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**42 Lecture: Vortex Induced Vibrations
**

Prof. A. H. Techet 21 April 2005

Offshore Platforms

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Fixed Rigs

Tension Leg Platforms

Spar Platforms

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Genesis Spar Platform

VIV Catastrophe

If neglected in design, vortex induced vibrations can prove catastrophic to structures, as they did in the case of the Tacoma Narrows Bridge in 1940.

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In the mid-1990's. coming back stronger to win the hearts of its fans.000. this "70's modern" building stands out from the rest.com/BuildingDetail/399.500 tons of steel braces were used to stiffen the tower and the Hancock building's final architectural indignity was surmounted. The last. the John Hancock tower wouldn't be anything special -. The people of Bean Town have always been willing to kick a brother when he's down. The same engineer also determined that while the $3.” Reprinted from http://www. The good news is.00 mass dampeners would keep the building from twisting itself apart. It cost $7. Some thought the foundation had shifted and it was putting stress of the structural geometry. Much like Boston's well-loved baseball team. this one defies the local conventional wisdom and goes for black. Then in late January. Then another. the building has had a rough past. their crystalline essence piling up in a roped-off area surrounding the building. or sighed with the temperature. and causing the windows to pop out. So 1. nearly sucking Trinity Church into the hole. During construction of the foundation the sides of the pit collapsed.John Hancock Building “I n another city.00 to replace all of those panes of glass.000. was revealed by Bruno Thurlimann. For any other skyscraper. It was too stiff to deal with the kind of vibrations that happen every day in thousands of office buildings around the world. The Boston Globe polled local architects who rated it the city's third best architectural structure. 1973 construction was still underway when a winter storm rolled into town and a 500-pound window leapt from the tower and smashed itself to bits on the ground below.344 panes of glass committed suicide. it soars and imposes itself on the skyline. so start combing those garage sales. but still perseveres. more than 65 of the building's 10. it breaks new ground. like a cobra.000. The solution was putting a pair of 300-ton tuned mass dampeners on the 58-th floor. Within a few weeks. Some people thought the building was swaying too much in the wind. it bent in the middle. It turns out the culprit was nothing more than the lead solder running along the window frame.just another reflective glass box in the crowd. the hardship would end there. Instead of being quaint. Instead of being colonial. But the Hancock building continued to suffer indignities. and most ominous. For these reasons and more the people of Boston have fallen in love with the 790-foot monster looming as the tallest building in New England at the time of its completion. But because of the way Boston and the rest of New England has grown up architecturally. the force of the wind could still knock it over. the undamaged sheets were sold off for use as tabletops. a Swiss engineer who determined that the building's natural sway period was dangerously close to the period of its torsion. The trouble began early on. According to the Globe. So when John Hancock Tower swayed with the wind. Another followed. you can own a genuine piece of the skyscraper.000.php Classical Vortex Shedding l h Von Karman Vortex Street Alternately shed opposite signed vortices 4 . and started calling the tower the Plywood Palace because of the black-painted pieces of wood covering more than an acre of its façade. The result was that instead of swaying back-and-forth like a in the wind like a metronome. the windows didn't and eventually cracked and plummeted to Earth. And Instead of being white like so many buildings in the region.glasssteelandstone.

4sin2θ Axial Pressure Force Base pressure (i) (ii) i) Potential flow: -π/w < θ < π/2 ii) P ~ PB π/2 ≤ θ ≤ 3π/2 (for LAMINAR flow) 5 .Potential Flow U(θ) = 2U∞ sinθ P(θ) = 1/2 ρ U(θ)2 = P∞ + 1/2 ρ U∞2 Cp = {P(θ) .P ∞}/{1/2 ρ U∞2}= 1 .

Wake Instability Shear layer instability causes vortex roll-up • Flow speed outside wake is much higher than inside • Vorticity gathers at downcrossing points in upper layer • Vorticity gathers at upcrossings in lower layer • Induced velocities (due to vortices) causes this perturbation to amplify 6 .

