum entitlements, are not in the new Regulations because their content has been incorporated into the Corrections Act itself. The Regulations comprise 14 parts and 8 schedules. The main areas covered are:
administration of the corrections system movement of prisoners property and prisoner finances security classification of prisoners segregation of prisoners prisoner treatment and welfare (including health care) visits to prisons use of force, non-lethal weapons and mechanical restraints drug and alcohol testing discipline and order complaints special categories of prisoners.
Key provisions of the Regulations that are new or contain substantive amendments include:
various functions and duties of probation officers which were not in the Penal Institutions Regulations. specification on eligibility for temporary release and temporary removal and the purposes for which these may be approved altered provisions regarding the segregation of prisoners assignment, review and reconsideration processes for security classifications more detail on the pre-approval of visitors provisions covering the internal complaints system provision for and restriction of the use of batons and mechanical restraints clarification of what privileges can be forfeited or postponed specification on the mixing of young and adult prisoners more detail around the treatment of mothers and babies in prisons clarification that a prisoner does not have any legitimate expectation of similar accommodation or opportunities during the term of their imprisonment.
Origins of the Corrections Law Reform Since the early 1990s it had been recognised that corrections legislation was becoming increasingly out-dated and was failing to reflect the modern correctional environment. In July 2000, the Minister of Corrections agreed to the development of a new Corrections Bill, and Cabinet approved its inclusion in the Government's 2001 legislative programme. New legislation was needed to:
Put in place a legal framework that supported modern correctional practice, including the Department’s new approach to offender management which aims to reduce re-offending through more effective targeting of rehabilitative and reintegrative programmes and services; Ensure that the law governing the administration of the corrections system was compatible, in its philosophy as well as in its specific provisions, with recent
criminal justice legislation, particularly the Sentencing Act 2002 and the Parole Act 2002; Make the law easy to interpret and use -- the many incremental changes over the years had led to the Penal Institutions Act 1954 becoming complex and difficult to follow.
Development of the Corrections Act Early work focused on identifying the major areas that would need to be considered in developing the new legislation and a series of issues papers were produced within the Department. These papers considered previous New Zealand policy reviews, such as Prison Review – Te Ara Hou: The New Way (1989), and corrections legislation in comparable overseas jurisdictions, such as in Canada and in Australian states. Public consultation played a major role in the development of policy for the Corrections Bill. A discussion paper, Better Corrections Law for New Zealand, was widely distributed in April 2001, and 182 written submissions were received in response. There were also eleven focus groups convened and four public meetings held, involving individuals and groups with an interest in corrections issues. The feedback received in the public consultation exercise was compiled in Better Corrections Law: Summary of Submissions on Better Corrections Law for New Zealand, published in July 2001 and was fully considered in the development of policy proposals. A series of papers was submitted to Cabinet in late 2001 and early 2002 to obtain policy approval for the new legislation. A wide range of Government agencies was consulted in the process and, following Cabinet approval, the Minister signed out instructions to the Parliamentary Counsel Office for drafting the new Bill. The Department provided comment on successive drafts of the Bill between April 2002 and February 2003. This process of refining the Bill involved extensive consultation within the Department, including a series of workshops to address difficult issues, and consultation with other government agencies. Legislative Process The Corrections Bill was introduced into the House in March 2003. It received its first reading in April and was referred to the Law and Order Committee. The Committee considered 41 submissions from individuals and organisations and received extensive oral and written advice from Department of Corrections officials. Because the Committee was evenly divided on support for the Bill, it was reported back without amendment in December 2003. The Bill received its second reading on 4 May 2004. At the committee stage the Minister introduced a Supplementary Order Paper that made a number of significant changes to the Bill. Some of these were matters that had already been considered by the Select Committee, such as the provisions for information sharing with Police and information matching with the Immigration Service. Others were added by the Minister, with Cabinet approval, following discussions with other political parties over support for the Bill in the House – for example, providing for consultation with significantly affected communities and amending the purpose clause to include a reference to the United Nations Standard Minimum Rules for the Treatment of Prisoners.
