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Needlework as Art - Lady M Alford (1886)

Needlework as Art - Lady M Alford (1886)

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Published by Cary MacMahon-dann
Late 19th century 'history' of embroidery, with discussion of styles and techniques.
Late 19th century 'history' of embroidery, with discussion of styles and techniques.

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Categories:Topics, Art & Design
Published by: Cary MacMahon-dann on Feb 26, 2013
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xv, line

for Albert Castet read Albert Castel. 24, read as that of an important factor.

22, for slow read swift.
1 6, for art read artistic. i6,for are read were*



5, razd'

advance of them,

in the earliest.


21, for we read

20, for
1 8,

These read Those.




for from Cervetri, in Southern

read from a


at Chiusi, in Etruria.

8, for

Chin read Chan.
6, 7.





Bone needles from

Neolithic cave-man's

grave, read 6. Cave-man's needle from the Pinhole, Churchfield, Ereswell Crag. 7. Bone needle from

La Madeleine, Dordogne.




footnote, for act read



2 37)
2 39^

3, footnote,yr "ArtePlumarii"/-^i/"Arte Plumaria 8, /?r which prove read proving.
1 7,


delete" after of art."


insert" after backwards.


9 y5?r in the

Crimea read

at Chiusi.


Your Majesty's most gracious acceptance of
book on " Needlework as

Dedication of my

A rt "


a light upon the subject that
it jttstice.




and my

inability to




I may

a gap in the


of our day,
feet with

and I

venture to lay

my work


your Majesty's

loyal devotion.




IN the Preface to the " Handbook of Art Needlework/' which I edited for the Royal School at South Kensington in 1880, I undertook to write a second part, to be devoted
to design, colour,

and the common-sense modes of treating applied especially to embroidered hangings, furniture, dress, and the smaller objects of


sider this intention
to cast the

Circumstances have, since then, obliged me to reconand I have found it more practicable

have collected from Eastern and Western sources into the form of a separate work, which in no way supersedes or interferes with the
information which

technical instruction supposed to be conveyed in a handI book. have found so much amusement in learning

myself the history of the art of embroidery, and in tracing the beginnings and the interchanges of national

schools, that


cannot but hope that



excite a

similar interest in





and so induce



are capable, to help and

place than

lift it to a higher allowed in these latter days to has been

I have occupy. given too important a position to the art of needlework, I would observe that while I have been writing, decorative embroidery has come to the front,

and and


of the hobbies of the day would point out that it contains in itself all the
at this

moment one



necessary elements of art it may exercise the imaginait needs education in form, colour, tion and the fancy and composition, as well as the craft of a practised hand,

to express


confess that

language and perfect its beauty. when I undertook this task,


did not

the time I have had to spend in collecting and epitomizing the many notices to be found in German, French, and English authors, on what has been conanticipate


century, as merely a secondary art, and therefore, as such, of little importance. Cursory notices of needlework are scattered through


us, at least in this

almost every book on art


and under the head of


usual to find embroidery acknowledged as being worthy of notice, though not to be named in company

with sculpture, architecture, or painting, however beautifully or thoughtfully

works may be carried




tried to


show that it deserves higher estimation. intention was simply to consider STYLE, good
influences our embroidery of to-day, and to by which to guide that of the future in

or bad, as




But when we search into the fluctuations and their causes, we find they have an historical of style, succession, and that we must begin at the beginning and trace them through the life of mankind. This led me to attempt a sketch of consecutive styles, their overlap and variations.
next phase.
that DESIGN, PATTERNS, STITCHES, each require a separate study. MATERIALS, COLOUR, as applied to dyes, claims to be regarded as differing from pigments on the painter's palette.



HANGINGS, DRESS, and ECCLESIASTICAL EMBROIDERIES each require different rules, and the study of the best
Finally, it seems natural examples of past centuries. to dwell on our own proficiency in decorative work. ENGLISH EMBROIDERY has always excelled; and, as we



have again returned to this occupation, it is worth while to recollect what we have done of old. In writing chapters on these subjects, I have found it most convenient to separate the historical and aesthetic questions from the technical rules, and the instruction which naturally belongs to a handbook, of which the purpose should be to teach the easiest and most orthodox manner of executing the simplest, and elaborating the finest works. Such questions ought not to be overlaid


with the information

which only profits the designer though of course it is best that the knowledge of design should be part of the
education of the



may be found


have written a book too

technical for the general public, 1 specialist of the craft.

shallow for the learned, too deep for the frivolous, too and too diffuse for the

must deprecate these


by saying that




for the benefit of those

who know nothing

art, and are too much engaged to seek information here and there who yet, being women, have to select and to execute ornamental needlework or, being artists, are vexed at the incongruities and want of intention in I the decorations in daily domestic use have also





the designer, that he or she may sought of the history of patterns and stitches. something
to help


have sought to give something of the archaeology the qualifications for being a teacher on such Mr. Newton, in his are rarely to be met with, all combined. subjects on Art and Archaeology," p. 37, says that -"the archaeologist "Essays should combine with the aesthetic culture of the artist, and the trained
Besides the
art, I

of needlework.


judgment of the historian and the philologist, that critical acumen, required for classification and interpretation ; nor should that habitual suspicion which must ever attend the scrutiny and precede the warSuch ranty of evidence, give too sceptical a bias to his mind." authorities have been interrogated on each part of my subject.



readers should be aware of repetitions, they must remembering that the same idea has to forgive them be looked at sometimes Irom a different point of view,



according to the use to which it is to be fitted. The same material may be employed for wall-hangings and dress, and then the principles which have been formulated



be varied.

" Never Wellington's direction to his private secretary,

make my

do not shrink from repetitions if meaning clear, remembering the Duke of

and dot your i's." Portions of these chapters have been already published in No. 49 of the Nineteenth Century? in 1881 and more was delivered in three unpublished lectures the same



have acknowledged and noted on each page my I have The illustrations quoted. that are not original, have been copied from other works by permission of authors and publishers. To all of these I wish to express my obligations and thanks, especially to Mr. Villiers Stuart, Dr. Anderson, Sir G. Birdwood, and Sir H. Layard, for their courtesy in allowing me To my old and valued friend, the use of their plates. Mr. Newton, I wish to express my gratitude for his unstinted gifts of time and trouble, bestowed in criticizing and correcting my book, encouraging me to give it to the public, and making it more worthy of publication.

authorities for the facts


have largely quoted Charles Blanc (" Ornament


and " Introduction to Textiles"), Semper (" Der Stil"), Yates (" Textrinum Antiquorum "), and Yule (" Marco But these authorities Polo"), besides many others.

Dress," English translation), Von Bock Gewander "), Dr. Rock (" The Church of

(" Liturgische "

our Fathers

and, after weighing their arguments, I have ventured to select for my use the facts and theories

Quoted by permission of the


from its false ful origin. position as to date or place. like that of stringing pearls. has to be often repeated. that it requires great care to distinguish where they have been shaped or coloured (however unintentionally) to fit each other or the writer's preconceived ideas.PREFACE. . This has happened I my lectures I and since to me more than once have had to change my opinions . or its doubthas proved only an empty manufactured glass bead of read error. xi Facts are often so which accord with my own views. This process. Certain it is that facts are but useless heaps till the thread of a theory is found on which to hang them. I each subject a correct impression. Only those who have adopted and cherished a theory can appreciate the pain of cutting the thread. therefore. interdependent and closely linked. credit for any of my readers hope they will give me trying to convey now what appears to me on If. should observe such changes. till each occupies its right place. in several instances. but which. to displace what appeared to be a pearl.


art Renaissance . .. . i CHAPTER Definition of style I. DESIGN. .. style Development of Primitive Archaic Egyptian Babylonian Phoenician influences on early Greek Decoration of hangings of the Tabernacle in the wilt style derness Aryan ideas The Code of Manu Indian art Celtic style Greek art in dress and embroideries Homer's of embroideries Pallas Athene Shield of descriptions Achilles Roman art Byzantine art Art of Central Asia Its arrival in Europe Art of China. . Repetition Alternation Sym- metry Confusion dress materials Designs for hangings and Design for carpets The con. . art and Java Sicilian Christian art textile Scandinavian The Dark Ages Arabesque Grotesque Spanish Plateresque Style of Queen Anne and the Chippendales Louis XV. 14 CHAPTER and II..-. *.CONTENTS. Naturalistic design Prehistoric design Artist artisan EgypSlow evolution of design Greek perfection tian immutability M. PATTERNS. ventional First principles . 54 CHAPTER Ancestry of patterns III. Blanc's laws of ornamentaNecessity of following rules tion Laws of composition Progression Floral design .' . styleClassical revival Young England's style Nineteenth century style . ' ' " .. PAGE INTRODUCTION ' . Their historical Classification value patterns The naturalistic Flowers Shells Indian forms patterns of naturalistic patterns Egyptian The lotus Sunflower The human figure on Greek Celtic Zoomorphic patterns textiles Primitive The wave Tartan Prehistoric African Animal forms in Oriental patterns Symbolical and conventional patterns The cone Gothic Egg and tongue The The wave patterns The palm leaf Arab Moresque The Sacred Horn cross Swastika Fylfote Gamma- . STYLE.. Japan. . .

. PAGE crenelated pattern The Ninevite daisy Emblematic patterns Bestiaria Volucraria Lapidaria Byzantine dion The fundata Renaissance The cloud pattern The French patterns Radiated patterns The shell Patterns by repetition Balcony pattern Chinese wicker-work Survival of a pattern Opus Alexandrinum patterns Gothic Italian Quilting patterns A .xiv CONTENTS. Authorities for theories Harmony and dissonance . Terrien de Princess Couperie Euripides Flavius Vopiscus Tailor's bill monopoly Paul the Silentiary tion Empress Si-ling-chi Lucan Pliny Silk in of Khotan Imperial Rome Elius Lampridius Justinian's codex Bede King John's Greek and Sicilian manufactories of silk appariDistinctive marks of different periods Lyons Spain Italy Flemish towns Marco Polo Satin Welsh poem. COLOUR.. CHAPTER . . Revelations of the microscope grass Hemp Wool Jute Clas- Honduras Feathers ancients tile Spartum Coral Pinna Pearls silk Hair Leather Asbestos of wool Beads sical notices fragments wool Fine linen of Egypt The Atrebates Embroidery on linen Cotton Indian origin Carbasa Buckram Cotton fabrics Gold Silver Gold brocades Jewish Indian Chinese Dress of Darius Attalus Attalic textiles Tanaquil Scandinavian woollen garments Qualities of Flax Lake cities Byssus English wool Goats' hair Careful improvement of wool by the Homeric woollen carpets Crimson tex- garments St. . . and Henry III. .118 V.. MATERIALS. . Names of tints Art of colouring Expression of colouring Purple Crimson Blue Yellow Pliny Renouf Chinese Indian dyes Persian colours Red colours Dyes of the Gauls Romans . . Gold embroideries and jewellers' work of Middle Ages Spangles dery la Enamels silks Purl Modern Silk Pamphile of Cos Chinese The Seres schools of gold embroiEarly specimens of silk stuffs Mela Seneca M. . 82 CHAPTER Raw materials IV. " Lady of the Fountain Chaucer Velvet Transference of work to new ' materials . Cecilia's mantle Roman tombs Agrippina's golden Gold wire Anglo-Saxon tomb Childeric's tomb Proba's gold thread Golden wrappings from tombs of Henry I.

Cole's lectures de Gheltoff on Venice laces Lace stitches Revival of lace Modes English laces Part VIII. Crane Raphael cartoons Mortlake manufactory Francis Cleyne . . : Part I. Peter's at Akbar's tent Nadir Shah's tent Tent of Khan of Persia . Scotch Scales of colour xv PAGE MM.CONTENTS. . . Charles Borromeo Essay by Denis tych Chinese and Japanese feather-stitches Part VI. Rome Semper's theory Abulfeda and Persian St. and Mantua Gobelins French Cluny Museum collection Matthew English tapestry Comnenus Paris Early trade with Arras Coventry tapestries Chaucer " of verd " Hatfield tapestries Armada tapesTapestry Beauvais tries Sir F. Opus consutum or cut work Patchwork Egyptian and Greek examples Irish cut work Chaucer Francis I. . Opus pulvinarium Cushion stitches Mosaic stitches Traditional decorations from Chaldea and Assyria German and Italian pattern-books Part V. tones of colour Gas colours VI.194 CHAPTER Classical hangings Babylonian Sanctuary in the wilderness VII. African work : : Mrs. Opus Phrygium Gold embroideries Part IV. Charton and Chevreuil on . HANGINGS. Gurton's II. .on Mr. Urban Point d'Alenc. A. 175 CHAPTER Stitches STITCHES.'s hangings at Cluny Lord Beauchamp's curtains Spanish examples Remarks Lace Opus filatorium Art of application Part VII. Opus plumarium Mrs. Milan. . Tapestry Opus Its great antiquity of weaving tapestry Homeric pictureAlbert Castet on tapestries : school at Burano pectineum Egyptian looms weaving Arachnae Nometicum Brussels paraphrase by Lord Houghton Sidonius Apollinaris Saracenic weaving Arras tapestries tapestries A Italian from Florence. Palliser Netted lace M. Percy tapestry from Lambeth . Blanc Guipure Sir Gardiner Wilkinson Homer Solomon's Temple Bobbin laces laces Yak laces Coloured Venetian sumptuary laws Golden M. : The needle Gammer Part needle Art of needlework Lists of stitches Plain work The seam White embroidery Nuns' work Greek Spanish Italian white work Semper's rules for white work Part III. Floyer German : : : The Pacific Plumarii Feather-work of India Islands of the Mexican and Peruvian Cluny tripMitre of St.

mother of Early embroiderers Charlemagne of His at of St. Indian : Homeric and robe Early Christian Charlemagne's of dress Embroidered garments Objects 294 CHAPTER Christian art X. The bed Earl of Chaldean furnished house State apartment of Alessandri Palace Indian embroideries for furniture The sofa and chair The footstool Furniture stitches covers The table cover The screen . 303 . DRESS. Cuthbert South Kensington The fringe Museum . ECCLESIASTICAL EMBROIDERY. Greek and Dark ages influence Roman of ecclesiastical dress Northern Authorities Continuity ecclesiastical art the Anglo-Saxon in Pagan temples and Christian churches Temple Hangings Russian use of veils Art in the early Church Rare exVeils orthodox colours of amples dalmatic Empress Helena Pluvial Destruction by the iconoclasts Bertha. Silvester Pluvial museum Bologna Daroca cope Cope of Boniface VIII. Stephen of Hungary Kunigunda's work for Henry II. FURNITURE. Greek. and Roman mantle # . Ancient splendour Persian.xvi CONTENTS. thirteenth century Opus Anglicanum Syon cope Embroidery on the stamp Pictures Flemish work Renaissance Work of some in flat stitches French Spanish Sicilian and Neapolitan royal ladies German work Sacred symbolism Melito's "The Key" Mystical cross colours roes Prehistoric cross Many Modern forms of the The The chrysoclavus decoration The altarPrinciples and motives for church embroideries The reredos The pulpit and reading-desk The cloth ancient Paschal The banner of Lay heraldry of the Church St. PAGE Tents of Alexander the Great at Alexandria Roman hangings Funeral pyres Kosroe's tent Semper's rules for hanging decorations Ancient carpets English and French hangings 260 Rules for designs of hangings CHAPTER Penelope's couch Leicester's inventories VIII. Style of the twelfth century Mantle of St. The Romanesque Movement perfecting Gothic art. Book Morris on furniture 280 CHAPTER Art of dress IX.

VII. W. .414 . . Robes of Thomas a Becket at Sens Innocent The Benedictines Dunstan . by Sir G. translated by Earl Cowper . . XI. much collected in our old Field of the Cloth of Gold Mary Tudor's Much on Catholic houses Spanish stitches Queen Elizabeth's embroideries Institution East India Company Oriental of Embroiderers' Company taste discouraged in Cushion stitches Miss Linwood Miss Moritt Mrs. First glimpse of art in England Dyeing and weaving in Britain in Roman civilization Anglotimes Caesar's invasion early Saxon times and art Adhelme's poem Icelandic Sagas Saga or story of Thorgunna English work in the eighth century St. Hro th gar's House Furniture Poem of Beowulf : " 408 . Syon Cope. Dutch style Decay of the art . -407 . Statutes at Large .. . Pedigree of Aels with . Durham embroideries Aelfled Emma's work William of Poitou Queen The Bayeux tapestry Abbess of Markgate Gifts to Pope Adrian IV. Thorgunna. Notices of various Mediaeval Embroideries by the Hon. . . Charlemagne's Dalmatic. APPENDIX I. II. . xvii PAGE CHAPTER XL ENGLISH EMBROIDERY. III.. . Assyrian Fringes VIII. by Lord Lindsay 405 V. . - . .. Ignatius . .412 . English pre-eminence in needlework from the Conquest to the Reformation bendes in and lacs d'amour the John Garland on hand-looms Blode Opus Anglicanum English Penalties against luxury art peculiarities in ecclesiastical design dress Protection bane of Dunstable pall Stoneyhurst cope tion Destruction of fine works at the Reformathe Continent. X.. III. u Textile Fabrics VI. .Delany Mrs. -4*4 . Pawsey " Revival of the art of needlework Royal School Postscript " J of Art Needlework 356 England Style of on Protectionist grounds James I. Charles T. Dasent . ... . . . . . . . IV. .. .CONTENTS. Rock's Introduction. Clifford . 400 402 .-.412 413 IX. . and Rev. .401 . Newton on Votive Dresses The Moritzburg Feather Hangings The Story of Arachne. . v r . .


Italian fifteenth-century pattern. Auberville's Tissus." Babylonian or Chaldean house and furniture. Shell pattern. Egyptian ally and enemy.'s Portion of James given by Queen Elizabeth. "Ancient Egyptians. Sampler. " Egyptian corselet. Temp. Application. Wilkinson's 364. p. Balcony pattern." p. Crimea. Wave Key pattern. A. Rameses II. Egyptian. S. . Bayeux tapestry. " Compte Rendu. Pallas Athene attired in the British sacred peplos. Tabernacle of Balawat. Assyrian crenelated pattern. R. Radiated sunflower. Museum. Gothic type of trees. British Museum. Salmaneser. . Wave. Gothic sunflower. pattern. Needles. Panathenaic vase. triglyphs. Feather patterns." iii.LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS CUTS. Radiated pattern. N. 332. of Embroiderers' Guild II. Barbed quatrefoil. a 2- . coronation dress from an old print." Embroidered border on mantle. Metopes and Persian carpet. " Egyptian. Celtic type. Zoomorphic Celtic pattern. Egyptian symbolic patterns. Wilkinson's Ancient Egyptians. Varied adjustments of square and Spangles. Temp. Arms Holbein pattern. circle.

The egg " or Vitruvian scroll from Vignola." 92 SUNFLOWER PATTERN. 13. Egyptian. British Museum. 42. from glass bowl. Cuthbert. A. From Layard's " Monu- 30 33 From King Alfred's Celtic Book of the Gospels. With Assyrian daisy. 3. British Museum. 3. i. Penelope at her loom. 6. Goa work. or Book of Lindisfarne. R. or embroidered linen. the Nineteenth century. 2. EGYPTIAN painted The cone. Masander Greek wave. Museum. 5. ITALIAN "Journal Asiatique. PORTION OF A PAGE of Library. Persian type. 6. of the 93 217 GREEK EMBROIDERY. 99 100 TREES OF LIFE. Portion of royal Babylonian mantle. Spanish coverlet. 4. embroideries. Egyptian smooth and rippling wave pattern. Museum. 2. 5. 300 From tomb Seven 2. 3. Inst. Birdwood's " Indian Arts. ITALIAN and SPANISH orphrey. Sculpture over gate of Mycaene. British Museum. 8. green velvet and gold. in Etruria. 10. Book of Kells. 14. Lotus-under-water patterns are represented on daisy. 90 95 102 Persian. TREES OF LIFE. 16. 12. Mediaeval. Sculptures from Nineveh. " Monum. N. 87 WAVE PATTERN. sixteenth century. English wave (or cloud). Egyptian. British B. Lotus border. EGYPTIAN key patterns. Rom." p. bead. 2. Lambeth Palace Library. Lotus. Sicilian silk. Babylonian and Chaldean. SILVER BOWL from Palestrina. pi." Series i. South EMBROIDERY. Kensington PLATERESQUE DESIGN. SIMPLE PATTERNS. 15. ments. From vase found at Chiusi." ix. sixteenth century.C. JOHN. Persian or Greek. S. Key or i. INDIAN LOTUS. 2. wave. 9. n.XX LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. tenth century. A PAGE of the Book of St. fifteenth century. 22 22 29 93 93 AssuRBANiPAL(Sardanapalus). Syro-Egyptien-Phcenicien. Page Ref. 5. this fragment. 125. From Clermont Ganneau's 93 40 42 43 45 EMPRESS THEODORA. Durham i. Arch." Ravenna Mosaic. Wilkinson's "Ancient Egyptians. silks .3. i. d. 4. Mediaeval wave. Indian. TITLE-PAGE.2. ST. PLATES. 2. 1. Dublin University 93 114 DEMETER. Indian. i. PI. Greek. Regole di Ordine di Architettura. reproached by her son Telemachus. Greek wave pattern. Crimea. 3. Greek fictile vase. LOTUS BORDERS. 93 97 114 IOI EGYPTIAN Tapestry weaving finished with the needle. Brothers. and tongue. 1. Assyrian. Greek broken wave. Sicilian . 7." 4.

Badge INDO-CHINESE COVERLET. Counted stitches. Gew. 3. Japanese. Italian. Persian type. Roman.") son's 2. 2. Lotus. ASSYRIAN CARPET carved in stone. Ricardi Palace. Mediaeval. ITALIAN MOSAIC STITCH work. OPUS PULVINARIUM. Supposed to have belonged Cromwell. 16. GOTHIC. temp. Celtic.. Turin Museum. 11. 7. 10. CLOUD PATTERNS. 8. cross." or sun-cross. 6.. Graeco. i. TREES OF LIFE. Wilkinii. from a frieze by Benozzo Gozzoli. PREHISTORIC CROSSES. "Ancient Egyptians. 7. Runic and Scandinavian crosses. Bock's gold. EMBROIDERY from sculptured tomb of a knight. 5. Fictile vase. EGYPTIAN BOAT with embroidered and scarves. Charlemagne's dalmatic. Spanish work. 24. Vatican Museum. sixteenth century. Palenque. 765 4. Pallas. From mantle of Henry II. 3. i. Italy. 2. 8. 2. Staurocin patterns. 15. Runic. Cross diapered on 19. to Oliver Chinese. i. . Tau cross. i. " RELICS. or "button. 3. historic patterns. Sicilian Auberville." ii. Dress patterns from old MS. 12. 9.C. navian. 3. 9. with plaited tunic worked with Swastika. 2. 25." iii. Egyptian prehistoric 7. 21. Scotch Celtic cross. Egypt. 3. Museum. Split Chinese Lotus. Scandinavian sun moon crosses. i. p. 2. 10. 22.Egyptian type. portrait of EMBROIDERED WINDOW HANGING from . fringed sails. Cross at lona. Ajax playing at dice with Cloak embroidered with Swastika and other preAchilles. Egyptian and Ninevite. British race.. Chrysoclavus. FUNDATA PATTERNS. PROCESSIONAL CLOAK. xxi LOTUS MERGED INTO TREE OF LIFE. II. DURHAM DURHAM DURHAM WHITE RELICS. Greek glass Split Persian bowl from tomb in Southern silks. " Lit. 3. 4. Greek. Indian type. 8. 2. On early Rhodian pottery. 9. 246. p. 17. Florence. "nail" and 18. 20. On Phoenician silver bowl. 1600 B. Greek. ILLUSTRATIONS. 14. Swastika fire-stick cross. British Museum. Egyptian and Ninevite.C. 6. p. Henry VII I. 21. Phenicienne. Scandi- Ancient Egyptian. in Temple of the Sun. of Bohemia. TYPICAL CROSSES. by Gentil Bellini belonging to Sir Henry Layard. 5. n. belonging to Lord Arundel of Wardour. Clavus. Modern pattern of work from the Principalities. Greek. India." of silk. 125.LIST OF Plate. Persian type of silk weaving. 28. CLASSICAL SILKS. Rome. Old English tiles. 27. From Greek vase. Ara Cceli. Mark of land. 2. ("L'Imagerie From tomb at Essiout. Alford House. Petal of flower. TREE OF LIFE transformed into vine. Cross 23. and floating Ancient Egyptians. Worked by Blanche. i. i. i. B. 26. of Edward Hatfield. Sectarial mark Sectarial mark of Sakti of Buddhists and Jainis. i. RELICS. 6. 13. Norman and Persian types mixed. Norwegian. Emperor of Germany. fifteenth Wilkinson's century. Mark of land. Mahomet II. 5. 2. 3. 4. wife of Charles IV. PART OF BORDER and pearls.

worked by From Bock's " Kleinodien. worked by his Empress " Kunegunda. No date. 319 319 319 BOLOGNA COPE. Zurich. John Lateran. PORTION OF CHARLEMAGNE'S DALMATIC. Opus his native place. Vatican Treasury. . At Halberstadt. Anglo-Saxon Library. Funeral tent of an Egyptian queen. THE ARMS OF CASTILE embroidered . 319 3^9 Rome. from tomb of William de He died Bishop in 1236. "for the healing of the nations. ITALIAN KNIGHT of fifteenth century armed for conquest. South Kensington Museum. SILVESTER'S PLUVIAL. Museo del Municipio. thirteenth century. STEPHEN OF HUNGARY'S Mantle. i." THE SYON COPE. Blois. Same type. EGYPTIAN GOBELINS finished with the needle. Vatican Treasury.D. CHARLEMAGNE'S DALMATIC. i.XX11 Plate. Opus Anglicanum. ITALIAN EMBROIDERIES designed by Pollaiolo worked by Paolo da Verona. Wasserkirche." . SPANISH ALTAR FRONTAL. OPUS CONSUTUM. seventeenth century. York Minster 318 3 l8 318 CLASSICAL PATTERN adapted into Christian art." Italian. Italy. 243 252 The Virgin weaving and embroidering on frame a "basse-lisse. PORTION OF ST.. "Inlaid" and "onlaid. now in RHEIMS CATHEDRAL TAPESTRY. in gold with pearls. A 322 323 329 330 PORTION OF ST. The cross with twelve leaves. taken at Grandson. JOHN. in 2. temp. 214 216 219 235 236 25 123 JAPANESE OPUS PLUMARIUM." his Queen Gisela. Page. Treasury of St. Coronation vest- 321 321 ANGLO-SAXON WORK. Plateresque style. Inscribed to Consul Areobindus. PORTION OF MANTLE OF HENRY II." ments at Rheims. Switzerland. ALTAR FRONTAL century. 337 CONSULAR IVORIES. 294 museum at Berne. 434. Archaeological Opus Anglicanum. White silk. ST. Museum at Madrid. OPUS CONSUTUM. From Bock's " Lit. now in Vatican Treasury 319 twelfth century. Henry VIII. da Fabriano. Walter de Cantilupe. 309 312 ST. Florence. The badge is that of the Golden ENGLISH TAPESTRY belonging to Lord Salisbury. Ashridge. From Aix. Anglicanum. seventeenth century. Two diptychs. DAROCA COPE. at Anagni. From tomb of century. Worcester. Book of the Gospels. Sixteenth century. purple and gold. 2. fourteenth 320 320 WORCESTER RELICS i. Italian work. A. showing its condition.'s COPE from Anagni. JOF -ILLUSTRATIONS. of the tenth 2. Fleece." TENT OF CHARLES THE BOLD. From Bock's Kleinodien. Gew. Hatfiekl Gentile Academia. BONIFACE VIII. CHARLEMAGNE'S DALMATIC. SILVESTER'S PLUVIAL. LIST Ref. Half-size. MITRE OF THOMAS 1 BECKET. at House.

Henry VIII. ILLUSTRATIONS. D UNSTABLE HENRY VII. TYPICAL ENGLISH ORNAMENTS for twelfth century.'s COPE. VINTNERS' COMPANY PALL. from Aelfled's Durham.LIST OF Plate." Temp. Indian design. Elizabeth. Henry VIII. Temp. 74 75 369 369 SMALL PARSEME PATTERNS from siastical Antiquities of the English from noo ENGLISH PATTERNS of embroidery. James I. Temp. ENGLISH CREWEL WORK. Temp. Panel Hornby Church. 82 83 389 390 392 84 85 SPANISH WORK. from Stoneyhurst the sculptor of his tomb. ecclesiastical embroideries. i. JOHN (PROPHET). Page. 3. Henry VII. tenth century. Bodleian Library. York. ENGLISH "SPANISH WORK. in adoration. Strutt's Tenth century. Hatfield House. ORIENTAL "TREE AND BEAST" PATTERN. CUSHION COVER. ST. 2. Henry VII. James I. Temp. Durham Cathedral Library. . 71 363 363 365 AELFLED'S ORPHREY. designed by Torrigiano. her. Yorkshire." of a screen in painted window material of the Towneley Copes. Woven "Royal and Eccleto 1530. Michael's Church. English work. 78 79 80 81 378 378 382 383 PALL. British Museum. XXlll Ref. Temp. drawn by himself. 76 77 375 376 377 OPUS ANGLICANUM. Cockayne-Hatley. twelfth century. ST. . signed by ST. DUNSTAN Oxford. 72 73 GREGORY AND orphrey. Dress on a in St.


" . and you will soon find it inhabited by a body of and that truth will ally itself with other houses of truth facts. may each assist.NEEDLEWORK THE book Consoler bright. and gives wholesome fruit to the world. My pebble is not yet polished. the duty of each as he passes to add his pebble to the slowly accumulating cairn of recorded human knowledge. cosmical city will arise. by carefully collecting a little heap of ascertained facts . INTRODUCTION. It is neither a diamond nor a ruby. covered with varied blossoms bearing many fruits. but I think there are a few streaks of golden I may venture to add to the daily light in it. and also the adorning the existence of the strong and sheltering and comforting the sad and solitary a wide- ones of the earth. Some one has " said. which B . But less ambitious labourers in the field of investigation which is only as yet partly cultivated. Build your house of little bricks of facts. But. rather. would be a task worthy of a master-hand and a pen of gold. Art has been called the Flower of Life. it resembles spreading tree. AS ART. To point out the history and the possibilities in the future of each branch that shades. refreshes. . and in time a well-ordered. and it is. of the Science of Art has yet to be written. indeed.

if the unity of nature is an accepted fact. must be studied independently of any . heroic deeds and national triumphs. All arts must of necessity have their own laws and rules. its service. which ensure their beauty of execution and their special forms of design these two from the nature of their materials. It may be said that ivory carving connection with painting. 1 Yet. either treated arts have been hitherto neglected by us. .2 NEEDLEWORK in the AS ART. and architecture Men and women have and appreciated. Art must be considered as the selection of natural phenomena by individual minds capable of assimilating and reproducing them in certain forms and with certain materials 1 See Duke of Argyll's " Unity of Nature. and we The secondary or smaller ere long. whether in iron or gold. working them." . have long since been well painting. having no claim to the possession of special laws merely as crafts. when Moses wrote and Homer It was already needlework was no new thing. and and coloured glass windows are illuminated manuscripts But for metal work. may hope for more may give or as the natural or inferior outcome of the primal help. sang. architecture. accumulating treasure house of human is artistic knowledge. or sculpture. interpreted written much and well on these large subjects. to which artistic education And yet. consecrated by legendary and traditionary custom to the The gods themselves were honoured by highest uses. to fill up an empty space in the English library of The great exponents of poetic thought verse. then the acceptance of the unity of art must follow. My object in writing this volume art. is sculpture. and the modes of last. sculpture. arts. must be kept apart and the same privileges are due place to embroidery and to metallurgy. a painting. and it preceded written history in recording and history.

that it is difficult to include them all under one category. own has been adapted to appreciate the forms and laws of harmony with which it came in contact. The same stantly reminded that the laws which should govern them. Those Oriental musics have either been adapted to the Oriental musical scales . there must be a real and tangible relation between these elements. harmony. But what is harmony ? By analogy we may argue from the art of music. harmony is. If 3 national taste. a consideration. and sound alike depend on certain mathematical measurements. as in first all art. he can needs. If man cannot . beyond all preceding knowledge of the subject. We who believe that we have acquired the knowledge of music as a science. and on rhythmical vibrations. are perhaps. The subject is so long. those accepted by the human ear are very various. or ought to be. have in Europe been able to enjoy only our whereas throughout the East. have hitherto been able to appreciate. ear. intricate. In music.INTRODUCTION. though applied to obtain invent combinations different results. We have seen by experiment how geometrical here form obeys the force of a note of our scale can by touch form figures with sand on a sheet of glass. adapted to the appreciation. and this is Art. colour. proportion. " " Ars longa vita brevis has been so often said. that but it must from a proverb it has become a truism continue to be the refrain of those who write upon art. and its ramifications are so . infinitely larger and wider than we with our limited human capacities and experience. and appear to depart from what to our senses is harmony. B 2 . or the ear questions occur to us while examining into the different forms of decorative art and we are con. and power of originate materials.

and wove and worked the hangings of various colours. pillars. Sidney Colvin. without turning I the right or the left. and roofs were certainly hung with textile ornament This is Semper's theory. they do not gainsay it. indeed. however. my eyes to cannot help feeling my- Except where they visibly influence each other. to My furthest aim here its is trace back the art of rfeedlework to beginning.. and they have regarded it as a branch of painting. and that in these decorations the Greeks in the first instance imitated the Semitic races. and make have thought it incumbent on them to give a local habitation and an abiding place to needlework. " of the grove. though self drawn aside almost irresistibly by casual glimpses of architecture. All art. " coverfor the grove. is According to the mother-art of sculpture and painting. which here and there touch very nearly the history of needlework. and painting. though Woltraann and Woermann (" History of Painting. leaving them to the study of the learned in each special branch.)." Eng. p. Trans.. They 1 are all so ancient. is that of form embroidery is the art of clothing forms. such justly boast its own Painting is the art of colour sculpture original sources. throws reflected lights. See Woltmann and p. that in seeking to ascertain Walls. 38. sculpture. .4 NEEDLEWORK AS ART. Some writers But I cannot endorse this classification. I avoid dealing with the greater arts. or more literally. we which we accept. who have preceded us. it Semper. Trans. were probably the priestesses of ings for the houses 2 Kings Astarte. It is " who had practised them from time immemorial. -Ezek. distinct functions that each may . xxii." " Woermann's " History of Painting (Eng. . and before they were carved or painted. probable that the earliest kind of pictures were either woven or embroidered upon figured stuffs of various colours . The women who wove hangings 38) hardly accept this view. xvi. and gleaning in the track of those authors often pick up valuable hints use of them gladly. 16 18. indeed. 1 as others have maintained. They have. instead of being the offspring of either or both.

the time. but he need not be a It is Embroidery is now essentially " poet. rather than to the imagination. INTRODUCTION. after all. only a luxury of art no longer a civilizer. for needlework should be an artist. the money. it may be an art. and selections from the scraps we retain and value as models. Copies of past styles. and is now very old.more. often bestowed of old upon embroideries which had been designed as well as wrought by the hands of men and women. our life too densely crowded. and yet again change our opinions as fresh distinguish. It would appear that nothing new remains to be invented. be none the composed of many warp and the woof are often exchanged. The art of needlework reached its climax long ago. and not merely a craft. yet so connected and knotted together history threads of divers colours. are all that we can boast of now. On has drawn the picture of the past this web. Yet it is worthy of careful study as historical evidence. It is 5 difficult their beginnings and dates. decoration. and the is For the great web of that the continuity is never broken. only witnesses to its fabulous glories. and early Mediaeval days. ." and nothing intended to appeal to the sense of beauty of The designer the eye. of their day. and that in the present and future. in Classical. . Time is too short. to fix the We may compare. Oriental. as of old.". facts come under our observation. Time sometimes faintly. each in their own craft the best and ablest. Rock truly says that few persons of the present day have the faintest idea of the labour. You may less omit this art altogether. Dr. . to allow leisure for the extravagance of what is. but just an efflorescence of our culture. History and faded rags are the precedence of one over another. as in the past. and you need sumptuously clothed and lodged.

and . By poetry by which represents and distinguishes nationalities by customs. painting. and fabrics of various materials of the Egyptians. decorations by dress. Assyrians. never has fallen so low. How much how much these decorations depended on weaving. which were fading into myths in the memories of men. and Chaldeans are in the earliest records of the named human race. and those of Babylon. How joyfully is each little fact hailed as a landmark. valuable is every witness to the ancient records. . . their form inscribed on bricks or clay and lettering. architecture and its . Chinese. . Europe from the East by the institutions which remained immutably fixed on their native soil. and architecture. and I claim for the needle an older and more illustrious age than can be accorded to the brush. that which I wish to impress on the mind of the reader is the long continuity of the art of needlework.6 NEEDLEWORK tints AS ART. in which these are handed down to us tively over . The sense of antiquity induces reverence. Without presuming to fix a date for its first beginning. such as the different forms of burial or even by such details as painting the eyes also by the tradition and outcome of the laws of the tribes that flowed consecusometimes with indelible . While the great pendulum of Time has swung art in sculpture. though it had never aspired as high as its The stuffs greater sister arts. or by the words. and then back again to the basest poverty of decaying Rome needle work. from its cradle as in Mycenae. and pronounced forms. continually refreshed from Eastern inspiration. in the general fog of doubt ! Now embroidery may boast that it is a source of land- marks for all time. to its throne in Athens in the days of Pericles. . . such as those of the Code of Manu. out of all How these the history of man is being reconstructed.

their civilization Accadian or Proto. both figuratively and literally. secreted and preserved behind the 3 wonderful wall of stone. 23. xx vii. wall of China. and Eden.coast. silence. 2 . 2 3 Joshua vii. world. and law. claim as is 5000 years as the of their is but if. Indian needlework and design is 4000 years old and the long perspective of Egyptian art. for thousands of years. enclosed its and fenced off that of the outer world. alluded to in the Book of Joshua. their marvellous embroideries. and the peculiar modes of construction and design throughout their arts. if it had been all but stationary life The Chinese history . the great shipowners and carried to All these fabrics are the named H dealers of the East. as merchandise. that we feel as from the beginning. Their beauty tempted Achan to rescue them when Jericho fell l and Ezekiel speaks of the embroideries of Canneh. now suggested. which. Haran. while leading us still further back into unlimited periods. where it has lain fossilized ever since. which have shown but few moments of change in growth surmise And scarcely a sign of evolution. shows it changing . and were and thence over the ancient sea-. . their wonderful artistic and scientific knowledge may have been fragments of the great dispersal. and their chests of garments of divers colours. may in each case be The products of the Babylonian looms are disputed. One cannot but wonder at the perfection of the textile manufactures of the Chinese. The civilization. as well as of their cloths of purple and blue. j on embroidery with the needle. we may it fairly be) is is reflected from The 1 archaeology of Oriental art most interesting. Ezek.INTRODUCTION. Accadian culture (if such that this antediluvian tradition. by the Phoenicians.Babylonian. so slowly.

which apparently reflected . in art There is no national Jewish art.8 NEEDLEWORK AS ART. India. and confronted with the historical texts which we have inherited. nationalities. . dispute their We are dazzled and confused when rights to suzerainty. . and had only partly studying these new aspects of history. As illustrating their lack of intuitive decorative art. long passage of time from is Abraham to Solomon and which again giving into the hands of those Oriental-looking men. And and the jackal " reassert their primeval possession. cities. eastward to the confines of Asia. of which the remains have been of late years excavated. across the seething where the lion . fabulous luxury in the empires of China. genius for empire and for commerce power which seemed to pour itself forth. leaving behind them gigantic works. and westward over Europe and we bow reverently before the mighty Power that led the Jews. We contemplate with awe the vast splendours of the consecutive civilizations of the East the ancient richness and fertility of the whole of the Asiatic continent the . through the . Moses commanded the Hebrew people to lend and never to borrow. so much power in shaping the destiny of mankind through their great riches. we look back to those great days when the over-peopled kingdoms sent forth whole tribes. by a promise and a hope. the creative . They have obeyed his precept. except to that they have lent or given nothing. southward over India. thinking that the sunrise comes to us f^om shining over desert sands or the mounds of empty believed. deciphered. and that is European and not Oriental. and the records of ." or where the European and the Tartar. Assyria. one need only refer to the architecture of the first. and third Temple buildings. and Persia. For music only do they show artistic genius. second. unchecked by wars and conquests the great dynasties which rose and fell. we are saddened. from the West and from the East.

such as Queen Gisela s and the Empress Cunigunda's at Prague and Bamberg. is an object for affectionate sentiment. or We as being curious and hope that the general law of the surit most remarkable. world would be overwhelmed with shabby rags. that we put away and preserve may precious. from Moses to Josephus. As to more modern embroideries. or later a Persian inspiration. vival of the fittest has guarded that executed them. 9 Babylonian and Semitic influences on an early Chaldean The embroideries mentioned by different writers. . we ought to be thankful that the art has had its fashions otherwise. That which our mothers worked or wore. have been preserved by the embalming process. of which so little survives. which has kept the contents of tombs evident. appear to have had always a Babylonian. i. or by the purpose for which they were bestowed. Of these there are vestments and altar decorations worked by royal and noble ladies and coronation garments given by Queens and Empresses. and are mostly preserved in churches or national museums. Certain works have been consecrated by the hands is what by that of the donor. . the .INTRODUCTION. Human " nature has a tendency to dislike the " old-fashioned the fashion of the last generation.e. This absence of artistic genius is very remarkable in a people that had its origin whence all art has radiated. carelessness and theft. That which belonged to our grandfathers and grandmothers has receded into the rococo and a few more generations take us back to the antique. and . from wear and tear. from becoming dust. in the Eastern centre from The is reason that so little survives of ancient embroidery Woollen stuffs and threads decay quickly the moth and rust do corrupt them and the very few ancient bits that remain. type. and the best specimens alone are preserved.

shall try to extract in from both the best suggestions for design and handicraft. have wielded the embroidering needle. and the surcoat of the Black Prince at Canterbury. on which it is exactly reproduced. and of the best and I examples of stitch and style remaining to us . those the John's man had worn in his life. It does not require a room to itself. King monument at Worcester. still hangs above his monument. too. 1 The succeeding chapters will contain sketches of the history of the different stitches. Sculptured effigies help us as to embroidered patterns for our forefathers . 2 Yet men. or at any rate. . the body was found same dress as that sculptured on his effigy. are remarkable examples. The surcoat wrapped of. embroidery as an accomplishment and a household duty. and the worker may leave it at any moment between two stitches when called to Nunneries produced the finest work of the other duties. industry and patience. of embroidered velvet. The woman to fulfil her part in of the house has always been strong this civilizing influence with the implement which custom has awarded to her. Charlemagne's dalmatic at the Vatican. described in the chapter on ecclesiastical embroideries. dark and middle ages and their teaching inaugurated the workrooms in the palaces and castles.io NEEDLEWORK AS ART. Every man in the ancient East began his life under the tent or in the palace adorned by the hands of his mother and her tomb of King John was opened. Of these. noble. The upon history of domestic embroidery ought to be looked as an important factor in the humanizing effect of aesthetic culture. art.the Black Prince. often actually copied in bronze or stone the patterns of the garments in which the body was buried. whether royal. where young or gentle. guidance Embroidery from its nature is essentially the woman's 2 It needs a sedentary life. were trained in girls. 1 When the in the .

INTRODUCTION. but she has hung the walls. Here in the palace at her loom she found The golden web her own sad story crown'd. were taught by the painting of the scorned more direct teaching influence. earlier than the tenth and Alas ! eleventh centuries. The loveliest nymph of Priam's royal race. no vulgar art. and the tables with her beautiful creations. And glow'd refulgent as the morning star. the woman of the house has adorned not only herself and her dear lord. and the love and fame of noble deeds. iii. 2 3 not. The Trojan wars she weaved (herself the prize). only precious they are most suggestive as works of art. book vi. as the queen revolved with careful eyes various textures and the various dyes She chose a web that shone superior far. 1 Yet from the days of the books of the Old Testament and the song of the siege of Troy. " Like fair all artists with the needle. : And the dire triumph of her fatal eyes. like the straws in amber. beautiful by in his wife and his sisters and There. book Ibid. and his 1 1 home was made their slaves. as mediaeval homes. Where treasured odours breathed a costly scent There lay the vestures of . Hecuba's wardrobe is thus described : " The Phrygian queen to her rich wardrobe went. down to the present time. Sidonian maids embroider'd every part. as the needle to the minds of the young men. Here." 3 The The women 1 of the Middle Ages were great at the These remnants are because they are curious . Laodice in form and face. women wove what the bards sang. maidens. lessons of morality and religion." 2 This must have been intended for hangings. . we have but few specimens of embroideries of which we know the history. the seats. Homer's women were Venus seeking Helen. Iliad. Pope's Homer. the bed. who would have and the children felt the .

The deeds of Roland and the siege of lore. 5. of which the design is neither new nor artistic. of bud. small. An old design for a chair or table." 1 Shakespeare. loom and frame. thirteenth century. Deep clerks she dumbs and with her neeld composes Nature's own shape. like the women of Homer. .. Prince of Tyre. is in- markable troduced by the upholsterer as belonging to " High Art The epithet has succeeded to what was once furniture. by no means re- originally.." Gudrun. " Pericles. ." l Before " is closing It is this Introduction." act iv. v." abuse of the phrase generally appropriated by that which the lowest and most feeble. embroidered am- that of the ancestors of Siegfried. . branch.12 NEEDLEWORK AS ART. 20 . Round about to place golden borders A narrow With stags and a broad one and hinds. and covered with a quaint and dismal cretonne or poorly worked pattern. That even her art sisters the natural roses. bird. all romantic and classical provided subjects for the needle. history But in the Middle Ages the embroiderers were bitious artists. Troy. : when she weaves With fingers long. " From me the Kleine Heldenbuch of the lines : Rock quotes these to embroider in a frame with and design the wild and tame Beasts of the forest and field ? Also to picture on plain surfaces Who taught silk. which she makes more sound By hurting it. but cheaply copied. Shakespeare gives a pretty picture of the 'graceful weaver and embroiderer : * * * Be't Would ever with Marina be the sleided silk. . lifelike. or berry. I will take the opportunity to protest against the High Art. And to sketch . white as milk Or when she would with sharp neeld wound The cambric.

till debased by cruelty. And there are but few women. are deprived of this source of happiness. 1 it gives the ever new joy of creation. equally upon Man's nature always responds the just and the unjust. All true Art is very high indeed and apparent." 13 To get rid of carpets. is The term never used when we speak architecture. We believe this is .INTRODUCTION. of the great arts It is. and it will continue to be a solace and a delight as long as the world literature. into the regions of poetry. thus encouraging the women who. may never be seen again. like all art. sometimes allowed also in England and France. to the truly high and beautiful only the most degraded laws feel its . millions have enjoyed woman ever the art of the needle for thousands of years. in fact. and only the slang of the cabinet- maker. painting. and put down rugs. the upholsterer. misery. Surely it is permits confined for artistic life. for. and the soothing grace which it sheds. to this family portraits the shoulders. a humanizing and Christian principle which in Italy work to be done in the prisons where criminals are Sisters of Mercy teach lace-making to the wretched great crimes. falling like the rain. hang up rows of plates instead of also is " high art. painting. women try a higher flight. ignorant of its Even those who are influence. sculpture. with lumped upon instead of hanging draperies. it yet has 1 While the most ambitious the power to elevate them. their children. and their homes and if their art is not high. that do not try in some humble way (but especially with their needle) to adorn their own persons. and milliner. or to spend on little comforts. " fashionable " and " elegant. lasts." Likewise gowns all the folds drawn across. having committed The produce of the work helps poor human creatures to exercise their best powers. to pay the expense of the prison. and at the same time a very small percentage is given to the prisoners to send to their friends. and even sculpture (why has no been an architect ?). . or drink. It sits enthroned between Poetry and History. and needs not to be introduced with a puff.

same in all subjects of human suppose and speculation which are worthy of serious study therefore I ought not to have been surprised to find how much has already been written on needlework. but can never Then I find embroidery named by the . till it struck me that I ought to know something of the history and principles of the art which with others. earliest historians. behold the needle has been found of the life ! among the debris of the Neolithic cave-man. 285.CHAPTER STYLE. and embroidery." p. and became significant and interesting. p. Then new and old facts crowded round me. than will fall within the limits of a chapter that is intended only well I am aware to throw light I and especially on embroidery. made of bone and very neatly fashioned. at least. we may conjecture. finally ascertain. it on is the . but there is the needle ! How long ago this was. and how unconsciously I. first travellers in 1 by every poet of antiquity. . Alas the workwoman and her work are gone to dust ! . proof positive that the craft 1 existed before the last glacial period in Britain. I longed to know something of the first worker and the first needle and textile art. I would beg my readers to believe how that on each point much more has been already carefully treated by previous writers. I was striving to revive and improve. and by the the East and it has been the subject Man in Britain. 195. I. . Boyd Dawkins' " Early See also chapter on stitches (post). have passed by and ignored these notices. IN venturing to approach so great a subject as the history of style.

When the mute language of the historian will be furnished with have been patiently deciphered. new powers in his " is researches after truth. social. and then some historical element enters on the scene. it wanes. the pleasure Manu in India. Perhaps what is here collected may appear somewhat bald and disjointed but antiquity. such as the Primitive or the Egyptian. Of late years. Style impressed short or long. needlework has survived. overlap influences that STYLE means. 1 first " ineffaceable is This a word. The style of the day in art and literature alters so perceptibly. noting the national I have displaced or altered them. and the of style caused by outside events. which carries with it new materials. to the One becomes found in its study. Some of these styles survive . some are still or echoes some have totally disappeared in our modern perceptible as traditions art. I would define what (( " up under the new conditions). eager to systematize all this information. is apt to be bald and its dislocation and . . both human and historical. and to share with the workers and thinkers of the craft. and which propose to give a slight sketch of the origin of the l styles that have followed each other. is the mark on art by a national period. The pattern. needs. It fades. the second a proved by the history of needlework. bringing down to us the same stitches which served the same purposes for decoration under the Code of Manu. that all who have had any artistic training are at once aware of the difference. owing to the frequent cataclysms. .STYLE. . disjointed condition are physical. political. and adorned the Sanctuary in the wilderness and those stitches probably were not new then. and tastes (either imported or springing First. . the science of history has been greatly assisted by the science art shall of language. of laws and enactments from the date of the 1 5 Code of present century.

From them I have sought information about the art of embroidery. It is . and I find that Semper gives it a high pre-eminence as to its antiquity. which fifty years ago were as blank as the then mode maps of Central with landmarks. with the products of the loom and the needle and derives from them in succession. and a crowd of archaeologists. on which we may firmly we must acknowledge the great yet been made in the last few years. Botta. . Africa. making it the He clothes not only man. " Der Stil. and that the neolithic civilization lingered in . its youth becomes more inteAlas the childhood of mankind is so distant.Newton. bas-relief.1 6 NEEDLEWORK AS ART. nay.. in the of extracting history from the ruins and tombs. G. while the civilization of Egypt dates back to more than 4000 B. Smith. C. in the order of their natural to the root. therefore the historical overlap is very great. 2 See Semper. are collecting the materials from which the history of mankind is being reconstructed. to the seed 1 2 sequence so as to guide us of each and all art. but architecture. it learned its letters.Rassam. Birch. First. and sculpture. Whole epochs. from two different standpoints. .T. and even unscientific explorers. are being now gradually covered Layard. while the scribes were composing their records of war and commerce in the great cities on the Nile.C. and even the dust-heaps. 1 Style has to be considered in two different aspects. of the past.Schliemann. the world grows old. resting.C. ! As and was so long before few facts have come down it . distinguishing and dating the forms which follow upon each other and tracing them back ." The history of Gaul begins in the yth. painting. historically and archseologically. foundation and starting-point of all art. that but build our theories stride that has scientific to us. and that of Britain in the ist century B. probable that a large portion of Europe was in its neolithic age.Rawlinson.

It seems as if the moment the best ceasing to is struggle for the better. nothing endures. 481.STYLE. and the commendable. and assist us greatly in the search which culminates in the text of " In the beginning. and seeking ." p. 1 7 The the handmaid of may subsidiary art of embroidery. in its highest form architecture. This that is Flemish is Spanish work of the sixteenth century . or German work of the seventeenth century. and the name of Hannibal was a terror in Italy. between artist and artist. My present object is the history of consecutive styles. follow a type. in so far as they concern needlework. companies enthusiasm for the beautiful. C ." The other point of view from which style should be considered is the aesthetic. fall hopelessly and become mere imitators. In individuals it accannot be ignored or despised. Alas ! bestowed beauty on the evanescent. . and the graceful It maintains continuity between charm of sympathy. thought into the chaos of mannerism. This enables us to criticize the works of different periods rules for the beautiful extracting. as far as we may. and invention in art. Imitation is a precipice. . thought. who bewailed that he had only that all that is beautiful must die. to find the "why ?" also observing the operation of the law by which decay follows too soon after the best and highest efforts of genius. when he makes Jove answer Venus. in the place of style. a slow descent through poverty of men. See Boyd Dawkin's " Early Man in Britain. but copy a model. between specimen century and century and it is this which enables an " adept to say with certainty of consecutive styles. This law is acknowledged by Goethe." remote regions while the voice of Pericles was heard in Athens. and specimen. back at once They no longer attained. and then copy the copy. as existing in all human minds. is full of suggestion. The imitative tendency.

Death it. in it the woven or plaited material. from which at first accident. and become Every long seam is a suggestion. and before she is aware of it. protected alike from expansion by the swaddling bands of codified custom while Greek art rose like the sun. who is working for the assistance and guidance of the future historian of art. with the bone needle. is and every shaped edge a snare. The fittest of the theory of development and of the survival has been worked so hard. and the shaped seam suggests a pattern up-stitches are needed for the web. the worker binding finds herself adorning. For absolute necessity. Style in needlework has passed through many phases since the aboriginal. only. still for thousands of years. This. The various ways in which art has appeared at the beginning cannot here be discussed nor how the Chinese and Hindu may have leapt into a perfection which has stood .1 8 NEEDLEWORK AS ART. and set epoch of glory. of the anthropological philosopher. pre-historic woman. perhaps. drew together the edges of the skins of the animals she had prepared for food. may evoke a future life. . needlework need go no further than the seam. an infinitely small history nor an artisan tradition. and then care and culture. . must where shaped. would need to In our creed. The the outskirts of the region of art. that it sometimes breaks the task imposed its down under upon include Death in procedure. These subjects must be left for the study as from destruction. shone over never again to see another the civilized world. fray fringed at the edges. and the craft enters fringe lends itself to the tassel. . embroidering. in forming the garments and covering the tent. leaving behind neither a . like the grain of corn preserved in the wrappings of a mummy. It means the moment of entrance into a higher existence but in art it means extinction. however.

and Asiatic C 2 . Some really sang 800 of the Egyptian arts we know are pre-Homeric (if Homer art was then in its highest development. the contemporary of the siege of or does he not rather speak of the customs and costumes of his own time.). <c Theyappear to be the origin of the clavus" or nail-headed pattern woven into silks in the Palace of the Caesars. B. The discs or buttons remind us of those found in Etruscan tombs. of Greece ? we contemporary survivals. The last recorded survival of this pattern is in woven materials for ecclesiastical purposes in the Middle Ages. Was Homer. zigzags.C. reconstruct the house and the hall. We know not what the actual heroes of the Iliad and Odyssey wore but we do know that what Homer . In the Troad. though the execution of these last is more advanced. are found equally in the at Mycenae." are the first we know and class. he must have seen. can. Troy ? therefore. dots. called by the primitif. This mainly of straight lines. with the help of 1 2 3 See chapter on patterns. and worked with a variety of patterns. wavy little discs. tomb of the warrior and in Ashantee. 2 describes. and even furnish them. 1 and Gold discs of many sizes. and in all are found style consists lines. accompanied in both cases with gold masks covering the faces of the dead. 19 The humble French " early efforts at decoration. The ornamental art of Hissarlik is so primitive that we cannot feel that it has any resemblance to that described as Trojan by Homer. who probably adorned 3 his song with the art he had known elsewhere. and apply them to the traditions of the heroic ages Whatever be the date of Homer himself.STYLE. savage attempts at ornament. Of very early needlework we only find here and there a fragment. illustrated occasionally by passing allusions in poetry and history.

princes. (Wilkinson's Amongst wall is "Ancient Egyptians. i. This funeral tent is a monumental work.") of the the arms painted on the tomb of Ramses. The corselet which. . textile art of 1 most valuable as showing what was the that early period. . found mostly in obtain dates. to the century Fig. of Egypt. apparently of rich i. beggars and From affinities. was given by Amasis. in Rhodes. c. The second corselet given by Amasis to the Lacaedemonians was worked in gold and colours.). p. 3 Homer mentions " Sidonian v.) stuff. book stuffs iii. (Fig. c." 2 Herodotus. cut work (post). B. according to Herodotus. a corselet. skill and Phoenician Ibid. was possibly worked in this for Babylonian emstyle in broidery was greatly prized Egypt. at Thebes 3 (in Egypt). with animals and other decoraThis was of the seventh tions. inasmuch as the inscription inwrought on it gives us the name and title of her in whose honour it was made.20 NEEDLEWORK AS ART. Egyptian Queen. King Temple of Minerva at Lindos. and imitated. 47 (Rawlinson's Trans.C.' 2 Egyptian corselet." 287 295. xiv. also "Sidonian Embroidery. we from textile fragments. vi. 170) . and whose See Villiers Stewart's "Funeral Tent of an remains it covered. embroidered with lions and other devices. that other specimens. the remains of Egyptian. book ii. Babylonian. at Boulac. the and clothe the women and the the herdsmen. 1 See chapter on stitches. . 182 See Rock's Introduction. and their Assyrian art we can perceive their differences and It is tombs. " (Iliad. and can suggest them for The is funeral tent of Shishak's mother-in-law.

Dennis' Etruria. for many hundred years. 737 757). and the specimens of Homer Peruvian 5 textiles. recall the description fancy we can trace her ocean-path by the western shores of Africa. full of animals." i. they are called Shikurgah." See Sir G. 268. ." Plate i. which was the carrier of all art. speaks of Sidonian embroideries. 3 Phoenicia. .STYLE. art mens 1 of archaic This reminds us of other specifrom distant sources. See Egyptian fragments in the British Museum. They also The by Josephus of the Temple veils which were Babylonian. 1 Assyrian Homer's " Shield of Achilles" 2 must. is the complete suite of the sacerdotal ornaments of a High the Vatican Priest."ed. dropped specimens here and there. are literally to be found on Phoenician vases that have come down to us vases of which Homer himself must have seen some of analogous design 3 4 " Iliad " vi. woven in precisely the ? same tapestry fashion Among the puzzling phenomena due probably to Phoenician commerce. 287-295. Coupe de He says that certain scenes from the " Shield of Achilles " Palestrina. 2 See Perrot and Chipiez (pp. 4 Peru should so nearly resemble some of those wrappings in Egypt. found in his tomb. along the borders of the Mediterranean and the coasts of at Jerusalem. 2 1 Phoenicians imbibed and reproduced the styles met with in their voyages. p. that our and being Assyrian designs are such as are now still worked at Benares. grounds. The bowls found in they Cyprus described and engraved in the September number of the " Magazine of Art" (1883). pt. or "happy hunting" Industrial Arts of India. We found at Saccarah." p. 1878. and even to America otherwise. are most interesting illustrations of the meeting of two national styles. 236. " L'Imagerie Phenicienne. how could it happen that a mummy-wrapping in Spain. also Clermont Ganneau's Histoire de 1'Art. the and the Egyptian. At Cervetri. in general design.. have resembled these bowls (see PL 5). and Reiss and " Stiibel's "Necropolis of Ancon in Peru. 5 now in Museum. i. Bird wood's The See also Plate 4.

22 attention is NEEDLEWORK AS ART. carefully executed on their bas-reliefs. it may of Egypt. Probably the . The effect. belonging to distant restless activity civilizations. in the British Museum. in We and may judge The of their styles for different purposes by the British the Museum. while they are entirely unlike that If Atlantis and its arts never existed. as seen on the sculptures following another. which suggests the design of an artist and the work of slaves. can possibly have arrived at the places where we find them. There is no following out of graceful fancies one set of selected forms (each probably with a symbolical intention) . same system was carried out in adorning the trappings of the horses and the chariots. The have reliefs 1 style of the Babylonian embroideries appears to been naturalistic though conventionalized. From their veils of the Phoenicians has often helped to confuse our aesthetic knowledge. be suggested that it was the eastern coast of America that was spoken of under that name by the Egyptian priest with whom Herodotus conversed. treated as thread. . The Babylonian and Ninevite embroideries. is royally gorgeous and one feels that creatures inferior to monarchs or satraps could never have aspired to such splendours. embroidery on their corselets was executed in gold wire. civilizations by the Phoenicians before they dispersed them. forcibly arrested. have a masculine look. and taken through the material and the . The solid masses of embroidery may have been afterwards subjected to the action of the hammer. which would account for their appearing like jeweller's work in the bas-reliefs (PL i and 2). and has caused the waste of much speculation in ascertaining how certain objects of luxury. and we wonder whence and whether they were collected from alien they came. 1 divinities Certain Egyptian sculptures of deformed and repulsive are most interesting idols of the baser sort and puzzling by their affinity in style to the Indo-Dravidian and the art of Mexico.

from which hung clusters of tall as a man's height... enigmatically signified fire. and most interesting as historical records of the traditions of human taste. when they had crossed their art with that of India. wonderful. gifts to Mr. bodies. but was a kind of image of the universe. had grapes as veil also golden vines above it. . continues thus " is : To us the history of Babylonia has an interest beyond that of Egypt. Smith. after saying that the Babylonian without doubt the oldest of civilizations. named in verse and history. but the fine flax and the purple have their own origin for this foundation. excepting the images of the heavenly Temple much as curtain as described . as well as those woven and embroidered even to the present day. the by the . and we enjoy tracing them to the various looms. It had golden doors of 55 : and 16 in breadth but before these doors there was a of equal largeness with the doors. cubits altitude. This curtain had also embroidered upon it all that was mystical in the heavens excepting the twelve signs of the zodiac. 23 curtains at a later date. we may imagine the mystical design of the by Josephus in fact. For by the scarlet was to be blue. Our artistic interests are stirred when we read in Ezekiel lists of the fabrics and materials of which Tyre had become the central depot. the sea the foundation of this two of them having their colours for resemblance . It was a Babylonian curtain of that was truly blue. by the and by the purple. p. as possible embracing all things on the earth and above it. air. on account of its more intimate connection 1 " The It Beautiful Gate of the Temple was covered all over with gold. by Whiston). fine flax. and scarlet and purple . and then either became articles of commerce.STYLE. representing living creatures." Josephus (Trans. and the sea the other. where they were adorned with embroidery. of an admixture Nor was the mixture without its mystical interpretation . are echoes of the ancient Babylonian style. the earth. 895. G. or presented as the temples or to honoured guests. . fine linen. 1 Small carpets from Persia of the Middle Ages. or were stored away to be kept religiously as heirlooms. the earth producing the one.

not On the bronze gates from the mound much larger than a four-post bed. blue or white. E 5. 66. became the 3 basis of modern research and advancement. and how soon they reverted to their ancient Chaldean proclivities. all fringed with bells and This is an illustration of the motive for the Tabernacle of the forty years' wandering in the desert. blue. material . helps us to interpret their symbolism. 2 The visions of Ezekiel and St. poles for drawing the curtains. : fruit. 2. with transverse fruit. "Assyrian Life and History. * In the British Museum." p. buds. the fringes enriched with flowers. of Balawat. after returning to their wandering life of the tent. 2 and thus preserved they became the heritage of all mankind while the science and civilization of that wonderful people (the Babylonians) . Smith's "Ancient History of the Monuments. then to Greece and Rome. which spread into Assyria. . and golden bells and we can appreciate how little of Egyptian art and style the children of Israel brought back from their long captivity. 1 (Fig." of the Tabernacle are so carefully described in the book of Exodus. embroidered in scarlet. the cherubim in the woven purple. and animals John remind us of the composite and the prophetic poetry G. 33. 1 AS ART. p. and gold . set up by Shalmaneser to celebrate his conquest of Tyre and Sidon. 4 we find a portable tabernacle." Babylonia. and it Babylon was the centre from Minor and so to all Europe. Harkness and Stuart Poole." pi. thence to Asia Phoenicia. eviIt is dently meant to accompany the army on a march. See " Bronze Ornaments of Palace Gates. Edited by Sayce. The Jews brought the traditions of the creation and of early religion from Ur of the Chaldees. figures 3 in Ninevite sculptures. Balawat.24 with our NEEDLEWORK own civilization. that we can see in fancy The hangings the linen curtains. E.) See also M. near Nimroud.

" and carried to Egypt the golden shields . and the GrsecoEgyptian are all unmistakably the consecutive outcome of the national original style. These are to be seen and the British Museum. perhaps. 1 The Hieroglyphic. whose daughter married Solomon. After his son-in-law's death. (British Museum). Egyptian textile art is. 2. five hundred But the great piece of patchwork in leather. time of Shalmaneser II. Tabernacle on gates of Balawal.STYLE. absolutely beginning of our era. Turin." as it covered 2 the remains of a contemporary of Solomon." pi. Fig. the Archaic. " 1 2 See Auberville's "Ornement des Tissus. The Egyptian queen in question was mother-in-law to Shishak. the funeral tent of an Egyptian queen. embroideries are more than two thousand appeared in the Few of the years old. that of which we have the most early specimens. i. Shishak " plundered the King's House. at Vienna. which had totally disat Boulac.

44. was the produce of a art of India. and by the Renaissance in Europe. and the golden candlesticks to The Aryan The golden Rome. . was revived by the kindred influence of Persia. The Phoenicians carried with them the seeds of the style Egyptian over the ancient world soil . and "the spirit of aerial grace.) was characteristically different. They introduced which has It its time the element of beauty a barbarous and hideous style only counterpart in that of Central religion. that ancestors were so impregnated with we must believe that we inherit from them ment. cruel. I shall have to allude very often to our Eastern sources of art culture. exhibits the proficiency of the designer and the needlework of the eleventh century B. all But our graceful appreciation of naturalistic ornaeven Aryan art met with reverses on its Eastern soil. (PI. only took root and flourished on the The imitations of Egyptian style reappeared in Rome.) The as art appears to connection between Indian and Egyptian early have existed only in their use of the lotus . and devilish. superstitious. America. and " under the two Empires. Birds.26 NEEDLEWORK AS ART. but these seeds of Greece. or panels (i Kings xiv. Our own Aryan beautiful ideas. an emblem and a constant decoration it but their manner of employing (PL 12 and 13. The Mongols crushed for a India. from which it constantly rose again and renewed in itself. and the delicate sense of beauty in natural forms. which was elegant and spiritual. 26)." In both again in France cases they were only imitations. and neither had any permanent influence on the art of their day. blossomed afresh and flourished for 300 years.C. Italian and other artists were employed in India. vessels went to Babylon later.

" l " I continue to quote from Sir G. that of India was influenced. into 2 Indian something characteristically Indian." this is owing to the Hindu being equally endowed with " individuality. 1884). p." and true artists as they Birdwood repeatedly points out that the Vedic was the art The Puranic is the ideal and worshipped and served nature. that art. 1 artisan in India " is a true artist. Through the Sassanian palaces. 27 butterflies. at least. the letter killeth . jewellery (Sir 2 and may have Ibid. Nearchus (Strabo.wrought but as the spirit " of its decorative art is that of a crystallized tradition. 130 (ed. and who therefore translate any foreign work which is placed before them to copy. i. XV. .. Birdwood's Arts of " India." ii. Possibly the very forms which in India are copied from Assyrian temples travelled first to Assyria upon Indian stuffs and G. 67) says that the people of India had such a genius for imitation that they counterfeited sponges..C." i.C. Birdwood's " Industrial Arts of India. ii. p.STYLE. There is nothing than of the sixteenth century and even then But nothing was original." 4 In art. type has remained almost unaltered since the Aryan genius culminated in the Ramayana and Mahabharata its and yet each unfortunately. 3 4 Ibid. 236). . 1884)." borrowed freely from all sources without losing art has its own It has been said." The Code of Manu. so that in the hands Indian craftsman everything assumes the distinctive expression of ancient Indian art. 131 (ed. 133 (ed. which they saw used by the Macedonians. especially in the minor arts. from 900 to 300 B.. Birdwood's " Industrial Arts of India. of the In India everything is hand. assimilative and receptive 3 capacity. 1884). The Moguls. been trained to the same manipulations. p. became once more the legiti- mate ornament of every material. art of Persia. fruit. See Sir G. introduced their ugly Dravidian Sir G.. distorted. newer in it . has secured to the village system of India a permanent class of hereditary artistic workmen and artisans. flowers. p. who have through these 2500 years. about 700 B. and produced perfect imitations of the real object.

The Egyptian . the ancient arts were found again deeply embedded in the ." is allied with the Chinese. 1 that they will perhaps survive even the fashions of to-day. there was also a Slavonian Eastern Asia. are. The Etruscans. and the waves of conquest had subsided. Etruscan and Indian golden ornaments. . dinavia and 2 Societe' Royale des Antiquaires du Nord. con- veying golden ornaments and coral. 1884). gradually reducing itself dangerous to art than even O is traditions their old ways. They gradually returned to which are so indelible in the Hindu mind. Birdwood. If Fergusson is right in was planted there in the suggesting that the art of Central America or fourth century of our era. 2 by the contents of tombs on their path. From Yates' account it would appear that Europe had been fertilized with taste in art and manufactures from the East by three different routes. Copenhagen. the dyes. of the people. 1 and was really Dravidian. while the ancient materials. p. who were the pedlars of Europe. it would. See Fergusson's " Architecture. gives to the Turanian races all the mound and he looks in Central buildings. as well as the fylfot or mystic cross. the ancient traditions bind and cramp them. with all its Eastern ante- cedents and traditions. 1857. and bringing back Their commercial track is to be traced jet and amber. appear to have third taken refuge in America when it was driven out of India by the Sassanians. travelled north. including the "Bolla" and " the " Trichinopoly chains and coral. which conveyed Oriental art route to from the north See Sir G. perhaps. which is more had been the vicissitudes of war for when peaceful days returned." par la in Ireland. and the absolute command of time are failing so that the beauty of Indian embroi: deries and other decorations to ' mannerism. Secondly. of some remains that will give us the secret of India for the discovery He He thinks the Archaic Dravidian the origin of the Indo-Aryan style. 129 (ed. civilization. are to be found throughout ScanSee " Atlas de 1'Arcrie'ologie du Nord. came to us by the Mediterranean and the Adriatic the Phoenicians being the merchants who brought it through those channels.28 NEEDLEWORK AS ART.


Page 29.St. Lambeth Palace Library. . John. From King Alfred's Celtic Book of the Gospels.

" upon i. Berlin. There . This may account for certain terms of nomenclature which evidently came with goods transported straight to the north. spreading over Germany. i. Oriental taste and textiles came from the ideas this point. received. is so remarkable for its independence of all other European national and traditional design. According to Yates. 10)." vol. They answered that they feared the sky might fall He dismissed them. 4 It appears to have to its own universal stamp from one original source certain influences impressed on it like a seal by each country 5 Wherever the Runes are through which it flowed. spreading to Sicily. addition evidently derived 1 Arrian who us of the Celts. Byzantine Empire . an arrogant nation (Arrian. that I cannot omit a brief notice of it. which certainly has something of the Indo-Chinese style. as may be seen in the museums and printed catalogues of Vienna. Another branch of the north-eastern Celtic on the shores of the family was settled Celtic Adriatic. without the intervention of Greece or Italy. came to us probably by this route. the merchandise of Eastern Asia passed through Slavonia to the north of Europe in the Middle Ages. The different Celtic nationalities are always recognizable. Spain." " a sent an embassy to Alexander before the battle of the Granicus tells people strong and of a haughty Alexander asked them if they spirit. Celtic art. &c. and Britain. 3. (PI. flourished especially on German soil . and France. though we have no ascertained relics of any of in its embroideries. Yates' "Textrinum Antiquorum. and finally to France. in the early days of Christianity. Munich. whether Scandinavian or our own purer Celtic. 3 These northern ideas. and Oriental-patterned embroideries for hangings and dress were worked in every stitch. and forms in art probably crossed Europe from 1 and came to us meeting a cognate influence. 29 of Europe. observing that the Celts were their heads. Italy. perhaps. on every material. the Serpent 5 and Tree cope in Bock's Kleinodien. " a people near the Great Ionian Bay. 4 Except. p. 225 246.STYLE." " feared anything. Germany. England. Runic art.) Thirdly. 2 4. 2 3 arriving from the north.

more English . All these (Fig. The Paganism of our own Celtic art. worked on bronze. Lorange as being undoubtedly Irish. painted in their splendid illuminations (pi. in Norway. which were subject to the descents of the pagan Vikings for centuries after the time of St. however. silver." Norway under . the type of conThe serpent was sometimes altered into the semblance of a four-footed animal. when it appears." and F. vered with Runic inscriptions and this inscribed serpent. see G.3o carved NEEDLEWORK in stone. the body and being lengthened and twined. showing at a glance that it was Christian and Celtic. partial tail Scandinavian-shaped cross. ivory. or or wood. Our knowledge of their advanced and most singular art is was found in a grave-mound at Hof. gold. Stephen's " MonuScotland. is twined round or heaped at the foot of the peculiar version. w hich was r the sign of their Fig Celtic . 3. a brooch. and was brought to us in the incursions of the Vikings over Scotland and into England. as well as the human figures seen in the Book of Kells. in its the wicker-work style). though taken from the grave of a pagan Viking. was at once recognized by M. and sometimes split. the missal at Lambeth. the involved serpent. There are many other instances of evident Celtic Christian art found on the west coast of similar conditions probably spoil from the British Islands. Anderson's Pagan Art in Scotland. 3> faith. Another at Berdal. are yet of an Indo-Chinese type motives often replacing the involved serpent design. or AS ART. and the to give a new Lindisfarne Book (which is. " ments of Runic Art. later. turn to the pattern. in Norway. CO- Zoomorphic Sometimes . 4). Columba's preaching of Christianity in For information on the subject. an interpolation between our first and second Christian conversions. pattern. appears.) zoomorphic patterns.


Silver bowl from Palestrina. Ganneau." 1880.PL 5 . 33. "Journal Asiatique. Page . Coupe cle Palestrina.


Pa6e from the .

. . British Museum.S.S.


pp. in I78I. . the harmonious. 3 7. as in the frieze of the Parthenon. This was a shroud Penelope's for her Father-in-law. their draperies are infinitely varied. Anderson. in which the warrior was laid all his arms and his horse and his precious possessions. as in all their art. and the serene. arts. by Costumes of the Ancients. . These astonishing. and they are almost always beautiful. that Frederick Casimir.STYLE." and the studying Hope's works of Millingen and others also the fictile vases in the British Museum and elsewhere. or aweprinciples were carried into the smallest is and we can trace them in the shaping of a cup or the decoration of a mantle. Ulysses brought home a large collection of fine embroidered garments. painful. 31 with comes out of their tombs. splendidly clothed according to his degree in a future in the belief that he would need them again world. . is oftenest quoted. These are variety without redundancy grace without affectation simplicity without poverty the appropriate. the wars. . was buried with his sword and his horse at Treves. 1 " Scotland in Pagan Times. This northern tradition was so long-lived. . yet : we may profit by the lessons it teaches us. rather than that which inspiring. Homer makes web constant mention of the women's work. Pallas Athene patronized the craft of the embroiderers and the sacred peplos which robed her statue. a knight of the Teutonic Order. and the home life The worked or woven patterns on of the Greeks. ( . contributed by his fair hostesses during his travels. was embroidered by noble maidens. the Greek taste is inimitable . On these are depicted the Hellenic gods. and was renewed every year. and range over many centuries of design. It is melancholy to have to confess that in this. 1 Greek embroideries we can perfectly appreciate." by J.

" woman 1 tall and fair.NEEDLEWORK AS ART. represented the battles of the gods and the giants (fig. evidently the sacred peplos. Fig. as a and skilful in splendid handiwork. through in The goddess to whom the Greeks gave the protection of this art was wise as well as accomplished. On another Panathenaic vase she has a gown bordered with righting men. like a floating flag.) gar- ments. Minerva appears with her aegis on her breast. and a border of kneeling lions. and knew was good that it for women to reve- rently art approach by painting with their needles. The new peplos was carried to the temple. It 4). procession the city. She in always was seen embroidered as well as herself. the swineherd. Pallas Athene attired in the sacred peplos." 1 On a vase in the British Museum. and clothed in a petticoat and upper tunic worked in sprays. (Panathenaic Vase.) . 4. till the portraits of living men were pro- fanely introduced into the design. (Fig. 4. British Museum. and worked wove them She appear- ed to Ulysses in the steading of Eumceus. under the superintendence of a priestess of her temple.

" and strong. their thus over the whole inborn genius. his civilization. or at least influenced by. of the fame and occasional glimpses were already drifting westward. that the one chief import of Oriental style being embroideries.) description of the shield of Achilles " is as follows : Hephaistos. 1 : her robes of curious needlework which she herself had wrought. "He 1 fashioned the shield great and precious gold and silver. " threw bronze that weareth fire and tin. not. Helen gave of her work to Telemachus " the fair lady.STYLE. See the account of the veil of Here in the mantle of Ulysses in the Odyssey. and his 3 This may or may not be there is no doubt that gods. . the fair lady. into the the lame god. 3 4 and that of the " Der Stil. lifted widest and most beautifully embroidered of shone like a star and this she sent as a ." 2 Semper's theory is." . The (Plate 5. 4 they influenced them. it out. with five folds Iliad. in which his own inspiration dictated the which possibilities of the then practised arts of Asia. what he had learnt of the Babylonian and Chaldean embroideries. Bottiger accordingly believes that Homer's descriptions of beautiful dress and furnishings are derived from. 2 See Butcher and Lang's Odyssey. 33 Homer never tires of praising the women's work. This is very probable. therefore the hangings and dresses arriving from Asia gave the poetic Greek the motives for his art. Assyrian and fired. stood by the coffer wherein were Helen. and would account for his poetical design on the shield of Achilles. Then Helen. which thenceforth radiated civilized world. thfc all and it gift to his future wife. and the chests of splendid garments laid up in the treasurehouses. his legends." in The Greeks collected into one focus all that they found of beauty art from many distant sources Egyptian. its splendour D . Indian.

" l indeed. and the moon waxing to its full." "Also did the glorious lame god devise a like unto that which once. He wrought thereon a herd of kine with upright horns. . xviii. Tumult. The other city was being besieged and there is a wonderful description of the " battle fought on the river banks. This is so exquisitely beautiful that with difficulty I re" frain from quoting it all. and mingling in the fight. and the women standing each at her door marvelling." And now would they " " run round with deft feet exceedingly lightly and " now would they run in lines to meet each other. and the kine were fashioned of gold and tin. . and the elders sitting in judgment. . dancing-place Daidalos wrought for Ariadne of the lovely tresses. is." Then wrought he the and the unwearying sun. There struggling to express the strength and the beauty of 1 man Homer's Iliad. 480617 (Butcher and Lang)." Also he fashioned therein two cities of mortal men and here were marriage feasts. and Strife. every proof that Greek art was the joint product of the Egyptian and Assyrian civilizations.34 NEEDLEWORK AS ART. and brides led home by the blaze of torches young men whirling in the dance. ." Then a street fight. every one where" with the heavens are crowned. " (or circles) in the shield itself. and the signs. . two tumblers whirled. Then he set in the shield the labours of the husbandman. Also he set therein the of the River of Ocean. Their amalgamation gave birth to the archaic style. " and Death personified. as he began his strain. There were youths dancing and maidens of costly wooing. around the utmost great might earth and the sea." And a great company stood round the lovely dance in joy and among them a divine minstrel was making music on his lyre and through the midst of them. " their hands upon their waists. rim of the cunningly-fashioned shield. in wide Knosos." "and herdsmen of gold were following after them.

half heroic. evoked beauty from every source. lowed each other. all the surrounding assumed as a governing principle and motive. and tradition with poetry." Trans. 64. the keystone arch. and finally by conquest. tried all . then a resurrection. appropriated. p. 35 decorations of life Gradually. first through Phoenician and perhaps Etruscan sources. From the great days of Athens we may date the moment when materials became entirely subservient to art. composed with natural backgrounds and Peiraiikos is named as an artist of genre a painter of barbers and cobblers. Greek had thrown itself into many new forms. Yet there and formed the general style of the day. for We are told that within the space of 150 landscapes. asses. sometimes death. the worth of noble beauty. and the minds of individual men were stamped Phases indeed folon their works and dated them. The Greeks were the first artists.STYLE. showing the links of tradition which still bound men's minds together to a certain extent. It appears from classical writers that about 300 art B. Sidney Colvin. 1 See " Woltmann and Woerman. but was in art from that time life. 1 I suppose there is no doubt that all the Romans knew or 2 felt of art was borrowed directly or indirectly from Greece. themes excepting Painting.C. They broke away from the ancient trammels of customary forms. Everything we have of their eatables. half divine. perhaps. booths. D 2 . and replaced law with liberty of thought. . 2 Except. the art had passed through every technical stage years from the tinted profile system of Polygnotus to the proper pictorial system of natural scenes. _ They destroyed no and old ideas. example. but they selected. had and such-like realistic subjects.

and settled there because it was the seat of luxury and empire. for Ascanius. models. these last The wife of Hector kindred can bestow . As the captive Jews hung their harps on the willow-trees by the waters of Babylon. which she at once adopted. " Mournful at heart at that supreme farewell. . but even the not only the refinements of guiding principles of art.36 art NEEDLEWORK shows their AS ART. which touches upon our especial and decorative subject. and refused to sing. were gradually lost in the humiliation of a the conquered people. have shown same Greece late as the herself crushed and demoralized even as Eastern Empire gave to Rome the fashion of the Byzantine taste. too. so may they bear Their witness to Andromache's long love. Roman poetry. Eastern Europe. take them. imitating its highest types. to serve as monuments : Of my hand-labour. G. boy . carried prisoners to Rome. ^Eneid iii. in this sad world Thy : gifts Sole image It is left of my '" l Astyanax ! sad to mark how taste. It is surely allowable to quote here one of Virgil's Homeric echoes. and it was This style. Andromache brings robes of border'd gold . the imitation of Grecian certainly Their embroideries would impress. so Greek dulness and discouragement 1 Virg. having clung to In her best days. were Greek of Greece. which was partly called the Romanesque. too. Arab. And yielding not the palm in courtesy. A * Phrygian cloak. the still prevails in Greek Church.L. and thus speaks Take these gifts.G. Trans. which followed on the expatriation or destruction of their accumulated treasures. Loads him with woven treasures. and the deterioration of the Greek artist and artisan. arts architecture. but never creating.

except that the freshness and promise are wanting. endowed with the gift of the creative power. 37 chains. the tribes flowing Eastward turned aside and went their own way. Before entering on the subject of Christian art. l . and that the one was in its first. Indian. that it lighted the world all around and India. whose Indo-Chinese style shows evidence of Mongolian importation. and encircled the Mediterranean. the furthest shores of the Northern seas and the Atlantic. Persian. wisdom and knowledge have In the image of the Creator. and Mongolian styles mixed and overlapped so near their sources. and Japan. semblances and their differences. where our human race is said to have been and whence all created. and later we find traces of a similar 2 . that it is sometimes hardly possible to reason out and classify their realities . genius succumbed. It is evident that this had always flowed in streams of many types from that high watershed of Central Asia. Wave after wave of fresh and apparently differing nationpartially submerging those and spreading till it had reached before. man issued emanated. They all followed the same course from east to west. followed each other that had gone . flowed other But from the same high watershed tribal types towards China. 2 The Indian Gush. the other its Late Roman art second childhood. The Greek civilization was indeed so dazzling and strong.STYLE. It down by Roman reminds us of the art of Etruria in its archaic days. that had no affinity with any western civilization and while the Assyrian. Except in the art of the Celts. Java. and have remained 1 till now perfectly distinct. however briefly. weighed sickened and died in exile. I must again refer. to the Eastern origin of all art. from thence. Persia. and Assyria felt its influence reflected back on its old Asian cradle.