5*106 3.Reynolds Number Dependency Rd < 5 5-15 < Rd < 40 40 < Rd < 150 150 < Rd < 300 Transition to turbulence 300 < Rd < 3*105 3*105 < Rd < 3. d is diameter and U inflow speed 7 .5*106 < Rd Vortex shedding dictated by the Strouhal number St=fsd/U fs is the shedding frequency.

Additional VIV Parameters • Reynolds Number Re = UD inertial effects ≈ v viscous effects – subcritical (Re<105) (laminar boundary) • Reduced Velocity Vrn = U fn D • Vortex Shedding Frequency fs = SU D – S≈0. Reynolds Number St = 0.2 8 .2 for subcritical flow Strouhal Number vs.

vary with time. Vortex Induced Forces Due to unsteady flow. X(t) and Y(t). Due to the alternating vortex wake (“Karman street”) the oscillations in lift force occur at the vortex shedding frequency and oscillations in drag force occur at twice the vortex shedding frequency. forces. Lift is perpendicular to the inflow velocity and drag is parallel.Vortex Shedding Generates forces on Cylinder Uo FL(t) FD(t) Both Lift and Drag forces persist on a cylinder in cross flow. Force coefficients: D(t) 1/ 2ρ Cx = U2 d Cy = L(t) 1/ 2ρ U2 d 9 .

Lift = 0 Alternate Vortex shedding causes oscillatory forces which induce structural vibrations Heave Motion z(t) z (t ) = zo cos ωt & z (t ) = − zoω sin ωt &&(t ) = − zoω 2 cos ωt z LIFT = L(t) = Lo cos (ωst+ψ) Rigid cylinder is now similar to a spring-mass system with a harmonic forcing term. Drag ≠ 0 LIFT Cy Avg. DRAG = D(t) = Do cos (2ωst+ ψ) ωs = 2π fs 10 .Force Time Trace DRAG Cx Avg.

Shedding frequency Natural frequency of oscillation ωv = 2π fv = 2π St (U/d) k ωn = m + m a Equation of Cylinder Heave due to Vortex shedding && & mz + bz + kz = L(t ) z(t) m k b & L(t ) = − La &&(t ) + Lv z (t ) z && & & mz (t ) + bz (t ) + kz (t ) = − La &&(t ) + Lv z (t ) z & (m + La ) &&(t ) + (b − Lv ) z (t ) + k z (t ) = 0 z 14243 14 3 { 24 Added mass term Damping Restoring force If Lv > b system is UNSTABLE 11 . In this region the largest amplitude oscillations occur.“Lock-in” A cylinder is said to be “locked in” when the frequency of oscillation is equal to the frequency of vortex shedding.

a) = Lo cosψ o aω 2 Lift in-phase with velocity: Lv = − Total lift: Lo sinψ o aω & L(t ) = − M a (ω .Lift Force on a Cylinder Lift force is sinusoidal component and residual force. LIFT FORCE: L(t ) = Lo cos(ωt + ψ o ) if ω < ωv L(t ) = Lo cos ωt cosψ o − Lo sin ωt sinψ o L(t ) = − Lo cosψ o L sinψ o &&(t ) + o & z z (t ) 2 z oω z oω where ωv is the frequency of vortex shedding Lift Force Components: Two components of lift can be analyzed: Lift in phase with acceleration (added mass): M a (ω . a) z (t ) z (a = zo is cylinder heave amplitude) 12 . a ) &&(t ) + Lv (ω . Filtering the recorded lift data will give the sinusoidal term which can be subtracted from the total force.