The Bill passed its third reading on 26 May 2004 and received the royal assent on 3 June 2004. It came fully into force on 1 June 2005. Development of the Regulations Substantive work on the development of the new Regulations commenced in 2003. A series of papers was produced by the Department’s Policy Development Group, with extensive input from other Groups and Services, and approved by the Departmental Corrections Act Implementation Committee. Drafting instructions were issued to the Parliamentary Counsel Office in August 2004. The Department then received and commented on successive drafts of the Regulations. This process involved extensive consultation within the Department, to ensure that the operational impact of new and amended provisions was fully considered. In February 2005, as part of the Cabinet approval process, several Government agencies with interests in aspects of the Regulations were also consulted. The Regulations were made by the Governor-General on 7 March 2005 and were notified in the New Zealand Gazette on 10 March 2005. They came into force on 1 June 2005.
January 1, 2013 Statistics
Incarcerated Population Total Male Female Black White Hispanic Other Sentenced Accused Federal Charges Below 16 16-17 18-20 21 22-24 25-27 28-30 16,347 15,317 1,030 6,738 5,176 4,326 107 12,108 3,762 477 12 94 860 565 1,844 1,762 1,673
31-35 36-45 46-60 Above 60 Incarcerated Sentenced Population Top Ten Offenses Violation of Probation or Conditional Discharge Sale of Hallucinogen/Narcotic Substance Robbery, First Degree Murder Assault, First Degree Burglary, Third Degree Possession of Narcotics Sexual Assault, First Degree Conspiracy Criminal Attempt Community Population Total Halfway House Transitional Supervision Parole Transitional Placement Re-Entry Furlough DUI/Drug Home Confinement
2,588 3,790 2,829 330
1,941 991 954 734 663 661 589 552 483 473
4,395 1,022 753 2,442 24 21 133
Incarcerated Population By Status and Gender
(As Of July 1 of Each Year) Year Accused Total Male Female 1990 1849 1709 140 1991 1813 1701 112 1992 1859 1712 147 1993 2134 1954 180 1994 2466 2227 239 1995 2849 2602 247 1996 2953 2679 274 1997 3369 3068 301 1998 3539 3172 367 1999 3293 3010 283 Sentenced Male Female 7285 455 8500 501 8691 472 9133 502 11049 610 11266 774 11229 785 11362 857 11618 752 12673 810 Incarcerated Total Male Female 9589 8994 595 10814 10201 613 11022 10403 619 11769 11087 682 14125 13276 849 14889 13868 1021 14967 13908 1059 15588 14430 1158 15909 14790 1119 16776 15683 1093
Total 7740 9001 9163 9635 11659 12040 12014 12219 12370 13483
Accused Total Male Female 2000 3095 2774 321 2001 3470 3077 393 2002 4028 3587 441 2003 3878 3489 389 2004 4410 3956 454 2005 4220 3768 452 2006 4377 3911 466 2007 4281 3836 445 2008 4396 3981 415 2009 4291 3920 371 2010 4393 4033 360 2011 4040 3707 333 2012 4107 3768 339
Total 14364 14230 14845 15243 14173 13930 14191 14611 15017 14600 14038 13591 12484
Sentenced Male Female 13445 919 13376 854 13897 948 14221 1022 13238 935 12966 964 13301 890 13648 963 14093 924 13732 868 13280 758 12817 774 11755 729
Incarcerated Total Male Female 17459 16219 1240 17700 16453 1247 18873 17484 1389 19121 17710 1411 18583 17194 1389 18150 16734 1416 18568 17212 1356 18892 17484 1408 19413 18074 1339 18891 17652 1239 18431 17313 1118 17631 16524 1107 16591 15523 1068
Incarcerated Population And Authorized Positions
(As Of July 1 of Each Year) Number of Number of Year Authorized Incarcerated Position Inmates 1968 1,269 3,145 1969 1,557 3,112 1970 1,422 3,326 1971 1,439 3,328 1972 1,422 3,028 1973 1,474 2,769 1974 1,425 2,853 1975 1,452 3,212 1976 1,532 3,221