But immobility in art is a Chinese characteristic. added to their inherited exquisite appreciation of natural beauty. 322). as one perceives the influence of the influence : for instance. and exquisite finish in execution. and sometimes their absurdity. Terrier de la Couperie in the Journal of the Society of Arts. is a puzzle of This I have already which we cannot find the key. being really original.D. learned in Chinese art. . In spite of their matchless dexterity in the manipuof their materials.. I 3). however. p. . resembling also the works of India and Persia. semi-Tartar. yet Chinese and Japanese textile art differs in its inner principles from all so that their want of our accepted canons of taste harmony. alluded to (p. Yet an adept. In this they differ from the Japanese. can detect the signs which mark its different epochs. It is easy to distinguish from what source each comes. power of might become the style of the future. and he considers 1 offshoot from Babylon. 1881. carrying out to lation the utmost point the intended effect. believes that he has found the actual point of departure without hesitation. the infinite variety of their stitches. and was probably then imported from Corea. have a assimilation that might lead in time to their possessing a school of art which. 1 See a paper by M. who. purposely avoid the questions suggested by Chinese The immense antiquity it claims cannot be allowed Terrier de la Couperie.38 NEEDLEWORK AS ART. He supports linguistic grounds. and no national The oldest cataclysms seem to have disturbed it. it an early his theory on to be and we must anxiously wait to see if it is corroborated by further researches into the earliest records of the archaic Chinese literature. Some of the earliest Yarkand rugs are semi-Chinese. M. specimens known are very like the most modern. art. of Chinese civilization. " neighbouring native art" ("On Japan." by Dresser. The civilization of Japan is not older than the fifth century A.

The Grseco. Christianity did its work in winning to it those Teutonic conquerors. is supplemented by the variety in and materials from the Fayoum. 39 specimens we know of their art are embroidered religious pictures by the son of a Mikado Sholokutaiski. " Rome had to be overthrown that the new religion and the new might be established. gradually grew. such as the reclining hares or fawns. collected from the tombs in the Crimea immediately era. in the . wherever Roman colonies were founded. now placed by style Herr Grafschen in the Museum at Vienna.D. which in time 1 preceding our overcame the general chaos of 1 style. Christian art. and it is most interesting to compare the differences of their styles and stitches. and Indian styles. were reproduced in the Sicilian looms.STYLE. in the eighth century. and Africa. crossed by the Arabian. Nothing is Persian. must now return to the beginning of our era. originating in Assyrian art.Roman. such as it was. till the It died hard but by that time the eighth century. and throughout Europe. so puzzling in textile art as the mixture of the first 1000 years A. and fill up vacant spaces. approached by worshipping men or animals. Asia. when we find Greek taste. but how vast was the cost to the world. We have European work as Honi. and conquered and suppressed the barbarians classical civilization. styles during the Byzantine. had poured from the east and north in successive waves. and the Egyptian. and formed itself into the Gothic. old. . as we find them on the Shishak pall. or that of the Tree of Life. which began in Byzantium. are employed as The information borders. who was seventh century the great apostle of Buddhism in Japan and the next earliest works are by the first nun. occasioned by the necessity of casting into the boiling cauldron of civilization . Certain stock patterns. still influencing and We colouring art in Italy.

writing of this period. as witnesses of this intercourse. continued to flow westward. had drifted (Plate 6." chap. and the bridal wreath of gilt metal flowers might. which lasted so many centuries. might have belonged to the Greek wife of a Varangian guardsman. it was taken up by the Greeks. in which all that is Oriental in its style has been leavened by its passage through Byzantine and Romanesque channels. Gibbon. p. from its style. When the Phoenicians and Carthaginians had down their ancient commercial sceptre. though barbaric. which Iceland. modifying and suggesting. i. would have uttered his lamentation in plaintive tones. Babylonian. such as Jeremiah's. : embroidered with a border in gold of the classical honeysuckle pattern . and Roman. " and in the same melancholy key (" Holy Bible. that noble civilization and the treasures which Rome in the spoil of 'a conquered universe Had any old ! or Christian father been gifted with Jeremiah's prescience. The Varangian Guards were. 1 Scandinavian art became strongly tinctured with that of Byzantium. probably.40 Eastern laid NEEDLEWORK art AS ART. be supposed to have been taken from a Greek tomb. he might have seen the fire blazing amidst the forests of Germany. Luxury was born in Babylon. of course. answerable for this.) had gathered barbarous warfare. survived in Rome the taste for art was Greek. vol. still retained and spread certain Oriental traditions. and Persia became its nurse. (see Gibbon's Greek embroidered patterns and Greek forms of dress still linger in There was lately brought to England a bride's dress.). whence all its glories and refinements spread over the world. These. Then the l arts of the Scandinavians and of the Celts (who were the weavers). ! luxury was the love of luxury if But At Ravenna we much of the early Christian The Empress period from the mosaics in the churches. It is . and the cauldron settling down with its mouth turned towards the south. always trading with Asiatic goods. by their intercourse between Greece and their native land. many coins and much jewellery." with Commentary by Canon Cook. and later by the Venetians and Genoese. Theodora and her ladies appear to be clothed in Indian shawl stuffs. learn Alas art. Introduction to Jeremiah. 319). There have come down to us. lv. says " The habits of pilgrimage and piracy had approximated the countries of the " " earth Decline and Fall.



4. colours represented again the art of painting. which had returned to archaic types. as they had long done into the Greek islands.C. or unconscious of all rules of drawing. of which a very few survive. p. and later 1 Evidently an imitation of the peplos of Minerva (see fig. I am obliged to pass over a part of the dark ages. and to approach the period when it must be studied chiefly in Sicily. embroidered with classical warriors pursuing each other with swords. and design. we may date the com- mencement had of ecclesiastical art. a state of higher perfection than the greater arts. dora's dress has a deep border of gold. either in description or copied into more lasting materials and showing that.STYLE. and through an infancy of nearly 800 years. and testify to Oriental impress. with the minor arts of mosaic and illumination.) mentions the Indian trade through Aden. which till the twelfth century were all but in abeyance. which nately for it. which became the half-way house on the high road to the East. it was Therefore fine . easily square themselves into little compartments. suggesting " the stitches of " counted embroideries (" opus pulvinariutn"). in In discussing textile art. into 41 Rome. by the Red Sea or by land through Tyre. and in no way differed from to struggle " acu pingere or the essential properties of the art of was in the same phase being. when Greek influence was still languishing. . ignoring. fortuneedlework. that to which it was best suited. 32). In the beginning of the fourth century. 1 Works enriched with precious stones and pearls now appear for the its first time in European art. It was a new birth. Its patterns for architecture or dress. The Byzantine Christian style was essentially the art of mosaic. " works of art were then executed by tr needle. colourOutlines filled in with flat surfaces of ing. Ezekiel (590 TheoB.

adding to themselves grace and beauty by study . Germany. as we generally See Col. politician. Yet even at Palermo and Messina this art was long controlled by the traditions of Greece." Series of Art Handbooks of the Kensington Museum.) was imperfect or declined. Italy. to- the resting-place of the Crusaders and from the Holy Land. Murdoch Smith's " Preface to Persian Art. ancient and modern. to of monarchs and (Plate taste 7. decorative -mosaics. finding congenial grew splendid. thoughtful. and Spain grew and flourished. then the decorations-were all rude. out in the smaller . . and the dresses embroideries. The next European phase was the Gothic. : A mainte bel ouvrage . then needlework in England. and finished style. poet. beautiful adorn the altars nobles. which had succeeded to Constantinople as being the great manufacturing mart during the Middle Ages. 2 Ronsard. 1 This was Arab and Moresque steeped in northern ideas and its it into the most soil. and the embroideries shared in the general rudeness or poverty but as these crafts rose again. and diplomatist. sources.42 NEEDLEWORK AS ART. as attested by numerous documents still in call it its The descent from the when speaking of Persian of Arab or Moorish art. compares the Queen of Navarre to Pallas Athene " Elle adonnait son courage existence. far transcending anything that it had borrowed from eastern or southern Sicily. was in the hands of the Moors. 1 Spanish development. the origin and source of all European Gothic textile art. 2 France. and metal works and. When and experience. All its traditions arts are carried ivories. is to be accounted for by the presence of a considerable colony of Persians in Spain in the time of the Moors. while fertilized by Persian and Indian forms and traditional symbolisms. last and not least.



Italian orphreys XVI Century South Kensinfiton Museum .



Orphreys French and Spanish ' XVI Century .

) possess much domestic embroidery of the Renaissance which is exceedingly beautiful Italian. reconciles one to their want of religious character. 1 lost its prestige The best efforts of the German schools of embroidery preceded the Reformation.STYLE. always retained much of the classical element. gave a blow to the arts which had reserved their best efforts for the Church and the change . et encore A joindre Vous d'un la sole et Tor. pareil exercise 1 Mariez par artifice Dessus la toile en mainte traits L'or et la soie en pourtraict." by E. The French adopted and The decorative style called modified it. embroideries are better adapted for secular purposes their extreme beauty as architectural ornament in though Italy. We and German. while those of Belgium never 2 lost their excellence. 43 the Reformation. Celnart. Spanish. and " Manuel de la Broderie. Church all that in its day was brightest and best. The styles of the fifteenth and sixteenth century . (Plate 8. and still hold their high position In Italy they the workers of golden orphreys. English needlework had from the time of the Reformation. F. on the principle that it was allowable to dedicate to the. 2 See " Art Needlework." by Madame E. which. Probably the ancient frescoes which -served as models were among originally painted by Greek artists This style flourished for imitators. and their Roman a hundred years. Dessus la toile. in Germany and England especially." Mary de Medici brought back with her from Italy Federigo Vinciolo as her designer for embroideries. Then came of style effected by the Renaissance was not suited to the solemnity of ecclesiastical decoration. the of that period is sometimes Arabesque. . Maxse. and sometimes the Grotesque.

that he has become picturesque. perhaps woman with the head of a goose and a may be a symbolical. the Arabesque was a charming decoration. then it is excusable. and caused his pupils to imitate and copy them and . gay and brilliant but when the beautiful was set aside. and animals were adhered to. Raphael admired. that " in his time. symbol Satyr is a grotesque. like all other caricatures. As long as beautiful forms of flowers. A grotesque A ridiculous. Arabesques and Grotesques have now so long prevailed we have ceased to criticize them on principle. are. should not be allowed. The fashion was really copied from the excavated palaces and tombs of the best Roman era. flowery tail is something startling. cave. that not beautiful. human head and five legs. but it is also a of majesty and might. reason that it should exist at all. and accept them gratefully. with a one. is a grotesque. but it never can be an agreeable object. except as a scherzo of the pencil to be relegated. period. laughable.44 NEEDLEWORK AS ART. only graceful nonsense. in fact. It would appear that if the beautiful only is permissible in decorative art. or tomb style. they influenced all decorative art for a considerable fruit. in decoration. Vitruvius (writing first century B. on the covering of the walls were painted rather Most Arabesques . which has nothing to do with the Arabs or their arts. which word only means the grotto.C. the style became the Grotesque. and that if without beauty there is no . to the portfolio. then the Grotesque . and is as undescriptive to us as the word Arabesque. but he has been so long recorded and accepted that he has ceased to surprise us and the Greeks spent so A .) says. much genius in making him a graceful if creature. When the idea conveyed is a great The Ninevite bull. in proportion to the gay fancy and reticent genius of the designer. birds. and the ugly ideas were reproduced.


seventeenth century. Velvet and gold. Plateresque style. Spanish Coverlet. Page 45.Pl. .q. from Goa.

from which we suffer even now. oak. with their fruits. which are exquisitely composed and carefully studied from nature. These classical freaks of fancy are so graceful that their want of truth does not shock us. and different Leaves and flowers of grow from the same stem. monstrosities 45 than images of known things. . flowers with figures growing out of their calyxes. and his contemporary criticism is most valuable and amusing. Thus. consequently. which went by the nameof the Plateresque. The Greeks introduced into their decorations sprays and wreaths of bay. plants were made to copied than imitated. It is true that they sometimes invented flowers of different shapes. and candlesticks supporting temples and on the top of . while Spanish and Portuguese embroideries of the sixteenth and seventeenth manufactures. but they are more safely it deserves censure. as only artificial flowers could do. the worst phase of needlework with us. olive." 1 Vitruvius Evidently did not approve of grotesques. ivy. and in the volutes senseless little likewise figures sitting there .) From the Italian translation by Signor Minghetti. whilst we in England were sedulously thrusting from our shores any beautiful Indian textiles that we imagined could injure our own home was. and untrammelled by any natural laws. there an animal's. Here a human head. and their needlework Oriental. It centuries are especially fine. these there are rods and twisted ornaments. (PI. instead of columns you will see reeds with crisp foliage. following each other on the same stem. their designs being European. 9. a species of vegetable grotesque was the fashion. is a style 1 apart. The Renaissance was particularly marked in Spain and Portugal by the embroideries which the latter drew from their Indian possessions in Goa. and vine. In the Louis Quatorze period.STYLE. Their Renaissance.

1 . " In Italy this very ornate style was distinguished as the Sette-cento. plate.46 NEEDLEWORK reason of its AS ART. era splendid dress. and remodelled every art but originally intended for. under its next phase. The style called Louis Quatorze following on the Renaissance in Germany. . perhaps. England." and was a chastened imitation or approof the priation Louis Quatorze. Louis Quatorze styie became. and wanting. the shapes and decorations of gold and silver plate. borders were broken up into fragmentary forms all flow and strength were eliminated and what remained of the . Spain. and books shine in all the fertile richness The new style and grace of French artistic ingenuity. assumed in each of these countries distinguishing characteristics. and France. and rightly named it after the This was a magnificent monarch who fostered it. 1 . . only remarkable for the sparkling prettiness which is inherent in all French art. it The name is that seems to have been and is best suited to. asserted itself everywhere. into which we have not In this style France took the lead time to enter now. Spanish Plateresque and the French In Germany it was a decided heavy copy of both. and appropriated it. the defects to wane and change. reflected during the reign of Queen Anne and the first Gaston. the simplicity which gives dignity. Le Brim often drew the embroideries for the hangings in rooms he had himself designed and decorated. kept hothouses on purpose to supply models for floral textile designs. of which there are splendid examples in the adornment of the German palaces. Italy. the long reign of Louis Quatorze gave the fashion time Under Louis XV. The fine heavy increased and the beauties diminished. . and its furniture and wall decorations. Duke of Orleans (died 1660). It is extremely not so appropriate to architecture as to rich and ornate the smaller arts. royal and episIn England the Continental taste was faintly copal.

Boucher and Watteau. produced designs that were well suited to tapestries and embroideries. we did not produce much that was original in the style of that day.STYLE. and Roman furniture were handed over to hotels and lodging-houses. still furnished with cinerary urns covering the walls. and seen the dining-room wine-coolers modelled in imitation there is a drawing-room in a splendid mansion seats. floating ribbons. Napoleon attempted a dress which was supposed to be Roman at his coronation. It was the necessary tribute of flattery to the great conqueror. and the ladies wore diadems. the extravagant rich. ness of palatial furniture. and then came attempt at classical severity (so contrary to the French nature) which the Republic affected." and egg and " anchor patterns were everywhere. and the honeysuckle. in France. In most of the palaces on the Continent an apartment is still to be seen. Under Louis XV. while curule chairs most uncomfortably furnish the ." "key. at least at court. and delicacy. garlands. With the fall of the Empire the classical taste collapsed.gilded. such as Georges . with Cupids. 1 Dress was adorned with embroidered spots and Etruscan borders. 47 but except in the characteristic upholstery of the Chippendales. This was followed by the Revolution the . .. and one or two palaces. Blenheim and Castle Howard. crowns. furnished in this style. and the Egyptian. Trophies were woven and " " embroidered. visible tide of the frivolity in which poor Marie Antoinette was drowned though before the Revolution she had somewhat simplified the forms of decoration. 1 who in that character inhabited so many We have all of Roman tombs. and cyphers were It was the everywhere carved. and straight lines instead of curves. had superseded. Greek. and worked. rather than splendour. All the heathen gods. and tried to be as like as possible to the Greek women painted in fictile art.

and it is formed It belongs mostly to from the debris of our family life. of the Empire. bringing together the works of all Europe and other continents." and her portrait or " my great-grandfather's sword and by Hogarth . AS ART. *' Meantime Young England had become aesthetic. style But there was no sign of the being taken up enthusiastically anywhere out of fall France. culminating " perhaps in my grandmother's cabinet. Every wealthy home became a museum. which he carried at . a relic perhaps of the Scotch Dutch." the general craving for the " as the outcome of that part of a the baroc. all pretence of style was it was then gradually replaced by a " " rococo." and his father's clock. and the studio had to be furnished as for " a 'picturesque lounge . Culloden . Now the numerous exhibitions of the last few years. The English style of to-day is really a conglomerate of the preceding two hundred years." finally After the in abeyance. have enabled us to continue to collect and compare and furnish. Every one bought up old furniture Italy and Spain were ransacked and foreign works of all ages were added to the hereditary house furnishings. reference to a particular style. without any . grouping of the old pieces of furniture." . pistols. by their combination arose the style " " a style which Queen Anne courtesy the and from can be brought within the reach of the most moderate In humble mansions you will be aware of the fortunes. the space beween the new sestheticism and the old family antique chairs . Bohemianism was the fashion.48 of NEEDLEWORK them for a short time. and museums called ." and antique. and " gentleman's education called the grand tour. : ragged tapestries bits of colour as backgrounds and draperies shiny earthenware pots to hold cushions All these bridged a flower and to catch a high light.

own and reconciles us to his repetitions of large vegetable forms. and includes all that followed the Protectorate. in the very heart of the century. Morris' poetical and his admiration and sensitiveness for all that is beautiful graceful (as well as quaint) fanciful originality. which had painfully ascended from saloon to bedroom. and added to his have given a colour and seal to the whole It is a step towards a new school. as in life it is absurd to imitate innocence. and is there. What interest. in fact. and is. which remind For domestic decoration us sometimes of a kitchen-garden in a tornado. not beautiful. and attic. 1 artistic feeling In his designs for papers and textiles. : . decorative art of England of to-day. his respect for precedent. named. 49 the period of the pigtail but it stretches back. a style of her reign. The sobriety and tenderness of his colouring gives a sense of harmony. It owes its existence. " is " quaint is more " credited with being " quaint easily imitated than the beautiful the . till they reposed in the garret (the Bedlam of crazy furniture). Mr. is really to be funny without and its claim to prettiness is its naivett. and never admitted for imitation. The maimed tables and chairs. To imitate quaintness must be a mistake in art decorations. for it has formed itself only within the last thirty years. and we have elected this for the characteristic of our new To be quaint. is looked upon with suspicion. fore coeval with the wig. fortunate result of preceding conditions. and honoured. now have descended in all the prestige of antiquarian and family is Their history is recorded the old embroideries are restored. E . only that the which was heavy Louis Quatorze. as I have said. The name of " Queen Anne" would really do as well as any other. The " Nineteenth Century " would be a better name. which is sometimes touching as well as amusing this was the special characteristic of the revival in the Middle Ages. . The 1 nineteenth century " Queen Anne" has its merits. partly to the archaeological tendencies of the day.STYLE. intending it. nursery.

polishing and touching up the same motive. and swamping the art and the artist. perhaps the and colours. so as to give pleasure to the eye a revived taste for embroidered instead of woven . it would seem that a vital change in a national style is never produced by the inspiration It of one individual genius or great original inventor. and at last reaching human perfection. combines simplicity. quaintnesses just restored to society care grouping even the commonest objects. persistent efforts of generations. or revolution breaking up the fountains of social life. But another cause of such an extinction we should. materials. and gradually through to the dregs of society. The poorest to and most to trivial arrangements are striving This artistic and agreeable. to reposing forms spaces. educated classes . furniture with the tender tints of the in faded . and the flower in a . giving scope to the talents of the women of all these are so much gained in every-day the house . adorned with their own needlework and that ^ Jthe dark-stained floor of the cottage or humble lodging will set off the shining brass kettle. brown or blue pot. attain is still confined a something to the but as good and bad alike have to filter begin on the surface. roominess and comfort. and enjoyed accordingly. Soft colouring to harmonize the new light and shade. The annihilation of a style is oftenest caused by war passing over the land. invariably evolves itself slowly. consciously selected with a view to the picturesque. adhere Our flowers should lie in their allotted elemental struggles. domestic decoration. colour. which have no glass-protected rooms. we may hope that the women who wore the last chignon and the last crinoline may yet solace their sordid lives in flowing or tight woollen garments.50 It NEEDLEWORK AS ART. by the patient. as far as possible. quiet and undisturbed by business in our windowed and . From what we know.

to the world till experience I spake with My we may recognize the Psalmist's heart burned within me. hidden. on . but you must accept that of your day. it is acceptable for the time being. and overlapped by a newer fashion and the worst and latest effort dis. To young decorator or artist who feels the In art. crude ideas should not be No one should give his thoughts brought to the front. may be of of original design use. a few words of warning. or the lawless in . Knowledge must first be accumulated before you can originate. corrupts. but cheerfully. it deteriorates. E 2 . saddest is 51 it that having reached perfection as far as may. but it should always be accompanied by the grace of the modesty. deed your or to act against the acknowledged canons of good taste. prompting and follow his own new and perhaps crude ideas. and polish it. Though the next succeeding phase worthy to live than the last. sickens. has been forced to express himself. seeking to raise it refusing by word or to truckle to the false. Another wise saying. direct. the splendid successes that fall. carrying the freshness of a new spring. " Read yourself and then write yourself empty. and finally is thrown aside superseded. and only in accordance with that taste can your work be useful. that you cannot force style you may prune. The moral I should draw from this is. principle." In small as in great things. and encouragement also. and he full. credits in the eyes of preceded its may be less with it men. " : my tongue. Not for a moment should ambition be checked v art. as in poetry. the base. yet. glow him to reject old lines. Not accepting it idly or wearily." also applies to art. and at the last his heart has burned within him.STYLE.

52 NEEDLEWORK Wait till AS ART. his certain own will carry the visible and unmistakable stamp of . because its style is a reflection of another may be objected to as being Gothic . or takes from the original. Even how can tion is while suggesting copies this difficulty arises a perfect facsimile be obtained ? No reproduc- ever really exact. and profit by the opinion you would respect if another's work. and and its date. the visible transcript of his own thought. your experience and your thoughts insist on expression then subject the expressed idea to cul. It is true that taste is surprisingly various. Few are suf- ficiently educated to appreciate style : and we cannot rule our ralize own by anybody's find opinion . frivolously critic Oriental-looking and brilliant. as far as it can be in human last finishing touch. In needle- . He should try to make his new work but of one thing he may be harmonize with the old unless he absolutely copies an old design. that which he has or has not of the same poetical power and in art the copy requires the . to the It is. remembering the antecedent motives of its form. qualities to guide the hand that transmits the original motive to another material. whereas the likes only the sober and the dull. unless cast off by the hundred. stamped or printed by a machine. and not your own. The artist for decoration should be sensitively alive to any suggestion from the style of that which he is to adorn. his day. tivated criticism. were under discussion. its history. art. but we can gene- something that shall be agreeable to all something approaching to a golden mean. It has been said that the translator of a poem adds to. artist usually carries same An out his own ideas from the first sketch blocked out on the canvas. or scribbled on the bit of waste paper. Some will dislike the your design.

whether Dunstan. . or Walter Crane. always the case but there are exceptions. Torrigiano. and incapable of giving life and expression. The designer. they are indicated in the original design. even when she is aware that for good. and is translated into embroidery by the patient needlewoman who simply fills in an outline. This is almost dalmatic. or else carried out under of immediate supervision. shows signs the work of the artist his Charlemagne's having been either himself. ignorant of art. Pollaiolo. 53 can hardly ever be. unappreciative of its subtleties. only executes a drawing which leaves his hands work this he be St.STYLE. for instance. .

the craftsman. applied to needlework. Ye gods ! ? What kind How of painter could these clear lines limn ? true they stand nay. and using them as will first consider the principles of . ! Not worked created! Woman. artisan. and should as such be applied to the smallest as to the greatest efforts of art. a record of the thoughts which produced style fixes the date of its production. points out that he. THE word design.54 CHAPTER DESIGN. claims a part title. too. : . includes the principles and laws of the art the motives and their hereditary outcome the art creating the principles the laws controlling the art. of the design or intention. the mystery. Idyll xv. motive. and by its design. in another chapter. Behold these 'broideries What artists work'd these pictures in Praxino^. The individual genius of the artist works first in design. is for the use of the craftsman or artisan. examples. head and hands. by right of his the art itself. lifelike. thou art clever ! (Scene at a Festival) Theocritus . inquire into the origin of patterns investigating their motives. his collaborator for the two. as . Design means intention. Gorgo. must work together. is I it. The designer himself is subject to the prejudices called . by his name. That which results from it. ! II. or else will render each other inoperative or ineffective. either as picture or pattern. moving ever . in The the inner meaning. has to work out the craft. though his work . Finer saw you never. and afterwards. line 78. and also as warnings.

all distinguished by to- absence of animal design. scratched or painted. which comes from afar. and the upheaval of a new culture was needed to lift it once are among more " into the region of individual creation. imitative. early Of very design mysterious glimpses. pieced gether only in these later years. unless it is of the most robust nature. . a whale or a seal. cleverly showing the forms of a dog or a stag. Whether he is conceiving a temple for the worship of a national faith." Early Man in Britain also General Pitt Rivers's See Boyd Dawkins' Museum of Pre- historic Art. weighted with the power of long descent. and from which no spontaneous efforts of genius can entirely emancipate him. and which crushes individuality. The earliest Hellenic pottery pottery are puzzling rather than instructive. and all art. 55 the taste of his day. .DESIGN. 1 teach us the value of These fragmentary scraps of information. have no means of judging whether the cave man was an artist on a greater or more advanced scale than 1 We The earliest art we know (the bone. man. which appropriated it object. nay. and which. and his man from whom may be to classify the less civilized successor. the his Neolithic man. by repetition of a natural Naturalism soon fell into symbolism. he cannot avoid the force of tradition and of custom. or the edging for the robe of a fair or the pattern on the border of a cup of gold or votaress. We are unaware of any attempt at a the earliest attempts at a pattern. lately presented to the University of Oxford. the figure of a we have most curious and The cave man was an artist. being the remains of lives and nations passed away. repeated over and over again. was Cuttle-fish. The few scratches on a bone. still serve as the soil in which history can be fertilized. have enabled us Palaeolithic cave to ascertain . brass. He is necessarily under the influence which that taste has imposed upon him. very small facts which time and care are now accumulating.scratch ing) is naturalistic and pattern of the prehistoric The lake cities are of so vague a date that their ornaments on period.

the preceded trait all known Egyptian sculptures. above the minds which not probably be induced to quit the profound fields of investigation For early art will open to them. See Isaac Taylor's "History of the Alphabet. art was found to be the fittest conveyance of symbolism." and at an immense distance in earliest advance of them. is evident that a direct imitation of nature.56 'is NEEDLEWORK AS ART." . thought. that supposing the intellect of the workman the same. this is a general law. 3 art. the only other relic actually shown by the bone-scratchings 1 of his handiwork is the needle. entirely foregoing the study or imitation of 2 It recorded customs. religious beliefs receiving from the last the impress of the unchangeable and the absolute. and those whose temper inclines them to take a pleasure in mythic symbols. indeed. It is ." " read." Ruskin's " Oxford mean by it. historical events. which it gave to the . and history. become Assyria and China. merely the nursing mother of the alphabet. to enable all. 19. p." 1870. and which belong to it alone. became the consecrated medium for transmitting language. such as seen in these "graffiti. It ceased to be a other subjects on which it touched. statues in the Museum of the earliest porat Boulac exhibit a high Some degree of naturalistic design before it became subservient As soon as to the expression of the faith of the people. and was reduced to forms in which it was contented to remain petrified for many it centuries. and was never the embodiment of individual thought. in Britain. will 2 hope. This phase prevailed under different manifestations in Pictorial art had. the deeper the Lectures on Art. creative art (if it had ever aspired to such a function). in fact. the less he will intention. the more imitatively complete his and the ruder the symbol. and nature. 3 thoughts and 1 See Boyd Dawkins' " Early " I Man them " to (the members of his class) of semi-barbarous nations in the only language by which their feelings were capable of expression . guiding its first steps the hieroglyphic delineation or expression of facts. conventional art.

This identity and slow movement. repose. and in individual will In the separate figures. In Egypt. instance one prevailing habit of Egyptian art. by the characteristic signs 2 the date." . 1879. Design. long processional subjects. which " must exist if there is any real life. It is evolution. " are not inconsistent with an immense amount of change." he says." In fact. which but seldom repeats one of the most remarkable instances of But it also has its cataclysms (however we may account for them). Birch. of which the Greek apotheosis of all art is a shining example. the form he desires to represent. essential qualities of See Ch. inscription. 17. a point of view in which we may regard the imitative in art of all races. Renouf speaks. ance of sance I classical influence in Europe before the Renais3 is another. and decay. there were periods of relative progress. T. it was usual to draw the head in perfect a sort profile. P. however.67. but not completely 1 Renoufs Hibbert Lectures. the body facing you. the change from the imitation of nature " first 57 period of actual 1 was succeeded by many centuries of the very slowest progress. or Marriette could at once tell you the age of a statue. of the astonishing identity that is visible through all the periods of Egyptian art" (for you could never mistake anything Egyptian for the produce of any other country). Lepsius. and every age had its peculiar character. depends not so much on the manual dexterity of the artist as on his intelligence and comprehension of the type of the p. such as they exist in nature. unconsciously has a slowly altering and persistently onward movement.DESIGN. or which actually fix manuscript." 3 See Wilkinson's "Ancient Egyptians. Newton's " Essays on Art and Archaeology. and the total disappearitself. the most civilized as well as the most barbarous reference to the power of correctly representing animal and vegetable 2 Now there is The perfection of such imitation forms.

the Greek broke The body ancient bonds of custom. ingenuity was shown. and statues they made ten thousand years ago were in no particular better than those they make now. and continued to be the conventional and decorative method even in the latest days of Egyptian art and it is curious . stiffened tradition. This mode of representing the human figure was only effaced gradually by the introduction of Greek art. certain errors as well as certain truths become. but Here much especially in its embroideries for dress. and the of compromise with a three-quarter view of it feet following each other. however. Plato remarked of Egyptian art. all out of drawing. 656. as it were. men walked originality in remains that for several thousand years Evidently profile. and therefore may simply believe and that when art has so that it had become a custom distorted . Dark ages European design fell We cannot imagine that this way of drawing the human figure could have any intentional meaning." 1 day. not in art. design found some scope in its Egyptian elasticity of domestic ornamentation. and consolidated itself by precedent and long as in Egypt and in India. to observe. p. . and the patterns on walls and the ceilings of tombs give us the designs which Semper considers as having been originally intended for textile He strains to a point to which I can hardly purposes. ingrained into " the pictures. One away from the was made to But accompany the head.58 NEEDLEWORK AS ART. that in the into the same habit. and the illumination Egyptian patrons of of the papyrus MSS. on the same line as the profile. that it. and the the strange fact feet followed suit. 1 Plato's Second Book of Laws. in jewellery and hangings. was much estimation among the Design seemed to have restricted itself to effective adaptations in a few permitted forms in architecture and painting.

DESIGN. and revenge. despair. and passion as well as rage. the symbols. first sought to convey the idea of expression. mingling with that of their gods. grace. by collecting the traditions. resulted in the early Greek archaic style. It is see that they were always acting and reacting on each other in the later centuries before our era. Its strongly marked. depicted These were soon to be surrounded with all the splendours heroes . and the knowAll that was ledge of beautiful forms. which by meeting had engendered life and Greek art was the child of their union. the forms of men. follow him. having shaken off as its only purpose. and all the attributes of their had to be majesty. the experience in colouring. produced the Heroic ideal. Greece had prepared for this outburst of excellence and the perfect science of art. of the arts of decoration. The worship of humanity. and seeking to represent symbolism . and his name was Pheidias. and that Greece profited by them. The first efforts of both to but we can break through this chrysalis stage. yet possessed by a guiding spirit. 59 were origiChina from the lattice-work motive) though I willingly accept the idea that textile decoration was one of the first and most active promoters of design. needed for the advent of the man who could design and create types of beauty for all ages was thus accumulated. muscular humanity reminds one of all the conflicting impressions struggling in the conception of the great artist who first embodied them. Then art. not possible for us to trace systematically the different points at which Egyptian and Asiatic art touch. A crowd followed him. sorrow. beauty. human and ideal. They appear to be breaking out from the trammels of Egyptian and Assyrian styles. all steeped in the same flood of poetry . and the man came. the theory that all decorations nally textile (except such as proceeded in .

daries are highly suggestive paper the form of a panel the colours in the All bounto attempt. he still adhered to the and strove to express it as it inner symbolical thought had never been expressed before. of the designer the artist and he became. the size of a sheet of pigments hand. religion of the only embodied in the sculptures of Pheidias on the Parthenon. But though the Greek artist had broken the chains of " motive" the prescribed form. all box of even the touch of the brush which comes to these us and 1 assist " help to shape the idea to our ends. and portrayed the paintings of Polygnotus in the Stoa Poikile . or fashioned into a symbol. but especially that employed boundaries all decoration/ must be kept within certain otherwise it becomes lawless. the exponent of all that was poetical and ennobling in the life of man. framed for himself standards of taste and refinement. it was repeated in a more compendious and daily The myth was not m abbreviated form on the coin circulated in vase of the Athenian household." fictile the Newton's "Essays on Art and Archaeology. in giving to the original motive the Greeks penetrated into their institutions and The life. on the market-place. and afterwards through the rise of that of Christianity. and the artist.6o NEEDLEWORK AS ART. . I fear that I am repeating all a platitude when in- sisting that freedom in in . 1 New principles were " evoked. as well as decide what he ought not . design. like other controlling circumstances. Rules. 23. Every domestic implement was made the vehicle of figurative language. while revelling in the sweetness " and light of freedom. as they suggest what he can do. and art and for several centuries they filled the world with the sense and science of beauty." p. Then the function was changed and elevated. on the mirror in which the Aspasia of the day beheld her charms. are of the greatest service to the artist. which he left as a heritage to all succeeding generations. through the great days of Greek and Roman Pagan art. .

. and the space. the original plan or thought of the . instead of struggling Let us accept the principle that it is against them. all these restrictions must govern the design. or. including more than one motive. alter all the conditions of a design. 61 form which is most suitable. cannot be granted to a bouquet or a bird cast on one corner of a square of linen. whether it is to disappear into space upwards or and whether it is to stand alone. for the foundation interesting than to search more of the structure which centuries have helped to raise. These restrictions are . however gracefully it may be drawn. for a table-cover. As it. which is to contain must not seek to extend. or . carefully study the great and guiding principles that have been distinctly formulated by some of the we Continental authorities on decorative art. or be horizontally framed with lines or a border. perhaps. composition must consist of supporting lines well " " values filling up the whole surface of balanced. the eye. and to dig out. or lengthened into a frieze whether it must be divided into parts. as it were. If It does not cover the space allotted to it. in its highest phase. by the impatient artist on them as hints and sug- good for each of our efforts at decoration that we are controlled by the space allotted to its composition. The square or oblong. we shall find is much Nothing help in composing our designs. and claim their assistance. but large for that of a book) and the shape to which we are Whether it limited. relative size (small. composition.DESIGN. or be grouped round one centre whether it is to be repeated more than once within the range of the is . The and beyond which in it we have embroidery no distances only a foreground the design must be The title of " composition " placed all on one plane. often regarded as impediments to look whereas he ought gestions.

"Art in . than M. and by the suggestion which. through that will excite is by the same mea'ns those physical sensations. " First." repetition. Chapman and Hall.. formerly Director of the French Institute. and to reduce to a few clear points what has been till now involved in is to be able to unravel what a haze of obscurity." by M." He tion. Just as the twenty-six letters of the alphabet have been. it could not originate. as well as painful An insignificant form can become interesting by ones. reduces ornamental design to five principles. London. the rolling of the Greek scroll or wave pattern awakens in us the idea of one object following another.62 founder. whose variety may be indefinitely multiplied. but a hundred such will be intolerably painful. and will suffice. but in cadence. Blanc says : beyond measure complicated. it is of the general laws of ornamentation There can be no nobler satisfaction to the mind. Repe- produces pleasurable sensations. so certain elements susceptible of combination among themselves have sufficed. and always will be sufficient to form the expression of the words necessary for all human thought. Charles Blanc. to diminish what is apparently immense. . as 1 if executing a mystic Ornament and Dress. You may act on as the mind. Eng. and Confusion. Repetition. Trans. tition A single prick of a pin nothing. For ex- ample. to create ornament. mental rules " most instructive to learn the fundaby which such results are secured. RepetiAlternation. NEEDLEWORK So 1 AS ART. "It also suggests the see in it waves of the ocean or the poet may a troop of maidens pursuing each other in space. singly. not frivolously. Symmetry. sight. Progression.

then. Symmetry. or Alternate rhymes. There here added to the law of repetition. would overlap and perfectly cover each other they Man is born with the sense of symmetry. where the circle and the straight lines relieve each other. dance. site The correspondence is of two parts oppo" symmetrical. agreeable." Change the curves into angular forms. and Key Fig. next to it. 6. and it will no longer flow. is composed of two parts. and Symmetry is another instinctively feels the want of it. to match his outward form and he appreciates its existence. No principle gives greater pleasure than repetition. the In form. Doric frieze. a succession of . soothe the ear in verse." Alternation is. . which appear Withto have been united down one central line. the more they differ. and even short and long lines. and triglyphs on a architecture. if you folded them down the line. alternation.DESIGN. as making the key pattern. hearing. 7. the alternations are in Such are. out being identical. two objects recurring regularly in turn and the cadence of appearance and disappearance gives pleasure to the senses. Metopes and Triglyphs. can be repetition without alternation. to each other A . man or animal. sight. living being. a succession of metopes more Fig. but become as severe as the other was graceful. Pattern. but no alternation Variety is " without repetition. whether it be addressed to taste.

if it is not another word for some of its qualities. and we look for these proportions in the living body to balance each other. and give as much but a huge pleasure. word The Greeks understood by symmetry. pyramidal forms in architecture. taste. each preserving a secret balance. AS ART. and The mind his own of man expects to find. which are raised on pyramids of steps. produce delightful illusions. a theatre." its In this principle are included long perspectives. he at once proportionate and symmetrical The Japanese. and certain Progression.64 NEEDLEWORK for justness of proportion. A large leaf at the end of may be as appropriate. such as pediments. East. in fact." " For pyramidal surfaces. a progresAll the buildings in the sive ornament is the fittest." " Perspectives are highly attractive specimens of prowhen made use of in the decorations of gression. we *' naturally expect to see. members have a common the condition of a body of which the measure among themselves. show the tendency to this species of effect in giving dignity to the buildings " placed on such platforms. as a small leaf in the same position hand at the end of an arm is not so agreeable to our sense of symmetry as one of the size and outline which a slender stem . something which he feels . and in the ancient cities of Central America. We in expect the two sides of a living being to correspond. which." . with delicacy and detects the want of it. which we do not expect to find any other natural object. corollary to symmetry. balance. often substitute for symmetry its corollary Japanese vase will often have an appreciable affinity and resemblance to a Greek one. processional compositions. outside of himself is proportions. even in the extremest or The Chinese whimsicality of Proportion is another composition.

such as nurseries in to different stages of growth. most twig or bud. These rules act as the frame affects the picture. the slopes of hills retreating the horizon at different levels interminable per- spectives. is . as in the pyramidal shape of a and if these trees be planted pine. Confusion. Pierre. here and there on the japanned box. who says: the branches of a plant are disposed in a uniform plan of diminishing size. and restricting them to a certain area. Blanc quotes Bernardin de " When . Blanc as saying. permitted to is. and ending in a topprinciple. apparently without rule. nature had shown it. as each tree does in itself. because in It is owing to this progression here becomes infinite. diminishing in height and colour." All floral compositions which give the effect or impression of growth may be included in the progressive composition which." When the Japanese throw their ornaments. 65 St. that an artistic confusion may give us the sense of its being ordered by. artist-painter " The keep the geometrical effect in view. of infinity that we take pleasure in looking at feeling anything that presents progression. and subject to definite rules. Boileau is quoted by M. beginning as it were with a stem. thrusting outwards and upwards. our pleasure is redoubled. they reckon on the will square shape being sufficiently marked to the eye by shining surface and sharp corners.DESIGN. A governed by this principle." Here we must observe that the confusions or disorders of nature are all subject to certain laws and it is in adopting this idea. The confusion in a Japanese landscape is its so beautiful . circumscribing its irregularities. " A fine disorder is often the effect of art . " But before he said it." and he adds. in a because the art of the cabinet-maker employ confusion. long avenues. spreads and floreates equally on each side. there is progression M. small space.

Contrast resource in effects . . to predominate 1 in a decoration. . ." p. or consonance . that one appreciates the innate sense of balance. Admit these as and you will find that. deliberate complication. not painful. but that they may be regarded with If contrast be needed. touch. a latent equilibrium will reduce nearly every complication and confusion to perfect harmony. . by following and combining them. . " is not simply for the but M. you may produce varieties as numberless as the sands of the sea. It is not simply to draw attention to them. used as the means of rendering the whole more powerful. " To adorn persons or things. Blanc purpose of causing them to be conspicuous . which rules and orders it. let . which adds to the resources of the decorative artist. to Alternation. . . sometimes by the different parts being rather reflected on each than repeated.66 NEEDLEWORK AS ART. and striking. radiation balanced Confusion. and that decoration. Blanc's theory. 1 Harmonies in form and in colour are produced in . if we rightly understand different M. gradation to Symmetry. most generally understood as a common the hands of the artist for producing strong is cleverly expresses the reticence needed to ensure contrast being pleasurable. it is that they may be admired. "modifies the confusion " method of rendering order Here contraries meet and the principles of all In the hands of the designer. ways sometimes by repetition with variation. let it be feelings of pleasure. to to Progression. See Charles Blanc's "Art in blue be mingled with Ornament and Dress." Each of the five principles we have discussed has its corollary. if orange is intended brilliant. These are as follows To Repetition belongs : harmony. 31. confusion is only a visible in a happy disorder. For instance. This explains the harmony that may be called consonance." he says. contrast .

by a quotation from " Ziegler. cathedrals in our their finest works. starting from a centre from which all lines diverge. Ornament and Dress. and to which all lines point. instead of disturbing unity. gives the mind the pleasure of untying the Gordian knot. and the architects of ments. F 2 . from the rays of the sun to the petals of the daisy. Blanc." Complication is illustrated by M. its but rule to be observed in all ornamental design is this " that contrasting objects. it." Radiation belongs to the principle of symmetry. sparingly. but expresses a series of The English intermingle adroitly managed transitions. as in form. in their decoration. Solomon seal." 1 " Complication is another aspect of the art which owns the same sentiment as that expressed by his labyrinth. all mosaics." Contrasts are always auxiliary. whether it be in form or in colour.DESIGN. Intertwined ribs. This is to be found throughout nature. with- To out cutting 1 it. the Moors. when the tenderest colours are needed. It Charles Blanc's " Art in gives the excitement of curiosity." p. colours very finely blended . 43. if the two forces struggle with each other for The pre-eminence. nor do all they find any transition too delicate. has to be employed according to the feelings intended to be produced on the mind of the spectator whether for absolute contrast or for imperceptible progression. should assist it by giving most effect to that we wish to : bring forward and display. " Gradation in colour. the Greeks in their interlacing Daedalus in in his mysterious and winding ornathe Byzantines. unpleasant. and intersection of arches and spring from complication. as in principles of ornament. This." follow the interlacing line of an ornament. All decorative art employs and illustrates it. 67 Let the complementary colour be and not its rival. is not quite sy- nonymous with progression.

46. 1 " Art in Ornament and Dress. Alternation. contrast.68 pursuit. gradation. elements. which all finally lose themselves in a primordial cause the origin of the movements of the universe ORDER. in unravelling a puzzle which . seems an inextricable confusion. Though we should call to our aid the general laws of design for all art. to a combination of these different cation . appeared to be undecipherable and in acknowledging that a latent arrangement may be recognized in what at first. in which straight lines and curves intermingle." styles illustrate Moorish. Charles Blanc's . and Gothic and are explained by these remarks Celtic." pp." 1 The extracts from M. The and they are well worthy the attention of the designer. . there remains still much most interesting and suggestive jnatter. see these traceries When we so skilfully plaited. and at a distance. " AS ART. branch out. and complior lastly. perhaps. Progression. 43. Repetition. viz. NEEDLEWORK and discovery. I will finish my quotations with the words with which he concludes " There is no decoration in the works of nature or the inventions of men which does not owe its birth to one of : the original principles here enumerated. disappear and recur. and Balanced Confusion or else to one of their secondary causes. we must select from them what is From specially appropriate for the needs of our craft. Having so freely borrowed from M. 45. . consonance. of the laws of design. which I recommend the reader to seek in his book. cross. being most anxious to express my obligation to him for his carefully formulated epitome But though I have largely quoted. Symmetry. radiation. Blanc's chapter on the general laws of ornamentation. Blanc's works I have carefully placed between commas. we experience a high pleasure at first.

or any other of the secondary arts. on which rests the dramatic action and interest addressed to the spectator. softness. it comes down to the actual living foreground. so that in reading the composition the eye first takes in the distant horizon . or the cover for the table harmony which will satisfy the eye. and therefore have been moulded into the traditional patterns which have descended to us from the earliest times. to express different distances. in ancient Chinese design shows naturalistic and perpetuated on Their representations are all equally allied totally different principles. Design must follow the scientific laws of art. in view when we the panels for the drawing-room design or boudoir. pleasant suggestions.DESIGN. I repeat that we have nothing to do with the rules of painting. art. refinement. to their art of picture-painting. 1 It 1 is curious that in drawing on the art arrested flat. cheerfulthese should be the objects ness. these having each their own intrinsic principles. next below it. The Chinese understood many of the secrets of perspective. yet never achieved . and shape the variations of traditional forms from which we cannot escape. whether on china with the brush. they did so by placing them one above another. grace. the art of needlework effects 69 eliminate as we should all much as possible of light all ideas of roimdness. and being thus by their prepared. brightness. such as wood carving. thoughts that shall please the mind. and architecture. which must be worked out as corollaries from the general laws of composition which govern all Aryan . variety of surface and colours. art. The flatness of the picture is still pre- served When they attempted ignorance of perspective. The objects in nature that give us the pleasure birds and flowers are those most unalloyed that from all time have served as the materials for decorative design. the hangings for the bed. sculpture. and shadow and contrasting Unity. &c. or on textiles with the needle. In our present search after these inner truths. metal work. the middle distance .

when they painted a landscape on do more than recall the idea they were wall. In this is it differs entirely from pictorial where one of the great objects to avoid flatness. than on early perspective Chinese screens and plates or than later in the Bayeux . disturbing arid the flow of the lines of the pattern. or the to human which Those threw shadows and there were no cast lights. and to outlined sketches in black and for textiles 1 Athens. with their unerring tapestries. . appear to be no acknowledged rules of hardly more in Pompeii.70 frescoes. They understood the principle. every reason we must accept this flatness as a law for designs in embroidery. but they did not carry it into flat decorative art. and never thought of vying in scientific or naturalistic imitation with the real landscape they saw They did not attempt. there NEEDLEWORK AS ART. instinct. but Jn the flat We and 2 shadows. 2 See Mr. to the through the window front of it. flatness is more agreeable than a complicated shaded design. general In hangings and dress materials. no perspective all was flat. at Marked outlines in embroidery add to the flatness. the effect of the statue. to omit cast shadows. They sensibly diminished the And circumference of the columns. and enable us art. must draw from this the deduction that the Greeks held that flatness was an essential quality of wall decoration (except in friezes) as well as of all textile ornament for . Blanc. interrupting The reader will perceive that the laws of composition it is quoted from M. they did not wish to interfere with figures grouped in the wall served as a background. sketching. yet the Greeks. especially when further confused by folds. apply perfectly to designs on the flat. actually made use of false architectural perspectives to add to the effects of height and depth in their 1 colonnaded buildings. and used other means in their designs for this purpose. . Penrose's work on the measurements of the Parthenon Published by the Society of the Dilettanti.

The outlines . Clinging as we do to these floral designs. and every natural I would distinction in the form carefully copied. either historical or They are rules genre. which is accounted for by their traditional mode of copying from nature. and every branch and twig so arranged that they may not cross or touch each other. as flatness is one of the first objects to be remembered and this. and was followed by . which could not at once rid itself of the original motive. 71 white. and then filled in with colour." which should be understood and employed by the who draws for a wall-paper or an area railing certainly man . we can see that they are the only ones that bear repetition. whether covering the surface of the material in the rich irregularity 1 tainly flat Semper's theory. designs in the absence of all light and shadow joined to a parts in flowers . Perhaps it is our Aryan ancestry that has given us a prevailing taste for such decorations . the naturalistic suggestion of detail.DESIGN. and it 1 is worth while to consider how best to manipulate them. . as well as to the most elaborate compositions for " pictures. suggest for that this idea should be accepted as useful in imitation among ourselves certain conventional compositions of vegetable forms. is that textile design was certhat it was the first form of decoration. The branch or blossom to be copied. is laid on the ground and pegged down with care. covering a flat surface. will be disturbed by Indian passing over or under each other. that all designs for embroidery should be considered first as outlined drawings. already mentioned. have invariably a wonderful flatness. and by him who makes patterns therefore be laid for our schools of design. to eliminate every variety of surface. of course. It may down as a general rule. This conventional composition is then drawn. should as little as possible over- lap one another. bas-relief.

(PI. which must be considered apart. and we find. badly. but repetition it be that it consists of echoes or fragments of what we have seen elsewhere. or trained by the hand into But when shapes or meanderings of tracery.72 NEEDLEWORK field. probably as much lost now to the 1 Auberville's "Ornamentation des Tissus" (eleventh century). 17. events which have and we ponder on the historical brought them into juxtaposition - These kaleidoscope patterns are to be seen in Persian and Turkish carpets of the present day. A repetition immediately Madonna surrounded by 1 Auberville's book. cut up by a seam. or conventionalized into a form re- The artistic eye is never shocked or fatigued by such petitions in orderly confusion. For this reason embroidery. little bits which can only be the remnants of a broken-up motive. and are sometimes full of beauty and suggestion. broken up by folds. These conventional patterns are often merely the detritus of past styles or motives crushed and placed by time in a sort of kaleidoscope. They remind one of the little wreaths of broken shells and coloured sea-weeds left on special distinction appears to the sands by the retiring waves after a storm.) We trace in these fragmentary patterns forgotten links with different civilizations . and repeated in tiers. is preferable to woven designs. on examination. of which the is The drawing beautiful. . human tiresome. AS ART. is the conventional-geometrical. by becomes ridiculous. of the flowers in a or a pattern. repeated over and over again as a pattern. I therefore deprecate this kind of ornament in textile work. dislocated in the joining. Another class of desjgn. however richly or perfectly they may be carried out. Such a design is figured in typical figures. which can be fitted to each space that is to be covered. embroidery or weaving attempts to represent animals or becomes comes in angels.

and of the zigzags. kept in their places sixteenth as decoration. I illustrate this remark by giving the border of a modern Persian carpet which has certainly had Egyptian ancestry. as to us who can only see the vague results. the beetle. and. Many lines. suited for the mosaic stitches. and discs of barbarous primitive ornamentation. Persian Carpet. conventional patterns of to-day are descendants of the lattice-work of Chinese art. in composing must be influenced by the . Their Byzantine gave its European schools of the Middle Ages. they are useful for carpets and borders. and the pattern-books of Germany and Venice of the impress to the They are best century are full of them. and are the motives of all the embroideries in the Greek islands and the of principalities. Fig. It should be impressed on our young their designs. 73 designer who inherits the traditional form. The traceries in Indian stone windows show some of the most charming geometrical forms. The boat. they artists. 8. They appear on very ancient metal work. and the prehistoric cross are to be found in it. and of the linen embroiorigin deries Russia.DESIGN. and are akin to the Persian and Russian modes of composing conventional patterns. that.

The conditions and raison d'etre. &c. stone. Redgrave. and coarser execution are not quantities. own peculiar lustre. each fabric has its siderably above the eye. and smoothness of surface is a primary considera." pp. being materials of uniform colour.. texture. the design might be suitable in 1 silk.74 NEEDLEWORK AS ART. spective is as much to be respected in decoration as in and the gradation in size and pictures." The varied the ornament requires special consideration. dress and hangings (excepting for tapestries) the fact must never be lost sight of that they will be subject to disturbance will by crossing folds and crumplings. strongly accentuated design for wood-carving becomes poor and lifeless when deprived of its essential tion. require all the help of recessed shadows and projections to catch the light whereas in textiles. which break up the lines of the pattern. and the pattern which looks charming. Mr. &c. could be hardly seen incised on a flat stone surface. Stone and wood. such as an architectural decoration in wood. form is assisted by colour. at heights conMoreover. and coarse or dull in woollen. It is therefore evident that a design fitted for a rigid material in a fixed place. near to the eye I . only allowable. Thus. in the use of hangings. or stucco. . bolder relief. but the neglect of these plain axioms causes many mistakes in decorative art. 43 45. materials to be employed. Redgrave says: : "A design must be bad which applies the same treatment to He further says u The position of different materials. and the purpose for which the Thus in textile design for decoration is intended. 1 Here " Manual of Redgrave's Design." Perventure to differ from Mr. must be subject to a treatment different from that which befits an embroidered curtain or panel. This seems a truism. curtains. outlined and filled in with colour. but absolutely necessary.

yet had its own meaning in the beginning. arose from the study of interlacing boughs and stems. and was remodelled by Oriental Fergusson suggests taste to the lovely designs we find in the Taj-Mahal. The whole of the Gothic decorations. reflected on our carvings and embroideries of the time of James I. let us protect ourselves against its possible recurrence. by Buddhism. As this once prevailed. It proceeded from a hideous worship of monstrous Dravidian divinities. as the 75 ornament travels up into height or fades into distance. In M. surrounded by coarsely designed patterns.D.. Blanc's classification of ornament.England by the Buccaneers. twisted plants. is a phase of pleasure which should not be checked by enlargement of form or reinforcement of colouring. . The possibilities 1 of great size and height covered these designs and and This idolatrous type was introduced into . colour. Their statues are to be found. . which are a gradual growth in one direction. he has placed Gothic design under the head of deliberate complication. or kneeling in worship to the idols. added to the recurring of the lotus and tree of life or in .DESIGN. This is to be found in Indian carvings and embroideries of a certain date. however. slightly modified by the Italian sort of vulgar ornamentation has Renaissance of that period. These ugly designs are purely conventional. which. sometimes many-faced divinities drove out the beautiful Aryan types. employed as the enrichment of the newly-grown forms of the vaulted roofs. that they were introduced into Mexico in the fourth or fifth centuries A. distorted form or attitude foliage of unnatural. 1 These many-armed. animals destroying each other. in the temple architecture of the first and second centuries. It is hardly necessary to warn our artists against a sort of design which is conventional. or imitating the works of that distant period. resumed their sway when the wave of the Renaissance flowed back to India. Its characteristics are idols in niches or shrines.

each according to its national taste and fashion. and the German Gothic was enriched with fantastic trees and A Gothic flowers.) Nor is this interpretation of Gothic design other than a result of its descent from the Egyptian ancestral motive. and you will find how and twelfth. 1 The most effective. You will see in their embroideries. thirteenth. but often retaining the convolvulus. and convolvulus Even the gigantic columns flowering together into a beautiful cluster. and coloured silks. silver. palm. each design terminating a perspective of architectural forms which figures enhances their brilliancy. probably. carefully the designers of the fourteenth centuries worked up to these ideas. I wish to guard myself against being supposed in any way to argue against other beginnings." forming symmetrical capitals. overhead suggested Gothic ornament as well as Gothic Architecture. While making this passing allusion to the theory that the origin of Gothic decoration is mainly founded on the motive of interlacing stems and foliage. Bayeux I have given a specimen of archaic trees from the tapestry. where the temple columns represented the single stem of the lotus with one large blossom for its capital. effect of reiteration and the 1 and long recurring lines in perspective was essentially the motive of these avenues in stone. shimmering on dark velvet backgrounds. till they meet in blossoms on the highest point of the I cannot but adhere to the old idea that rows of trees meeting arch. AS ART. of the great hypaethral hall at Karnac are only a stupendous exaggeration of the same stalk and flower motive.76 inspired all NEEDLEWORK their decoration . whenever they can be proved. or else a bundle of stems of the lotus. . They are typical of the Gothic botanical idea and style down to the fourteenth century. Here enter the principles of repetition and progression. The Spanish or Moresque Gothic was overloaded with leaves and flowers. like the I first clusters of leaves on a strong young sapling then the branches spreading and interlacing. all when have said before that most decorations have a mixed ancestry. and growing till they culminate in crowns of foliage. shining or pictures in gold. (Fig. and generally carries only one leaf on each branch. only checked at equal intervals by a lovely leaf or burgeon. tree is a very conventional plant . From these were derived soon enriched by substituting the forms of the early Greek column the Acanthus for the Lotus. 13. But I see single or clustered columns starting from the ground spreading at the base like the gnarled root.

than to omit to show where style and design must accompany each other. would be but a barren subject and design. I . must govern the design. Mr. in I do not attempt to do more their history and their influence. It is no longer an artistic delineation of a natural object. Such influences belong to all art and though I am anxious to confine myself to only one section of it. without any reference to design. smaller and less distinct and more delicate ornaments were reserved for the side chapels or for smaller churches. find it difficult to resist the temptation to generalize and . so as to be seen from a great distance. becomes an imitation of another way of rendering such objects. would become lawless. what has been said a I think that previous chapter on the history of style. . All attempts at pictorial art are a mistake in textiles. and only exhibits a laborious and useless ingenuity. must be independent of the material. and soon be lost in the mazes of bad taste and mannerism. 77 were generally employed for the adornment of the high The altar." Perhaps repeat.DESIGN. it is an error of judgment. But the motives of ecclesiastical embroidery will be discussed in a future chapter. the thought alone should govern it whereas in decoration the material must be one of the suggestors of the thought. its use factures . they belong to the craft of embroidery. in it will appear to my readers that here in I different forms. It does not enter into such designs and when by chance it is allowed to be so used. Both subjects are of so large and important a nature that than point out how. it is better to do so. Style. where such distant effects were inappropriate. without reference to style. but . Redgrave says that pictorial art in our manu" is one of our The picture great mistakes.




stray from the prescribed path, when large and important views are opened on every side, as I travel on from

point to point. In sketching the history of design, as well as I may in so short a space, it is only considered in the light in






I repeat that the design should be informed by the motive which suggested it, and by the need which has and it must be moulded to the space it called it forth

has to


and the position






must be modified into different outward forms, according to whether it is to be fitted to the edge of a building against the sky to a high panelled wall to be applied to the emas a frieze, or round the capital of a pillar
; ;

broidered cover of an


bed, or the framed flat In fact, " intention," " place," and " shape" are necessary motives and limits to a flat design.

or the silken hangings of a spaces on the walls of a saloon.

Leaving aside
adhering only to





my own

subject, embroidery,


secondly, in the domestic and comfortable be adorned and made cheerful and thirdly, as decking the refined and gay saloon or banquetting-hall. To the church we should devote the most splendid and effective contrasts, to blaze unframed against dark empty backgrounds, or amidst stone and marble decorations something set apart from its surroundings, and asserting

gested. of a church

observations to the three purposes here sugFirstly, as the central effect of the holiest part

room, to



that separation,


the desirable effect to be attained.


totally different set of rules


into play

when we

have to

select the decorations of a

background does not


bedroom. Here a are surrounded by four

walls very near to the eye, so that perspectives are a secondary interest, if indeed they can claim any con-



severe and magnificent ornamentation


of place, except perhaps in that time-honoured institution to be found in every great house possessing a suite of




bedroom, where the


play of hangings and embroideries was the first motive of the decoration of the past, clothing and garnishing the

bare spaces on the lofty walls. Space and separateness are not the object or aim of the bedroom of to-day but

lightness, snugness, and cheerful comfort, with which the design of the textile ornaments have much to do. This will in a later chapter come under the head of furniture. For the saloon we may accept any splendour of rich and costly design, and the variously shaped panels assist in suggesting the form of the decoration. The plain or moulded panels, called in Italian "targhe," or shields, seem to be descended from the actual shields of gold which Solomon hung on the walls of the king's house 1 in the Forest of Lebanon. The motive was apparently and traces of it are also to be found in Assyrian Tyrian,



practice of framing the design gives opportunities

change of materials, colour, and pattern, permitting the employment of different flat surfaces laid on each the framed other, and scope for endless enrichment

picture being, perhaps, the central culminating attraction, crowning, as it were, the textile ornamentation.

merely give these instances as illustrating the rule that we have more than once laid down, that a design cannot fitly be employed except in the position for which

the artist has composed






I will, however, add that due consideration to the give


Kings x.; Ezek.

xxvii. 10,


See Stanley's "Lectures on the

Jewish Church."
2 " Nineveh and its Remains," Layard's " Ancient Monarchies," vol. ii. p. 2.








preparation of each work for

intended use, yet


often have charming suggestions offered to us, by the chance acquisition of a beautiful artistic specimen, which

place and accommodates itself to the surrounding colours and forms. These are the happy accidents of which the cultivated artistic eye takes


advantage, adding them to the experience which may help those who are seeking for the rules of harmony and
contrast in design. Research into the mysteries and principles of design applies to woven arabesques and patterns, and must include machine-made textile ornament, and all de-





in fact,

the fabric for the

which most especially needs the careful study When a plant sends forth hundreds of guiding rules. of winged, wind-blown seeds, like the thistle, it spreads itself over wide fields, and is more mischievous than
r a more noxious growth, such as the deadly nightshade, which only drops an occasional berry into the earth. So


chintz or carpet, with a poor, gaudy, motiveless design, carries a bad style into thousands of

common cheap

homes wherever our commerce extends

disgracing us,

corrupts the taste of other nations.

In addressing our young designers, I would remind them that in art the race is not always to the strong. Prudence and educated powers, thoughtfulness and study,
often carry us where unassisted and uncultivated genius has signally failed. Even such facilities as are afforded

by the acquirement of freehand drawing, as taught
schools of



The workman are not to be despised. his tools, or they will hamper should thoroughly master
learn to draw.
that you should and observation this, appreciation are necessary, and due balance in outline and colour should be studied and all this is as much needed in


step towards design






drawing a pattern as


composing a




our art being only decorative, wherein beauty and fitness are to be remembered, and nothing whereas the picture may have to record historical else



to awe or to touch or to inspire poetical thoughts decorative design is only asked to beholder.


delight him.

evoked by

Intelligent delight, however, can only intelligent art, and to this, decoration must





IN the last chapter on design I have described patterns as the examples or illustrations of the art of decoration, and as being the records of the motives which produced

them in different eras. My present object is to class and define patterns as decorative art. It is argued by some archaeologists that the recurrence of
a pattern, for instance the proves that



came from many

wave," over the whole world, sources, under the

same conditions of


showing also that a

a thing that/ like a flower, must grow, if the pattern do not believe this. I culture of the race be equal.


can nearly always trace the family history of a pattern to its original motive and in the very few cases where we are unable to do so, it is hardly necessary to

cover our ignorance by stretching the fashionable theory of development over the few instances that are as yet

have been repeatedly asked to procure or to invent Such is my respect for the decorative a new pattern. achievement called a " pattern," that I cannot hope for the moment of inspiration in which I might create such If any one has in his lifetime invented a a thing. pattern, he has done something truly remarkable, and as rare as is a really original thought on any subject.


are commonly, like men, the result of many of long descent from ancestors of remote



differ from their ancestors through inand surrounding conditions, and through the modifying powers of evolution, climate, and education. So also a pattern has, besides its ancestry and descent, the unconscious mark or seal of its day and it is easy to trace whence it comes, if we set ourselves to examine the



style of



patterns of which we can nearly always name at once the nationality, are the Assyrian, the Chinese, the Egyptian, the Hindu (Aryan and Turanian), the



Persian, the Archaic and the highly developed Grecian Roman, the Celtic, the Byzantine, the Arabian, the

Gothic, the Renaissance, the Spanish Plateresque, the Louis Quatorze, and those of the art of Central America.


pattern cannot exist without design. Design intention and motive. Many of the motives in

Oriental textile decorations are suggestive of intention, is shown by their names. Among Indian patterns we

meet with

sunshine and shade," &C. 1 peacock's neck," pigeon's eye," Patterns must be classed either by their dates, when


of silver/'


ascertained, or according to their style, which must genevast areas and periods irregularly rally be allowed to cover

down, overlapping, or being absorbed or effaced by the circumstances they have encountered. Only when a national style has been obstinately fixed, as in China, and bound down by strict laws and religious

formulas, suited exactly to the people for whom they were evolved out of the national life, and imprinted on

by their own lawgivers, philosophers, and priests and neither imposed by conquerors, nor swept over by the waves of a new civilization only in such cases can



G. Birdwood


" Chundtara "

(moon and

us of patterns of an Indian brocade called stars), figured all over with representations

of heavenly bodies.







find a continuity of decorative art which leads us far back on its traces. Then, on this long track, we learn

man, the decorating animal, has really advanced He has gone more than once in his powers of creation. to a certain point, and has then either been petrified by law and custom turned into a pillar of salt, like Lot's wife, because he has looked back instead of striving to


advance, or else through poverty or satiety has fallen into " sans eyes, sans teeth the last stage of the Seven Ages,
sans everything."







perceived nor desired, then the arts, small and great, dwindle and disappear, and nothing remains to show that

they have been, but a name, and perhaps a pattern. Chinese design is the most striking example of the
of these phases and the extinction of all classical art with the fall of Paganism in Rome is an instance of the second.


In the chapter on style ineffaceable as a word.




that a pattern


But one


disappear for a time, till the ruin that covers it is cleared away, and the lost design recovered and employed simply
as a decoration,
if it is



or perhaps fitted with
to their


new meaning, and so it makes a fresh start. The importance of patterns, when traceable
means of investigating

origin, as a

historical influences

much insisted on, and their history is of suggestion as a guide to the decorator. Much has been argued and much ascertained from the evidence
cannot be too

of these fragments of national civilizations, showing how an idea or a myth has been, as it were, engrafted into the essence of another national idea, partly altering what it

and changing to fit itself to its new surroundings. Eastern patterns have travelled far, and lasted long and continue still to hold the fancy, and exercise the ingenuity,

of the artist and decorator.

When we

find a




of which the nationality is strongly marked, it is worth our while to ascertain its date and history, which will help us to recognize cognate design wherever we may meet it.


this is often not to

be done


and then



best to set these puzzling examples aside, and to await patiently the elucidation, which may come from some

source of which


are as yet ignorant.

In very early art we have little remaining but patterns, on which we may found theories by tracing them home to their original source. The oldest patterns had each a meaning and an intention. When a pattern has been enduring and far spread, it is because it was originally the expression of an idea or a symbol. In the earliest dawn of civilization, the arts were the repositories of the myths and mysteries of national faiths. Embroidery was one of these arts, and the border which edged the garment of a divinity, the veil which covered the grave of a loved one, or the flower-buds and fruit which fringed the hangings and curtains in the sanctuary, each had a meaning, and therefore a use. These symbolical designs and forms were constantly reand all human ingenuity was exercised in produced reforming, remodelling, and adding perfect grace to the

expression of the same idea.


may be ranged
Naturalistic, the





Primitive, the Geometrical.

Conventional, and the

primitive are those of which we know not the To us they ancestry, and rarely can guess the motive. The naturalistic in general, simply rude decorations. are,


are those which are borrowed from natural forms, and are either only imitative, or else convey some hidden meaning.


conventional are those which, by long descent, have





to be accepted simply as ornamental art, with or without reference to an original motive, now lost. The

geometrical or symmetrical are founded on form only, and in so far resemble our experience of the primitive they

express no meaning, and only serve to satisfy the eye by their balance and their ingenuity.




patterned forms with which


are acquainted

are the primitive. They are found in all parts of the inhabited world. In our present ignorance as to the

beginnings of the scattered tribes of men, we cannot judge if these are the remains of an earlier art or the first

germs of a new one.

thing there is no doubt this primitive decoration consists entirely of pattern that is to of the repetition of certain (to us) inexpressive say,
: ;

Of one

forms, which by reiteration assume importance and in some degree express beauty the beauty of what Monsieur Blanc calls

unintelligible forms,

After these


which simply by

become accepted


come those

the Prehistoric, of which

we know

or guess something

to their original meaning, and which, having been reduced from the hieroglyphic-symbolical to the conventional, have thus crystallized themselves, by constant
use, into a pattern. " "

Such, for instance,
pattern, which


the simplest

very early art was a representation of water. The prehistoric water or wave patterns had other forms for instance, zigzags, upright or horizontal, and

form of the



undulating lines which are intelligible as expressing smooth or rough water. In general, however, the primitive and prehistoric patterns convey no idea, and consist, as we have said elsewhere, of lines, straight or wavy,

PI. 10.


I, 4, 9, 12,



Greek Wave Patterns.
5, 6, 7.

Broken Wave.

Wave. 10, Museum).

Key or Maeander, Greek Wave. 3. Greek Egyptian Smooth and Rippling Water Patterns. 8. Mediaeval n, 14. Assyrian. 15. Persian or Greek (from Glass Bowl, British 16. English Waves (Durham Embroideries.)





sometimes intersected of angles, zigzags, groups of dots, rings and little discs, and crosses of the Zwastika


(Plate 10.) shall the

tartan be placed


It is


primitive, and apparently had no intention beyond that of employing as many coloured threads as there were dyes, so as to form the brightest contrasts, or else to be as
invisible as possible either in the sunshine or in the shade.

The Gauls brought


kind of weaving with them from

the East, and probably invented the pattern, if such a motiveless design can be so called. It had its classical



Polymita," and was admired in

Rome when newly

and barbaric. and Boadicea wore a tartan dress on the day of her defeat. Perhaps even then fashions came from France, and it may have been her best tunic from across the Channel. This fabric may have been imported by the Belgic Gauls, and was so easily woven on house looms, that it became in time the feudal dress of the Scottish tribes and clans, and the colours were ingeniously arranged to show the most




The Romans found


in Britain,


different effects.


for the woollen trade,

tartan has always been a resource and the fashion constantly recurs

France, either from sentiment or the actually inherited but it remains a primitive pattern, and Gallic taste No embroidery can soften nothing can make it artistic.

the constantly recurring angles, and only fringes can be employed to decorate a tartan costume. Pliny tells us of

the ingenuity of Zeuxis, who, to show his wealth, had his name embroidered in gold in the squared compartments

of his outer garment. Primitive patterns


linger in many savage nations, Curious to but especially throughout uncivilized Africa. say, the very ancient fossilized early art of Egypt does

" Pliny,

Natural History,"



c. 8,


animals. in the fallen a laudable effort to reach the motive without the shackles prey to symbolism.) It is remarkable that one very beautiful class of birds. We shall find these phases everywhere in the design of patterns. and belonged to the time when unwritten thought was first recorded by pictured signs. reptiles. insects. which then ceased to be merely decoration. fruits.88 NEEDLEWORK AS ART. We find that the naturalism of the earliest Egyptians and Asiatics shells by the effort hidden meaning or mystery. Art of the naturalistic patterns are constantly is always tending to realism. NATURALISTIC. which last symptom of rules. Nos. . by simple repetition. Each phase has marks the decline and fall of art. and the most effective. The barbarous tribes of the West Coast of Africa alone seem to have appreciated their forms. to conventionalism. though lead us into prehistoric times. (Plate n. i and 2. to reduce to patterns the forms of flowers. The first change from naturalism into the conventional was through symbolism. The phases recurring. or to mannerism. not when were much used in the decorations of the reigns of Queen Anne and Louis Ouatorze. and other natural objects. and added them to their small repertory of naturalistic European patterns. Naturalism has always striven. not assist us to trace it may it back to a prehistoric style. natural objects is rarely employed in ancient decoration l shells and corals. or Asiatic textiles They do till appear in any the seventeenth century. In flower patterns the simplest forms by repetition make sometimes the richest patterns. and then to was soon entirely absorbed to express fit some the represen- 1 There is a shell pattern in gold on a twelfth century fragment of a Bishop's garment at Worcester.

Page 88. Persian Flower Border. Assyrian. 3.I. 4. 2 of HeadEgyptian Border. composed dress of the god Nile (Wilkinson's "Ancient Egyptians"). . Assyrian.


though quite The conventional form often distinct. tecture combined." always recurred to the restoration of the ancient motive. to decorative art. and became the sign of an idea. and of the value given to their intention and use in Egypt and India. but continually returning to naturalism in India.PATTERNS. blossom. where the Aryan ten" dency. and many emblematic meanings attached to them. buds. In the India naturalistic Museum we may see the " wave" motive converted into a lotus pattern by rolling the long stems. are notable examples of these transmutations in style and intention. where each development was immediately crystallized into a recognized pattern. tation to a special place and purpose. superseded and effaced the naturalistic. and " It received its mot given its place and language. where every effort was made to secure eternity on earth. or the hieroglyphic picture of a thing . with the assistance of the Code of Manu. as it were. and its blossom. which had so long represented only the wave. all The crest. immovable and unalterable in Egypt. 89 and to restore it. and the flowers. and filling up the spaces between with the full-faced Sometimes the pattern is started by the figure of an elephant. now . substituted for the wave's rolling pattern " filled many a frieze in Indian temple archiwhereas the lotus stems in Egypt were still bound in sheaves to form columns. cTordre" and continued to act upon it long after the meaning was forgotten or out of date. can mix and unite. The the lotus and the patterns founded on its forms. showing how their principles. ." was given to the really straight stem of the lotus. from whose mouth the stem of the flower This occurs so often that it must of the sun proceeds. Here we have symbolism and conventionalized naturalism. and leaves spread and blossomed into capitals.

132. painted not "take" if they are ordered and ranged. its decorative use as a pattern was Egyptian. do Sunflowers. is somewhat false and affected. and reduced to a many-leaved radiating pattern may be found as an architectural ornament on the outside of the Buddhist " topes. have had a meaning. Sometimes the sacred convolvulus takes the place of the lotus. and are. See Wilkinson's "Ancient Egyptians. a sort of 1 recognized hieroglyphic representing the idea of a lotus. in his " " and tongue pattern. and so returned to India. 3 The lotus is almost entirely lost as a native growth in India. in ourr art of to-day. They must be naturalistic." vol. 133. have Sir G. The lotus was the accepted emblem of the sun. pp. and. Birdwood's authority for believing though the actual lotus was a native of India. " Manners and round baskets of fresh blossoms. but also an objet de luxe. remind us of a disorderly whereas in India they were adapted cottage garden .) On an Egyptian mural painting are seen parties of men snaring ducks among papyrus and lotus plants. (Plate 12." 3 Can it be our Aryan descent which induces in us the earnest adoration. I cannot give up the evident descent from egg the lotus flower 1 and bud . and it may be so in this case. 2 (Plate 13." of which the models are on the staircase of the British Museum. See Wilkinson's Customs of the Ancient Egyptians. and is The lotus blossom in Egypt was not only fast disappearing in Egypt.) We that.go originally NEEDLEWORK AS ART. slaves carried guests were presented with the flowers. At their feasts. of our northern I fear that we must prototype of the sun's emblem ? acknowledge that our aesthetic worship of our sunflowers ^Estheticism is not art. or embroidered as decoration. if possible." . and carried thence to Egypt. These are entirely conventional. and reduced to a pattern like those of Egypt. Both accepted it as their " sunflower. 2 " Tektonik. iii. and as they faded. but I have said before that a pattern has sometimes a double parentage. 350." will allow of but one origin for the Botticher. in fact. the honoured a sacred emblem. 553.

12. 6 Sacred Convolvulus. .n. Indian Rolling Lotus Pattern. 4 5 Egyptian Lotus Patterns. Page 90. Indian (seventeenth century). 2 3 Indian Lotus Patterns.


From Christ's College Chapel. however. dispersion. Gothic Sunflower. . when accepted in Europe. Besides the Indo-Chinese patterns in Celtic art. and its crystallization into conventional forms also we can trace how the lotus patterns of Indian art have resulted. (Plate 14.) I have given this account of the patterns founded on the lotus. " flower pattern has become in time the classical egg and tongue . as we can almost from this distance of time take a bird's-eye view of its rise in naturalism. The few remains of Celtic art that have survived are entirely animal. carrying flower . nearly so. Representations of animal forms are sometimes very remarkable in phases of naturalism. its spread. I give an illustration of a Gothic sunflower resembling Fig. from a design of the Royal School of . a transfigured rose and another of an ordered naturalistic sunflower pattern. never a flower or a leaf. may have resulted also from a combination of other motives. 91 from nature on fixed principles. Cambridge. which immediately reduced them to the conventional. we meet with only animal forms . Art Needlework.. which . or very and In their stone. 9. in illuminated MSS.forms which no and how the lotus bud and longer represent a lotus .PATTERNS. and bronze work. in nothing but the rolling wave. gold." which. silver.

suggest the Chinese lattice-work (so strongly insisted on by Semper as a constant motive). Dantzic. geometrical figures in various symmetrically developed combinations. unless Marien-Kirche collection at embroidery This is sugDantzic may be of that style and time. as may be seen in the Book of Kells." Taf. crosses. such as bodies of See the Book of Lindisfarne. . whorls. raids. (PI. and the two Celtic bronze shields in These last are very curious. ''Judging from their illuminated MSS." it is said. such as spirals and nail-heads 1 let into borders . plaits. bows. which are peculiar to the race. suggesting the entrails of animals. who to Ireland. lines show their origin.92 NEEDLEWORK AS ART. zigzags. The long involved the British Museum.) In England much that was characteristic of the style lost as it we was carried soon as the Saxons drove out the Celts. knots. Celtic and the carving of the Harp of Tara. simple or composite zoomorphic forms. and impending warlike counting unless for There is no other way of acthese designs. especially success or failure in the chase. we also find in all their decorations compartments containing involved patterns of cords or strings knitted or plaited. and were marvellously ingenious and beautiful witness the Durham Book . 1 believe they always represent snakes. 15. which by these hunting people were consulted as being mysteriously prophetic of approaching events. and lattice-work next. 31.. of St. in repetitions of the prehistoric cross. Cuthbert. those taken from metal work. and the . " the elements borrowed from textile art by the Celts are textiles We have no Celtic in some the . . jewels in the Irish museums but the interlacing patterns survived throughout Anglo-Saxon art. remaining to us. 3 See " Album of Photographs of the Marien-Kirche. and the shields are enriched with enamel and corals. thirdly. its altogether Indo-Chinese and very barbarous gested by character 2 and one of the coronation mantles in Bock's " " Kleinodien is Runic in its peculiar serpent design.




PI. From a Greek Vase in the British Museum. . 1 6. Demeter. Page 93.


. the daisy. Tomb of the Seven Egyptian Painted and Embroidered Linen.C. Crimea. / \ Embroidery on a Greek Mantle. third century B.PI. the wave. are all shown on this fragment. the bead. the lotus under water. 17. from the Brothers. The cone..


Woven and embroidered on a Sleeve. 18.PI. embroidered. Painted and EGYPTIAN TAPESTRY. . Woven and embroidered. I. 2. 3.

No. is of precisely the same style of design. and. 202. and there are in some instances of human figures reduced to a pattern these sculptured representations of textiles. The peplos of Minerva was bordered with fighting gods and giants. is embroidered with and the embroidered flying genii and victorious chariots mantle lately found in a Crimean tomb. as in the case of the peplos. dogs. when such tionable. 4. naturalistic designs floral embroideries are more safely confined to flat de- walls.PATTERNS. The lion and the hare. Eng. may be as naturalistic as their purpose and style will admit. representing pictures. birds' heads on long necks. are the commonest . (Plates 16 and 17. for Animal forms are often reduced 1 to patterns by repeWollmann and Woermann.) There are curiously woven little human figures finished with the needle on the sleeve of an Egyptian dress in the British Museum. 18). (Plate 2. exceptional. (See Fig. in -each case there should These instances are so happen to be a duplicate. Representations of human figures in embroideries probably originated in hangings for the wall . and the one illustrates the other. of course. and PL 6. i.) In Babylonian. corations. from Saccarah (PI. lizards. and the like.) There are two other examples of such Greek patterns. however. . birds and insects. The mantle of Demeter on a Greek vase in the British Museum. 93 snakes. Trans p. . . for On a design is small. it ceases to be very objecthe whole. Assyrian. dragons. 16). and the Empress Theodora's dress in the Ravenna mosaic repeats exactly the same motive. that it is curious that here. and Chaldean art we constantly find animal forms in patterns. but have been treated as decorative forms. for wearing apparel. both by the Indians and the Greeks. of the best period (PI. tapestries excepting always which." 1 They well understood how to make a pattern by the repetition of objects of any class.

we fall into weak imitations of natural objects. was covered with golden elephants. naturalistic. Elsewhere there is a notice of Miss Morritt's really beautifully embroidered landscapes at Rokeby . 2 century. and educated taste. 2 . An altar subject frontal is. and the knowledge which teaches us what to avoid. yet such mistaken specimens of ingenuity have occurred. Though landscapes are so rarely worked that the of all . founded on the successes and failures of others. reptiles. may We see any day. both as art and as decoration. These exceptional cases do not. perhaps. containing some really exquisitely worked landscapes. exhibited in London a few years ago. and fish in Asiatic patterns. and all who saw them will remember the extremely clever and effective pictures in crewels by an accomplished American lady. for an eccleThis was of the beginning of the last siastical purpose.94 tition in is NEEDLEWORK AS ART. as well as what to imitate. but the colouring is fanciful. While we appreciate and should take advantage of our national tendency to naturalistic design. bulls. and of thinking that nature should be our only guide to an otherwise unassisted and unfettered inWithout the wholesome checks of experience spiration. This must have been Indian. on Persian rugs. in his tomb. shadows tends to the conventional. His mantle was "parsewt" with golden bees. and serpents abound especially in Egyptian insects. hardly worthy of notice. design where animals are sometimes made to walk in pairs. disprove the objections against employing the most unfit and unmanageable materials for producing subjects alien to the art of embroidery. 1 Charlemagne's dress. which were quite out of place. Mrs. however. was exhibited at Zurich. cats. beetles. with their heads and tails twisted into a pattern. Lions. in 1883. Oliver Wendell Holmes. scarlet lions pursuing and The flatness and want capturing blue or yellow hares. 1 The drawing Indian and Persian embroidery. we must beware of looking on fixed rules as bonds which cramp our liberty.

It is the search for to such astonishing these. which to convey a naturalistic than 1 is usual in such heraldic designs 61. The rose of England. which it is said tional form was once a conventional frog. is a convenlikewise. but unlike either. . and therefore how offensive to good taste and common sense. 95 Mr. It may be form said that the conventional includes every the symbolic. or even the hierothat is glyphic selected certain idea. the shamrock. by its nature. Though it is true that the highest art. the lily of France. being successively rejected in compositions the heart of our civilization and culture. or to for his and Continental hotels. as large as life. be sold cheap to furnish and make the English traveller blush SYMBOLICAL AND CONVENTIONAL. are drifted away to vulgarize our colonies. it is to tread on a carpet of water-lilies swimming in blue pools. must be classed under this principle. probably towards the light. and the thistle have always been more ." pp. the art of decoration is. home manufactures. are alarming rather than agreeable. the naturalistic. The lily is something between a lily and an iris. Patterns. but See Redgrave's " Manual of Design. basking before the fire in a wreath of roses. pictorial and sculptural. or on fruits and flowers heaped up and casting shadows 1 Woollen lions and tigers. and are of the nature of a practical joke in art. novelty in naturalism that leads . Let us examine what is meant by a conventional pattern. constantly tending to conventionalism. is always struggling towards naturalism. 50 .PATTERNS. Redgrave points out how unpleasant and jarring to our sense of what is appropriate. if not absolutely geometrical or naturalistic. and consecrated of Florence.

when the religious life myth was lost. Alternation is equally a source of conventionalism. the emblem is or else. only a shawl pattern merely a leaf. n. the " palm-leaf" or is "cone" pattern on French or Paisley the tree of shawls.96 the NEEDLEWORK AS ART. Repenaturalistic tition at once conventionalizes the most and the most sacred and mysterious emblem. having been a sacred emblem in Persia. having commenced by being a symbol. . Nos. will make Then come all the Arabian and Moresque forms (which are mostly geometric). There . and nothing remains but lost . with plant painted within its outlines. One conventional pattern which. spaces to be covered and the materials to be employed. as in the case of the forgotten. became in Europe. the recognized conventional form. and heraldic. having been emblematic originally naturalistic in style. he must repeat it again and again he must give it a strong outline he must distribute it regularly at certain intervals.) conventional in spite of His design must produce a flat pattern. no motive that cannot be conventionalized into a A Gothic crown and a true lily. an ecclesiastical conventional pattern. pattern by repetition. and also the Gothic (which are partly geometric and partly naturalistic. Then we must accept as conventional all may be called kaleidoscope patterns. have been repeated now are and form have been lotus. Decorative designs become He is overruled by the the intention of the designer. especially those in German and debased Spanish and Portuguese Gothic is design). has been repeated and varied till it has allowed the original essential meaning to escape. drawing. decidedly Conventional patterns Lancaster was those which. which those which are broken . 10. (Plate 23. and parti-coloured rose of York conventional. which. but perhaps till the meaning as to their motive. repeated.