a) z (t ) z =− ( +( π 4 1 ρ d 2 ) Cma (ω .Total Force: & L(t ) = − M a (ω . This is self-excited oscillation. a) &&(t ) + Lv (ω . zmax ~ 0. Coefficient of Lift in Phase with Velocity Vortex Induced Vibrations are SELF LIMITED In air: ρair ~ small. • Cma. CLv are dependent on ω and a. zmax ~ 1 diameter 13 . a ) z (t ) • If CLv > 0 then the fluid force amplifies the motion instead of opposing it.2 diameter In water: ρwater ~ large. a ) &&(t ) z 2 & ρ dU 2 ) CLv (ω .

m = m + m * SG=2 π fn n n s a ρ d2 ζ= b 2 k(m+ma*) ma* = ρ V Cma.43 S ]3.Lift in phase with velocity Gopalkrishnan (1993) Amplitude Estimation Blevins (1990) a/ = 1.29/[1+0.0 14 .35 ~ G d _ _ ^ ^ 2 2m (2πζ) . where Cma = 1. f = f /f .

2 0.0 a) One-tenth highest transverse oscillation amplitude ratio Mean drag coefficient Fluctuating drag coefficient Ratio of transverse oscillation frequency to natural frequency of cylinder 1.1(a/d) ~ Single Rigid Cylinder Results 1.2 + 1. ~ Cd |Cd| Gopalkrishnan (1993) 3 2 1 a = 0.Drag Amplification VIV tends to increase the effective drag coefficient. Mean drag: Cd = 1.75 d 0. This increase has been investigated experimentally.1 0.0 b) c) d) 15 .3 fd U Fluctuating Drag: Cd occurs at twice the shedding frequency.

16 . t Tension in the cable must be considered when determining equations of motion Flexible Cylinder Motion Trajectories Long flexible cylinders can move in two directions and tend to trace a figure-8 motion. The motion is dictated by the tension in the cable and the speed of towing.Flexible Cylinders Mooring lines and towing cables act in similar fashion to rigid cylinders except that their motion is not spanwise uniform.

A U f.A U ‘2S’ ‘2P’ • Shedding patterns in the wake of oscillating cylinders are distinct and exist for a certain range of heave frequencies and amplitudes.Wake Patterns Behind Heaving Cylinders f. • The different modes have a great impact on structural loading. Transition in Shedding Patterns A/d Williamson and Roshko (1988) Vr = U/fd f* = fd/U 17 .

Triantafyllou (JFM 1998) Tapered Cylinder 18 . Techet.Formation of ‘2P’ shedding pattern End Force Correlation Uniform Cylinder Hover.

Longitudinal vortices appear at Rd = 230. 19 . Three Dimensional Effects Shear layer instabilities as well as longitudinal (braid) vortices lead to transition from laminar to turbulent flow in cylinder wakes.VIV in the Ocean • Non-uniform currents effect the spanwise vortex shedding on a cable or riser. • This leads to “cells” of vortex shedding with some length. • The frequency of shedding can be different along length. lc.

C.Longitudinal Vortices The presence of longitudinal vortices leads to rapid breakdown of the wake behind a cylinder.K.H. Williamson (1992) Longitudinal Vortices 20 .

St = 0.0 dmax Techet. et al (JFM 1998) No Split: ‘2P’ dmin 21 . Spanwise Vortex Shedding from 40:1 Tapered Cylinder Rd = 400.Oscillating Tapered Cylinder x Strouhal Number for the tapered cylinder: U(x) = Uo d(x) St = fd / U where d is the average cylinder diameter. A/d = 0.198. St = 0.5 Rd = 1500. St = 0.198. A/d = 1. A/d = 0.5 Rd = 1500.198.

9 z/d = 7.9 Rd = 1500. St = 0.5 22 . et al (JFM 1998) DPIV of Tapered Cylinder Wake Digital particle image ‘2S’ velocimetry (DPIV) in the horizontal plane leads to a clear picture of two distinct shedding modes along ‘2P’ the cylinder.Flow Visualization Reveals: A Hybrid Shedding Mode • ‘2P’ pattern results at the smaller end • ‘2S’ pattern at the larger end • This mode is seen to be repeatable over multiple cycles Techet.198. A/d = 0. z/d = 22.