Year 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012
Number of Authorized Position 1,515 1,543 1,574 1,624 1,653 2,043 2,161 2,377 2,470 2,775 3,121 3,648 4,517 4,733 5,298 6,464 7,293 7,827 7,708 7,410 7,269 6,599 6,902 6,901 6,900 6,569 6,651 7,007 6,681 6,775 6,853 6,919 6,882 6,492 6,493 6,348
Number of Incarcerated Inmates 3,063 3,091 3,594 4,147 4,370 4,870 5,184 5,379 5,790 6,252 6,807 7,316 8,899 9,589 10,814 11,022 11,769 14,125 14,889 14,967 15,588 15,909 16,776 17,459 17,700 18,873 19,121 18,583 18,150 18,568 18,892 19,413 18,891 18,431 17,631 16,591
Total Supervised Population
(As Of July 1 of Each Year) Number of Year Incarcerated Inmates 3,145 1969 3,112 1970 3,326 1971 3,328 1972 3,028 1973 2,769 1974 2,853 1975 3,212 1976 3,221 1977 3,063 1978 3,091 1979 3,594 1980 4,147 1981 4,370 1982 4,870 1983 5,184 1984 5,379 1985 5,790 1986 6,252 1987 6,807 1988 7,316 Number of Community Inmates 3,145 3,112 3,326 3,328 3,028 2,769 2,853 3,212 3,221 3,063 3,091 3,594 4,147 4,370 5,987 6,248 6,498 6,916 7,191 8,139 9,831 Total Supervised Inmates
1,117 1,064 1,119 1,126 939 1,332 2,515
Year 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 8,899 9,589 10,814 11,022 11,769 14,125 14,889 14,967 15,588 15,909 16,776 17,459 17,700 18,873 19,121 18,583 18,150 18,568 18,892 19,413 18,891 18,431 17,631 16,591
Number of Incarcerated Inmates 4,337 6,379 6,587 5,699 4,640 1,704 1,205 1,215 1,593 1,608 1,702 1,336 1,401 1,656 1,737 4,381 4,802 4,653 4,870 4,292 4,540 4,692 4,849 4,444
Number of Community Inmates
Total Supervised Inmates 13,236 15,968 17,401 16,721 16,409 15,829 16,094 16,182 17,181 17,517 18,478 18,795 19,101 20,529 20,858 22,964 22,952 23,221 23,762 23,705 23,431 23,123 22,480 21,035
Average Daily Expenditure Per Inmate
(By Fiscal Year) Fiscal Year Expenditure 1989-90 $ 58.68 1990-91 $ 58.38 1991-92 $ 56.98 1992-93 $ 63.69 1993-94 $ 66.10 1994-95 $ 67.70 1995-96 $ 65.27 1996-97 $ 70.49 1997-98 $ 65.68 1998-99 $ 66.64 1999-00 $ 71.07 2000-01 $ 74.05 2001-02 $ 73.85 2002-03 $ 72.43 2003-04 $ 76.12 2004-05 $ 80.84 2005-06 $ 83.65 2006-07 $ 86.08 2007-08 $ 89.60 2008-09 $ 92.35 2009-10 $ 89.68
$ 93.29 $ 95.16
General Fund Expenditures
(By Fiscal Year) Fiscal Year 1968-69 1969-70 1970-71 1971-72 1972-73 1973-74 1974-75 1975-76 1976-77 1977-78 1978-79 1979-80 1980-81 1818-82 1982-83 1983-84 1984-85 1985-86 1986-87 Expenditures $13,698,999 $15,810,927 $17,979,977 $18,804,222 $21,366,583 $23,219,281 $28,492,608 $27,066,288 $28,426,085 $34,451,274 $39,941,647 $41,405,941 $48,296,538 $59,439,718 $70,989,231 $75,424,349 $83,106,078 $94,417,436 $107,765,996
1987-88 1988-89 1989-90 1990-91 1991-92 1992-93 1993-94 1994-95 1995-96 1996-97 1997-98 1998-99 1999-00 2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 2011-12
$124,260,946 $151,689,818 $ 186,941,974 $ 236,293,977 $ 246,530,598 $ 286,115,841 $ 345,798,014 $ 376,971,958 $ 372,728,102 $ 400,834,080 $ 392,136,175 $ 414,224,643 $ 470,744,987 $ 493,951,320 $ 513,374,039 $ 530,740,043 $ 552,672,085 $ 573,839,097 $ 600,618,379 $ 627,727,939 $ 691,135,411 $ 710,139,836 $ 666,854,032 $ 676,022,889 $ 671,330,241
Office of Community Partnerships (OCP)
OCP contributes to public safety by creating and strengthening partnerships with key stakeholders, identifying innovative, evidence-based programming for offenders, and strengthening the state and local continuums of service for offenders.