Broken-up Key. I. Page 97. 7. Key Pattern. 6. 19. 5. Key and sign of Land.n.") " 9. Wave and Babylonian Daisy. These Key Patterns from Ceiling of a Tomb Saccarah. Key and Sun Cross. Beads. p p ri 2. in Egypt. Key and Fundata. 3. 1 1 4. 9 8. at Ancient (Wilkinson's Egyptians. Wave and Daisy. Wave and Bead. .

having originally had one. and It represents also derived from wicker-work design. i. Arabia. which have by repetition been adapted for decorative art. including the Heraldic. but in Persia. 2. Egypt. where the River Maeander is symbolized by the Appendix. originally Chinese. which never could have had any connection with wicker-work. and finding in each the internal evidence of its descent. in China. the symbolical Pagan or Christian. Greece." He gives. have lost it. where in company with the wave. Conventional patterns may be reduced into three kinds. partly geometrical. sometimes meet and amalgamate.) 17. T. and Central America. Newton. All these exist. or else. as Semper believes. as an instance. as instances of this pattern. certain coins from Priene. by Ch. When it is the origin of a conventional pattern is disputed. Let me give. the naturalistic. to the first edition of Ruskin's "Stones of Venice. religious or historical. repeated or " 97 radiated " so as to become (See PL No. First. . No. It is evident that patterns. India. It may have been. the key pattern. - H .) Can any downwards invention of intention than the man show a more wave pattern ? The airy . wholly conventional. Secondly. angular key pattern. " the broken or dislocated wave. and 1 See Appendix 21. Rome. those conventional forms which may never have had any inner meaning. conventionalized and brought from distant sources." the symbol of the River 1 and for water generally We find it everyMaeander. worth while to examine if it has a double parentage. (PL 19. fragments of old motives. symbolical leap by the force of gravitation drawn controlled. Thirdly. not only .PATTERNS. sometimes apart and sometimes mingled so that some thought must be expended in seeking the motive which has brought them together.

939 944). bill. rushing back under the on its own same circle its . which are the legitimate descendants of Babylonian are curiously fragmentary. to return. In a modern design are to be seen birds. and eyes . yet the locking and unlocking movement suggests a repetition of the Tau." laughs at the Persian and beasts and own 1 frogs. that they at have the merit of being natural. lieve the key pattern to be a modification of the wave form." v. merely remodelling them for their own use. painting. however strongly they exerted themselves off the shackles of conventionality in sculpture. " Aristophanes. and flowing unrest these are the evident intention and symbol eternal of the wave pattern. in The carpet patterns whilst he claims for his flowers least their unnatural birds Frogs. "The Frogs. such as they depict on Persian carpets" (Aristophanes. and architecture. When we the wreaths are carried by dancing recognize the impersonation of the rejoicing of the daedal earth. but strong to insist curve of predilection. we cannot for a moment doubt the sacrificial idea on which the design was founded. to spring again from its original plane beginning afresh Sisyphus labour. 1 " . Undying force. as their perfect taste dictated. nor yet goat-stags. The to throw Greeks. When we admire the friezes of garlands hung between the skulls of oxen and goats. The Persian carpets. little coffee-pots. children. and facing the next effort with the same grace and agility. strengthened by the downward movement . This little touch (Euripides loquitur) Not horse-cocks. and accepted most of the Oriental forms. indicated by a head. to their significance what their cul- ture required at the same time giving infinite variety. yet yielded to the traditional force of the symbolical pattern. and flowers broken art. Though I be- Fig 10. or key of life.98 again NEEDLEWORK made AS ART. and adding .


. Assyrian. 336.PI. 4. Sicilian Silk. 3. 335. 1 2. (Birdwood's " Indian Arts. 331. 20." pp. 5. Page 99. 337-) TREES OF LIFE.

and Roman and consequently George Bird wood says the Horn or Homa was the Sanskrit Soma. from Cashmere and the Hindu dish." 1 (PL 20 24. 2 Indian. still used by the Brahmins. 99 of art throws a gleam of inner light on the struggle towards originality and truth which characterized the Greek art. i. repeated into a pattern. and bits of broken-up wave and key All these. remind us of scraps in a patterns. 2. but of which the tradition and intention were already lost. pp.PATTERNS. the sacred Persian tree." vol. where it European decoration (except was reduced to unrecognizable forms. See Birdwood's " Indian Art. the Tau. thrown together accidentally. art it Greek. Persian. 5. we find that one of those of the widest ancestry and " Sacred Horn. Nos. kaleidoscope. and the juice of which was the first intoxicant of the human race." See PI. an almost leafless succulent Asclepiad. off at the stalks. is constantly placed between two animals. 2 " The Horn. also the prehistoric cross. 6. Babylonian. and small quadrupeds without any particular form . which was a survival of the earliest Italian art. 337. It appears to have changed its conventional form as other plants by fermentation came to the front. ii. chained to it. 4. and was extracted from the plant of Sir that name. H 2 . prevails in the Gothic). 336. In taking stock of Oriental symbolical patterns. Perhaps the indigenous element had been already modified by Phoenician influence. 1 " Soma" or " Homa" (" Sarcostemma Viminale vel Brevistigma"). used as an intoxicating drink by the early Brahmins. or else taken up by chance where history and art have dropped them. 3. merely Greek adaptations with an Etruscan flavour. containing what appeared to be the " spirit of life " the aqua vita. 23. principles of beauty and fitness in literature and in direct contrast to that which was always turning back to those fossil forms which were only respectable on account of their age and their mystery.) longest continuity is the Roman patterns were This all is to be found in .

fruit. and The wonderful into intoxicating drinks. and. newly arrived from the West Indies. . perhaps the tree of life spoken of as is always represented as something like a a conventional portrait of a palm . is accounted for as a pattern of Assyrian and Persian by Dr. even for the most domestic uses. with its AS ART. the sacred tree sculpture and says textiles. cannot be fully comprehended by men whose belief in the supernatural has been 3 Every destroyed by the prevailing material ideas of modern society. and was simply an 1 The Horn " : or Homa. see PI. historical of which each phase in the East had an cause or a symbolical meaning. which different articles are fashioned. (PL 21. thought. 2 Rock's " Introduction. who From middle Asia.) There is a palm-tree which absolutely carries a cone in the heart of its crown of fronds. which keep as much as possible within the limits of the original cone shape. 3 but which in Europe had gradually lost all motive. : " The intimate absorption of Hindu George Birdwood says life in the unseen realities of man's spiritual consciousness is seldom sufficiently acknowledged by Europeans. but Rock says it has every look of having belonged to the family of the Asclepiadeae. Everything that is made has a The materials of direct religious use. 24." It shnib. The cone form in classical art was drawn from the pine cone and the artichoke and in mediaeval art these were sometimes replaced by the pomegranate. Every detail of Indian r .ioo NEEDLEWORK palm. Rock. For its last transformation into a vine. in the late Renaissance by the pine-apple. of some holy growing in Paradise. cxxxi. were each of them moulded into analogous conventional fruit forms. which is convertible and afterwards the vine itself." Sir p. 2 It is a good example of the blending of one vegetable form into another. making the sequence. or some religious symbolism. symbolism of material and colour is to be traced also in the forms of things. and nothing shows this more strikingly than the traditionary works of India. are fixed by religious rule. their weight. 1 This may have to preserve the original motive of the sacred tree helped of life. indeed. and is the earliest antiquity a tradition came down through tree. and the colours with An obscured which they are painted. wish. and deed of the Hindu belongs to the world of the unseen as well as the seen .

Gate of Mycenrc. Page TOT. Persian or Tree of Life and Leopards. Sicilian Silk.Tree of Life and Lions. . 2.


PL 23. Page ioi. 11 Different forms of Tree of Life. from Sicilian Silks. .


PL 24. . and the two animals the Principalities. in which the cone-shaped tree grows at the foot have lost their shape and intention. Modern Embroidery from into a vine. Page 101.


in his Sicilian 2 Sir G. or beasts kneeling to it. re-fashioned and combined with the graceful ingenuity of Greek art. 132. from emblem the design essential Cervetri. tells us that these people still hold the homa to be sacred." 1 The Persian tree of life was not alien to the worship of the Zoroastrian religion of the Sassanides. 2. has so early a beginning that we find it on Assyrian monuments. and is said to have been the origin of the worship of Bacchus. carried in the hands. imagery. 3. These bowls. glass bowls in the Slade collection in the homa alone . and mythological scriptures that have always been their inspiration. sometimes bearing a series of umbels (PI. perhaps. . Aryan or Turanian. 1 In architectural orna2 ment it is called the honeysuckle. represented and it invariably stands between priests and kings. and palm. or embroidered in the upper sleeve of the monarch's tunic. 239). and from it squeeze a juice used by them in their religious ceremonies. (PI. which it had grown to resemble in the days of Greece. (pp. It always represents a shrub. and of which they are the perfected See Sir George Birdwood's " Indian Arts. and covering a mixture of sacred traditional emblems. It is figured on the small bucket for religious rites. 20. cone. Sometimes the expression of the symbol the cone-fruit of the as in the British reduced to two is or even to a blossom. No. pronounced to be Greek of the fourth century B." It is as a subject of homage to men and animals. Here a flower.PATTERNS.. in Southern Italy. a familiar acquaintance with the char-deter and subjects of the religious poetry." part i. it stood for the tree of life. 2.C. of which each petal contains the a plant within a plant. This sacred tree. 101 acknowledged decorative form. Birdwood suggests that the honeysuckle pattern is derived from the Tree of Life. It was introduced by Oriental weavers into and Spanish stuffs. 3 Rock says u that.) decoration. has a religious meaningv and the arts of India will never be rightly understood until there are brought to their study. national legends. which grew in Paradise. Museum. p. 22. have yet to me a strong Oriental character. the Homa of Zoroaster and of the later Persians. " 3 " Essays on the Sacred Writings of the Parsees Haug.) is of seven flowers each.

though it is This is one hardly suited for weaving or embroidery. while touching on symbolical decoration. One mode of drawing and embroidering its flower in India. showing the motive to be often in accordance with the Preinherited pagan symbol. of the earliest patterns which. even as it. and it is common to all decoration. and transfigured into a fresh type. half the blossom is then carefully is to cut it in two .) Another conventional pattern. common to all times of art and all nations. of which the radiance reflected back light upon all that preceded it. 3. even in textiles. before the " " great fundamental idea of the Word was attached to is the emblem of the This was one of the old signs used as a pattern. and Rome. . as I have already said. thus conveying the inner meaning of the sacred flower. 13. Christian Church I shall how that phase of Christian art of the is a great historical it instance deep ancient meanings illustrates . Cross. No. fitness. and almost botanically copied. so early full of mysterious secret allusions to the groping faiths of idolatrous nations. and yet differing from it. so that in Italy it was called the Vitruvian scroll. eminent among these and universally used. is that called in architecture the "egg and tongue" pattern. The Egyptians formed it from the bud and blossom and the pattern is found in India. still survives by its decorative origin. and therefore would only chapter point out here. (PI. claimed to have given it the last touch and finish. and perpetuates the echoes of symbolical its Of the conventional forms of the early speak more fully in the on ecclesiastical art. changVitruvius ing continually and yet retaining its identity. . is supposed to be derived directly from the lotus. Greece.102 I NEEDLEWORK AS ART. having ceased long ago to be a religious emblem or sign.) This. (PL 22. have spoken of the lotus as a naturalistic pattern.


C. Mark of land. 26. Cross from lona. Runic Cross. From the Mantle 27. 25. 23..TJ i T -n_q~n_ P rvi rji e. Indian Sectarian Mark of Sokti Buddhist and Jainies mark.PI. Egyptian and Ninevite. 5. Runic Crosses. Cross at Palenque. Egyptian 8. Page 103. 10. 25. Celtic. Efi aT3 420 L. 13. Early Rhodian Pottery. 19. 7. Emperor of Germany. in Temple dinavian. 16. 4. Scotch Celtic Cross. 9. 3. Chrysoclavus. u. Cross on the Dalmatic of Charlemagne. 28. Stauracin patterns. I. Clavus. 17. prehistoric Cross. 15. 18. Scandinavian Sun and Moon Crosses. Swastika. race. from Norway. 21. From a Greek Vase. 6. Scan14. of Henry II. 765 B. Ditto. of the Sun. .TJ L. 2. Tau Cross. 24. 22. 12. 20.e xL I I A I I L+J L+J TYPICAL CROSSES.


Ajax in a cloak embroidered with zwastika. Vatican. prehistoric water patterns. and Etruscan Museum.i'l. . sun cross. from a vase in Lord Northampton's Collection. 2. 26. Page 103. Pallas Athene.

was called. 25). " is said to be formed of two fire-sticks. In early Greek art the Swastika and Gammadion dress. the said to .PATTERNS. dion (PI. we find also the key pattern. down to the thirteenth <( Gammadion . No. Sir G. the sacred letter of the Greeks. cross belonging to the ancient worship of the sun. from an ready for friction emblem they fell into a pattern. and as a pattern. utterly meaningless. which are endless. The Christian Cross was often formed by converting the It Tau into is the Gamma. an early Greek vase in the Museo Gregoriano. are everywhere. The cross (PI. But the most ancient and universal form of the cross is that of the Swastika. and this you will still . Fergusson names it with the mound buildings. and the are painted Ajax and Achilles playing at dice mantle of Ajax is squared into an embroidered pattern that alternately represents a sun or star and a Gamma- On . as belonging to all Buddhist art and examples of the Swastika are to be found on Rhodian pottery from the Necropolis of Kamiros. on Persian carpets of to-day. 26. or This " prehistoric Fylfote. especially as embroidery petticoats are on Minerva's sometimes worked all over with the latter. 2)." and though it had lost its century. and while the Jews reject the Christian cross. It was a sign and a pattern in pre- was the double of the Tau. find. the Egyptian emblem life. they still claim to have warned off the destroying angel by this sign in blood over the lintels of their historic art. Birdwood gives the Swastika as the sectarial of the Sakti sects in India. laid across each other but losing that meaning. have been the emblem of the cornerstone. where mark . of doors in the first Passover. 103 Chinese ancestors are ennobled by the deeds of their descendants. But it is unnecessary to multiply classical examples.

to-day.NEEDLEWORK AS ART. employed down to the fifteenth century. . "Histoirede l'Art. a guest and a prisoner. enters largely into the illuminations of the Celtic Book of Kells and it is those of the Lindisfarne the Swastika. In the chapter on ecclesiastical art I Fig. I regret that. 1 1 See Perrotet Chipiez. 260."vol. . it continued to preserve the idea of a secret and mystical meaning. in the absence of a translation. There was a pattern called the " crenelated " which apparently was derived from the Assyrian battlement. MSS. The Swastika. both for European and British textiles. both clothed in embroidered garments^arsem/s with the prehistoric cross." by Baron Ernest de Bunsen. is of mysterious and universal antiquity. pp. we dare not say. shall again refer to Egyptian Enemy and Ally. PI. 267. an ally and Of an enemy. together with Both appear in the Persian carpets of and as patterns were. The Gammadion. somewhat conventionalized. in ecclesiastical decoration. original motive. and is found throughout classic art. It is to be found throughout Egyptian and Indian art never in that of Assyria. and has how much more certainly traversed four thousand years. xiv. Rameses the Second we have two the time of figures in a mural painting. I am prevented from availing myself of the accumulated learn- much " ing on the subject of The Prehistoric Cross. as well as the wave pattern. ii. ii. also to be found on the Celtic shields in.the British Museum. this immemorial symbolical and conventional pattern. as well as the Swastika.


PI.) Page 105 . Imitation of a Carpet carved in stone. 27. (In the British Museum. from Nineveh. showing the Indian Lotus and the Assyrian Daisy.

Splendid embroideries of sacred emblematical designs are. Much Many symbols are present to us when we name certain plants. except in the adoption of the lotus for decoration. The forms variety of ornament in are strongly marked wheels or whorls. The lily is the acknowledged sign of purity.PATTERNS. It is 105 in named as an embroidered pattern the inscrip- tion recording votive offerings of dresses in the temple of Athene at Athens. often repeated.) belongs to Assyria are simply leafless blossoms. another stant civilization. 12. and the embroidered garment of a king from one of the sculptures in low relief (Plate i). showing the Assyrian use of the lotus and cone. 27). The sun-myths have enlisted all plants floral legendary lore. the rose of love. in i. conventional and symbolical embroideries of Nineveh. and conventional ornament was largely drawn from them. afterwards influenced Persia. No. which are quite unlike those of 2 India. . fore. or daisies. thereI give one of the beautiful sculptured carpets from Nineveh. What strikes us most. Crenelated Pattern. the honeysuckle of enduring 1 See Appendix. however. and are not borrowed from . (The daisy The flowers as the lotus to Egypt. India. These are best understood by illustrations and. . is the con- repetition and the little these patterns. 1 We know something of the Fig. These are very stately perfectly conventional and decorative and we feel that they have grown where we find them. in the British Museum (PI. has been written on the early symbolism of and flowers. occasionally " Monuments " found. 3 return. the successor of Babylon. such as those from Layard's (Plate 2).

the lion. conviviality. see these double . Later. and painted. the lion and eagle. and are well worthy of the study of the decorative artist. animal decoration became very common. All the virtues and all the vices found their animal emblems conventionalized. family. the elephant is a very common element in a pattern . strength and prudence . the olive of peace. 2 Chinese art is crowded with symbolisms. the of the Christian Church. with a symbolical meaning and thus admitted into art. the serpent. they were conventionalized by being strongly outlined. constantly attracts our attention in the Oriental and Sicilian textiles of the early Christian times. has many attributes. Reptiles and insects are included under the head of " Each was dowered beasts. The symbolism of animals and birds especially. beginning with the symbols of the four Evangelists.io6 faith." and perhaps fishes also. and soon forgot its symbolical motives. strength and dominion . the laurel of poetry. . and to the end of the thirteenth century. strength and gentleness. converted into patterns. remembrance. were . which were succeeded by Renaissance fanciful patterns . friendship. The lion and the goose represent emblems were grouped together. It Ivy means The symbolism and of stones (lapidarid) filled many volumes in the mediaeval ages. most animals were accepted as emblematic in Christian art. in Persia. It is an emblem of the mysteries symbolizes plenty. When the use of heraldic illustration was added to the already accepted symbolism. coloured flat and by repetition without variation. and were 2 thus woven. the lion and dove. in European textile decoration. We may emblems on Sicilian textiles. NEEDLEWORK AS ART. Some plants have accumulated more than one meaning. of beasts (fatiaria) t l of})\t&s(volucraria). certain Egypt. and the palm of victory the oak of strength. in In animal patterns. embroidered. The vine . joy. and then the conventionalized beast and 1 its symbolism In India.


3. 4. [. . Gothic Border of a Dress. Gothic Vine.PI. Westminster Abbey. 2. Gothic Tiles. 28. Page 107.

1 and Egypt. hanging. however. as well as that of the Holy 2 Ezekiel Roman xvii. 1 The double-headed eagle was the badge of Saladin. . survived. became a subject for textile art. In the early mosaics. Byzantine patterns have a barbaric stamp. The altar decorations received a new stimulus as historical records. which became a science in mediaeval days and every man and woman in any way remarkable. The eagle has always meant empire. except was a direct copy of an Oriental design. a double royalty.PATTERNS. Empire. symbolically. and pride and piety were equally enlisted in these gifts to the Church. or dress. Constantinople and Rome. and animal. national event. Fig. . 2 we approach the subject of heraldry. disappeared from European decoration. 107 when it Certain symbolical forms have. every chivalrous action and . represents a type and not an in Gothic foliage patterns. from Bayeux tapestry. as well as religious symbols. and the double-headed eagle. and yet have much of the grandiose about them but they are to the last degree conventional. and was woven or worked with the needle on banner. every face and head. both in every flower individual. England and elsewhere. as Ezekiel represents Babylon But here two eagles.13- Gothic Trees.

and died of the Renaissance are all guided by patterns the principles of repetition and duplication. (PL 28. its which had had out. so as to balance and yet differ in every detail. whereas the Gothic aspired to a developed gracefulness and the Renaissance. last in pagan Rome for pagan purposes. like butterflies to frolic for a day of gay enjoyment. Their . before the Byzantine inartistic taste. are a struggle between the naturalistic and the conventional. The doubling the pattern. but without any inner meaning. . had culminated.) All the Renaissance patterns. vegetable forms thick-stemmed and few-leaved. we generally find the parts come from various sources and having served . floating in the breeze. which preceded it. or butterflies. assumed all the freedom of natural flowers and plants. The general forms of figures. graceful forms group together to cover empty spaces with every regard to the rules of design and composition. principal lines thus echoed one another but the artist was permitted to vary the conventionalism of the . and a protest against the solemnity of all Gothic great day. were born again. which. had extinguished all the gay fancy of the arts of Southern Europe. Amongst the conventional patterns which have de- scended to us.roS NEEDLEWORK AS ART. had been 1 slightly refashioned fo Christian decorative art. are purely decorative. fruit. If we take these arabesques to pieces. or that of art. which succeeded it. The mediaeval revival was a return to the light and fantastic. generally charming. which repeats as if folded down the middle. itself to right and left. as their name denotes. 1 and are in general use without any In the earliest days of Christianity. show their and from which it was modified and elevated. on their delicate stems. and barbaric splendour of metal-work patterns. The Norman style and the Romanesque. flowers.


Page 109. supposed to have belonged to Hatfield House. Indo-Chinese Coverlet. . 30 Oliver Cromwell.PI.


Page 109. Egyptian.ri. 31. Portion of a Phoenician Bowl from Cyprus. Egyptian. . THE FUNDATA OR NETTED PATTERN. Egyptian.

the fisherman's century. in Japan. 33 the College of Navarre. which is twelve or thirteen hundred years old." 36.PATTERNS. . There is an example of the cloud pattern in Aelfled's embroidery at Durham and it is often found under the feet of saints in painted glass and embroideries before the fourteenth . fundata. and took its place amongst early Christian patterns. as well as the centre of a Phoenician bowl from Cyprus. rial. is derived from funda. century. The same of an Archbishop netted pattern was found in the grave of York of about the end of the thirteenth Its name. 31. covered with what appeared to be a gold network It is supposed to be the same as covering the stuff.p. and is supposed to have been originally derived from Central Asia. particular symbolical 109 meaning being attached to them. also.) tical inventories as late as the fifteenth century. and is found as an ornament on the head of the sceptre in the collection at Nara. This is to be found in early Chinese and Indian art. in later times. and is named in ecclesias(PI. It came through Byzantium. (torn. 1 (PL 30. p. Intro- duction. pp. on which the central medallion is filled with white horses careering amidst the cloud pattern. It varies in shape. 84)." ii.) The netted pattern called it Fundata is extremely ancient. we must instance those derived from the Cloud pattern. iii. that 2 worn by Constantine.) The cloud pattern is also Japanese. in 1498. it was called laqueata. but I do not recognize it in Egyptian or Greek decoration. in We find in Egyptian mural paintings. (PI. 20. p. as cited by Rock. See Rock's Intronet . 1 " A cloud pattern from which issue two clasped hands is the device He lived at of Guizot Marchand or Guido Mercator. 29. 2 See Gori liii. printer. Dibdin's " Decameron. now in The mediaeval Fundata was a silk matethe Louvre. A belonging to the curious Indian example exists in a coverlet Marquis of Salisbury. said to have been the property of Oliver Cromwell.

are the Moorish. Another instance is shown here of the fundata " Monuments. consisting of a rich border of repetitions of the tree of life . 34. or of vine stems meeting or parting. and sought to represent nothing on earth.).i io NEEDLEWORK AS ART. The patterns which are apparently composed with the intention complicated domes." The wheels sometime enclose is (PI. The whole design of the bowl is Babylonian. plate 62. face. but never anything naturalistic for a moment When animals were introduced it was always as a pattern doubled face to . Clermont Ganneau's " L'Imagerie Phenicienne. their honeycombing. There " in Auberville's a fine instance of this wheel pattern Tissus." occurring in the bronze flat bowl copied from Layard's 2nd series. It was all floreated and meandering design the motive reminding pne of the pine-apple and the acanthus. Our modern designs have phases patterns of rich duction (p. are neither animal. which were of the culminating period of clever and fantastic conventional We may a straight line. as if folded down the Louis say Quatorze and the Louis Quinze styles. liv. vegetable. 736. and their ingenious conventional forms but cover equally textile fabrics or stucco ceilings without in their . Ch. suggesting any idea. little knobs often seen on their head- . ii. and appear to be simply conventional wheels." Coupe de Palestrina . p.) triumphal cars and other pictorial subjects. and Chaldee et Assyrie. and the which our great-grandmothers brocades See also M. each has the peculiar ornament of dresses. and like their Arab and Sicilian models. In France they were called rods. All the splendid Italian brocades and velvet damasks were of conventional patterns. of imitation. They They show no motive of avoiding all meaning. represented. All the wheel patterns are very ancient. in Perrot and Chipiez. nor anything else. and also like their Spanish contemporaries. religious or symbolical. same of the succeeding decoration.

with an occasional pair of birds. placing it in the centre of composition facing you leaves arranged surrounding so as to formalize and the it. 14. are east. are very objectionable. however. but lying north. poverty which results from the absence of any active It is. The only defect is the and some of our copies of the patterns. and informing motive. came into fashion again about the third decade of Now we have been trying to find our inthis century. spirations further back. the design. imitating the motive of the tree of life. tition A pattern.) may be con- ventionalized and radiated by the . for instance. 14. we may A say vulgar. four times round a centre. west. easier to criticize than to create. or a natural flower repeated exactly. natural flower (Fig. I would venture here to find fault with a very common method of converting a natural object into a conventional pattern. Radiated Pattern. by radiaCertain modes of repetion. Fig IS- though there is nothing really unnatural in the way in which Radiated Sunflower. south. i r i wore. repeated Fig. and more or less inartistic. have been very pretty. almost It has been already observed that by repetition to a pattern. simpler Sicilian or a conventional plant. grow. but taste must be reduced object may made to of a radiated any be exercised in the selection of what is appropriate and . The illustration they are sunflower explains my meaning.PATTERNS.

^ It is amusing to find Fig. will yet into seems one Fig. and recalling original use. When thus reduced to the appearance of a little it. is also really a useful factor in conventional artist but common here as well as taste. by a judicious arrangement of light and shadow. accepted pattern. Indian Balcony Pattern. The awning of the was often reproduced times the classic in hypsethral hall or court Roman its arabesques.112 beautiful. and even the branches of a tree cannot be so treated. Afghanistan. Some- we find it in a classical tomb. and by There is a little frieze in one of the Indian repetition. . 16. how which fall it impossible to reduce to a pattern. N'EEDLEWORK AS ART. it needs it some thought to recognize and give a form credit for its first motive. British Museum. and descending to fill up the panels of tea-cadclies and surround keyholes. from steps of tope of Jamal-Zartri. called "the shell. ruff. flower. 17. sense must guide the In radiating the forms of a . Radiation art. . painted over This was revived in the Cinque-cento Renaissance and again in Adams' " Eighteenth Century Decorations/' it became an ceiling. nature gives endless hints of beauty but a radiat- ing pattern of human figures would be ridiculous." losing its original motive.

pp. pp. 20. This balcony pattern is of the sixth century. 241). The ancient palmated pattern called Chrysoclavus. 527-31 (Eng. originally the primiafterwards promoted to being an : ornament of discs in colour or metal Etruscan. 129 . Till lately I shall discuss English playing-cards showed the same dress-pattern. (See way it " Cartes a Jouer. Trans. 336 (post). and Mycsenean. He 1 gives this wicker-work origin to the universal key See Bock's "L. A. Dipt. tive It .) 1 this was Assyrian. utensils. ii. p. it Handbuch Rom. and for decoration." vol. cases on the staircase in the British 113 Museum. from the beginning of our era to the thirteenth century was partly a nail-headed design.) and the Chrysoclavus pattern is carved on their chairs. Among parently the no conventional patterns which have aphidden meaning. Halberstadt. Semper shows that wicker (including bamboo work) was the foundation of all Chinese civilized life. 275 calls Marquardt. (PL 70. for constructing houses. and had become a Christian symbol. "Thes. I . probably. " was the name given to the palmated or triumphal pattern with clavus which the consular robes are invariably embroidered in the Roman Authorities Consular ivories at Zurich. the Latin Clavus and the Chrysoclavus amongst ecclesiastical em- Museum. spot pattern was. British Museum." " . Gori. Gewander.PATTERNS.D. but which clearly show are their descent." an anonymous French book in the print-room of the The kings and knaves wear the Byzantine humeral. Alt. 308.). which is extremely pretty and of little effective. the Chinese and Japanese wicker is and lattice-work designs. p." vii. It consists of a repetition in pairs. ii. The tenacious life of this pattern appears in the fifteenth century broideries. bridges. Birdwood differ in describing the Chrysoclavus. Sir G. balconies with recesses and pillars and figures I give it as illustrating the way conventional patterns grow." pp. The " Chrysoa button pattern (" Indian Arts. and in the South Kensington is curiously shown in the on Italian playing-cards. The beauty of these wonderful.

however. See Wilkinson's "Ancient Egyptians. It is found also on garments in Iceland. No. painted perhaps about 1600 B. in Egypt. at distant and apparently without any connecting link of ancestry or For veils. and winter bonnets and summer muslin veils displaced the old costume. have a double source and the wicker-work. Then the ancient motive told claim its own tale. . 17. p.C. whither the Greek patterns must have drifted through Norway. and. wave. This is easy to account for when fashion. 1 the Tuscan border. " the disturber." had not yet existed." i.) We meet it every where in ancient and modern decoration. (PI. there they remained. I have often spoken of the extraordinary survival of a pattern. as they could go no further. There are several forms of it on a large terra-cotta vase in the British Museum from Kameiros in Rhodes. and the Bead. and but its it great age was its to perpetual youth is more remarkable periods. NEEDLEWORK AS ART. We find the Key pattern in a tomb at Essioot. 2. and on Chinese fictiles and embroideries. instance. be even as late as the time of Alexander the Great. the Egg and Tongue. the which may.ii4 pattern. down to thirty years ago. These patterns are now being printed in England on scores of cotton curtains for beds and windows. the women the of Genoa wore printed with Indian conventional large cotton tree and beast pattern. when the fashion changed. 1 . however. The date of these mural paintings may.. 125. where we meet with revivals style. the Daisy. and the Wave. in company with some other very old friends.

The Angular Forms. oblongs. including straight and wavy lines. may be reduced to a very few Varied adjustments of Square and Circle. The Line. I cubes. including squares. &c.PATTERNS. Geometrical patterns primitive elements. 2 . 5. 2. IT 5. 1. GEOMETRICAL.

How worthily a church may be thus adorned may be seen on the vast area of the floor of . and come down to the floor-cloth designs of to-day. diamonds. which nearest approach textile design. ments in mosaic either secular or ecclesiastical. from which so many of the embroideries in the Italian pictures of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries are probably all descended. have. The The Triangular. They show much ingenuity in Most of these clear of any possible meaning. For be blended or mixed so as to form endless instance. NEEDLEWORK AS ART.) Right angles may intersect each other so as to produce the whole gamut of Chinese lattice-work decoration. Their tiles. the square and the circle can intersect each other in different proportions. indeed. 4. keeping conventional patterns are founded on the ogee-arch and a kind of honeycomb pattern. including zigzags. each time the balance is altered or the phase of the repetition varied. All these can varieties. and the Celtic and Scandinavian entwined patterns. Geometrical patterns begin with primitive forms. The illustration will explain this. and are created on the principle of avoiding in art the representation of any created thing. Circular. certain vegetable forms added to the others. discs. involved and inverted. so as to give an entirely new effect to the pattern. The Opus Alexandrinum beautiful furnishes us with most examples and adaptations for. but always geometrically arranged as no vegetables ever - grew. &c. (Fig.n6 3. The Moorish patterns are geometrical. including all spots. and radia- tions. decorations. 18. large or small so as to form the richest or the simplest floor spaces. in They can be extracted endless variety from the combinations This style is well suited for paveof the kaleidoscope.

or that of the Church Mark in Venice. whose productions are. We shall hardly ever find sand. with nodal-points on a plate of metal or glass. likewise. and therefore the simpler the geometrical pattern is. and make the best background to more resplendent embroideries is partly owing to their being forms. in i r 7 Rome. their beauty. simply alarming. of which a more use may yet be made. covered sound. which must not be perfectly and yet not too disturbing to the eye. the better. carpets in passages or on staircases much better than any other kind of design. require enclosing or framing for large areas. and seventeenth centuries are almost always geometrical. in this direction. only These expressionless designs are well fitted for spaces The fine quilting patterns of the sixteenth overlying them. Santa Maria Maggiore of St. and flatness are the greatest merits in such forms. If we turn to nature to assist us with new geometrical most exquisite forms in the and in the crystals of every newly-fallen snowflake. and especially for embroideries. might exercise We ingenuity giving really fine and effective designs to our workers in patches. and struck by patterns. shall find the we in these a repetition of exactly the is same combination. The in artistic textiles nearest approach to the Opus Alexandrinum has been in Patchwork. and . plicity as in shadowless patterns for textiles. and their variety only equalled by . and form the best They suit Both eye and mind figured backgrounds for pictures. and conveying no idea or inherited meaning. often need repose.PATTERNS. which and borders in which the centres are elaborated. Complicated and too Simingenious combinations are painfully fatiguing. in general. they are suited plain. so as to distract it from the more important ornaments on the wall or ceiling.

I shall. through This such vast regions of technical study. I must again name the " Textrinum Antiquorum. From Colonel Yule's tl Marco Polo. I. therefore. THE its history of an art must. " Der Stil is a work of reference on this Semper's <( should." and his abundant notes. Indian art are most Egyptian textiles are splendidly illustrated by Sir . by a good translation. in the this immutable East. from which I venture to quote largely. more or less. cannot be appreciated but through the study of the first and only volume of this already rare book." by Yates. Among books on textile materials. or rather the impossibility. Bird wood's books on instructive.which have always been most important in the different phases of our civilization.iiS CHAPTER IV. is include that of too true to be disputed. raw material. but in the art of embroidery it opens out such endless avenues. only dedicate a few pages to the history of those fibres . MATERIALS. so valuable that it century. that we must acknowledge the difficulty. be placed within the reach of non-German scholars. we learn much of Asiatic textile art in the thirteenth subject. of including in one volume even a tithe of the information already collected. His premature death. RAW MATERIALS. and the loss that the world of art and manufacture has sustained by the chain of his invaluable researches being broken. and its early traditions and Sir G.

the structure of the tender filaments of . form and facts. and its individual capabilities for the purposes for which they appear to us to have been created. the forms of these raw materials differ greatly.e. Here is a wide field for for gathering information regarding the materials embroidery in past ages. the soil and climate comes from. has always a shiny outer surface. When we use the phrase " with an aesthetic contempt for art of man has neither manipulated nor reorganized. the clothing and adornment of man's dress and his home. . from Homer to his day. joints like those . i. of a cane. Semper description is different says that approaches the ribbon form. of the wonderful inherent beauty and microscopic delicacy of form.MATERIALS. Periplus of the Erythrean Sea. cotton. and pipe-like apparently with breaks or cylindrical. Gardiner Wilkinson. All these 1 j 119 modern writers quote and Pliny quotes all the Pliny and the Periplus classic authors. colour. that every and somewhat puzzling. if not ignorance. Cotton also varies so much in its own kind. we show our own coarse appreciation. it swells into a complete cylinder. like to draw attention to these well-attested I should flax. and is transparent. when wetted it . Seen through a microscope. Few know wool. and is like 2 with oil. Flax is difficult to describe. our own uses. and substance of those materials which we fashion for raw material that which the " so glibly. as it it varies according to Its fibre. with thickened a half-cylinder twisted spirally but edges. described by Yates as having the appearance of a with the edges thickened like a hem. however. and silk or that each has its peculiar attributes. 2 1 It is flat ribbon.

and the workman who has to carry it out is a mechanic. toughness tensile strength). flax. all domestic requirements can be satisfied. Certain materials which have been. in these days. course. It may be laid down as a fundamental rule in technical style. may be thus enumerated and intrinsic Pliability. Silk is The tough and elastic. which apparently never can be superseded. much admired. special manufacture. the artist is often ignorant of the qualities of the fabric for which he is designing. from all time recorded in history. which fluctuate. must greatly modify the choice of materials. and the needs of the again.I2O NEEDLEWORK AS ART. Of durability. qualities needed for : textile materials (i. vegetable. and sometimes revive fashions of the day. and its selection must be 2 The according to the effect intended to be produced. are hollow pipes without joints. Woollen fibres look like cylindrical snakes with a scaly surface. have been entirely lost and indeed we may . varied. or mineral might its its 2 This rough bark is probably the reason that it absorbs colour into substance (perhaps under the scales) . . and silk. and all artistic and decorative fabrics produced. Unfortunately. at one period. instead of a craftsman. except the hair of some few animals. either inwoven or embroidered. that the product shall preserve the peculiar characteristics of the raw material. have been enriched and glorified with gold. 1 Silk threads consist of twin pipes laid parallel. and held together by the varnish with which they are glazed. Wool and hair This roughness gives wool a clinging power which exceeds that of any other material. say wool. With them. and perfected and these. .e. the material must to a certain degree in- fluence the style of the fabric. and it may also account for being capable of felting. that the only permanently employed textiles are The game 1 " of " animal. cotton. often disappear.

Jute (a rough sort of hemp) has been long an article of commercial importance for the manufacture of coarsefigured fabrics. Yates. See Gibbs' "British Honduras. materials . its Latin name. and in those cool regions which did not produce flax. flax. in a wild state. fineness. Hemp is hardly grown in India. dyed and woven. and which. To these I must add hemp. of it garments and sheets. which has always been much used as a ground for counted stitches and backing for embroidery. 146. and silk. of grasses. or malva silvestris (wild hemp). grass and toughness. Herodotus (iv. now in general use. Vocabulary of Papias (A. Molochinus. The " Hemp grows in it is but now cultivated. 170. 171)." From the land of the Scythians. sometimes as a nettle.D. 14) says. 1 2 1 well be played with textiles only. The fibre of the Aloe has been used in the Riviera for (knotted fringes). 2 laces and " macrami " The fibres This material 1 is now coming into notice. sometimes embroidered. cotton. woven. and embroidered. 1 66. of molochinus were brought from India. Hemp is a kind of nettle. and shall discuss their history separately they are wool." . Cannabis Indica. have been worked or woven into stuffs. It was grown in Colchis. 292 317. according to the Periplus (see It was seldom used by the ancients. both wild and cultivated. The Thracians and Romans made it serve for mats and ropes. and used for dress in Egypt. netted. its stiffness being its 1 qualification for such purposes. except to extract from it the narcotic. I have already known. Greeks wove 2 It is not named in the Scriptures. once have never been abandoned. cannabis. named. felted. but both Pliny. It was a northern production used throughout Scandinavia. 1050) it is said that the cloth called molocina Garments is made from thread of mallow. comes our canvas. Nothing has been alien to the crafts which from time immemorial have spun. is In the sometimes spoken of as a mallow. such as the " Honduras silk " (Rhea or Ramie). pp. valuable for beauty.MATERIALS.

and that of the Birch bark was embroidered. has 3 We have seen both African always been much prized. human human or the hair. till latterly. and of the Egyptian camelots coarse and very fine fabrics woven of the same materials. Rock (p. . 305-6). with his arms embroidered on each corner. The coarser parts are used for fabrics. the Indian women in North America with porcupines' quills. and has a beautiful of camels' hair found throughout the East. Another substance of classic use. In the thirteenth century to it was the custom their gifts to for ladies weave their own Ris. The sentiment that motived the use of either hair has been love or hate the votive triumphal. though rather as a curiosity than as an article of commerce.122 NEEDLEWORK is AS ART. 1 King he had received any such token Spartum was a rush. ployed. especially those of palm branches. and Indian striped or primitively decorated rugs of wool. tufts of pinna . of trees such as the Hybiscus Tiliaceus." likewise a material resembling He and caman in the Middle Ages is supposed to have been mixed with silk. and " fastened them with a pin know that Delilah was not a She wove into her web Samson's " (Judges xvi. xliv) gives us information about the tents and garments or " Camoca " of camels' hair. 3 different kinds of stuff were manufactured from the palm- instances cloths on which patterns were wrought. common purposes. We stranger to this art. and even now em- Spartum often named for coarse .Marco Polo tells of beautiful especially shawls. especially that of camels and goats. 1 also the weaving 2 fibres of barks. hair if into favoured knights. " velvet on both sides. 2 The bark Pliny says it was used for the rigging of ships. manufactured from the hair of camels . is the silky filament produced by the shell-fish and also the fibres of certain seaweeds. or some other odd material and amongst them. Birch (see Yates. which it sheds in the heat.). Fur and hair. touched here and there with scraps of cotton or silk. by Pigafetta says (writing in the sixteenth century) that in the kingdom of Congo many tree fibre. p. . Edward the Black Prince left to his confessor his bed of red caman. and the finest serve for . wherever the camel flourishes fine hairy winter coat. seven locks of strength.

sides gold. 1 Leather has been from the remotest antiquity employed for the art of embroidery. 1 * 2 %j from his lady-love. and Lady Seep. p. silver. " Marco Yule's - Polo. either for the ground.MATERIALS." p. also named as a legitimate material for metal . and embroidered on the seams 2 or else as fine inlaid and onlaid application. which is certainly the earliest specimen of needlework decoration that exists. i. bethat has been employed in " Le Chevalier a Deux Epees (quoted by Wilton. 2 3 " Dr. beetles' wings. "Art of Needlework. " laton. embroideries. which he promised to add in course of time. returned it with interest for he sent her a mantle in which were inwoven the beards of nine conquered kings. in order to give brilliancy to the general skins of insects. Villiers Stuart's Funeral Tent of an Egyptian Queen. of leather inlaid and embroidered with gold and silver wire." 4 The Moors in Spain excelled in leather-work and embroidery upon it . vol. " See Mr. Asbestos linen is the tin. 3 (PL 44. and 1 7 only mineral substance. 383.) The old museum at Indian embroideries in leather are generally applied one on another." was used to debase the metal threads Tin. 5 6 7 See chapter on Stitches. as in the mantle of Boadicea. the claws and effect 6 teeth of various animals. for Boadicea's dress. 359. 128. made of skins with the fur turned inwards and the leather outside. 4 Feather work will be discussed under the heading of 5 Opus Plumarium." On the surface of textiles many substances have been fastened down. 31. The North American Indians also embroider on " leather." p. dressed. Boulak. Rock). See Chardin. . as in the "funeral tent of an Egyptian queen "in the . and Marco Polo describes the beautiful productions of the province of Guzerat. called It is in the Middle Ages. a tenth space being left for that of King Arthur. post.

ii. One of these is in Museum. 2 fibre Marco Polo speaks of a stone which answers in found at Chinchin. 2 . 1 embroideries in Spain For all information about asbestos. and other Greek islands. 3 A miraculous napkin of asbestos was long kept at description to asbestos. pearls. see Yates. p. was spun soaked and when by mixing it with was passed through the fire to remove the flax woven. and " one gives the name of " Sicilian to all such work Coral. of serpentine and cipolino in Cyprus. . 356. being fires itself unharmed by the the British of cremation. 201) as being " We set fire to it. large coarse pearls. 32). Seed pearls. but as soft and pliant as silk. threads of flax in oil Monte Casino. Pliny says it was woven for the funeral obsequies of monarchs. 361. the same part being repeatedly burnt. as it preserved the ashes apart. 565. There is one at the Barberini Palace at Rome. that in Sicilian embroideries. is described by Sir J. and embroidered portraits. or the pattern itself has been worked in nothing else. pp. It NEEDLEWORK AS ART. has often been entirely covered with them. A sheet. 1 It is a soapy crystal. pp. i. and beads of many forms have been used for the enrichment ^of embroideries. has the remarkable quality of indestrucAsbestos linen can be cleansed by fire tibility by fire. and the oil. coats-of-arms. and coarsely spun. There are several fragments existing. but occasionally we find coral and elsewhere (PI. 215. Pearls are constantly seen worked on dress. and for decoThe whole surface of the original fabric rating textiles. so little elsewhere. found in tombs." vol. Smith in his " Tour on the Continent" (vol. found in veins instead of water. were surrounded Coral was so much used with gold thread embroidery." 3 See Yule's " Marco Polo. 218. and Yates. woven of asbestos. was not at all injured. found in a tomb outside the Porta Maggiore. It . and sometimes fine and precious ones. p.124 embroidery. E.

I 1 c -I ' 3 j >2 e S-d Jfl .


2 plaited. strung together Beads of glass were common in Egypt from the by threads so as to form rather breastplates than necklaces. savages had a passion for beads. This is. The wool very early The earliest civilizations probably also for hangings. as now. cotton. wove. and No early fossils record preceded the creation of man. Marienkirche at Dantzic. WOOL. or else were resorted to in the absence or ignorance of the above five most important factors in our domestic civilization. Stephen's at See Rock. 2. With* these all the finest gold. not the first. I must restrict wool. in the p. worked into pictures. There is no reason to suppose that goats and sheep of sheep and the hair of goats were used in the world's history for clothing. works have been executed for the artistic adornment of All other materials have been dress and hangings. flax. span. without cement. 1 world. of textile materials.MATERIALS. " and the " heaps of the lake . Whence beads originally came we cannot tell. 2 There are specimens of bead-work pictures at St. In as far as materials are essential to the art of embroidery. in fact. 125 earliest times. occasional experiments. but it seems that the Phoenicians dropped them on all the shores of the Then. Our sheep are supposed by zoologists to be 1 Coire. and elsewhere. our prehistoric barrows. cv. Witness the stone whorls for the spindles in cities. and felted them. them. and myself to the history of silk. The history of wool must take precedence as being that of the if original. mosaic in textiles. and civilized men and women still admire them as In the Middle Ages they were sometimes trimmings.

and they were astronomers seeking the best pastures and fodder. poets." The merchants who traded from the Arabian Gulf to Egypt. the flocks. prophets. and obtain from them the finest texture of wool. Watching their flocks by night." they watched the stars also. following their flocks and herds. The Greeks and Romans. wool. florists. possible that plaited grasses may have preceded But though certain prehistoric specimens are in Spain. High- tended their father's The Arabians were always great breeders of sheep. 3 Yates gives endless quotations to show how ancient and how honourable an occupation was that of tending sheep. and the Phoenicians of Sidon who brought overland their bales of raw material and manufactured Oriental fabrics. his country were enriched through the breeding also 2 of sheep. Egyptian Dynasty called themselves the Shepherd Kings. 1 inhabiting the central regions of Asia. They . are spoken of nowhere more than in the collected books of the Old Testament. and studying where best to feed. The seven daughters of Jethro. philosophers. descended from the Argali or Ovis It is Ammon of Linnaeus.126 NEEDLEWORK AS ART. Yates. 2 An . " . knew . open to us all and there we learn how important a place these shepherds held in the world's civilization. from Homer to Virgil. and multiply them. 129. 3 disdain to be called "the Good Shepherd. they learned to be botanists. became Job and priest. and kings. and across thence to the shores of the Mediterranean. sang Our Lord Himself did not of the herdsman's life. yet of this there supposed to have been found is but imperfect proof. and agriculturalists." p. well where to find the best goods for their this or customers 1 and we hear frequently whence came "Textrinum Antiquorum. The pastoral tribes wandering over those fair regions that extend from Khotan to Arabia. increase.

1 so richly embroidered. next is Parma's boast . and Chaldeans. Damascus The stuffs supplied the Tyrians with wool for their rugs. Joshua 3 4 5 vii. battles. And the third fleece Altinum has engrossed. "Der Stil. 22. Solomon purchased woollens from Egypt. the of celebrity in the woollen trade down to the conquest Egypt by the Romans. From Miletus came the wool valued most highly by the Greeks. 5 their Semper. Lanae Alba?. we cannot products of the Babylonian looms are alluded to in the Book of Joshua. its 127 city of Pan. " The first." 2 i. are recorded in the earliest writings of the human race. wall-hangings. that coloured wool. 79. Ep. Spain produced the best black. 155. How much their decoration depended on tell. Yates. were dipped again and served another generation. weaving. p. their whiteness. p. 445. The cover of the bed on which was laid the golden coffin in the tomb of Cyrus was of Babylonian tapestry of wool . and Egyptian wools were supposed to be the most durable. remarkable for their fine texture. 139. p. Plautus mentions Babylonian hangings and embroidered tapestries. of the Chinese. 99. pp. i." i. and when they became shabby. 102. 286. xiv. and carpets. and the The Narbonensian north of Italy the best white wool." Martial. 4 scenes. the carpet beneath it was woven of the finest wrought purple. and how much on embroidery. Assyrians. Semper. 138. Ezekiel xxvii. . See Bird1 From wood's " Indian Arts.MATERIALS. 91. Assyrian stuffs . and textile fabrics of wool. 2 and also by Ezekiel. 3 The were always celebrated for their splendid colours and various designs among which were hunting and special emblematic adornments. retained Chemmis. Apulia's . 93. Nineveh and Babylon en- couraged the manufactures and commerce in woollen Nowhere were they tents. Yates' account of the great variety of wools.

the religious element had much influence in perfecting their flocks of sheep only the most beautiful animals were considered worthy of sacrifice to the gods. The sheep of Miletus. which grows on the 2 coast. The Spartan swan. their warm evident that the ancients valued highly these 2 The cloths that were of greatest different qualities. and the rivers and streams at which they drank. As in all the life of the Greeks. as they are still. tints. Petersburg. p. and these peculiarities were. and Tarentum were clothed in jackets.128 blackness." that browsed. thorny them the u covered " and the " soft. cool or their redness. Comptes Rendus de la also Commission Imperiale Archeologique of St. for the warm brown tints on their black wool. in the house. encouraged. See Blumner's " Technologic." and coats. viii. few of the rare specimens of stuffs which have been A Martial also speaks of the matchless Tarentine togse. were famed. own says they were often kept We find notices of the peculiarities soil of the various on which their pasture grew. account were of the finest or the warmest kinds. Ep. in his " Travels in the Two Sicilies. . 1881 the Catalogue Raisonnee of Herr Grafschen's Egyptian Collection 92 " . 28. the Paphian doves deplore Their hue. of Tarentum. from the days of the Greek colonists. of Textiles at Vienna. Megaris. on which they Swinburne says. caused by the There is evidence also that some improvement of the breeds by crossing was practised in early times. it is 1 NEEDLEWORK or their AS ART. 1 The sheep there the wool is so tinged by the plant now " called fumolo. national breeds." Martial. Attica. and pearls on the Erythrean shore. in order to preserve the fineness and whiteness of their being Columella torn by the calls and to protect them from bushes in their pastures. a present from Parthenius : " With thee the lily and the privet pale and Tibur's whitest ivory fail ." also . Compared. if possible. Pliny says that this is caused by the weed fumio.

deeper Pliny tells us that Tanaquil combed. The ground is yellowish. a distaff trimmed with combed wool. and it was covered with a wavy when that pattern (undulata). and she herself made the royal mantle which Servius Tullius used to wear. sometimes stamped. 129 rescued from tombs. especially in the Crimea." viii. brown. span. nor was eaten by the that it moths. and there is a border. in Egypt. 191. cotton. as the pigment sinks into One its its power of very fibre. The coloured dresses Apparently this is Attic design. or silk. her attendants carried a maiden became a bride. and alternate with patterns. and were still hanging there in the Pliny remarks that it was a wonder from the image. neither fell 1 with the See Pliny's "Natural History. and they were nearly all of woollen fabrics. worn by women of rank. One strip contains a scene from the story of Peleus and Thetis. and much varied in style. colours than flax. of the weaving A warrior's tomb in the district of Kuban contained a funeral pall. were sometimes painted. show a wool so fine and shining that it is might be taken for silk. 74. in twelve narrow strips sewn together and afterwards painted. Thence came the custom yarn upon The robes worked by Tanaquil were dedicated by Servius Tullius to the statue of Fortune in her temple at Rome. the design The figures repeat mythical subjects. and the beauty marvellous. It can be dyed of instead of clinging to the surface. and in the Fayoum. of the great advantages of wool is absorbing colour. 1 days of Tiberius. is credited K . during five hundred and sixty years. woven of brown wool. measuring at least three metres and a half each way.MATERIALS. and wove her wool. Tanaquil first invention of the seamless coat or cassock. and often embroidered. covering the sarcophagus. and a spindle with it. and hung on the statues of the gods.

Bliimner. 2 have already said that the wool of Miletus was a . See Rock. used in days of "papaverata" woven with flowers Augustus. In tombs in the Crimea have been found variously woven and adorned woollen fabrics. and called thence . proverbial favourite with the Greeks. p. 2 3 Pliny. p. 334 . 3 In the British Museum is a fragment of Egyptian woollen or worsted embroidery on white linen. discoloured by its use as mummy wrapping but the stitches of worsted remain a perfectly clear bright crimson and This shows how wool absorbs the colour indigo blue." book viii. Some in woollens are woven simply like linen . The Gauls in Britain wove plaids or tartans. resembling in their texture a fine rep a sort of corded stuff. 152-54. There are fragments . some are wide. pp. 74. called now u atlas " a kind of woollen satin. He the tells us of the cloths with a curly nap. and the Alexandrian webs. p.130 NEEDLEWORK AS ART. Eustathius speaks of the excellence of the Milesian carpets and hangings. iv. The same passage mentions of the felt. . woven meandering designs. " Georgics. it can be made to emit it again by chemical processes." "Natural History. 35." there is a stuff like what is nun's a golden wreath. another material resembling a woollen crepe. or fine " Then This veiled gauze. Even when the surface is faded. Yates. . xii sewn together 1 in strips. 286. resembling poppies and we hear from him of the cloth of divers colours woven in Babylon. and retains it. with manyBabylonica coloured threads (polymita) \ comparing them with those . He gives us interesting details of the weaving of woollen cloths. and speaks of the thick coarse wool with "great thick hair. made in We Gaul and those woven by the Parthians. some very narrow." used for carpets from the time of Homer. 73.. Virgil represents the virgins of Cyrene spinning Milesian wool dyed of a deep sea-green. Birdvvood.

besides plaiting. 1 3 r One. Petersburg. is a fragment from a Celtic barrow in Yorkshire a woollen This fabric was an advance upon the plaited shroud. sinews for thread. and a thorn for a pin. From these tombs are collected stuffs of wool. But we must imagine that some use was made. woven and embroidered in gold with combinations of many that colours in the . and. of which the early northern women have left us evidence." 2 Semper considers that the famous Babylonian and Phrygian stuffs were all woollen. Wool has always appeared to be a natural material for dress. lost it. and that gold was woven or embroidered on them. of the spun wool. such shawls of Babylonian design as repeat the texture of the ancient Greek garments. It is warm to in winter. has a border of ducks with yellow wings and dark green heads and throats. now placed Museum at St.C. Petersburg. into graceful to curved in each movement " Comptes Rendus de la St. p. Much Commission Imperiale Archeologique. and yet capable of yielding 1 it hangs draw the fabric light in summer. But were they Greek ? or did those beautiful woven fabrics come from Persia or India ? 2 of Scandinavian wool for dress. of the finest fleeces. K 2 . They. 1 and then another with a pattern of stags' heads. in the whorls of their spindles. Indian looms still weave. always beautiful as heavy enough lines. from prehistoric times. and it is only in India that its continuity was never broken. 138. von Dr. This description recalls the specimens on plate 16 and plate 39. See "Der Stil. we become aware 300 B. like a piece of Gobelin tapestry. first The we know a sheep-skin fashioned original northern savage costume and sewn with a fish-bone for a needle." of this Gobelin weaving has lately been See "Katalog der Teodor Graf'schen Fiinde in found in Egypt. through this collection. ^Egypten.MATERIALS. J. and is in lovely soft draperies. Karabacek. in fact. however. 1881. the Greeks had learned all the secrets of the art of weaving wool." i.

We can trace The Persian carpet patterns in Indian floor coverings. covering. as it is supposed that the Saracens learned from Persia the art of weaving pile carpets.132 little NEEDLEWORK AS ART. We have the evidence of the imitations. Still. Woollens brocaded or figured are not so effective as . The other natural use of wool is for carpets. and worked or embroidered by hand. from the cheapest and commonest to the most refined woollens have be beautiful. silken hangings. French tapis } and our tapestry." are particularly beautiful in woollens. for such purposes was tra- The carpet-weaving ditions of Babylon appear to have been inherited by the occupiers of the soil. and lend themselves to sculpturesque art. the folds. called them tapetes / and the Latins adopted the Greeks name word As . in mosaic. there have always been varieties of texture 1 and adaptations to different effects. of carpets from the stone floors in Nineveh (now in the British Museum). in always played a the decorations of our houses. even amongst our English fabrics. and hence the Italian tapeti. as of our great part Fabrics have been made of them of every garments. that the art of weaving large and small rugs. artistic material. Ixxviii. as being fine enough for See Rock's Introduction. and some are beautiful. to which the world owes much beauty and comfort. . Worcester cloth was forbidden to the Benedictines by a Chapter of that Order at Westminster Abbey in 1422. and imported thence craftsmen into Spain. and therefore too good for monks. 1 p. rippling folds. soldiers. description. and the principles of composition at that date well understood. forms to which they cling. dull and heavy. but concealing the Classical draperies are not What the Italians call the " eyes of explained by it. they must beyW0. but if woollen stuffs are to Woollen velvets are without light.

called " German wool. in England. Thread from Both these fabrics are represented and are equally well preserved. FLAX. . We may claim. They have from the earliest times been used in India for the finest and softest fabrics. Cloth of Tars in the Middle Ages is supposed to be what is now called Cashmere. art of spinning and introduced into Europe in " 3. such as the lovely shawls of Cashmere and the neighbouring provinces. in Norfolk. the superiority in this we are constantly receiving from France novelties which give us good hints. in certain remote parts of Europe. having only been superseded in modern times by the complicated machinery so familiar The spindle and distaff. pottery.MATERIALS. or bone. Boyd Dawkins tells us that The the manufacture of linen were the Neolithic age. manufacture. such as are constantly found in Neolithic tombs and habitations. in return. has always been very important in emWorsteds after a time gave way to a very broidery. in their tapestry workshops. and urge us to keep pace with the science of the Gobelins in their woollen The French. beautiful material. though cially those of Lincolnshire. are of stone. The wool and hair of goats should be a study by itself. stance and in their loose texture as the threads prepared from wool for tapestry weaving. employ our wools. 133 Worsted thread." which again has " 1 yielded the supremacy to crewels" (resembling the old These crewels are nearly the same in subworsteds). where the materials for weaving and embroidering are manufactured. whorls. or perforated spindle to us. espedyes. so called from Worsted. 1 in Egyptian and Greek fragments. and have been preserved with little variation from that period to the present day.

267-80. p. 1. cited by Yates. 5 See Yates. and. we 5 think. 23. . "Textrinum Antiquorum. Cotton was forbidden for the priests' dress in the temple. iii. The mummy wrappings are entirely linen. Both must have come from India. Early Man in Britain. p. 272. and not cotton. Herodotus says the mummy cloths were of " byssine " 4 Cotton linen cloth." pp." pp. except for certain domestic uses. 268. though they might wear it when not on 2 duty. or a mixture of the two. A peculiarity of Egypis that it was often woven with more threads in the warp than in the woof." sindon. would never have bee settled but now that the difference of the structure of each has been clearly mummy ascertained. 196. wrappings was cotton or flax. 116. the time of Pliny. and therefore were certainly cotton fabrics." which may be translated he calls '" tree wool. xi. * the Swiss lake cities proved to be of and there is evidence of weaving in some sort of loom. dispute as to Without the aid of the microscope." vol. "Ancient Egyptians. in we know thsrfcotton was never employed Egypt." pp. 275. . 268. ii. South Kensingtian linen ton." Yates has carefully argued the whole question. p. Boyd Dawkins. and it is curious to see in Egyptian mural paintings the same patterned chintzes o*n furniture that were common a hundred years a^p in England. A specimen in the Indian Museum. . shows in its delicate texture 140 threads in the inch to the warp. Mat. There are specimens of Egyptian painted or printed 3 patterns on fine linen in the British Museum. 3 It appears that the art of printing textiles was known in Egypt in See Yates. ii Herodotus and Strabo speak of Babylonian linen. Herodotus. P/2&I. 1 " 2 4 86. xii. See Wilkinson. Yates. flax. also see Wilkinson.t34 NEEDLEWORK is AS ART. has proved that byssus was flax. 335. the whether the material of the Egyptian . "Textrinum Antiquorum." vol. "Ancient Egyptians." The meaning of the word Byssus has been disputed some authorities asserting that it includes both flax and cotton fabrics. quoting Apuleius. pi. p.

Herodotus. 271. p. c. xiv. corselet of Amasis. cited by Yates.C. In Solomon's time the Jews evidently depended upon Herodotus describes the Egypt for their fine linen. and it was 3 The first known existing exported to Arabia and India. 135 He it its quotes Philo. and of the clearest made It is splendour. ii. fragment of flax linen in Europe was taken from the tomb of the Seven Brothers in the Crimea. of nothing mortal. vol. p. iii.^ and becomes brighter and more cleansed by washing. He says that " The Jewish high priests wore a linen garment of the purest byssus which was a symbol of firmness. the more it is 1 and strength. Another piece of fine linen has 270 to the warp. the fineness of the linen. 226. but sometimes even four times the number. 121 Egyptians. Generally there are twice or three times as many threads. i. 1 De Somniis. was woven there many centuries before in firmness it broom was made in Cambray. Wilkinson. from the description he gives of appearance and qualities. 4 All the finest linen certainly came then from Egypt. See Rock's Introduction. p. i. 271. 5 Through the Phoenicians the fine linen came to Rome. and no to the woof. 2 3 Philo. Rawlinson's Trans. Yates." 2 Pliny says the flax grown in Egypt was superior to any other. p. 47. c. gives See Wilkinson's "Ancient a probable reason for this peculiarity. incorruption. cotton). That we call cambric. 16. Its threads surpass even ropes of resembling light. p. . for fine linen is very difficult to tear. ix. Proverbs vii. pp. and 64 to the woof. 273. and the embroidered decorations of men and animals. which in no way apply to cotton or hemp. chap. 1." Here is another quotati&t|: " Cloth of byssus symbolizes firm faith. 653. 182." vol. 1. partly gold and partly tree wool (i. and was much finer than any that is now made. Its date is 300 B. cited by Yates.e. 4 5 Paulinus ad Cytherium.MATERIALS. who certainly must have believed that was made of flax.

of linen. and says "The weaving was extremely loose. fine laces of Venice. swells and never has the radiant appearance and purity of is fluffs. which he examined. Denon describes a tunic found in a sarcophagus. 291. carried to Nomenticum to India to taken (Artois). of thread as fine as a hair.136 'NEEDLEWORK AS ART. Jerome speaks of their. and there woven be embroidered. p. after emigrating from the East. . whereas Anglo-Saxon word. 4. Their Celtic descent is witnessed in the Irish by their superiority in the crafts of the loom. as appears from the following notice of embroidery on " linen by Flavius Vopiscus. France." indumenta. or are prized on Carinus : " " Why should I account of their laborious embroideries ?" 1 The history of a fine embroidered linen curtain for a Roman house might have been this Grown in Egypt : . Embroidery always a natural accompaniment of fine Those that are still preserved to us from early linen. which glow with purple." or shirts of fine linen . 2 word flax linen is an Atrebates wove linen in Artois. The and the great weavers of to-day are still the Flemish descendants of the Atrebates. Some marvellously such cambric may be seen at the South Kensington British 2 " fine specimens of the Museum and Museum. which. 1800 years ago. and Belgium are all Clearness and strength in these delicate fabrics cannot be obtained with cotton. the Celts Europe from their resting- way The place. which are so thin as to brought be transparent. The flaxen thread. i. to Rome.e. Yates." p. is a tin-white Celtic epithet." Auberville's 1 : Ornement des Tissus. of two strands of twisted flax fibre. While flax was making also its must have taken it across northward. Not that we have any remains of flax linen from their tombs. in his Life of the Emperor mention the linen cloths from Tyre and Sidon. especially when it is washed. and thence as merchandise . and flax.

It was carried thence.. 4. p. 1 as It was to Egypt. Appendix E. ranging from carpets and it is sails. 470. to fine chintzes for dress. and as It plain and printed webs.D. is White needle embroidery is and very fit for the purpose. '241. flax Cotton was native to India. Italy in the thirteenth century.D. printed or embroidered. to Assyria and Egypt. There is no proof that it was grown in Egypt till the fourteenth century A. See Yates. The cloudy beauty. COTTON. at a prehistoric date. The fibre of cotton has neither the strength nor the durability of flax or silk. It was first woven in and used for making From Italy plant was grown in the south of Europe.. have been invariably " fretted " by the moth. and only reached 3 England in the seventeenth century. 1 effect of these delicate fabrics is their own peculiar Muslins for hangings. though they had long imported 2 it as raw material." p. The mostly worked in linenthread. and filmy muslins. woven. They all on linen. not only was grown. the great staple of our manufactures first belonged to us. if not on woollen fragments are very few and imperfect. but the third in the group of the most universally qualified materials for all purposes of domestic textile art. it was carried into the Low Countries. Birdvvood. The Egyptians do not appear to have grown it till the fourteenth century A. was called tree-wool. and printed there from the remotest antiquity. paper and in the sixteenth. 137 and Middle-Age times are nearly silk.MATERIALS. though cotton-thread has been used a great deal. but was cultivated nowhere else. so lately has the . when it is mentioned for the first time in a MS. . of that date 2 of the " 3 Codex Antwerpianus.

" Almost all of them have been made 1 to carry embroideries the transparent muslins.138 "NEEDLEWORK AS ART. . p. that the Greeks period. Yates says that cotton has always been supposed to be the best preserver against sunstroke. is bacinum. as being the curtains described in the Book of Esther. The variety of cotton fabrics in India very numerous. p. Arabic. But we have much earlier notice of them. 2 Carpas. . 3 A the common use of cotton. See Birdwood." are more descriptive "running than pages of prose. 259. hence Italian bambagino. p. hung with silver rings to the pillars of marble in the banqueting " " hall at Susa or Shtishan blue and white muslin (i. Nearchus (one of Alexander's admirals) speaks of the cotton-trees in India as if they were a new discovery. 341." and were much esteemed in Rome as a protection against the sun. ii. the garment of Chloreus the Phrygian is thus described " His saffron chlamys. 4 Puggaree." "evening dew. 3 In the JEneid. " fastened with cords of fine linen and purple. Its Latin the name was bambambagio. water." "woven air. Birdwood's "Arts of India. 775. therefore. proving many quotations The word " used cotton 200 B. century before.C. Yates gives us from Latin classical authors." 2 5 carbasina" occurs in a play by Statius. is found in the same sense in the Sanscrit. 4 xi. They are enumerated and described in Sir G. from bombax. was confined with glittering gold. evidently translated from a writer of the new Greek comedy It may be inferred. : 1 carpas." : ^Eneid. Their poetic names. the proper Oriental name for cotton. bambasino. each having its distinctive beauties and qualities inherited by tradition from early times. and Persian languages. Dakka muslins are the most esteemed. mistranslated "green' in the Authorized Version).e. Yates. have always been a luxury from India they were called " carbasa. 341. and each rustling fold Of muslin (carpas}.

" Piano Carpini says the tunics of the Tartars were heir of Philip . succeeded those of the Jacobean style. Most old English houses contain woven and beautiful patterns wrought in silk or thread. men in buckram " may be thus explained. in Hertfordshire. variously manipulated. calicoes." or else of baudichin (cloth of gold). There is at Ashridge. striped. Buckram..MATERIALS. Forbes Watson classifies See Birdwood.. &c. and carpets. For Buckram and Fustian. 1 139 and thicker some hangings of thickly cotton. silver. cotton the calicoes as being white. bleached and unbleached. probably Indian. of the time of James I. reminding one of the arabesques of the Taj Mahal. " " bacramo. or plush of cotton. Anne Boleyn's of clothes contains .. was certainly imported from the East to England. worked in crewel or worsted. and silk were lavished on Indian cotton grounds. or spangled and embossed with beetles' wings and gold. and a pair of fustian. Ixxxv. and there are other small dresses of this material of the date of James I. A similar material called fustian is also named by Marco Polo as a cotton fabric it is supposed to have been made in Egypt by the Arabs. as well as the fine cloths. from the thirteenth century to the time of Elizabeth. a small jacket of very fine cotton-plush amongst the baby linen prepared by Elizabeth for the expected and Mary. and the stronger fabrics. 260. as well as on silken stuffs. &c. is repeatedly mentioned by Herr Graf'schen in " his Catalogue of Egyptian Textiles from the Fayoum. as part of the pairs of sheets of list bed " of gold of swan. . or a little earlier. 2 1 FalstafFs strong tent-cloths. fine cloths. This sort of cotton-plush. on fine cotton linen. &c. but often printed like chintz. she leaves In Lady pp. Ixxxvi. Transparent muslins were often embroidered in gold and silver. 2 p. will. printed chintzes." two Raine (Rennes). see Rock. Linen was not much embroidered in India. Burgeweny's (Abergavenny) furnishings of her 1434. Chintzes. or pintadoes.

the trouble bestowed upon them. Ixxxvi. gold gives " Her clothing is of wrought gold. was expressly created for the demoralization of mankind. In all works of decoration it high lights. " " crinkle or crumple in wearing. imitating patterns. represents sunshine where it is not." quotes the For the following: "Vestae de Polpia e de Bisso qui est bacaram. " . see Herr Graf schen's Catalogue of Textiles from the Fayoum. do not repay. in his Romaunce Dictionary. This is A somewhat profane French an ugly version of the fact that its it is found on the surface of the earth's crust. and beds. have already said that cotton is inferior in its qualities to silk and flax. In embroideries. except by means of dressing. except when used to accentuate aggresis raiment of needlework Bokerams. Renouard. GOLD. cloaks. as grounding or as pattern. As colour. writer. the richest and softest background. giving his ideas on the Creation. " Rock. and doubles it where for The word " illumination " in books belongs to the gilded illustrations of immortal thoughts. the most harmonious It is medium it is.140 I NEEDLEWORK AS ART. says that gold. the most gorgeous reflection of light and colour. which unfits it for clinging effects but suits printed Such stuffs as workhouse sheeting. certain fabrics of the sixteenth century. and that it beauty and worth makes a desirable possession for which men will ever contend." antiquity of this fabric. by effective beauty. 5. it never can offend the eye." The the glory : comparatively ineffective without golden lights or background." gowns. except in the production of Its peculiarity is its tendency to transparent muslins. the latest metal. and which it has been the fashion of late to cover with embroidery. sleeves. the most becoming setting to all other beautiful things. Gold adorns every work of the artistic animal man. therefore it does not present a smooth flat surface. for lining and taynting.

the proportion of gold should preponGolden tissues belong to the earliest civilizations. . work. clothed materials. Damascus. from one and Babylon. Sir G. 300. and Tripoli successively became celebrated for their gold and silverwrought tissues." Arts. . Tarsus. xxv. and scarlet. Baghdad. citing ii. 4 in these costly . and did not draw it into wire. violet. Rock. worked in gold. or when it flashes from over-polish and too lavish expenditure. Sicily. sively a vulgar pattern. . silks. Quintus Curtius says that many thousands. Alexandria. gold brocades excellence . purple. 2 of ancient Babylonian art.).MATERIALS. ." The Israelites wove gold with their coloured woollens and probably brought the art from Egypt though I am not aware of any gold-woven 3 stuffs from Egyptian tombs. employed together. for a prince boy-bishop. " Indian p. twice dyed. 141 and dazzles Silver follows gold as a splendid element in decoration. crowded out of Damascus to meet Alexander. and scarlet. (p. 2 3 See Yates. every disguise (and mingling of style) it is not impossible to infer the essential identity of the brocades with the fabrics of blue. 1 continually all speak " Justin. Quintus Curtius. as it is translated apparel The ephod made by Bezaleel was of in the Vulgate (Exodus xxxix. Indian and Chinese stuffs were from time immemorial for the use of the sanctuary. purple. with embroidered This tradition must have guided the artist who designed the ephod in the National Museum at Munich. 1 but it is not of such universal application and use and when . 237." p. is Birdwood says that " The older than the Code of Manu. The historians of Alexander the Great name gold as a material in dress. to art of . p. 3) says they cut their gold for wearing into thin plates. derate. Yates fine linen. and brocades. 4 Arrian. Through place another . Antioch. Tabriz. . and of golden tissues as part of the luxury of the East. woven with gold. The of the art passed in the long course of ages. Herod's silver apparel. in the seventeenth century. gold.

xxvi. 371 . that A. note f. and gold became the as kings. the body of the prophet Daniel was found. by twining it round flax or cotton. xxxiii. and Sir G. Yates. and cut it into wires. and work it into the blue. but this must have been a mistake. p. and gold used at the of Alexander. and the fine linen. and Bock. purple.D. 48. Then. was B. and all his attendants clothed in purple and gold. it is possible that he may have invented or patronized the making of thread of 6 gold. and his pall of nuptials the same material. and the purple." ii. point to the fact that gold was a The hangings recognized element in splendid textile weaving.C. Attalus II. W. .. p. however. Gore Ouseley's " translation of a Persian version of The Book of Victories. " Chaldea and Susiana. woven with golden hawks the dresses worn Persepolis . as it was practised long before his time but he Attalus II. and at his funeral. .142 NEEDLEWORK hear of Darius' dress AS ART. purple dition was brought to Europe . We and of the golden spoils of by Alexander's generals. p. king of Pergamus. is a very ancient local tradition at Shush." Alexander said to have been buried in a glass coffin. (See Wilkinson's "Ancient Egyptians. 367-70 3 " Aura intexere eadem Asia invenit Attalus Rex unde nomen The reign of Attalicis. in a stone coffin." Pliny. xxxix. 102. 1 state apparel for courtiers as well of scarlet." Exod. viii. and Yates. 5 See Yates. it was placed in one of glass. which 8 were called " Attalic. 640. the gold flat plate or wire was probably 4 that woven before his time. . reign wrapped in cloth of gold. so that the waters flowed over it. as well 2 as in the earliest ornamental embroideries. the Babylonian traand ever after." by Loftus. in the of the Kaliph Omar. by order of the victorious general. 4 " And they did beat the gold into plates. was credited with being the inventor of gold weaving. p. pp.) 2 Rock. c. and moored to the 1 There bridge which spanned the branch of the Euphrates flowing between See the two halves of the city. may have devised some splendid golden tissues. 371." in honour of the king's patronage. is . perhaps. 159-188. As. and.

and of such materials. buried many martyrs in golden robes. 3 Pope Eutichinus. was buried with her gclden mantle lying at her feet. Wilkinson. and he quotes as examples the golden garment cf Agrippina. and in 821. mechanic of Nuremberg. The hunting cuirass of Assurbanipal chap. Ed. Also see (pi. and that worn by Tarquinius Prisons. in Etruria." . cloth found in a 1 In the Museum at Leyden there is tomb at Tarquinia. appears that the Egyptians knew the art of drawing gold wire. 5 but we will only Dr. See Birdwood. This a shred of gold is a compactly woven covering over bright yellow silk. 130. cut gold was in use in Rome to a late date. xxvii. when Pope Pascal opened her grave. "Liber in the third century. 284. xxxiii. to be so worked. Marco Polo mentions this embroidery 600 years p. in the fourteenth century. 4 5 Pontificalis.. pp. xxxv and Parker's " Use of the Levitical Colours. p. iii. or in the dark ages." vol. ago. lery It . martyred 23OA. mentioned by Verrius. (Yule). . iii. either then. 49. showing that it had been soaked 4 in blood. in Pliny. was beaten into shape with hammers. p. A later. Cecilia. ii. 1880. Bk. p. See Rock. us more examples. i) appears " Ancient This gold for weaving Egyptians. 2 Gold wire is still worked through leather at Guzerat. Peter's. invented a machine for the purpose and this art of drawing wire was introduced into England 200 years . who in Proba Faltonia.D. There were found under the foundations of the new in that Basilica of St. Rock gives add that of the wife of the Emperor Honorius. Pliny says gold 143 or spun 1 may be woven like wool without any admixture of wool or flax. the bodies of Probus Anicius his wife. 3 St. he found the evidence of her martyrdom splendid garment. 332.MATERIALS. and a wrapping of gold. xxvi. in The pure 1560. as some pieces have been found in their jewel2 but we know not by what process it was worked." t.

dress 2 Rock. with large circles containing St. 20 " L. preparing the consular robes for her two 2 sons on their being raised to the consulate : " The joyful And works on Draws To make plies her knowing hands. The toga picta." 3 of almost wrapping of beautiful gold A brocade covered the coffin of Henry III. in the Isle of Wight. a Christian lady." taf. 322. the year 400 A." These remains are 1 now in the British Museum. was buried in a golden dress. the thin strips to all the length of gold. also PI. Cuthbert's maniple at Durham js of pure gold thread. 4 Andrew at Aix. No. the trabea golden bands . John Garland says the ladies wove golden cingulae in the and Henry I. and his dress of strips of pure gold was discovered and melted in 1653. 485 A. " divine splendour. is very simple pattern. 481. wander. The cope embroidered of St. Claudian describes Proba." 1880. used in But gold thread also was then very generally weaving gold tissues. weighed 36 Ibs. which in 1544 was removed from her grave. Savile. vol. silver wire gilt. Rock. in Switzerland. Hoveden's " Annal. 3 4 5 p. 1 This is worked in Andrew's crosses. or trabea. Ed. St.D. contained fragments of a garment or " wrapping woven with flat gold plate. of her sons. p. See " Archaeologia. *xx. p." (post). 376. part of the official See Yates. and being melted. 5 and is Byzantine of the twelfth century. i. at Childeric was buried Tournai. according to Hoveden. ix. in the fourth century. . 317. The Anglo-Saxon tomb opened at Chessell Down.. 74. thirteenth century was clothed in a robe of state of woven gold and gems ..D. pp. xxxv. Ge Bock. in a when his tomb was opened in i87i. all mother the metal jneaner threads enfold" Pure gold was woven in the dark ages in England. p.144 NEEDLEWORK AS ART.