A/d = 0.9 ‘2S’ z/d = 22.9 Rd = 1500. St = 0.198. St = 0.9 Rd = 1500.5 23 . A/d = 0.198.9 ‘2S’ z/d = 22.Evolution of the Hybrid Shedding Mode ‘2P’ z/d = 7.5 Evolution of the Hybrid Shedding Mode ‘2P’ z/d = 7.

A/d = 0.5 Evolution of the Hybrid Shedding Mode ‘2P’ z/d = 7.9 Rd = 1500. St = 0.5 24 . A/d = 0. St = 0.9 Rd = 1500.198.9 ‘2S’ z/d = 22.9 ‘2S’ z/d = 22.Evolution of the Hybrid Shedding Mode ‘2P’ z/d = 7.198.

Karniadakis Techet.Stokes solver NEKTAR Principal Investigator: • Prof. oscillating cylinder Approach: VORTEX SPLIT • • • DNS .) Harmonically forced oscillating straight rigid cylinder in linear shear inflow Average Reynolds number is 400 Methodology: • NEKTAR-ALE Simulations Parallel simulations using spectral/hp methods implemented in the incompressible Navier. Brown University Results: • Existence and periodicity of hybrid mode confirmed by near wake visualizations and spectral analysis of flow velocity in the cylinder wake and of hydrodynamic forces VIV Suppression •Helical strake •Shroud •Axial slats •Streamlined fairing •Splitter plate •Ribboned cable •Pivoted guiding vane •Spoiler plates 25 . Vortex Splits & Force Distribution in Flows past Bluff Bodies D. Hover and Triantafyllou (JFM 1998) Objectives: • Confirm numerically the existence of a stable. Division of Applied Mathematics. periodic hybrid shedding mode 2S~2P in the wake of a straight.Vortex Dislocations. George Em Karniadakis. Lucor & G. rigid.Similar conditions as the MIT experiment (Triantafyllou et al. E.

Galloping Galloping is a result of a wake instability. 26 . If ωn << 2π fv then the wake is quasi-static. y(t).VIV Suppression by Helical Strakes Helical strakes are a common VIV suppresion device. Y(t) . -y(t) m Resultant velocity is a combination of the heave velocity and horizontal inflow. y(t) α U V .

. ∂α ..Lift Force..ma y(t) ∂ Cl (0) + .. z ∂ Cl (0) β= α ~ tan α = U ∂α V~U 27 . . Y(α) Y(t) V α Cy = Y(t) 1/ 2 2 ρ U Ap Cy Stable α Unstable Galloping motion U V α L(t) . -z(t) b m k a mz + bz + kz = L(t) . L(t) = 1/2 ρ U2 a Clv . z(t). Cl(α) = Cl(0) + Assuming small angles. z(t) . α: .

b + 1/2 ρ U2 a β <0 U Then the motion is unstable! This is the criterion for galloping. β is shape dependent Shape 1 1 1 2 ∂ Cl (0) ∂α -2.Instability Criterion (m+ma)z + (b + 1/2 ρ U2 a If .7 0 U 2 1 4 1 -3.66 28 .0 -10 -0.. β U ~ )z + kz = 0 .

FLUTTER occurs when the frequency of the torsional and lateral vibrations are very close. 29 .Instability: β= b ∂ Cl (0) < 1/ ρ U a ∂α 2 Critical speed for galloping: U > b 1/ 2 ρ a ( ∂ Cl (0) ∂α ) Torsional Galloping Both torsional and lateral galloping are possible.

Galloping vs. 30 .. References • Blevins. VIV • Galloping is low frequency • Galloping is NOT self-limiting • Once U > Ucritical then the instability occurs irregardless of frequencies. (1990) Flow Induced Vibrations. Florida. Krieger Publishing Co.

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