California New Start CDCR is setting a high priority on linking inmate training programs to jobs in the community. The primary goal of CDCR’s California New Start – Prison-toEmployment Program is to improve the employability of offenders leaving California prisons, to increase the likelihood that they will secure and retain gainful employment up reentry to their communities, reduce recidivism and enhance public safety. The partnership between CDCR, the Employment Development Department and the California Workforce Investment Board will further these goals. For more information view the "California New Start" web page. OCP efforts include:
Working proactively in conjunction with Community Partnership Managers at each institution with volunteer organizations, law enforcement agencies, schools, universities, corporations, and various other agencies to build a positive working relationship between the CDCR and the community. Creating strong partnerships with community-based providers, and the communities to which their offenders return, in order to provide services critical to the offenders’ success on parole. Supporting programs that unify and strengthen an offender’s ties with family and other community support systems. Creating opportunities to increase volunteer participation and monitoring the effective delivery of services to inmates and parolees. Increasing communication and collaboration between the various sectors with the goal of improving the effectiveness and efficiency of systems available to meet the rehabilitative needs of offenders.
OCP Services and Programs
Volunteers Coordination – encourages the use of volunteers who advance understanding and cooperation between the CDCR and various community groups, religious groups, colleges and universities, and the general public. Volunteers represent a cost effective means of providing valuable and professional expertise. OCP provides policy development and administrative oversight of volunteers who augment services to the inmate population.
CDCR and Alameda County Sign First-Ever Reentry Partnership, December 10, 2010. CDCR Gives Local Charities Hundreds of Contraband Cell Phones, December 10, 2010.
California State Prison, Sacramento Inmate Garden Project Feeds Rescued Animals at Folsom Zoo. Inmates turn to farming to help zoo animals. Community Collaboration – Serves as liaison to the community regarding the development of programs designed to reduce recidivism. The Division facilitates and encourages collaborative relationships with local government, non-profit agencies and service providers through the maintenance of the Community Resources Directory, the provision of technical assistance, and the convening of stakeholder forums. Family Unification Services – Facilitates family unification for inmates through the Visitor Center Program and Prisoner Representative Program, services provided by a non-profit community organization under contracts managed by OCP. The Visitor Center Program – establishes visitor centers at all State prisons with an inmate population of more than 300 inmates. Each visitor center provides assistance to visitors with transportation between public transit terminals and prisons, child care for visitors' children, emergency clothing, and information on visiting regulations and processes,
referrals to other agencies and services, and a sheltered area outside of the security perimeter for visitors who are waiting before or after visits. The Prisoner Representative Program – provides inmates with assistance with family issues and pre-release planning. Prison Representative Programs which provides a Case Management Specialist inside correctional institutions to increase communication and visits between inmates and their families, increase contacts between institutional staff and families of inmates, locates lost relatives, and reduces anxiety regarding families and/or personal problems. The Case Management Specialists provide counseling in parenting and creative conflict resolution, and assist inmates with reentry, employment, or educational services. In emergencies, contract staff facilitate legal services, food, clothing, transportation, and lodging for inmate families.
Administrative Duties of a Correctional Officer
Correctional officers oversee pre-trial individuals and convicted inmates within detention facilities. Also known as a detention officer, the worker has various duties maintaining security as well as engaging in administrative duties. Most administrative functions consist of documenting facility and officer procedures along with inmate conduct
1. Daily Log
A correctional officer must keep a daily log of all her activities in the facility. A correctional officer's duties include conducting searches of inmates for drugs and handmade weapons, inspecting the center for unsanitary conditions and fire hazards, and checking locks for signs of tampering. With every correctional officer maintaining a daily log, facility managers know that all security procedures are being performed to operational standards.
A correctional officer supervises inmate work assignments during his administrative duties. Inmates who were granted work permits must be supervised during their activities. The correctional officer organizes the work assignments to ensure each inmate is at his appointed place and tending the assigned work. The officer can also add notes regarding any changes to the work assignment, such as an inmate losing his work privileges due to a facility violation.
Inmate conduct must be reported orally and in written format by the correctional officer. Such conduct would consist of inmate disputes, violation of rules and any crimes. These reports help facility workers know which inmates need special supervision due to repeated violations. Other administrative duties involving inmates include inspecting mail and visitors for prohibited items such as contraband, according to the United States Bureau of Labor Statistics.
A correctional officer must create reports regarding security issues. These issues can involve security breaches and inmate escapes. When such an event occurs, the correctional officer must assist responding law enforcement by pulling all past reports regarding any similar instances of security breaches or the same inmate trying to escape.
What Are the Duties of a Correctional Administrator?