For his ship. L . beat with fine gold (probably heraldic designs). This." Probably Rock. the old ballad." kincob. nak. Paul's in London there was formerly an amice adorned with the figures of two bishops and a king. 318. ed. a streamer forty yards long and eight broad. p.MATERIALS. work. In the writings of the Middle Ages reference to different golden fabrics. 65. it woven with shining gold threads was is but though " stiff enough also of " baudekin. Of a red ciclatoune. xxxix. xxxvii. Barbara Mason bequeathed silk to a church a vestment of green 1 beaten with gold. fader's Be her syde .. 2 are (a six-thread silk " its j preciously inwoven with gold threads) 1 and was remarkable for the lightness of ciclatoun. went over to France. 1538. pp. xxix xxxii. See also Rock." Dr. Her clothes with byrdes of gold were bette All about for pryde. is a common Persian name for such tissues in the East. hammered out of silver. in common with nasick. " In a robe right royall bowne. Rock quotes "Marco Polo." and 400 pencils with the This mode lasted some time ' . " having a coat my ' lord's body. and gilt. We hear " Camoca There appears to be a link between embroidery in gold and the jewellers' work which in the Dark and Middle Ages was so often applied to ecclesiastical and This link was beaten gold royal dress and hangings." " to carry " heavy embroidery. with a great bear and * griffin. p. according to Rock. " 145 we find constant samit " or " examitur " Among them stuff. and was light. ragged for in " staff' in silver." ed." the time of Henry for VI." Beauchamp." which texture. aurobacutos. 1818. and many other beautiful tissues. Ciclatoun. p. Yule's i. A 3 coronall on her hede sett." In St. Earl of " "beaten work. nak. was wrought in gold with figures of birds 2 and beasts. p." or " 3 Warwick in batony. Dugdale. 1875." and cloth of pall.

crescents.146 this NEEDLEWORK AS ART. to the plates. and finished the work by accentuating the design in Eastern embroideries. (See Rock's Introduction to Catalogue of the Kensington Museum. at Grandson. enrichment of these which were enlarged to 2 receive a design. beaten gold was really very thick gold-leaf laid on the silk or linen ground. gold beads. which approached Enamel was soon added golden spangles. and the little in the Middle Ages they varied from golden spangle to many other Fig. the art of the goldsmith. all and pendant wedges of gold.) . They are found also in Greek tombs. ed. stars. as we see still in some Sicilian and Arab tissues. are finished with broad borders of gilded inscriptions. Of this style of embellishment we know none so striking as the saddle in the Museum at Munich. 19. covered with beautiful Museum at Berne. forms circular rings. But besides this thick gold-leaf. 1870. was much admired and introduced into their embroideries. Laminae of gold were cut into shapes. worked in coral. including enamel. seed pearls. pp. and spangles. said to have been taken from a Turkish general in the fifteenth century. 2 A piece of Venetian work is to be seen at the South Kensington Museum an altar frontal. solid moons. such as might be 1 called beaten gold work. civ cviii. there was another mode of enriching embroideries. leaves. or discs. All jewellers' work. Spangles. This is Italian of the finest cinque-cento style 1 : blue velvet. The embroidered banners taken from Charles le Temeraire.



gold and silver embroideries.. either threaded like beads. though in peasant dress it yet survives. gorgeous piece of Italian art there are added a number of we can give them no other name). spangled. Dr. which seem to have belonged to another period and workmanship. surreptitiously. Pearls and gems. by Gentil Bellini. 33). and for the school they came from. Henry Layard has a portrait of the fifteenth century. and every vacant space filled with spangles of endless forms. and of precious goldsmiths' and enamellers' work. Saxons excelled Sir of in such enrichments. gold 147 embroidery. probably issued from the Hotel de Tiraz at L 2 . The Persian stirrups attached to it are of a totally different style of enamelling and jewellery. Rock describes part of a chasuble wrought by Isabella of Spain and her maids of honour. are to be studied in the early pictures and the Angloof the German and French schools . 3 It is embroidered in gold. who placed these Christian signs. 2 The Museum of National Art at Munich has a fine collection of the part of the and gold and silver. or else are to be attributed to a superstitious feeling on this On buttons (for maker. are a lesson 1 in art (pi. with crosses and hearts under crystal. set so as to overlap each other and give the effect of scales. enriched with spangles.MATERIALS. and the delicate taste with which the gems are set in the work. have been lavished on the head-dresses and stomachers of the peasantry throughout the north of 2 Europe and Switzerland. the Sultan Mahomet II. now mostly antiquated. and speak for themselves. and black bead head-dresses. design of a window-hanging. with red silk and gems . To a late period. or in golden settings. in which the 1 flowing design is worked out in small moulded spangles of gold and silver. from which has been copied the accompanying beautiful embroidered 3 The grace of the lines. perhaps. and I have it elsewhere said that Messina. for the good of his own soul.

and even our Later we imported and copied the needles. and in the mitres of Thomas a Becket. are To England they came in the bales certainly Oriental. in ^Elfled's maniple. sometimes gold only stitched down with them. and the find Spaniard's gilt parchment thread reached us from their Moorish manufactories. different ways of giving effect to inferior metals. jewels of enamelled gold. with gold alone or mixed with silver. metals (often forming the whole grounding) precious were employed without stint the patterns being either embroidered in coloured silks and gold or on velvets or satins. of the merchants who brought us our silk. in in the sixteenth worked were thus embroidered. twisted with coloured silks. 3 Gold thread was also made of gilt paper. and the ambition and despair of collectors. and placed on the cloaks of the The work was so perfect that it resembled knights. from India. 3 century. preserved their brilliancy for so many centuries. . his to the East Indies. people of Goa. glittering with The gold and radiant with colours. in "Voyage carpets (p. mostly Arabs. such as we worked in Charlemagne's dalmatic. embroidered for the Portuguese those wonderful fabrics. equally by the Moors and 1 named the Japanese. India sent to Europe more art in gold thread than has 1 ever been produced amongst us from our own workshops. which have ." These of late years have been the most gorgeous objects at exhibitions of old needlework. The fine gold threads for embroidery." speaks of the rich of some of these is silver or gold. The badges of the Order of the Dragon. Designs were sometimes. which cover the beds and 2 The hang the rooms throughout Portugal and Spain. . : "The ground are most excellently disposed. instituted by the Emperor Sigismund. ^28) about which such arabesques in flowers and figures as I have before Terry.148 NEEDLEWORK AS ART. Two ancient ones are in the Museum 1 at Munich.

exorbitant price. drove for a time a roaring trade. and if they detected any one making a cheaper or better article. There are beautiful specimens of this work of the days of Queen Elizabeth. ." p. and sewn down. The use of bad materials has therefore been as unfortunate for art as that of pure gold. we have a curious account of monopoly of gold thread. It has sometimes puzzled any but the most experienced embroiderers to distinguish between the stuffs woven fine works of art 1 ! 1 the In Aikin's " Life of James I. German. But we sometimes find that the pressure of circumstances has for a time caused the employment of adulterated metals that have perished and thus many . throughout Europe the best works were carried out with the best materials.. and Doubtless Villiers. they . was one of the firm. and these always came from the East. Sometimes the wire was twisted with coloured silks before it was coiled. that had been granted. with others. much employed in the form of what is called " purl. base metal thread were two Frenchmen. 149 Gold or silver or base metal wire was. and melt down the ore they contain. have been spoiled. both by men and women . threaded on silk. but the House of Commons Edward interfered. the Marquis' brother. and English embroideries were often enriched with this fabric.e. and the monopoly was abolished. which has tempted so many ignorant persons to burn golden embroideries and How tapestries. Duke of Buckingham. as gold embroideries were then they universally worn. 205. in the later Middle Ages and down to our own times. Italian. little of all that human skill and invention have carefully To gold and silver elaborated is now preserved to us textiles their materials have been often a fatal dower.were empowered to fine or imprison them.MATERIALS. The manufacturers of this Mompesson and Michel. and even This adulterated article they sold at an the flesh of those who wore it." i. Still. coiled wire cut into short lengths. to George Villiers. while a clause in their patent protected themselves. The thread was so scandalously debased with copper as to corrode the hands of the artificers.

on the surface. highly raised. which . it is rich. it was It is a peculiar mark beautiful. and economical. and at the Museum at Bologna. satin. as in England in the twelfth century. 2 The School of Gold Embroidery at Munich produces work of a The richness and precision which has. and when executed cunningly. cloths. Germany. as well as that at Madrid. The King of Bavaria has an establishItaly. difficult to and not so beautiful as the old ones. It is to be regretted that the modern designs are motive- and less. and Spain. and this is very finely carried out. " of the opus Anglicanum. where stately works are executed. " and the raised parts of the design are first cast in soft hollow carton. which is more easily shown than described. and it is very have any ancient piece of work copied exactly. manipulated that hardly an atom of the gold can be This is done by a technical detected at the back. this is an advantage. never been excelled. The gold is really drawn into the spaces between the threads of the canvas or linen For many reasons grounding. and finely and those other brocaded or patterned in the loom which have been so embroidered by hand. with two figure subjects in flat gold the and that of St. by design as well as by stitches." gold is worked on it and into the recesses with the help of a fine 1 Mitre of white St. but never pulled through. ment for gold work. also a Royal School. Stephen. Thomas of Canterbury. which pioneers the needle for each stitch. perhaps. " on the stamp.150 with the golden NEEDLEWORK threads AS ART. This is embroidery . ! . lasting. France. where this stitch is employed on a white satin ground also in the working of the two pluvials at San Giovanni Laterano at Rome. 2 In Spain there is richly designed." and it is to be seen in the mitre at Munich. all I cannot close this chapter without naming the many schools of gold embroidery in Belgium. martyrdom of stiletto. mode of treating the surface. are three English of ^the thirteenth century." but without padding.

however. Little 151 modernisms creep fitted in to be into a is new shape. viii. Greek. xi. i. about the sixteenth century. 48. 2 1 silk in the Silk is. Ezekiel xvi. 64.). 160 mentioned in the Old Testament cannot. perhaps. p." vol.' i. 168 . Yates. Gewander. Bock. Prizes are offered at Lyons for the best mode of manufacturing gold and silver thread that will not tarnish. "Textrinum Anti- quorum." The confounded on the passage. silk is 6. superseded by what was manufactured in Spain. c. Sacerdotum. due to certain manufacturers at Lyons who are working in the spirit of the old masters. 2 " Whether silk was 162 Yates says. wherever the pattern has for the accomplished seldom an artist. Braunius decides against silk being known to the Hebrews in ancient times trary opinion is (' Vestitu Heb. of Manu. and Roman manufactures. After fully considering the : subject." and literal translations for has drawn from them. and covered thee with silk" (ineshi). even made." . There is no certain mention of ment. It has been already said that wool and flax preceded silk in Egyptian. 1 which the The old Chinese flat gold was. " L.MAfERlALS. The rately origin and history of in discussed Yates' " He gives us his authorities. who cannot read the original I have availed texts. SILK. and have been seriously considering how best to reproduce the All honour is needlewoman secret beautiful soft surface of the gold thread of was lost in the fifteenth century. But the linen. pp. and is no longer imported or. " I clothed thee with broidered De I girded thee about with fine work. xii." 204. named Books of the Old Testa3 in the Code of Manu. the benefit of the unlearned. translation 3 is "Code p. and shod thee with badger-skins. disputed. be determined. and of the carefully considered opinions he learnedly and elaboTextrinum Antiquorum. myself without hesitation of his quotations. perhaps.

nor till those of the Greeks. of early silk-weaving which we have was taken out of the " Tomb of the in the Crimea. of Cos. 2 " Ornement des Tissus. Auberville says. as the passage in Aristotle may be so interagain into preted. were of 1 silk is The p. Aristotle to have there first woven silk s (300 i Probably raw silk was brought to Cos from the of Asia. and is of the transparent painted and yet a contemporary witness to the truth of the tradition of Pamphile's consists of several bits of very These fragments are an actual Coan webs. No tomb. 173. daughter of Plates. It silk.C. which are of the same date : possibly they were her handiwork. and ness and industry. is. Whether Pamphile's silk gauzes were the only fine webs of Cos. There is no doubt that the Roman ladies obtained their most splendid garments from Cos perhaps of wool as well as of silk. and woven them gauzy webs. How came Auberville. 174) believes that "Cos "should always be read for Cios. question ii. third century B. " Seven Brothers at Kertch. and that some of them undoubted. . to clothe victorious generals in triumphal she has been immortalized by her clever- she first Both Aristotle and Pliny assert that invented the Coan webs." Pamphile. The specimen above alluded to." the island." Yates (pp.152 NEEDLEWORK shred of silk AS ART. She has the credit of being the first garments. has been found in any E lately. 2 is a disputed question. Chios has " also been substituted for the name of Cos. and with one exception o " La soie ne fit son apparit is l Europe que 300 ans avant notre ere. Yates suggests that it is possible that Pamphile obtained cocoons and unwound them. and Pamphile is by some supposed to have "effiled" the solid manufactured silks. about which there seems to be some confusion.


I. Roman. Classical Silk. 4. 34.PI. 192. (Semper's " Der Stil. (Auberville. pi.) Page 153- . Classical Silk.) 2." p. Greek.

The first is given in Semper's scarce " evidently classical Greek or Roman but the silk material might have been effiled from an Der Stil. " Textrinum Antiquorum. from a city called Thina (China to ?). from the time of Alexander's return from his Indian 1 campaign. modified by the Persian loom in which it was woven. But it is not necessary that it should have entered our civilization by only one gate. and other authorities believe say it came by the it was brought from China. 34." p. The Periplus Maris Erythreei makes frequent mention of the trade in silks." and is . via Persia. Sir G. It is clear that Chinese silken stuffs were not generally known in Southern Europe Caesar. how and where did silk first make its appearance. who displayed a profusion till the time of Julius of silks in some of his 1 splendid theatrical representations. by report and rare specimens. No.MATERIALS. 269. in fact. 2). by the Indus to the coasts of the Erythrean Sea. Red through India. Oriental stuff (pi. No. some Sea. The author of the Periplus. Yates. Of course the remains of these fabrics are extremely . p. 34. " . only two are at present known to me besides the Kertch specimen. That the trade which brought it into Europe was 1 2 Textile Arts of India. How silk first arrived from the East is disputed . and. it 153 there its was whence and by what route ? and what country original home and birthplace ? ? After stating the pros and cons of the question. Birdwood. This may have been a Roman triumphal robe of the date of Julius Caesar (pi. The second must have been originally a Roman pattern. Birdwood concludes that both the worm and the cocoon were known to the Greeks and Romans. near Surat. of course. by land. refers 2 some place in the country vaguely called Serica. They were also brought through Bactria to Barygaza." ii. 204. i).

163. for 600 years after Pamphile's first essay in silk-weaving in Cos. " The Seres " was the name given by . ^Etoeus." The prevailing idea amongst the Greeks was that silk was combed from the trees. later Procopius (sixth century A. mention of these people as a distinct nation who speaks of them as an " honest (iii. and woven in the Phoenician cities of Tyre and Berytus. who bring what they have to sell. and limited. of which the manufacture and use continued to be the subject of legal enactments and restrictions. is proved by the fact that silk coneven as late as the third century of our era. and later. 184." note(*)..). Dionysius Periegetes tells of a barbarous " Textrinum Antiquorum. intended to hide the truth and enhance the value of the This was. 7). untidy cocoons so that. which was adopted and repeated by Pliny." 644. Aristotle tells the story of Pamphile. including Corea. lately. as it were. p. tradition had truth for its new Coan material. p. the kingdom of Khotan. note (*). Clemens Alexandrinus. Seneca says first is The by Mela 1 : " Nor with Mosonian needle mark the web. 184.) says the raw material was then brought from the East. See Yates. wrapping them up. pp. Gathered by Eastern Seres from the trees. and return for their payments. till believed to be only a fiction. silk. people. an article of luxury. had already given evidence respecting the use of century B. and Basil. 164. the ancients to the nation which produced silk and it was undoubtedly that accepted for the distant region now called China. as usual. in large. Aristotle (fourth however. . foundation. One thousand years Yates. But it is now ascertained that some of the wild silk in China is carried by the silkworm round the trees. There was always much mysterious report about the new 1 material. 2 Ibid.C.154 difficult NEEDLEWORK AS ART." 2 Seneca the Tragedian. " Here.D. to be tinued. .

" this 181. they aboriginal race. " met with and enslaved an who wove and worked This is already cultivated the silkworm.MATERIALS. and its produce. and were called by them 2 the Embroiderers. 1778. but who comb the coloured flowers of the desert. 155 " people called the Seres. Auberville says there 1 a legend that the p. vol. therefore. He there when these Accadians arrived on the furthest eastern coast of Asia. who has deciphered the Archaic books of the Chinese Records. and embroidery. silk." supposed to have been an life historical event contemporary with the of Abraham. Empress Yates. Herbelot. 3 Here already. and with them produce woven precious they make the field 1 stuffs. so in China originated the material of silk and its manufacture. sculpture. Terrien de la Couperie. resembling the flowers of in beauty. I have mentioned of embroidery. and in texture the web of the spider. 2 "Textrinum Antiquorum. 19. and India to produce cotton textiles. at any rate we must remember that very it is was used is in China 2600 years before our era.) Bibliotheque Orientale de M. 3 Whether we are early a now ascertained that silk justified or not in believing in so date. 38 ante. of which figured garments." ed. the son of Japhet. p. instructed his children in painting. who renounce the care of sheep and oxen. The Chinese say that Tckin or Sin. and in the art of preparing silk for different woven fabrics. and." There is no doubt that as Egypt was the first to weave linen. 5000 years old. . M. to prove the antiquity of the art I repeat it in reference to the first mention of " (See p. iii. sees there excellent linguistic proofs that the Chinese nation was originally a fragment of the finds that first Babylonian civilization.

and it was prohibited that either eggs of the silkworm or seed of mulberry-trees should cross the border. 172. 56. 355." vol. Related by Klaproth. 238. 1736). 2-4. "History of Khotan. but his request was refused . Before her time. love of smuggling. was desirous of obtaining from China the eggs of the silkworm. gave her courage to conceal the eggs and seeds in the folds of her dress and the meshes of her beautiful hair. and the wish to please her husband and benefit her future people. the Russian Orientalist. p. parlance. 3 4 " Histoire des " Tissus. 173) calls her Si-ling. 2 1 Auberville. 55. Chinese princess in marriage. p. wife of " Resume des Principaux Tractes Chinois. 4 Kiusa-tan-na. ii.. pp. be included and therefore silk exported thence to Europe would have Yates. 231. pp." Hoang-ti. 68. in in Serica. In the second century A." pp. 2 Some in linens centuries later the Emperor Chin received Tissues of tribute and silken stuffs. common Seres. 67.C. 356 (8vo edition. Defiance of the law. London. The the Then King of Khotan asked for a dread of such an aimless life roused all her womanly instincts. and this favour being granted. they had certainly for more than 300 years used the precious material in its mutilated condition.) had the happy inspiration to invent the unwinding of the cocoon before the insect cut the threads and for this discovery she was placed . 1837. and so she carried a most precious dower into her adopted 5 Thus was broken the spell which for more country. Re'musat. p. pp. Auberville. 232." translated by M. 5 Khotan or Little Bucharia would. many colours were 3 painted or richly embroidered. 1 Si-ling-Chi (2600 B. among the divinities. 2. a prince of Khotan. Yates (pp. D.156 NEEDLEWORK AS ART. Abel Yates. been perfectly described as coming from the . and quotes the traduits par Stanislas Julien. he found means to inform the lady privately that in her future kingdom she would find no silk to weave or work. Du Halde.

ye maids. decreed that only women should wear silk." Lucan describes the transparent material which Cleopatra's form " First : veiled Her snowy by the breast shines through Sidonian threads. the civilization of many interruptions which is nearly contemporary with Christianity.MATERIALS. perfecting to the most exquisite finish the arts which had been imported 2 While in Europe the arts of daily for life after and from China and Corea. 383. 530. 3 24. Yates. therefore. The the Parthians inflamed the cupidity of the army of Crassus. 175 The silken flags attached to the gilt standards pf Yates. the last Japan also inherited the power and the and so Europe remained unconscious. comes our silk. with embroidery transparent made. pp. the eggs were brought to Byzantium. 2 may say it is traced to the beginning but how far back had the We ! . "Tissus. . use and decoration were struggling revolutions. 4 . 176. Auberville. 231. p. A. spent itself in Japan. 157 than 3000 years had confined the secret of China within the fence of its wonderful wall and later on. .D. fanciful. archaeologist to I grope before he could find it transcribe a few more quotations from Yates' trans- lations and " authorities. comb of distant Seres struck . 1 From China. 184. And Divided then by Egypt's skilful hand. though The Latin poets of the Augustan age speak of silk 4 attire with other luxurious customs from the East. tradition of concealment. the vests whose tissue glares With purple and with gold far be the red Of Syrian murex this the shining thread . of the miraculous arts which a semi. 3 In the Hippolytus of Euripides. Phaedra loquitur: Remove. 1 Yates. until century. p. Which furthest Seres gathers from the boughs.barbarous people not for commercial purposes." were cultivating pp. in the reign of Tiberius. on account of its effeminacy." and its manufacture is mostly founded on half-known facts. The Pliny's account of silk Roman senate.

and he replied. it from me to permit thread to be reckoned worth its " weight in gold silk. "the Philosold all the imperial ornaments and the silken sopher. Flavius Vopiscus says that Aurelian had no dress 2 His wife begged him to wholly of silk (holosericum). 1870)." whole flax. wrestlers. productions of After 1 these words he says that among the richest distant climes. Flavius and musicians. or silk. for the wardrobes of the em- A. as an imperial extravagance on the part of Heliogobalus (and of this only one strand was silk) and he mentions that Alexander Severus rarely allowed himself a dress of silk (holosericum)." c. Rock. " Far be allow her a shawl of purple silk. We robes of partly silken substance. the Seres sent their " new fleeces.D. to Greek artificers. cxix." robes of his empress by auction in the Forum of Trajan. 195. p.158 Silk NEEDLEWORK was accumulated till AS ART. 1 presses was precious and fabulously esteemed to the end of the second century A. threads or warp. Roman " between them took place 54 B." " Petronius Arbiter. p. 176. . Yates. The . as well as dresses of gold and silver. longitudinal " Textile Fabrics. gave away silken garments. silk. . 183." p. 3 " subsericum. 2 "Holosericum.D. where'er heaven's light extends. hemp. players." partly cotton. but it is seldom mentioned in the third century. when Marcus Aurelius. xxxvii (ed. ! for a pound of gold was then worth a pound of Vopiscus further states that the Emperor Carinus." Yates. 3 Yates gives us a translation of an edict of Diocletian. cotton the cross threads. however. About luxury had reached its zenith thirty years after this The insatiate Roman spreads his conquering arm O'er land and sea. giving a maximum of prices for articles in common use conflict date. ^Elius Lampridius speaks of a silken cord with which to hang himself. and only gave away learn that silk .C.

p. iii. 246. see Waddington. by the north of Europe. p. maker's of to-day To To To the tailor. . N. " Edit. 203. for an opening and an edging of a . . 2 the sixth centuries. . a great event in European commerce. for an opening of an edging of silk the same. Yates. The first arrival of the silkworm sixth century. by Poculus. p. The eggs were solemnly presented to the Emperor Justinian. the same. . . The monopoly of the 4 silk manufactures was confined 1 For the value of the denarius. p. 3. through Slavonia. erected to the memory of " M. praising its beauty or blaming it as extravagance or luxury but according to the first to . and is often erroneous. mixed 30 4 1 tissue of silk and flax For an edging of a coarser vest . : It reads like a or a dressDENARII. who remarks.50 .. Yates. . .6 . p." at Tivoli is A monument in the fourth century. but rather as appro4 priating it as an imperial monopoly and source of revenue. and the monopoly of their cultivation is to be found in his Europe was in the Cosmas Indicopleustes in law-ordaining codex. 300 B. Yates. 231 . and another monk brought eggs from China in the This was hollow staves they carried in their hands. . The words "silk" and "satin" Yates as having two derivations the one imported to us through Greece and Italy. in the 159 tailor's Roman bill empire. all the information we collect from these sources requires to be tested as to accuracy. are spoken of by Yates. 205. for lining a fine vest . 900 years later. that the laws of Justinian are not directed against the use of silk as a luxury.MATERIALS. 198. his estimable wife. torn. . poets and his3 torians continually speak of silk. p. de Diocletien." p. From Yates. the other from Eastern Asia. 2 3 Gruter. Valeria Chrysis. I have spoken of the first silk-weaving in Cos.C. 645 . This was probably an imperial office silk manufacturer.

One of the most remarkable has every mark of Oriental design." These may be. circles is filled in with the tree of life. and are The space between the stooping to give them drink at a trough. relates that the first Abbot of for the fifth Wearmouth went Rome time in A. in silk. p. 370). seventh centuries (see pi. 1630). 562) alludes to the frequent use of silk in the priests' vestments at the Church of St. the earliest ascertained specimens that 1 Tom. first and . are. See Yates.D. 685. or the fine thread by Seres spun. The He places this between the two horns.D." specimens of gives us. coloured slaves drive the horses. of a warrior in his quadriga." illustrates the idea of the resurrection by the birth of 2 the butterfly from the cocoon. with which he purchased land of three families at the mouth of the Wear. and entirely of silk.D. 2 3 Yates. Sophia Bede to at Constantinople. ii. growing out of its colours are purple and gold. p. either running beside them or standing upon them and other slaves carry beasts on their shoulders. Ad lenium pro Monarchis Carmen :" " Silver and gold some 1 Basil bring to God. fix their but he cannot finest exact date. but the cultivation of the worm gradually spread over Greece. Black or repeated over and over again. 106 (ed. Auberville. Asia Minor. evidently . 3 webs of Holosericum from the imperial looms were generally bestowed upon the Church. Plate 4. as they are woven for triumphal occasions. p. 213. The Church first is allusion to the use of silk in the Christian " Helby Gregory Nazianzen (A. to the area of the imperial palace of Constantinople.160 NEEDLEWORK AS ART. included in the palmated class. or Amongst these are what he calls " Consular silks. in his silks between the first and seventh centuries. and India. It represents a picture in a circle. and brought back with him two scarves or palls of incomparable workmanship. and thus consecrated. Paul the Silentiary (A. Bede's own remains were wrapped Auberville Roman The " Tissus. 214. 34).

the silk and satin fabrics. Roger de Wendover and Matthew Paris describe the " Among " apparition 2 of King John William de Imperial. the tissue called Imperial is mentioned by several early English authors. M . The breeding of the worm in Europe seems to have been confined to Greece from the time of Justinian to the twelfth century. ed. 243. but in 1148." clad in " royal robes of Magna Villa brought from as Greece. ed. and settled the Persians. p. most have been found in the tombs of saints. and the Hotel de Tiraz which absorbed all the smaller Saracenic factories already started. however. a few that have not had the security of the tomb. Thebes. Dean of St. Coxe. 244. 127. also Yates. a stuff called Imperial. bishops." t. 161 have survived have been preserved and of these.MATERIALS. Roger." 3 a description of the Royal manufactory at Palermo. employed in weaving velvet stoles interwoven with gold. "Chronica. "marbled" or fell variegated. See Rock. Paul's." " Textrinum Antiquorum. Then might be seen Corinthians and Thebans of both sexes. 4 iv. 3 Iv.. t. in 1170. Quoted by Rock from Ralph. and in 1161. p. In the Eastern Empire. and kings who were buried in priestly as well as in royal 1 garments. i. and Charlemagne's dalmatic. 38. brought as prisoners of war. and them at Palermo. iv. " many silk-weavers. 1 Introduction." pp. Semper. and serving like the Eretrians of old among Athens. King of Sicily. In the twelfth century. Hugh Falcandus 4 has left There are. Benjamin of Tudela says the city of Thebes contained about 2000 Jewish silk-weavers. such as the chasuble and maniple at Bayeux. "Chronica. p. and yet have survived. Roger de Wendover. and covered with lions woven in gold. of the seventh century. . Coxe. this industry after a time into the hands of the Jews. 2 Roger de Wendover. from Corinth.

See Semper. and flowered stuffs (damasks). The second period. their style three times. p. and dyeing silk is required to enable any one to an exact date to materials which only remodelled assign spinning. The continuity of Sicilian textile designs from the sixth to the sixteenth centuries (a thousand years) is very remarkable. from the time of Justinian to the Hohenstaufen (from the sixth to the twelfth century) secondly. Dr. to Charles IV. in which were separately carried on the weaving of plain tissues. period especially shows African animals. ment. and the The embroideries with pearls and precious stones. The Hotel de Tiraz had four great workshops. as they are " broad and Introduction First. p. See illustration from the portrait of Sultan Mahomet II. the silk being mingled with cotton. such as the giraffe and the different kinds of antelopes. 1152. (Barbarossa). be In his to the simple. Plate 33. Ixvii) he says that the three defined periods of silk-weaving in Sicily easily learned. are : . comprehensive Textiles in the Kensington Museum" (p. is The first mixed with Arabian mottoes generally woven with gold. 1347 (twelfth to fourteenth centuries). the third period of one century only. examits and satins.1 62 NEEDLEWORK AS ART. however. shows the arrival of Count Roger's Persian and Greek 1 and the patterns are This is merely gilt parch. 1 highest efforts of the loom were apparently finished with the needle.. velvets. 146. great knowledge of the arts of weaving. and lastly. 2 Ante. from the accession of Frederick I. beginning in the twelfth century. by Gentil Bellini. gold brocades and embroideries. 157. Owing to its originally strongly stamped Oriental character.. from 1347 to 1456. 2 as in the figured textiles of Egypt. It was from the last that proceeded the real works of art. Rock's rules for deciphering these three dates may. .


Durham.PI. Page 163. . Cutbbert. Silk Wrapping on the body of St.35- Peacock Pattern.

which are fragments of three wrappings.MATERIALS. and red have been woven into their fabric. of the Babylonian stamp. This description singularly applies to the relics removed from the tomb of St. The fresh designs show fragments of Greek taste. and the long descent of patterns. thick limbed with strongly-marked muscles. Corinth. all accompanied by ing. from which he gives us fine examples. illustrations. that a description of them. in 1827 among sovereign riding with a . captives from Thebes. recognizable silk. or guimp. thus giving the opportunity for varying the original motive by breaking up the rolling arabesqued pattern. and uniting the stems and flowers contained in spaces between the circles are filled in with gryphons in pairs. There is a border the border. such as masks and foliage. double-headed and collared. Cuthbert. framed within circles which slightly intersect each other. at Durham. though there are indications that blue. 163 workmen. and there are also on one of them traces of gilding. Scattered about it are repetitions of the Persian leaf type of design in silk-weaving was carried into about the end of the second period. Persian in character. and Athens. or garments of so suggestive of the artistic traditions of many nationalities. piece of silk contains a large rosace. and give one a slight foretaste of the Renaissance. The first (plate 35) shows Oriental conventional peacocks. We are informed by Germany Auberville that there existed at that time a manufacture of ecclesiastical stuffs at Leipzig. 1 These Sicilian semi-classical echoes are contemporary in the looms with such Norman motives as a crowned hawk upon his wrist. green. after the lapse of centuries. 1 The second The Sicilian M 2 . in which are small crosses surmounting repetitions of the crenelated pattern found in The Assyrian ornament. They are now can hardly fail to be interestreduced by time to a rich golden brown.

pi. v." vol. and is somewhat like a boat. A looped up on each side to the head of a thyrsus. xxxiii. facing lated pattern surmounted by a vine. rosace. specimen is the most noteworthy (plate 37). " metal work.164 or tree of NEEDLEWORK AS ART. and the piece of drapery resembling an subject is puzzling. 38) is and fish disporting themselves in Between the circles the ducks are the rippling waves. See Wilkinson's "Ancient Egyptians.. but it reminds one of Egyptian and Greek art. There is nothing of Assyrian here. These fragments have belonged each to a very large and freely woven silk shawl or mantle. hares or fawns between a Persian arabesque and a corded The mixture of Egyptian and Assyrian styles is line. and the border consists of kneeling life. There is a different arrangement swimming towards it. giving the Norman stamp of the reigning house and influence in Sicily. The circles are about two feet across. The xxxiv. a scarf floats from the prow or from the oars. of the threads in each web. only that a royal crown and robes are worn l by the horseman (pi. with ducks Egyptian sail with its 2 fringes (pi. and the last described has a raised pattern which might have been intended to represent water. 1 See is Bock's pattern 2 twelfth century "Liturgische Gewander. but the design is probably of a much earlier date. pi. remarkable throughout. giving different fine diapers. . ii." embroidered in gold." iii. Taf. a shield enriched with rows of the crenerepeated. xvi. and at once suggests third The Count Roger's Greek slaves at the Sicilian looms. In general. 36). .. till we come to the centre of the where we find a most incongruous man in armour on horseback with a hawk on his wrist. rests upon water. The central subject is exactly repeated on an embroidered twelfth century chasuble in the treasury of the Cathedral of Bamberg. and above it hangs a The lower part of the drapery large cluster of fruits.

.PI. A Silk Wrapping on the body of St. Cuthbert. Page 164. NORMAN AND PERSIAN TYPE. 36. Durham.


. Cuthbert. 37- GR^CO-EGYPIIAN STYLE. A Silk Wrapping on the body of St. Durham. Page 164.PI.


211." iii. pi. p. 37.1 PL Boat with coloured sail. from the tomb of Rameses III. " Ancient on Egyptians.) Explanatory of the design silk (Wilkinson's St. at Thebes. Page 164. . Cuthbert's shroud.


or rather the gilding. crosses. most was destroyed. animals. says. his shrine little later. pheasants. own cross appears in various forms. silken stuffs. every Alexandria. and so left when at the Reformation. own The Sicilian. and heraldic emblems and coats-of-arms. had been the depot for the silken stuffs of Libya and Morocco. Matthew Paris (a contemporary historian).. and piously concealed till our I shall describe the beautiful embroideries in day. was so base that it has almost always become black on the foundation All this splendour of design strips of 1 green patterns on 1 parchment or paper. and every kind of mythological creature griffins. Syria. The Greek They show alike Asiatic. . It is 165 likely that in the twelfth century. and harts. of even a the body of St." . African. Jerusalem was a mart for rich merchandise from Persia. The silks continued to be mixed with cotton. with large wings swans. weavings. and European . often pecking at the sun's rays beautifully drawn foliage and flowers. Arabia. was commonly lavished on poor material. The Crusaders carried away splendid booty from the towns they took and ransacked.MATERIALS. and eagles. and the coffer containing his remains buried in the same place. " At the division of costly vessels. As it was the great gathering-place of all Eastern and Western nations. yielded the richest plunder. The are of a wonderful richness and capricious ingedesigns nuity. third period of silk-weaving art is unmistakably At the end of the thirteenth century and beginning of the fourteenth. Palermo struck out her line. and the gold. single or double-headed. as early as the middle of the sixth century. and Phoenicia. which the body had been clothed in the tenth century when I come to the subject of English work. and beggar in the crusading army was enriched. dogs. till the times of the Latin kings. One peculiarity of the third period " is the frequent use of murrey "-coloured grounds. as well as Jerusalem. Here is a wide 1098. Cuthbert was wrapped in these shawls. dragons. A D. Antioch. speaking of what was taken at Antioch.

pp.1 66 NEEDLEWORK AS ART. oh chaste Minerva. was a custom among the Parthians. 53. Sabina. by carrying the cognizances of his grandfather and his 1 mother. in the Kensington Museum. when the distinguished pilgrims and warriors. under the most remarkable fragments now known..' See Lady Wilton on " Needlework. made Sicily their halfway house to the Holy Land. . found the manufacture of 2 ornament. identical in design with the silk area opened to us for suggestions as to the origin and traditions of art. 8710." vol. See . it appears a sin separate two things so near akin . In Auberville's book we find. Introduction. Birdwood says that whether the Saracens patterns in silk textile i. : The first to thee. the remarkable fragment of the dress of Richard II. especially the English. See Rock's " Textile Fabrics. To To " . they certainly influenced the decorative He adds that kincobs are now woven at designs. and brought from thence fabrics woven to suit their tastes. with the forms of Arab lettering. On portrait-tombs and in some very ancient pictures are figured beautiful silks woven in gold." p. of inscriptions in textiles is not a Saracenic invention. Ahmedabad and Benares. Of this type. leave The latter to the Muses they devote. The last period of the Sicilian silks is especially marked by the inscriptions being mostly nonsense. which are recognizable at once by their Arab-Sicilian style. 1 Sir G. and p. 30. 2 The weaving it Pliny says p. Ixi. and the portrait of his dog Math. 268. Ausonius thus celebrates Sabina. dates itself. the woven in as already established in India or not. Rock. me. of whom we otherwise know nothing " ' They who both webs and verses weave. The heraldic silks are mostly of the time of the Crusades." p. No.Bock's " Liturgische Gewander. 29. So I have writ these verses on my coat. and only dates of many centuries. ccxlviii. " In allusion to lettered garments.

and in return the Mogul emperors French designers The Taj and of Delhi into India. Sassanian." in xi.000 looms and 240. Yates. of the silk manufactures from the East into Austin of Bordeaux. when they overflowed into Iberia. have acted and reacted upon each other and nothing throws more light on the affinities and the development of the modern decorative arts of Europe than the history of the introduction. and even to Germany. Tegrini. p. manufactures." t. and so started it has steadily increased till now. to assist them in their architecture and textile manufactures. . invited many Italian and other buildings in Rajpootana are decorated with exquisite mosaics coeval with those of Their styles of art in textiles. after the beginning of the ninth century. under Justinian. Sicilian 167 brocades . Script. cording to Nicolo Tegrini. 244. the West. the flourishing silk-weavers of Lucca having been ejected from the city in the early part of the fourteenth century. carried Italian all . know that the Saracens introduced colonies of in patterns which prove their origin We Persian. 2 "Textrinum Antiquorum. and designs thus disobeying their prophet. 1320. 274.000 workpeople of both sexes. France. with them their Orientalisms.MATERIALS." p. The Moors. and in other materials. p. 1 From silk Palermo. "Indian Arts. traditions. . all the stages of the manufacture of Acspread themselves over Italy and into Spain. It gives employment to about 31. and probably Indian workmen into Spain. "Vita Cas- truccii.. the use of silk except to women. " Ital. while the Saracenic Sicilian silks in abound Assyrian. 2 the silk industry that weavers went to Lyondfn 1450. 1 who forbade Birdwood. .and Britain. carried their art elsewhere." Muratore. old. or Indian art.

" and the robes called list rich stuffs with inscriptions inwoven in gold. In Hoveden's account of the fleet of Richard I. of which Rock has pointed out the marked special individualities. 39.. in the Middle Ages. Genoa." l author. 46. 382. xx. Senhor F. and each has left specimens of the craft. and its carpets. were called " literatis. and they still weave sixteenth-century designs." 1882. speaking of the manufactures of silk at Almeria. p. Malaga is famous for its manufactures of silks of all colours and patterns. Bock. us that from the ninth to centuries. and at Toledo the ancient traditions are preserved. de Riano the eleventh tissues. pp. quotes from Anastasius and the Abbot of Fonteproving that silken rugs were manufactured in Spain by the Moors. 40. he speaks of the delicate and valuable textures of the silks of Almeria. and other wealthy people woven a suit of will cost made them many thousands. " Tiraz. into them. coasting the shores of Spain. Hoveden. Talavera della Reina also produces fine ecclesiastical fabrics. Rock. Rog. Ash-Shakandi. says that thence came the brightest colours The same . "Cat. " says. p. But those of Valencia became famous. lived in the beginning of the thirteenth century. some of which are so rich that who Such are the brocades with beautiful designs and the names of the Caliphs. Florence. 3 When the Moors were driven from Spain. 3 nelle." the Iscalaton. the silk works of Malaga and Almeria were ruined. and flourish to this day.1 68 NEEDLEWORK tells AS ART. 2 Ash-Shakandi also mentions the looms of Murcia. Ameers. Ann. p. naming the each by its own " of precious silk tissues. and Al-Makhari adds a name. In Italy." 1 The Riano. ed. The Moorish Cordovese Spain was producing fine silk writer. . and Milan followed the Sicilian silk manufactures. of Loan Exhibition of Spanish Art in South Ken- sington 2 Museum. Savile.

and still prevail in certain traditional fabrics. till the great manufactures . in their princely palace competed at Rome.MATERIALS. The loops of gold have been the custom since the thirteenth century. In Hungary. and exchanged the Oriental intricate patterns for a bolder and simpler style. 14." p. especially their velvet and gold were particularly splendid. Southern. of course. and can be recogbrocades. her especial invention was shown in weaving. in the banners woven annually for the prizes The Corsini family. also showed at first the Oriental impress but she soon struck out a line of her own and . representing sacred subjects. for instance. Individual exertion produced copies. 1 but it is only in large national schools of arts or crafts that an absolutely recognizable style 1 becomes Auberville. or motives that are taken from Eastern. Florentine tissues. and many convents established looms for weaving silk throughout Europe and in England wove silken tissues for the service of the Church. designs of Lucca at first imitated the Moorish type and introduced as their speciality. from the thirteenth to the sixteenth centuries. or Northern inspirations . Venice. 1 69 The Sicilian figures. white . a room entirely hung with the silk of these have for many in gorgeous banners. Of these early Florentine gold brocades we have still beautiful examples in the palls of our City companies and in ancient ecclesiastical vestments. nized by the loops of gold thread drawn to the surface and left there. absorbed these partially private enterprises. square pieces of silken tissue. . generations and for hundreds of years these races. Queen Gisela. in the eleventh century. who at the horse races in Florence. . " Histoire des Tissus. such as angels in white garments. had.

170 apparent. "Baudakin" from Baghdad. to This afterwards gave the word baldachino which it marbles and mosaics. borrowing from the Byzantine Empire. for instance. birds. In and Germany. and have held the highest place in silk-weaving ever since. its workshops for embroideries on silk. each convent had. the mediaeval "baudas" " and " baudakin (with endless modifications in the spelling). 224. and from different Asiatic textiles.. 1 Satin is only found named in catalogues about the fourteenth century. The Flemish towns of Ypres. in vermilion satin embroidered with jewels Yule's "Marco Polo. They are constantly Germany. and has never been transferred and at Constantinople. and Cathay. NEEDLEWORK For example. the awning or canopy over the altar. Sicily. woollens. He names. as well as in the Low England. Baldwin . 1 while all the p. and Mechlin were known for their silken webs in the thirteenth century. him we have information of the generally bearing the of the city where they were woven. retained even when textiles had given place to II. Countries. the AS ART. their designs and patterns. and flowers in gold. "Baudakin" was woven with beasts. Marco Polo in Asia. Ghent. Persia. and Spain. at Rome. named in the lists of fine furnishings in About cities this resided and travelled time (the thirteenth century). . But the dalmatic of Charlemagne." "damask" from Damascus. He visited the principal of Syria. name from Baghdad. France. and linens. besides its silk-weaving looms. is embroidered on a stout blue satin. early French silks from monastic establishments are not remarkable for either style or texture till the sixteenth century. was shod and clothed . when they came to the front as a national manufacture. Khotan. and at that time innumerable small schools of the craft seem to have covered Europe. at his coronation in 1204.

21." the product of Yates (p." where costly : fellat . through Slavonia and Northern Europe." always as being fiery. King Arthur is described seated on a throne of rushes. the other from Eastern Asia. and the shadows are melted 1 into half-lights by the reflections from " Re'cit de Robert Clari. Satin was often called " blattin. In find k described as " pfellat. 2 Satin is called by Marco Polo "zettani. In satin the threads are laid along so that the shining surface ripples with every ray of sunshine.MATERIALS. 1 Semper and Bock believe that it had been a Chinese material long before it reached Europe. covered with a flamecoloured satin cloth. and with a red satin cushion under his elbow. was the orthodox colour for satin." which is probably derived from "zaituniah. 3 Ibid. Fiery red old German poems we newe. 246) gives the derivations of the words satin and silk ." and he says it The French called it " zatony . a story flames." 4 Satin and velvet are the contrasting silken materials. is told of a cavern in Asia full of everlasting was made by the Salamanders. We cannot 2 tell. silk and satin are often named. " poem of The Lady of the Fountain. In the Wigalois." translated by Lady Charlotte Guest from the Welsh ballads of the thirteenth century." in connection with the colour of the cochineal insect (blatta). came from named it "aceytuni. whose dye was invariably used for satin. was one of the companions of Ville See Auberville's " Histoire des Tissus. which was fireproof and indestructible. the one imported to us through Greece and Italy. At was certainly In the the opening of the poem." He d'Hardouin. however. One kind of pfellat was called salamander. Zaiton. 4 " Man of Lawe's Tale Canterbury Pilgrims." the Spaniards Syria." p. 3 Bruges satins were the most esteemed in Chaucer speaks of " satin riche and the Middle Ages. which named from the other. 1 7 r Venetian and French barons present were clad in satin. and a witness to the coronation of Baldwin II.

It AS ART. 4 In the next chapter on colour I have noticed the curious fact that the word purple was sometimes used to mean colour. Semper. 1 velvet. When woven of silk it belongs to the class of velvets. and have not the dignity of every . silken plush. dark. an d we may therefore say that it was imported from the East. textile in the chapter on cotton. (three-piled-velvet eyes) is a pretty Spanish phrase. where each thread is and shorn smoothly. describing the soft. about 1295. where." Bock./^/^r/) with welf. selects the connection of the word " 2 (German. specimen we know of is named by Bock as being in the Pergament Codex at Le Puy. and sometimes to express the texture of velvet. shadowy eyes of the Spanish girls. thus confounding the two but I have also pointed out that it had other meanings. a very comprehensive word for everything that expressed richness and warmth. in the thirteenth century. pp. 3 Marco Polo. all light is absorbed and placed upright there are no reflections. splendid in its radiant sheen whereas in velvet. 99 101. frequently speaks of velvet as an Asiatic fabric. and the whole effects are solemn. but generally was woven This was also Asiatic. It is first known as a European textile in Lucca. plush in the length of their pile. and deep. I have already mentioned it as a 4 Buckram was sometimes a with cotton.172 NEEDLEWORK fold. . 2 3 1 " Ohitos terciopelos Italian i. is a fine piece of shorn silk velvet. and had become ." the skin or fur of an animal. " The word velluto means "shaggy. amongst other curious interleaved specimens of weaving. Some of the oldest velvets resemble rich. Among Haroun el the gifts to Charlemagne (ninth century) from Raschid were velvets and the earliest existing . makes a dazzling garment. and named by travellers of the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. from the different derivations that have been " " velvet suggested. in Vendome.

If so and from each succeeding transference small fragments may be found showing on the cut edges. They invariably embroidered them. often a puzzle to the archaeologist. reminding you of the three Trojan cities dug up at different depths under each other at Hissarlik.MATERIALS. and he should not only be an archaeologist. You will often see remains of two or more of these layers. Of course it is always evident and easily ascertained. besides 2 . we must be careful not to be deceived by the different dates often occurring in the grounding and the applied materials. Rock gives their approximate dates. so 1 armed. Much embroidery was worked on fabrics that were already old and even worn out and others have been transferred centuries ago. no kind of knowledge is useless in But even when deciphering the secrets of human art. 2 The specimens in the South Kensington Museum. in fact. 1 This sometimes causes a good deal of difficulty in One should begin by ascertaining dating specimens. . and worked down and finished there. whether the needlework was originally intended to be cut out (opus consutum). In judging each specimen the acumen of the expert needed to obtain a correct opinion. he Elsewhere I is often checked and puzzled by some have spoken of the embroideries of the early Christian These afford notable examples times found in the Fayoum. and so added a grace to the old and honoured vestment. " Healer of clothes " for a darner. to . The comparatively modern additions of the restorer. of the ancient method in putting in patches on a worn or frayed garment. and perhaps more than once. where Dr. are in ancient as in later specimens. fresh grounds. 173 While examining and judging embroideries. but a botanist and a herald is and. and justified the classical appellation. in Egypt. and so laid on a ground of another material. are most useful to the student of this subject. whether the work has been transferred at all.

and so inseparably connected with the art which is the subject and motive of and not only in this does the connection this book . For these reasons alone I have given this chapter on materials. exciting the interest of the reader. It is. between them exist. silken and other textiles are an absolute necessity to their existence. but suggesting further research into the writings of the authors I have quoted. the historical archaeological side of the study of textiles. has to cast it aside as defying classification. I hope. compared. . when and have What I have said regards. and. they sometimes explain each other. as well to note these exceptions.174 NEEDLEWORK AS ART. and I treated of them as being either the origin or the imitations of different styles of embroidery. but in the fact that as embroideries always need a ground. and after wasting trouble and time. however. as. of course. short and imperfect. accidental caprice of design or mode of weaving.

IT is my intention to confine myself to the discussion of colour. classify." Cautley. cleared of erroneous theories revealing to us all its beauty and fitness for I . There is no doubt that the appreciation of colour has belonged in different degrees to the eye of every animal. apparently a sufficient reason and we have to seek the causes of our sensations in the scientific works and lectures . As through all ages the that eye has been gradually educated to appreciate harmony in colour. closely as is a great and most interestthe science of to-day has opened ing subject one which out. what of Professor Tyndall and others. My soul. ever since light first painted the flowers of the field. enjoy and use them. 21. accustomed to acquiesce in the powers with which they find themselves gifted by nature. can to this part of what the use and delight of man. what gracious glorious powers radiance To hue and God has given !" " Emblems. and name them. being colour. long before they begin to study. and . The eye is created to see But we know that men. in as far as it belongs to the dyes of textiles and I will adhere as the materials for embroidery. p. and by the test of experiment. but especially to that of man.CHAPTER COLOUR. so dissonance errs against harmony hurts us. When we recollect that the circulation of the blood was not known within the last three hundred years. as well as form. without is. " V.

in this present advanced day. purple. for defining tastes or smells ? say that somesmells like a violet. in his regulations for The Italians necessary weaving. covered a multitude of differentiated. refers also to colour. or a rose. beyond we have no descriptive words calling it for either or tastes. say a smell is nice or nasty. applies to artistic as the Greeks had already acquired the art of textiles. with one bone in the upper and one in the lower arm. dyeing for plain weaving. neither did they understand." 2 See Pliny's " Natural History. ship of Astarte. we shall be surprised to find that the ancients had named the colours they saw. with some " degree of descriptive and scientific precision.176 NEEDLEWORK AS ART. whereas the nations who traded in the materials for dyes exchanged their nomenclatures. adjuncts and materials there came to perfection. 1 " Seeing. though as articles of commerce the purple tints had been early distinguished. either in The word tints. which we can recognize from the descriptive remarks of different authors. What names have we now. and the isles All art grew in that area. as cluster an art." for instance." which gives much information on the subject. or a thing frosted cabbage. and all its of Greece. Numa. which par- had not as yet been common 1 lance or in poetry. that Albert Diirer painted the skeleton Death on the bridge of Lucerne. more southern and eastern E. was :born in those lands which round the eastern shores of the Mediterranean the northern coasts of Syria and Arabia. they saw not. Curtius says that the science of colour came into Europe with the Phoenicians and accompanied the worThis. but sweet or sour. . though often imported from 2 sources. that We We a taste smells is 'delicious or nauseous. Colour. of course. or a sea breeze.

o C/3 O OH b q (U .


fresh and glowing. How the eye accepts colours and conveys them to the 2 mind is still a question in dispute. It is the art of the colourist. p. i.COLOUR. or. Curtius. it is now all but ascertained that the same colour is The chemists of the Gobelins have fixed and probably appreciated differently by nearly every eye. -reflected from all rounding objects. or embroiders them. are drawing ascertained facts into a circle. Blumner's 216. 2 " differentiates in every normal eye a sensibility for Charpentier E. and others. infinity of variation in colour difficult to imagine. p. therefore must at that time have 177 made some advance is in the art." Engl. Trans. "Technologic. a sensibility for colour. and a sensibility for form (a visual sensibility). August can perceive. though the theories of Tyndall. we must not forget that catalogued 4480 tones. Prismatic colours are so radiantly glorious. or permanently faded shining with modern varnish. or dyes textiles. Charpentier. blazing in light. Hering. and the mysteries of colour may be ascertained." See "Modern Theories iQth. aided by experiments. while preserving as far as possible all their light and purity. 1882." The Lancet. light.. Helmholz. which will ere long be complete. When. that when we see the rainbow in the sky it is each time a joyful The most stolid natures are moved by it we surprise. or sobered by the dust of ages. Besides. have even seen our dog staring at light. at any rate. . they are received and acted upon by individual We of Colour. 438 . or softened by shadow. minds. how how differently N . it." p. 1 in experiments on the shafts of colour are " Greek History . by studying works of art. variously these gifts are distributed. to reduce the tints of the prism to an endurable and delightful lowness of tone. 276. Probably the effects of colour on educated minds are as various as the tints and shades of tones of the many sur- substances which receive them. whether he paints pictures. The 1 especially the Etruscans.

even when educated. acting on an of colour on the brain is a subject only just now to attract attention. I believe. and From the the delightful surprises of its contrasts. thoughts in colour. 2 Titian and his school arose from the inherited science and tradition. Experiments on the insane have been beginning made in Italy. thrown on the admiration . too. yet there are certain standards which give almost universal pleasure. and carefully prepared pigments of his immediate predecessors. at Venice . whereas windows glazed with blue glass alternating with white have sensibly calmed the nerves of the patients. which enables them to create new blindness.178 NEEDLEWORK AS ART. mistaking their dulness for softness 2 and sobriety of colouring. or the opaque. have their uses. gifted beyond all others with that fund of sensitive eye-nerve and mental power. especially. to either. normal class of seeing eyes and passing them by. reach to those few men. any more than in a continuity of . and it is said to be 1 The effect ascertained that red and green are irritants. the soothing pleasures of its harmonies. they are greeted with shouts of but these glories are veiled to us by the fact that the eye cannot dissect the prismatic ray without the This is assistance of the instrument that has revealed it. Let us compare the beautiful creations of the Venetian school with the demoralizing brightness of aniline colours. But they. glimpses nature and laws. retains its own special appreciation of the colours that we have of its gratify seeing nerve. wall. we may hope for fresh inspiration for the art of the colourist. lightning flashes. earthy tints which some call beautiful. a merciful arrangement for we are not fitted to live in a prismatic display. Though it is true that each eye. 1 its The for all blind and the colour-blind must remain exceptions time and there are many gradations in colour. till we come to the . . We should go mad or blind if exposed Science has shown us the perfect beauty of colour without form.

love. which shows what a soul-stirring colour N 2 it was in his mind's eye. impressions to the mind. the lively colours. 2 master of natural history and woodcraft spotless white (the symbol of holiness). the calm ocean. It ascends to the highest and descends The to the lowest tones of chiaro-oscnro. 3 The blind man said that red was like the sound of a trumpet. Red stands between the dark and generosity. imbued with the splendours of the early mornings and the sunsets in the glowing atmosphere of Venice. or the priest. and assimilating it by reflected shadows. warmth and animation. life. : The Bardic rules in early Britain enjoined three simple colours sky blue. the 1 Yellow being the colour Spanish grandee." symbolizes in dress. to both the eye and the mind. nothing is Green has been assigned by nature the place of the It is the complementary colour universal background. the and setting off the glory of is tribe or the nation. 179 exceptional eye and mind. . according as it drapes the mourner. softening every flower and fruit. that colours are connected with such welded byart and time into traditional meanings. and It recalls the expression of blue is that of purity. the emblem of peace. of the sun and of corn and gold. Colour has long been supposed to convey certain The absence of all colour. the emblems of mourning. light and tendergaiety expression of green 2 ness.COLOUR. or by those derived from the family. It must be allowed that it is by the earliest associations of the individual. for the . which they absolutely possess. The and modesty. approaches pure white as the palest blue so nearly black as the darkest. 3 and from which fashion attributes 1 Black and red are. represents riches. in ecclesiastical work. splendour. and light. pride. for the priest and Druid. Nothing so nearly . grief. for the bard and poet green. of red. and has an immortal and celestial character. shadow and repose. . joy. distant sky. and represents dignity. which we call " black. or dignity .

The word purple the Persians. A sudden storm the purple ocean sweeps. p. AS ART. even " " when it was white. a TExposition de : of gold). poetically. such. and tosses all Pope's Homer. textile. the deeps. and are justified by its The " occasional hue : " As from the clouds. Drives the wild waves. 376. through every shade of violet. Michell quotes velvet of " violet and blue Vermeil-cramoisi. Greeks. Maria Maggiore at Rome. like be a name for a tissue. that much confusion has been caused by it. velvet was purple. Professor Tyndall suggests that the soft green of the sea. As a Narcissus. down to the deepest " " crimson.." and that on the first day of the great festival in honour of the inauguration of Kuyuk Khan." . "Marco Polo." but he says he never met with pourpre blanche. and pourpre of divers " colours. 755) says the courtiers of Karakorum were 1 "Purpura" " cramoisi." vol. Fr. i. " Histoire du Tissu Ancien. ed. purple seems to have The breezy or stormy sea was described only a surface. 67. for instance. . 383.) named in the inventories of Sta. . TUnion Ge'ne'rale des Arts De'coratifs. swell'd with showers. the royalty is so indiscriminately used as a rather than as a distinctive appellation. among purple the hyacinthine locks of the sky was purple the rosy lips of Venus were purple." to clad in " white purpura . Historically. Sometimes. deep-bosom'd.180 NEEDLEWORK . and those of Notre Dame in Paris. and Romans it appears to have been simply the royal colour. varying from the purest blue. cramoisi. 1875. is supposed to mean crimson velvet.p. all the Mogul nobles were clad in pourpre blanche. 1 " purple and wine-coloured are often epithets bestowed on the Mediterranean Sea. Homer must have observed this before he became blind. poetic epithet. is cannot disconnect them of purple. v. Piano Carpini (p. i. the second day in ruby purple. Iliad." " b." Yule." xi. and the third in blue purple on the fourth day they appeared in Baudichin (cloth White purple is also (Yule. It came. shadowed by clouds. assumes a subjective purple hue.

The Phoenician coasts gave the best purples those . ii. green and yellow . 224 240. The of Alcisthenes. p. retained all its freshness and beauty. p. Mon. 2 Semper gives us an account of iodine colours. vol. rivalled those of Cos. the last being the most reefs. And thus he completes See Semper. its trade be revived ?) made himself master of Susa (Shushan). " Der Stil." He describes 2 purples as being " differently coloured according " as to whether these inhabited the sea mud. and that the dyed garments. the scale of iodine colours. and W. . Asiatic. in Tarentum from his " Grande Grece. reason assigned for their dye being so perfect was that the Susanians knew how to comb the wool to be According to Aristotle the dress dipped. when finest. . p." i. resembles the sea when tempestuous. Bliimner. 181 he Pliny gives us much information about this colour enumerates the different sea-shores and coasts. he says. Langhorne. and prepare it with honey. After saying that it was still a colour of distinction. and the colour. Egyptian. Vet. See " Plutarch's Lives. were extracted from sea-weeds. the purples. he continues " Let us be prepared to excuse the frantic passion for purple.). conchylia 1 Frangois the purple of Le Normant. 206. " purple of . amongst other having Hermione " worth forty thousand talents (Quintus Curtius says fifty thousand). of a greenish hue. the Sybarite. though it had been stored 190 years.COLOUR. and European. whence came the shell-fish (the murex and pelagia) that produced the so-called Tyrian 1 purple dyes. of the Atlantic the best blacks and browns. Some. which. He says that Romulus wore the purple. were sacred to the gods in those days. the or the pebbly shores. found in the Mare Piccolo. seeing that in the dye the smell of it is offensive. 739 riches of marvellous value. Normant laments the total neglect of the murex in these days (could Plutarch says that Alexander the Great." tells of the dye of He says that Tarentine the murex. was dyed with this purple from Shushan (Ciampini. all purple. though we are to inquire why such a high value is placed on impelled : the produce of this fish. woven from the filaments of the Le pinna dipped in the dye of the murex. muslins. i." edited by J. from the shell-fish. found.

. (Semper. was till lately sold in Rome for its valuable." 2 Though really red of the purest colour. or green. or brown. weight in sified.C. and sold it for its colour was Asiatic. weight gave the burning rosy red dye of " the Cardinal's robes. them the dyes which coloured the hangings. Instead of fading in the sunshine. its colour inten- The enduring nature of this colour is proved by the purple fragments from a Greek tomb in the Crimea of about 300 B. woven or embroidered.1 82 1 NEEDLEWORK AS ART. Semper says that the ancients called black and white the two extremes of purple white the thinnest. qualities 2 and never it fades . in gold . This is Pliny's account of the process of dyeing. and similar remains have been noticed at Sidon. purpurae dibaphse). a PExits position de 1'Union Generate des Arts Decoratifs. . 205-7. of which the outer covering of rams' skins was murex trunculus " have been found at Hardouin says that in his time they Pompeii. Both were thus considered as colour. pp. till with darkness all colour disappears. 217. or they reversed the process to give a different tint. i. scarlet was the colour most esteemed by The Israelites must have carried with the ancients. silver. belonging to the sanctuary in the wilderness. and was called Porpora encarnafull is It of light and dina.) As long as there is light." purple incarnadine. though they afterwards went farther Auberville says that the purple afield in col- dyes. and then in that of the Buccinum. near the dyers' works. and black the thickest or most solid layer of colour. black always appears to be either blue. See " Histoire du Tissu Ancien. in fact. This purple. of the Romans was a deep violet (double dyed. It intensifies in the light. No doubt the Phoenicians traded first in the produce of the Sidonian and Tyrian lecting their coasts. After purple. it has all the ascribed to by Pliny. it doubtless received name of Tyrian purple as being one of the materials of the amethystine The web or fleece was first dipped in the dye of Purpura. p. described in chapter on stitches. as well as on the wash near Argos. were found at Otranto. and gives no details. said to have been imported from the coasts of Tyre. and that this The Phoenicians traded in it. it freshness. which is very simple. 1 Heaps of the shells of this " Sir James Lacaita informs me that the living shells are still found along the shores of the Adriatic. double dye.

This is a beautiful pink red. by analysis to be composed of hematite (peroxyde of iron) 4 tempered with lime." In the Middle Ages the " dye from the kermes was still called vermiculata. "The images of the Chaldeans. miltos. xxv. 14. The dye of the red portions Queen Isi-Am-Kheb. and was probably of the nature of red morocco." Appendix. ceiled with cedar. 103) suggests that these rams' skins were with the periploca secamone a plant still used for this purpose dyed 1 Exod. (cinnabar or red sulphate of mercury)." "The men on the wall. and painted with vermilion. with a tender bloom on it like a fragment of the rainbow. We should be fortunate if we could find how the Greeks and Romans prepared the cinnabar for mural painting. and not the slightest shade of yellow. of which we find remnants in ruinsand tombs a lovely and pure red. It is probable that cinnabar was tempered." See Funeral Tent of an Egyptian Queen. the first was probably used in mural painting. says the Greek ships were painted red. by admixture of white or other colours. . Ezekiel xxiii. 2 Jeremiah 3 xxii. Semper (i. by monochrome painting of was called by the Greeks of the funeral tent of is found mother-in-law. in Egypt. 1 There was the mineral dye. for the It the Egyptians and Greeks. p. the Romans minium. Homer. 183 dyed scarlet. who as a rule does not describe colouring." 2 Also Ezekiel gives us another instance of house-painting 3 in vermilion. It is translated in our Bible as vermilion. 14: portrayed in vermilion " 4 Villiers Stuart. in the account given by Jeremiah of a "house. and the insect dye." of which the word vermilion is a literal translation.COLOUR. Shishak's The mineral red now called vermilion must have borrowed its name from the insect dye which the Greeks and Romans called "kermes.

. Pliny tells us that the Phoenicians brought it from Barbarike. in the form of a sphinx. with a white face. as they shall be as white though they be red as crimson. The Egyptians like- wise extracted blues from copper. a beautiful purple vapour when submitted to great heat . and the name was " " Quer-mes.1 84 NEEDLEWORK AS ART. has now replaced almost every other dye for textiles." ii. wool. 1880. 67." p. and he says it smells like the sea. it appears that some green dyes were produced from a green clay others from metals. gilded hair. * The Arabs "Marco a Polo. Though your snow 3 . i. 1 8. 7. Isa. in the Indies. p. and a little cap of pure cinnabar. . Copper furnished the most beautiful shades. that of emitting . ." oak-apple. and Yule's dye. they shall be as sins scarlet. means of ascertaining." Sardis was famed for its kermes originally " Indian Arts. which was first brought from America in the sixteenth century. Blue has always been extracted from indigo. mineral. is a small drinking-cup (a rhyton ") at the British Museum. a froth collected round the stems of certain reeds but he was aware of its characteristic property. to Egypt and he quotes the " Periplus " on He gives an amusing report that indigo is this subject. 1 2 Chron. One that " I am of the most beautiful specimens of this scarlet acquainted with. Cochineal. Crimson is once mentioned in Chronicles as kar1 2 mel. Whether the or " scarlet coupled with it is insect colour. 238. received the kermis from Armenia. which is so soft in tone that it suggests the texture of scarlet velvet. we have no be as a vegetable." From what Pliny says. ed. scarlet . which may mean the dye of the kermes insect and from this the word crimson is legitimately derived. ii. See Birdwood.

white lead. as well as the In painting. which effectually sepa- and was well understood the surrounding colours. even when the whiteness retains enough of the natural colour of the raw material to tone it down very rates it from all The eye accepts it as white. as colours are seen through reflected lights on the two surfaces. after passing through the or the bleacher. is surrounded with The white pattern. We find that lime. a fine dark line (black is the best). India. Browns and blacks were prepared from several substances. it is necessary to pursue a different method. leading by the gradation of tender colours and shadows up to a high light. rather as useful for the pharmacopeia of his day. and is hardly to be expelled from silk or wool. vegetable or mineral. and gives it the effect of light. in Egypt. in Egypt.COLOUR. But in textile art. and ignores perceptibly. It is hands of the chemist amusing whether to observe that Pliny regarded colours. especially pine wood and the contents of tombs burned into a kind of charcoal. -and other mineral substances were employed by the ancients for the different approaches to dazzling whiteness. 185 Yellow was anciently. and yet he gives some curious hints that are well worth collecting . sometimes a vegetable and sometimes a mineral dye. That of the lily. transparent can be it. the emblem of purity. and or flower. chalk. can only be emulated in textile or pictorial art by opaque substances reduced as much as possible by bleaching to the last expression of the colour of the raw material. and that of isolation is the most simple and is effective. the tint that pervades it. Greece. we can produce the effect of whiteness in different ways. than as dyes or artistic pigments. Nothing that is really white. which essentially flat. He speaks contemptuously of the art of his time. Linen and cotton are the whitest of materials.

though often inaccurate." They never blended their colours. bone-black mixed with gum ochre tor green. 67 69. within the range of sight. 1 Renouf s Hibbart Lectures. or the melting of one tint into another each was worked up to a hard and fast edge If in one part of a building. . They made the primary principles for decorative uses. colours predominate over the secondary by quantity and position. though vegetable dyes were needed for woolThese were {or while. From him we learn more of the Egyptian colouring materials than of any others. as he named their sources. and had no sense of the harmony of prismatic gradations. a mixture of yellow ochre and powdered . yellow black. they placed a greater proportion of other colours . It may be called balance. and there is no doubt of the perfection Asiatic. this same blue glass mixed with white for red. to isolate them and they balanced masses of . They introduced fillets of white or yellow in their embroideries. Renouf says that " painting. Those they employed were mostly earthy mineral colours (used alike for frescoes and for painting cotton cloths. blue glass for blue. for yellow. so as to readjust the balance. was totally unknown to the Egyptians but they under1 stood harmony of colour. as well as in their paintings. yellow with a due proportion of black. one set of colours preline. : . pure chalk for lens and linens). . rather than harmony. and despair of discovering mordants that will fix the aniline tints. which have remained unimpaired to the present time. elsewhere. and formulated in it certain for experiment. European. p. or African of their mural pigments and textile dyes. dominated. as it is now understood. between reds and greens. is most valuable to those who are seeking once more to find lasting colours. His fragmentary information. . . an earthy pigment containing iron and chalk .1 86 NEEDLEWORK AS ART. .

Blue. iii." p. They understood the chemistry in dyeing. > the root of the Datiscus Canabinus. 3o*-32 Bliimner. being of five 3 and all the produce of the Chinese Empire. Indian dyes are mostly vegetable. p. 42. aluminium. dyes. scented flower of nyclanthes (Ardor Tristis). and next the various yellow Brown. the honeyOrange. (Badarni).). Sir Grey. See Birdwood's "Indian Arts. when we give the following we must suppose that it embraces all that have been known from the beginning. 248. Bird wood vol. mention colours tints. black garments are sacred to the Indian Saturn.C." See Pliny. " Manners of the Ancient Egyptians. Wilkinson. 2 and the use of mordants The (2205 statistical B. also yellow is dyed with asbarg. records of China of the time of Hias as according to Semper. Semper. called "sandali. With indigo first. Scarlet is first dyed with cochineal (formerly with kermes). pp. 220. only paler." almond colour Sulphate of iron and gold. Green. 235. Sandal-wood. next with narsingar. which gives a crimson colour . yellow to Venus. 4 . which turns it vermilion. the ancient colours Therefore. list. p. 3 " Natural History. are used now.COLOUR. p. afterwards with indigo. Black. 4 Deepest shade of indigo.). textiles." xxxv. Ditto. 1 187 of bleaching. Speaking of Indian coloured 1 G. V<x yellow akalbir. 272. In the Code of Manu. Soneri dyed with narsingar. the flower of the Cabul larkspur {Delphinium sp. Purple is dyed first with cochineal (formerly kermes). and red to Mars. All shades of indigo. Lilac. In the unchanging art of India. i. See Birdwood.

Persian carpets (the fine old ones of the fourteenth to the seventeenth centuries) give us lessons in the art of In these. Mr. "It is only of patient practice that men attain through generations to the mystery of such subtleties. as a white. a flower will lie upon a isolating colours. not only for the purpose of isolating the colours of the design. wanders over a green and red ground. which (madder). and again to green as it leaves the opposite colour on the ground pattern. For instance. Floyer speaks of the brilliancy and lasting qualities of the dyes which the Persians." outline. and as design passes over them. so as to isolate the flower equally on the This is done with such art that the different grounds. or else worked in gold. the artistic sense of beauty itself is disappearing throughout our Indian Empire. and also from the . eye. " " . but also to give a uniform Their traditone to the whole surface of the texture. in An mon tional to the arrangements of tints were thoroughly satisfying But degenerated by European commerce. extract from . but are so arranged as to produce the effect of a neutral bloom. or no-coloured pattern. the eye ignores the transition till it is called to remark it. The richest says colours are used.1 88 : NEEDLEWORK AS ART. which tones down every detail almost to the softness and transparency of the atmosphere. "All violent contrasts are avoided." He says that in their apparel both the colouring and the ornaments are adapted to the effect which the fabrics will produce when worn and in motion. the outline colour is changed. by slow and tedious processes. in black or some dark colour that harmonizes with the ground. from the runaschk plants " a fine red from the "zarili (the golden). the outline changes suddenly from green to red. is a yellow flower from Khorasan. is comIndian work. surface which contains two or more other tints.

lichen The A 3 growing on stones supplied their violets and crimson. 3 " Scottish Garb. wood. Thus we see that pure colours for dyeing textiles have been extracted from vegetable substances herbs. . It is evident. and stones animal substances both of land. shells. Unfortunately. mosses and sea. Vitruvius says the Romans extracted dyes from flowers and fruits. condescends to give us the recipes for dyeing processes. 2 . by boiling it in alum. . 406. metals. and green." xxii. 1 the Persian processes for dyeing patterns red and black in textiles. and green. 373. also in turmeric yellow. purple. and Pliny respectively name. bark of willow for flesh colour. from which the orchid purple of modern art is prepared. The last calls it the Phycos This was not a sea-weed. 3. Pliny seldom Pliny. a bright yellow. . by the 189 They import indigo Khurum river. but he neither specifies nor describes them. The Italian women dye their own dresses in the pomegranate yellow . birds." Logan's 4 See Elton's " Origins of English History. whereas the European dyes they sometimes use come off freely.COLOUR. flowers and fruits. Pliny says the Gauls had invented dyes counterfeiting the purple of Tyre also scarlet. 1 leaves of the vine. 5 The Cretan Dioscorides. " Indian Arts. and air beasts. rusts. The Persians produce their deep yellow from the skin of the pomeMajor Murdoch Smith describes granate. The lichen on the birch-tree gives a good brown heather 4 gives red.weeds substances earths. that . all of these were dipped in the juices of herbs. p. ancient Highland tartans were dyed with bark of alder for black. but a lichen probably the same thalassion. from Shastra (or from India). " Natural 2 History. from the derivation of the word. ores. leaving no trace on a wetted rubber. 278. See Birdwood. violet. 238. water. fishes. 5 mineral seeds. and insects. sands. See Floyer's " Unexplored Baluchistan." i." tincture was extracted from a plant which Theophrastus. He says these dyes are perfectly fast." pp. . and other vegetable dyes.

yet you cannot place them side by side without being aware that they may be repellant. of and from the sea. The scale is sometimes removed to another pitch. as a surface glaze does in painting. felt that each was harmonious they as unlike the Egyptians. there were chromatic scales in colour before the phrase was ever applied to music. The colouring Silk. and mineral and except with the intention of producing startling effects. sea-weeds and fish. and they will no more harmonize than instruments that have not been attuned to the same diapason. See Redgrave's Report on Textile Fabrics. matter may be identical. to connect and harmonize the superinduced tints. furnished these dyes. and kept those from different chemical 1 One scale was that sources apart. of the harmonious interchange of delicate tints. by dyeing shades of colour on unbleached goat's and camel's hair. vegetable. give very different results. flax. Experiments with the object of reviving this mode of producing harmonious combinations. They arranged their scales according to the materials from which they were extracted." The chemistry of the arts of bleaching was not unknown to the ancients but they reserved and regulated . To comprehend this. wool. it for certain purposes. as does from the colours extracted from other chemicals. called " by the ancients purple. think ducts are mostly iridescent. . studied harmony. a whole. and the tones produced are beautifully soft and rich. preferring to retain at least a part of the original colouring. 1 The same scale of colour varies as it much on the different textiles employed. have been made lately at the Wilton Carpet Works." on a string of pearls. They and. and sheep's wool. Marine proof the iodine colours. Shells and shell-fish. as shades of grounding which served. The Greeks and Romans are supposed to have under- stood chromatic scales of tints animal. instead of harmonious in tone. cotton. they did not mix them. as being discordant. They were called "conchiliata.i go NEEDLEWORK AS ART.

says that scarlet was formerly represented by the dye it called kermes. of a pure scarlet dye. choice of our material will impose on the artist of the future fresh responsibilities. and mercantile before. and we receive. containing has succeeded which I 4420 different tones. that from these may be selected any possible scale of tints This vast area for required for decorative work. Edouard Charton ascribes the great change in the modern scales of colours to the discovery by the French. govern the. as ever. to our surprise. supply of materials. M. which indeed was not to scarlet. the whole arrange- ment was traditional. Gas colours are at present our worst snares. in the Gobelins. They are interests . . now. Our normal bad taste and carelessness has been cast back on the lands which were the cradle of art. prism.COLOUR. Gobelins. 191 M. of which the bright yellow gave the scarlet effect. and correct our errors by the help of their teaching to the eye and mind. and it was irreligious to depart from what had been fixed by statute many centuries and only perfected by the experience of many generations of men and this veneration for traditional custom has hitherto been prevalent in European art to a But the old conservative perfection of uncertain point. vulgar. We may take it for granted. Chevreul. whence we drew our first For the future we shall have to study inspirations. gaudy. to director of the dyeing department of the in composing the chromatic have already alluded. The freedom of experimental art is chartered. In the typical Oriental colouring. ancient specimens. adulterated colour has already been done away with. but altered it from crimson something approaching by the addition of narsingar. the use of which made He necessary to raise the tone of all other colours. and discordant combinations from the East.

is now for dyes of pure unadulterated colours. which recall the exquisite effects of nature. a duty of 45 per cent. Bird wood tells the most disagreeable dyes. on entering the country. The reason I have entered. The trade in colours can hardly be an honest one. and seeking He deserves all success. into the history of colours is my desire to point out the great value placed. so ing them. At any while they are in their first glow they should be selected. The most unnatural. of Leek. Sir G. they may do so and harmoniously. from what Pliny calls natural colours. general very beautiful but they are so evanescent. and at a certain distance within the frontier. till the means of fixing each tint permanently is ascertained. and Pliny. and fade into such unexpected and contradictory tones. are the magentas. 12. mordants to fix them. . that we cannot reckon upon them. and in sympathy with each other rate.1 92 NEEDLEWORK . 2 .. and subdued and veiled by passing shadows. we are in constant dread of what disastrous effect may be produced by the first shaft of sunshine that may fall from our moderately illuminated sky. When embroidering with in the coloured materials of the day. and it changes very soon to a dull blackishfor discovering new mordants. Wardle. us that the Maharajah of Cashmere has adopted a most efficient plan for the suppression of magenta dyes within his dominions first. on the careful preparation of those used in ancient textile art and to . It is said that Mr. 1 something should be done towards groupwith respect to their enduring qualities. 2 as much as possible. but the old mordant does not fix it. reflected on each other in lovely tones. they are confiscated and destroyed. searched out and displayed by every sunny gleam. purple hue. if fade they must. in even so cursory a manner. through the uncurtained window. AS ART." ix. "Natural History. long ago. 1 With the changes in colouring materials has arisen the necessity The gas colour of madder is exactly the same chemically as that extracted from the vegetable. that when they fade.

gold produced works which history and landmarks in civilization. therefore. how they noted . forefathers sought them out in their varieties for their . became matters of o . many lands how they for in and prized them endurance as well as weight their pristine beauty how they paid their or silver for certain culminating tints .COLOUR. 193 show how our and waters classed . and how they.

That which is astonishing is the endless variety of surface. through the attenuated body. varied but the sharp foot. upright. But the machine is always the same the threaded needle strikes the same interval. and differing from each other according to the power or the caprice of the worker. according to its most ancient nomenclature. are the same in principle. whether it is found The . STITCHES. urged by the stitches. The needle is the one implement of the craft by which endless forms of surface-work are With a thread through its one eye. STITCHES in follows each effort of its pointed foot. or crossed. the little in needle. slanting. or to the strokes of the chisel in sculpture. needlework correspond to the touches of the pencil or brush in drawing or painting. intelligent or mechanical hand grouping the which.i 94 CHAPTER Part i. and the eye to hold the thread.t however. in this chapter represent merely the plural of lw particular process of needle insertion. has. of design. single or mixed. The word stitches does no. VI." This venerable implement. are selected as the best fitted for the " design and purpose in hand. the rounded head. forming the "stitch. form. but the produce and effect of each different kind of stitch by grouping " and repetition. of startling effects. and of lovely combinations. of hints and suggestions. ages. being long of short. it blindly executed. resulting from the direction of the needle and manipulation of the materials.

-. 20. of which a In those days the village lost needle was the hero. formed of a fish's bone or hammered of shaped from that of a larger animal as from Egypt. which existed there as a needle 1 545." performed at Ch. in factory " till quite lately. The rustic poetic drama. 3. from Dawkin's "Early Mi Early Man 4. Gammer The includes art of the " the " motive embroidery consists of a design. Bronze needles from Egyptian tombs now in British Museum. as in sculpture. 7. Britain. i-?. was a regular comedy. Coll. >. or of gold. and the handicraft or stitches and the " needlework.STITCHES. 5. i. the idea. entitled Gurton's Needle. 2. in Bucks." first In painting. in His successor. the . which pattern. in 1566. in 195 cave-man's grave. by a native of India. as well as o 2 . bronze needle was lately disfound in Scandinavia. Bone needles from Neolithic cave-man's grave. Fig. Cambridge. needle was evidently still a rare and precious possession. like those the finest bronze..f. established a workshop in 1560 at Long Crendon. Christopher Greening. and its value is shown by its being placed in a Steel needles were first made in England silver case. A covered in the tomb of a woman of the Vikings in Scotland.

which shows every other variety. Araneum or Filatorium. They are. Plumage or feather work.196 NEEDLEWORK AS ART. the last touch. Plumarium. old forms. The first is (sixteenth century) " Tent work. rising often to the highest point of decorative art. . and the writers. same are to be found in Egyptian and Greek specimens. occasionally found in Egyptian work. Here from are two English of stitches . their quaintness must be " " Praise of the Needle Taylor. the stitches themselves vary but little. altered and renewed by surrounding circum- But in needlework it is The stances and sudden or gradual periods of change. Cut work. classical names are those used by mediaeval and have comedown to us. However much the design may alter. prest work. and as often falling back to the lowest and most meaningless repetitions and The imitations. Tapestry or combed work. Shrine or cushion work. must come from the same head and hand. lists Pectineum. Consutum. not so. under the nomenclature of classical. most curious pearl or rare Italian cut work. " floating like bubbles on the waves of time. 1 Birdwood. Passing or metal thread work. nor do we ever see them in Chinese or Japanese embroidery. raised work. however. Pulvinarium. that I have not been able hitherto to trace any of the " mosaic" stitches to India. Net work. 283. following is a list of stitches. pattern is the result It is almost always simply a variation of of tradition. "Indian Arts." l thinks that every kind of Sir George Birdwood I confess stitch is found in traditional Indian work. the water-poet's : my excuse for copying them. Net or lace work. Roman and mediaeval authors : The Opus Opus Opus Opus Opus Opus Phrygionium or Phrygium. laid work." p.

stitch. The Spanish stitch. sew or pierce. and thence imported into Latin. Irish stitch. Cross Needlework purl. back stitch. suchi. and chain stitch. finny stitch. Brave bred stitch. Through stitch. Net work. Stitch work. Rock work. Raised work. man and woman sewed to in are told that the primal Paradise. Rosemary stitch. and maw stitch. stitch. 1819 " : list is from Rees' " Encyclopedia" Spanish stitch." The second (Stitches). and the cross stitch. etc. WORK AND WHITE WORK. And these are everywhere in practice now. the same word as the Latin suo. and Lent work. The smarting whip stitch. and queen's stitch.. Gold Twist Fisher's stitch. fisher stitch. We To "sew. Irish stitch. Tent Tent Fore stitch on the Queen's stitch in the tent or frame. to sew so probably . Geneva work. stitch. stitch. Cut work. Open cut work. 197 Fine fern stitch. Laid work. Chip stitch. Bow stitch. and these we must allow." in contradistinction the word to embroider. All these are good. from such. Back finger. Virgin's device. purls. etc. stitch. Satin stitch. wyres. Broad stitch. stitch. and weft or foreign bread (' braid'). Fern stitch. new stitch. rosemary stitch." Part PLAIN 2. " All which are swete manners of work wroughte by the needle with silke of all natures. stitch. Finny Chain stitch." is derived from the Sanskrit su. to .STITCHES. suo^ To prove how highly 1 " " The word This is in Sanskrit for a needle is sucht.

not pinning together with thorns. cover himself with a garment made sewed of the skins of fig-leaves many small animals. Semper. " to right nail on the head touch the question with the point of the needle." the These necessary stitches constitute bind and plait. Robert Gust. a ribbon. for covering and clothing. a band. " Der Stil." and all the forms of stitches that seam." " Plain work " is that which is As soon necessary. pp. by its help. and clearly meant sewing. may serve to keep together several loose things. " He says : The seam conquer is one of the 1 first human successful efforts to difficulties.198 NEEDLEWORK AS ART. adorning the severe facts of life. When Eve together. These are his arguments. plain needlework. and for preventing the fraying where the mateHence the rial is lacerated by the shaping process. of patchwork. garment Acting on the principle of she made of these small pieces a accepting and virtue of necessity. as textiles are needed tomeans are invented gether. Adam sewed also. : A man can. 1 . for 'drawing the cut edges the and are closely followed by decorative which in gradation cover the space between stitches. The Hebrew word is /afar. 77 90." Letter from Mr. small things For example a full-grown actually become large ones. plain needlework and embroidery. if not always his words. Sewing is the first recorded act of our forefathers. Eve sewed fig-leaves together. and they clearly knew how to sew at that remote period. but by means of the seam. " " hem. I may " to hit the mention that the equivalent of the phrase " was rent acu tangere. esteemed needlework was among the Romans. Semper has given us his archaeological theories for the origin of needlework and its stitches. seams making a the common word used by the Aryans in their primeval habitations was sit." Textile Kunst. i." string.

bringing "naht." together. and the mesh are the earliest seam by symbols of fate uniting events." l We find but little mention of plain work in mediaeval When linen was worked for some honourable such as a gift to a friend or a royal personage. as my theme is needlework as decorative art. She has also given us rules made clear to the dullest understanding. of working different materials for different purposes." i.STITCHES. See also her " Plain Hints for Examiners. that I feel it unnecessary to enter at any length into the linen this was about principles of plain sewifcg. Floyer has. till she has discovered and laid bare its intention. Textile Kunst." by Mrs. therefore. purpose. uniting. and pass on at once from the craft of plain needlework. . the plait. way and tells us how to select them. as it were. weaving. Fine writings. Queen Elizabeth presented Edward VI.. and effect. and given us so much practical information on plain needlework. Eloyer has written so well. the tie. refer 2 my readers to her most useful and instructive books. Mrs. Floyer. to stitches as the art of embroidery. would be. I will. f time constantly edged with bone laces. and Britons embroidered the seams of " The their garments. The link between plain and decorative 1 work deserves Der Stil. its We may judge of the antiquity of the universal and The mythological meaning. its construction. instructing us how to teach the young and She shows us the quickest and most perfect ignorant. The German word Semper. 77. seam. 2 " " Handbook of Plain Needlework. the knot. unpicked and unravelled every stitch in plain work. on his second birthday. here literally translated. 199 came Gauls fur to be an important vehicle of ornament. p. Mrs. it was generally embroidered or stitched in some fancy fashion." &c. with a smock made by herself.

notices of it. Paul's. Lord Arundel of Wardour possesses a linen cover for a tabernacle (or else it is a processional cloak) which is of the purest Hispano. white knotted thread-work belonging to St." will The Greek Germany " be found much " peasants do the same. find continually mention of such 2 In England it was especially ladies. 316). 1 Dr. in 1295. for coverings for the pyx. London.coverings. NEEDLEWORK. their There is a great survival of this stitchery in Italy amongst the peasantry They their have always adorned linen head. of designs which show their antiquity we is get Spanish work in black. and from Spain on white linen. and names some specimens in the South Kensington Museum. There is notice of the Exeter inventory of the fourteenth century. " From called that date we work by nuns and " nuns' work (plate 40). I These are evidently of linen worked in give a drawing of them in illustration (pi." the pattern being cut out and the type now sold as work (punto edges overcast. The first white laces appear to have followed close upon the first white embroideries. nearly allied to the stitches of white work. This sounds like embroidery of the " Madeira work. and was practised when we begin to have constant first in mediaeval days . by Dugdale 2 (p. white." for great occasions. 39). where the effigy of a knight lies on his bed. for instance. which ." He says it was sometimes done in darning stitches for ecclesiastical It is mentioned in purposes. is St.200 attention." imagine it was not a very ancient form of the art. Catherine of Sienna's winding-sheet tagliato) described as being cut on linen. " I This link is white embroidery. both embroidered. curious white embroidery. 1 draped with a sheet and a coverlet. and unrivalled in -> " thread em" Introduction. ex. calls it Rock." pp. cix. and " flat and the borders of sheets " stitches. broidery. AS ART. smocks and aprons." and In " drawn work. with patterns^in cut stitches. There is a tomb of the fourteenth century in the Church of the Ara-Cceli at Rome.Moorish design. .

Rome. .PI. Page 200. 39- s S N N N Embroidery imitated in marble on the tomb of a knight. in the Church of the Ara Creli.



. time of Henry VIII. Page 201. . 40. Processional Cloak.PI. belonging to Lord Arundel of Wardour.

and we must suppose it has never been a domestic occupation. Indeed. 1 fabrics. 40). in "Der Stil. " Der Stil. and not lace stitches are therefore. as the great beauty of flax is its smoothness and purity. the appear The accepted each piece of work is this on stout grounds the thread should be round and rich. blue. shape be of the end of Henry VIII.STITCHES. stitch for for selecting the : . the poor. smooth surface of linen most appropriate. 132. * Semper. it as a maxim that are good.'s Russian embroidery. He says. its shoe. it would that satin. pp. the love of the needle is by no means an English national tendency. It is 201 in embroidered in Spanish stitches white thread. the peasantry do no white work for use. in the lower classes. and us. is of this class. not the employment of leisure moments in the houses of schools. Nothing but the plainest work is taught in our home Anything approaching to decorative art. all projections its . that allowing. each textile has its own uses and its own beauties. and black thread. 203. whereas delicate materials carry best the most refined and shining thread work and in embroidering the most suitable rule for this kind of decoration. we should place nothing on linen which would militate against inherent qualities and merits and that. beauty. It is said to have been found in the time of Elizabeth with some other articles in a dry well ." i. In England alone. among them a proves reign. on the finest linen." gives rules for white emand the reasons from which he deduces them broidery. consisting of geometrical little satin of which the date to patterns in red. with has been the accomplishment of educated women. and roughnesses should be avoided which would catch dust or throw a shadow. . Carrying out this idea. the flattest stitches are the Semper. and is intersected with fine lace insertion (pi.

and blazed with golden representations of the battles of the giants. as all other embroidery was included in the craft of the Plumarii in Rome. after-thought. Gold embroideries were by the Romans attributed to All gold work was vaguely supposed to the Phrygians. way golden embroideries were is that of the Athenian displayed among peplos. 1 gave to See Semper. OPUS PHRYGIUM (or gold work). as I have^ already said (p. ignorant of the claims of the Chinese. It was either scarlet or saffron colour. 3. I imagine that the embroidery was the first. of gold wire. 3 He cites Athenasus. Rome.2O2 NEEDLEWORK Part AS ART. be theirs. their art congenial to the and finding growing luxury of . was worked by embroideresses under the superintendence of two the Greeks Arrhephorae of noble birth. 289. which. or local myths and events in the 1 history of Athens. as we see An instance of the Babylonian embroideries appear to be them in the Ninevite marbles. in gold The Phrygians had attained to the utmost perfection tissue ornament when the Romans conquered them. 64. The art of the Phrygians. Pliny. " Der Stil. . p. has " " classic their name in come down to us auriphrygium and the "orphreys" flat of the Middle Ages. who gave Rome through the to all golden thread-work. It has been disputed whether needlework in gold weaving of flat gold or thread into it was an stuffs. 32). and an enrichment of such textiles. iv. Ibid. they imported and domesticated it both the people and their work retaining their national designation." i. and that the after-thought was the art of preceded or whether the weaving gold. Semper thinks that the embroidery was the first invented.

and became an elaborate imitation of what 1 embroideries. Stephen. 203 the Phrygians the credit of being the inventors of all em1 The garments they thus decorated were called broidery. St. 196. institches. . lib. p. " phrygionae. The only somewhat earlier piece of mediaeval gold embroidery with which I am acquainted is the dalmatic of Charlemagne in the Vatican. Pliny. The cloak worked by Queen ninth century. of the date of 1024. work has imitated gilt carvings or goldsmiths' jewellery and we feel that it was at once removed from its place as . were famed for their " Colores diversos picturae intexere Babylon maxima nomen imposuit. in Museum at Munich. embroidery.STITCHES. worked by his Empress Kunigunda." p." auriphrygium. 74. cluded all gold work in Gisela in the " flat Opus Phrygium. raised gold thread golden flat embroideries. See D'Auberville. in the library at Worcester Cathedral. Semper attributes all "passing" came the " mosaic stitches gionum." at first given to work in gold only. are all " opus Phrygium." and resemble each other in style. and the robes of Bishop William de Blois (thirteenth century). orphreys." in the Middle Ages. Stephen. 7. of the ninth century. and the mantle of the Emperor Henry II. and especially Babylon. Hungary. celebravit et " Phrygia in general. King of the imperial mantle at Bamberg." . The term " All the gold stitches now called from Phrygia " 2 ." i. richly embroidered in fine gold thread. Ornements des Tissus." 2 " Der Stil. was in time applied to all embroidery that admitted gold into its composition and hence the " English mediaeval term. viii. who appears to have been somewhat parsithe monious in her use of the precious material. calling them " opus PhryGold stitches are splendidly exemplified in the St." and the work itself " opus Phrygium." embroidered mantle of to the Phrygians. for her husband. Almost all ecclesiastical and royal ancient embroideries were illuminated with golden grounds golden outlines or Later still.

resembling asbestos. 1 Such deviations from should belong to another craft. which is richly embroidered in gold and silver. Egyptian. is Semper's term. Hubertus. in wool and flax another . and in the collections in the Louvre. and the badge and collar are imitated in the most This is extraordinary manner. in the Egyptian Museum . and therefore. 3 He believes that the mosaic patterns and they are laid. 1 In the Museum imitations. mosaic a good one. as it that are relegated into patterns in small square counted by the threads of the textile on which spaces. flat or Babylonian " in their origin. in the British Museum. OPUS PULVINARIUM This " " (or cushion work). is worked on canvas. worked in gold and woven over with coloured silks. at Munich are two remarkable examples of these There is an embroidered badge of the Order of the Dragon. and laid on entirely in gold needlework. figured Auberville in the " Ornamentation des Tissus. would be classed as "opus pulvinarium. whether Phrygian. . office and motive of needlework are so the proper dangerously near to bad style and bad taste. 2 In Salt's collection from Saccarah (British Museum) .204 NEEDLEWORK AS ART. a white shining thread. opus pulvinarium is not only to be found in Oriental work. pointes comptecs. of the seventeenth century. The second is a dress for a herald of the Order of St. that they always and inevitably have fallen into disrepute. also at Turin." by 3 Hence the French name. but it has also survived in a very few 2 fragments from Egypt. One of these.^ under mediaeval nomenclature. on linen or fine canvas. excepting the covers all and " lace stitches (plate 41)." This name must include all stitches in gold. silk. so as to present the appearance of enamel (sixteenth century). They are regular "canvas" or "cross" in stitches. and wool. stitches. Part 4.

i. MOSAIC STITCHES.i- v- i. xi. Italian Pattern. taf. dinavian. i. From Frida Lipperheide's Musterbuch. Scan- p. 3. . Bock." 2. sixteenth century. From Auberville's "Tissus. Egyptian.


" considered as the best suited for adorning cushions. which evidently has descended in style from panelled needlework Chaldean wall decoration at Khorsabad and Warka. which are adorned with pilasters. of which the walls are constructed. chairs. previously militate or against the classical appellation " of opus " shrine work or " cushion pulvinarium. Kertsch. footstools. and while binding it together. and formed their first motive. 327. though the stitch now refers itself back to the mosaic. panels. cross stitches in 205 needlework preceded the tesselated pavements. It is remarkable that in Chaldea and Assyria there still exist some ruined walls. as they are firmly-set stitches which will stand friction. for woodwork at Panticapaeum. unbaked clay or earth. This compilation © Phoenix E-Books UK . in the Crimea. covered with some sort of encaustic. p. imitating textile patterns. See Semper. and the Assyrians long continued to show in their buildings the tradition of this In Egypt there has been found of decoration. recalls the effect of i. p. " " opus pulvinarium according to Loftus. and the beds on which men reclined at their feasts. apparently on the principle of the canvas ground for cross stitches. some unfinished mural painting where the plaster has style been prepared by dividing it into small rectangular spaces. the Chaldeans. 213. which means These appear to have been from the first stitches. near hangings.STITCHES. See Semper. at least in name. 1 The effect is produced by means of a kind of mosaic work of small nails or wedges of baked clay. The Chinese. ii. give the effect of the surface being hung with a material which has a pattern worked all over in cross stitch. " The name " mosaic stitch does not interfere with. and other architectural forms. 1 Nimroud. with china These are inlaid into the or glazed coloured heads.

also does the national Russian work. exists in the A century and besides these cushion stitches. yet It is fine. is generally the same on both by Sisera's We may infer that the spoil anticipated mother. in the East. it and the work. Greece. and not by any means the best for flower-pieces (as the squareness of the stitches refuses to lend itself to flowing lines or gradations of colour. in which the This is of the thirteenth coats-of-arms are so executed. This work. sides.(pi. will probably Though the least available for historical or pictorial work. . also particularly well suited to heraldic remarkable example of the use of cross stitches borders of the Syon cope.. . unless the stitches are extremely laborious)." was of this kind. it exhibits all those which are grouped in the style called opus Anglicum or Anglicanum. very finds especial fitness in all geometrical designs. and had degenerated languished and almost died out under the name of Berlin wool work. and though it had somewhat ancestry in the early part of our century. subjects. Most of the work now done shows and the different forms of the . its in consequence.2o6 NEEDLEWORK AS ART. mosaic Principalities. in Syria. "the garments embroidered on both sides. fit for the necks of those who divide the spoil. which so stitches All these designs are conventional and is Byzantine. Thus we respectable " see that the " opus pulvinarium has a very . mostly geometrical. yet it has done good service through the days of mediaeval art down to the present time. . Many charming found in the old German designs for this kind of stitch may be pattern-books of the Renaissance . 42) and it revive and continue to be generally used. both in England and throughout Europe. Turkey.



" " twist. of which the disgroups. p. lately reprinted by the These are worthy of a place in every library of art. It would seem best to place the chain stitch " named tambour " in this class. and we find that feathers have been an element in is of plumage work. which certainly had feathers Egyptian painting for their motive (fig.C. is one of the most ancient stitches. 248.STITCHES." and " long and short" or " embroidery stitch. 21. The origin of the name much There were times. as it naturally assimilates with It is so called from the the plaited and cross stitches. overlap. This is known from the archaic books . 208). believes that they were used as onlaid application for architectural decoraand this is possible. 196. that they pass each other. " Stem." "Japanese stitch. (Spitzen " 207 in Musterblicher). drum-shaped frame of the last century in which it was usually worked. Part 5. for we still obtain from thence tion . but it is supposed to have pointed to a decoration of plumage work. Semper. of imperial commerce. finding that birds'-skins were a recognized artistic design from the earliest patterns in article for trade in China. to which I propose to restore its original title all flat The " " Opus Plumarium disputed. 1 2205 B. specimens of work in different materials partly onlaid in 1 " Der Stil." belong to this class." \.. and includes mark is. di and " also those Venetian Corone Vertuose Donne Venetian publisher Organia. pp. tinguishing and blend together. OPUS PLUMARIUM (or plumage work).

203 whole feathers. Hawai. See Ferdinand Denis. 21." by M. Paris. either woven or onlaid. two peacocks l similarly worked the legs and beaks are . The cloisoniU effect of ." The translates from Publius word it is "embroidered" a peacock that would have here improved the described. Jules Remy. NEEDLEWORK AS ART. where the feathers are inlaid in gold ornaments for the head and in the handles of fans. which appellation was given at last to all 2 embroiderers who were not Phrygians. "Arte Plumarii. Museum. and the outlines and enhanced by the separation of the gold outlines. whereas sometimes the longer threads of the feathers are woven by the needle into the In Her ground web. are those most commonly " Ka Movolelo in China and Japan. 1 Syrus is Yates. Egyptian. thread in raised gold solidly also are raised in gold. dian In- Fig. We and outlined in have likewise in the from Burmah. Nothing but gems can be brilliant colours. giving the appearance of enamelling. sense. of the works of the Plumarii." p. 66. contrasted more resplendent. 1 86 1. "feathered. Feather patterns. even though ." p. 373. the "Textrinum Antiquorum. word plumata. These survivals help us to understand the casual mention we find in classical authors. applied on silk gold. exe- cuted in feathers. can be seen to perfection in specimens of the beautiful Pekin jewellers' work. used 2 Peacocks' feathers. Majesty's collection there are some specimens from Burmah creatures re- or sphinxes sembling deformed cherubim.

000 francs. where birds are most splendid. 209 in We The Pacific. heron. use of feathers It is is common in the islands of the native to the M. the sixteenth century for their 2 sea-birds' feathers being highly esteemed. ancient Egyptian art furnishes us with trafeather ditional fetta tells us of patterns and head-dresses costumes of birds' skins. It was found there by the Spaniards. except in semi-barbarous countries." ii. we must consider " Though now looked down Thy food As shines the peacock. which was being constructed of yellow birds' feathers through seven consecutive reigns. A mantle of this description is the property of Lady Brassey. 2 Pigafetta (translated by Mrs. which displays his spotted train. Birdwood. and goose.000. the art of the feather worker was carried to the greatest perfection." He also quotes Lucan. p. equal to that of gold and precious stones. 55. viii. as being a semibecause it exists no longer barbarous style of decoration. : palace 1 who is praising the furnishings of Cleopatra's " Part shines with feathered gold . with all his enthusiasm for Indian art forms." Arts. and recorded in all. in and Pigaworn in the . a Babylonian shawl with feather'd gold. p. the silken covering bordered with thirty-two fringed " also loops of pearls. and for its great value. Sir G. part sheds a blaze of scarlet. and appropriately decorated with the feathers of " Indian the peacock. parrot. Hutchinson). 373. "History of the Kingdom of Congo. kingdom warmth . and was valued in Hawaii at 5. by Filippo P . upon. yet cannot resist a touch of humour when he describes a state umbrella. Birdwood. tipped with rubies and diamonds'." c. M. have other glimpses of Oriental feather-work 1 different parts of India. and describes the Hawaiian royal mantle. of which the handle and ribs are pure gold." and its Yates. of Congo In America. p. 182.STITCHES. Jules Remy Sandwich islanders. In Africa. their writings for its beauty of design and execution.

feather work an art its still in Mexico. rule the natives produced pictures agreeable to the taste of their masters. and still later. which had been executed by one of the ablest of the " amantecas" (the name for an artist in feathers). in Bustamente says that in this in- dustry was 1 operation the beginning of our In the Tyrol certain embroideries are called " Federstickerei. because the birds of our continent rarely have any lovely plumage to tempt the eye. said to have belonged to Montezuma. and proves that it was still recogplumarium The name nized as such in the days of Roman luxury. In the seventeenth century. accepted a head of St. But the glory of feather-work was found again in Mexico and Peru. near Dresden. Pope Sixtus V. They were given to Augustus the Strong. demoralized. . all worked in feathers.2io feather NEEDLEWORK work AS ART. in the sixteenth century praised. but the name of opus " remains. rather than simply as the effort of the savage to deck himself in the brightest colours attainable. by a king of Spain. and the art itself disused. " Feather-work is a lost art. and. The Spaniards at first garments and hangings. beautiful brought home King was of Poland. Francis. survived when the practice was all but forgotten in 1 Europe. see Appendix 2. until he had touched and examined it closely. and the surrounding nations. There are beautiful hangings and bed furniture at Moritzburg. probably." 2 For the feather hangings at Moritzburg. and crushed out by the cruelties of conquest. represent2 Under their ing gods and heroes. would not believe that plumage was the only material used. as a relic of a past higher civilization which has died out. the convents continuing to preserve traditions. exalted. Sixtus was struck with surprise and admiration at the beauty and artistic cleverness of the work.

the of Leeds. Oudry (peintre du Both of these. nature. Mr. Hornby Castle. in- vented by M. who sold two of his works to the then Duke The first is a vase of flowers. in the last century. Unfortunately feathers by their " painting " for eternity . Denis as being both artistic and tells us in his Appendix that even now. greatly. This is probably a survival of that lost art of Mexico which was carried on in their convents. Ferdinand P 2 . can exceed the tenderness and harmony of the Nothing colouring in shades of blue. 1 Guatemala. 211 The Mexican Museum preserves specimens of century. Among the few noteworthy specimens that survived. Le Normant of Rouen. 1875. There is in the Cluny Museum. second a peacock.STITCHES. are now at Roi). and Yucatan. painting for a day." we may call feather 1 work." by M. are. designed by M. Carlo Borromeo at described by M. evidently of the sixteenth century." the essays of M. "Arte Plumaria. next to Attila moth. the mitre of St. in feathers. Paris. in Paris. the last three hundred years. Denis. framed as screens. He which the Spaniards admired so also speaks of the inlaid feather work. beautiful. Ferdinand Denis. is woven in France. Ghirlandajo called mosaic in marble and glass. most the attractive to that greatest destroyer. and warm and cool brown tints. as soft and damask and rivalling the Mexican . Peru. and may have been a copy of a treasured relic of European art. is have Milan. Levet. and afterwards continued in Paris by his English pupil. with delicate outlines in fine gold thread. much may be learned of the arte plumaria of the Mexicans and From their neighbours of Brazil. from the time of the conquest of Mexico. a tissue of flexible as a feathers silk scarlet feather fabric. He F. in 1735. a beautiful It is worked triptych.

unlucky moment for the recipients. or painting with the needle. it is not where the craft. Mr. &c." probably means their imitation or mixture with gold embroidery. the more fit for the fertilization of that of a perfectly barbarous people. Having proved the difficult to universal use of feathers. and a name. it was an third and fourth centuries of our era. a tradition. and imitating them in gold. into suggested by feathers. was then at its lowest and most debased phase perhaps.212 NEEDLEWORK AS ART. or When Lucan describes the extraordinary change introduced Roman habits and luxury by Cleopatra's splendours. Fergusson suggests the similarity between Central Asian and Central American art. yet it may have been at that time undergoing its transition into embroidery. employing probably followed The name accounted 1 " for. where cultivated. There is something fascinating in the suggestions on this subject . was also He we terious that says that their civilization is so myshave as yet no means of judging whence came their art. is thus fully and we need seek no further elucidation. pars auro plumata nitet. come under the head of " opus Phrygium. we must in not take it into seriousrconsideration. appreciate the causes which suggested everytransfer of this decorative art to another less perishable materials.. He thinks that its tradition was transmitted from Asia to America in the If so. as the art of Asia. Though Seneca speaks of " " the opus plumarium as if it were absolutely feather-work. wool. as well as that of Europe. and would. both in architectural forms and plastic and sculptured remains. however. thread. his use of the " words." but when conjecture is only founded on tradition. therefore. Donelly's " Atlantis. Embroidery and absorbed it throughout closely Asia and in Egypt and the survivals now are only an 1 accidental specimen." . silver. Plumarii. and without proof. it ." for the embroideries. it and the land of the Zapotecas. The Plumarii mentioned by Pliny were craftsmen in the art of acu pingere.

" but though this name colours. as flat I before said. It is said that the work. " having served its apprenticeship in plain work. But see Marquardt. who wove garments and hangings of various " Plumarii .. p. v. It cannot be decided with certainty what was their occupation . persons mentioned by Vitruvius. and found likewise in inscriptions. describing two kinds of Plumarii." now came to the front as a decorative agent. Becker's Handbuch Rom." R. to suppose that p. which. or in silk (at a later period). were called was at first confined to craftsmen who wove patterns article 2 The after in was extended the shape of feathers. Lat. p.. and next came the effect. i. embellished robes. It 213 was commonly used in classical Roman times." . "These latter. " Thesaur. whether their work was in wool. their name would lead us Stephan. Steph. 1 with or without admixture of gold or silver (as the Argentarii were the jewellers). in course of time the name to those artists who. "Callus." licionum " a varietate multiplici opus polymitarium factum quod Graeci Robert appellant.STITCHES. called " " Plumarium dicitur acu Polymitum." pt. on the word "plumarius" in Hoffman's Lexicon. and the Greeks. 209. 2." was made by the it needle." Thesaurus Linguae Latinae." The " opus plumarium " included. " Opus " plumarium seems to have become the legitimate term for all needlework. The Plumarii were the embroiderers. model with 1 Painting with the needle began with an attempt to it the lay of stitches being so arranged as to . do with feathers. and first I repeat that " feather application was certainly that conveyed its motive ." " Plumarium qui acu aliquod depingit super culcitris plumeis. stitches the same desired fitted though a new the needle. " all stitches . named " Plumarium. for material was employed. proceeds to say. from the variety of the threads. 523. or thread." s." d. 8 ii has something to it " 288. with the needle or by 3 painting. Altert" vii. 2 " The Plumarii were a class of Bliimner. Plumarius. Phrygians and Babylonians.

214 NEEDLEWORK AS ART. stem. so delineate the forms without changing the shades of the I material used. " form of plumage stitch and " stem is another . is that of the restricted " " Satin stitch is a more plumage of birds. it is allowed that these flat stitches. and may cover the outline and efface it. Practically. give on the opposite page some Japanese birds. " " to therefore have assigned the name of plumage stitch that hitherto called stitches all . artist's Part 6. and have any others. and excellent decorative effects are produced but the texture of flowers is not to be imitated. I variety of these flat stitches. give most scope for freedom in needlework. The same stitch which we find prevailing in China and Japan as plumage work. They represent plumage. and closeness may be varied at will. and according to the inspiration of the worker. OPUS CONSUTUM This is (or cut work)." or "Applique" ("inlaid" and "on- . especially the plumage stitch. is employed in embroidering Here satin. as they are laid on at once.) artistic representation cannot be imagined. more of the nature of touch than The design thus admits of interpretation according to the taste and feeling of the needlewoman. as . and plumage stitches are flowers. blended together. as to give the whole effect of light and shadow. 43. as their length. and I " embroidery or "long and short" " " give the term plumage work to include " the "flat" stitches. thickness. The stitches are so intelligently placed as absolutely to give the forms of the birds imitated. The stitches are not counted. "Patchwork. very useful in its place. which will explain what I mean. and a more (pi.

.43- Japanese Opus Plumarium. . Page 214.PI.


as than any other style being much more effective of work. so as to be recognized as blue larkspur. painted cloths) and were visible on both Botticelli drew with his own hand Or San Michele. who besieged and took Jerusalem Solomon. mother-in-law of Shi- There are. Perhaps he may have the baldachino of revived the art of application in his own day." and says that the use of Church banners. preserved. 44). War shown their colours and forms when the cases were first opened. when it old as the Trojan that they are nearly as though perhaps their preservation is less surprising than that the flowers wreathed about several royal mummies of the same period should have is remembered . yellow mimosa. Among the flowers lay a dead wasp. of which the first and most remarkable is the Egyptian funeral tent of Queen Isi-em-Kebs. sewn on with stout pink thread The colours are described as being wonderfully (pi. and were not affected by the weather (as in sides of the banner. made of thousands of pieces of gazelles' skins. resembling a glove.STITCHES. he died 1515. and a red Abyssinian flower. 2 1 5 Vasari calls it it " Botticelli invented for Di commesso. B. or patchwork of prodigious size. whose worthless were as perfectly preserved as those of the mighty monarch on whose bosom The tent itself its short existence. massed closely together on the foundation of a strong leaf cut in zigzags. the outer edges bound with a cord the stitching of of twisted pink leather. divided down the . much earlier examples of patchwork. and neatly sewn together with threads of colour to match. as the outlines remained firm (non si stinguano). dyed. and the embroideries on a frieze carried in procession by the monks of Santa Maria Novella. or even than painting. It three or four years may be described as a mosaic. it had completed little form and identity consists of a centre or flat top.C. shak. laid "). after the death of 980. however.

1 Another piece of Egyptian application." Plate i. and yellow. its style. fringe pattern green. from the Museum stuff. whole effect of the contrasting colours is inharmonious and gaudy. alternately pink and green. its stitchery. though certainly striking and typical. on this border there are gazelles. and colours. a most interesting work of early art. We have an 1 " instance of ancient " application of about Villiers Stuart. each with a pink Abyssinian lotus blossom hanging to its collar. however. This. tion in the two other colours . materials." by See Auberville's " Tissus. with a device or picture and inscripfirst . each surrounded with a hieroglyphic text which is really an epitaph. Piece of applique in red stuff and red outlines from Egypt. 2 Fig. and covered over one half with pink and yellow on the other half are six rosettes on a blue ground . a pretty leaf pattern cut out in red laid on a white ground. . 22. red. The side flaps are adorned then with a then with a row of broad panels. The rest of the side flaps and the whole of the front and back flaps are composed of large squares. 8 See " The Funeral Tent of an Egyptian Queen. by the artistic manner of placing and con- To our more advanced taste.216 NEEDLEWORK AS ART. is darker outline of the same colour. middle. It is remarkable how much variety of effect has been produced with only four colours. large vultures. with some narrow bands of colour . and worked down with a at Turin. the trasting them. for kneeling its is antiquity. and an example of the perfection to which it had attained.

217 600 years later. " Compte Rendu de 1 Commission Archeologique. from tattered fragments taken out of a tomb in the Crimea. Compare the fragments of which we have obtained a copy with the mantle of Demeter. and gold-coloured wool. border is to be found (pi. embroidered apparently in in white. 119. 112. iii. 15). from a Greek vase. in the effect and general design of the outer which the applied leaf is worked down in red. 23. much is mantle to and white. of a most brilliant green. ! spond The ground material is of Fig. 23)." PI. Opus consutum name of a stitch or 1 " " cannot in stitches. The accompanying illus- tration gives border It is only. Fig. and you will perceive how the styles correcution. 1 6.STITCHES. enriched with application of another fine woollen fabric (PI. Peters- burg. 88 1. gold. Narrow border of a Greek mantle. outlined and black. worked down. pp. the finest woven wool. 1 stem stitches. . Greek in its beauty of design and exeAlas we can only ascertain. la any sense perhaps be the But it applies to a peculiar St. in spirited attitudes. that it was parseme with figures on horseback or in chariots. The border is very beautiful. to be regretted that the centre of the so tattered and discoloured that it is impossible do more than ascertain that the design that is embroidered on it consists of figures on horseback or in The second and broader chariots. of a deep violet or purple colour.

has been given to all work in which the scissors are active agents. out in different materials. As art they are generally a failure. a good deal of this work was executed in Germany for wall hangings figures were cut . and material as grounding. . crimson. and from is be found in inventories his time to the constantly to beginning of the last century. The figures are The chasuble inscrip- of fine Saracenic woven with golden tions in broad stripes.218 NEEDLEWORK AS ART. whether in cutting out the outlines or in incising the pattern. This. applied and raised so as to covered with itself is satin form a high relief. term given to all work cut out of plain or embroidered " " to another materials. It includes application in 1 trimmings. applied in 1 different coloured silks. silk. in the Grisons. now called " Madeira work. and gave the produce of their industry as gifts to their friends for collars. cuffs. however. partly applied there is at In the British Museum is the lining of a shield which shows the arms of Redvers. The colours are brown. In the later Middle Ages. and applied by working down all raised and stuffed and metal thread work." of which a great deal was made in the first part of the century by English ladies who designed and collected patterns from each other. and gold. It is the style of embroidery employing certain stitches. " Cut work" is named by Chaucer. It silk. At Coire. and embroidered. third Earl of Albemarle (who died 1260). and embroidered down and in finished by putting the details in various stitches. for the Hotel Cluny a complete suite of hangings of the time of Francis the First. of which the orphrey is of the school of the elder Holbein or Lucas Cranach. is a very beautiful chasuble. woollen. as in much of the linen and muslin embroideries of our day. is not necessarily the case. being more gaudy than beautiful.


Property of Countefs Soiners.: > - Wall Pilasters.work. Italian XV] Cent . . Applique Cut.

In this work the application is cut out. which are often very effective giving the rooms an architectural decoration. " and " couched with cords. is in the delicacy of the (PL 45. A great deal of " opus consutum " has been done in the School of Art Needlework. strong. instead of being needlework of at least 250 years ago. without losing anything of beauty by distance. it was supposed that the utmost effect of richness was thus accomplished with the least labour. as must be the case when the work's highest merit stitches and the details of form. statues and cabinets. placed in front of them. without inter. .STITCHES. which are beautiful in design and colouring. 1 Lent by the Archaeological Museum at Madrid. and very large spaces and very high walls covered. Besides. One of the most remarkable large works of this style that exists was shown in 1881. 219 and partly embroidered. . at the South Kensington 1 It was of the Museum. especially the fruit and trophies in the borders. In the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries cut. . models of many periods amongst other British specimens. conventional. fering with the arrangement of works of art.) Earl of Beauchamp has inherited a most beautiful " suite of hangings of applique work . in the way of restoration of old Here may be seen copies of different embroideries. and the whole thing is as stiff." silks of many kinds are laid on a white brocade ground with every possible variety of stitch. and enduring as if it were a piece of upholstery that was carpentered yesterday. forming richly and gracefully designed patterns The and showing to what cut work can aspire. pictures. raised and stuffed. making wall hangings. commonly in velvet or silk. during the Spanish Exhibition.work was much employed in Italy for large flowered arabesque columnar designs. slept. in which James I. part of a bed at Drumlanrig.

" The way in which India. was once requested to give an opinion as to the I date of a curtain border bought in Italy.22O kind called " NEEDLEWORK AS ART. enriched with tinsel and spangles. for the special applied work is used in adornment of horse-cloths. 2 " Opus consutum. "Embroidery. The well. richness of the materials gold. and the stag The work is superb. cut Italian curiosity it is a failure r . or hair. the size of life a wonderful reproduction of the hide of the creature stitches. . He speaks of work " cut and laid deries. old faded silks. saddles. and sell them as authentic specimens of such and such a date. in The relief is so high that the columns appear . 1 work is the best mode of arriving at 2 splendid effects by uniting rich and varied tissues." this Rees' Cyclopaedia. without enrichment between. except as being a marvellous and to be circular is by the shadows they throw stuffed so as to be raised about six inches. silk. wool. laid down with gold. and often cut up the remnants and rags of rich stuffs. " : The design of the sixteenth 1 the applied velvet " and Rees' Cyclopaedia speaks " embroideries on the stamp or figures are high and prominent. is very interesting. and wool used it is a divergence from the legitimate profusely art of embroidery. silver. on the stamp. and with them copy fine old designs. beautiful curiosity. and is simply the attempt of the needlewoman to combine again the arts of sculpture and painting with the help of so inadequate an implement as the needle. Therefore. it is not art." This was a landscape seen between columns wreathed with flowers and creepers. and girths. and scraps of gold and silver tissues. ." as being so named when the on the cloth." 1819. and the yet. In the foreground couched a stag." stump. Practically. and on vendors know this consideration is I gave the following verdict century of ." also in "low and plain embroisupported by cotton. and causes pleasure as well as wonder and in spite of the beauty of the design.

eighteenth century the thread with which the . in from a defined outline. but this gold. is not nearly so agreeable to the eye as pure application. and restored to use from its long imprisonment in the boxes and drawers of the garret and store-room. But it is cruel to transfer historical or typical works. as a rule. will be useful to those who need instruction in the most practical. and separating the colours. . or gold tissues. is generally It is so troublesome to embroider on velvet or plush. because they do not interfere with any colour they approach. . outlines laid down in cord have the best effect. and therefore the quickest way of doing 1 The chapter on " cut work. of the seventeenth century the brocaded silk ground. and so puzzle the artist and the historian. it lifts the work from the flat art." and it is the best and most economical method for restoration of old embroideries. whole was worked machine-made silk thread (English) middle of nineteenth century. rescued from annihilation." The whole effect was excellent. that application is the easiest and most 1 The effective mode of dealing with these fabrics. background. while binding the edges and securing them from fraying. " This art of " application is the distinctive part of the " opus consutum." in the Handbook of Embroidery of the Royal School of Art Needlework. 221 gold cord. White is distracting and aggressive. . as we Greeks see in the mantle from the Crimea already referred to . of which the grounding material worn out long before the Much beautiful work has thus been stitches laid upon it. it enhances It would appear. which satisfies it where there are no cast shadows.STITCHES. and it is almost certain that the eye receives most pleasure. either black or gold metal should invariably be employed. and very antique. that their beauty. however. The sometimes used gold colour instead of gold.

OPUS FILATORIUM OR ARANEUM. This I think somewhat fanciful. sewn down with chain stitches. the art was. nor are the colouring and material is. It has in the varying art of History of Lace. Part LACE." or application cut work. where much information about embroideries in general. Palliser says that from the earliest times the art of lace-making has been so mixed up with that of needlework. which he was the first lace. therefore. what she has without naming the other. The word been applied 1 " guipure" to " is many forms a stumbling-block. 2 As all the earliest specimens says and designs for guipure were Venetian. probably an Italian invention. 1 may be found is in the M. and no modern continuation of such work in the East. The very commendable. " great deal of modern opus consutum. frayed edges Fringes may have been so suggested. introduction. and cut out afterwards. Mrs. is Palliser's work attributed by . 200). general. that it is impossible to enter upon the one This is. Blanc transition also considers that there but a slight between embroidery and guipure. though an The Oriental origin has sometimes been attributed to it. de Gheltoff to the necessity for disposing of the of worn-out garments. in fact. has been done in Constantinople of late A years." The origin of needle. materials in are not artistic .222 NEEDLEWORK AS ART. Blanc's " Art in Ornament and Dress" (p.made laceM. The onlaid designs in general. objection to this last theory is that we find no ancient specimens. showing the intimate connection between the two in her charming work "on lace. Mrs. done. 7. 2 See M.

of more or less thickness and commoner material. thus forming the large scroll " " patterns seen in so many old pictures.' or like point de Raguse. applied to narrow ribbons their use being to lace or tie. vellum. silk. not missing. winding and covering them over with the more precious thread. both ground and design. 3 The Venetians early made much lace for furniture or ecclesiastical " linen adornment. In the twelfth century they worked "opus filatorium. 223 which same variableness has caused its lace-making nomenclature to assume the terms belonging to other textile arts where they approach or touch each other. he says it is from the Gothic Vaipa. These figures were then connected by brides. or embroideries). of what they called maglia quadrata." No doubt the heavy Foglami " " Rose laces developed themselves from these still older kinds and point As the cord and card lace disappeared. all laces wirli large.' a ribbon. wound round with a finer flax. from lace. and leaving large open spaces.' first being made : ' ' ' . Weban or Weben (g and / replacing the w it was called lads or lassts. Latterly. or German and fr). only as close as was required to hold them together.weaver's term for spinning one thread round another and that guipure was originally more like what we now call guimp. then they cut shapes. where . ' ' of thread. bold patterns first method which created it and open brides. in that it is worked on whereas lace is manufactured at already woven 2 But the link between once. of which half the threads had been drawn out. and knotting them again.STITCHES. The nearest (as in netting. then dividing. and leaves out of cartisane. and the remainder were worked into a net by knotting them into 1 groups. 3 Mrs. the two is Embroidery differs tissues . or parchment. approach to laces before the thirteenth century was more in the nature of what we now call 1 guimp." derivation of the word . or metal . bold scrolls." which was 2 The word lace came from France. though the special had been effaced. . the name slid on to of point." which consisted of embroidery with the needle on linen. fringes. Bayman (late Superintendent in the School of Art Needle" I see no reason to doubt that the word guipure is work) writes thus derived from guipa or guiper. embroidered Littre gives the netting or laces have been called "guipure d'art. These words originally derived from the Latin laqneus (a noose).

a piece of work described in an old catalogue " St. however. cxxvii. kinds of lace. and descended to the peasantry domestic decorations in Spain. There are specimens of this work believed to be of the thirteenth At the time of the Renaissance the simple geometrical designs century. a string." Johnson's Dictionary. Germany. had a cushion quoted by Rock. cix. 2 The original pricked on parchment or glazed paper." See Catalogue of Textiles in the South Kensington Museum. fruits. Homer usually squared netting. wall painting and textile decoration. as almost all ancient It may be fairly asserted that and much modern entirely lace is simple embroidery. " a piece early Egyptian work in the Louvre as of white network pattern." " Anything reticulated or decussated at equal Johnson on network : " distances." albo filo nodato.-* 1 See Rock. and human figures. London. developed into animals. France. motive and idea of lace is a net.224 NEEDLEWORK is AS ART. and certain drawn work he calls "opus filatorium. the ancients Some You will see both in them constantly in Egyptian and Greek art. we would quote Dr. The patterns called by " de fundata. flowers. for their popular on account of its simplicity. . 2 holes tied together by Reminding us of the description of a net As a contrast in descriptive style. each mesh containing an This sounds much like laceirregular cubic figure." 1 Here lace work. p. ex. p. are made by plaiting and twisting the threads attached to bobbins round pins which are previously arranged in the holes of a pattern. with interstices between the intersections." are netted designs meshed. " the term " embroidery embraces the craft of lace-making. Paul's. Pulvinar copertum de covered with knotted thread There : and embroidery touch Sir Gardiner Wilkinson notices some each other. Rock. by D. afterwards filled in with patterns in darned This somewhat primitive style of lace trimming was needlework. He says that a sort of embroidery was called network. and Italy. and formed by the needle.

xix. and fringes of the same. 18. chair and cushion covers. or the two mixed and interchanged. 3 fringe lace is made on the Riviera. 9. with or without pins. with the wreaths of chain work. 225 1 speaks of golden cauls. the garment of a statue at Portici. sixteenth. Egyptian robes of state appear to have been sometimes trimmed with an edging of a texture between 3 lace and fringe. 23. work edged with a border resembling fine netting." made with bobbins (bone lace). Venezia. of the possessions of Q . plants. The materials have 4 by hand. the fibres of and human hair.STITCHES. 5 See. for example. 5 Laces in coloured silks were Isaiah 2 iii. are continually mentioned in the inventories of the fifteenth. Cited by pieces " Merletti di Urbani de Gheltof. or with the needle only. at Solomon's desire (i Kings vii. 1776. The " nets capitals of the brazen columns adorned with " of chequer 2 very curious. of the fibres of the aloe. been gold. 22. silk. We may instance "passementerie. and is called " macrarne. and worn at his coronation by Louis Quatorze. A lace called " yak is made of wool or hair. Mrs. Palliser's " History of Lace. " Scritti di V. Bed hangings. were designed by Hiram of Tyre. 64. They also mention nets of flax. as adorning women's heads. thread (these two last white or coloured). " silver. and seventeenth centuries. 17). The nets of chequer work which hung round the capitals. and so does Isaiah. the inventory of the household goods of the great Earl of Leicester at Longleat . also the lists Ippolito and Angela Sforza (sixteenth century)." p. Zanon da Udine " of gold. Bone laces in gold and silver. 4 collar of fine white human hair was made in point lace stitches at A A It cost 250 Venice. Lace has been made of many materials in many ways. (1829)." tells And of in Solomon's Temple are the" author of " Letters from Italy." pp. and table cloths were constantly trimmed with gold and silver bone lace." which is an Arabic word.

or meshes. gold wire lace guimp was lately found near A in piece of a tomb to Wareham. with reason.e. Queen Ashridge. be Scandinavian. with a trimming of lace. i. and then work the pattern with the This he calls lace " pure et simple . and coldness 2 3 the exactly repeated still Coloured thread and silk laces are In the British Museum. machinery . This paternal It interference in the details of life is truly Venetian. among visit. about two inches. . Blanc's use of the word " made is " guipure different from that found in the notices of the art by other authorities. Blanc and says it the ground first. owing to the intrinsic value of the must suppose the origin of these golden metal. of Venice gold and silver lace embroidered in coloured silk. and 2 is supposed.e. but this has the inherent defect of all machine- made 1 fabrics. four inches broad.226 NEEDLEWORK in 1 AS ART. M. We trimmings to belong to a very early period. to a practised in eye. a toilet-cover of red and gold striped the relics of Elizabeth's enforced silk. considers that it " " or network. differs from guipure in that the latter consists of flowers and arabesques worked separately. describes lace as a treillage You may complete is made in three ways. forbidding the metal laces embroidered in silk to be wider than " due dita. was intended to " protect the nobles and citizens from and setting a bad example. and This guipure then connected with bars. Isles late in the last made Spain and the Balearic century. lines." i. in which in Venice. a certain rigidity forms. 3 The third is by is the second mode of lace-making. a sumptuary law was passed in Venice." and he needle. M. Specimens of these laces are rare." rule was relaxed in favour of Perhaps for there is at crowned heads and royal personages injuring themselves this strict . In 1542.

which impresses on the design the accent of strength or weakness. shall have sought . 1 M. and 24. above or below the tracing. " Dentelliere " has the flat patterns. Blanc. and still less by a woman's handicraft.000 in France. About the year 1768 it was altered. was started for Lace-making by machinery employed by the latest official returns in 1871. The Jacquard apparatus achieved idea.STITCHES. Q 2 . and judges their merits. speaking of the beauty of point d'Alencon. of intelligence or stupidity of or ignorance.370 women in England. 9th edition. See Encyclopaedia Britannica. and will certainly not be the last. and the new perfected the art. and adapted for making open-work patterns. an imperceptible deviation to the right or to the left. on green parchment." . of indecision or deter2 I would add. the designs and traced by another person. imagined even in copying an outline. Charles Blanc. 2 M. In 1813. or nearly so. John Leaver improved on this with machine-woven patterns. the 227 is human touch " is wanting. p. He praises it especially as being entirely needlework. " is It curious how in art. This that I is not the first time. " Art in Ornament and Dress. with the stocking-making frame. there is always. names the different modes of lace-making. However the hand faithfully may have been restrained by the necessity of following. 29. even a pentimento erred as well as created valuable." p. an individuality. recalling the hand that the attention that strayed. the Heathcot machine 1 bobbin net. 183-5. In 1808. he says " And the value of this lace not only arises from its representing a considerable amount of labour. knowledge mination. but also because nothing Of needle-made lace : can replace in human estimation the fabrics produced by a man's. to impress on the needlewoman the fact that her individuality cannot fail to be strongly marked in her work and I would urge her to carry out the suggestions that her experience and her taste afford The first lace-making machine was contemporary. or . reconsidered the design. 211.

are the Fringes. 1 The information contained in these volumes is most valuable. Seguin's valuable work. Knotting.228 NEEDLEWORK AS ART. all parts of the same branch of ornamental needlework. the interest and the life. which have changed with each period of contemporary art. subject has been so thoroughly discussed by adepts its revival as a local industry in its that its I original will confine its myself to a few observations on art. Mrs. In lace-making. Urbani de Gheltofs " and seventeenth cen- The in connection with cradle." in being decorative are . Technical History of Venetian Laces. and M. than with aesthetic culture or noble thought. Tatting. hardly to be included in what is called high art. sense of materials. as in all art. 1 M. how much variety may be given to designs for lace-making. They soften mystery the outlines and the colours beneath them. A. is a beautiful little book and a worthy imitation of the ancient lace-books of the sixteenth turies. as it were. while seeking to render faithfully the original motive of the designer. refinement and coquetry. and are markedly distinctive of their nationalities. history and place in decorative and Lace-making. while they They are permit them to peep through their meshes. Mr. They available edges to more solid as coverings for warmth or decency but they serve to give the grace of to the object they drape or veil. They not are all "trimmings. . his volume of photographs. for the lace-worker as well as the collector. is imparted to each specimen the attention and thought bestowed upon it. having more affinity with grace. Cole's lectures on lace. are full of information. her. by her beautiful by illustrations. Knitting. Palliser shows us. Netting. Crochet." translated into English by Lady Layard.

STITCHES. 9. 229 This tendency in lace work may be the reason that the masculine mind does not. and their variations are endless. "Merletti di Venezia. had a pair of hose of purple silk. MSS.. Lace stitches are almost innumerable. as we have no other notice of lace See Ibid. Now more than . and crewels . * The manufacture of point d'Alen^on was created under the special orders of Louis Quatorze. but rather despises them (even when the designs are beautiful and ingenious). 1 Upwards of a hundred are named. Harl. and their great value. Florence. trouble. geometrical stitches and needle-weaving in those solid laces called " "punti tagliati Fogliami. 10 20. 1 3 followed suit. We have every reason to believe that the claims of Venice as the first and original school of lace-making have been satisfactorily proved. appreciate these lovely textures. edged and trimmed 2 Richard with a lace of purple silk and gold. on account of the time." and Rose point de Venise. in 1673. Germany." "point coupe"). pp. greatly prized them delicacy and refinement. France. silk. provided the effect is good. Urbani de Gheltof. simply consists These are varied with of button-hole stitch with purl ornaments. tagliato. netted laces. in general. adaptations are always allowable. must be here intended. 3 Henry VIII. Their knowledge of stitches also enables them to appreciate their variety. by Colbert. as being flimsy and deficient in honest intention whereas women have always . so early. in his book. . But a volume would not suffice us for entering into the details of the craft many of its stitches have been imported and such into embroideries in gold. 1519. for their and eyesight expended upon them. and the taste shown in their selection and arrangement for carrying out each design. of Milanese manufacture.* which was the earliest Lady Layard made in Venice ("punto suggests that the cut lace work." p. says that Venetian laces and fringes were furnished thence for the coronation of I fancy that gold guimps or braid. Milan. rather than III. especially the last. (1483). 2 Genoa." of the finest kinds.

perhaps the finest existing piece of artistic lace of At the It contains many century. ne di private fortune. Yriarte's " Venise. Yriarte says that Ale^on. She also fostered the art of printing in Venice. pattern-books were printed in Venice in the sixteenth century and these " Corone di belle e virtuose first . and is spoken of as a " principessa di gran' spirito. which likewise sent teachers to France and to Brussels say. and of the noble ladies " who fostered it.000 women. wife of the Doge We Marin Grimani.230 NEEDLEWORK AS ART. patronized Venetian lace-making. The Titian drew the designs for one of these books for "punti tagliati. Mechlin. or maestro. hear also that Morosin or Marosin. Bruges. 250. Argenton.) was the first patroness of Venice laces. are employed in lace-making Colbert imported the teachers from Venice. Mercourt." (wife of the Doge Malapiero. where it has been so lately revived. besides the machinists. 1 200. and Spain soon started their schools . Venice was proud of her industry. and through her the art was settled at Burano. Brussels. or la Dandola. or rather. beautiful both in figures sixteenth in France. Honiton. Sedan.. was a certain Cattina Gardin." p. It is recorded in the " Virtu in " Giovanna Dandolo. Oxfordshire. showing the same punti in aria. Her forewoman." laces made in the Greek islands probably owe their origin to " Venice." and her memory is that Giocco of Giovanna Palazzi cherished in connection with these proofs of her patriotism. Buckinghamshire. is kept in the sacristy. The 2 donne." as they are sometimes entitled. the Cathedral of Burano. were imitated in France and Germany. we may had many 1 first-class workwomen decoyed from her manufactories to assist in starting rival industries in other countries. groups of from the history of our Lord." 2 . but Lady Layard believes that Spain received all her inspiration and the greater part of her laces from Venice. Bedford. all followed in imitation of Venice.

Knotted lace. woman. 1876). 1 Embroidered is linen. It originally trimmed or bordered an ecclesiastical garment. mestiere. as that old . lace. as an absurd fact. and perhaps pro- have already spoken of "lacis" as either darned netting or drawn work. I . by name Cencia Scarpariola. Drawn lace. lace is We are often told that old cheaper than new. because the antiquity of lace is supposed to add to its value. Urbani de Gheltof s book on Venice laces already cited (Organia. Flowered lace. has lived to see hundreds of girls at Burano reviving all the old traditions. worked in Fogliami. but not beyond their value when we consider the vast amount of skilled labour bestowed on them. Open Darning or square netting. we refer the reader to M. and of which we here give a list from M. Mrs.STITCHES. Venetian. an antipendium. de Gheltof s book : Net Cut lace. 2 The price of these laces very high. but principally as an object of archaeological interest whereas that which is being made now is supporting by its daily . wage 1 the needlewoman and her family. as well as Pezzi. Palliser laments the extinction of the art in Venice. Of this there is an English specimen at Prague." and filled in with This was the border of exquisite tracery. and says that but one woman of the old craft had survived but her elegy was premature." gherita. lace. 2 For further information. 231 " Punti design and execution." or the patronage of the Princess Marmystery. and with the active help and superintendence of Countess Adriana Marcello and " having learnt from her the secrets of the " Under in Princess Giovanelli. said by tradition to be the gift of Queen Anne of Bohemia. and merletti are executed in the different styles which include all lace-making. Yes. Venice. French and Flemish. Venice point. merli. now Queen of Italy. wife of Richard II. Burano point. and Lady Layard's translation (1882). most beautiful laces are now made every old point.

which proves the high prices paid for the new laces of their day. inhabitants. 1 For these purposes of their craft. and Spanish mantillas. made a profit of 75. are so called from their original Venetian name.NEEDLEWORK viding for her old age at least for all the . from the celebrated collar of Louis Ouatorze. as well as the revived industry. " merletti biondi. are very The modern school of Burano has only been established It is certainly delightful to see the 320 happy faces. it and fancies but this in the is was made 'of the fair hair of the workers . has not suffered from their occupation. but accept De Gheltof s information that it was given by the authority of the magistrates of Mercanzia in 1759. many lace. AS ART. 1883. but a very slight sketch of the history of lace. which describes the improvement in the social condition of Burano. a lace merchant in Venice. Instead of signs of miserable poverty. I applied gold. which is celebrated. morally and physically. strain and as the very heavy.workers early on the eye is in life lose their sight. eleven years.000 francs on a commission for a set of lace bed-hangings for the wedding of Joseph II. . which take their turn occasionally as fashionable trimmings. seventeenth century to laces in The term was silk. and the way it is recognized by the singing. veils. and find silver never to thread laces. gives us an idea of how He says that Giuseppe costly they were in old times.. the promoters of the lace school are greeted by the women leaning from the windows with. chattering. and likewise the busy scene is 1 This I am . There is a charming little article of the Revista di Torino. but the workers. I confess do not the reason for the name." lation De Gheltof derives this appelpale laces. only vague conjecture. reasons we cannot say that the prices required for such Zanon da Udine luxurious trimmings are unreasonable. Blond laces. and smiling over their graceful occupation . assured on the best authority that this is unknown as yet at Burano young. Berardi. Venice being its birthplace. Emperor of Germany. "Siestu benedetta !" ("Be thou blessed !"). and the beauty of the Buranese women.

cannot but agree with M. as a border to the linen cloths. hanging over the edge of the altar.Infante . Louis Quatorze made it one of his splendid caprices. Blanc. who placed one at Auxerre. and easily seen at a distance. assume in the portraits by Velasquez. when spread over the surface of these fortified outworks." stretched over the great hoops of the and the fashion spread all over Europe. or finishing the white alb of the officiating priest. a dignity keeping with their value. and well their individual merits are appreciated. these grand solid laces seem most appropriate. or black silk . who points out that each piece of lace had its intention. The splendid designs show brilliantly on a background of scarlet. and that a fashionable ball-dress trimmed with the edging One of an antique altar-cloth in loops. looks only tawdry and ragged. but for the discussion of those of Spain. Belgium. is in false taste. But these have been thoroughly investigated. resembling carved ivory silver. guarding from all approach the persons of the Infantas of Spain. In Spain. had a magnificent effect colour. being effective in large spaces. but forced the fashion into this luxurious and extravagant channel.STITCHES. and left space Flanders. to say no worse of the misappropriation. and France. hanging loosely. little I have lingered over school. of its 233 its rehabilitation. when thus displayed. which remind one of solid jewellers' work. under the especial care of his brother. decoration. . For ecclesiastical purposes. lace was made to look its best by being worn " Guard. the bishop of that city. The white or those in gold and laces. both as antique and modern dress I have already said that the lace schools in France were instituted by Colbert. rose which is in and that which. and not only set the example.

and down to the middle of the last century. Bedfordshire. is lace. for their amusement. which last are very simple drawn lace cushion bobbin-laces. Clever imitations of Venice point have come from Ireland lately. 1883)." which is said to be only made in and being partly machine-made. made cut laces. called " raised crochet. ment. shire and the Isle of Wight (called Honiton) form a group totally distinct from those of Northamptonshire. Perhaps the reason of their that they have followed always the taste of That of our time being decidedly archaeological. Though we have had no schools of lace in England our imitative industries schools). except. Still. ancient patterns are now the most successful. . (unless we can call we have samplers of the time of Queen Elizabeth. and it is extremely fine and beautiful work.234 NEEDLEWORK AS ART. and therefore little esteemed. by Italians. It The appears that every kind of lace. which have always kept the lead since their establish- we have no national style of lace. which has always been shown in their beautiful embroideries on muslin and cambric. though fluctuating in design with the varying fashions of each epoch. Very fine thread laces have been produced at Irish work schools but no " Limerick . and Oxfordshire. showing that and cut lace were regularly taught. Ireland. is not pure lace. Exhibition of Irish Lace in London (June. we must confess From and the only enduring ones have been those of France and Belgium. commercial result has followed. the sixteenth century English ladies have. There is a kind of embroidery darned-work. shows how widespread have been the efforts of Irish ladies to employ the peculiar genius of the sister island for delicate work with the needle. called longevity their day." This is a novelty. probably The laces of Devonas an accomplishment.


" Woven and Embroidered. Page 235. . E-ypti an "Gobelins.PI. 46.

in Spain. 46. word " necessary to define precisely what is meant by the 1 The term has been applied to all tapestry. tapestry conies . Perhaps a permanent industry may crown. For instance. 3 2 The " : originally means the strike. 235 perhaps. It was thus practised by the Egyptians. " " word had the same meaning .from the Greek tapes^ which is used The Italians call carpets " tapeti " to equally for hangings or carpets. " opus pectineum. . on a plain or brocaded woven and those which are in-woven with the design from the first. with photocatalogue these ladies are graphs of the specimens produced under their superintendence and care. have been more than once quoted as proofs of tapestries having been manufactured there at that period. from the mural paintings representing men and women weaving pictures material. 2 This latter was called in classical language. has been made in Ireland within the last 1 80 years. and so caused confusion between those that are embroidered with a design. this day. and laid on the warp. The names of in the official now worthily recorded of the exhibition. by the Persians. (PI. It is believed to have been originally an Egyptian word for 1 The word " " such fabrics." hangings. OPUS PECTINEUM. 3 to push the threads tight between each row of stitches and the individual stitches were put in with a sort of a needle. however late. Part TAPESTRY It is 8. and Peruvians. and in Egypt was often finished by embroidery." because it was woven with the help of a comb (the " slay"). or by the fingers only.) In Egyptian tombs we have evidence of their tapestry. the school fell away when she died. their exertions to help the women of Ireland. Brussels point.STITCHES." The slay to slay a man was to strike him. but as in each case the effort was always that of one individual woman. the embroidered hangings of the eighth century at Gerona. Indians.

of barbarous design. copied from a Greek vase. 1878. I must acknowledge my indebtedness to M. The "slay" is the implement which is I shall not enter into peculiar to the craft. from which it immediately descends. and has collected good evidences to prove his conclusions.236 in NEEDLEWORK AS ART. public sous direction de M. as this has been 1 But I thoroughly well done by masters of the art. where Penelope is portrayed sitting by her haute-lisse frame. however. Pliny. a Paris." For the best information (PL 47. by quoting prove the antiquity of weaving. threads together after the stitches were laid in is sometimes found in the weaver's tomb. weaving is . Of course he has chiefly dealt with the French branch of the art. The comb which served to push the upright looms. I also refer the reader to the illus- tration artist from the Rheims tapestries.) have been able to obtain regarding tapestry weaving. which I willingly accept en bloc. la . 1876. and gives a verse " of Martial's to this effect Thou owest this work to the : He 1 See " " Bibliothbque des Merveilles (sur les Tapisseries). by a high or by a low-warp loom (haute-lisse or basse-lisse\ vertical or horizontal. We have. in which a mediaeval shows the Blessed Virgin weaving at one that is I horizontal or " basse-lisse. pieces of "opus pectineum" from Saccarah. to begins. and with the Flemish. De Champeaux. . any description of the mode of working the looms. but the equal to the Egyptian and both resemble Whence came the craft the Gobelins weaving of to-day. South Kensington Museum Art Handbook. in the British Museum. Albert CastePs " Bibliotheque des 2 Merveilles." He has given great care to the consideration of this subject. in Egypt and also fragments from a Peruvian tomb. would call attention to the Frontispiece. Edouard Charton. of the Peruvians ? Tapestry is woven in two ways.

. The Virgin weaves and embroiders at a basse-lisse frame. Page 236. 47- Portion of a Tapestry Hanging. Rheims. Cathedral.PI.


and yet the extremes are different. their labour. the woof is inserted in the middle with sharp shuttles. 237 land of Memphis. yet the very transition eludes the eyes that look upon it . Both hasten on fatigue. desiring a vain victory.. rushes upon her own destruction. as in the rainbow with its mighty rays reflected by the shower. ". xiv. to look at her admirable workmanship. Arachne's web any rate. of ingeniously which the sleeve is in the Egyptian department of the that figures were pictured by weaving quite as early as the date of Troy. Minerva accepts the challenge of the Maeonian Arachne. appear to be almost prophetic of the 2 * Arachne's highest efforts of the looms of the Gobelins. 2 two webs on the loom. description of the beautiful hangings they wove." Homer makes Helen weave the story of the siege of Troy this may have been partly embroidered and . and a smaller one on each * corner. though a thousand colours are shining. and. She boasts that hers is finer than that of Pallas. where. and The the graceful borders. The web of Pallas had a large central design. while the fingers hurry along. The pliant gold is mingled with the threads. the glorious colours with their tenderly graduated tints. The web the slay separates the warp . figures. The girls desert the vineyards round the little town of Hypaepa. They stretch out is tied to the beam . surrounded with a Appendix 3. to such a degree is that which is adjacent the same. with a fine warp.. and girding up their garments to their bosoms.STITCHES. where the slay of the Nile has vanl quished the needle of Babylon. . British some Museum. and at unmistakably finished with the needle (Plate 18) as early as the days of Homer. there are pieces of woven tapestry introduced most into the web of a linen shirt or garment. they move their skilful arms. which prove ." Then follows the list of the subjects. was interwoven with each other in She and Minerva rivalled ingenious design and perfect execution. and being drawn with the warp. who will not yield to her in the praises of being first in weaving wool. 1 Martial. which are subjected to the Tyrian brazen (dyeing) vessel with fine shades of minute difference . their eagerness beguiling their There are being woven both the purples. . the teeth (notched in the moving slay) strike it. and ancient subjects are represented on the webs. 150.

But sordid webs to clothe the caves and tombs. the A Lo ! Struck how Minerva. giving no dates .D." appears that the town 1 j called Arras.H. for name It derived from the Hebrew word now weaving. No Nor blame the Poet's Metamorphoses Man's Life has Transformations hard as these : . if thus she innocently died. in The craft of weaving. so we do not know whether he attributes it to the Belgic Atrebates or to their successors. which flourished the Flemish and other adjacent countries. Lord Houghton. seems to Arachne's contained nineteen pictures. The Not " so sacred vengeance would be pacified. In either case the 1 craft was probably imported from the East. Plies her And once more links thee to the World of Art. The drear day-worker of the crowded town.R. Deeming." book vi. Who. but an- ciently Nometicum. writing in A. The poet here refers to H." Guicciardini ascribes the invention of woven tapestry to Arras. as Ages hand thee down. which were much in vogue amongst all classes in the later says that thence Roman Empire. I am enabled to Arachne's transformation into give the sequel of the story as PARAPHRASE AND A PARABLE. . Passing through joyless day to sleepless night With mind enfeebled and decaying sight. monotonous unhealthy toil. "Arag. Suspended her lithe body in mid-air .238 NEEDLEWORK is AS ART. Through the kindness of my friend. all Who. down the maiden of artistic pride. Resolves to raise thee from the vulgar mart. Till some good genius. the Franks. distraught with terror and despair. interwoven with the twining ivy. and was surrounded by a border of flowers. was always a centre of the trade of for Flavius Vopiscus. 282. Thou shalt become. recklessly defied. Spider. implacable the goddess cried : ! hang on and from this hour begin Out of thy loathsome self new threads to spin Live on ! . splendid tapestries for royal rooms.* kindred though apart. envying the rough tiller of the soil. of two border of olive leaves. Ovid's " Metamorphoses. the Princess Christian. or more figures each. the weavers came the Byrri woven cloaks with hoods.

" p. "Words and Places "(1865). MM." p. there was a survival and a revival the craftsmen grouping themselves round the Specimens as models were brought religious houses. probably a corruption of the name "Atrebates. fifth century the inhabitants of that country were transported wholesale to Germany by the Vandals. from the East.." Taylor. and is at best an uncertain derivation. 229385. Castel. 2 Sidonius Apollinaris. Aster. 13. Lechanche and Jenron. " wild beasts runthat some ning rapidly across void canvas. 30. 52. Bishop of Amasis (a town in Asiatic Turkey). . yet. Arras have been found by Bochart and Frahn in Ar-ras. now it is the province of Artois. because of the different use of the needle employed 1 in it. pp. 3 says . Cited in Yule's "Marco Polo. " Des Tapisseries. describes these Oriental hangings in one of his homilies. but it would appear that the weavers had fled to Ibid. thanks to the monasteries. and have clung to it. " Woven tapestry is also called Arras." p. Traces of the name Britain to escape from the Romans. 5 The commentators was coeval that this art of Vasari. 4 " Des Tapisseries. ix. many Though in the historical cataclysms. believe in the Low Countries with Roman civilization and Christianity. 2 3 Castel. The Atrebates were the inhabitants of that Belgic region till the fifth century ." the Parthian of wild aspect with his head turned This might be a description of a Chinese 4 composition. backwards. 239 to 1 have become native surviving to that soil. p. He says that animals and scenes from the Bible were woven on white grounds. and also by a miracle of art. Bishop of Clermont Ferrand. 31." 5 because that town in the Netherlands was the home and school of It has the art of picture weaving in the Middle Ages. the Arabian name for the river Araxes and the people who inhabit its shores . been hitherto excluded from the domain of needlework. " foreign tapestries are pictured" with the summits of Ctesiphon and Nephates. and probably it is so. and among them those of the town of Arras.STITCHES. Epist. but this may be accidental. 68. Sidonius Apollinaris.

is. Viollet- le-Duc says that the " Saracinois " was a term applied to the makers of velvety carpets (tapis veloutes)? This is " Rock. and another form of the copies are worked from the : The question is this back. for the each row of stitches. art. " der Teodor Grafschen Katalog Fiinde in yEgypten. and I claim it. which is done with a hook instead of a needle. p. Introduction. possibly from Sicily to Flanders and to France. . in this case. is Tapestry intelligent practised hand weaving The forms of the painted design skill. Tapis. and their craft. Karabacek." absolutely to assign to any known specimens a date anterior to the fifteenth century . Can it be claimed as belonging to the same craft as embroidery ? I answer in the affirmative. or comb completes It belongs as much to our art as does tambour work. whether Christians or not. See 1 also the catalogue of Herr Graf'schen's collection of Egyptian textiles. from the first to the eighth century. This " Saracenic work is really so like " Gobelins " what is called by the Germans when found in Egyptian tombs that one can hardly doubt whence the Moors brought their art. . Besides. Jubinal. the opus Sarathe . as in painting Such a thing as a purely with oils or water-colours. von Dr. "Tapisserie It is difficult Historique. cxii Viollet-le-Duc. or else from Byzantium. also M. 1883. called bably they came through Spain. has always been woven on a loom. and embroidery combined with the weaving in fact. There are several Egyptian specimens in the British Museum. tell ' cenicum. colours require as much care in selection.240 It NEEDLEWORK AS ART. "When cannot called Saracens began to weave tapestry we but the workers in woven pictures were Sarassins.'" 1 The French and Flemish artisans who continued to weave in the old upright frames (haute-lisse) " Sarassins." 8 " Dictionriaire du Mobilier Frangais. ." Prowere. cxii. translation into another material. and the picture is reversed." p. mechanical exact copy difficulties are impossible in any art and the increased a hundredfold when it is a is . guided by artistic must be copied by a person who can draw and the the craft of a . or slay. shuttle. Wien.

and thence to Arras. carpets 3 In the San Clemente frescoes show a semi-Asiatic style. It may have been a gift from Spain. and the Persian style was much the same then. is supposed to be of the fifteenth This is very finely woven of pure. whole composition. 1 He "Tapisseries des Gobelins.STITCHES. considers that the Sarrazinois were embroiderers as well as weavers and this theory is supported by extracts from an inventory of Charles VI. and likewise hangings of 1421." A. when the first models were brought to Spain. in black on a white ground. Ibid. tender colours. The colouring &c. left wreath of oak leaves. p. Lacordaire. 9. 2 At the Poldi Bezzoli Museum . L. 10. 's its materials was carefully regulated by the French statutes of 1625-27. Every detail of the art and rules of the craft. containing many laws for the perfecting of the manufacture of new as well as the restoration of old tapestries and fines were imposed for not using materials as nearly as possible matchfor any other dereliction from the ing the original ones . as it is now 2 in the carpets we buy just woven in Persia. at Rome there are hangings which R . The oldest known here have been exhibited in the Indian specimens Museum. a Persian. and has the iridescent effect of mother of pearl. pp. and the century. spreading of Oriental type were carpets themselves as articles of luxury through Woven Europe early in the Middle Ages . after one of her visits to her Chancellor. that in we any although find nothing really resembling a Persian pattern 3 classical tomb or sculpture of the Dark Ages. us dependent on the sculptured records of all artistic design for our knowledge of carpets and hangings of more than a thousand years ago and we must confess of design . Here Queen Elizabeth's arms and cypher (the appear on a Persian or Moresque ground pattern surrounded with a animals. flowers and animals (most beautifully drawn lions. in Milan there are some very fine one especially. 14. " thinks that the " Sarazinois were M. and may be of the thirteenth and fourteenth The perishable nature of the material makes centuries.). 10 (1853). to prove that these were woven with flowers and mentary authority He There is a very deep-piled velvety carpet at Gorhambury Earl of Verulam's place). de Champeaux mostly or says there is docuentirely carpet-weavers about the eleventh century. is delicately outlined is rich and harmonious. 1 241 possible.

2 Bishop of Auxerre." par "M&noires Historiques 1'Abbd Lebceuf." and bearing in mind the pictured webs described by Homer. at Saumur. wove tapestries about 985. died out.242 I NEEDLEWORK AS ART. possessing a piece of tapestry with an inscription in Greek letters surrounded by lions " parseme." rules of their order of the The monks of the Abbey of Cluny. At many tapestries to be executed for his Poitiers this manufactory was so famous in and the eleventh century. princes. about 925. during the Middle Ages. at Ponthievre. 231. and gradually return to life. dated 1009. says that in 876. that foreign kings. from whom much of this information is drawn and acknowledged by M. of Norway. who all wove wool and silk for tapestries. . who died in caused church. Angelme 840. pp. and the woman weaving on the Greek fictile vase found in the Crimea. it has become purely mechanical. and likewise the evidence of the frescoes in Egypt. and continued to do so for two centuries. in presence of the Emperor Charles d'Auxerre. as have allowed myself to touch upon carpet weaving. prelates sought to obtain them. Wast and of the Abbey of Fleury. Charton (my authority). There are very interesting Norwegian tapestries of the sixteenth century. were followed by those of St. After what has been quoted from Ovid's " Metamorphoses. Le Pere Labbe. it is . St. Bishop Gaudry. 1 And it is known that the monks of St. which show distinctly an Eastern origin." was much put about till he obtained something to match it. Florent. germane to tapestry though it is a branch that soon loses itself and leaves artistic work in the distance. Except the first design. and others in France. we may be justified in concluding that. 178. like all other arts. "even for Italy. 2 et Ecclesiastiques M. i. to hang on the opposite side of his choir at Auxerre. that of tapestry existed in very early days. and had to begin afresh.



They are finely drawn and splendidly and are of the most perfect style of the at Munich contains most century. the Bold." pp.STITCHES." p. 26. is 2 There much splendid tapestry to be seen at Munich . 3 Sufficient has till Arras continued to lead as the great tapestry factory the end of the fifteenth century. "Tapisseries Hist. Albert Castel ("Tapisserie. which then received a strong impulse from Oriental designs and traditions." failure Temeraire. such as the adoration of the Magi. against gluttony. ground is beautifully composed of growing flowers. and. 4 Plate 48 shows a " Tapisseries. the hall of the council-chamber was pictured tapestries. Viollet-le-Duc. 243 hung with and the seats were covered with them. and 2 Belgium. Gothic of the fifteenth The weaver has introduced a little portrait century. as well as at Nancy. 1 been said to show that during the dark ages hangings were woven in France. 53) believes that the taking of Constantinople. These tapestries are an allegory 5. and sacred subjects also. under the folds of the virgin's cloak at her feet. 3 M. 25." p. exquisitely beautiful. the more one seeks. at the death of Charles le Duke of Burgundy. 1 Jubinal. There is at Munich an altar frontal of tapestry. 269. pp. and the whole backcentury. a Virgin. i 4 Charles the Bold has left us records of his taste in tent hangings of Arras at Berne. The whole suite. when the commercial of the city began. indeed. of herself at her loom. The National Museum . which was certainly designed in the school of Diirer. of many pieces. and especially Bavarian. Germany. R 2 . had a great effect on Flemish art. also. which is evidently of the fourteenth The colours are still brilliant. These are the plunder from his camp equipage after the battle of Grandson.. "Die. represents battles and sieges. when Earl Baldwin was elected to the throne of Byzantium. No sky is seen. German. I think. of the Crucifixion. de Mobilier Frar^ais. JubinaPs very interesting account of the tapisserie de Nancy which lined the tents of Charles the Bold at the siege of Nancy (p. 439). the more one finds that private looms were constantly at work in the Middle Ages for votive offerings. in the Grisons. See M. There is a tapestry altar-piece at Coire. executed with gold fifteenth lights. and that England was not behind the rest of the civilized world in this craft. valuable specimens of very early and very fine tapestries amongst others. that we have indicated its Oriental origin.

The 1880 showed. " M. which has a soft. religious and political . " Les Dues de BourNo. demeurant a Arras vendit au Due de Touraine un de 1'histoire de Charlemagne " (Voisin. and of national and family Exhibition at Brussels in lives and their changes. p. Duke of Burgundy and " Brabant. and their barbarity softened. the author of the " Handbook of Art Tapestry belonging to the series of the Kensington Museum. ages were illuminated." ii. woven with the order of portion of his tent hangings now at the battle of Grandson the golden fleece taken in the museum at Berne." par le 8 il conquit Engleterre. de Champeaux. and to the memories of their noblest antecedents and aspirations. 4277. romantic. amuse. allegorical shops became the illustrators of the history of the world. which clothed their walls. find historical Among the remarkable suites of tapestry of which we mention are the following: In 1334. says that the . both as to colour and drawing and the general effect. religious. and is 2 had done its and was superseded as the greatest weaver of Arras itself of the greatest perfection of its art. comment gogne. dreamy beauty. Haulte lice sanz or de 1'histoire du Due de cxii : : : See Rock. Comte de Laborde. one piece. only to be seen in fine woollen tapestries.244 NEEDLEWORK AS ART. p. work. and pictured hangings were supposed The dark to instruct. decorations then Arras had supof which we possible subject Every and was pressed into the service. and differing from pictorial design and 1 intention. 270. Till the splendid plied most of find such marvellous lists. Normandie. and edify the beholders." how much could be extracted from its storied tapestries of both archaeological and artistic information. and so became a part of The great Flemish and French worktheir daily lives. 6). 1 Though luxury the art continued to be the servant of refined in the fifteenth century. tapis Sarazinois 2i or Of the many recorded as belonging to Philip. a " Tapissier Sarazinois. John de Croisette. faiths. by these constant appeals to men's highest instincts. It is a record of as it was then read or being enacted. by its " Catalogue Raisonne". 1878. historical.

the adept can trace their differences and peculiarities. and dispersed the remainder. Rubens and the great Dutch painters. usually to be found in the outer border. and later. Raphael. 1 and vais. Aubusson. Raphael's pupil. and name their birthplace. The word of Arrazzi shows us whence the Italians drew He. and Bruges all had their schools. artistic 245 Brussels. Valenciennes. pp. of Mechlin. 17. After distant time as that of the Belgian manufactures. and employed the best artists. AntOudenarde. Michael Coxsius. Their art does history of Arras has yet to be written. and became famous. but France had decreed "Encyclopaedia Britannica" ("Art Tapestry"). of space prevents my entering more fully into this subject of the northern tapestries. which is Poitiers. Beauwerp. Shortly afterwards. Troyes. and I must refer Want my readers to the authorities I have quoted from so largely. had decimated the inhabitants. Brussels led European Brussels employed taste. gives a great deal French tapestries. and thence forwards. Arras yet made a gallant struggle to revive her industry and not come from such a compete with the against her. Tournai. from that date absorbed most of the trade of Arras. however. Louis IX. 97. without referring to their trade-mark. Giovanni da Udine. and St. to design cartoons for tapestry works. established the works of the Savonnerie. tapestry by a neighbour and rival. ITALIAN TAPESTRY. superintended the copying of his master's cartoons. Beauvais. or to that of the manufacturer. Rheims. Lille. interesting information. Quentin likewise had their schools. till Henri IV. which had been gradually asserting itself as a weaving community. . Leonardo da Vinci and Mantegna.STITCHES. especially about the on which subject we fancy there is little more to tell. 1 rising prosperity of Brussels .

men as well as the produce of their looms. vii." p. 15.2 entry of Isabel of Bavaria Vasari vividly describes the design for a tapestry for the King of the history of Adam on which Leonardo da Vinci. France. Rome. the Atrebates in the third century. Beauvais. his Raphael and But the edited finest collections are those of the Vatican. NEEDLEWORK AS ART. Rome was in communication through the dark ages. Portugal 2 1 " See M. Milan. M. Tapisseries Histories. 1851. tapestry was probably woven in private looms and in the religious houses from early days. we have before said. scholars. and they are accumulated in the treasure-room of every palace in Italy. Troyes. cities. Mobilier Fran^ais. Vasari and Passevant give us the Pitti in Florence. Jubinal's i. He lingers tenderly over the picture of the flowery field and the careful study of the bay-trees. ed. or hooded cloaks then worn and as it had been a centre for weaving commerce. 269. by whom she with was supplied with the Byrri. and St. then aged twenty. Quentin as early as Froissart describes the 1025. Mantua." p. and of splendid volume might be of these grand artistic works such a record 1 would be invaluable. 26.. . Leonardo. or England. p. The Florence. FRENCH TAPESTRY. In France. Jubinal believes that it was made at Poitiers. was engaged. Viollet-le-Duc. best artists of the Italian schools Mantegna. Rheims. &c. before they were sold to Arras.246 their art. gave their finest designs to be executed in Italy. Brussels. this subject has still to be inves- tigated. it is probable that Rome received from Arras the crafts- and . &c. A as occasional glimpses of local factories for tapestry. Renaissance we find factories for pictured At the webs in and elsewhere. in Doubtless there were looms the Italian especially under ecclesiastical patronage. but. as elsewhere. torn. . Firenze. Vasari.

was lighted hall. Nothing can be mor6 festive than a brilliantly glowing with these woven pictures or Still arabesques. started the manufacture in Chaillot. first national school of Aubusson in Auvergne. other considerable tapestry works were . . priviso did Louis Quinze. of the early part of the fifteenth century. framed in gilded carvings or stuccoes. the French have surpassed all other nations flourishing at in this textile art. we must acknowledge that. the Flemish ideal. Lacordaire. "Tapisserie des Gobelins. M. 1 The weavers iv. 1603. at Felletin in the upper Marches. the highest. by Henri 2 Louis Quatorze and his minister Colbert Quatre. However. These two last were especially famed for velvety tapestries (veloutts)." p. where Francis I. which had been left far behind. under the experienced teaching of workmen from Arras afterwards transferred to the town of Gobelins. 23. 122. M. 1815. and at Beauvais. Fines were imposed for not matching the colours carefully. " Textiles." p. of the time of Louis Quatorze Froissart's "Chronicles. Johnes ed.STITCHES. Before lege. in choice of worthy subjects. 247 when the houses were covered with hangings 1 and tapestries scenes. de Champeaux." chap. The Cluny Museum suite representing historical possesses a most curious mediaeval of hangings from the Chateau de Boussac. the tapestry weaving was that at 1539. Hangings designed by Primaticcio were woven at Fontainebleau. ." and are brilliantly story of the coloured and charmingly quaint and gay in design. The pictorial tapestries of the Gobelins have carried the beauty of wall hangings to the utmost perfection. They " tell the Dame au Lion. as a bride into Paris. 24 also Rock. . tells us that under Louis XIII. and employment the Revolution. As usual. 15." p. splendidly protected this manufacture by law.. " Handbook of-Art Tapestry. the statutes of 1625-27 contain many regulations for the perfection of the materials employed in weaving new as well as 2 in restoring old tapestries.

consider the antiquity and the excellence of the art of tapestry on the Continent. considered the best. that they can continue to thrive. not the aspired only to moralities of society and civilization. or a war will stop for a time the orders without which funds fail. which or else by scenes from rustic life. the colouring.248 NEEDLEWORK AS ART. of the mythology. we cannot pretend 1 When we English wool is still is The wool from Kent used for the finest tapestries at the Gobelins. La Fontaine's fables gave some of classical were then the prettiest and gayest designs. great works of textile decoration will be few and far between. fashion. and were generally The drawing and the centres of splendid arabesques. Probably there will never again be a Tuileries or a Versailles to adorn. the old traditions of protection for Gobelins have been acted up to and maintained. workman when unemployed. commercial depression. Watteau School. It is only when the monarch that represents the dignity of the State. ENGLISH TAPESTRY. some years to wield the sword. loses his practised skill never to be In France. teach the glories of France. execution were perfect. or the . and the designing of hangings of which the materials * and the execution are unrivalled. protects and fosters these artistic factories. or forced for government. discouragement sets in. . whatever has been the form of restored. may give from time to time opportunity for such decorations. in their historical superseded by compositions. Without such powerful encouragement. consequence efforts in the is the The that science and art still contribute their machinery. and ruin quickly follows and the best State. especially if is occasionally destroyed. It is to be feared that in the future. it but an Hotel de Ville.

Rock thinks that pictured tapestry was woven at an early period in the Middle Ages by the monks in England. 40. shuttles. p. and the Belgse and Parisi did the same. p. History of Domestic Manners. (thirteenth century) the three reredos for St. Rock. is The earliest proof of this that Paris we possess. fled before the . Comnenus probably brought over. &c. and left to his descendants. and " a wondrous sight to behold. in the Middle Ages. England during of Beowulf. Prince of Arras. that there can be the 249 same general interest in that of our English looms. and a Et pro staves ad Pro weblomes emptes xx d - 1 "Vitse St. That the walls were covered with tapestry in the thirteenth century is supposed to be proved by the description of Hrothgar's house in the Romance We are told that the hangings were rich with gold. and I have tried to traqe the our ancestors in this direction. The Prodigal Son and . Romans from Nometicum to England and he and his Atrebates settled themselves between Silchester and Sarum. in what must have been an imitation of Flemish or Oriental weaving. the notice by Matthew " The Man who fell among Thieves. a large one.STITCHES. 2. Abbatum. Abbot of Ramsay. . While in London in 1316. cxi. looms." All these were 1 executed by the orders of Abbot Geoffrey." by Thomas Wright. . The Romans found them here when they invaded England. Alban's Abbey describing the first. The efforts of few facts here collected may be of service to the future writer of the history of English tapestries. But to ourselves it naturally assumes the greatest importance. Wherever the Belgic tribes spread themselves. the inheritance of this craft. Dr.. Alban. the art of weaving was established. by noting every certain sign of English production. bought " slay." p. Simon. Comnenus. for the use of his monks. depicting the finding of the body " " of the Protomartyr the others.

by petition of Parliament at Westminster. &c. 3 Mr. French. Maskell. in his catalogue of the Exhibition in III. Henry VI. London. temp. This was a writ to the Aldermen and Sheriffs of the City of London. Mary's Hall at Coventry. p. Edward III. to prove that there was in England.. " They were much valued abroad. ed. The subject the marriage of There is also a piece of tapestry at Bude. 1819. viii d " 1 pro eadem opere d - vj sloy pro textoribus Edward time there were hangings woven in England which appear to have been absolutely tapestries. ii. 148. The St." of the time of Edward ''regarding certain malpractices of the craft. et de Lyopars. quotes the tapestries of St. 185. There a manufactory were certainly though we doubt whether it had yet become a national industry.250 NEEDLEWORK d - AS ART. which came from a royal sale. 1851. " Une salle We " Edward town. Pat." among et terre vermeille d'Anglebrodee d'azur. in Cornwall. his refers to Marchant de Laine. Henry VI. in the Imperial Library. and wools to that de Valois. and 1 2 J Paris. are told of selling his being therefore called by Philip III. 2 le dedans de Lyons. et est la bordure a vignettes. as we have so few specimens remaining. Matthew " certain principally levelled against the dealings of Frenchmen which were against the well-being of the trade of the Tapissiarii . De Mystera Tapiciarorum. Henry VI." which proves its existence in England at that period. 41. p. M. ' and are probably is contemporary works.. eadem Item In j vj Item pro II. and were called Salles Charles V." Our trade with Arras must have improved our tapestries.'s iiij Shittles. Rot. his articles of costly furniture.. Quoted by Michel from MSS." " Horace Walpole an act. " De Mystera Tapiciarorum.. of France (1364) possessed d'Angleterre. Here the marriage of Henry VII.. is depicted. Cardinal Beaufort. Paris. Mary's tapestries contain portraits of individual looms." Calend." Lond.. d'Aigles. . in Dugdale Monast. 1327. the property of Mr.

always in the same tints of bluish-green. fine in of the legends of the of which we have the Provence. The costumes are certainly English. reminding one of the groups of figures and the dresses on the Dunstable Pall (see Plate 78). at Aix. and only then ceased in Gerand England. . Chaucer speaks of .. tapestries originally They were by There given to Canterbury Cathedral work. He thinks this is executed by the monks of St. and generally represented landscapes and woody foregrounds only but sometimes figures and animals were portrayed. 251 the style resembles that of the Coventry hangings. though they might have been wrought at Arras. Rock also quotes the reredos belonging to the Company. Vintners' Dr. should have caused so much that was beautiful in art to be crushed by their all ruin. and the original pictures must have been English. the Reformation such hangings were being woven over Europe. containing the following items : 1 Called " verdures " in French inventories. and attributes to those of Canterbury the Virgin history. artists Prior Godstone. Martin sharing his cloak with a beggar. and were called Arras is no doubt that there were looms and in the convents and monasteries before there in was any recognized school of such work Probably till England. representing St. Alban's. Dr. and . Rock gives us an extract from the wardrobe accounts of Edward II." 1 This green tapestry seems to have been intended to give a bowery and one can imagine that it effect to the room it hung " Flower and the pleased the taste of the poet of the It seems to have been much the fashion in Leaf. One cannot but regret that the many weight of the evil which preponderated over the good in the Houses of the Church." tapestry of verd." England and elsewhere about that period.STITCHES. .

) The style is English Renais. 93 (Oxford. whom they employed at Kilkenny in working tapestries. ment of a permanent manufactory in England. Dugdale's vol. Turkey carpets. p. person of great wisdom and courage. tapestry was brought to Esq. they sance. Earl of "a Kildare. earlier notice Piers. in fact. But we see no reason why it should not have been The first establishan English style of weaving also. 1 Oudenarde was famous for these "hallings" or " salles. where they hang in the great corridor. diaper. about the end of the reign of " " Warwickshire ( Stemmata :" England by William See Sheldon). in Warwickshire. 2nd edition." They brought from Flanders and the neighbouring provinces artificers and manufacturers. 2 There are four pieces of tapestry representing the Seasons. . These were probably woven in Barcheston." whom he signalizes in his will as "the author and beginner of all tapestry of Arras in England. i." thereking's service upon " " was not a novelty even in the fore the tapestry of verd woven with time of Chaucer. quoted by " Manning and Bray. Henry VIII. 82. 953. Ixxix. But we have an p. Hist. of Surrey." This will is dated I576. i. (Plate 49. married the daughter of Fitzgerald. Only one 1 Rock's Introduction. ." vol. when Robert Sheldon "allowed" his manor-house at Barcheston. &c. however. of Ormonde. also Lloyd's "State Worthies. iii. Piers died 1539. did not. To London for a green hanging of wool. cushions. Carte's Introduction to the 'Life of James." 584. to "one Hicks. 1851). p. take place until the latter end of the reign of Henry VIII.252 " NEEDLEWORK a mercer of AS ART. removed from an old family house and placed by Lord Salisbury at Hatfield House.. and the design full of intention have the seal of the time of Henry VIII." p. Earl of a spirited attempt to make fine tapestries at Kilkenny. Sheldon.. are said to be from thence." All the specimens mentioned in the catalogue of tapestries exhibited at Brussels in 1880. folio. " The art of weaving p." vol. Duke of Ormonde. for the figures of kings and earls upon it solemn feast days in London .


English Tc .

VIII .eld.ER "emp Henry .


which is stated to have University of Oxford. in the possession of Lord Howard. and woven by Francis Spiering. Crane.STITCHES. The landscapes peasantry are unmistakably English. one of Flemish and that is the mode of drawing the plants and flowers. under the name of Vroom. now lost. It and others of stamped and painted of was in the reign James I. but it in the fire. the earliest were purchased by the Earl of Orford (Horace Walpole). p. appears to have been." i. as well as those embroi- dered by hand. that the manufac- 1 William Sheldon at his own expense brought workmen from in Flanders. In we find in catalogues household goods. Lord High Admiral and the hero of the Armada. in the library at Longleat. Fuller particulars are given in Walpole's " Anecdotes. 246. and eventually who bequeathed them to the The Armada tapestry. worked with strong black outlines pictures which emphasize every detail and give the effect and The are of a highly coloured outlined engraving reminding one of the children's books by Marcus Ward or by Walter . appears that at that time there were in the royal wardrobe other pieces. characteristic reminds 253 art. been designed by Henry Cornelius Vroom. out of the loom. . and private houses. 1 The tapestries called the " Spanish of Armada hangings " were probably woven here her time late in Elizabeth's reign. them weaving three maps of the different maps. by specimens. furnishings of palaces The MS. which might have been taken out of an old German herbal. leather. in 1602. Of large cleaned. inventory of the Earl of Leicester's belongings. the Dutch marine painter. and made as fresh as when gave them to Gough. astonishes us with the abundance of suites of hangings of tapestry that it enumerates. Part of them were in the House of Lords till 1834. descriptions of splendid hangings. whom they were given to Earl Harcourt. He had them repaired and these. Sandart being the principal authority. when they perished These had been engraved in 1739 by John Pine. and employed counties of England. the antiquary.