The correctional industry and United States prisons operate with a wide variety of support staff that keeps the system running. A career as correctional administrator combines aspects of management with law enforcement. A correctional administrator must be knowledgeable about both prison operations and business management to succeed in this profession
Correctional administrators are the authoritative heads of prisons and prison systems. The correctional administrator creates a facility-wide master plan that determines operating policies and procedures. The administrator also coordinates and compiles information from all other managers at lower levels, then implements daily operational plans based on input received from direct reports.
A correctional administrator sets policy on financial spending and establishes and approves budgets for the prison or prison system. Mangers submit budgets to the correctional administrator who then compiles all departmental budgets and generates a master budget for the entire facility. The administrator will review and assess departmental budgetary needs and requests and allot funds as necessary. The correctional administrator must take in to consideration all prison operations and set budget and financial policy in a manner that provides financial guidelines to all departments. The correctional administrator also requests prison funding from state correctional agencies.
Staffing and Training Policy
The correctional administrator determines policy and procedure for all staff and personnel within the prison or prison system. The comprehensive plan regarding staff qualifications, duties and training criteria are all established by the correctional administrator. Staff scheduling is also approved by the correctional administrator, based on input and recommendations by support staff.
Payroll Administrator Responsibilities
Many employers have a payroll department, which disburses pay checks to its employees. Under the direction of a payroll administrator, the payroll department also keeps records of hours worked, wage garnishments and tax payments. In the event of an error in any one of these areas, it is the duty of payroll administrators to make correction or provide explanations. Additional duties of a payroll administrator range from updating payroll systems to working with human resources department.
1. Payroll Systems
Many payroll administrators are expected to maintain a system to manage employee work hours. These systems may be automated. Automated payroll systems are web-based and provide interfaces that calculate hours worked, deductions and taxes. These systems also generate direct deposits. Payroll administrators must become proficient with the automated system their employer uses and may be required to attend training. It is then the responsibility of payroll administrators to train payroll staff to use the systems. Manual payroll systems may also be designed by payroll administrators. Since this system involves paperwork, payroll administrators often create a filing system in addition to the forms used.
Because of the diversity in the family statuses, marital statuses and income statuses of employees, payroll administrators must be apprised of new and existing Internal Revenue Service tax laws. As such, payroll administrators may have frequent correspondence with the IRS or state tax agency. When levies have been imposed against an employee's wages, it is the duty of a payroll administrator to inform the employee and execute the payroll garnishment. Payroll administrators must oversee the processing of federal W-2 forms, which includes the yearly wages of employees and must be given out to employees by January 31 of each year. W-2 forms are necessary to file income taxes for the year.
Payroll administrators often work with human resources departments to determine the amount of time off employees have available to them (sick leave and vacation leave). Additionally, human resources departments may have to verify and document employees' rate of pay. Thus, payroll administrators would provide this information. Principally, payroll administrators work with human resources departments to "process" employees, which includes getting employer identification, time cards, job descriptions and pay rates. Payroll administrators also work with human resources departments to determine disability and worker's compensation pay.
The Role of the Social Worker
A social worker has a specific role and must register with the Social Care Council in order to work as a social worker. Social workers also have to show that they have undertaken the required training and development. There are some statutory tasks that only a registered social worker employed by a local authority may undertake. These include:
Undertaking child protection investigations. Undertaking initial, core, foster and adoption assessments. Developing and driving the Child Protection (or CIN) plan. Initiating legal proceedings to apply for a range of orders including admitting children to the care system and placing them for adoption. Developing and driving the LAC care plan, which covers all the needs of the child including rehabilitation, his/her health, educationand after care arrangements. Undertaking key worker (Lead Professional) function for LAC and discharging the parental responsibilities in partnership with parents depending upon the legal status of the child. This includes primary responsibility for promoting the health, education and welfare of the child. Leaving care functions. Independent Reviewing Officer functions.
The Role of the Fostering Social Worker: 1. Recruitment, assessment and training of new foster carers. 2. Supervision, support, planned and unannounced visits, reviews and training of existing carers. 3. Preparation of reports and reassessments to the Fostering Panel, investigations of complaints and allegations, undertaking risk assessments. 4. Assisting children's social workers, attending reviews and planning meetings, chairing placement agreement meetings. 5. Matching and placing children. 6. Assimilating and disseminating theory and practice developments. 7. Running support groups and training courses. 8. Multi agency liaison. 9. Managing duty, out of hours support to carers and emergency placements. 10. Dealing with placement requests and liaising with social workers.
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