Also Sir F. of pensions or other gifts made of the king. motion of King James himself. 26. but affirms it was p. for an acknowledgment by Charles L. for ease of His Majesty's charge of ^1000 a year towards the mainployed in tenance of Sir Francis Crane's tapestry manufacture. 323.400 at due to him on the tapestry works Mortlake. 1 Lloyd's 2 3 4 " Worthies. that he is in debt to Sir F. p. part payment of . up at Mortlake." Bruere." who gave ^2000 towards the undertaking and we have further proofs extant that he spent largely." Calendar of State Papers. . and not yet payable. dates the institubut Lloyd l is not only the subsequent reign " of the for the former date. Aubrey. 1743. Crane is ^1000 annually for the better maintenance of for works the ten granted in estate years to come.254 ture " NEEDLEWORK was set AS ART. (< to be emto Sir Francis Crane is a warrant ^2000 : buying ^"looo per ann. tion in positive however. ex. 1619-23. in the first 4 year of his reign." 3 Apparently this little arrangement did not succeed. in Surrey. No. i." 5 " Brydges.. James I. " the making of three Baronets 2 " towards his project for manufacture of tapestry. Northamptonshire. Mortlake. under the head of " Stoke Rymer. He gave to Sir Francis Crane. viii. who erected the house at . 48." pt. vol. No. and encouraged it in every way. i. shows that the It funds for the enterprise were not easily forthcoming. T. 5 The great value of these tapestries is shown by the prices named in the Domestic Papers of the State Paper Office. Crane " For three suits of gold tapestry we stand indebted there is : to Sir allowed said Francis Crane ^6000. ed. vol. 48. p. Another curious item which we quote.16. p. Northamptonshire. clxxxi. 66. in his History of Surrey." . "Fcedera. as The king also near Stamford." of Stoke Bruere. Calendar of State Papers. 82.

with great justness. with heads of the royal children in the borders. and their Queens. besides the transport. "Anecdotes of Painting in England. Annals of Commerce.. Horace Walpole. 255 and in private inventories they were woven in silk. 302. Francis while the Prince was in 3 Cleyne was great historical designs. however. containing portraits of Knowle. 3 4 . which were from the Mortlake looms. 1 Their value. tapestries wars. they would have been very differently treated. while he was still Prince of Wales. Archbishop of York and Lord Keeper. ii. and Charles I. and also undertook in in Three of the Raphael cartoons were sent at Mortlake. which last item accounts both for their price and for their disappearance. Spain wooing the Infanta. 1 The purchase of these showed how high was the standard " to be copied cartoons by the to which he tried 2 Manning and Bray's History of Surrey.400 in his tapestry business). brought him over to England from Rostock." vol. iii. 300. p. M. Crane as part payment of the deficit of ^i 6. " Macpherson. wool. . who. 22. . and gold. that Raphael. ." vol. The beautiful tapestries at fell Seasons. mention had from Genoa." and their of the cartoons of " Raphael of Urbin. p. and contain whole length portraits of James I. made designs for weaving. . and did not paint pictures." There is in Brydges' " Northamptonshire. 2 Cleyne was a decorator and painter employed in the works at Mortlake by Charles I. cost. these are all silk. 4 king. when he prepared these cartoons for tapestry." under the head of " Stoke Bruere " (the estate which King James gave to Sir F.STITCHES. grotesques. If they had been intended for oil pictures. A similar hanging wrought in silk. gave ^2500 for four pieces of Arras representing the four during the civil Senses from the Palace ofOatlands. were sold in 1649 for ^270. Blanc says. Vandyke and Sir is at Francis Crane. in Mecklenburg (his native place). William.. for the of the five Houghton were woven at Mortlake .

64. Possibly Sir Francis and Sir Richard Crane may have 1 2 Calendar State Papers. near Grantham. The remained in the occupation of John Holliburie. Charles II. however. appointed Verrio as designer. for names some of these hangings as a fit present Evelyn 3 among those offered by a gallant to his mistress. all having the same traditional origin at Stamford. some repute. his brother." printed 1690. but we still lingered on. intending to revive the manufactory. and portrait painter. the "master- workman. Horace Walpole's " Anecdotes of Painting. 3 tract. Domestic. who the artist. and there suppression. entitled " Mundus Muliebris." After the Restoration. Sept. Gibson. The Triumph of Caesar. sold the premises to Charles I. Arras is said to have been woven at Stamford. of which there are duplicates at Wroxton House. was one of his had been page 2 pupils. is a suite of hangings at Belton House. p. and certain 1 It was the manufactory to be employed on the work. of what now Queen's Head The old house residence of Cleyne opposite was built by the king for the the dwarf. was obtained for Dutch prisoners were forwarded to 1653. . but the work This was not. After the death of Sir Francis." vol. civil wars. Sir Richard During the Crane. iii. " England. value of the king's collection of tapestries was well The tapestry house understood during the Protectorate. p. 1653. and must have been in have no data of Burleigh House its establishment or its contains much of it . 28th. to a lady at Mortlake. who was either an artist or the superintendent of the works. Court.2 r6 j NEEDLEWORK AS ART." the same purpose in by Mantegna. carried out . the property is as having belonged to was seized upon and confiscated It occupied the site the Crown. See Evelyn's very scarce 8. to raise the art in entrusted to the care of Sir Gilbert Pickering. in Oxfordshire.

cxiv. This would almost appear to be impossible. such an exceptionally expensive machinery cannot possibly be kept at It requires the superintendence of the best artists. 257 received orders at their house at Stoke Bruere. Lord Exeter. woven in fall into disuse. Designed by Francesco Zuccharelli. covering the same However.58. i. Introduction. it would probably very soon tapestry.STITCHES. who had a winter residence 1 at Stamford. according to Rock. and. In Northumberland House there was a fine suite of 2 This is the only Lambeth. is Unless technical education to enable and the weavers themselves must needs have the highest them to copy really fine designs. vying with each other in 1 decorating their apartments with them. but that it has been done in late years. He says that the same manuwas then being employed in producing ecclesiastical garments with the colours and patterns so varied.3 It may be hoped that manufactory the revival of tapestry weaving at Windsor in our own day may be a success. but without the royal and noble encouragement it receives. besides the extreme tediousness of the work. was closed in I755. it supported by the State. which lay near enough to Stamford to account for the magnates of the town and neighbourhood obtaining furnishings of their tapestries. with the Austrian eagle on one side and the Virgin of the 3 2 It facturer Immaculate Conception on the other. make it the most expensive of all luxurious decorations even more costly than embroideries by the hand. work. and Lord Guildford had married three of the Brownlow heiresses of Belton. where furniture This tapestry in the style of Beauvais was made. who tells us that he saw a banner so woven. perhaps. There were also works at Fulham. of that loom of which we ever find sample any mention. S . the two styles of hangings never can spaces. Rock. has been at different periods the crowning glory of the craft of the weaver to place different patterns or pictures on the two sides of the web. Lord Tyrconnell. p. These artistic requirements.

simple and effective. and which increases with every decade invoked to that is added to their antiquity. says that tapestries were intended to cover the bare walls. women. the separation of each stitch and thread also casting minute shadows in the opposite direction." p. and avoids the pictorial imitation that one See M. The and we to us. and science should be to us in the preservation of these precious works of art. of which the value is now again understood and appreciated. Tapestry. their guard these treasures from worst enemies. and one of them is the softening. Blanc mind is solaced with the idea it conveys. and Tapestries are the best embroideries for curtains of all kinds for beds. has its own peculiar beauties. for windows. enter into competition. and sharply outlined than the imitations of paintings of the last two centuries. to substitute a surface picture. except in a financial point of view. Charles Blanc's " Grammaire des Arts D&oratifs deprecates. so real that 1 at In old tapestries three tints only were employed for the complexions of men. and the child's whiter than either. . old hangings are now again having their day. the woman's yellow. It is an agreeable economy of colours. : Tapisserie. yet brilliant effect of the alternate lights and shadows of the ridge-like surface . it therefore. 112. in which 1 every detail of form and colour is sought to be expressed. instead of seeking to utilize The coarser and simpler tapestries of our ancestors are really more beautiful and effective in large spaces flat in the arrangement of colours. The wall being intended for comfort and defence. inherent quality. It is a mistake to struggle against this it.258 NEEDLEWORK AS ART. are striving to save and restore all that remain We must continue assist the moths. but not to make us forget their existence. and for portieres. It is a mistake. fitted for wall coverings. as art. and giving an iridescent effect. and children the man's reddish. the M.

Harmony. perhaps. and thus its very imperfections become the sources of its best qualities as decoration and One element of textile weaving. designer for tapestry need not be a great genius. repose. They are painful to live with.STITCHES. while a art should amuse the mind with shadowy representations and It is. and tender colouring are the qualities The most valuable to such an artist. gold. takes it at once out of the region of naturalism. 259 once does away with certain conventional this impression of security. grace. are only bearable in apartments that are used for state occasions. and other exciting and awful subjects. or for hanging corridors and anterooms. suggestions. and design should be as flat and as simple in its outline shading as is consistent with beauty. the use of comfort. while giving it light and splendour. of their materials All tapestries are liable to suffer by the double nature their woollen surface and linen threads which are affected by both damp and heat crinkling the forms and puckering the faces. fortunate that the possibilities of tapestry weaving are restricted. S 2 . and bringing out unexFor this reason the pected expressions and deformities. both in the backgrounds and in the draperies. Battle-pieces.

260 CHAPTER VII. In Assyria. ". " Cymbeline. very ancient historical evidence of the use of hangings (or tapestries). principle Palace-halls and temples alike were furnished in this way.. THE most in important works that have been executed may embroidery. the covering was the same. HANGINGS. . or as coverings to what was sacred or grounds else unseemly. There is no doubt that in pillared spaces the enclosures and subdivisions were completed by hangings from from the earliest times of Asiatic civilization. We look upon these as belonging to the history of the past.. Their raison-cPetre. . have been hangings or carpets.. will Never again have ceased to such works be undertaken. Her bedchamber was hang'd With tapestry of silk and silver. rain by umbrella-like erections with hangings stretched over them. means have We for their production. or as ornamental back- in public and private buildings. as well as the exist." Act . Scene IV. From the Coliseum's vast area to that of the smallest atrium in the Pompeian house. and afterwards in Greece and Rome. the open courts and rooms were shaded from the sun and pillar to pillar. either as curtains to exclude prying eyes." II. and the cold splendour of the polished marbles was enhanced by contrast with the shadowing folds of soft .

have been carpet. veiled with gold beast rolling on a purple couch and he describes the magnificent temples. silver. Carpets. p. ed. gleaming with gold. from tapete." " The word hangings" was applied to all large curtains and tapestries. or pendant between pillars.HANGINGS. 7. in fact. Egyptians. each adorned their sacred places in similar fashions. and. the gold and silver vessels. A Babylonian hanging must have resembled. Assyrians. " having originally the same name. 1 Clemens Alexandrinus says that behind the hangings of the " 2 Egyptian temples were hidden their foolish images. spreadest forth to be thy Ezekiel xxvii. Persians. were all brought into higher relief and effect by the screens. screens dividing empty 3 spaces. 261 textures richly embroidered in bright colours and gold. "Fine linen with broidered work from Egypt was sail. hangings (the clothing of architecture) 1 The " women who wove the hangings for the grove xxiii. 7). Babylonians. their uses are often Kosroes' famous hangings were used as a interchanged. See Wilkinson's "Ancient Egyptians. the curtains. in Renoufs and electrum. or woven with pictures and patterns. and Persian and Babylonian carpets hung on the walls. Greeks." vol." woven and painted . ." 3 p. " were probably of Astarte (2 Kings priestesses of the worship 2 a shrine was revealed their god says that within the sacred embroidered hangings . 1837. the Persian carpet of to-day. sometimes they were blazoned with embroidered patterns. added to this list. The statues. and Jews. and the veils which classical perfect taste would plan so as to carry out the decorator's intention." are to be next to dress. and decorations for processional purposes covering walls or hanging from windows all these have been embroidered . He " Hibbert Lectures. 211.. the shrines heaped with votive offerings. Quoted from Clemens Alexandrinus. tent coverings. iii. banners. 2. also sails. Semper gives excellent reasons for his theory that. in its style (of which we have descriptions). which thou Egyptian sails were that The Phoenix was set there to indicate the traveller's return.

. " Der Stil. and the reliefs in alabaster and stone. which he were the earliest . and yet in contrast. a mode of disposing of their adopted by the Romans as war.'-' Woltmann " Eng. . He looks upon the phase of art.NEEDLEWORK l AS ART. was that dedicated by Herod. vol. designed by Bazaleel. most believes to be the tradition of the time when the tallest and slaves held up the hangings to their own height even men. successful purpose of exhibiting a clear and comprehensive chronicle of events. i. pp. is at the same time no more. carrying the hangings up This was an Assyrian custom. " History of See also Perrot and Chipiez. so far as it concerns its artistic effect." for ii. p. and that the veil of the Temple We know was blue. p. with the brilliant tiles of 2 Babylon. children fastened on brackets. and white hangings of the Sanctuary in the wilderness. . Trans. . as they were partly raised.e. which was rent in twain sixteen centuries later. Histoire de 1'Art dans PAntiquite'. and white. crimson or scarlet. coloured wall decoration. than a piece of tapestry or emas a piece of broidery done into stone. and was to the roofs. 2330." ancient paintings on architecture as absolutely representSome of the earliest Babylonian ing textile coverings. 273. tiers. " " that the veil of the Temple. decorations show men supporting draperies. purple. exactly what were the purple. worked on white linen and we know from Josephus. . were in harmony." vol. we have spoken of. i. Painting. and Woermann. 1 See Semper. and can only be estimated figure-painting of the nations it 2 The so far as concerns its special . which were partly coloured. tile decorations at Nimroud . lean to the and really resembling them. 704. dwarfs. them. scarlet. Woltmann and Woermann appear to prisoners of above in were and suggestion that permanent imitations of tiles hangings were carried out in painted or encaustic covering the masonry of Chaldean buildings at Nimroud and Khorsabad The pale ones associated with low reliefs.

perhaps. iii. The embroidered curtains of the Tabernacle are repeated in Babylonian work. thousand horsemen could skirmish under its embroidered There is shade and Akbar's largest tent held 10. ed. century. on the banks of the Tigris. and a thousand years later still they reappear in the seventh century. that they would hardly believe the toil of their hands.000 pieces of tapestry. 895). p.000 were of silk worked in gold. thinking and only valued for of captive women. chap. 37. ix. p. 2 As cited from Abulfeda by Gibbon. 1 Compare this record with Solomon's and crimson. and xxxix. and shows the taste for large works.HANGINGS. when Pope Sergius gave curtains to the high altar (baldachino) in the basilica of St. 3. and the hangings designed by Bezaleel. of the enforced labour of thousands When one is moved to pity. and embroidered with Wars of the Jews. Nadir Shah's gorgeous tent. fine linen (2 veil for purple. the Temple. Iii. colouring and blue. purple. What a wealth of women had to be wasted in creating such a wealth of embroideries 2 ! a Bedouin romance which describes the tent Five of Antar. ." produced creation of that beauty. blue. which was of the end of the seventeenth and the beginning of the eighteenth was of scarlet cloth on the outside. fallen. In early Oriental art. Whiston's trans. representing Its the hangings of Alexander's wedding tent. and fashion then was not ephemeral. lined with . (see p. 2. Peter's at and white embroidery.. 263 and was earth 1 heaven and was scarlet. Scarlet and white hangings seem indeed to have been an Oriental fashion. it comforts one to in the beautiful works without enjoying some happiness have see also Josephus. from high estate. gold (Exod. as being adorned with 38. 1797. of blue. 23 ante). and of of this scarlet Rome same these 12. white. 5 . the enormous expenditure of work is appalling to think of. after 1500 years . and 14). Abulfeda describes the palace of the Caliph Moctader. of scarlet.000 persons. Chron. but lasted hundreds of years.

curtains with guards and retainers. embroidered with gold and precious stones. and inlaid with precious stones. where he outrivalled the ancient traditional glories of His own tent was supported by Assyria and Persia. The walls of the court were formed by curtains adorned with figures worked in gold. " The Khan of Persia Sir John Chardin says that caused a tent to be made which cost two millions and it was resplendent they called it the house of gold . 54. 7." : with embroideries. i. fifty golden pillars. and sound commonplace and vulgar compared to those of Greece and Egypt. scarlet and white design. 8 See Semper. throne was placed within it. 2 The outer Yet Alexander's wedding-tent was exceeded in splendour by that erected by Ptolemy Philadelphus for his great pomp at Alexandria. to match the columns. p. The Greeks imitated the tents and temporary buildings of the Eastern monarchs." vol. Athen. Stil. These are comparatively modern works. note . 538. The peacock and was kept there during the remainder of Nadir Shah's reign. carrying a roof of woven gold. 310. xii. and we have the description of two of his gorgeous creations at Alexandria. This tent was supported by columns twenty cubits high. as cited by 1 Yule's " Marco Polo. and divided from the filled surrounding court.264 violet satin NEEDLEWORK AS ART. described by Kallixenos. i. embroidered in shimmering colours. 1 This phase of Oriental luxury was imported by Alexander the Great. ap. and were hung from beams plated with the precious metals. court was half a mile in circumference." pp. 311 Chares. plated with silver and gold. P. " Der 394. . by of splendid material and But more gorgeous is the account of the tent in which he entertained ninety-one of his companions-in-arms on the occasion of his marriage.

Athenseus. comic. Athen. alternating with portraits and rich hangings. describes a Persian fruited with precious stones. ap. were and workmanship. . covered with choice skins of wild beasts. 311 . under which golden palm-trees.1 9 6 > m tent in which were 55. under an arbour of jewelled vines. p. xii. Athen v - - 2 5> P. as we know frieze eight cubits high was comof niches containing groups of tragic. British Museum is seen Asshur-banipal on a couch. ranged. This tent. 1 Semper's 2 " Der Stil. embroidered. 2 A in their natural garb . so as to strike the eye of all Golden couches supported by Sphinxes were placed with soft purple along the sides of the tent. on which pillars fifty cubits high. were painted coffers.HANGINGS. to imitate the structure of a solid From the centre was suspended a veil of scarlet roof. the heritage of the Ptolemaic dynasty. materials Opposite the entrance. On an Assyrian sculpture Phylarchus. crowned with golden was supported by They upheld an architrave with cross-beams covered with linen. and the intermediate columns were fashioned as thursi. and coverings gaily and exquisitely The floor was strewn with fresh blossoms. and posed from the East. bordered with white. on which were embroidered the likenesses of kings.000 talents who entered there. whole idea of the erection was evidently fresh and the amethysts. and vines at the the Persian kings held their state. furnished woollen mattresses. and were probably wreathed with golden vines and bunches of grapes made of of a Persian tent so adorned." i. and likewise mythological these and the frieze hung gold Between subjects. and silver shields. vessels of the most costly of silver. the queen opposite a rural to him. The tent was separated golden tripods from the outer peristyle by scarlet hangings. unless it represents entertainment which is unlikely. The pillars in the four angles represented palm-trees of gold." and nymphs and from Delphi. valued at 10. 1 265 eagles. Upon these were hung " Satyric figures the celebrated Sikyonian pictures.

To be an This description dazzles the imagination in those days was to be an upholsterer (a vestiarius) Semper. the materials of decoration for special occasions." echafaudage. from whose engineer. who were expected to study and evolve the adornments of the building for its completion. one has often wondered at and admired the picturesque effects extracted from yards of muslin. These were sometimes movable frames or posts " scabella" (whence " escabeau. architect. and the effort to reduce them to certain architectural principles already accepted. remarks that the luxurious " " motive of such an erection naturally arose from the desire to make use of the mass of artistic materials 1 acquired by conquest. cleaned and houses are stored and mended. and hung and placed to the best advantage by men educated for the purpose. Persian carpet covered the except where a most costly In the doorways and against the pillars stood a centre. artistically combined." is not a recognized one with us. the mechanical means for hanging and stretching the draperies. That Alexander did not purposely destroy the Persian embroideries is evident from the later. and lastly. in the Temple and the house for temporary festive occasions." " tapestry-hanger. In poor churches which possess no fine materials for decoration." " tapissier. or draping the temporary buildings which lined the avenues of their progress. and artist ! ! translation we are quoting. though it is in Italy and France. fact that Lucullus speaks of them 200 years accepted and adopted all the Oriental uses of hangings. where The art the hangings for special occasions in churches away. and he is but a feeble descendant from the ancestors of his craft. . Also the funeral pyres which cars Greece and 1 Rome copied from Assyria were hung with of the " tapezziere. Our house carpenter is the only representative we have of the vestiarius. and box wreaths. hundred precious statues by the greatest artists.2 66 NEEDLEWORK AS ART. gold tinsel. treasured for hundreds of years. scaffolding). Rome By both Greeks and Romans hangings were used covering immense moving in triumphal processions.

however. 2 and introduced them in her worship. 267 splendid materials and embroideries. 250 feet high. built of in Hephaestion's catafalque was terials. sovereign splendours are at something fine. In civilized countries. by their execution. but even these ancient institutions of humanity. if not in that of and in the interest Never again will their stability needlework. 1 It filled with singers. the upper story were enormous hollow figures of Sirens. 3 T 4> 3 J 5- such great works be executed with the needle. how much of and beauty which had helped to civilize the world. proA great religious procession like cessions. on which he wives and his treasures. that at Munich for the King of Bavaria in his school of past days. heaped up by the conquerors. 2 Der Stil. Each In story was adorned with images of ivory and gold.HANGINGS. surrounded by his his own palace. who chanted the funeral odes. painted and embroidered. pp. " own times. and shows. we may soon hope must there will be neither the one nor the We now being executed the purple and gold embroideries allow. The teach art records of such extravagant funeral ceremonies us how much of human thought. has that of the Corpus Domini" in our 1 " Semper. because there they still East occasionally produces are losing have harems and slaves ." i. Without describing one of these awful erections. worthy . and. are royally splendid. raised inflammable mastories. other. were torn from the places they were intelligently deto decorate. is to be hoped that they were released before the conflagration. it is impossible to give any idea of how much artistic treasure was thrown into the flames man. many and hung with pictorial tapestries. in which consumed the remains of a great funeral pyre dedicated by Alexander to his friend Hephsestion recalls that erected by Sardanapalus The one of the courts of perished. and signed as ruthlessly spent and destroyed for the boast of a day. Christian Rome adopted the traditions of Pagan decoration. The a discount.

196. and our children will not see . The intrinsic value in precious metals of such works gave four in is proved by Pliny's statement that Nero millions of sesterces for covers of couches 1 The hangings or carpets banqueting-hall. but little bits he was so virtuous that he cut it up into and divided it amongst his generals. have not space to linger over the many descriptions of Oriental. been converted into Christian symbolism all these were the echoes of classical days but they are fast disTwo thousand years will have worn out appearing. gold. When the hangings were worn. . and Roman work to be gathered from classical authors. they were replaced by others. and precious stones. festooned with draperies even the Pagan emblems. and the banners the torches the streets. Kosroes entreated Omar to keep it intact for himself. taken by the Caliph Omar from Kosroes' white palace (A. them. but from them this lesson is to be learned that the first principle which guided those great decorators I was the individuality and appropriateness of each design to the purpose for which it was intended and the place it was to fill. 651) must have been some of the finest and most a valuable embroideries ever known. representing all the flowers of spring. quantity of gold laid upon these great religious or national works was the cause of their destruction as soon as they were withdrawn and superseded by something of a newer fashion. or became for any reason distasteful.D. often by gifts The or spoils from friendly allies or conquered kings. But even their peculiar excellences did not save them from the universal law of destruction. which have . worked in coloured silks. . Gibbon 1 Pliny. Grecian. and effaced these customs.268 NEEDLEWORK AS ART. . 44. The baldachini reminded us of a Roman triumph. They formed a tapestry carpet or hanging. viii.

or painted tombs and temples in the houses in Pompeii and Herculaneum. or the robbed from the deserted home or the bazaar. by her active and and practice of this for the poor exiled and a generous institution of working organization and for the sale of their work in England. p. These are so suggestive of the horrors the Eastern question. and in the remains of Roman villas and tombs may see them on Babylonian . which. everywhere. its description. that specimens residence in Constantinople Lady Layard's (Persian or Indian) origin. We from . 1797 . sold for a piece of bread. recalls the style of Kosroes' hang- and their history gives us a notable instance of ings how works of art in the time of war and conquest come to be considered only for the value of their materials. p. so as to adorn at once that which was rough or common. 51." ix. beginning with the smaller there is arts of luxury in more peaceful and prosperous days. all but effaces whole phases But of art when a country is overrun and plundered. c. that in connection with the rights and wrongs of than pleasure when we study these beautiful they cause us more pain show their Aryan of well-blended colours and designs. given lately by the Guicowar of Baroda to the tomb of Mahomet at Medina. perhaps.HANGINGS. bas-reliefs. Work. without delay or 1 trouble. " the secrets " the happy accident which will have preserved was. . 2 You on Greek fictile on the walls of Egyptian vases. stolen from the dying of war. also see History. and touch us so nearly dead. War. The obvious intention of hangings in household decoration is to cover bare walls. ed. Crichton's "History 2 The utter dispersal of accumulated family and household and Slav treasures has had a sad illustration in the loads of Turkish Gibbon's "Roman Russoembroideries which have flooded the markets of Europe since the treasured for generations. the enemy of culture. Turkish war. To return to the classical veils and hangings. 383. 269 describes this wonderful piece of work. of Arabia. 370. which has influence whenever there is a revival. in frescoes From all of these we may learn something. starving women." i. work for future generations. 1 have heard much of a marvellous carpet. almost always a residuum.

be upright. and those containing animals. Nothing can be more ugly or inartistic than the curtains one finds in old illuminations. meant whereas curtains and portieres would probably have to be looped up or continually drawn aside. were never intended to be spread out flat. its to a room. must start from below. and left them to the Gauls and Britons. The designs to be worked upon them should necessarily be regulated by their shape and use. 10. and it must. that whether the hanging or screen is supposed to stand or to hang. and the lines He continues only seen broken up. and even in furniture. Chequers should be avoided unless Semper they express a meaning. you wish to give dignity hanging decorations should be divided into is 1 If than breadth. which cannot be neglected with impunity. 1 and the This may be disputed. moreover. foliage designs." p. there must be an above and a below to " All every pattern. It i. especially those of Oriental fabrics. ceiling. Semper. and grow upwards. palest and brightest above. Another of his laws is that the heaviest colours should be placed below.270 NEEDLEWORK AS ART. observes that the striped stuffs. also used as curtains to shut out the cold or to give privacy to rooms without doors or windows. but to be draped in folds and loops. 30. but even this is less unpleasant on the walls than lines crossing each other The Romans looked on chequers as at right angles. and Semper considers that a square and that it should be avoided. : " is One this : rule. " Der Stil. undisturbed by folds. Hangings on bare walls have always been to hang straight down. as in Scotch tartans. They were the heat. covered with bands of the same pattern throughout the surface. look ill except as borders. barbarous national characteristics. so as to elevate the panels of greater height Horizontal stripes bring down the spaces they cover. . an expressionless form.

and the rich forms and fulness of folds rather tend to destroy the effect of elaborate patterns. a fringe. They are almost enriching the warp and adding knotted always. its For its according as instance. in the of bells or fruit like those of the On Egyptian Jewish tabernacle in the wilderness (fig. The fringe is so essential hanging tapestries a part of hanging decoration. threads of the material. 2). a triangle will hang or stand. But in draped curtains all symmetry of design is lost. will often give the necessary weight to the design. and the of the main In both cases it is a continuation fringe. according to decoration. 271 must be first determined where contrast is needed. Another important difference between standing and hanging tapestries is their finish or edge. Babylonians. it may be necessary to give it the lightest background. shows fringes many were evidently used sometimes as hangings. or that the fringes were made by to it. though served both of their designs would not have . and these belong exclusively to the and curtains. but the little portable British bronze gates from Balawat (near Nimroud).HANGINGS. the upper one lower one a being an upright continuous border. a reticulated linen we sometimes see. apex points downwards or upwards. simply Chaldean temple on the fringes. pattern which imitates the Egyptians. on the principle of The dado. A appear to stand. on the Assyrian sculptures. or to hang down. and to take their place. The extreme solidity of the knotted fringes important. " surface may be made to Semper goes on to say. in their dress and hangings show either the thickness of the woven substance. and PerThe carpets of sians Museum. woven or worked. or lowest balancing quantities in colour. that we must pause and give In Babylonian art it is most it our best consideration. If the darkest part of the pattern is below. border.

He says these votive hangings dressed the pillars that surrounded the Hecatompedon. That the Babylonian weavers. purposes equally well. This would have been considered a bad attempt at pictorial art. imitating carpets.272 NEEDLEWORK AS ART. among described by Euripides in the tragedy of Ion. and we may compare these with the different treatment of designs for the veils of the temples. spoken of by the poet as the wings 1 of the peplos. as we learn from frescoes. which was modelled on the same idea." by Eug. on which were represented the signs of the zodiac and all the heavenly bodies. and would be designed with that view. 27). was separated from the Court by curtains." speaks of the hangings which he supposes to have decked the recess that contained the chryselephanher temple at Athens. de Roncheaud believes the subjects of the Delphic embroideries. both in Babylon and Egypt. Paris. M. and other symbolical and unconventional The Atrium of the Greek and Pompeian houses. Louis de Roncheaud. on two portions of pavewith a border all round. may be recognized some derived from the designs on saffron" coloured hangings. The Greek artist would never have approved of natural flowers or trees. On festive occasions these may have been garlanded with natural flowers. 1885. forms. in his " Tapisseries des Anciens. Muntz. is ments in the British Museum (pi. hung on rods or nails. and be finished evident from the exquisitely chiselled designs. I f so. embroidered as if growing out of a dado. understood that a carpet lying on the ground should be covered with an even pattern." This subject has been ably treated Tapisserie. M. however. simulating a garden worked in wool. would combine with the gala day's decorations. and formed a tent over in tine statue of Athene Parthenos that the head of the goddess. we may be sure that the little wreaths worked on them. 1 in the Introduction to " La .

have been very little and of that the best was Celtic or Anglo-Saxon." 2 There can be no doubt that. of Charlemagne. and the dawn was to . Dasent informs me that in Icelandic Sagas. 41 I refer to the T . as the Saga scenes out of Charlemagne's life. Symonds says very long subject : in We and the inventions. which suddenly became vital at the time of the Renaissance." all pointing to embroidery. after a gap of nearly a thousand when the first stirrings of the European revival years. engraved in Strutt's "Anti- " In Scaldic poetry. Empire. . for instance." and contemporary European work of the tenth to the thirteenth centuries." J. the knowledge and the books. Our own Anglo Saxon records prove that such furnishings were employed to mitigate the cold bareness of our northern homes from the earliest times. A. But the darkness shrouds from our view the artistic life of the world. From illuminated MSS. domestic as well as with the downfall of the Roman kept pace During the Dark Ages. " such. of such art there seems must therefore return to the breaking. English." or long. when not representing the favourite quities of the style " " English Embroideries for the parseme chapter on the section on tapestry in and to patterns of our mediaeval hangings. 1 " The arts came. had long lain neglected on the shores of that Dead Sea which we call " The Middle Ages. Symonds." the chapter on 3 " Renaissance in Italy. a the ground of hangings. hangings woven and embroidered continued to be the custom throughout Europe. worked on hangings 20 " ells is periphrasis for a lady " the bridge of hangings. 273 The downfall of decorative national. Sir G. in the twelfth century. during the Dark Ages. there are frequent notices of hangings both in churches and in the halls of houses i. of hangings.HANGINGS.e. " Stitches. art. p. as early as the eleventh century. we find that of embroidery.

in the London house of Sir Andrew Larkynge." for relaxation. in the fifteenth century. and 1 Richer and more flowing designs were later thrones. French embroidered hangings were very fine in the sixteenth century. the mother of Henri Miss Freer IV. embroidered by the hand of Marguerite of Marguerite herself. Jeanne's presence-chamber was adorned with hangings of crimson satin. Armorial bearings chair-backs. Someof gold. was a parsemt pattern. The refined taste "When d'Angouleme was visible everywhere. tells us that Jeanne and Antoine took possession of the Castle of Pau. preached by her chaplains in rotation. times we have a glimpse of less ambitious hangings for instance. Knight. was a great patroness of such works. sixteenth. bordered with gold work. the hall was hung " darned with sage-green panels. 1 But to this rule there are notable exceptions. Here the Order of the Golden Fleece is repeated on a field of flowers. . however. introduced. Often. they found their new abode rich in works of art and splendid decorations." " During the hours which the Queen allowed herself worked tapestry. and discoursed with some one of the learned men whom she protected. Jeanne d'Albret. were generally reserved for cushions." and the "parler" with sage-green. subjects. and the baldachinos of altars.274 historical NEEDLEWORK or sacred AS ART. In the fifteenth. The embroidery represented a passage from the history of the Queen's own life. and hangings even of cloth splendid tapestries of Arras. were common as palatial decorations.. beds. . exquisitely designed. of which Charles the Bold's hangings for his tent (now at Berne) furnish a brilliant example. she " The Queen daily attended the afternoon sermon. bordered with crimson. and seventeenth centuries.

" (Jeanne d'Albret) estoit grandement adonnee aux devises. 68. when she had thus involuntarily yielded to fatigue and finding the inclination grow upon her. : Ubi tas" spiritus. par lesquelles elle donnoit a connoistre qu'elle avoit brise les liens et secoue le joug de la captivite du Pape. Suzanne. 275 weary with the excess of her mental labours." by Miss Freer." Modern French tapestries. the Gobelins. 330. ibi liber * of hangings from the Cluny boasts a most curious suite of the early part of the fifteenth Chateau de Boussac. Jeanne always severe reproach of conscience . quaint. which are charming.HANGINGS. addresses of her preachers. ch. et par-dessus en grosses lettres ce sont ces paroles de la deuzieme aux Corinthiens. and elsewhere.. elle fit de sa main de belles et " Comme elle grandes tapisseries. XIV. This request was granted and from thenceforth.. 1 " Dame "Life of Jeanne d'Albret. and lulled by the drowsy intonation of some of these ministers. and busy with her needle. are decorative Nothing can be more festive than to the the story of the highest degree. she demanded permission from the Synod to work tapestry during the sermon. the Queen felt slept during part of the discourse. Queen Jeanne. and century. des menottes brisees.coins il y a des I'elargissement de Joseph. these works of the time of Louis XIII. il y a une histoire du Vieu Testament qui resent la liberte. pp. They tell historically and archaeologically interesting. milieu de chaque piece. des strapades et des gibbets en pieces. T 2 . Et a tous les. and XV. 123. comme la delivrance de la sortie Au du peuple de la captivit d'Egypte. and gay. entre lesquelles il y a une tente de douze ou quinze pieces excellente qui s'appelle les Prisons bristes. bending decorously over her tapestry-frame. from the manufactories of the Savonerie.. gave due attention to the rambling . iii. au Lion. chaisnes rompues.

. to give They do not merely serve and colour to desolate halls. borders of similar work. in mirrors. statues. they were connected by in juxtaposition. tapestries belonging to the fur- as did those ancient them on before great him from palace to palace. This is embroideries. Sometimes fine tapesand sometimes splendid example of this sort of decoration at Holland House.276 framed fleeted in NEEDLEWORK AS ART. mostly filled in The spaces between were with rich brocades or velvets of one the best backgrounds for the artistic colour. were thus divided into panelled spaces. or even touching the floor. Above. and below. comfort. reand lighted by crystal or glass chan- deliers and girandoles. or stucco. but panels in decorated walls. with tapestries between them. as one sees in country villas or castles in Italy to this day. next to the cornice. next to the dado. Such hangings have nothing . warmth. in common with those of early times they are not temporary coverings of bare spaces. where they form an integral part of the architectural composition and design. beautiful There -is a Florentine work. which separated pictures. carved wood. and cabinets. of the sixteenth or beginning of the seventeenth century. tries filled the intervening spaces. of which the style did not agree " These pilasters were generally of " or opus consutum. carrying them away with his baggage lest some one else should do so in his These were probably merely attached by loops absence. in the guise of pilasters. so as to make treasures grouped against them. find that the Italians in the sixteenth We and sevenupright teenth centuries often hung their walls with The walls strips of work. niture of the man who sent and nails." applique" in its different forms. where the dining-room is adorned with pilasters worked on velvet in gold and coloured silks. white and gold.

like a painted it has never been admired that we cannot but wonder at Rome there is a In the Borghese Palace imitated. to cover large spaces. rose-bushes. against which rather reminds one of blue. . but the designs are barbarously bad In the Palazzo Giustini at Florence there is a suite of hangings worked also in cross stitches of the same period. from the castle at Tarrascon. It is and the effect is singularly rich conventionally treated. are rare. There is here is and funny. and a large room at Castle Ashby hung with cross stitches. The beatitudes of St. and carried its France as plunder. and the effect beautiful and artistic. Counts of Kyburg.HANGINGS. designed in the sixteenth century. An irregular bank of brown earth is crowded with grasses and small flowers about a foot above the dado. covered with blossoms cane colours.than of grey. embroidered with wreaths ball-room hung with white satin . and now restored to Zurich. and finished 150 years ago. which are interestmuseums. all over Europe in and private houses. but as the decoration is picture charming. it would have looked too much it is. and harmonious. of which the design is very clever and graceful. Had it been a little more naturalistic. Many splendid pieces of embroidered tapestries are at to home near the Cluny Museum. &c. and the hangings worked in applique and flat stitches with portraits of Henri IV. Jeanne d'Albret. Catherine. palaces. are monuments design and are very beautiful. but leafage is brown." The held back to a treillage of delicate^" a sky^that is not blue... but a few are to be found The genealogical tree of the ing as objects of art. 277 Hangings entirely in needlework. worked by the ladies of the tapestry in The industry shown family. is a remarkable instance of a piece of needlework that deserved the value placed on it. indubitable. and from this grow of different shades. and so universally . of industry.

and are so far above being mere objects of fashion. to be. to the persons rooms. some guidance in hanging our modern rooms. on crimson satin. We are somewhat restricted. and gay with groups of Cupids but such prettinesses would not be suitable to Tender or subdued the home of a mourning Queen. . colouring equally sets off groups of young and lovely Embroideries faces. they should be very much subdued. The bride's who apartment may be white and gold. or we ought when there are treasures of art already in the house. holding their own. The hangings should be of a colour which suits either all pictures.278 of flowers. and the bent form robed in black. yet would add a There are in general I some previous conditions which will help us to choose the first style and design of such furnishings. supposing always that the spaces are fitted for really fine decorations. and a similar one in the Caetani Palace. so as not to prevent the eye from perceiving at . that they must be placed by their beauty of design and execution amongst objects of art. and having tried to draw from what has been accepted as beautiful and perfect in taste. and if the walls are embroidered or tapestried with woven designs. garlanded with roses. few more words on this subject. and so will probably survive more centuries of change. These are about 150 years old. the reader is chapters on ecclesiastical art and on Having discussed the origin and reason for hangings. are always agreeable on such backgrounds. and increasing in value and esteem. in church decoration. by the desire to exhibit them to the best advantage. NEEDLEWORK AS ART. we should study what is appropriate will first inhabit the In the place. For hangings referred to the tapestry. both in form and colour. and a vehicle for needlework that I now allude it is as to the design of the artist in hangings.

which are and our statues. then richly embroidered backgrounds in brilliant colours are the best. .HANGINGS. which are mostly white. to show off our cabinets. A fine brocade or velvet of one colour suits pictures best but . compensating the eye in variety and if our object is splendour. generally black. 279 once the precious objects hung against them.

Fine linen." Act II. THE last chapter Homer's description curious. my My hangings all of Tyrian tapestry . tents and canopies." " Taming of the Shrew. Scene I. and the preceding account of tapestries. .. On the simple style of Snell. FURNITURE. care nothing for improvements." " house within the city First. Which will suit both you and me extremely well.280 CHAPTER VIII. to lave her dainty hands ." " ROBERT GUST. In ivory coffers I have stuff'd my crowns In Cyprus chests my arras. counterpoints. High-art curtains make me swear. Turkey cushions boss'd with pearl. Costly apparel. I hate aesthetic carpets . Pray cease hunting I for the latest Queen Anne chair. their history and uses. naturally lead to the consideration of the furniture which may accompany them. Is richly furnish'd with plate and gold . in needlework . and all things that belong To SHAKESPEARE. of Penelope's bridal is The central idea very the bedpost. Valance of Venice gold. Parody of the Last Ode of the First Book of Horace. on hangings. " Jane. Basons and ewers. as you know. . fashioned out couch is . Pewter and brass. or housekeeping. house.

from the footstool and the cushion to the window curtain and the bed-hangings.suggestive of the state of the domestic art of the architect and the upholsterer in those Archaic 2 days. See Dennis' Etruria. Perrot and Chipiez. in painted terra-cotta in the is Campana Museum of the worked to resemble ticking. striped. Both of them were found at Cervetri. and yet carry embroidery. 3 Such curtains are the most permanently important Furniture has features in the 1 economy. and bands of dyed purple ox-hide. 24. Fig. been the excuse and the vehicle for embroideries. where the rooted tree with its stem and branches is . The stone walls and roof were built over to cover it in. Odyssey. and are quaint " examples of early Etruscan art. 190. 1 The illustration is a very quaint delineation of a Chaldean four-roomed house. and the cushions have embroidered ends . p. as it stood yet rooted in stem of the ground. as in the curious funeral couch of a sepulchral A monument Louvre. silver. Assyrian delineation of Chaldean House." bed may be absolutely without any hangings or tester. 77. 3 xxiii. 1. and inlaid by Ulysses himself with gold. There is a similar sepulchral monument in the British Museum. of the 2 ii. and ivory.. or rather the luxury pi." 2nd ed. Here the mattress .. and are made in the form of bolsters. of the 281 an olive-tree growing in the court. 227." ist series. see "Histoire de 1'Art. Layard's "Monuments..FURNITURE.

were embroidered. . family. like that over a throne there is only a canopy work for the head of the bed inside the canopy." as it was called in old and was always carefully adorned for the welcome of The bed-hangings. wall hangings and care must be taken that we do not injure the effect of both by too much contrast or too much similarity. and while the plain accompanying the window curtains surface should match with the wall hangings." as poor Prince Lee Boo said to we have " a room own . But when the bed be totally independent of the decoration. Let us begin with the decorations of the state bedroom. to contrast with embroidered or tapestried hangings on the walls. times. materials. NEEDLEWORK AS ART. 1 and the greatest care and the linen. women of the The chamber of for exercising their Dais. . 1 The thread embroideries in counted stitches were worked in an endless variety of beautiful designs. of which the collection in Franz . and the in its deal with a large four-post bed within a room. a splendid opportunity for displaying the embroi- taste. and a rich border round its valance this should contrast with the walls and the curtains should marry the two together. Now If the shape of the bed must regulate the design. decoration must be the key-note to guide the rest of the furnishing and adornment. Every room has its own individuality. by the embroidered borders belonging to the fashion of the bed. This style of bed canopy absolutely belongs to the decoration of the wall to which it is attached. and even the the honoured guest. may. I am anxious to point out that the bed and its belongfirst beginning of its ings are a It is dignity of style of the deries of the " most important element in the beauty and room and the house that contains it.282 house. Another method is to have the bed and curtains hung with plain one may have fine .

though not the style. as they were safe from floss-silk friction. rich. of the different parts of the bed is admissible. carved walnut-tree staves wood : painted with silver hearts. in the Library at Longleat. and gives opportunities for rich and graceful work. The furniture and teste and lined and Frida Lipperheide's " Musterbticher fiir Weibliche Handarbeit " is most interesting and exhaustive including Italian and German " Lienen} stickerei." Berlin." There was apparently a and roses. that I cannot help making here some and pointing out that embroidery was usually employed to individualize each decoration. while on the curtains the frailest materials and most delicate stitches were freely bestowed." extracts. a parseme pattern may be varied judiciously on the curtains. most artistic 283 work were lavished on the coverlet in firm stitches and twisted threads. standing Square Bedstead of steads. As a rule in the and satin-stitch for such works we should avoid too great a variety of design decoration of a bedroom. there a connecting link (say a cypher) found throughIf the back of the Baldachino is embroidered. . ragged crimson velvet embroidered with silver roses. 1883. are so characteristic of a time when each room contained artistic furniture. in should say that a change in the design. the valance. Those describing the property of the Earl of Leicester. throughout with Buckram. it out. "At Killingworth (Kenilworth) Lord Leicester's Bed" A fayre. admits of totally different treatment. We may employ with safety. and at the same time its beware of I becoming monotonous. For instance. and the valance is must include a border according to its outline. The ingenuity and magnificence of the Elizabethan bedroom furnishings are proved by the inventories to be found in old houses. and the heading provided .FURNITURE.

and embroidered edged " in a border of hops. a Florentine Palace (the Alessandri). Amongst our fine Indian embroideries. and varnished with crimson velvet. lined with cannevois " (canvas). the curtains> In and the furniture are splendid velvet. &c. The ground of one of these suites of five pieces of embroidery. gold and silver in breadths. there is a 1 state apartment. Gulbargah." &c. and pomegranates." Another " Bedstead painted red and gold. catalogue of the tapestries and embroidered hangings include fifteen suites at Kenilworth only and three other houses are equally well provided. carpets (which appear to have covered the floor and the tables). and silver. of animals and flowers. embroidered over with red. gold. ." silver with " long buttons and Another bedstead is described. and Hyderadad are well 1 Of the seventeenth century. sort of example is a lesson and a warning. The lined with Milion (Milan) fustian. Each room has chairs. . and varnished. roses. with the pillars painted The teste and curtains of red silk red. i. second set of curtains inside of striped white satin. curtains had been either plain crimson velvet or emThis broidery. is described as being " Stannel cloth . the walls. and the velvet curtains were also fringed with loops. entirely decorated with the with same materials. Aurungabad. trimmed and fringed with silver. those of Luck- The eye some repose amidst the now.. it would have been much more beautiful. and "Cabinutts" (cabinets) covered with embroideries. where the bed.284 NEEDLEWORK AS ART. which is valuable even under less splendid conditions. cushions.e. gold for brocaded crimson longs If the bed and gorgeous reiterated forms and colours. with gold and silver bone lace.

Triclinium. The square shapes of the chair-backs re- peated several times give us an opportunity for balancing colours and introducing forms of decoration which may be made to contrast with everything else in the room. fitted for 285 Indian beds and furniture. and encourage the resources of our own Empire. it will be a pleasure to the eye if the cushions on the sofa and the chairs and seats are panelled with a deeper or lighter colour than the carpet. Roman Antiquities. and that natural objects. canvas and cross The for the use carpets used by the Romans were called Triclinaria Babylonica. The sofa and chairs are so often the vehicles for embroidery that we must give them a separate share of our attention. crimson. Carpets and rugs were sometimes embroidered as well as woven in patterns.. at entertainments 1 and used thrones. " Smith's Dictionary of Greek 106. For 1 furniture. or for laying over tombs. are beginning to understand that these decorations look best when the patterns are geometrical.FURNITURE. even when conventionalized. j for covering the catafalques at funeral ceremonies. Say that the carpet is red. p.v. and so enhance the general effect. and the furniture and hangings are of tender broken tints. i. when the master of the house has tripped over its invisible presence. They were anciently spread on couches and sofas. and it seems a pity not to profit by.e. ii. and Polymata cubicularia. Tapes. such as rabbits and roses. We who restrict their use to domestic purposes.. for the cubiculum. 102 also See and . but always reposing the eye by contrasting plain surfaces with richness of design. Then the footstool or cushion should break away entirely from the carpet on which it lies. Horace's These were dyed Satires." s. that the poor thing may be spared the kick it invariably receives. These we can study in the Museum. of the triclinium. and purple. are unpleasant to tread upon. the cushion stitches. 6 . scarlet. as is still the custom in the East.

with figures of birds. 1 " They worked hangings for the noblemen's use. which are liable to be spoilt by contact. embroidered Our greatand valued them exceedingly. Marco Polo. and that a percentage of its beauty is disapbest. they wore powder and lying back upon them. of of and manners. present shoulders. trees. as well as cushions. and the To reconcile us to chair-back still recalls it." and crochet has been displaced by linen veils worked in crewels. as a buffer between it and the human head and housses The suggestion was disagreeable. quilts. or rather." p. and never would have contemplated be soiled by a male or female head True. 92. and " artistically dis- posed. They are the . " name of antimacassars " have. who is probably the artist. pearing every time cloth. suffer from the glaring white patterns of crochet. it must be sparingly used. most enduring. unaware that it is an aesthetic investment. pillows. a pang each time an honoured guest occupies the comfortable chair embroidered in floss silk. " 1 it is brought into collision with broad- This brings us to the subject of the covers called " by French upholsterers. however. and which may come under the head of small decorations. ed. This is a step in the right direcNo well-regulated eye could do otherwise than tion. and all sorts of things. the overlap The antimacassar dress " is a remaining sign chairs.work.286 stitches. then but they never leant back such a pomatum that they should . Yule. of petty The things which went by the horrid disfigurements. its use. as they bear friction without fraying and are therefore. beasts. mounted aggressively on the back of every chair in the room. preferable to satin stitches. says they produced exquisite needlework on sUk stuffs of divers colours. are NEEDLEWORK certainly the AS ART. in this case. given way to " chair-backs. . and give the lady of the house. and flowers. the grandmothers. speaking of the ladies of Caramania in the thirteenth century.

. placed round the back of the throne on which the king is seated. and often an actual brush or needle. The whole off table-cover I a source of endless variety * on the should recommend here plain surfaces and deep is . See the screen on the Assyrian bas-relief in the British Museum. cotton pique or washing chintz. 1 that table-covers says. borders. solace. partition. colour of the table-cover may be a test of and may make or mar the whole if it effect is of the furnishings of the room. On the contrary." cap. Heliogab. and frizzle our hair till it might serve as a brush and it spoils nothing. in the life of Heliogabalus. in order to enliven the fading glories of ancestral taste. was reserved for the privacy of the bedroom and the arm-chair covered with Under the new manners. . especially newly acquired. xxvi. dry. The articles thrown on the table are best set by plain grounds. to remove any dust it encountered. curtain This evidently began its existence as a on a movable frame for the purpose of hung 2 The Chinese dividing large chambers for separate uses. but nowadays we wear neither powder nor pomatum. and since the introduction of the graceful lounge. for see Bock. the screen in a large room. the antimacassar doubtless has saved many ancestral works. and tall vases of flowers. seem to have been the first to stretch the curtain tight over the frame. we dye. representing the dishes which were to be placed upon Lampridius ("Antonin.FURNITURE. and is an actual necessity for keeping off the draughts drifting in through ill-fitting To window-frames and doors and at the same time serving as a background to high chairs and tables aesthetically heaped with objects of art. painted with pictures by Screen. This is apparently a frame on which hangings are fixed. artistic The taste. 287 and solecism in manners. The our modern home. gives a sense of snugness. 129) were embroidered the emperor. making it a fixture. them 2 at the festal table of this epicure. p.

either arabesqued or naturalistic. and the School of Art Needle- work is a living witness to how much they are appreciated and how largely employed. I would recommend this style of work to the settings. in It an old catalogue at Hampton sacred subjects were thus decently veiled. We know how often in churches and sacristies on the Continent. On the screen. The high and still screen groups and unites the pictures of active and meanwhile the little firelife around it . or even two veils have to be withdrawn We before the holy and precious picture is displayed." Summerley in his "Handbook Hampton . Ed. Felix I. VI. 1 i interesting to find Court. decorative ambition is permitted to rise to pictorial art. have seen these little curtains beautifully worked so as to form by their design a picture in the space they cover. and is most conspicuous for good or for evil effect. Amongst the occasional furnishings of the home. Nothing in furniture is prettier than the screen covered with refined needle painting. I need not recommend these as fit surfaces for embroidery they offer themselves to it . how pictures of is in the profaner See inventory of Henry VIII.288 NEEDLEWORK AS ART. Crimson silk is perhaps worked in gold and colours for a and white and silver within ebony or walnut gilt frame.'s goods. of 1419. which are perhaps too sacred to expose to the general eye. You may vary the designs to any extent. we would instance embroidered curtains to veil pictures. screens are performing the merciful service of saving the complexions of our daughters from being sacrificed to Moloch in front of our scorching coal fires. (Bib. quoted by Court. &c. or in small pictures repeated or varied on each.) Harl. consideration of our decorators.. one. moments of court gaieties. either as large pictures covering many folds. room comes into Here design to individualize the livingplay.

or pure scarlet (cochineal). let it be Venetian red. che la piaga fe al core. were embroidered. : . backs. let it be either pure pale the aether. camelot. emerald- needlework. If for the general colour. I the following lines. earthy colours. Embroidered book coverings were often very either as simply 289 beautiful. such as cushions and stools. Of green there are few shades that are not beausoothing. or for small objects. tends to the grandiose as well as the comfortable. part scarlet. Ch' ornar coll' ago ad Eleanora piacque. Bright bits of colouring should be reserved for pictorial art. like . se non estinto ? " In the catalogue of Charles V. pale or dark. Never employ scarlet with a yellow tinge it may not affect yourself. we must never forget that harmony. the materials used for bindings are thus named Soie veluyau. Tact. Lo Or vidde Aracne. part tint blue be chosen. sea-green. Come uscirne potro. and more or less fitted for a background to Olive-green. tiful. pea-green. which is simply a dirty mixture of . satin and drap d'or and many damas. or pure crimson (Tyrian purple). If red be the foundation colour. clothing the boards.'s library. said to have been written quote by Tasso on a case for a book. se la mano. embroidered for him by Leonora d'Este : " Questo prezioso dono. indigo as being offensive to the nerves of the eye.FURNITURE. u . employing the art of embroidery to embellish it. and the absence of anything startling. Avoid brickdust. such as but the startling aniline blues should be avoided crimson. and knowledge are required when we undertake to adorn the home to be lived in and while . discretion. or a soft one. Si bello fe d' amore il dolce laberinto. but it is blinding to many eyes. e tacque. or when finished with metal-work corners. and clasps. cendal. taffetas.

" . when the a yellow fog. Nature teaches us how these all harmonize together and with other colours. and the hangings will inevitably obtain a subtle. size. will be that of of his existence. the in first object to consider beauty I beauty colour. which is reposing instead of exciting. Mr. as a primrose. drawing. but one of these furnishes my excuse. while pale primrose will have the effect of early sunrise. should be such as to become the more agreeable the longer we are accustomed to it. and correctness form. A in the enjoyment of what is new. proportion." 1 In decorative art. . and giving it too much importance. in " Have nothing and therefore is in embroidery. 1 would add. Only arsenical green is impracticable and repulsive.290 NEEDLEWORK AS ART. glowing as gold. Yellow. and it thought that I am placing our secondary art too high. walls. but real influence on his nerves which." which never can assimilate . green. Morris's golden rule is this an element : your houses that you do not know to be useful or believe to be beautiful. It is that " the simplest and smallest creation should be as faultless as the greatest and grandest. and pure gold that of sunset. when I apply to it the first essential rules of art . and these require the careful study of first I principles. without proportion in obtained. in harmony and balance in colour. in the case of buff. pale but one tint we would exclude is always beautiful from our list. rule to be respected is that decoration should be The unexpected. and sage-green. called " buff. with any other colour. or tender as butter. and is often the refuge of the weakminded man that cannot face the responsibility of choosing an atmosphere in which he will have to spend many hours the ceiling." Now beauty cannot be even in little works. " except that which is consecrated by time or sentiment. would not have conception.

and for in the this guidance of chapter are contained intended. Nothing so alarming or unpleasant as gigantic figures worked in tapestry or embroidery. 291 Proportion in size is most important. in the house. In the temple men were to be reminded of their own In the gymnasium. whatever the thoughts they suggested. who yet exceeded The statue of the god in stature their human models. placed in the temple was the largest object seen. and base only enhanced the effect of majestic pro- portion. the Greeks. both as regards ourselves and our surroundings objectively and subjectively. and the delicacy and refinement of the details in dress. These remarks. wished to express force and majesty. apply exclusively to domestic decoration. larger than their heroes. they sculptured their gods of unearthly size. and games. is may have been And in even the guardian gods of the house were kept due subjection as to size. When our masters. and no tall standard by which he may be measured. man is already supreme. and at the public needs no incentive to assert himself. the surrounding pictures and statues were all intended to excite ambition by showing men the heroic size to be attained by the awards of fame. The Lares and Penates themselves were very small objects to look at. u 2 . them. which is the dwarf the flowers in a bow-pot near special which object of our the suggestions art. of course. nothingness. which should be studied and respected. But at home. and nature has her own lovely proportions. and if flowers of the field ? especially those representing the should be no Certainly in worked decorations flowers perhaps on the whole they are larger than in nature Botanical monstrosities on the wall best rather smaller.FURNITURE. throne. why not all decorations. and on the racecourse.



to the old

would strongly advocate the return







would design, or have designed for them, curtains or tapestries, and let the work-frame be the permanent
occupier of the morning sitting-room, they might at least commence works that members of the family or friends

might continue and complete at their leisure and should they at any time hang fire, a needlewoman or clever professional worker might be called in to help to finish it.

Thus ladies might assist the own original -ideas, and give

needlework by their beauty to their homes, and an impetus to the occupation which helps to support so many of our struggling sisters. The frame or metier is always a pretty object in the drawing-room or
art of



The French understand

one of their most useful
representations of refined

this well "


and make








part of


You can never hope (he says) to have bridge Lecture. the means of supplying yourself with what is beautiful unless you take pains to add to the production of that The colour which the decorative painter " (and beauty.
the embroiderer also) may cast around you is neither nor less than an atmosphere in which your eye will more


chapter with two quotations. Sir Digby Wyatt's advice in a

The Cam-

be either strengthened or debilitated.


you accustom

your eye only or mainly to contemplate what is satisfactory in colour and form to the highest tastes, it will gradually become allured to such delicacy of organization
as to reject unintentionally



repugnant to perfect

Mr. Morris, in a lecture to the " Birmingham Society of Arts and School of Design," says of ugly furnishings " Herein the rich people have defrauded themselves as

well as

the poor.



see a refined and highly



man nowadays, who has been to Italy and Egypt and where not, who can talk learnedly enough (and fantastically

enough sometimes) about



literature of past

days, sitting down without signs of discomfort in a house that, with all its surroundings, is just brutally vulgar and All his education has done for him no more hideous.



You cannot



in art/'

But the man must be

unless you give him a share civilized by education to

It must accept that share of art that his life offers to him. be admitted that though a man may be educated enough to

with taste.

enable him to theorize, he may yet be too poor to furnish If he is able to act up to his theories, and to surround himself with what is refined, and fail to do so,



contented not to

stir in this

matter, he


not truly

piece of work that is well done is so much help to the cause." " The cause is the Democracy of Art, the ennobling of


that which breeds art









" Whatever clothing she displays,

From Tyre- or Cos, that clothing praise If gold show forth the artist's skill, Call her than gold more precious still ;


she choose a coarse


E'en coarseness, worn by her, admire." " Ars Amat." ii. 297, 300 (Yates, OVID,




now proceed

glanced at the decoration of the house, I must to say a few words on Dress. Semper,

Labarte, and Sir Digby Wyatt all take it for granted that the Art of Dress preceded all other arts.

Every ancient record shows how

early decoration of

dress by needlework began, and how far it had gone and when we read of festal hospitalities and marriage Sologifts, embroidered garments are invariably named.


in all his glory,

in splendid apparel.

though he praised the lily, yet shone The Greeks refined the gold, and

painted the


became an art, and not merely an acknowledged necessity for warmth and decency, I see no reason to deny that the same decorative genius that embroidered the garment might at the same time have
as dress

As soon

imagined the carving of the chair and the inlaying of the sword and bow but as regards the precedence of the arts, we can only guess at what is probable. Beauty in

is certainly a universal instinctive passion. Perhaps the birds (which Mr. Darwin and others credit with


PI. 50.


Knight dressed


for conquest, by Gentile at Florence.

da Fabriano.



preening their plumage, conscious that their spots are the brightest, and their feathers the glossiest, and that
they are therefore adored by the hens, and the envy of the shabbier cocks) suggested to men the same method for securing the preference of the other sex, who in return willingly helped to adorn the idols of their hearts and


This natural state of things still (Plate 50.) prevails in Central Africa, where Schweinfurth describes a king dancing before his 100 wives costumed in the tails
of lions

and peacocks, and crowned with the proboscis

of an elephant. It appears, however, that, unlike Cleo" custom had staled his infinite variety," and the patra, 100 ladies looked on the splendid display with blank



only a barbarous illustration of the fact that in

the earliest civilizations magnificent garments were worn by men to dazzle and awe the oeholders by the splendour

which represented wealth and conquest.


glorious a

could appear apparelled to represent majesty and dominion, may be learned by studying Canon Rock's


book on the coronation dresses of the Emperors of Germany a book great in every sense of the word. The portrait of Charles V. robed and crowned is a dazzling example of the arts of dress, embroidery, and jeweller's work. These garments have for ages been treasured at Vienna, Aix-la-Chapelle, and in the Vatican at Rome.


coronation garments of the Emperors of Russia

are said to be gorgeously beautiful. It seems hardly necessary to assert that embroidery

Each has always been especially applicable to dress. individualized by the design depicted on garment, being was fitted for individual uses and occasions. The it,
conqueror's palmated mantle, the coronation robe, the bridal garment, the costume of the peasant for festival
days, and the officiating vestments of the




special services of prayer

or piously worked generation as family treasures or as historical memorials, and sometimes as holy relics, 1 till they and the call for

and praise these were loyally they descended from generation to

them, were swept away at once by social changes yet some still remain and hold their place. Priestly garments,

together with Church decorations, never laid aside in the Roman and Greek Churches, are being partially revived

our own



for secular

adornment the embroiderer

often called



form of a pretty woman, to
encircle her waist.

work a garland, to enwreathe the lie on her shoulders and


greatest loss to the art



as a rule have

ceased to individualize themselves, or their position or 2 by dress, and have left entirely to the women the
pleasure and duty of conspicuous as their

making themselves as







and broadcloth are cut

in the

which the only merit is that they are fortable, and whose highest aim is to be spotless and unwrinkled

same shapes, of said to be com-


show the

altered conditions of the highly

I have spoken of dress being continually offered to the Herodotus (ii. p. 159) tells of the pagan gods in the temples. images us that Pharaoh Necho offered to the Apollo of Branchidse the


dress he

happened to have worn at both his great successes (the victory In the procession of Ptolemy of Magdalus and the taking of Cadytis). Philadelphus the colossal statue of Bacchus and his nurse Nysa were
draped, the former in a shawl, the latter in a tunic variegated with

See Yates, " Textrinum Antiquorum," p. 369. Old clothes were gold. sent as votive offerings to temples, and inscriptions recording lists See Appendix i. The Greeks of such decorations are still extant. honoured the menders and darners, and called them " healers of clothes."
Bliimner, p. 202.

Men in former days preferred to show by their dress their station and the company they belonged to. Guilds had their ceremonial dresses, and their "liveries," and their cognizances, and considered it an honour See Rock, " Church of our Fathers," ii. p. 115. to wear them.



civilized man, and woman too, for he has long left behind him the idea of dazzling the female eye or heart by the attraction of colour. This applies only to European costume at home or in the colonies. The East still retains its pleasure in gorgeous combinations, in which man enfolds his person, and shows how beautiful he can make himself when thus clothed, in accordance with the classical axioms, as tq how much of the human form should be revealed, and how much concealed. The principle on which the ancients embroidered their garments was like that of the Indians, the large surfaces

covered with quiet diapers or spots, the rich ornaments being reserved for the borders, the girdles and
plain, or




shoulders or girdle

garments hung loose from the whether long or short they clung to

The long flowing the figure or fluttered in the wind. robes to the feet veiled the form completely, and were
only thrown

for the

battle or the chase, or in the

Dress, struggles for victory in the races and games. the supreme reign of beauty, was intended to flow around, or to conceal, but never to disguise the human





thus describes Juno's

toilet before calling


" Around her next a heavenly mantle flow'd,


rich with Pallas' labour'd colours glow'd


Large clasps of gold the foldings gather'd round ; A golden zone her swelling bosom bound."
Iliad, xiv. v. 207.

The Greeks
broidery on

certainly wore delicate and tasteful emtheir garments, frequently finished with

splendid borders, while the large space between was learn dotted with stars or some simple pattern. In the this from the paintings on Greek fictile vases.














Minerva (with twinkling- diamond eyes). She has a broad band of embroidered silver foliage from her throat
to her feet.

the beauty of Greek forms acted and reacted on " the beauty of their Art of Dress," so we may be certain that all deformity of dress has been produced by deformity
of race in


mind or body, and that climate

factor in both.


an important cold of the farthest north has produced

and hairy which natural gifts have been supplemented by their warm clothes or coverings, in the same way that a "cosy" covers a teapot. Flowing garments there would be utterly out of place, petticoats are unknown, and the Lapp hangs out nothing that can'
people short, fat,

Their dresses, or icicle. are planned to keep out the cold, and to place cases, another atmosphere between the heart of the breathing
mass, and the cruel, cutting, outer wind. Hence, the materials used are not only woven hair, but the furry skins In the south, under the sunshine, dress is themselves.
for the greater part of the year only needed for decency and beauty. The flowing and delicate cottons and silks

be the vehicle for carrying an


fine woollens, are

shaped to cover and adorn the
for entire isolation take

beautiful forms,


the never- failing mantle. The for the embroiderer's opportunity

refuge in mantle was the great

Alkisthenes, the Sybarite, had a garment of such magnificence that when it was exhibited in the Temple of Juno at Lacinium, where all Italy was congregated, it attracted such
universal admiration that

was sold

by Dionysius the Elder for was purple, wrought all over with animals, except the centre, where were seen Jupiter, Juno, Apollo, Minerva, Venus, and Themis. On one border was the figure of Alkisthenes himself, on the other was depicted the emblematic figure of his native
city, Sybaris.

to the Carthaginians 120 talents. The ground




the garment








twenty-two feet in breadth. That the ladies of Greece in the fourth century carried down the historical and Homeric traditions of the

embroidery frame, and made
while the


it part of their daily lives, of rank left such work to

their slaves, is evident from the pretty legend told of Alexander the Great, who desiring to beguile the weariness of his prisoners, the wife and family of Darius, sent them

some of








him that these princesses were much mortified, believing it was a suggestion of their fallen fortunes, Alexander hastened to reassure them saying that his own mother and sisters occupied themselves in emreported to

broidering dresses. The Persians and Babylonians seem to have preferred subjects for their embroidered dresses somewhat in the

mantle of Alkisthenes, which was probably Oriental, and suggests the Babylonian mantle in Jericho, " which tempted Achan to sin." The Egyptian frescoes on the other hand, sometimes give us women and godstyle of the

desses dressed in small flowery patterns that remind one of Indian chintzes. These were probably woven, painted, and embroidered, and filled in with threads The Romans varied their fashions, but of gold.

they preferred for a time striped borders on their gar" 2 dilores," "trilores," ments, and called them "molores," The Greeks but seldom departed from to seven. up











Mirab. Auscult, xcvi.

Asterius, Bishop of Amasis, in the fourth century, describes both hangings and dress embroidered with lions, panthers, huntsmen,

woods, and rocks

while the Church adopted pictorial representations ; Sidonius alludes to furniture of like character. of Christian subjects. See Yule, " Marco Polo," p. 68.




though there are examples of large designs covering the whole garment. The embroidered dresses of early Christian times are to be judged of by mosaics and frescoes mostly Italian. Those of the dark ages were till lately only names and guesses. But a hiatus in our knowledge has been filled up
rich borders in their delineations of dress,

by the store of entombed textiles discovered in the Fayoum in Egypt, and now at Vienna, in Herr Here we have a variety of Grafschen's Collection. and stitches, and every kind of subject, shapes, designs, sacred and profane, Christian and Pagan, and the missing links between Indian and Byzantine fabrics are revealed. They cover nearly 400 years, from the third to the seventh century, and many of them may be looked upon as apart from any ecclesiastical or even Christian suggestions. I have spoken of them in the chapter on Woollen Materials.


After the seventh


century, we again come into the of history and find here and there an light


fragment, nearly always ecclesiastical, taken from the graves of priests and monarchs. Charlemagne's mantle and robe embroidered with elephants




preserved the Vatican the






embroideries, are

and precious examples


of that early period. the difference between


covering" and the binding." This seems to be little considered in modern costume, but it is so essential that

He says that impress it on my readers. the covering seeks to isolate, to enclose, to shelter, to spread around, over a certain space, and is a collective



whereas binding implies ligature, and represents a for example, a bundle of sticks, the united plurality," " fasces of the lictors, &c. Binding is linear, in dress it
unit," " Katalog der Theodor Graf'schen Funde in Aegypten," von Dr. Karabacek, Wien, 1883.





horizontal or spiral." 'What can the united plurality be that justifies the binding often bestowed on the figure in fashionable costumes? more fitted for

together the permitting the agility




dead, than for muscles of the living.



important axiom

Anything that goes against 1 wrong."


we must


agree that the objects of dress are

decency, isolation, warmth, grace, and beauty. As long as fashion takes the place of taste, and extravagant chic supersedes grace and beauty, we must not hope that fine

The designs to individualize dress will be called for. French machine-made embroideries are so beautiful, and
comparatively cheap, that we cannot compete with them. The best artists design them, and the only fault to be found is this, that as they are made by thousands of
yards, and can only be varied by interchange of colours, It has they become common the day they are produced.

been said that





for a class, but





she makes use of her services.

enemy The gown,

of taste,


though which the

every sense imported from France, will probably never again be the vehicle for home embroideries. But there are other articles of personal adornment which

always be available for the fancies of decorative taste the fan, the purse or satchel, the apron, the fichu, the point of the shoe, and the muff all these are objects on

which thought and ingenuity may well be expended, and which will remain as records of personal feeling when the workers and givers of such graceful mementoes are far Carriage-rugs and foot-muffs, and embroidered away.




Stil," p. 28.


Unfortunately this axiom

may be


a small class, and mankind follows be the fashion.

Taste only belongs to whether good or bad, if it only




and book-covers, must be placed somewhere between furniture and personal ornament. In all these " " the unexpected," is what is valuable, impr&vu" or including all that is original and quaint.
Embroidery will, however, probably continue occaand sionally to be employed in the adornment of dress will leave of each phase and period of art some fine examples on which the archaeologist of the future may pause and reason. There are in most old houses some specimens of old secular work few earlier than the date of Henry VIII. But Gothic dress is very rare, except the ecclesiastical. from the fifteenth century till now, there remains enough to exercise our curiosity, our artistic tastes, and our power and hints for beauty and of selection and comparison often be found and adapted to the style of grace may

our own day. " Blanche's Dictionary





Costumi antichi e moderni di tutti i Popoli," are great works on dress and costume, and both are splendidly illustrated and worthy of study.




between cover and cover, treasures of art these pages hold, All ablaze with crimson and gold.

And now as I And see what

turn these volumes over,




might almost say to the Lord, Here is a copy of Thy Word

Written out with



and pain


Take it, O Lord, and let it be As something I have done for Thee How sweet the air is how fair the scene






as lovely a green



paint my landscapes and my leaves the swallows twitter under the eaves


There, now, there is one in her nest ; I can just catch a glimpse of her head and breast, And will sketch her thus, in her quiet nook,

For the margin of



Gospel-book." " The Golden






Upon Thy right hand did stand the queen in a vesture of gold, The king's daughter is all wrought about with divers colours. She shall be brought within her clothing is of wrought gold. glorious unto the king in raiment of needlework." Psalm xlv. 10, 14, 15.





IP the Bride is the type of the Church, how truly has she been, for eighteen centuries, throughout Christendom, adorned with gold, and arrayed in raiment of needle-



ecclesiastical embroideries,

we mean,








coverings for the altars. and illuminated MSS. tion on this subject. and then the arts were born anew. The prosperity of the Church's hierarchy was founded on the ruins of the Empire. the head and feet in profile. robes for the priests. 2 The continuity was broken yet.. Egypt. Middle Ages. We 1 discoveries in Egypt will. for our knowledge of the But Herr Graf'schen's textiles of the earliest days of Christianity. and Byzantium. Hangings for the churches. with occasional exceptions. representation. mosaics. pictured decorations of our era. add greatly to our informa- . the motive of the We cannot say that Greek sculptured ons over the gate of Mycenae. Little lamps twinkled here and there in into . had not a fresh Oriental impulse arrived from Syria. would soon have dwindled mere primitive forms. Europe. and the first specimens that have come down to us of needlework and 1 textiles. from which Greece and Rome had so long been emancipated. 1 and the frescoes and mosaics of Ravenna. the new arts were by it moulded and fostered. which still retained very ancient forms . occupied the artist and the embroiderer. the figures were drawn facing the spectator. Figure-drawing in early Christian art was for nearly a thousand years The rapid decline in primitively barbarous. testify by their naivete to their date. 2 Till very lately we have been entirely dependent on the frescoes in the Catacombs and in the underground Church of St.304 NEEDLEWORK AS ART. being devoted to the service of the Church. through the art of the Catacombs and St. About that time art in Rome was quite extinct till the eighth century. monastic houses. over which Attila had boasted that where his horse trod no grass grew and truly the cultivated art of those splendid days had lapsed at once to a poverty of design and barrenness of ideas which . and on monumental art and illuminations. except by supposing that they came from the imitations of Oriental textiles. there was a remarkable revival in England. In those inartistic compositions during the early very remarkable. for instance. differing in nothing from the Egyptian and Assyrian modes of can hardly account for this return to childish ways. Clemente at Rome. in early frescoes. when published. down is to the Bayeux tapestries. Clemente at Rome.

X . offerings from the conquerors. the colours. landmarks. The images of the Virgin and saints received from wealthy penitents 2 many costly garments.ECCLESIASTICAL EMBROIDERY. The images of the saints in Roman Catholic churches are. The Church records and illuminated MSS.) Perhaps nothing was originally worked departing from this rule. or forwarded to the holy father at 'Rome. and were often enriched with jewels. but votive offerings are inventoried as being of all colours. Byzantine. were constantly dedicated as votive offerings.) speaks of silk and linen embroideries given for covering the idols. and hung with jewels. (Rock. " Church of our Fathers. which had served for occasions. Before the Reformation the Norman and English liturgical colours were different. the uses." ii. besides money and lands. 2 I have already spoken of the custom of clothing the images of the gods as a classical tradition. and so were recorded and preserved. often the spoils of subjugated nations. 268. and thus became a part of the history of the Church. and converted into vestments for the officiating 1 priest. us of inscriptions containing inventories of old clothes Ezekiel (xvi. and Arab-Gothic design. Royal and noble ladies employed their leisure hours in work for the adornment of the Minster or the home church or chapel. 305 The selves to forms. or obsequious tribute from the conquered. The Greeks draped their statues in precious garments. constantly draped in splendid embroideries. we know. p. Gifts of the best were exchanged between convents. which otherwise must have been lost. were adapting thembecome the symbols of orthodoxies and heresies. give us state 1 The book by Parker on colours the "Liturgical Use" says that only the five were permitted in the use of the Church of liturgical England. This dedicatory needlework has preserved to us the records of classical. Newton (Appendix i) tells offered in the Greek Temples. Royal and princely garments. The links are many between them and the history of the State and here ecclesiastical embroideries come in as . having been accepted and used as decoration and for vestments.

such as a victory or an accession. we find how often princely gauds became. commemorative of historical events. different countries. " ta> S Puclencentury they give as examples the mosaics of We le ziana. though had Christian the motives been transferred to 1 symbolism." which once contained the sarcophagi of Constantine and his mother Helena. described hereafter. Rome had the Lombardic. of Central Italy. Byzantine. Agnese fuori mura. the Ostro-Gothic. of which the pedigree is is well ascertained. a marriage or a coronation.306 NEEDLEWORK AS ART. and of which the decorations in the ceilings are entirely classical. 1 There 2 here an overlap of several centuries. and even the kings were arrayed the catalogues of royal wardrobes are also very instructive. its as this still eighth-century embroidery shows. as gifts to the Church. most trustworthy information of the way in which the and altars. and Runic. as Woltman and Woermann say that the efforts of the Christians in the time of Constantine tended to delay the Of the fourth extinction of classical design in Rome. justifies Woltman and Woermann's theory. which assumed the phase commonly called the Romanesque. Then there were the Scandinavian. . of Venice. " may also mention the church of St. varied in Oriental. design. All these rough and inchoate attempts at the beautiful. all acting and re- acting upon each other. by a living power. and Celtic styles drifting from the North . when the new blood infused from 2 foreign sources began to assert itself. of Ravenna. the Byzantine. the priests. succeeded to Greece as being the centre of Christian art. The till total disappearance of Greek art did not occur the eighth century. This was a conglomerate of and Graeco-Roman. Charlemagne's dalmatic. that Greek art was ." where we can still find antique beauty of design.

Indian. Babylonian. that we cannot but look upon these causes as co-incident. here and there . which were Byzantium furnished many yet examples on the Continent. and the pointed arch so naturally results from the intersection of the round arches. which had the great manufacturing mart during the Middle Ages. 307 Arabic have been imported at the end by the Crusaders. to whose pious enterprise some attribute the whole of the splendid Gothic art of the three succeeding centuries. The learned arguments mainly from the antiquaries. But the marking characteristic of the Arabic arch is wanting the ogee shape is seldom to be found in Christian archiwhich is said to of the eleventh century . for the Cathedral at Coire in the Grisons. in the hands of the Moors. and by forms and symbolisms. form of the arch. It was doubtless the art. it But in as far as influenced textile we have come the halfwhen it must be house and resting-place of the Crusaders on their way highroad to the Holy Land. I do not include 1 Of which we have . succeeded to Constantinople as being Sicily. and African. must settle whence and how Gothic art their in who draw stone came into Europe. was. to the period studied in Sicily. ancient and modern. in church at Clermont in Auvergne (not the cathedral).ECCLESIASTICAL EMBROIDERY. European countries which were subject to Moorish rule. of their designs. effect or result of more than one cause. the i.e. in this statement of the rare occurrence of the ogee. mother are of different nationalities. Spain and Portugal. prepared the world for the acceptance of the influence. X 2 . and Messina they were controlled by the traditions of the schools of Greece. tecture j 1 have elsewhere remarked how often in art different The father and causes co-operate to form a style. the origin and source Yet even at Palermo of all European Gothic textile art. and the result shows I the characteristics of its double parentage. and in the Romanesque instance.

and we find that there originality in textile decoration or in the forms of dress. Of course such changes were inevitable. This. p. if we compare It . p. 332 (see fig. Bock does not give for the pattern on the ephod. Gewiinder. we In Rock's find mention of the consular trabea. has been suggested and disputed that the stole was an adaptation of the latus clavus indeed.. i."!. The constant repetition of the cross and the signs of the Passion. 2 " Church of Our Fathers. sometimes remote date. and gave a style to the world which entirely broke away from all mediaeval tradition. 409. was but and were adapted from traditional patterns. i. with the emblems of saints and martyrs. partially altered to suit their were interwoven with the ancient classical forms. 20. when France took the lead. p. which also afterwards presided over the art of the Renaissance. 130." vol. slightly modified. which either resembled those of the priests in the Jewish synagogue or those of the heathen temples little . 409. profusely worked in gold. These and all the streams of ecclesiastical decoration throughout Europe flowed towards Rome. The corslet of Amasis (the Egyptian corslet. . and were re-issued with the fiat and seal of the Central Church. 6." taf. which probably was borrowed from Egypt. fig. 2 Rock's " Church of our Fathers. though pressed into the service of the new style and the Church. continued to prevail till the time of Louis XIV." i. ante) closely resembles the Jewish ephod. while the old motives were being translated to the new uses. Compare Wilkinson's 1 "Ancient Egyptians.308 NEEDLEWORK of very AS ART.. as being the origin of the cope. p. mixed up with the old symbolisms new service of Christian art. i. 1 By studying what remains to us of fragments and records we know all the materials which clothed the primitive and mediaeval Church. i) \ and Bock's " Liturgische his authority p.


Anglo-Saxon Book of the Four Gospels in the Cathedral Library at York. Mark. St. 51. 309. Page .PI.

337. 528 533.. 2 "Textrinum Antiquorum. said to have been woven by the how goddess Roma herself. for the consul Stilicho. to Marquardt's and vii. on which carved with alternate roses and mystic crosses. 103. p.. Bock's " Liturgische Gewander. . its origin and meaning. p. I give this as showing forms and patterns become sacred by their being attributed to the inspiration of the gods. gives his authorities for saying that the clavus was sometimes an applied border. Much has been written on this latus clavus. which influenced all their early manifestations. from Egypt to the Holy Land. and thence to Rome. 2 This keeping to the old lines and outward appearance as much as possible was mainly due to a regard for safety during the persecutions. as may be seen in two consular diptychs given in plate 70. wish to enter more flicting " opinions I refer the reader. where great learning and ingenuity have been expended.ECCLESIASTICAL EMBROIDERY. from age to age. 203. Alterthumer/' owing to the absolute sterility of the ashes of Roman Imperialism. or were traditional sources. pp. Such is the intimate chain of design from century to century. who may into the questions raised by confully regarding the clavus." Yates' i. rather than that of antagonism. 309 the examples given by Bock 1 we can hardly doubt that the consular trabea and the latus clavus either served as the models for the derived from the same Christian Bishop's dress. The name of Stilicho marks his is tomb in Sant' Ambrogio's Church at Milan. and also to the Christian spirit of adoption and conversion. taf. a curious moulding. 2. i. iii. sometimes a lopse stripe Bock hanging down in front. vi. and I shall return to it in reference to the chrysoclavus pattern. post. He quotes from Claudian the description of a trabea." pp. without arriving at any satisfactory conclusions. This unchanging character of art was also partly Handbuch Rom. It is true that through the Dark occasionally flashed and left a 1 Ages individual genius mark here and there . 376.

3 Museum. were retained in the Christian ritual. across figures of Anglo-Saxon bishops. which are described and discussed in The forms of the Celtic stone crosses are the chapter on patterns. eye they are beautiful. Dublin . and the Celtic MSS. par la Socie'te very beautiful. Whenever we come . also St. 3 which show a Celtic origin. Palace Library. that when they occur we hesitate before we assign them to that age. gold. Library. and knotted lines. and the " Book of the Four Gospels'' (of the tenth century) in the Minster Library at York. See " L' Atlas de 1'Arche'ologie du Nord. British Cuthbert's Durham Book. red. (Plate 51. and white. The Anglo-Saxon art of illumination shows these inI would point to their drawings in the spired moments books in the Bodleian at Oxford. but such phenomena are so rare. MSS. where the metal remains Celtic . and Ireland. carving on stone crosses throughout the north of Europe. purple. semi-Oriental character. Embroideries before the twelfth This differs from what we know of Scandinavian and 2 Celtic design through illuminated books. and the remains we possess of their metal I am not aware of any ecclesiastical embroideries work. interlaced. Clapton Rolfe 1 says that the liturgical. Levitical traditions in the earlier system of decoration in the Christian Church had a far stronger hold on the popular mind than we are willing now to admit and that the five Levitical colours. the liturgical vesture entirely agrees with the Biblical description.3 io NEEDLEWORK AS ART. which are original and graceful. To an artistic . and have a reflection from the classical traditions. which is nearly related to the art which is called Lombardic. in the Lambeth and Scandinavian designs are characterized by meandering. century generally preserve a semi-Roman." See the Book of Kells. 1857). Great Britain. blue. unless the intertwined 1 2 " Clapton Rolfe. Ancient Use of Liturgical Colours. des Antiquite's du Nord" (Copenhagen.) The conscientious is colouring of the Anglo-Saxon Mr.

. Greece. know. was Babylonian. and these influences were in full force at the time that Christian art was being organized. 311 patterns on Italian dresses in paintings of the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries may be supposed to be derived from that source. over the named. which came through Byzan- not restrict ourselves to searching out the Arabian traditions.ECCLESIASTICAL EMBROIDERY. Alexandria. In accounting for the instances of evident Oriental influence on Christian art. The materials linen. 25. " grounds on which needlework was lavishly spent. had given to the Empire of the East.) Fig. we must Babylon and Persia. (See p. 91. for example. are shown by careful engravings Runic Monuments. that the great veil of the temple at Jerusalem. as in the days of Attalus. as well as India. and came from Persia and India. but we must remember also how much tium. given by Herod. and Even Chinese and Thibetian stuffs are often Egypt. ante. striped. also George Stephen's Old Northern . silk. and woollen on which ecclesiastical embroideries We were worked at all Rome and ." . and figured world. Christian Constantinople were accepted The fabrics were plain. Cloths of gold and silver also came from the All these furnished the East.

p.312 NEEDLEWORK AS ART. and fifth at the Ostro-Gothic imperial court of Ravenna. mentions curtains and embroidered altar1 pieces worked in the sixth and seventh centuries. from France. in the century. The same hangings prevailed at intervals in England. 2 Ibid. 189. Paul. Germany.D. We embroideries of the Papal See were gather also from later lists that culled. in his biographies of the popes. Records exist of the hangings of the ancient basilica of St. Peter's. 687) ordered four white and four scarlet curtains. pp. spread between the pillars supporting the baldachino over the high altar and those of the choir . when the new Gothic style 3 of high. Paul's. France. figured Syrian stuffs. great veils which divided the pagan and Jewish temples were at first adopted in the Christian churches. pillars on 2 either side of the altar at St. Peter at Rome. 3 The information here collected proves that these sovereign gifts to the great basilicas were by no means of costly materials. however. quoting Anastasius Bibliothecarius. and Pope John (701) hung white ones between the St. p. 189. especially as compared with the preceding splendours of Rome." i. 1 See Bock's " Liturgische Gewander. placed immense silver curtains at the entrance of the basilica of St. Peter and St. 156. 126. . Spain. 153. hangings to the churches of Stephen IV. sius Bibliothecarius (ninth century). in spite of occasional survivals and revivals during the Dark Ages. Sergius (A. or the still more astounding luxury of Alexandria through the Greek conquests of the To these rules of economical decoration. in the thirteenth century. and England. till the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. Maximianus ordered a set of similar splendid Anastacurtains (tetravela) to be worked for the altar. Eastern nations. we the find occasionally exceptions. and in 768 gave to it sixty-five curtains of Zacharias gave similar St. and Germany. The but they gradually disappeared from common use. pointed arches altered the decorative customs.

. 52. Fragments of Silk to be seen at Coire in Switzerland. also in the South Kensington Museum.PI. Page 312.


and was reproduced as late as the sixteenth. i. However. art of The best efforts Rome was so laden with splendid embroideries by her eastern conquests. the ancient Byzantine use of hangings Russia and throughout the Greek Church still remains in its embroidery has always given to these church draperies. des Tissus." Evidently these were Oriental gold brocades. 56. i we find their " See also Bock's Liturgische Gewander. and it survived to the seventh and eighth centuries. L'Ornement (Plate 4. 2. contrast between early ecclesiastical art and that which immediately preceded it in the palaces of the The Caesars (at Rome." the lion cope. force. and it certainly in time was symbolical of man struggling with the dominion of sin. Tivoli. but we have no treasure-house. which evidently their motives.) (Plate 52. Indian or Persian.)' in However.ECCLESIASTICAL EMBROIDERY. . At a later period the lion motive is supposed to have plate represented a Christian in the arena. Bock considers the design to have been originally classical Greek. unless the splendid curtains and the silver hangings of Pope Stephen IV. pp. or to Daniel " in the lions' den. was gradually transferred to Samson. 9. were taken out of some imperial ." vol. started its textile career as one of the labours of Hercules." "the elephant casula. 18. 313 From Anastasius's mode garments. it of speaking of ecclesiastical appears that they were named in the treasury catalogues after the animals represented on the peacock garment. Auberville's their designs. or else reproductions of " " them and from Auberville's and Bock's books of engravings we can judge how they repeated and varied One woven subject. 86. and wherever ruined glories) is most remarkable. that probably the Christian decorators would have availed themselves of some of the accumulated stores record of such adaptations.

to The have broken his hour-glass. and that of the early Christian as selves the arts which had lent. apparently unconscious of all that had preceded it in Egyptian and great political and religious revolutions in Europe had crushed and buried the arts under the ruins of the Empire over which Time himself seemed classic art. 2197 B. be painfully recorded on sacred buildings and their furnishings for more than a thousand years with all the patient acquiescence of to . given themto the glorification of idols. and the struggling uncertainty of genius pursuing a distant glimmering light. but prolonged their existence. or strike hope for their future. The new had untaught ignorance. and Chinese the reigns of the first emperors of the Hia is still in India. while Greece and robbed the East and Egypt. in Clemente mosaics. so little was there to show any memory pean of their past. especially in India and China. 2 We cannot but respect the memory of Attila. The for the and the lively had been suddenly abandoned of heavy earnest solemnity and inartistic drawing the frescoes of the underground church of St. It is Rome.314 NEEDLEWORK lovely AS ART. vivid contrast with the immutability of those of the East. nor a skilled artisan. where the old forms were still being maintained by the swaddling bands of codified custom 1 that had restricted their development. had suddenly died if out. leaving behind them neither an Christian ideas artist. The Euro- alternate progress civilization and destruction the of the arts in in student. 2 1 The Code was of Manu the crafts art and ruled their decorations.C. and Rome conquered crushed Greece and was in her turn despoiled by the Goths and Huns. and so they had survived. . nay. scarcely a tradition. crystallized in 2500 years ago regulated all in full force. which dynasty. who checked the spoliation of Rome by his troops.

the sacristy of the Marien-Kirche of Dantzic. They have proved the Oriental character of the fabrics employed through the Dark and Middle Ages. them 1 all. The museums of Berlin. Indian.ECCLESIASTICAL EMBROIDERY. is this development are in the north its 300 yeafs we now witnessing not merely owing to a religious impulse. Steiermark) is to be seen the remarkable needlework of the Abbess Kunegunde. and in the cathedral treasury of Heidelberg the antipendium of the fourteenth century. and adding to them hidden meanings. . and Vienna are very rich in textiles. These The Reformation checked of Europe. or whether they had come from Asia by the north or the The same traditional forms governed south of Europe. which but also to the archaeological tendency of our day and to the historical interest we attach to the ceremonials of the East. for about 1400 years. to gradually accumulated. and The The collections of needlework in Germany treasury of the cathedral at Halberstadt. or in museums into which they have drifted 1 and the Germans have thus been enabled to do more than even the French. As the Reformation in iconoclastic than our own. of the thirteenth century. i. at the Pilgrim Church of Marie at Zell are fine remains of stuffs and embroideries by the ladies of the imperial house of Hapsburg. but after revival. Alexandrian. qr Spanish. and organize its own forms. Indoj Chinese. whether they were Syrian. At Quedlinburg are the tapestries of its famous abbess . Christian art collect its 315 had own begin at the very beginning. But an adept is able generally to class are very rich. availing themselves of accepted symbols. Greek. at the made for the church at Tirna.e. Sicilian. Munich. the Markt-Kirche of Brunswick. and traditions. and that of the Kaland Brethren at Strahlsund are especially quoted by Bock. Abbey of Goss (near Lieben. in training the different schools of work throughout the Continent. Germany was less sweeping and we find there many more remains of ecclesiastical art collected in the churches to which they have always belonged.

The 1 2 ballad opens with a description of clothed in white and gold. whether the . Bock says is there. said to have embroidered an image of the Virgin. on a chair of gold. Nearly 4 contemporary. Guest. which names " Riche et ancienne table d'autel de brodeure que on a dit que la 1 premiere Emperriez Christienne Fist. quoted by Then " Mrs. which shows its origin. and its quality and colouring matter. Helen Lwyddawc. or silk. 279 284. Pallisser. of Burgundy. when Maxentius finds her in her father's palace. Pallison's " Lace. 3 See Mrs. mother of Constantine. name each specimen by way gold or gilt thread metal is the texture of the webs. 3 meillior "a ouvrir si com je vous dirai n'avoit ouvriere de Tours jusqu'a Cambrai. 4 See chapter on English embroidery. post. See " Mabinogion. of twisting pure or alloyed. and yet has a certain Celtic colouring in it. which is celebrated in a poem by Adhelm in the eighth century. described in the chapter on English work. by the is inwoven in them. is Aelfled's Durham embroidery. " Berthe aux grands after a long interval comes the mother of Charlemagne. See Bock's " Liturgische Gewander. round or flat also by the mode and dyeing the wool. This beautiful story is told in the language of the romance period. 4. The Empress Helena died in 2 the fourth century. pp. Among the earliest historical church embroiderers the the the as foremost figure is that of the Empress Helena." p. claimed in Wales and in Welsh being a ballad of " The Dream of Maxen Lwewelig" She is princess married to the Emperor Constans. who in the eighth pieds century was famed for her needlework. seated Helen watching a game of chess. ." and her grand-daughter Gisela followed in her footsteps.316 NEEDLEWORK AS ART. 133." by Lady C." p. in Welsh which Muratori speaks of as existing Vercelli in still the Church of it the seventeenth century. flax. and he quotes an ancient inventory of the treasures of Phillip the Good.

of Painting. and everywhere encouraged by the fostering hand of the Church. p. as there It is full of the is nothing Gothic to be found in it. to which the next chapter is devoted. 3 For the mosaics of Santa Pudenziana. see Woltman and Woermann. that we can form an idea by of the embroidered vestments of each period by studying them. . I 2 The most dalmatic carefully has been much restored. which are always quoted to prove that Greek art still century)." Translated by Sidney Colvin. and the patronage of papal and of royal and imperial houses. Like every good early piece of Gothic work in Italy. but. It lingering reminds us most of the mosaics of Santa Pudenziana. and emancipated itself at last from its poor and sordid condition and the Gothic phase of each nation attained to its own peculiar growth and characteristics and among them the foremost in the world's estimation was the English school of embroidery. the dalmatic of Charlemagne in the Vatican treasury. sometimes East.ECCLESIASTICAL EMBROIDERY. There has been much controversy as to the date of early art. traces of Greek art (not Byzantine). of beautiful. it is allotted to the days of Pope Boniface VIII. from its fulness of intention . Bock gives early illuminated books that are scattered over Europe. i. (thirteenth But when we examine this splendid relic we cannot doubt that it is of a much earlier time. "History . by education in the south. when it recalls some echo from the or some tradition of Greek art but the embroideries 1 j those centuries are almost always quaint all . 167. authentic illustrations as well as information about the finest Continental specimens. it evolved its forms. 317 Christian art before the twelfth century is very often rich. 1 believe. and the Dr. this is invariably the archaic phase of catacombs of Rome roused Born in the by impulses from the north. usually picturesque. survived in Rome in the eighth century. Early decorations of ecclesiastical dress are so thoroughly illustrated the ancient frescoes and mosaics in Italy. .

318 kept to the old NEEDLEWORK lines. said to have been the gospel at 1 worn by Charlemagne when he sang High Mass. (Plate 26. is beautiful and Lord Lindsay tells it is historically most interesting. our Lord in glory. and angels above. " Kaiser Dalmatika in der St. saints below. " Coronation Robes of the German Rock.) Some of the details are curious. These gorgeous vestments are engraved by Sulpiz Boisseree in 136. Lord Lindsay's History of Ecclesiastical Art. Peter's at Rock and others with the starry cross. St. The " Ibi et Ubi. but has been skilfully mended. in the sacristy of that beautiful light-blue dalmatic Rome. p." 1 This dalmatic must be ranked ecclesiastical embroideries. . The whole. and the emOn the front is broidery has never been transferred. worked on a thick." Parts of the design are so adorned with larger and smaller Greek crosses the shoulder is <( says.) Cola di Rienzi robed himself over his armour." It is singular that we find the starry cross and the zwastika filling alternate square spaces on the mantle of Achilles playing at dice with Ajax on a celebrated Greek vase in the Etruscan Museum at the 2 Vatican. On once embroidered the mystic zwastika. dark-blue. first and highest among (Plates 53. 2 Those who have seen. 54." On the back is the motive of this is the Transfiguration. " Appendix 4. I have referred to this design elsewhere. and followed by his horsemen and his truncheon in his hand " Terribile e fantastico. (called that of Leo III. with sounding trumpets before his crown on his head him.) . or purple." and far better by Dr. The whole " of the blue satin ground is worked with crosses parseme. which had entirely fallen into little stripes. and ascended to the Palace of the Popes after the manner of the Caesars. as art." i. with a border of children playing. us that in the dalmatic of Charlemagne. 55. in his splendid work on the Emperors. at the altar vested as a deacon. his Peterskirche. and on the numerals are the sacraments of bread and wine. satiny silk. It is AS ART. which is truly Greek.



3 6 rt 5 00 -03 CD > ctf CD H O r^S .

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PI.55- Details of Charlemagne's Dalmatic. . Vatican Treasury. Page 318.



Cope called " of St. . Silvester." Treasury of St.

thirteenth century. 56. Page 319. . English Embroidery.PI. Rome. in.



John Lateran. Page 319.PL 57- Portion of the Cope at St. showing its condition. .


<L> Co .I.




60. Page . Portion of the Cope of Boniface VIII. From Anagni. Now in the Vatican 319. twelfth century. Collection.PI..



and the loss of the border. in this case intersected and carrying by green shoots. The 3 give an outline of the pluvial from photographs. outlines in black silk. from its Gothic style. gold the draperies in basket-work and laid stitches the faces in white silk split-stitch. will Emperor in that church by remember how plentifully it is ' sprinkled with crosses between its exquisite embroideries. 2 3 Rock's " Introduction. and a finished woodcut of the centre to show the style and I condition of the work. something of infinitely finer it is noble.. It has suggested that the design is of the date of the is however. The hair. leaves. (< Boniface VIII.' 1 Signor says it Galletti. the fine split-stitch. (thirteenth century). John Lateran at Rome. the gold grounding. the day he was crowned 319 Pope Leo III. Exarchate. angels. simple Greek. with finely-drawn . is probably. . 55)^draperies The pluvial of St. style Charlemagne's dalmatic is embroidered mostly in It is. It has one peculiarity of it is English. the shadowy part of the and the clouds are worked in fine gold and draperies. Professor of Embroidery to the Pope. feet. . and the drawing are also distinctly English. been undoubtedly of the eighth century. it liii. the two cherubim clothed in peacocks' feathers. Silvester.ECCLESIASTICAL EMBROIDERY. Kindly supplied to me by the Father Superior of San Clemente in Rome. 54. which has regret p. " so as to make the vestment a real stauracin. one is convinced that dedicated to him." in the church of St. have a fine bas-relief effect. except as being perhaps On seeing it." This date is assigned to by Monsignor Clifford. 2 It never served St. The hands. we can only 1 The design is most beautiful. flat. (Plate 53. Silvester. English Gothic of the time of design in the canopies being supported by twisted pillars of vine-stems. and silver thread with dark outlines.

and by the form of the " Life panels enclosing the different subjects. It resembles in style and execution that of St. said to have come from the church of San Giacomo. and are very coarse Italian work. yet This shows how elaborate is how artistically arranged as a whole (Plate 56.320 NEEDLEWORK off. though There are doubtless many infinely designed (plate 61). T. ferred to museums. by the peacock-feathered angels. It is difficult to settle the precedence between this splendid piece of church decoration and the rival pluvial of Bologna in the Museo Civico. clusion that it is English. r of Our Lord. but there Appendix 5). were found the remains of a dress which is decidedly of an earlier date evidently of Oriental material. with gold groundings and both are embroidered on linen.) composition. AS ART. but its architectural arrangement contains six circles of subjects.) The Daroca cope logical belonging to the Archaeo- Museum at Madrid) is undoubtedly English." (Plate 59. in the Vatican came from the church of his native place. been entirely cut the design. 57. Clifford's list of embroideries in Some appear extremely ancient. worked like the other in silk and gold. from the We . On careful examination of this splendid work of art. I have come to the con.) The cope of Boniface VIII. Some are probably of the thirteenth century. can claim it by its peculiar shrine-work. where are still very curious old embroideries (see Hon. Silvester. (lately (Plate 58. is no sign by which they may be dated. teresting specimens still to be found in the sacristies of But they have generally been transItalian churches. but Anglo-Saxon work so exactly resembling in style that . Anagni (plate 60). and Rev. In the tomb of Walter de Cantilupe (eighteenth century) at Worcester. and the twined columns on the orphreys by the cherubim.

Embroidered Cope at Aix in Switzerland. From Tcmb in Worcester Cathedral. Page 320. 2.i. . of Bishop Walter de Cantilupe. consecrated 1236.


PL 63. showing the Scandinavian Filfot Cross (thirteenth century). . Mitre of Thomas a Becket at Sens. Jewelled Cross on Rose-coloured Cope at Rheims (twelfth century). Page 320.



From Tomb of Bishop William of Blois.PI. 64. Worcester Cathedral Library. died 1236. . Page 32 1.


A Gisela for her husband. . Stephen of portion of the Mantle embroidered by " Kleinodien. St. 65." Hungary. From Bock's Page 321.PI.

taf. and Germany first assumed a phase. though the Worcester fragment was taken out of a tomb of two centuries later. may have been reverently stored in the church treasuries . One of these mitres has. Gewander. to be English. ii. " been brought to England. the dress cannot be of a later period. (plate 63). As these garments were and as antiquity (without an historical interest) was then of no value. the canopy the Bayeux tapestry. or at least are of they proceeded coeval design. these old clothes. of Aix. holy by their use and office. Bock places its is gold thread. and indeed there no reason to doubt that this is correct. who probably had worn those very vestments. yet by their shabbiness unfit for public show. disposed of in clothing the bodies of departed priests. 1 that 321 we can hardly doubt that from the same workshop." 2 3 taf. It is to be found on the robes and mitres of St. When the date of the wearer of the garment is ascertained. we should incline to The fragment of the cope Bock's " Liturgische In the Switzerland." ii.ECCLESIASTICAL EMBROIDERY. and for some part of the twelfth. Both appear (Plate 62. " for the healing of the nations^" Bock. resembles that of embroideries. i. The faces and hands are in white silk all the rest between the outlines stitch. it is said. Y . and is simply the cross.e. representing the tree with twelve leaves. flat date as antecedent to the tenth is century. when officiating at the altar near which they were laid to rest.) In the eleventh century. of Canterbury (Thomas a Becket) at Sens 2 on the famous rose-red cope of satin embroidered with 3 Thomas gold and pearls at Rheims (which believe 1 is English) cathedral i. at Aix given by Bock. France. which may be called the metalwork style. xii. This is dyed in Tyrian Liturgische Gewander. but it may have belonged to a much earlier one. purple (rosy red). needlework design in England. Both are worked with a dark red outline on a red silk ground. The architectural part of these two work.

recovered revolution under Kossuth. of ecclesiastical art of the twelfth century. "Liturgische Gewander. till it received cruel injuries by being carried off and thrown into the bog of Orsava during the It was. this authentic the I'mperial Treasury at Ofen (plate 65). Bock. near Raab in Hungary. NEEDLEWORK AS ART. worked in gold on a purple silk material." i. say. Stephen of 1 Hungary. is in this style. and it is extremely beautiful. are also preserved under glass in the Cathedral Library at Worcester (plate 64). and it has been justified by its survival of 800 years. ibid. 157 the Jesuit Erasmus Frohlich. which is pre- we may served in Of story. The drawing of the figures of the Gisela mantle resembles those on the garments of Walter de Cantilupe (plate 62). 158.. found in his tomb. time having spared it owing to its perfect materials and manipulation. however. seem to be of this 1 2 160. which. ('He died in 1236. historical work we have the whole original design. and was worn by the present emperor at the splendid and picturesque ceremonial of his coronation The design reminds us of the mosaics in the Santa Maria Maggiore and other churches at Rome. from their design and stitches. Gisela. iii. indeed. The care with of Martinsburg.) Bock. carefully to be seen at the Benedictine convent abbey 2 The is coloured. quotes . work. taf. is the coronation robe of St. and. of William of Blois. which the work was carried out shows the value then placed on such undertakings considered as art.322 . and restored. apse of of the Durham relics of the beginning of the tenth century. at Pesth. with metalwork" ornaments in bands alternated with smaller medalYet the figures are not so finely drawn as those lions. Amongst the finest instances of ecclesiastical needle- ment. (1754. pp.) The fragments of this curious gar- evidently Oriental. decorated by his queen. p. drawn on linen. It consists of an " arrangement of medallions and inscriptions.

PI." II. of embroidered by the Page 322. . Germany. From Bock's " Kleinodien. Portion of the Coronation Mantle of Henry Empress Cunigunda. 66.


Emperor and his wife Kunigunda. Bamberg. in the lowest broad hem (border) has represented " the Present. and altered to the form of a The general design resembles chasuble. pp 165. gracefully intertwined. the heavenly hereafter. was transferred from its original purple silk ground to dark-blue damask. Apostles. consists of medallions great and small. 166. the queen. of which the borders." " " wheel 2 Modifications of the Of pattern (" wheel and plate "). and they have Lombardic characteristics. as we see it now. 323 The architectural parts are very like in design period. richly-embroidered representa" " The Saviour in His glory as Ibi et Ubi Victor over death and hell. The next finest specimen of ejeventh century needleof of work was the gift of Henry II. are the twelve of the Old Testament . Germany. 1 . those of the Bayeux tapestry. The figures are worked in Oriental gold thread on Byzantine crimson In contrast to silk. one of that of the mantle of Gisela. though they are infinitely to better." i. to the cathedral where it still exists l (plate 66). iv. It appears that Queen Gisela had personally embroi- tion of the dered this many-figured. the then Ibi. form a large 2 composition covering the whole surface of the imperial But in the fifteenth century it pallium it once adorned. the Ubi. See Bock's " Liturgische Gewander." by the leaders of the Hunin garian magnates and the half-figures of the royal givers large gold-embroidered medallions. and prophets below on thrones. This. Bock calls the style of these works Romanesque and he thinks that they show a Saracenic influence.ECCLESIASTICAL EMBROIDERY. these works of the tenth and eleventh centuries the fine Roman lettering in the borders is a marking characteristic. Y 2 . seated on the bow of heaven. again. " One of three costly garments.. taf. surrounded by choirs of angels and saints.

into which all talent had drifted. p. who were yet unfitted. Abbe Martin considers that in the thirteenth century the opening out of Gothic art was extended to the laity. till the luxurious arts invaded European domestic life from the seventh to the twelfth century. But this time it fell into the hands of architects and who presently banded themselves together into brotherhoods and guilds. Gothic art had till then only served the Church.324 NEEDLEWORK as I AS ART. 214. said before. Lombardic than anything be rather referred to else. life in the towns had first begun to develope its burgher 3 and to follow the fashions of other love of luxury. and had been by circumstances closed to the people. Bock's preface fpr further lists of Continental works and workers. i. . by their want of education. 1 Embroidery then became customary " in lay dress. There was no guild of embroiderers in England that incorporated in the reign of Elizabeth. 214. and the changes of forms in dress and countries. says that the splendid stuffs and embroideries were entirely consecrated to the use of the Church. however." i. and was really the sign of a great social revolution. 3 Bock. 2 See Bock's Liturgische Gewander. and their work was simply At that period social and dedicatory. who practised in it learned their craft with the rest of their education convents. furnishing which came from foreign parts. though freThis social movequently checked by sumptuary laws. for artistic 1 life. 2 Embroidery till the thirteenth century had been entirely in the hands of cloistered women. The reader is Dr. ment preceded everywhere political and religious revoluecclesiastical tions. that we know of till See chapter on English embroidery. to They appear. and the ladies other originators of design. Art was till then almost exclusively produced by the about monastic orders.



The foreign metal- work patterns are much lighter and more geometrical. . and have not the firmness and at the same time the fancy that we find in our own of the twelfth century . again." which the began was principally remarkable for its admixture of jewellers' work in the borders. resembling the hinges and spreading central ornament branching across the wood-work on our church English centuries doors." upon another and fastened down. as to give the look of a material woven with gold thread. 325 and lost its religious character. one material laid There are differences characteristics of the " of opinion as to the accepted in opus Anglicanum. We find that about this time throughout the Church the forms of ecclesiastical garments were considerably modified. it twelfth century to be celebrated.e. point out the peculiarities of the which so permeated the linen grounding. of the goldsmiths' than of the English embroidery of this style i. and the old traditional trabea was cut down to the mediaeval chasuble. 2 Some say that Some reliefs in give the attempt to reproduce the effect of basthe embroidered groups of figures others. or the imitation of it in gold thread. laid stitches in gold. 1 When we meet merit of church vestments.ECCLESIASTICAL EMBROIDERY. . we with this kind of design on foreign feel inclined always to claim the them for the English school. and made more comfortable for the officiating priest . or rather its religious monopoly. There is no doubt it was only used for church work. may " " We 1 2 See the cross on the Rheims cope (plate 63). and they remind us rather blacksmiths' craft. needlework of the twelfth and thirteenth had its own peculiar style of metal-work pattern. The has the character of " applique.

Mrs. according to Bock. to which were its then ingenious its 1 novelties. liturgical. of the class " This was ascertained by examining laid stitches. olden period anywhere to be found in Christendom. The border. each lending something to the design of disputed point is At Aachen. . as exemplifying sington Museum all the characteristics of the Gothic art of the period. its in historical. xli. but opus pulvinarium. taf. p. of splendid gold embroidery. is in naming the stitches. These are some of the as well as for the exquisite characteristics of the opus Anglicanum. as well for give this beauty as for opus Anglicanum ingenuity.) Rock. Angl. combined its value. " p. of the Royal School of Art Needlework. as being texture and the splendour of the it. in Switzerland. 1429. 297. which has been already alluded 'to.326 fairly NEEDLEWORK say that all AS ART. Duchess its remarkable for pure gold in jewels of Clarence." Introduction." the back of the material under the ancient lining by a most competent judge 3 in my presence. 1 work. only add here that the one error into which I think he " " has fallen. has the pattern fine flowers of jewellers' ii. the arts went Ciampini says hand in hand. and so a longset at rest (plate 67). (ii. Appendix 6. there is a very remarkable pluvial of one kind of opus Anglicanum. Alban's Abbey by Margaret. "Liturgische Gewander. heraldic. Bayman. Rock's study of this piece of thirteenth century work " in his Catalogue of the Embroideries in the South Ken" is most interesting. 222). The are diapers of not opus plumarium. and textile aspects. one of the this work most beautiful among the liturgical vestments of the the . The Syon in cope. A. xxxi. emble- I have ventured to tranmatical. aesthetic. 2 I will scribe the whole of this notice in the Appendix." Dr.D. cites from Mon. xliv. " and is also. the vestments given to St. and precious stones its set into beauty of 3 3 embroideries. these. completed in (See Bock. that in the twelfth century. (now one of is the treasures of art a perfect example of Kensington Museum)." Textile Fabrics.

perhaps. 2 of that period . to have been equally used for processional decorations. more ingenious than artistic. In the we stained mosaic glass in church windows see the reflex of the flat illuminations and embroideries art new of and while these were being influenced by metal-work. p. &c. we should say a similar adaptation from the sister art. 1 There are some beautiful specimens that If it is true that in the days of the Greeks and Romans the art of acupictura or needle-painting copied pictorial art. There was a clever and artistic mode of stuffing and embroidered design. In the appear Middle Ages painted hangings imitated hangings. the others. While England in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries was exciting the admiration of all European artists by the imitation of bas-reliefs in needlework. has 1 often-reiterated theory. (Whether they greatly profited by such exchanges I cannot but is another question. or. and woven See Bock. was so led in the twelfth century is very apparent. This we Painted hangings and embroideries learn by specimens from the tombs. a similar inroad into the sister art of sculpture.. however. painted linens imitated embroideries.ECCLESIASTICAL EMBROIDERY. such as the figures. the coats-of-arms. by the arrangement of the light and shadows in the " lay " of the stitches.) agree with Semper's This. vol. especially in Bavaria. so likewise in the Egyptian early times. 327 always been the case. and were considered as legitimate 3 embroideries art. and by a little help from the pressure of hot irons. painting was being transferred again to textile art. to accentuate its apparent indentations. was going on in Switzerland and Germany. while textiles were seeking to emulate reliefs in a forced and unnatural manner. i. . or the emblems of the Passion. 10. pictures being woven as well as embroidered. in sacred subjects in imitation of raising of the important parts of the high-relief. that textile art was a leading influence arid constant suggestion to all art from the And the way that ecclesiastical decoration beginning.

decoration. of which the subject is " Tree of Jesse. have been evidently designed in the School of Cranach. the the chasuble at Coire in the Grisons. sculpture. down the crudeness of the masses of light. Glass painting. toning cast. in the cloisters of Santa Maria degli Angeli." exhibited at Zurich. I will only mention the orphrey. rather than as a rival to There is no doubt that it generally superseded textile hangings. which excites interest and perhaps amusement rather than admiration. of which we have no notice till the tenth century. and tinting the walls and pavements on which it was coloured glass came into general use. however. because of colour for the large traceried it supplied the want windows just coming into architectural design. there is no doubt of the coincidence. and the little triptych This in the museum of the Wasser-Kirche in Zurich. which is certainly German in its design. is the exquisitely pretty. The designs 1 are reduced to a compromise between painting. shares many of the rules which hitherto had applied only to embroideries. and needlework. . Whatever may have been the cause.328 NEEDLEWORK AS ART. 1883. applied embroideries of the north of Germany were evidently inspired by the newly-discovered art of 1 When The Exhibited in the " Esposizione Romana" in 1869. they yet show the mistake of mixing different forms of art. and the avoidance of pictorial effects (especially any perspectives) show that it was intended for conventional mural painting. last is The finest. Flatness in the composition. altar-piece belonging to Prince Borghese at Rome. It was intended to give colour and interest to those parts of a building which otherwise were cold and lifeless. Beautiful as these few examples are. embroidered hangings mostly disappeared.


Church of St.PI. designed by Polaiolo. In the 329. An embroidered Panel. and worked by Paulo da Verona. Giovanni at Florence (fifteenth century). Page . 68.

and heraldic designs. is of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. of every variety of stitches. nearly akin to textile decoration. (see The 378. 101. as an instance. i. 316 Germany (" History 339). preceding the Reformation and its iconoclastic effacespirit of ments. Vasari. give. ed. the costumes being of the date of Henry VII. this we may remember examples in the Scandinavian Exhibition at South Kensington in iSSi. where great artists did not disdain I to design for textiles. ajid saints form a most . glass-painting. and it continues still to produce the most splendidly executed compositions in gold and silken needlework. pp. medallions accompanied by beautiful foliage. both in the Of compositions figures and heraldic subjects." vol. 1 All the most beautiful and picturesque needlework that we possess of the true ecclesiastical Gothic type.ECCLESIASTICAL EMBROIDERY. knights. . but rather suggesting patchwork or cut-work than legitimate embroidery." Monce. perfection of the embroideries of Flanders of that period has never been exceeded. just before the the Renaissance crept northward over Europe. This remark especially applies to 2 England. They remark 1 in painted glass as early as the ninth that the character of painted glass is that it is essentially flat and unpictorial. v. The Flemish work and its peculiar mode of laying golden grounds with flat-laid thread stitched down in patterns was carried into Italy. and of which belongs to the perfect flowering of the art. And doubtless there is an analogy between the two. Vasari's account of the embroidered set of vestments designed by See Woltman and Woermann. post}. is illustrated to us by the palls belonging to several London companies and by those belonging to churches which artistic especially that of the church at Dunstable. in court ladies. The as art of representing Scriptural subjects in flat stitches. p. 3 " taf. 329 and resemble its designs. who quote evidence as to works and tenth centuries in France and of Painting. border p.

Paolo da Verona. Spain. however. of artistic taste.330 -NEEDLEWORK AS ART. Antonio Pollaiolo for the church of San Giovanni at These were carried out by Paolo da Verona. There is no doubt. who Chapelle. but the technical styles part of the art of embroidery for the churches lost none All the talent of the artist and the ingenuity of its value. surrounded by her adorers on their knees. unorthodox. As a spirit. I might almost say irreverent quote Bock's accusation against Queen Mary of in Hungary. and was enthusiastically cultivated by women of rank and position. preserved at Aix-la- Queen Heaven. who still gave of said to have represented herself as the themselves to the productions of beautiful decorations. which the old designers had so faithfully adhered. and to the other for his patience master . though they no longer confined themselves to ecclesiastical motives. and of incomparable The figures are no less admirably ingenuity (ingenio). so to speak. with the needle than drawn by Pollaiolo with executed and thus we are largely indebted to one the pencil. and But the solemnity of these works was certainly Italy. fifteenth century the Gothic were replaced by the Renaissance. (plate 68). Florence. a man most eminent in his calling. impaired by their being emancipated from the traditional priestly garments. is her embroideries. . " embroidered by they the most subtle master of the art. France. that needlework aspired in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries to the highest place in art. in and ecclesiastical forms to and their accompanying symbolism. Ecclesiastical decorative art became. of the craft continued to be lavished on altar decoration Towards the end of the Flanders. " for his design. and took twenty-six years for their completion and were only one set of vestments. I proof of this secular.

_o 6 p^ r ~a "o "rS H > a CO .


Burgos. Segovia.ECCLESIASTICAL EMBROIDERY. and Barcelona. Riario. had her own workshop of embroidery. and. and assembled around them noble damsels for this purpose. 1 These Spanish embroideries forced their way by their gorgeousness. In the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries the Spanish embroideries (adopted and modified in plateresque Flanders and in France).. They varied their effects with pearls. and the chasuble of Valencia. in spite of their want of real beauty. " dress of the " Virgin del Sagrario at Toledo. 250264. and catalogues of Loan Exhibition by him South Ken- sington Museum series. embroidered with pearls. Pictorial design now asserted its dominion over needlework. just as it had been influenced in the eleventh and twelfth centuries by metal-work motives." pp. Granada. which The 3 See "The Industrial Arts of Spain. though she was much despoiled during the Peninsular War by her French invaders. and precious stones 2 (plate 69). Sicilian and Neapolitan ecclesiastical needlework showed the Spanish taste of their masters. who lived in an atmosphere. before then. Spain. Don Juan F. Riario 3 says that Toledo is a perfect museum of the work of the sixteenth century. but not its is a fine altar-frontal of the plateresque Spanish. The works of Spanish Queens and Infantas are to be seen at the Atocha. by Don Juan for the F. corals. spent their lives in preparing and overlooking fine in their own apartments. superseded the graceful Renaissance of the classical taste. worked with corals. artistic Anne of Brittany. 2 1 See plate 69. show how profusely these costly materials were employed. sister Louis works XI. consisting of heavy gold and silver arabesques of mutilated vegetable forms. the church of the Virgin del Pilar at Madrid. Gabrielle of 331 of Bourbon and Isabella. Toledo. . yet still possesses of the finest ecclesiastical some work in the sacristies of Seville. which accepted it. 1881. by the art of mosaic.

NEEDLEWORK The use and we may in AS ART. and beads l prevailed. sold to Spanish merchants at the Reformation. essentially 3 Then a return to the classical social." i. taf. next. emanating from anything but ecclesiastical motives. taf. after its long wanderings. Flanders. general affix its date and its origin to each specimen by the silver largely used in the two also by the kingdoms of Sicily and rarely elsewhere extreme brilliancy or rather the gaudiness of its of pearls. the their " own bastard Moorish-Gothic " . Peter's at Rome. which was a revolt against . xi. I give its history by Dr. about sixty years ago. Spain. x. since the beginning of this in There are most interesting examples of Scriptural subjects Bock's 278. 239 These are of the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries . frivolous. now at Valencia. "Liturgische Gewander. robes of Continental sacristies. English ecclesiastical work came suddenly to an end at the Reformation. we may remember the mosaic altar frontals throughout the basilica of St. 2 But the church decorations of France. and elegant. and the cope in the Museum at Madrid. 6. for the last 300 years. gone through all the variations of lay styles. the " " Louis Louis Quinze and the Quatorze." followed by the Louis Seize. pp. and not serious. The Syon cope also was returned to England. and finally. 208. First." light. 2 fifteenth century bead-work in the South Kensington The splendid embroideries from Westminster Abbey. . but frivolous style. pp. and Italy have meantime. Rock in the Appendix 3 For examples of this ornate and graceful. 207. colouring. What was not destroyed is to be found in the possession of the old Roman Catholic families who have religiously collected the residue. coral. Renaissance's semi-pagan (so-called) arabesques then the Spanish plateresque. and we have some good Museum. Germany. of the 1 Empire . . are instances of these exportations.332 perfection. preserved by concealment or by being overlooked and in the ward.

thoughtful One motives of these hidden springs and ancient underlying was that the symbolism which gave a religious intention to the provided smallest design for the humblest use. are ourselves striving to reconstruct We it must be of some use to understand the hidden which once raised ecclesiastical embroideries. are dignity and decorum. that I cannot but give a short notice to the subject under in art is this aspect. springs and especially those of England. Sacred symbolism is a subject to which I have alluded more than once and it has played such an important part in the construction and growth of ecclesiastical art. utterly meaningless and uninteresting. A. worthy to adorn the house of God. object which us that the symbolism of Scripture texts was given to the world in a book by St. It the eye of an representation suggests something else besides itself. Rock's " Catalogue of Textile Fabrics. especially in our church decorations. the Dr. cxxxvi. Symbolism is what metaphor to is in speech. 1 See Dr. and to be for any rate. as wanting in ecclesiastical glad to believe that we some sort of style that shall be able to express poetical and At religious ideas. entitled Hexameron. to a conglomerate. . 170. p. ." South Kensington Introduction. Basil in his homilies on the six both days of the creation." x In the tells Rock fourth century were produced two great works on Scriptural symbols. Melito. centuries valued as monuments of pious industry and art. Museum. The Key.ECCLESIASTICAL EMBROIDERY. and thaf by St. that of St. Bishop " Its title is of Sardes. lawless imitation of forms and well as styles.D. Ambrose . its purpose was the service of the Church. so high as objects of beauty. 333 century.

meet till We deria this centuries. divided into branches and Lapihad frequently more than one and each type meaning. These symbols had many of them a distant source. The crowned lily was always the special emblem of the Virgin. represents love. dominion.. pp. emblematic meanings in the expression of pagan faiths. and the rose and had been. Volucraria. fire-sticks of the prehistoric cross. as I have already indicated. vii. p. stones in a breastplate. subject at every turn in the succeeding in the twelfth we find it formulated and Bestiaria. vi. 2 All these were utilized. second wife of Henry I. The tree of life was Babylonian the horn. 1 The pearl. Persian the of other inner . also the "House' of Judah . emblematic meanings of stones is constantly alluded to in the Old Testament. innocence. that The Bock's " Liturgische Gewander. life . emblem chastity. In the Ashmolean Museum at Oxford is an 1 illuminated copy of Philip de Than's Bestiarium. Thus a lion represented power. a high authority and most ancient descent. for Adelais. that the lily the stem of Jesse. . the Trees and flowers had also their symbolical meanings. sovereignty." vol. Their symbolism has.. so that their already accepted uses should be helps and adjuncts." a hare the emblem of man's soul a peacock that of wisdom . taf.NEEDLEWORK AS ART. The ruby The twelve Israel. 385 392. therefore. . Egyptian or Indian . 2 composed 477. instead of impedito the appreciation of divine truths in the same " all that was and of good repute " in way lovely the belief and morals of the ancient peoples. the woodbine for for religious ecstasy.334 . and the composite animals representing many qualities." i. reasserted ments . (many-eyed). though we are not aware of their being recorded in any mediaeval book. vii. We know that the twelve tribes of vine is the tree of . the sacramental stands for purity. Ninevite (probably Accadian). "Cyclopaedia of Bible Literature.

white. j . and is said to be formed of two fire-sticks (for producing fire by This is almost universal friction) laid across each other. the Cross. "The Ancient Use of Liturgical Colours. was claimed by the new teachers as types The symbolism of colours has been and antitypes. as well art. x/ * . or Egyptian sign of life. of ecclesiastical embroideries. over the doors of the Israelites at the i first Passover. and gold. Levitical law. and claimed by the Rabbins as having been the sign in blood.ECCLESIASTICAL EMBROIDERY. archaic. blue. and their meanings are discussed in the chapter on colour.) . said to be the double of the Tau. in prehistoric. 335 and purified. 1879. The five mystical colours. Christian Church inherited from the and continued faithful to them till introduced green and black." earliest The form of the prehistoric cross. classical. all The symbolism as that of being intended to illustrate the truths of Christianity by the teaching of the eye." (Parker. the great symbol of our faith. purple. and Christian art to the is thirteenth century. before the Reformation never allowed any but the original five modern Roman use The Church of England the mystic colours. as has been already stated. 1 always considered very important in liturgical decoration. which stopped the hand of the angel of death. naturally drew to Christian itself all its prehistoric forms as being the prophetic types of the "true cross. are These the red. is supposed to refer to the worship of the sun. The " next most ancient form a broken cross. This afterwards was called the " Gam- See Clapton Rolfe. thus.

that the transmission and The cross adoption of the symbolic form is evident. See chapter on patterns." from it NEEDLEWORK its AS ART. endless varieties were composed to suit the ecclesiastical taste and requirements of different I refer styles of symbolical decoration. its and was " England of the " likeness to the arms Isle it Man). 2. 97. Birdwood." by Sir G. xxii. . 103-4. " 3 (plate 65) is from the Rheims. is to be found throughcalled in out Celtic and Scandinavian the fylfote" (from of art. added to that of the Crucifixion. and likewise the Gammadion. my readers to plate 26 in the chapter on patterns for a few of these from different sources. was also said to symbolize the " corner-stone. embroidered with gold and pearls on a rose-coloured satin ground. 1 named in ancient Church says this See "Indian Arts. and likeness to a doubled Greek gamma. He form fire-stick 2 is the sign of the Buddhist or Jainis. apparently a modification of l ' that of the fire-sticks. I i . a good mediaeval example." though shows another source than the Greek letter. and celebrated rose-coloured cope at is taken The Roes is an ecclesiastical pattern of wide use and often of very long descent.336 madion. i. They are extremely sugI have there entered more gestive. ante. fully into the subject. 2 " cross bearing twelve fruits for the saving of the it is so like some of the representations of the Persian or Indian Tree of Life. national regarding The nations as a fertile pattern motive in textile art. From these three forms already in use. Revelations chap. v." The third commonest form. and that the 3 form was that of the Sokti race in India. p. p.


Sixt fine Of an earlier period. No date givei Page 337. 2. century. In the Wasserkirche Museum.PI. Zurich. 70. IVORY CONSULAR DIPTYCH. I. and workmanship. . at Halberstadt.

became consecrated art as representing the heads of the nails of the Crucifixion. inventories. of the garden of Eden. first The Christian times the heads of saints were sometimes inserted. Plate.) and its peculiar decoration remained in possession of the " palmated. the togce pictcz. from the intersticial ornament between the have written the is Roman so (p. worn in the processional return of a conqueror." though it is difficult to descriptive name discover in it any likeness to the palm branch or * In mediaeval times the cross " in a circle was sometimes called the sign. 1 It was the filled with a radiated ornament like sun (probably the first motive of this pattern. and hence in its early Christian name. but it certainly was adopted by the Romans as the motive of their triumphal garments. z . 308-9) about the Trabea. I of the Roes called the chrysoclavus. and containing In figures which had a reference to their purpose. may have been connected with the pattern The called the clavus. originally .ECCLESIASTICAL EMBROIDERY. which seems to be the same as the Egyptian sun-cross. whether he were a general Its origin is motive was a surface covered with circles. and the chrysoclavus. " It is 337 sometimes called the " Wheel and probably Oriental. especially in that form circles. from being in Christian merely a nail pattern. very ancient superstition that driving in a nail is a fortunate rite. which on consular ivory diptychs of several centuries invariably embroidered with this same clavus pattern (plate 70) that we must conclude that it had a meaning and a tradition. and of the four rivers flowing from it (see "Atlantis"). " clavus " (^jr ! 3 I* was tne same as an Egyptian meaning " land Donelly fancifully claims the sign as being that (plate 26). closely touching each other. or a sovereign.

and their traditional having by their dedication to the gods assumed a in Sicily 1 religious character.338 tree. (necessarily incomplete from want of space)." which Its use very ancient. No." The stitchery of Christian art has been discussed In the upper part of the Halberstadt diptych. by the victorious general. i. it was laid by and dedicated in the temple of Jupiter Capitolinus. . " the " gens togata are sitting on Olympus. either This was approisolating or supporting spiritual figures. unless it NEEDLEWORK is AS ART. For forms and patterns we cannot do better than study Bock's liturgical chapters and their illustrations. Rock. Bock. triumphal patterns. and the comparison of many specimens in collections and exhibitions Auberville absolutely places in London and elsewhere. priated by ecclesiastical art. clothed in such purple garments embroidered with the chrysoclavus. Indian. I is " have elsewhere spoken of the cloud pattern. and mediaeval. After it had been worn at the gorgeous or festival. also called the toga picta. Chinese. i. 1 See plate 70. in his beautiful book on Tissues. and were repeated and Spain down to the beginning of the fifteenth century. precious purple fabric was covered with embroideries. before us the materials as well as the patterns of the weaving of the Christian era. is founded on the works of Semper. in has always been for celestial subjects embroidery. Thus these palmated decorations. as well " as Dr. No. or the Emperor. it supposed to resemble as seen from above. were woven for Christian ecclesiastical use during the dark ages. the distriumph The toga triumphalis was because its guished noble. as well as fragments of Egyptian textiles. and we find it nowhere else in Europe. Rock's Church of our Fathers. This sketch of the history of ecclesiastical needlework.

there was a total cessation of embroidery. in 339 the chapter on stitches. Rome still dresses. and I repeat that there is nothing new in the treatment of solid embroideries. the museum In the of the Louvre. after so long a period of abstention. The obliteration of embroidery from the list of the arts was more complete church of England than elsewhere as the continued to be adorned with beautiful work on altar-cloths and frontals. (lace stitches having been the only innovation of the last 400 years). and glass.ECCLESIASTICAL EMBROIDERY. which had. and have employed the womjeifs needles to give colour and beauty to the decaying churches. and priest's in . especially. Z 2 . is causes. home have shown us what a latent power architects in art embroidery still preserves. against the puritanical bareness and coldness of our national forms of worship. though too much regulated in design by the lay tastes and fashions of the time.wood. Its revival in England. every others . though many of the ancient stitches have lost their distinctiveness. for nearly 2000 years held its own as an art. and fallen into a its pitiful style by gradual descent which reached early part of this century. have combined to keep up a traditional school of needlework throughout Exhibitions abroad and at the Continent. which have been restored to their original architectural effects by careful copies of what remained in . which. apart from of this all commencement perhaps a secondary one yet mixed up with refinement and luxury of civilization. as well as to the aesthetic sentiment which protests. stone. our nineteenth century. as is lowest point in the shown by the robes in embroidered for the coronation of Charles X. As ecclesiastical decoration I owing to many have already attributed it to the archaeological tendencies of our day.

and fail. should show as much beauty as the means and taste of the community one in which all can command. Mary. in Surrey. calls for the first key-note in colour to be struck. E. and to these a few remarks may be addressed. tints). and in many small churches we have seen beautifully embroidered altar decorations. carved or plain. built and adorned by the late W. There are. of beautiful and effective works. Street. She consults the architect. shines is imminent. such as the altar-cloth at Durham. church has just been restored. Such works have revived the impulse of artistic and ecclesiastical taste. who probably is also an artist. fresh and the whole space looks poor and bare. and hurriedly 1 I would instance the little church of St. . The rich woman of the neighbourhood sees and feels that colour is wanting (for the windows must wait till their use as pious memorials fills them with glowing The central point of the whole edifice. for by pleading in is more careful design. and who are yet not educated sufficiently to design a really thoughtful and beautiful work of art. and where to seek for assistance. religious opinions that the building in the parish which is set apart agree. in more also given rise to the than one semi-conventual establish- ment. The number new churches has production. the altar. splendid altar-cloth is the fitting instrument. It expenditure upon once more a received the usual church dogma ecclesiastical art. many amateurs who are perhaps mistresses of the craft of needlework.340 NEEDLEWORK of AS ART. and those at Canterbury and Worcester. however. and in less parsimony adornments. at Feldy. Perhaps the little . that of worship. or from the foundations the consecration completely rebuilt The white stone. which shall begin 1 may show them how they I help the struggling aspirants. for the first public duty. and the design is agreed upon. and a and cold.

and is conscientiously worked out. its value receives an enduring quality. an empty shell forgotten. is not less eloquent than her sister-arts in the teaching of divine lessons. and appealing through the Embroidery .satisfies the eye nor the mind. but the mere want of time for due consideration often results in the common- is to place ornamentation. or the Arabian meaningless. conveying no idea. if for there is not a moment it be ready for the opening day. It may be beautiful. which is The sense and the emblematic meaning are nonsense. 341 to lose drawn and carried out. and the conventional form is alone retained. and should always retain a meaning. simply because it is worked in a language unknown to the worker of undeciphered hieroglyphics One sometimes been selected. while to the unlearned it conveys no meaning. of which the pictured words seem to have been copied at random for their prettiness. Therefore.ECCLESIASTICAL EMBROIDERY. and it sometimes is so. finds that a conventional form has which the emblematic intention it originally expressed has been forgotten or overlooked. If the motive of the designer is evident. of reminding us of the Graeco-Egyptian inscriptions. and has no apparent motive or meaning to give it value. that I I become tiresome but I repeat it here. and reduced to the low purpose of being a pretty pattern. and its present interest is enhanced. and convey more essentially fear to . have so often said that a pattern always originally possessed. solemn traditions and allusions. . vague and unintelligent. which neither . it is read as absolute nonsense by the ecclesiastical archaeologist. lettering on some of the ancient Sicilian textiles. as in ecclesiastical design it is more important than elsewhere the meanings are deeper. It is often only a mere bit of colour and a mediaeval pattern.

was freely given as the the dark and mediaeval duty of a life. It belief that was from pure love of the art as a craft. The cloistered men and women worked for no wages dants . The art of illumination had in general kept a little in front of that of the painter. I would point to their " universal enjoyment of the Pilgrim's Progress. . among our own peasantry and mechanics. and besides. Like the silkworm they spent themselves and by their industrious lives were surrounded in their living graves by the elaborated essence religious j of their i own natures. and embroideries. account. 1 while the very name of the artist was forgotten. But another and very serious is its its deterioration costliness. the good of a man's soul. their and from abundant leisure. for one particular object. the thoughts which are individual to the artist can only be expressed by known forms and colours. beauty of form and colour to the poetical instincts of the congregation. a joy and consolation to themselves. Hurry cause of In is' fatal to art. As a proof of this. neither to benefit themselves nor their descen- that was given to the convent hardly for fame. of which the least educated members almost unconsciously it is feel the influence . and illumination and embroidery went hand in hand. even as the poet must employ the words and the metres already accepted by the literature of his language. when placed within their reach. illuminations. such as was needed for carving. and the it was a good work in which they were engaged. the people are always alive to the charms of symbolism.342 NEEDLEWORK AS ART. which had the credit of patronizing and producing art. time was of no Skilled labour." In the symbolism of art. where they have been cherished for centuries. . ages. that they were enabled to evolve the lovely creations which delight and astonish us when shown in the sacristies and treasuries of foreign houses and churches.

the colours and materials. the motive. Sometimes we feel obliged to take the design forced upon . and design. and we have only time to select among those that are for sale. with uncongenial surroundings. The work is poor because it must be done quickly. sometimes as a thank-offering. nor one effectually to organize and overlook the any Possibly work. can find we cannot give the time ourselves. yet Though the intended for a different place and use and thus we fail to produce any effect. The colours are bad. need to be each carewe perhaps accept an ancient drawing fully studied. as well as the stitches. whereas governs all his attempts to adorn the altar . 343 appeared as and a legacy to the consoler. To them. with the " that it will do. akin to a woman's addiction to fine clothes. design. in its love of ritualistic vestments. us by a shopwoman as ignorant as ourselves. because cheap dyes fade. however simple and devoid of ornament. and that one careless The High Church. art But to return to the grievances of to-day cheapness and hurry. common . all time. has sometimes been prejudicial to the general adoption as there is a of properly studied altar decorations requires its own special colours individual motive of the giver. prehensive. sometimes as a memorial.ECCLESIASTICAL EMBROIDERY. . also. suspicion that a clergyman's personal wish for ornament. and we cannot afford to delay and pay for the extra hours necessary to make the stitches worthy and capable of lasting. besides the and people forget that the whole effect in any such compositions must be commistake spoils all." submissive hope Now to a truly artistic mind it would appear that each little church. economy of pence and hours these often are the bane of the work which we give to the Church. and none others can be had without much trouble.

find a precarious living by . The decorative designer. has no education and it is almost impossible to find in England an artist to accept orders for thoughtful ecclesiastical designs. something funereal in the white linens and black Geneva silk. no status. whether they are to be dedicated in the Minster. and search into the principles which may apply to all ecclesiastical embroideries. church decoration is so much the custom of our day. .344 NEEDLEWORK AS ART. starve probably has been starved out long ago. perhaps. in spite of prejudice. in the furnishings most beautiful building set aside by the community for But it the glory of God. there is. therefore. according to the higher wages of the time. . ceeds in obtaining employment. ground Now that. and there often is. Hundreds of boys and girls are " freehand drawing/' and having copied some taught casts and lithographs and drawn some flower-pieces. We The skilled artisan who is no artist. it must be highly paid for. receives enough to feed his family. the clergy are duly robed in the orthodox surplice and scarves. the village Church. but the designer for metal-work or embroideries occupies an and barely earns enough to The illuminator has ceased to exist he would live by. effects that there should is not necessary for beautiful be any coloured vestments. is highly paid. but yet the traditional When white and black have their of altar-cloth own value against a back- and reredos splendidly coloured. a real artistic feelof the ing for the fitness of things. must begin by remembering that in these days. if we cannot do the work ourselves. there should be. having. without any particular aim. it is worth our while to consider seriously how best to carry it out. The woman's slow stitchery has to support proas many claims. and yet it is always grudged as bably The sculptor or the painter who sucbeing too costly. unrecognized place in art. or the home Chapel.

ECCLESIASTICAL EMBROIDERY. 1 Crewels. such as are again woven in imitation of the old fabrics gratefully acknowledging all that Pugin. or groundings worked in with gold thread. and all those that fray easily. materials which are easily spoiled by sunshine. i. selecting judicourageously copy ciously what is most suitable for our purpose. are not salient in their effect. 345 designing frightful wall-papers for the million. The ecclesiastical artist should be well informed in the obtained. beautiful as they are. have done in . and smoke. and gold brocades. and if that modes of working a design. it is worth while to weigh the claims of the architectural low-relief raised surface. Woollens are not the long lived. from whose lives all ambition and originality Still a have been effaced. as some stitches of themselves convey the meaning of shadow. Silks. let us seek for the most beautiful textiles. we may from ancient models. shadow on the All flat raised stitches by the tool to the sharp edge of stone or wood carvings. and cast a sharp motive. especially if edged with a cord. are 1 The fine brocades of velvet and gold. other. The stitch if selected without experience may mar the effect of the whole composition. In ecclesiastical work which is intended to be effective in the distance. and others that of light. of which we find examples in . Ruskin. especially those at Lyons. Let us avoid those revival of woven designs. If we can afford to give to our church without stint. satins and velvet. and it is much more striking than in stuffed work (on the which has not the incisive effect that is given stamp). beautiful original design can sometimes be is beyond our reach.e. with an edge sufficiently accentuated to catch a light on one side. dust. These poor creatures. a flat conduce also to this effect. are our decorative artists. and the foreign manufacturers. as well as perfect in detail.

The precious metals may be confined to small desire to accentuate. or the edges of the orfreys. or they in the parts we may be entirely replaced with fine silk work. we ought to take into consideration what is suitable for the surrounding architecture. NEEDLEWORK AS ART. are still reproduced to order at Lyons. is beautiful. so the centres of palls. either pure (( but have each their in own value. The altar-cloth we desire to present. and other ancient gems in perfect keeping with the high and the rich screen. Mark's. the fretted roof and gorgeous reredos. may be simply a that we may choose any design that will agree gift. St. much intention. the majestic altar-cloth or frontal. such as the spaces cross in the centre. Florence. and capable of keeping them for Plushes and worsted velvets are unworthy. and a notable one in the celebrated Stoneyhurst cope." or else the Chinese or Japanese gold threads which differ in The gold we employ must be colour. Peter's. and never Pure silver. can be kept bright In composing the altar decoration for the cathedral or the village church. as make it yet a work of art. the work be as in larger refined and and the gold as pure. indeed they are worthless.346 . fit to receive them. brilliancy of our decoration. even the coal smoke of London. . as works. Genoa. the only materials worthy of bearing fine embroidery. In great spaces. passing. shining with gold and silver. centuries. thread which pervade it. tarnish. recalls the splendid altar palli in St. too. and glowing with silken embroi" " encrusted with deries. Such . and in The Florentine is distinguished by the little loops of gold Spain. clustered ornaments of a great cathedral choir. churches and is glories are unattainable in the modest But though we may subdue the village church. and with bread crumbs. we should try to The design may have individual. if it is really pure.

We would be a mistake to imitate Anglo-Saxon ornaments in a church of the flamboyant style. it is 1 enjoined. may prefer any subsequent style. white silk worked in gold and silver. 2 the crimson for Saints' days. the white for Christmas and festivals of the Church : Easter Sunday. but not one anterior to that of the architecture. should be made available for enhancing its effect. to produce a festive and gorgeous For a funeral. and being of none. shown near the more glowing tints of silk. or light gold of the altar frontal.ECCLESIASTICAL EMBROIDERY. Woollen embroideries or tapestries are the most usually selected for The As this either this The softness of fine crewels is well purpose. it should be subdued or else contrasting. separating and isolating all colours. the purple for Good Friday. Perhaps the altar-cloth we are discussing may be intended as a sort of votive offering. The purple is not one of the five mystic colours named. or the screen curtain behind the altar. reredos. purple or violet silk or velvet. 1 included in blue. or parseme with conventional spring For a marriage. flowers would be appropriate. with palms and the crown 1 These would serve at the of thorns in gold or silver. 347 with the date of the building. and If this is white. or a mixture of all these. ritualistic critic need not object . blue and gold. velvet. a wedding. and therefore the most to it. as well as for enlarging the area of textile coloured decoration. coloured. or a funeral. was This shows a true appreciation of the effect of the metal. effect. the reredos hanging should be of dark or richly In the English ritual gold was permitted wherever white. is intended for a background. rose-colour. or gold-coloured silk. in juxtaposition with that which it is intended to supplement. crimson. For the first. a memorial of a It baptism.

The pulpit and reading-desk. Anciently. Durham. Ross for from vandalisms committed by the dean's wife. for example. and (probably) hangings. with their small cushions and veils. and beautiful worked covers for the books. I is often should recommend the young ecclesiastical de- signer to study the principles which guided the authors of some of the fine Gothic examples remaining to us.348 . " Mrs. as well as the very few fine All these have their brilliant altar-cloths still existing. Waghorn. is dark. 1733. was a marvellous construction of wood and gilding. such as . metalIt was as wide as the work. worked material the frontal give opportunities for repetition of colour which required for picturesque effect. . the ornaments for the which we timidly reduce to church decorations however. Whittinghame. so that the central and seventh candlestick (that from which the new fire for the year was kindled) was so near " fine convenience through the the roof that there was a of the choir of The paschal quote Mrs. S. the opportunity for displaying costly embroidered gave hangings. such as the great Stoneyhurst cope. though the author is most concerned in relating the I said roof of the church for the help of lighting it. . and the palls of the different London companies." a rare book printed by G. and as high as the building. (often. This little book is full of interesting matter regarding Durham Cathedral. who evidently had no culture/' and a strong turn for appropriating odds and ends. and effective treatment they are intended to be glorious. " lateral" of the choir. and of either represent massive jewellers' work or tissues different floral wrought gold. very beautifully planned and executed). services. NEEDLEWORK if AS ART. the contrast should be preserved by hangings of tender shades.

" " Looking at it from a distance. it appears that the fair sumptuous furniture of white linen the " for the communion service always requires softening of the edges by fringes. till Dame Whittinghame t( did most having on it a cross of red velvet. wrought with flowers in green silk and gold." and of divers vestments wrought and set round about with pearls. by cut-work If a white embroidery. both stoles and flannels. Cuthbert in the seventh century (he died and was buried is ! woman at 657) was supposed to be endowed with miraculous powers and was carried into battle on many occasions as a banner. and fringed The corporax cloth was inserted with red silk and gold." One feels as if this woman were spiteful. with little silver bells in the fringe. ground for embroidery is required.ECCLESIASTICAL EMBROIDERY. Holy Isle in This banner was of crimson velvet on both sides. fortunately preserved to us the description of the banner " of St." This was carried into battle. " injuriously destroy the same in her fire. 349 tombstones. nothing is is more beautiful than linen. or by thick lace edgings. her memory is kept quite the contrary to green by Mrs. of which colour . &c. all textile substances possess something (excepting cotton) . as well as stupid. should be represented by the nearest approach to no but it is more agreeable to the eye by its being tempered with a suggestion of the natural tint. in the centre. But for her punishment. and other curiosities which she deemed valueless except for her own purposes. such a a real archaeological misfortune The corporax used in celebrating the mass by St. Cuthbert. and gives also an idea of the good and " the changeable suits. Waghorn's careful which has at the same time record of her iniquities . and covered with a square of white velvet. in art. most artificially worked and fringed. White. especially if it not over-bleached. embroidered silk.

suppose you content interrupted his proceedings by saying. Edging the material and finishing it with its own loose ends is a very ancient custom and we can see from the sculptures of Nineveh that they were great in that city in the art of fringe-making. source. 1 Its motive and raison d'etre is the disposal of the threads . it makes it look as from another this part of the decoration. the eye is annoyed by" seeing a deep fringe of one or two colours traversing the whole widths of the frontal and super-frontal. when they made their hangings for the sanctuary. warp when it is cut out of the frame these being and knotted symmetrically. bells. ii. silk gives a beautiful. quite irrelevantly. . yourself with what you have taken. that . and without any reference to the masses of colours. become an artistic decoration instead of an untidy tangle of threads and thrums. example p. friend. trimmed with bells. woven or embroidered. left to his church a stole embroidered with gold and garnished A with So rich were the fringes at that epoch. priestly garments were often enriched with splendid fringes. above them and the consequence of this carelessness is. who died in 915. already quoted. " " in Bock's Liturgische Gewander (plates xli. shining brightness. became aware that while he was lost in praying He meditation a thief had ripped off part of the fringes of his mantle. I think a few words should be said about the fringe. It stands to reason that an added fringe should be arranged with reference to the origin of the decoration. and the Israelites. before they have passed through the hands of the fuller or the chemist. 297). one day in the church. Bishop of Elne. xlii. vol. that King Robert. Corporals and veils for the pyx used to be of white the linen. varied." Union " My For a fringe with bells. and leave the rest for some other member of your guild. of the tied . trimmed them with fringes. and the moment we think of it." See " Histoire du Tissu Ancien. independent of the composition if came which 1 Under the Carlovingians. xliii. embroidered with white silk or linen thread . see the beautiful Central des Arts De'coratifs.350 NEEDLEWORK AS ART.

or hanging beads or cups of different colours and gold. and this applies especially to ecclesiastical design.ECCLESIASTICAL EMBROIDERY. To work full resume. the Sanctuary in the wilderness were fringed with all of attached ornaments. The fringe should belong to the whole design. blossoms. relegated. matching exactly textile. the fringe should be the ground of the one shade. church money grudged. as I have elsewhere said. it 351 ought to supplement. The design nor yet should be stitching perfect. the most serve to give present effect. flowers. with silver bells. Cuthbert's corporax. for all the colours. and the matechosen for tints. once more urge that neither time nor trouble be spared let if me in . The celebrated pluvial at Aix-lahas a fringe of gold bells hanging to a gold Chapelle 1 The veils of cord. Remember that no inferior substitute will intention. is all the better for being to a certain degree circumscribed. . and be carefully fitted to the spaces occupied by the colours above it. or at least they should be so balanced as to produce that effect. These laws serve as the frame which 1 encloses the its Resembling the fringe of St. as the threads necessary to account employed to form the woof would naturally disappear at the sides of the web. which amalgamates with the pattern. Design. knops. The sections of the fringe should be skilfully arranged so as to reappear at equal distances. as well as those of good taste. nor will it last into the future. It may be relieved by clustered knobs. which sounds extremely pretty. of rials possible. bells. and fruit. and regulated by the laws of traditional usage. for endurance and carefully smoothness. each of its compartments or divisions being filled in with those tints which are most conspicuous in the general design and would show It is not effectively in the warp. If this is impossible.

selection of must make a judicious and what to avoid. the eagle I need of St. as well as what is possibly a descent and failure from a higher type. and . a complete whole. we may yet extract greater benefit for ourselves. facts new and There is so much already formulated and admitted. or restored. motive thought. hardly enumerate all these legitimate Then there is the lay heraldry sources of decoration. the sword of St. Paul. the Andrew. Besides the symbolism . and which memorializes the reign of the monarch when it was begun. the architect. John. . lilies of the Virgin. and sometimes this material for that of the sculptor. we have all the and can repeat and vary the emof we are working for is The keys of St. and makes admit of no amplifications. finished. the cross of St.352 NEEDLEWORK it AS ART. Peter. We what to imitate general rule. appreciate their historical and archaeological value. by criticizing what is imperfect. and profit by their experience an opportunity of studying ancient embroideries missing and while we admire in them all that is admirable. and the area in which we may gather our materials is so large. that can for the New symbols should not be adopted except of or altered circumstances. that we need not seek for more than we find under our hand. heraldry of the Saints blems of those to whom the church dedicated. Now as our forefathers accepted all ecclesiastical design. so we cannot ourselves do better than imitate never them. remodelling it to their own uses in different centuries. which belongs to the history of each church. dogma. ready for use. and the pious work and care of the founder and benefactor. I should warn the young artist " " " quaintagainst the imitation of naivete and so-called As a . expression these can but seldom enter into liturgical art.

" 353 ness it is . Yet we contemplate them with a smile of conscious superiority. half-way between admiration and it contempt. something difficult. These are the Syon cope. are most instructive. the Sainte-Chapelle at Paris. though we look on with a tender pity. or King's College Chapel at Cam- infantine progress towards Such sculptures and traceries as those of the Piiits de Moise at Dijon. such as is seen in the splendid forms and adornments in stone. bridge. gold. and the Chapter House at Such embroideries as Southwell in Nottinghamshire. 1 very interesting collection of liturgical . and embroideries of the thirteenth and silver. or those of the Cathedral of Toledo. and expressing a difficulty only partly overcome." especially in our designs for Church embroidery as it hardly a noble quality in art. rather felt than perceived. and its textiles. types worthy of all praise. nor devoid of a certain dignity. full of instruction The Kensington Museum in its offers us endless help and suggestions vestments of every date and school illustrated 1 Rock. not entirely ungraceful.ECCLESIASTICAL EMBROIDERY. when we find struggling to inevitably in mediaeval of work . fourteenth centuries. conventionally holding a book. at last culminated in a Christian art. This valuable collection of textiles is so ancient and therefore os that it seems a pity to send portions of it continually travelling A a . by the inventory of their learned collector. that time a But those efforts long time would. appreciating our own refined sense of their merits and l> something good. glass. frail. and they are to the student of ecclesiastical art. Such splendours as the windows of Bourges. and did evolve. Dr. and the Borghese triptych. and giving a blessing with overcome the expression a conventional twist. We find ourselves putting our minds into the attitude of the artist who conceived those figures with arms conventionally growing out of the encasing garment.

dogma. heraldry of the Saints blems of those to whom the church dedicated. the sword of St. the architect. and the pious work and care of the founder and benefactor. hardly enumerate all these legitimate sources of decoration. the Andrew. that can admit of no amplifications. motive thought. We what to imitate general rule. and profit by their experience an opportunity of studying ancient embroideries missing and while we admire in them all that is admirable. or restored. selection of must make a judicious and what to avoid. ready for use. Then there is the lay heraldry lilies of the Virgin. and makes it a complete whole. There is so much already formulated and admitted. Paul. which belongs to the history of each church. as well as what is possibly a descent and failure from a higher type. and sometimes this material for that of the sculptor. so we cannot ourselves do better than imitate never them. Besides the symbolism . by criticizing what is imperfect. and these can but seldom enter into liturgical art. I should warn the young artist " " " naivete and so-called quaintagainst the imitation of As a . and which memorializes the reign of the monarch when it was begun. appreciate their historical and archaeological value. and . the cross of St. John. and the area in which we may gather our materials is so large. we have all the and can repeat and vary the emof we are working for is The keys of St.352 NEEDLEWORK AS ART. Peter. that we need not seek for more than we find under our hand. . the eagle I need of St. remodelling it to their own uses in different centuries. finished. Now as our forefathers accepted all ecclesiastical design. New symbols should not be adopted except for the expression of new facts or altered circumstances. we may yet extract greater benefit for ourselves.

gold. These are of all praise. and its textiles. 1 very interesting collection of liturgical . or King's College Chapel at Cam- infantine progress towards Chapter House at Such embroideries as Nottinghamshire. We find ourselves putting our into the attitude of the artist who conceived those figures with arms con. and they are full of instruction types worthy bridge. and embroideries of the thirteenth and silver. nor devoid of a certain dignity. frail. at last culminated in a Christian art. the Sainte-Chapelle at Paris.ECCLESIASTICAL EMBROIDERY. that time a But those efforts long time would." especially in our designs for it is contempt. Dr. the Syon cope. and giving a blessing with a conventional twist. by the inventory of their learned collector. and did evolve. it to overcome the expression minds inevitably in mediaeval work of something and expressing a difficulty only partly overcome. and the Borghese triptych. Such splendours as the windows of Bourges. rather felt than perceived. or those of the Cathedral of Toledo. appreciating our own refined sense of their merits and ' something good. are most instructive. " 353 ness as it Church embroidery a noble quality in art. not entirely ungraceful. half-way between admiration and . The Kensington Museum in its offers us endless help and suggestions vestments of every date and school illustrated 1 Rock. This valuable collection of textiles is so ancient and therefore os that it seems a pity to send portions of it continually travelling A a . ventionally growing out of the encasing garment conventionally holding a book. glass. Yet we contemplate them with a smile of conscious superiority. though we look on hardly with a tender pity. fourteenth centuries. when we find struggling difficult. and the Southwell to the student of ecclesiastical art. Puits de Such sculptures and Moise in traceries as those of the at Dijon. such as is seen in the splendid forms and adornments in stone.

Vienna. all these endanger the preservation of what can and damp carelessness in never be replaced. For those who can go further in almost every Continental town. and Munich . and especially from those of the ancient of Oscott Roman Catholic families. of the . through as more. collected from the treasure -chests of the neighbouring churches and country houses. that we about the country may as a thousand years or plead the hunger for truth. and has only survived till now because quiet and darkness in which it has lain for centuries. there is so little that remains to us. Florence. which can be employed on new works by careful Most of these belong to the selection and adaptation. if But only for the satisfaction of archaeological curiosity. the reckless exposure to floods of sunshine even when they are protected from dust by glass. packing and unpacking above all. and the many for loan exhibitions. heat. or even that of the air. Berne. this opening of shrines and disturbing the ashes of the illustrious dead. Toledo. Aix-la-Chapelle. by purchase many fine relics of the craft. so few textiles have survived the friction of use. and many styles. In the library of that museum are to of the learned works on these subjects be found many by French and German savants. and showing endless varieties of design.354 NEEDLEWORK AS ART. each and all have stores Halberstadt. and have generally been taken from the tombs of kings and bishops. Rome. Milan. The colleges or by gift. Berlin. which are most afield there is instruction liberally granted for exhibition. of beautiful liturgical objects carefully preserved of many dates. Rheims. The exhibitions in the English counties are never without a case or a room full of embroideries. seems to savour of desecration. except where it has hitherto been protected by the It sanctity of the tomb. Sens. and Stoneyhurst have collected. Change of climate cold. are fragmentary. eleventh and succeeding centuries any earlier examples .

Redeem truth from his jawes. or the lettering on the web of which it is composed whence . A a 2 . copie fair what time hath blurr'd. as art all. but these decorations are to be carried out at I . and the survivals which are the best exponents of those principles to guide us in the works of our day." v. 1 now George Herbert." l Before closing this chapter. "The Churchyard Porch. If studious. 355 eager desire for proofs of identity and verification of historical legends. and preserve it under glass. I and if it theologically. by pointing out where they may find the principles which have been the spring and life of mediaeval art. we reverently cut 11 a fragment. which are to be extracted from the shape of a garment. 15. I would wish to observe that I have entered into the subject of church decoration in no ritualistic spirit . do not treat feel that I am it duty or pleasure rendering a service to those whose is to provide them. from the pattern on the border.ECCLESIASTICAL EMBROIDERY.

like our language. anterior to that of the Phoenicians and the Greeks. to seek its root. the Accadians. There is every reason to believe. The overlap of the Asiatic civilizations over the bar- barism of Northern Europe shows that Assyria 1 1 as well " The people of Babylon. who borrowed their art of writing. ENGLISH EMBROIDERY. and is now received in these later years as the original form. and probably their culture. which may have been the centre and starting-point of the western civilization of Accadian civilization was Asia. and become again the heritage . the I have become convinced of the great superiority As information of our needlework in the Middle Ages. the more more have seen of specimens at home and abroad. from the evidence of the animal remains of the Neolithic Age (including those of sheep). had a written literature and a civilization superior to that of the conquering Assyrians. However. THROUGH moderate the preceding chapters in I have tried to my predominant interest our national school of needlework. I give a short I account of English embroidery. that they came with their masters from the central plateau of Asia. is mixed. Our one of repeated conquest. about our own art must be valuable to us. or has formed itself by grafting upon the stem full of It is interesting vitality already planted and growing. and we can early history only observe where style has flowed in from outside. In England our is art.356 CHAPTER XI. seeking to place it in its just position alongside of the coeval Continental schools. and therefore the origin of our own.

500 B. made of stone.ENGLISH EMBROIDERY. pushing the threads of the warp on the weft show that it was woven into linen on some sort of loom. Yet. the craft of spinning and the use of the needle were 1 practised by the women of Britain. Harkness and Stuart Poole. They have been preserved with but little variation from that period down to the present day in certain remote parts of Europe. 66. originality. pendant from. and which were probably 2 imported into Ireland as early as the sixth century B. or bone. commonly met with in Neolithic habitations or tombs." p. jewellery " connected by.C. to have been made of flax and the combs that have been ." p. France. By some he is supposed to have been a contemporary of Hanno. pottery. in modern times by the complicated machinery so familiar The spindle and distaff are proved by the perforated spindlewhorls. we our- customs and ideas. Four thousand years ago these people possessed a culture which in many of its details resembles " that of our country and time. M." Boyd Dawkins' "Early Man found for in Britain. even at that early period." Assyrian Life and History. by 1 " The arts of spinning and the manufacture of linen were introduced into Europe and drifted into Britain in the Neolithic Age. of mankind. The thread is proved. It has been said that Assyrian art was destitute of and to that of the Accadians. From Ireland we have " curious relics as witnesses of their presence amongst others. There is some confusion in the 2 imperfect record of the voyage. touching at the Scilly Islands and thence sailing to the coasts of Cornwall and Ireland. and of the third century B. or chains. but I think that the evidence of the Etruscan ornaments I have mentioned gives more than probability to the truth of Pliny's account of the expedition of Himilco from Gades. 357 as Egypt was a highly organized empire. similar to those Trichinopoly dug out of Etruscan tombs. I am aware that the presence of the Phoenicians (or Carthaginians) on our coasts has been disputed . but it is difficult to interpret it otherwise . 275. . and have only been selves owe our superseded to us. and the Mediterranean peoples far advanced in the arts of life.C. first which they adopted. by discoveries in the Swiss lakes. and Scandinavia. . while the Neolithic man survived and lingered in Britain.C. Our first glimpses of art may have come to us by Phoenician traders.

I give the following amusing tradition. and that it contained no Greek or other classical element. see also Perrot and " Phenicie et t. .'' .) For a contrary opinion.358 In the Bronze linen or woollen NEEDLEWORK AS ART. and afterwards through the Celts. he acknowledges that the geography of Britain was well known to the Greeks in the time of Alexander the Great. which was probably founded . and from and Scandinavia. Fragments House barrow of these at Dr." the voyage of Pytheas in the fourth century B." p.C. (See Boyd Dawkins' " Early Man in Britain. though native to the soil." p. 1 Before this time the Cymri in Britain probably wore they also sewed together the plaited grass garments skins of animals with bone needles. Caesar invaded England forty-five years B. " Cypre. His illustrations explain and give great weight to his theories. We owe to Pliny and Strabo the few fragments from Pytheas that have been rescued from oblivion.) 1 See Rock's Introduction to " Textile Fabrics. Rock says that an ancient Celtic barrow was opened not long ago in Yorkshire. 457 461 . in the Scale homespun. "L'Histoire de 1'Art dans Chipiez. differing before the Roman civilization . and to Pliny the " Dictionnaire d'Histoire et de notices of Himilco. Dyeing and weaving were well understood in Britain before the advent of the Romans. and was naturalized here by the Romans. see Elton's Origins of English Elton ascribes the first knowledge of the British islands to History. in which the body was wrapped in plaited (not woven) woollen material. however. (See Bouillet's Geographic. 1'Antiquite." pp. Hemp and flax. 2 The than that he touched at several points north of Gaul. Age the chiefs and the rich men wore have Rylston.C. iii. 2 xii. Linen perhaps came to us first through the Phoenicians. were not employed by the early Britons. . Anderson (" Scotland in Early Christian Times ") gives a high place to the forms of pagan art which prevailed in the British Isles. in been found Yorkshire. We influencing that which must certainly allow that came from it was art. 48.

and so to Rome. benefited little by their civilization. ed. hee consecrated to Venus a surcote of Brytaine pearles. During the first four centuries of our era. and removed all they valued at the time of their exodus. Semper says like that the early tribes of Northern Europe." . all art m and Britain must have come from our Roman masters . like a conqueror. was. the desire whereof partly moved him to invade this country. em(polymita) and an probably the fur was inside. From them we know what they found and what they left in Britain. made it Roman ." (Stow's "Annales. 359 civili- Romans gave us Christianity and the rudiments of zation. illegal for in the fourth century. says that British pearls are grey and livid. the North American Indians of the present time. describes Boadicea's motley tunic. nobles wear extravagantly. 1 who " and the skins embroidered outside. and statues.worked of fur robes set perhaps the fashion in report Boadicea's dress had the Rome." 1 p. 14. but their attempts to Romanize us met with little success. 1634. where his return out of Brytaine. Probably they imported their luxuries. somewhat crude and on the times. says that the bulk of the people wore what was apparently a chequered tartan. 12. xii. chiefly of small bronze colonial. with a great number of prisoners after sailed into France. " See Rock's Introduction to Textile Fabrics. as we know appears from the remains of their architecture. the day of her defeat wore a tartan dress broidered "or " fur " mantle . embroidered their to The Emperor Honorius. in the Agricola p.) Tacitus. mosaics. owing to their neglect of the people they conquered. All is we that it that of their decorative art in Britain. Boadicea.ENGLISH EMBROIDERY. sculpture. Queen of the Iceni. fur wraps. with few exceptions. Dion Cassius. of which " Then celebrity of the English pearl embroidery of the much went to Rome : Anglo-Saxon Caesar.

44. it is likely that she had learnt her art at home." pp. accompanied by Belgic pikemen arid Batavians from the islands in the Rhine. 316. member that. the Picts.) Semper. with an ivory sceptre and crown of gold oak leaves. Brittany. 1 NEEDLEWORK Of their textiles if AS ART. and the Saxons. the Gaels. on which was " Woman embroidered the image of our Lord. the prince of the Atrebates. ante. See p. and bearing turrets slingers Claudius filled with and bowmen. . fastened Augustine (546) came to preach to the Anglo-Saxons. and the Roman legions were despatched to settle the matter. No. The dress of Claudius on his return from Britain was purple. and to dazzle the world by the echoes rather than the facts was " of the triumphant victories in the land of the wintry pole. he to a cross. was caused by the squabbles between the Comnenus. p. relics. p. The second invasion and neglect of invasion of Britain by the chiefs of the different tribes. crowded and settled in Britain when the Romans left it in 410. carried before him. the Scots. vol." marched with elephants clad in mail. and hardly the works of the we have no any recorded. at war with the sons of Cunobelinus (Cymbeline). the all Gauls. Romans. ante. and Ireland. 296.360 tombs. chaos ensued. We must reEmpress Helena." pp. (See Elton's Origins of English History. On the departure of the Romans.) Probably this was Roman work. St. 297. 53. 1 These are the poor results of the Roman Britain during their occupation." pp. 243. (See Mrs. " Des Ori- gines Traditionnelles de la Peinture en Italic" (Paris. after " nearly four hundred years of misgovernment. who had called in the Saxons to help them. 133. Also see " Les Dues de Bourgogne." part ii. which last they Christianized and mingled the art of the Germans and Celts with that of the Danes and Norsemen 3 all . A. in token of a former victory.D. note. See Louis Viardot. He took his grievances to Rome. (See p. 134. One officer alone was entitled to wear a tunic emThe Celts. Lawrence's in England. ii. were 2 know of we except by them driven into Wales. " Der Stii. Muratori was born in 1672. as she was a British princess. 306 2 308. till the Britons. When . 316. under Claudius. and he says the Empress Helena's work was 3 in existence in the beginning of the eighteenth century.) had a banner. 1840). broidered with golden palms. and therefore that the women of England were already embroiderers as early as the beginning of the fourth century. 4092.

time that England and began to crystallize and when. living near Whitby. various colours. " filled not with purple only. 200. 2 The thralls (slaves or serfs) Quoted by Mrs. Then came the invasion of the Danes (ninth century)." delicate thread of purple. but at that time weaving. of in 709. in praise of virginity. moved here and there among the thick 1 He had himself a robe " of a most spreading threads. that their works were celebrated on the Continent.ENGLISH EMBROIDERY. "Woman in England. of the thirteenth century. perfection in needlework. in which are inwoven the arms of Scrope. literature. Adhelme. and arrested all artistic improveEarly in the ment. but with of their shuttles. became Anglo-Saxon. "In their chamber. died He wrote Latin poems. order and a sense of beauty were in the course of development. (See Rock' s "Church of our Fathers." This may or may not have been woven in England. besides spinning and weaving. is in the Lambeth The MS. Wright says of the Anglo-Saxon women. adorned with black circles and peacocks. 1390. which the most important. in the number of girls and taught them to produce admirable embroideries for the benefit of the monastery. Planche'. also his Introduction to " Textiles. collected a Anglo-Saxon lady named Aedelswitha. the ladies were employed in needlework and embroidery." p. Lawrence. as well as needlework. xxvii. who robbed." by Thomas Wright." ed. was the delight and occupation of the ladies of the court and of the cloistered nuns. having been thirty years a bishop. 49. . contains his portrait. But the earliest English tapestry I have seen is that in York Minster. Bishop of Sherborne." p. See Strutt's " EngLibrary." History of Manners in England during the Middle Ages. 1 lish Dresses. 273 . law. No. from one of Adhelrne's Latin poems. one kingdom was formed out of the heptarchy.) 2 An Bock speaks of Hrothgar's tapestries. Bishop of Sherborne. p. till Alfred got rid of them for a time. sixth century. destroyed. under Egbert. seventh century the women of England had attained great art . 52. This appears from a passage He speaks in a poem by Adhelme. and the Saxon ladies were so skilful in this " art." p. See Appendix 8. embroidered with gold. which may be traced in 361 the Irish remains to be seen in the From the College Museum at Dublin and elsewhere.

describes in his notice of St. and is adorned with the richest golden orphreys. ed. A. her ememployed witchery in her needlework." t. 325 ante. Stubbs. burned them. enriched with pearls and silver bells. Mrs. Anglo-Saxon work. p. 1 She says the term " broiderie" was reserved for the delicate works on fine grounds. " Litur"Acta Pontif. 1000. p. There is an Icelandic Saga of the thirteenth century which relates the history of Thorgunna. 296-7. 3 Christian subjects 1 . 1699 . many persons after her death. See Mrs.362 NEEDLEWORK AS ART. and proved fatal to. and enrichments in metal work. with embroidery in thick worsted. quoting Th. Lawrence's " Woman in England. a woman from the Hebrides." i.D. and dress whereas the hangings of the house were of coarse canvas adorned . The English Dominican Friar. Stubbs. which exactly resembles that of Aix. also Bock's 2 gische Gewander. p. and broidered hangings were coveted by. 272. 212. Twysden. See Rock's "Church of our Fathers. Appendix 9. p. silk and fine linen were the materials for altar decorations. Th. Precious stones and pearls had already been introduced into the Byzantine and Romanin esque designs imported from Greece and Rome. 2 This is spendidly engraved in " " in Von Bock's Kleinodien amongst the coronation robes of the Emperors of Germany. imitating jewellers' work." 3 i. writing the thirteenth century. probably they embroidered also. who was taken to Iceland on the first of Oswald a chasuble She settlement of the country by Norway. ii. till one of her inheritors English ecclesiastical art did not necessarily keep to for it is recorded that King Wiglaf. vestments." ii. . and p. Lawrence sees reason to believe that in the seventh century. Th. in silk and gold and silver thread. were employed in weaving in the houses of the nobles.


PI. " Aelfled fieri precipit Episcopo Fridestano." Page 363. Cuthbert at Durham. 71. which together bear the inscription. . One of the ends of the Stole of St.

Page 363. St. 72. Durham Embroideries. St. tenth century. John. . Roger.PI.


p. is named by Ingulphus. " Wiglaf's veil English Dresses. wrote. besides costly books and copies of the Scriptures. 183. especially those of the order of St. Stewart. They evidently continued their relations with foreign art." and that the latter was em1 broidered with scenes from the siege of Troy. kept the sacred flame of art burning." The Benedictines drained the marshes of Lincolnshire and Somer- setshire to to France artificers employ the poor in the eighth century. During the terrible incursions of the Danes. 3 painted.ENGLISH EMBROIDERY. 363 gave to Croyland Abbey his splendid corona" tion mantle and velum. 2 ed. Both monks and nuns and embroidered. though our only acknowledged superiority over Continental artists was in the workrooms of our women and the cells of our religious houses. 57. and the many troubles that accrued from these barbarous and idolatrous invaders. rather than a survival of the classical legend employed as a pretty 1 motive for decoration. 14. might learn from them. the convents and monasteries. 7. for it is difficult to say at what period the Norman style began This could hardly have been intended originally for an ecclesiastical It sounds as if it were a stray fragment from Graeco-Roman purpose. see his 3 Church of Our Fathers. xxi. of Mercia. . It was probably on account of such derelictions from orthodox subjects of design that in the eighth century the Council of Cloveshoe admonished the convents for their frivolous embroideries. Strutt's 1. Jameson's " Legends of the Monastic Orders." pp. we may claim that we were then no . Benedict. and brought back from his seven journeys cunning in glass and stone. See Rock's " Textile Fabrics. p. 3." pp. in order (as -is expressly said by Bede) that the ignorant See Mrs." also for Council of Cloveshoe. See See also " Historia Eliensis. longer outer barbarians. St. p. as others learned from books. Bennet travelled and Italy. in view of the great advance of these secondary arts. 2." " . 56. art. 2 In the eighth century our English work in illuminations and embroideries was finer than that of any Continental school and therefore. illuminated.

It to be introduced into England. Cuthbert. The better perfection of details and patterns was succeeded by Anglo-Saxon ingenuity and refinement in drawing the human figure." is an embroidered stole and maniple to Frithestan. She ordered and gave in Saint by Dr. how much was destroyed tion of the ninth. and of which we may well be proud though we must remember with shame . tenth at the Reformation. which was native to England. he bestowed on it many rich gifts. was the outcome of the Romanesque. perfection of needlework art (plates 71. adding to itself from outer sources new strength and grace. and visiting the shrine of St. andof the Bishop of Winchester. son of Alfred the. The history of this embroidery " 905. remains to prove that our English art of illumina- and eleventh centuries was very and we are not surprised therefore to find in beautiful. Great. may be judged by the rare examples that we possess. which are solemnly enume- . and that of Edward. and of this. . at Chester-le-Street. The art. which in I life and springtide of many points preceded and surpassed that from that period of other northern nations." are of the most perfect style of Anglo-Saxon design and the stitching of the silk and of the gold grounding are of the utmost embroidery library. Enough however. The stole and maniple of the Durham cathedral which bear the inscription " Aelfled fieri precepit pro Episcopo Fridestano. by command of Edward the Elder. 72). Raine in his Frithestan was consecrated bishop carefully elucidated He says that Cuthbert.364 NEEDLEWORK AS ART. as we arose commonly called the Dark Ages. different phases must have come to us through the Danes and the Saxons. then king. Athelstan. After her death. Ours was a gradual -development. Aelfled was Edward the Second's queen. the embroideries of that period grace and artistic feeling. cannot but dwell on the early our Anglican Christian art. made a progress to the north.


Oxford. 73. Bodleian Library. r J St. From his Missal in the Dunstan's Portrait of himself in adoration. . Page 365.PI.

" See Rock's "Church of our Fathers. See "Calendar of the Anglican Church. 50209. on which she had embroidered She was the ancestress the heroic deeds of her husband. " Mus. Parker (1851) " St. 2 wise celebrated embroiderers. . MSS. Claud. 3 is that of an illumination of the Greek or Byzantine than Anglonotices of St. wyrme. and the ninth century. is said to have designed needlework for a noble and pious lady. Mr." by J." p. The style is rather Saxon. Brit. worked with her name and the record of her act. and his almost contemporary biographers great proficient speak of him as a poet. with spaces left vacant for needlework emBeautifully drawn majestic figures stand in niches on rainbroidery. Cuthbert's relics. stole. of a race of embroiderers. Dunstan was not only a patron of the useful and fine arts. D. She gave to the Northumbrian chieftain. with a maniple Among and two bracelets of gold. 270. and directed her work. H. fol. ante . Raine describes it " of woven as being gold. also see Rock's Introduction. cathedral of Ely. Cuthbert. here give the portrait of our celebrated early designer See Raine's " St. and their pedigree will be found in At this time a lady of the Queen of Scotland was famed for her perfect skill in needlework.ENGLISH EMBROIDERY. and so skilled a worker in : metals that he 4 made many of the church vessels in use at Glastonbury. A. rated in the 365 iv. ." p. Aelfled. where his headless body lay buried. 21-6. These embroideries. one girdle." 1 bow-coloured clouds. Cott. painter. may fairly be said to be proved. a large cloth." That the stole and maniple these are one are those worked for Frithestan by the command of his mother-in-law. 924^ He pre4 I pared and painted a drawing. 2 For further " Materials. Cuthbert a famous in 1 1827. see chapter on effect Appendix 10. Another and earlier Aelfled was the widow of Brithnod. to execute in gold thread. or hanging. AedelSt. were taken from the body of St. Archbishop of Canterbury. but also a in them himself. and the four daughters of Edward the Elder were likethe Appendix. cxvii." pp. Dunstan.D. and musician.

churches. a city " the Khalifs. or iridescent called materials. The Danish Queen Emma. and which represents him kneeling at the feet of the Saviour (plate 73). in the Bodleian Library at Oxford. 70. we have notices of sundry other very remarkable pieces of work. and which almost vied with their own. were then time manufactured at Tinnis in Egypt. It was bouqualemoim. with golden orphreys at When one considers what the side and across the top. and herself embroidered King Edward's coronation mantle. and again during her second marriage to Canute." The original was written in the middle of the eleventh century. the Art poor Queen Emma was. and vestments covered with golden eagles. Duke of Normandy.366 from the NEEDLEWORK AS ART. daughter of Richard. She worked one 2 altar-cloth on shot blood-red and green silk. " History quoted from Ingulphus' of Croyland Abbey. being then a Christian. " 1 Strutt's English Dresses. and had been some now effaced. Queen Editha. one hopes that " came to her in the form of her favourite the Consoler and that she did find consolation in it." and employed for dresses and hangings for See Schefer's " Relations du Voyage de Nassiri Khosrau. When our in the eleventh century the Normans became they found cathedrals. Shortly before the Norman conquest. Canute. said to be by his own hand. gave the finest embroideries to various abbeys and monasteries. joined her To Romsey and Croyin these splendid votive offerings. the wife of the Confessor." 2 Shot. life of " Croyland Abbey seems to have been most splendidly endowed by the Anglo-Saxon monarchs. likewise palaces masters. dispensed beautiful works from her own workrooms. There is continual mention in the records of those times of offerings of embroideries and other Church apparels. when she was wife to Ethelred the Unready. . Aelgitha. p. cxi. in the beginning of the eleventh century. land they gave altar-cloths which had been embroidered 1 by his first queen. MS. craft. p.

woman. and Of the mantle which is in my chamber. relates that the Normans were as much struck on the Conqueror's return into Normandy with the splendid embroi- dered garments of the Saxon nobles. 1519. and vestments of surpassing beauty. Gudrun. My my I two golden with emblems to come now give the one which is adorned the lamp before the great altar. 73. 32. left in her will." See Rossignol's " Les Artistes Homeriques. to the Abbey of " the Holy Trinity. Queen Matilda. 1 William of Poitou." Fol. Paris. it as English. 72. They seem to belong to the same period. Duke Brithnod. and hung in a church in Iceland. and the history it commemorates. he yet leans to other equally good authorities who consider the work as being coeval with the events it records. Worcester. and elsewhere. as with the beauty of the Saxon youth. Queen Matilda was not the originator of the idea that a hero's deeds might be recorded by his wife's needle. cited by Louis de Ronchaud in " La his like the Homeric emTapisserie. 367 sculptures." suspend to the earliest large work remaining to girdles. Penelope wove the deeds of 1 2 Ulysses on her loom. which he assigns to the Empress Matilda. 2 See Duchesne's "Historise Normanorum. embroidered hangings. The Saga of Charlemagne is said to have been embroidered on twenty-six linen. and it is suggested by Aristarchus that her peplos served as an historical document for Homer's " Iliad." p. tunic worked by Alderet's wife. so weak are the hardly Though designs and the composition of the groups." pp. Rede Fowke gives the Abbe de la Rue's doubts as to the accepted period of the Bayeux tapestry. Chaplain to William the Conqueror. though the childish style of We which it is a type is indeed inferior in every way to the beautiful specimens which have been rescued from tombs in Durham.ENGLISH EMBROIDERY. Mr. to make a cope. broidered the history of Siegfried and his ancestors. and Aelfled that of the achievements of her husband. both on account of the reputed worker. I must claim us of the period the Bayeux tapestry. ells of . illuminated books. who evidently appreciated Anglo-Saxon work.

368 NEEDLEWORK AS ART." 1 In the end of the eleventh century. buildings. Strickland suggests that the artist was perhaps Turold the Dwarf. " " Leivede 2 ed. &c. this reason is of the same opinion. twenty inches wide. are all of the eleventh century. are delineated the events of English history from the time of Edward the Confessor the landing of the Conqueror is to at Hastings. sent through the Abbot of St. is only a piece of presumptive evidence the earlier date. where is spoken of as working auriphrisium for King Edward and u : his Queen. On 227 feet of canvas- linen. Though in worked. Miss A." this seems hardly justi- fied when we look at the simple poverty of the style. " because of the energetic action of the figures . Alban's to Pope Adrian IV. See also another entry under Wilts. and cannot compete with the against internal evidence in its favour. Abbess of found in Markgate. . or The word "orphrey" (English for auriphrigium first Domesday Phrygian gold embroidery) " " Alvide the maiden receives from Godric Book. and our ancestors were no archaeolo- Mr. That the tapestry is not found in any catalogue before 1369. writing of embroidery. under head of Roberte de Buckingham. Christina. Bruce fancies the design to be Italian. and always drew what they saw around -them. who doubtless valued them the more because they came from his native England. Collingwood Bruce gists. The worked in worsted on linen the deBayeux tapestry The outlines sign is perfectly flat and shadowless. there a certain "maestria" is coarsely the execution. worked a pair of sandals and three mitres of surpassing beauty. where the Sheriff. are firmly drawn with cords on thickly set stem-stitches. The surfaces are laid in is flat stitch. who has cunningly introduced his effigy and name.. "If she might teach his daughters to make orphreys. in co. 2 1 Domesday Oilgi.. for her life. Canon Jackson. Mr. half a hide of land. and for the furniture. says That this was cared . Record Commission.

in 3 A portion of the material of the Towneley Copes. York. 75- I. century. Fifteenth century. fifteenth Painted Dress 2. Church.PI. Michael's glass. . Panel of a Screen Hornby Church. pattern from painted St. Fourteenth century. Page 369.

jewellery. of contemporary dates. " Church of our Fathers." copes embroidered with armorial bearings. delight ! NEEDLEWORK AS ART. Abb." p. 75)- in are peculiarly English Now we when all enter on the age of romance and chivalry. from the time of Harold to Edward The hangings may have been more effective than IV. and amices The few I &c. mdcclxxiii. and gold. there were upwards of 600 vestments wrought with divers " Indian kinds of needlework. 2 have collected from Strutt's " Illustrations " 3 and other sources a number of patterns for domestic hangings. show the ! In Lincoln alone luxury of ecclesiastical decoration." vol ii.370 work. lions fighting. appears at first sight. Surely England is a garden of And In sooth this is a well inexhaustible ! where there is so much abundance. p. style I give two textile designs (plates which 74. if the materials were rich and I enlivened with their gold. Dolby's Introduction to " Church Vestments. and the gorgeousness of English with amethysts and pearls. Albani. and Peterborough. Lincoln." ed. covering about 400 years. velvet. . and " barred knights jousting. 2 See Mrs. He " exclaimed. tartarin. &c. embroideries. we reading " are amazed by the lists of orphreys of goodly needlework." have named will give an idea of the accumulation of riches in the churches. domestic decorations began to assume greater 1 Matthew Paris. copied from MSS. Rock. and silk. St." samite. upon Even in baudichyn. the dry descriptions of a common inventory. 278. " Vit." 8 Strutt's " Royal and Ecclesiastical Antiquities of England. from thence much " l may be extracted From the Conquest to the Reformation the catalogues of Church vestments which are to be found in the libraries of York. 46 .

the scarves and and the mantles for state occasions. Paris. The taste for the for " baroc old. our laws were directed to the preservation of pure metals for textile purposes. that in the so-called " days of chivalry. 2 Though the work was domestic. B b 2 . " Hist. wars with France. 2 everywhere. 473. read descriptions of frame. in their castles. executed by But both in prose and poetry we beautiful works in the loom. and probably burned the old stuff and the embroideries for the sake of the gold thread. This period included the Crusades. ed. to provide." i.e. and rebellions at home there was a taste for art.ENGLISH EMBROIDERY.. Hartshorne's " Mediaeval Embroideries. or for booty. which of intrinsic value. the Wars of the and Roses. northern Europe were once more permeated with Oriental taste and design. The women were expected and banners. them go was to pieces. from the Conquest till the beginning of Henry VIII. 23. 1644. and adorned the altars and the priests' vestments." p. and splendid tents were brought home by crusading knights and the decorative arts of . 24. " is a new acquisition . the heraldic surcoats. and the moth have shared in the destruction ! of these gauds. 371 Carpets from the East covered the rushes strewn on the floors. the materials came from the East and the South. Alas time. for their liberties. 1 They also worked the hangings for the hall and chapel. Angl. refinement.'s We know reign." pp. or on the fair ladies for the gallant knights to whose 1 lives and prowess these poems have preserved See Matthew Paris. no one cared old. luxury. taste. what was merely be- cause it was their clothes The rich replaced their hangings and when they became shabby the poor let . and show spreading yet . needlework was the occupation of the women left while the men were away fighting for the cross. for the king. and while the woven gold of Sicily and Spain was merely base metal on gilded parchment. with their looms their needles.

. manuscripts. Kalsedonys and onyx Sette in golde clere. sculpture." From the Conquest to the Wars of the Roses. the sun with rays . &c. With carbuncle and sapphire. other stones of mychel pryse. )J precious stones. value of an individual pattern. yet suggests his style.. the This is a good example of the white hart . That its art is contemporary to Van Eyk.. The figures were portrayed " With stones bright and pure. is shown by the design and motives of and embroidery in which the king and his attendant saints are clothed. but it is undoubtedly English. of give one quotation from that " : Emare. They remind us of the piece of silk in the Kensington into which are woven (probably in Sicilian looms) the cognizance Museum. Diamondes and rubies. and the portrait of Richard II. its finest example. those The reproduction by the Arundel Society of this picture will familiarize who care for English art with what is. surrounded by saints and angels. England paint- may art. his dog Math. woven materials of the King's grandfather.372 us. and tender All who saw the frescoes found in the Chapel colouring. These pictures were adorned with Ydoine." This occupied In each corner is depicted a pair her seven long years. " Tristram and Iseult Sir Amadis and Sir of lovers. claim to have gradually acquired a higher place in Our architecture. 1 with the time of Richard the II. : and ings were not surpassed on the Continent witness Queen Eleanor's crosses." And The " lady who owns this mantle is herself great in workes of broderie. and his own. &c. the Amarayle's daughter. It helps us to affix dates to other specimens of similar style. in Ritson's collection faire Her mantle was wroughte by a Paynim. refined drawing. 1 a picture which. that of his mother Joan. perhaps. I NEEDLEWORK will AS ART. at Wilton House. . preceding Fra Beato Angelico's works by at least a quarter of a century. and her tomb in Westminster Abbey . newe . It has been erroneously attributed next to the crosses of Queen Eleanor.

" p. The sculptured effigy on the tomb over which it is suspended is absolutely clothed in the same surcoat. when the dresses were worn with borders richly set with precious stones and pearls. when it was effaced by being comrecumbent effigy was of a bright red. pletely gilt. de Colonia. 3. and in the wardrobe accompts of John Richard II. 1 See Miss Strickland's mention of the Countess of Oxford in her " Life of Queen Elizabeth of York..ENGLISH EMBROIDERY. During the Wars of the Roses. &c." p. William Sanstoune and Robert de Ashmede broiderers' . are our best authorities for the The surcoat of the Black Prince embroideries then worn. the mantle on the bordered with gold and gems. when a duke in of the streets. it appeared that King John's mantle was of a strong red silk. instead of being preserved and restored. and embroidered In Worcester. were 1 needle. and regret that they were effaced. thirteenth centuries. with the same accidents of embroidery. The Librate Roll of : Henry III. Till lately. during the fourteenth. 2 From the fragments found. See Greene's "Worcester. ladies of rank. more forable to earn theirs tunate. Canterbury Cathedral is a noteworthy example. . 53. They were a lesson in what English art was in the end of the thirteenth. quoted " in the Report of the Archaeological Association of Worcester. archaeologists opened King tomb in 1797. gives us a list of em- names Alain de Basinge. will remember their extreme beauty. as if it had been modelled from it. of the blood-royal is said to have begged his bread the rich Flemish towns. Adam de Bakeryne. by the work of their The monuments and fourteenth in of the eleventh and twelfth. . 46. at 373 Eton College when it was restored. they found him in the same dress John's 2 and attitude as that portrayed on the recumbent statue." p. and into the beginning of the fifteenth centuries. Dress was then extravagantly expensive.

appointed him his chief embroiderer." par M. to be either French or English." were certainly then purveyors and masters of the craft. p.There is an account of a Delisle. in flax or silk small hand-looms. fringe. Leopold He describes the attachment of a seal to a grant from Richard Cceur de Lion to Richard Hommet and Gille his wife. was so much in fashion that the operation was allowed to assume a But the idea suggests itself certain air of coquetry.. we find Adam de silk." or 1 of love. " tie the Abbey <( of it He it considers was a its lac d'amour. 8d. is so warmly commended by the Duke of Berri and Auvergne to Edward III." cut up to serve present " Notice sur (Paris. have been the artists to These may Broudatores Domini Regis." . that Richard II. Garland." whom the orders were delivered. in the beginning of the thirteenth a good authority for the use by our women of century. and says in preserved in the archives of the department of Calvados. and Henry IV. in the fourteenth century. . and had possibly served as a snood when blood-letting to bind her own fair hair. In these they wove. and also Rock's Introduction to "Textile Fabrics. Baskeryne our commands to embroider a certain chapurchased by There suble which Mabilia of St. 1 specimen of this kind of weaving by M. Aunai. receiving 6s. supposed to be gifts between friends for binding the arm. xxii.374 are called the " NEEDLEWORK AS ART. les Attaches d'un Sceau. to fold round his arm as a scarf in battle'or tourney. to be ready in case it was needed for binding up a wound. Edmunds made for us. pensioned him for his skilful services.. for in the Libra te Roll of Henry a " III. Leopold Delisle 1854). for cloth of and Stephen Vigner. the cingulae" or "blode-bendes so often mentioned. John is " " (often mixed with gold). that this was oftener the gift of the fair weaver to her favoured lover.



2 imitation. says there Anglicanum in the treasury of Aix-la-Chapelle. and causing dark spots This reversal of the intended effect is in their stead. called a piece of opus theCope of Leo III. or have been returned from 1 it. ground is silk. with pinnacles and roofs. and especially employed in modelling the faces and the nude parts of the for to have been generally reserved The effect of this work has often been figures delineated. 2 1 1." i p. ^230. to a particular style of stitchery." " opus Anglicanum is first recorded in the century. one can form an " " in its estimate of the value of the opus Anglicanum 2 In 1241 the king gave Peter de Agua Blanca a day. purpose. and III. this The finest specimens of English work are to be 3 found on the Continent. according mitre so worked. "Liturgische Gewander. From the Librate Roll of Henry III. of which the Syon cope in the Kensington Museum is the best preserved great example known. this peculiarity consists in its fine split-stitch being moulded so as to give the effect of a bas-relief and Its . images. The opus Anglicanum its often included borders and orphreys set with jewellers' work (or pearls. is . It is 375 on a woven with an is inscription in white blue. gems. The tabernacles were like niches. reversing the high lights. and is supposed simply to mean But there is also good authority for its work. backed with pale and the material The woven legend " " thus translated from the old French The term thirteenth " Let him perish who would part us. costing to the present value." Edward " ment. as time has frayed and discoloured the parts destroyed. of green. This would be. 3 Bock. 82.ENGLISH EMBROIDERY. had from William de Courtenay an embroidered garinwrought with pelicans. an additional 1 practical argument for the flatness of embroidery. worked in gold thread). on the Continent especially. exhibiting the canvas ground." English having been applied. the appears medallions representing sacred subjects. and tabernacles of gold. that are raised.

so as to catch a light and throw a shadow. and then raised with an iron by pressure. the great pluvial at Bologna. in this instance is . with their feet on which are peculiar to English design. Silvester at Rome. design and stitches. covered with double-headed and lastly. the Daroca pluvial at Madrid. characteristics of this work in the Museum thirteenth the angels with peacock feather wings. so markedly national in gold-laid work. They had either been gifts to popes or bishops before the Reformation. . probably drifted to the Continent at the time of the Reformation. Among the most remarkable are the pluvial (called) of St. that they must have issued from the same workshop. moulded by hot irons the features of all the the beautiful gold groundfigures similarly manipulated century such as . 1 For further notice of the " opus Anglicanum. . angels (in the vacant spaces between the framed subjects from the life of our Lord) have their wings carefully done in certainly English. 1 wonderfully preserved specimen of the opus Anglicanum." see chapter (ante) on ecclesiastical embroideries. and that was cope the cherubim. In the Daroca chain split-stitch representing peacocks' feathers. Franks to the Mediaeval Depart- A " ment seen of the British most of the . which . of which the silken eyes are stitched in circles." of which a photogravure is here given. or they had been sold at that time of general persecution and pillage. was lately presented by Mr. The ground is entirely English This cope. and the wheels.376 NEEDLEWORK AS ART. of which I have already spoken. work. the fashion of the beard on the face of eagles our Lord and of all the men delineated the upper lip and round the mouth being invariably shaven whereas. The general idea and prevailing design of these three great works are so singular. and yet so alike. In this may be (plate 76). and the Syon cope.

PI. 77-

Characteristic English

Parseme Patterns

for Ecclesiastical Embroideries.



PI. 78.

Dunstable Pall.

Dunstable ex Property of the Vicar of






in Continental work, the beard is allowed to grow into the moustache, closely surrounding the mouth. There are other peculiarities belonging to English designsuch as the angels rising between the shrine-work

out of a flame or cloud pattern, and the often formed of twined stems bearing vinepillars very leaves or else oak-leaves and acorns. The compartpillars

on the

ments which frame
in niches,




they are not



are usually variations of the and square. Plate 77

shows the cherubim which from the

teenth to the sixteenth centuries are found on

English ecclesiastical embroideries also the vase of lilies (emblematic of the Virgin),

and the Gothic flowers which are so commonly parseme over our mediaeval altar frontals and vestments. It appears that in the reign of Edward III. the people evaded the penalties against the excess of ingeniously
luxury in dress, by wearing something that looked as gay, and but was less expensive than the forbidden materials

which did not come under the
a spurious

letter of the law.


embroidery which was, perhaps, partly painted (such examples are recorded). In the 2nd Henry VI. (1422) it was enacted that all

such work should be forfeited to the king.

The accusa-

was that




divers persons belonging to the craft of divers works of Brouderie of insufficient

and unduly wroughte with gold and silver of Cyprus, and gold of Lucca, and Spanish laton (or tin), and that they sell these at the fairs of Stereberg, Oxford, and Salisbury, to the great deceit of our Sovereign Lord and In those days any dishonest work or all his people." material was illegal and punishable. This was, in fact, a protectionist measure in favour of

Appendix n.




the chartered embroiderers, and gave them a slight taste of For a time it was doubtthe advantages of protection.
less useful in

keeping up the standard of national work.


followed further measures for the benefit of the

established monopolies. First, a statute in 1453 (Henry VI.), forbidding the importation of foreign embroideries for five years. This is re-enacted under Edward IV., Richard

and Henry VII., and was partially repealed in the 3rd and 5th George III. While we are on this subject, we may remark that in 1 707 the importation of embroidery was forbidden to the East India Company, and we closed The only our ports to all manufactured Indian goods.



now protected



of the silversmith


no plate from foreign workshops being permitted to enter England not even do we allow Indian plate to come in, except under certain conditions. This may be the reason that our own plate is so very bad in design and execution, for want of competition and example.

The Protection is always more or less fatal to art. Wars of the Roses had injured our own best schools, and we needed refined imported ideas to raise our standard once again. Perhaps, since embroidery had become a regular industry, our markets were overstocked by home
productions which were outrivalled by the works from the Continent, and it was distress that caused the plea for
It is

fair to

that time, of which

say that some of the English works of we have specimens, are as good as

In the Dunstable pall, for instance, the figures possible. of which are perfectly drawn and beautifully executed, the

The pall style is excellent and pure English (plate 78). itself is of Florentine crimson velvet and gold brocade,
little loops of gold drawn through the velvet, The white satnL the loom from whence it came. showing It is a more perfect border carries the embroidery.

with the

PI. 79.

Pall of the Vintners'


(sixteenth century).





specimen of the later fourteenth century work than the famous pall of the Fishmongers' Company, which shows the impress of the Flemish taste, which was at its perfection
in the fifteenth.

style reminds us of that of the fine tapestries from the St. Mary's Hall, Coventry, of which


the subject

(plate 79).

King Henry VI. and Cardinal Beaufort The Vintners' Company's pall is also very fine

Of the time


Henry VII. we have the celebrated

cope of Stoneyhurst, woven in Florence, of a gold tissue, It is without seam, the design raised in crimson velvet.

and the composition which covers the whole surface is the crown of England lying on the portcullis; and the Tudor rose fills up the space with a magnificent

The design





evidently English, as well as * however, much restored is,

(plate 80).
" whole suite of vestments This is one of the cloth of gold tissue wrought with our and copes of badges of red roses and portcullises, the which we of which late caused to be made at Florence in Italy.


our king, Henry VII.,


his will

bequeathed to




Peter, and to

the Abbot and

Monastery at Westminster/' which were designed for him by Torregiano. From the portraits of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries we can judge of the prevailing taste in dress
embroideries of that period, which consisted mostly of delicate patterns of gold or silver on the borders of
dresses, and the linen collars




this style

give a small sampler, from Lord Middleton's collecWe have a good many specimens of the work tion.







The orphreys

are probably not the original work.


Testamenta Vetusta," ed. Nicholas,






They had

a Gothic stamp, which totally disappeared in the beginning of the
sixteenth century in the new style of the Renais-


The next great change
conditions of
especially in


Europe affecting





was caused by the Reformation, which swept away both the art and

Fig. 27.

Sampler, from Lord Middleton's collection. Time, Henry VIII.

the artist of the Gothic

The monasteries

which had fostered painting, illumination, and embroidery, and the arts which had been so passionately devoted
to the Church,

were doomed.

of a

Gifford, writing

religious house at Woolstrope, in Lincolnshire, after praising that esta" There is not one religious person blishment says, there, but what can and doth use either embrotheryng,





wryting bookes with a fayre hand, making garments, * karvynge, &c."
In the general clearance the churches and shrines were swept, though never again garnished, and the survivals

have to be painfully sought
short catalogue will


and are so few that a


the fine embroideries which escaped " " of the Reformation, and the final the iconoclastic rage

The greater part of

sweep of the Puritans, are to be seen now and chapels of the old Roman Catholic


the houses



1 " Collier's Ecclesiastical History of Woolstrope, Lincolnshire. Great Britain," v. p. 3 (ed. Lothbury). This proves that the monks

sometimes plied the needle.



have either preserved or collected them also in the museums of our cathedrals, and spread about the For instance, at Sens are the vestments of Continent.


yet in the

a Becket, and at Valencia, in Spain, there are chapter-house a chasuble and two dalmatics,

brought from



London by two merchants of Valencia, are preserved Andrew and Pedro de They purchased them at the sale of the Roman

Catholic ornaments of Westminster



the time

Henry VIII.






represent scenes from the life of our Lord. ground of one is a representation of the

The backTower of

In 1520

of the Cloth of Gold. 1

was held the famous tournament of the Field Here came all England's chivalry

surrounding their splendid young king followed by squires and men-at-arms, and carrying with them tents, banners, and hangings covered with devices and mottoes. Their own dresses, of rich materials and adorned with embroidery
(as well as the housings of their horses), vied in ingenuity

and splendour with those of the still more luxurious court and following of Francis I., the French king. The tradesmen and workmen and workwomen in England were driven crazy in their efforts to carry out the ideas and commands It is recorded that several comof their employers. in their despair. It was worse than the mitted suicide miseries caused by a Court Drawing-Room now. Inin devices was the order of the day. Francis genuity and his " Partners of Challenge " illustrated one sentimental motto throughout the three days' tourney. The first day they were apparelled in purple satin, " " with gold, and covered with black-ravens' broched

See Hall's "Union of the Houses





pp. Ixxv





The first syllable of feathers, buckled into a circle. " " " " feather is cor, a hart (heart). corbyn (a raven) "



And so it stode." The feather is pennac. " betokened sothe fasta circle was endless, and " Then was the device Hart fastened in pain nesse."


" next day the " Hardy Kings met armed at


The French king and

his followers

were arrayed

embroidered with

broched with gold and purple velvet, little rolls of white satin, on which was " written Quando ;" all the rest was powdered with the

day motto was laboriously brought to a conclusion. Francis appeared dressed in purple velvet embroidered " Liber" being a book, the with little white open books " motto on it was, A me." These books were connected thus we have the whole motto with worked blue chains













Hart, fastened in pain endlesse, when she delivereth me Could painful ingenuity go further ? On not of bondes." the English side we have similar devices. Brandon,


bridegroom of the Dowager Queen of France, Henry's sister, was clothed on one side in cloth of frise (grey woollen), on which appeared embroidered in
of Suffolk, the


gold the motto,

Cloth of frise, be not too bold That thou be match'd with cloth of gold."

This parti-coloured garment was on the other side gold, with the motto,
"Cloth of gold, do not despise That thou be match'd with cloth of



Besides mottoes, cyphers and monograms were the These parfashion, embroidered with heraldic devices.

we find

in Hall's

account of the tournament, with a

81. English Specimens of Spanish Work. Time of Henry VIII. Collection.PI. . Lord Middleton's Page 382.



Henry VIIL Louisa. Collection. Spanish Work. . 82. English Specimen.PI. Lady Waterford's Page 383.

i. often supposed "to be synonymous with magnanimity (at any rate. and the splendid apparel belonging to this last jousts. it was ings and embroideries. 347376. Brewer remarks chapter of the magnificence of chivalry. had gathered up its departing energies for this last display of its favourite pastime. and which gave its name ever after to the plain near Guisnes. This went by the stitches " of Spanish work. but we had also in was reigning Italy our own of Padua was probably only one of emissaries. pp.' Catherine of Aragon introduced the Spanish taste in embroidery. in those days. divided into many rooms. henceforth to be consigned without regret to the mouldering lodges of the past/' * cannot say how much of French taste was We imported from this meeting of French and English spirit of the Renaissance. and adapted to the climate of the north. which was then white or black silk and gold "lace on fine linen (plate 81). In the Public Record Office is an inventory of Lord Monteagle's . detailed description of the 383 in golden tent which the monarchs met. It covered Hall describes the tent. Incrustations of pearls and a space of erected into a royal virtue). " "The Mediaeval Age." and continued to be the fashion to " name down and through the reign 2 of Mary Tudor.. in France. John The many Englishmen who themselves travelled to learn and improve in their special crafts. have spoken already. where the jousts were held. What we read of of its I which construction recalls the Alexandrian erections." vol. as well as their hang- precious stones gave a dazzling brilliancy to the tent. the 328 feet. luxury." he says. 1 2 See Brewer's "Reign of Henry VIII. who remained mother's and her grandCatherine of Aragon had faithful to the traditions of her mother's work (plate 82).ENGLISH EMBROIDERY. fresh from Italy. that magnificence was.

To make and adorn a shirt was then an artistic feat. Anne of Cleves brought with her the taste for Flemish . the water " Virtuously. " Queens of England. tapestries still One property. but the description reminds us of a specimen belonging to Louisa.384 NEEDLEWORK AS ART. and eagles in gold and black 1 silk stitches. and delicate work. Palliser's Quoted from Cavendish by Miss 132. were mostly worked in gold on coloured silk on the dress linen collars and cuffs. eight partletts garnished with gold and black silk Spanish work. p. In the reign of Henry VIII. . Cardinal Wolsey's walls were . 6. In the days of her disgrace and solitude. amongst her ladies. besides the suites of adorning the hall at Hampton Court. her days did pass In working with her needle curiously. meet the Cardinals Wolsey and Campeggio with 1 silk round her neck. Holbein's and other contemporary this peculiarity of the costumes of the portraits illustrate The women's head-dresses also carried much time." This Spanish work is rare. See Mrs." pp. ." At Silbergh Castle. Catherine turned She came to her embroidery for solace and occupation. beautifully designed. fine. is named a piece of " work. 1523 A. room was hung with embroidered cloth of gold. and German Renaissance designs and all the cushion The Renaissance borders for stitches were in vogue." iv. 12. not unworthy Isabella instituted trials of needlework of a queen. Taylor.D. Although a queen. amongst other things. in Westmoreland. worked with ostriches. who always made her husband's shirts. turkeys. fine hangings were worked the royal inventories give us and woven in England an idea to what extent. says. covered with splendid embroideries. was a counterpane and toilet embroidered by Queen Catherine. learned her craft from her mother. forth to a skein of red poet. Marchioness of Waterford (Plate 82) a square of linen. Strickland. Queen Isabella. "History of Lace.

she were no queen of mighty power." v. following the political tendencies of the time. and she graced . p. Queen Elizabeth spent much of her time in needle- had received the education of a man. In Windsor Castle. how- ever. or black silk only. " C C . the poet of the needte: " ' Mary here And though the sceptre sway'd . herself . Many specimens of her needlework were extant in the reign of James I. Whoever pleases thither to resort. as well as her cousin. She science of music. May see some works of hers of wondrous price. she stood studied and embroidered too . Her memory will never be decay'd. was Spanish in all her " " all worked in smocks tastes.. black and gold.ENGLISH EMBROIDERY. Nor yet her works forgotten. it According to Taylor. and are thus 1 celebrated by Taylor. soothed her cares and miseries at the embroidery frame. 385 Mary Tudor." Tudor. and to study philosophy. This taste. in peasant dress in the Low Countries. And thus this queen in wisdom thought it fit The needle's work pleased her. as I have said. Mary finished the splendid and elaborate Miss Strickland's " Life of Mary tapestry begun by her mother. godmother are to be to many still seen in pieces the of embroidery. entirely disappeared under Elizabeth. mathematics. and we have lists of her 1 Spanish stitches. and the work. Her greatness held it no disreputation To Which was a good example hold the needle in her royal hand. and in Hampton Court. to our nation To banish idleness throughout the land. It survives. "The invalid queen. Elizabeth at any rate. In the Tower. Lady Jane Grey and doubtless many women were taught at that time Greek and Latin. as a training for serious life. in her moments of convalescence. 417. In that most pompous room called Paradise. which or houses she visited occupied.

all carried out in satin and lace stitches.386 NEEDLEWORK at Ashridge. and every part of with flowers. a scarf embroidered by her own hand. "After the action at D'Arbre de Guise. and her costume was covered The symbolical designs . was by somewhat the lawless unchastened controlled the classical England. fruit. she so' employed herself mens of work of the sixteenth century exhibited at South Kensington in 1873.' wrote the queen. without grace. worked in While . eyes and ears crowded the surfaces of the fine materials These symbolical designs were rich of her dresses. Monsieur mon bon frere. chains. and afterwards as a prisoner at and among the speciHatfield. being element which entirely movement in Italy. and a portmonnaie in exquisatin-stitch left . character of just the Renaissance of the sixteenth from the trammels of Gothic in traditions. sitely fine of which 1 articles. were by her at Ashridge when she was hurried to Hatfield. Elizabeth (of England) ' sent to Henri IV. . 311. In Louisa. and to 1 accept my little present in remembrance of me. find fruit. Lady Waterford's slight collection we girl's figure. There are butterflies with their wings disengaged from the ground pods bursting open and showing the round seeds or peas caterpillars stuffed and raised all these astonish us by their quaint perfection. of white linen. but I supplicate you to hide its defects under the wings of your good charity. queen's dress soon departed from the severe simplicity which she at first affected.'" "Henri IV." by Miss Freere.. were her shoes and cap. ' its value is naught in comparison to the dignity of the personage for whom it is destined . p. purl. also cushion-covers in divers cushion stitches. AS ART. and many more. a semainiere in the same all stitch. and ingenious rather than artistic. although their workmanship was perfect. roses. crowns. . a jacket for a covered with flowers. and berries. and shock us by . while serpents. away in the dead of night released The century. .

. and James I. 1 We 1 of the Embroiderers' have no account of the cause of the incorporation 2 Company by Queen Elizabeth. 361 (1867). that have been imitated from the Italian cinque-cento raised and stuffed needlework. and we have seen a few fine specimens of it. on the mind how dear however. i." vol. but in the matter of their incorporation. it hath relation to the fourth year of " Survey of London and Westminster. Queen of Scots. (1780). This work varied. A. which are very curious and almost very beautiful." Queen Elizabeth. it . The impression left must have cost the pocket of the purchaser and the eyes of the workers. only one feels that the same effect could have been produced by simpler means. on a red satin ground. part . most refined and material imported from Italy and Germany. in In the year 1683 the March ese Luca Casimiero degl' Albizzi visited England." by George Scharf. Elizabeth. C C 2 . and the livery consists of 115 members. and Company of the Broiderie of London. Queen "Royal Picture Galleries. . purl and silk. and the utter want of beauty or taste in the whole effect. p. Wardens. Henry VIII. History of Old London . tried to soften Elizabeth's heart towards her prisoner by little gifts is characteristic of the reigns of of her own embroideries. gold and silver plate. and is and materials are which is as good as possible in in purely English style. 2 " The Company of the Embroiderers can make appear by their worthy and famous pieces of art that they have been of ancient use and eminence. 387 their naturalistic crudeness of design. At Windsor he observed over a chimney-piece a finely wrought piece of " " un educazione di fanciulli by the hands of Mary embroidery " " also article on Loftie's of Scots. The Purl. as is to be seen in divers places at this day . There is. every respect. Forzoni. exceptions to these defective poor designs and in the same collection is a cushion-cover worked in are. p. Keepers.ENGLISH EMBROIDERY.. "The ii. We have needlework of another most unhappy queen of this date. 2 keepers and 40 assistants. and his travels were recorded in manuscript by Dr. also see Edmonson's Heraldry." Stow's " 216 . stitches which was a newly made was then in much vogue. Poor Mary.

^ ^ j founded in 1560. Oct. it shows. ( the holy dove displayed argent. quills of gold thread). 602." book iii. Grafted on the style of James I.) In the reign of James I." Maitland's . ' Embroiderers' Guild. under the auspices of the East India Company.' Hall. Supporters two lions or (guttee de sang). as many trundles (i. 1561. under Elizabeth. if not understood in high places." There were branches.. 28. .e. however. Cromwell's own service of plate was scratched over (" graffito") with a childish and weak semi. Crest : on a wreath a heart radiated or. It received the lions of England as a special The arms are thus blazoned " : Palee of six argent and azure on a fess gules. incorporated and bearing the arms. been the moment for encouraging a fresh importation of Oriental taste into our degenerate art. stitched flat or raised. in Gutter Lane. Some are artistic in design and they are mostly bad. p. gardant or. between three lions of England Three broches in saltire between pass. ridiculously The East India Company was execution. and obtained the monopoly of the Anglo-Indian trade. From They have a small but convenient hall " History of London. semi-Chinese design . 20. or. guild. at Bristol and Chester in 1780.Indian. Gutter Lane. under Cromn Thjs ^^ j^ and we must accept this as typical of the artistic Oriental knowledge of that day.. : Motto: Omnia Desuper. (See Appendix. Needlework alone was excluded from all benefit. confirmed by James II. it was the fashion to do portraits in needlework. the third year of her reign.NEEDLEWORK AS ART. which is still a London favour. but Fig. that Indian ideas were creeping in and sought for. April I2th. 1686. 25th.


-8 OH J to "2 CJ .

and caskets worked in The subjects were ambitious purl. nigh Westminster. except in our architecture. leaning and groping in their direction/ and twining flowers." -and was the outcome of the last Gothic of Henry VIII. " embroidery on the "stamp 7 wa$ the'rr tfce fashion. Iwh^n James I. us. and silver. This accounts for our faint and ignorant imitations of Indian wo rk> and the extreme rarity of the true . picture frames. Nothing could have been poorer than their composition. and the Italian style of Edward But the carvings of that phase of VI. needlework of the day followed suit. But our Aryan instincts have always led our English tastes towards conventional naturalism. gold. unless. which was contraband by the ancient statutes. and James and Anne 1 and other historical figures were stuffed of Denmark. work began much earlier. Indian manufactures were im- ported. we. into semiconventional garlands and. This Italy continued to be artistic^ but the English specimens -that have: survived from this reign are Co'ntinenta'l'art had ceased to influence mostly very ugly. : . architecture were semi-barbarous. was king." 1549 "42 Item.specimens to be met with in England. continually. which hadicrystallized: into a picturesque "style of our own called " James-L. for 1 389 50 years. The style of work called protection had done its worst. in our style. of a later period. that date. Infinite trouble and ingenuity were wasted on lookingglass frames.ENGLISH EMBROIDERY. with the exception of 'embroidery. have lost the rules arid traditions Although we which converted natural objects into 'patterns. In the seventeenth century. or coarser than their execution. for we find in the James's House. inventory A table wherein is a man holding a sword in his one hand and a 1 The fashion of this of " St. sort of in work and bad taste reigned -supreme. Solomon and the Queen of Sheba. those of the field by preference.are. and Elizabeth. posies. and the. .

Charles I. background for King James and King Solomon alike. p. Charles I. with cotton or wpol. H. and show us how high art can in a century or less slip back into no art at all. 12). and the lion of England gambolling in the foreground. . all rules of composition was added to the absence of any 1 I sort of style. and in the National Museum at Munich are some very beautiful examples. with tiny men filling in the corners vacant by large flowers. gave a raised embroidered cope to the 2 Chapter of Durham. pointed the clumsy allegory. James left Plate 83 is a cushion from Hatfield House. At Coire in the Grisons. &c. partly garnished with seed sceptre in his other pearl" 1 (p. Hutper annum.'s time. Any one comparing the Dunstable or the Fishmongers' pall with one of the best caskets of this period would say that the latter should have preceded In James I. chinson. ignorance of the former by centuries. her pay for teaching his daughter needlework. highly this accomplishment was still considered in the days of Charles I. 2 In the Calendar of the State Papers Office (Domestic. amid flowers and coats-of- arms. but I cannot praise it however refined in execution or beautiful the design. Senior sues the Earl of Thomond for ^"200 Mrs. at Zurich (see chapter on ecclesiastical art). says she had eight tutors when she was seven This shows how years old. clxix. . and raised into high relief and then " " dressed and garnished with pearls the faces either in the hair and wigs painted satin or fine satin stitch Windsor Castle as a in purl or complicated knotting. filled up the composition. 307). Mrs. of this description of work. . vol." The earliest specimens we know of this " embroidery on the stamp " are German. and one of them taught her needlework. I have seen no English specimens that are not beneath criticism . caterpillars. The merit or blame of this rounded padded work (a caricature of the raised embroidery of the opus Anglicanum) is often erroneously awarded to the "nuns of Little Gidding. in her Memoir. The drawing and design were childish. they are only funny. hand of needlework. give the illustrations of the time of I. . The Italians also executed elaborate little pictures in this manner .39O NEEDLEWORK AS ART.. rich and rather foolish.


85. Page 391.PI. Hardwicke Hall. . Crewels on Linen. k Embroidered Hangings.

absence of all intention or perspective. 1693 . Delaney does not appreciate this ancient pattern. 1687). the embroidery of which cost ^3000" (Evelyn's Memoirs. Considering how often in this book and my preceding I have said that this style of work was common (even in well be said. "A white satin embroidered covered with all sorts of weeds. to be funny without intending it and these curtains are funny by their ." as if before that time our designs for work were partially influenced by the fine Indian specimens which had must seems surreptitiously crept into very cleverly executed. 7. To be quaint in art is.ENGLISH EMBROIDERY." ing." See Evelyn's " Memoirs. and weeds. already common in the latter days of Elizabeth. Palliser's " History of Lace. small deer and lions disport themselves. Huge conventional trees grow stitches. Delaney at the bottom with brown . many of the leaves finished with gold. a peculiar talent in designe. from a green strip of earth carrying every variety of leaf Some of these are England. the early days of Egypt and Assyria). and with a brown stump. and when hung " and the Commonwealth. does not reconcile us to its extravagant effect. broken and worked in chenille. and garlanded nasturtiums." April 27. also see Mrs. 8. hills. Evelyn says of his own daughter Susanna. January 24. as I have said before. reappeared on a dress worn by the Duchess of Queensberry. 1 But even often very beautiful. . as who married William Draper: "She had painting in oil and miniature. the incongruities are too annoyThe modern excuse for it. On where the work is finest." pp. " that it is quaint. and an extraordinary genius for whatever hands can do with a needle. new bed of Later. 391 The other fashionable work of was the custom lectures to embroider that day had its merits. when was it not the fashion ? and it I may It answer. It hangings or linen in crewels. and birds twice their size perch on the branches (plate 84)." Mrs. periwinkles. and flower done or flower is in many The individual leaf the bank below. honeysuckles.'s queen. she says. Evelyn speaks of the Charles II. and described by Mrs. "only since the days of Queen Anne. convolvuluses. 1 The tree-pattern.

and " inlaid and " onlaid " appliques. Likewise in Spain and Por- tugal the Oriental work. by these curtains having served for the beds of the household. and were clumsily taking advantage of our security from all competition. of The Royal School specimens are in general in the worst condition. so that they have been kept for their nearly 300 years of existence. partly because the crewels the sixteenth century were of an excellent quality. Much of this work has been recovered from farmhouses and cottages In many cases the flowers preservation. The hangings and the curtains I have described. of which the variety at first was infinite. The stitches.392 NEEDLEWORK AS ART. had given place to a coarse uniform stem " stitch The materials also were of gobble stitch. and secondly. especially that executed at Goa. Even the moths have been deprived of their prey. and gradually deteriorated.) Specimens of this It work are to be found in till most English country houses. old hangings went up into the attics in all the disgrace of shabbiness." inferior quality. and less durable. so that the latest worked. because there was no gold so the to make it worth any one's while to destroy them manufactured in . and have come down again as family relics. It is remarkable how little the beautiful Continental work influenced our English school. In the Italian this was the moment of the finest secular empalaces " broideries in satin stitches. filled the palaces and the convents with gorgeous . aired and dusted. first has lasted now. We were enjoying perfect protection. gold and silver. (Plate 85. they make everything in the room look disproportionate to the unnatural size of the foliage. prevailed from the end of Elizabeth's reign to that of Queen Anne. have survived the stout linen grounds on which they were in tolerable Needlework has often been commissioned to restore and transfer the crewel trees on to a new backing.

carpets. delicacy and splendour. Dutch taste had 1 This included naturally been brought to the front. however. table-covers. 393 hangings. glories. feel it painful to contrast with these our own short- We comings in art. We have seen royal beds and court suits which show very little difference in style. 's Coronation Dress. and our faded that. naturalized a rather heavy work. From an in old Print. owing to our art-killing protectionist laws. : . and not as art at all. or imitations of it. somehow. but the work is actually English. Bishop Burnett says The " It was embroidered dresses of the Duke and Duchess of BuckingQueen Mary only knotted fringes. and much employed on court dresses and on state furniture. The white satin coverlets be- longing to the Mar- Fig. we meet with pieces of excepIt has. a professional look. The the most style is refined Louis Quatorze. Bath and quis the Duke of Leeds are not to be exceeded of 1 Part of James II. Occasionally. 29.ENGLISH EMBROIDERY. and late Spanish. embroidery had the misfortune to be treated at that time as textile manufacture. and bed furniture. In the reign of William and Mary. Japanese art. It does not appear that this was worked by ladies. in gold and silver the fact The design being decidedly a richly stitched German " Louis Quatorze " and heavily fringed. is. beautiful tionally work of the end of the seventeenth and early part of the eighteenth centuries. and also had something of The Georges brought into England.

" says.394 ham. in strange to see a queen work so many hours a day. are of this description." we preneedle sume. wanting in grace. in NEEDLEWORK Westminster Abbey AS ART. we threw away our chance. ladies Indian dimity patterns. "Who. with the tambour-frame and " 1 but in 1 707 the Broiderers' Company. These designs are generally. which doubtless prevented her dying of ennui ! 1 " Let no I quote from the Spectator." " his epigram on the Royal Knotter. might have brought over men and women great in their most ancient craft." Probably it was the fashion. sent out their own silks and satins to be worked at Goa . Is always knotting threads. home work took another direction. (early eighteenth century) a great deal of furniture was covered with the different cushion stitches. quaint and sometimes pretty.. 606 virgin receive her lover. material. forbidding the importation from India of any wrought This cruel prohibition carried its own punishment. When the crewel-work hangings ceased to be the All the fashion. when she rides in coach abroad. on muslin. and their German feeling shows them to be the precursors of the Berlin wool patterns. Sir E. No. Sedley. either in geometrical or kaleidoscope patterns. and signed the death-warrant of our art. in or thread. The Indian trade was ours. found that the Indian manufactures were engrossimitated silks coloured j ing the market. several ladies. except in a suit of her own embroidery. or else displaying groups of flowers or figures." : . About the middle of the last century. however. as Madame de Maintenon always worked during her drives with the king. and a fresh statute was obtained. From Queen Anne to George III. and so produced the most We The Portuguese at least splendid Indo-English School. and we might have adapted and assimilated the Indian taste for design.

Delany. of Rokeby. immediately followed by the total collapse of our decorative needlework. 1 Her style with the needle. I may 1 record with Pawsey. as well as crewels. copied pictures in worsteds. They can only be classed with such abortive attempts at decoration as glass cases filled with decayed stuffed birds. artistically designed. which look as if they might have been copied from the flower-pieces of a Dutch master. Miss Linwood's and Mrs. She was patronized by Queen Charlotte and for her she worked the beautiful bed at Hampton . arid the advent of the Berlin wool patterns. Delaney's productions are justly celebrated as tours de force. with and knowledge of drawing. the centres of arabesque panels. Court. Pawsey taught and helped ladies to embroider in silk and chenille. especially as seen now. These pictures would have served the purpose of decoration better as medallions in in imitation of oil paintings. and vases of faded and broken wax flowers.have spoiled them. notably 395 Miss Linwood. school of needlework the efforts of at Aylesbury. with wreaths of flowers in crewels touched up with silk. vases or baskets. with bunches of flowers in of . . and in many country houses we can recognize specimens worked in silk her style usually on screens and chenille. and Mrs. of purple satin. a lady who praise started a Mrs. was really legitimate to the Miss Moritt copied both art.ENGLISH EMBROIDERY. Some of these are wonderfully clever and even very pretty. The execution is very fine. when the moths . and reminds one of the best French work of the same period. but they caused the downfall of the art by leading it on the wrong track. Miss Moritt. Mrs. but they are rather a painful effort of pictorial art under difficulties. than framed and glazed Some of the followers of this schoolproducedworks that are shockingto all artistic sense. This was our last attempt at excellence. It was flower-painting wonderful taste figures and landscapes. than legitimate embroideries.

the gaudy and the avoiding.H. and several friends joined heartily in fostering the movement. Street. A postscript to this chapter will perhaps be acceptable " to those who have taken an interest in the History of English Embroidery. as much as possible. Dolby. gave her help.R. Twenty young ladies were selected. 1 Lord Houghton alludes to embroidery in his paraphrase of the H. and Mrs." There was a public demand for something better than the worsted patterns in the trade.H. H. and the Royal School of Art Needlework rose and tried to respond to that call and designs. POSTSCRIPT. by stimulating original ideas . the The project autumn of of such a school was first conceived in 1872. 238." p.'s patronage of the revival of " Story of Arachne.396 NEEDLEWORK AS ART. old stitches had all to be learned and then taught. had the courage to face all the difficulties of such an A small apartment was hired in Sloane undertaking. and imitating The old ones in conformity with modern requirements. Lady Welby. and her active co-operation. herself an accomplished embroideress." and who will therefore care to know about the revival which has rilled so many workshops with what is now called " Art Needlework. . . who was already an authority on ecclesiastical work. evanescent. beautiful tints had to be dyed Lastly.R. the Princess Christian of Schleswig-Holstein 1 gave her name as President. ante. The difficulties to be overcome were at first very great. and the best methods to be selected the proper materials had to be studied and obtained sometimes they had to be manufactured.

Sept. that for The want of present home in Exhibition Road. which was there organized in 1875." 1880. necessary that all They were expected at once to be competent to judge old work. Sloane Street. . and by the loan exhibition of old artistic work. and finally in the year 1875 it found its school grew so fast. Their claims were poverty. to all old . .. gentle birth. 397 space for the work-frames. to name its style and date. Branch schools have been started throughout the United Kingdom and in America. 1 Opposed to the * utility stitches ' are the art needlework schools that have branched out in many directions from New York. 31. . have there received employment. with a Managing and a Finance Committee. and even someits times and add stitch. should avail themselves of every means of instruction. " They were to be able to repair work to know and teach every ancient and modern and produce designs for any market value. and since then there have been three very interesting loan exhibitions in the It rooms of the Royal School.R. indeed.POSTSCRIPT. Atlantic Monthly (" Women in Organization"). In 1878 the Association was incorporated under the Board of Trade. the President. 1 The education of the school has been much assisted to 150 ladies at a time From 100 by the easy access to the fine collections of ancient embroideries in the Kensington Museum. The impulse that led to their formation was derived from South Kensington (England). . and sufficient capacity to enable them to support themselves and be educated to teach others. at the suggestion of H. and affords a striking instance of the ramifications of an organization. when the Queen became its Patron. No.H. in order to fit themselves for the task they had undertaken. . the acting members was. it had to remove into a larger house. and a salaried manager to overlook the whole concern.

period. designs. Lady Ashburton coloured silk embroidery on white satin (Venetian. Percy Wyndham and crewels. Wade gave original Morris. at nineteenth century. Mrs. Elizabethan. (style. : : 6. appeals to his judgment. Curtain for Louisa. Leighton granted permission highest authorities. (Louis Quatorze). curtains for her Majesty. Peacocks and vines (MedicevaL} 4. sunflowers). Furnishings and hangings for state bedroom for Countess Cowper. A 2. for The Mr. or besides contemporary European work. Lady Ashburton velvet and gold applique (Italian). Gothic. Renaissance." Of one thing we may be sure that it We is ploy their fingers. Mr. Curtains for music gallery for Mr. Mr. linen ^5. will and each requiring separate study. brown Curtain. embroidered and coloured silks (Chinese). and something absolutely new in style may be evolved. also for Louisa.398 NEEDLEWORK AS ART. cannot guess whether the taste which has sprung up again so suddenly will last. and Mr. Arthur Balfour blue silk. velvet. James I. Dado for the Hon. Burne Jones. Queen Anne all different. sixteenth century). Some important works have been produced which illustrate what has been said : 1. . and gold (Italian). Curtains for a drawing-room for the Duchess of of suite window Windsor Buccleuch : crimson velvet and gold applique : 3. which shall revive the credit of " the opus Anglicanum. applique*.. Walter Crane. : earnest attempt to produce an artistic school of embroidery met with recognition and help from the Sir F. inherent in the nature of Englishwomen to emAnd the busy as well as the ignorant . : 7. Panshanger crimson satin. Perhaps its catholicity may prolong its popularity.

becomes a guarantee for the improvement of domestic decorative design. This should be supplied by the Royal School of Art Needlework. by reviving old traditions and criticizing fresh ideas. which by inculcating careful drawing.POSTSCRIPT. . 399 need a guide to the principles of design. FINIS. as well as the technical details of the art of embroidery.

as an ornament fixed on the dress. No 34 in the 2. Part Corpus Nos. occurs twice. I. and has been published by Mr. By Ch. B." Part world ii. or some shade of red. a shorter and more ornamental garment worn over it and the mantle. ." woven into the fabric of the garment. ** entire series has since been given to the " of the Academy of Berlin. flowing to the feet the chitoniskos. himation. such as the embattled border. in the Archonship of Lykurgos.4OO APPENDICES. In the Acropolis at Athens have been found a number of fragments of marble on which are inscribed lists of various female garments dedicated. certain Athenian girls between the ages of five and ten were solemnly dedicated to the goddess every five . tioned in these entries. also mentioned off among the entries these were probably the remnants of castdedicated by their wearers. 338-35. of Dionysos pouring out a libation while a female serves him with wine. the wave A group pattern. Inscriptionum Atticarum . .. but a few scraps. " Sacred to Artemis.. purple. The borders and patterns noted remind us of those represented on the garments of figures in vase pictures." saffron. Most of the garments are the chiton or tunic.C. or sea-green. are also noted among the ornaments. textile fabrics of the ancients THOUGH the embroidered all and richly decorated have perished. Hicks in the "Collection of Ancient Greek Inscriptions in the British Museum. Elgin Collection at the British Museum. T. in the Temple of Artemis Brauronia. APPENDIX I. mostly used as . Newton. and to commit to the custody of One of these fragments is in the officers specially selected for that duty. which it was the duty of the state to guard. for the most part. It is Gold. In the worship of the Artemis Brauronia. and certain patterns in rectangular compartments. Pieces of cloth or rags are . a border or in stripes or a shade of green. and a row of animals. we may form some idea of the richness and variety of Greek female attire from the evidence of the inventories of dedicated articles of dress which have been preserved for us in Greek inscriptions. and the The woollen as " material of these garments seems to have been either linen or fine the colours white. 751-65.. The inscription. These articles were thus carefully registered because they formed part of the treasures dedicated to the gods of the Acropolis. the tint of which is described frog colour. is mennoted that some of these dresses served to deck the statue of the goddess herself. Some of the dresses are described garments as embroidered with the needle. TO PAGE 105. .

in the same manner as the tufts are set in a velvety carpet forming a surface as delicate as silk . . 17 21. said to be the throne of Montezuma. The entries relate chiefly to articles of female attire. Elector of Saxony and King of Poland. the number of children's clothes mentioned in our inventory is easily explained. Curtains or hangings are also mentioned in this list. There are four high-backed chairs covered with the same work in smaller patterns. when their statues were decked out. is a quaint apartment. years.. TO PAGE 210. Hicks remarks. or to screen off the statue of the goddess on the days when she was withdrawn from the gaze of the profane. a main cause of the conflagrations by which used Greek temples were from time their walls. If so. but some few are dedicated to the god Hermes. and then dedicated to some god. D d . with urn-shaped ornaments of stiff feathers at the corners and a pretty bell-shaped fringe of scarlet feathers. and the colouring is as soft as a Gobelins The feathers are woven tightly into the warp. of which the borders are adorned with set tapestry. of goddesses was superintended by a priestess specially chosen for that purpose. In the Castle of Moritzburg. just as we know that the garments in which persons had been initiated at the Greater Eleusinia were worn by them until threadbare. Such hangings were. thrown over what at first appeared to be a bed but on examination it was found to be a rough wooden platform. patterns of fruit and flowers. Some of these articles were doubtless worn by the deities themselves on festive occasions. to time destroyed in spite of the solidity of APPENDIX II.APPENDICES. Hicks further remarks that it was usual for the bride before marriage to dedicate her girdle to Artemis and at Athens the garments of women who died in childbirth were likewise in like manner so dedicated. those which are embroidered or ornamented with gold are specially noted. on the walls of which are hung nigs of feather-work." pp. It is probably on account of such dedications that Artemis was styled Chitone the goddess of the chiton. built by Augustus the Strong. having no temple wherein to dedicate them?" Mr. The garments in this list were dedicated to the goddess Here (Juno) in her celebrated temple at Samos. /cosmos. . or " Mistress of the Robes. . such as bereaved mothers nowadays often treasure for years. like that of a state bed. She was called kosmeteira. Some of the tunics are described as Lydian. The toilet. The same ornament edged a large rug like those on the wall. Another list of vestments is preserved in an inscription found at Samos. Studien zur Geschichte von Samos. These must have been to ornament the interior of the temple. Or were these the clothes of children cut off by Artemis in infancy. 401 Museum already referred In publishing the inventory in the British Mr. probably. But what is especially remarkable is an immense canopy. to. " It may have been the custom sometimes to dedicate to the goddess the garments worn by children at their presentation." In the Samian list of garments. and published by Carl Curtius in his " Inschriften u. The story is that to the touch.

It is not too late. impious words In likeness of an ancient crone. By skilful fingers taught to flow In lengthening lines they watch'd it all And round and round the spindle go. Earl Cowper from Ovid's Metamorphoses. he gave him a hospitable reception. The maid when working fairer still. When the king (Charles II." . The wife had fill'd an early tomb. Then. they view the rich design Ah. Thou hast defied A goddess. TO PAGE 237. should she Surpass me. . haughty maid denied. Age makes me wise.402 NEEDLEWORK AS ART." she cried. : Arachne's tale of grief is full Her father was of low degree No thought beyond his crimson'd wool. His daughter and his wife had he. and distinguished himself at a bull-fight. luckless gift ah. The softness of the fleecy ball.'' The goddess Vain. To watch her task the nymphs repair From fair Timolus' vine-clad hill They deem the work divinely fair. in search of adventures. at the Augustus the Strong went to Spain incognito age of eighteen. foolish pride ! ! Twas But " this the Pallas taught the art divine. . ! came With grizzled locks and And '' spoke with warning tottering frame.) heard the name of the young hero. The daughter lived and all the land Of Lydia boasted of her Iqom. abridged by III. in her tone. and her dexterous hand." she cried " Though first of mortals. tempt not fate. Though matchless in thine art. by Pallas Let the goddess first Pallas ! Accept my challenge. let her do her worst. : Wondering. and afterwards sent these Mexican treasures to him as a token of friendship. fj APPENDIX Story of Arachne.. ! Me By Me taught. Her needle.

Nor will I now forget to tell The reed that doth the warp divide. Grow rosy at the dawn of day. And to the loom the warp tied . The nimble ringers guide its way . that your Is drivelling to address me so. In varying shades are mingled there And every hue the sun's bright fire Can kindle in the showery air. Each for the contest The goddess here. And thus the strife ordain'd to cause Such dark calamity began. restrain'd the blow. or some slave may want " ! Let her but appear. mind " Some daughter Your counsel. old woman. For weariness quench'd by zeal. Hovering as clouds. feel No sense of toil. This mighty Pallas whom you vaunt The goddess answer'd. and lo Was young and that ancient crone fair. She did not shrink she did not pause But headlong to destruction ran . Replied. and tall The nymphs Arachne fell prostrate. " 403 and scarce with madness blind. when night is done. quick moving. The unhappy maid." She spoke. And from either work-frame ring The blows inflicted by the slay. 'Tis plain. One blush quick came and pass'd away. and proud She alone : neither shrank nor bow'd. D d 2 . And all the gorgeous tints of Tyre . still : Each to her bosom binds her vest The arms of each. The beam each loom supports is full well. Then whiten with the rising sun.APPENDICES. ! " She is here. takes her stand the mortal there skilful And each proceeds with hand The means of victory to prepare. The woof the shuttle in doth bring. no'need of is rest.

yet so like when nigh. The gods assembled in their force. . Had fate permitted. . too. Meanwhile Arachne wove the wool . The shuttle thrice the air did rend. with The web many Deois with her snake display'd. : a picture shone. .404 NEEDLEWORK AS ART. : Arachne's soul was proud and high She drew a cruel cord around Her tender neck and. And Danae with her shower of gold And many a tale besides the maid. In harmony's own concord blend. Exulting in the the rock he made to bound herself. driven to die. And Neptune Which from But she with his trident. She drew Europa with her bull. And Leda with her snow-white swan. And all the pictured crimes of Jove. more deeply wise. would have told. And precious threads of glittering gold ! Enrich the growing web. fiery horse. And made her purple blood to flow. A greater blessing from The olive brought. Wheii the wide rainbow spans the sky The bow whose colours. Was from a beam suspended found. Thrice did the heaven-directed blow Full on Arachne's head descend. The half-completed task she tore. the ground and gain'd the prize The border of this main design With Rhodope's sad tale was set And all who dared the gods divine To rival and the fate they met. in the end So different. But say What ancient tale by each was told ? What legend of an earlier day ? Pallas her well-known triumph drew . But the dread goddess now no more To check her rising envy strove .

the Saviour is represented in glory. 136139. the unpitying goddess stay'd Henceforth. (as above enumerated) of the Personal traditional compositions. struggle with the gods on high. 1885. TO PAGE 318. i. front stiff brocade. when serving as deacons at the Pope's altar during You will think little of it at first sight. A warning to the end of time. or the early part of the thirteenth century. remain 'tis We may vie vain fellow mortals. and on the two It is a large robe of and behind. COWPER. but To January. on the back the Transfiguration." she said ! . Her death " " 45 .. The composition on the breast is an amplification of No. pp. the reputation of Byzantine art. The tender Shrivell'd and shrank each comely limb. alone. In the centre of a golden circle of glory. fell . that embroidery is but a poor substitute for the informing hand and the lightning stroke of genius. Jesus Christ. is " BUT ' perhaps the noblest testimony to the revival under the Comneni or afforded by the designs on the Dalmatic robe. shoulders Christ administering the Eucharist to the Apostles.' preserved in the sacristy of St. yet I would stake on it. vain fool for such a crime For ever shall thou hang. APPENDIX Extract from " IV. The head grew small. too. and lay it their coronation-mass. still The To With spider's fingers spin for ever. In loathly sort was seen to swell.APPENDICES. And you must recollect. commonly said styled Di Papa San Leone. History of Christian Vol. Peter's to have been embroidered at Constantinople for the coronation of Charle- sacerdotal magne as Emperor of the West. his eyes directly looking into ' ." In scorn she spoke. falling in broad and unbroken folds in broad and deep enough for the Goliath-like stature and the Herculean chest of Charlemagne himself. And each fair feature disappear'd. the Resurrection and the Life. but fixed by German criticism as a production of the twelfth. The Emperors wore it ever after. aside as a piece of darned and faded tapestry. V. On the breast. with the youthful and beardless face. and over all Her rival's face and form she smear'd A deadly drug. Art? By Lord Lindsay.' robed in white. And off the beauteous tresses waist that was so slim.

. and pointing upwards to Our Saviour . Our Saviour. at the extremity. on which are deposited a chalice and a paten or He gives. imperfectly clothed. c.' or your dissenting from my conclusion. with sounding trumpets and his horsemen following him his truncheon in his hand and his crown on his head 'terribile e to wait upon the legate. to the left. after the manner of the Caesars. Ezekiel. 2 " fantastico/ as his biographer describes him 1 In the ' Manual of Dionysius. rises the Cross. a stiff but majestic figure. printed in Muratori's Antiquit. Paul. Their interpretation as the Covenants of the Law and Gospel. and the sun and down upon it from the sky. and resting his hand on another by his side. below this grand composition. Ital. the only figure that is so placed . the reed with the sponge on the other. the Baptist without. Didron (p. float the emblems of the four Evangelists . but bend await their turn in each l do not apprehend your being disappointed with the Dalmatica di San Leone. with the crown of thorns suspended upon it. St. his left hand holding an open book. In the corners. My four corners of the circular glory. are better executed and more original. I stands behind the altar. is certainly more sublime and instructive. her penitence a thin emaciated figure. viii. essay. then flourished at Byzantium. half without. the cup to St. in of the blessed form a circle of adoration around this central monks and nuns angels occupying the upper part. It was in this Dalmatic then semee all over with pearls and glittering in freshness that Cola di Rienzi robed himself over his armour in the sacristy of St. a Michael Angelo I might almost say. sanctioned by St. is the traditional composition. Transfiguration.406 NEEDLEWORK AS ART. instance. Peter's. to the right. The heavenly host and emperors. she is sweet in feature and graceful in attitude. the Virgin and the Baptist stand to the right and left of our Saviour. in the other the bread to reverently to receive it . 71. left the company glory. basket containing crossed wafers. the lower . only varied by the unusual shape of the vesica piscis which encloses Our Saviour. other disciples they do not kneel. Peter. inscribed with the invitation. by M. his feet resting on the winged wheels 1 of yours.' recently published by M. appear.' &c. Gregory the Great in his Homilies.' * torn. and thence ascended to the Palace of the Popes. five all are standing. Above Our Saviour's head. patriarchs. St John the Baptist. Medii >Evi. The background and scene of the whole composition is of blue. sits upon the rainbow. studded with stars.' his right raised in benediction. appears Mary Magdalen. * At the Father. on the side. In each of them. and from the top of the golden circle. to represent heaven. on the shoulders. that a master. ' .). these winged wheels are interpreted as signifying the order of angels commonly distinguished as Thrones. resting on them. in her long white robe. which corresponds to this subject on the back of the robe. in the one case. a child on his lap. the spear resting on one moon looking side. Abraham seated. The two compositions representing The the Institution of the Eucharist. shaped like the Greek cross. 2 Cited from the original life. Sulpice Boisseree. in his Ueber die Kaiser-Dalmatica. and with dishevelled hair. holding the cross. ye blessed of Come. half within it. the Virgin entirely within the glory.

row St. . Matthew. Mary Magdalene. Lowest row of single figures St. Barnabas. Andrew. St." Other portions of the cope had bee. Edward the Confessor a Bishop St. stitch. Between the tabernacles body are four angels.. maniple. with a The centre compartment of a different form for the group of the Crucifixion. John the Evangelist. Bartholomew. St. Lancashire. queens. St. to the Rector of the College. (or St. In the intervals. and bearing stars Mr. Catherine. St. Peter. silver. " I found it to be of English work of the time of Edward I. The " Pluvial in the Basilica of St. near Blackburn. St. The ground is of a richly ribbed faded silk. each accompanied by one of the evangelistic symbols. The design worked in gold and silks is enclosed in The Syon Cope he refers to Rock's " Textile quatrefoils of oak and ivy. give his account of the mutilated condition. St. Thomas. TO PAGE extracts The Hon. The orphrey is divided into tabernacles containing an archbishop. St. probably English. from which he has made his " " beautifully drawn restoration. thrones. Paul. John the Baptist. St. St. and bishops. In the orphrey are kings. two bishops." The Dalmatic from Anagni. are worked in chain. St. St. Jude. Middle St." First on his list is the Cope now in the possession I of Colonel Butler Bowden. Derbyshire. Margaret." " describes the subjects embroidered on it thus No border round the : much curved edge. the college. St. APPENDIX V. Formerly.. The silks silk. Martha Helen ?). and were in the possession of Henry Bowden. Philip. St. and some scraps detached. Lawrence. of Southgate House. John Lateran at Rome. Fabrics. Stephen. the late Augustus Welby Pugin. and Rev. See Appendix. Edmund of the king and martyr. Simon. St. near Chesterfield. subjects are chiefly from the life of our Lord and the Blessed Virgin. St. Only two small fragments remain of the quasi-hood. Clifford describes the Steeple Aston Cope. James. Ignatius Clifford has permitted me to make from his/' Memoranda of some remarkable Specimens of Ancient Church Embroidery. shire. archbishops. 1849. he speaks of as having He the appearance of the celebrated Opus Anglicanum.APPENDICES.'' The well-known architect. Mary's College. wrote on the 2oth April. 407 320. and have no hesitation in pronouncing it to be the most interesting and beautiful specimen of church embroidery I have ever seen. Derby- some four or* five miles from The ground is crimson velvet. The of the cope is cut into a most elaborate system of tabernacles. of Pleasington. In the body cope are the Annunciation Adoration of the Magi Our Lady enthroned at the right of her Divine Son. some made up into chasuble. and seed pearls. stole. St.n made up into an altar-frontal. Esq.." he says. he thinks is . The designs are wrought in gold. portions of this cope. or rather in split It contains between seventy and eighty figures. St. exhibited at Rome in 1870. were at Mount St. having seen them (or at least the chasuble). an Archbishop. James. Spink Hill. angels seated on faldstool also two popinjays. and three kings and queens. Top row St.

. (Bartolomeo It is a masterpiece of Silvius") fifteenth century. nine in upper row. xii. the cross. 7. St. . &c. from the treasury at Pienza and shortly afterwards discovered in the shop of a dealer in antiquities at Florence. Italian embroidery of the early Renaissance. 9). morse. 275. From " Rock's " Textiles? p. a border containing medallions with heads (of angels. griffin-like embroidered with two wyverns or creatures. The material was gold brocade. seven in upper row. APPENDIX VI. wrought all in silver a most unusual . lined with vair Here the Blessed Virgin is arrayed in a green tunic. which won itself so wide a fame. the Apostles. prophets.000. The pelican and the phcenix are introduced over the top central II. thirteenth century . The whole was adorned with pearls and precious stones valued at . with winged cherubim standing on wheels in the intervening spaces. twelve in lower. with crimson interlacing Mary. 1884. representing "yneas saints and angels.408 The small quasi-hood NEEDLEWORK is AS ART. 9 feet 7 inches by 4 feet 8 inches. covered with wonderful designs carried out in needlework. The cope at Bologna is thus described " Subjects from the New Testament contained in two rows of* tabernacle compartments. The next quatrefoil above this is filled with the Crucifixion. and a golden mantle her head is kerchiefed. The Syon Monastery Cope work. enclosing figure of our Lord. " This handsome cope. the cope was restored to embroidery. showing. . ground green. If by all lovers of mediaeval antiquity it will be looked upon as so valuable a specimen of art of its kind and time. so very remarkable on account of its comparatively perfect preservation. at the foot of clasped. the Blessed Virgin . Pienza. and her uplifted hands sorrowfully St. twenty-three in lower." : . for every Englishman it ought to have a double interest. John whose dress is all of gold is on the left. . At his death the pope bequeathed this vestment to the cathedral of his native town. and various coloured silks. and was so eagerly sought after throughout the whole of Europe ' during the Middle Ages. Rock gives a list of the subjects. trees and birds. Michael overcoming Satan (from Rev. No orphrey no border or outside curve quasi-hood very small. TO PAGE 326. . group of the enthronement of our Lady. English needlebarbed quatrefoils.). and arabesques. silver. such a splendid and instructive example of the opus Anglicum.80. and hem wrought with armorial bearings the whole done in gold. Clifford gives the history of the Cope of Pius Piccolomini. as it does. Spandrils occupied by angels playing on various musical instruments. upon which the Saviour. After each row. but completely stripped of its precious stones and of some of its more valuable After magisterial investigation." Mr.' or English work." Dr. and the orphreys. is one of the most beautiful among the several liturgical vestments of the olden period anywhere to be now found in Christendom. The cope was stolen in March.

one gold. . written in tall gold letters more than an inch high. " When this cope was new. Michael and the Dragon is St. thing 409 with a cloth of gold wrapped about His loins. Below the burial we have our Lord in the garden. or ball representing the This is divided into three parts.. and wears a mantle of green. and holding a long.. the other the flaying knife. and border. above him St... the . Just above is our Saviour. Upon his knees that Apostle feels. but the lower hemicycle is divided vertically in two. is coloured crimson (now faded to a brownish tint). The next two subjects to be described are . on the left. As at the left side. who is wimpled. upon his knees.APPENDICES. . Resting upon His knee and steadied by His hand is the Mund. we have the figure of an individual probably living at the time the vestment was wrought. narrow scroll bearing words which cannot now be in satisfactorily read. both emblems of pilgrimage to his shrine in Galicia. death of the Blessed Virgin Mary the other. and carrying a staff. . . our Lord in His left hand holds the . . quite outside the sacred history on the cope. Philip. . so that we see This nothing now but the lines drawn in black to guide the embroiderer. The dress of the other shows him to be a layman by the shaven crown of his head.. is fastened by three . . still further to the right St. Paul with his sword. Peter. but outside the quatrefoil. an upper earth. probably fifty years later than the other portions of this matchless specimen of the far-famed . of which one portion is coloured green. and the other white or silvered. her burial. In the next quatrefoil above is St. . overcoming the unbelief of St. crowned as a king. . . morse. with a book in one hand. and slung from his wrist a wallet. . and over to the right St. shot yellow. and with His right bestows His benediction on the kneeling Magdalene. t " In its Portions can original state it could give us the whole of the twelve Apostles. horizontal hemicycle. . a golden tunic. with his right hand held by the Redeemer. sadly cut away. The lower part of the vestment has been still be seen. signified by two trees still wearing the crown of thorns. banner of the Resurrection. perhaps at that time were added the present heraldic orphrey. read. Below. A silver times called of Compostella. . (not four) nails. and reshaped with the fragments . . an inscription now cut up and lost the word tte and a V on some of the shreds are all that remains of it.. James the Greater somelittle . the spear wound in His side. and seated on a cushioned throne. over a light purple tunic. with his two keys. Lowermost of all we see the Apostle St. because he lies buried in that Spanish city with a book in one hand and in the other a staff. James the Less. clad in Thomas. this person must have been a cleric of some sort but we cannot tell . the other and somewhat under him is St. Andrew with his cross. it showed. . . so here. is a layman clad in gold. In the highest quatrefoil is figured the Redeemer in glory. for the canvas is worn quite bare. . Thomas . On the other side of St. Churchman holds up another scroll bearing words which can no longer be . of which the" largest. . . one on the right hand.

Seraphim. . they fell.. so observable on this vestment. The method for grounding the done in external anatomy. after the first start. hierarchy. Bygod. and soon betray the damage by their threadbare. composed of the bright-eyed feathers of the peacock." These coats of arms. Roger de Mortimer. morse to that belonging to many an ancient roll of arms. and shows a noteworthy example of the mediaeval knowledge of dimple is We must not. On this cope the eight angels standing upon wheels are so placed that they are everywhere nearest to those quatrefoils wherein. were pressed down those parts of the faces worked in circles. expose-it to the danger of being worn by friction more than other parts. "A word or two upon the needlework. Ferrars. will have a special value. Grandeson. Spencer. that of a comely youth clothing him with six wings. Tyddeswall. De Bassingburn. interest for every lover of mediaeval symbolism. . Upon the lightly clothed figure of our Lord the same process is followed. The other angels. Le Botiler. the wings are often way by . . remarkable for being a long zigzag diaper pattern (laid . however. and may therefore be taken as representing the upper hierarchy of the angelic host. while those that have but one pair of wings (not three) represent the lowest " All of them have their hands All. Ribbesford. Geneville Everard. lending its figures more effect." circles may be the human face. how it was done. equal The orphrey. with many others not recognized. and worked in circular lines. " as is the case in the example just is . instead of the body being full of eyes. are barefoot. Golbare or Grove. but not following that prophet step by step. . hide from ourselves that the unequal surfaces. our Lord's Person comes. ending in a small bulb slightly heated. and frequent repetitions. England.410 'Opus Anglicum. cited. By the hollows thus sunk a play of light and shadow brought out that lends to the parts so treated a look of being done in low relief. To this they gave a human shape. Cherubim. For every lover of English heraldry this cope. quatrefoils stitch). hierarchies. . Hampden. given by such a use of the hot iron to parts of the work. " Then with a little iron rod. all over this cope. being mostly blazoned on lozenge-shaped shields. Monteney of Essex.. FitzAlan. and were so carried on through the rest of the flesh tints. dingy look. into which." the " AS ART. the first stitches the centre of the cheek. . in prayer. Champernoun. arms of religious houses or donors. not upon wheels. are Ezekiel. like our Lord. Sheldon.'" NEEDLEWORK "Of angels. ." and hem contain the arms of Warwick. our mediaeval draughtsmen found out for themselves a certain angel form. Chambowe." Besides their heraldry. no doubt belong to the second hierarchy . so lifted plentifully blazoned with armorial bearings. Percy. and Thrones. . with human feet. Clifford. and the now unused mechanical appliance to it after it was wrought. the badge of the Knights Templars." and the three great Led a good figured here. Lemisi or Lindsey. nine choirs. as well as the wide find that for the in "We were begun in the throat. Castile and Leon. squares at each corner are wrought with swans and peacocks of curious . suggest that possibly they record those of the noble ladies who worked the border while those on .

and Portugal. Rock now enters into the history of the guilds. " . its crimson canvas lining is thick and coarse. laymen and women." easily account for the shield The other noble shields may possibly record munificent benefactions. In the Syon Nun's Martyrologium a valuable MS. . splendidly provided for. and on account of their a centre. by the individuals. Upon the banks of the Thames built and munificently endowed a monastery. After such a fashion this cope might easily have found its way. broad lands would. Rock's interesting account of the Syon Cope. and thus to convey their thanks to him with his fee. where they halted. wife of Edward the First. . and the probability is that it was embroidered by the nuns of some convent which stood in or " near Coventry. " where the famous Corpus Christi plays " (which this cope so " well illustrates) drew crowds every year to see them. which included noble . It was the custom for a guild or religious body to bestow some rich church vestment upon an ecclesiastical advocate who had befriended it by his pleadings before the tribunal. and has found a home in the South Kensington Museum. so that we may died 1290. He says that each of these guilds had usually in its parish church a chapel or altar of its own.APPENDICES. or by members clubbing together that their joint gift might be more worthy. Graunt. " to be called Syon. and the layman worked on the cope may have been the suggests that possibly Coventry may have been the place of its origin. "A . as is testified by the Dr. from Warwickshire to Middlesex. Among the earliest friends of this new house was a Master Thomas Graunt. of which this very cope seemingly is one. who likely. should have in her lifetime become a sister is very Castile and Leon. near London. in accordance with the religious feelings of those times. become brothers of the famous Guild of Coventry." Dr. through Dr. The whole must have taken very long in the working. Rock Paston length. as they wandered in an unbroken body through Flanders. Bridget's order. Henry V. an official in one of the Ecclesiastical Courts of the kingdom. high rank find their arms embroidered on the vestments belonging to their That such a pious queen as the gentle Eleanor. Chartley castle. . with a radius of no great on the map enclosing Tamworth. . but . "At the beginning of Elizabeth's reign it went with the nuns. . The lords of these this old city as circle fraternity. letters. About sixty years ago it came back again from Lisbon to England. cleric Perhaps the donors. Charlcote. and Althorp. Taking we may draw a town. word or two about the history of this fine cope. to which offerings were spontaneously given . tower and Warwick." For want of space I have been obliged to omit a great deal of Dr." for the nuns of St. at Isleworth. The reader is referred for further . and members of the clergy and tells us that the rolls of these associations sometimes grew to be exceedingly wealthy. France. (or linen) for every part of this cope is of the finest sort. " in 411 The stitching many trifling " The canvas on the armorial bearings is the same as that now followed things worked in wool (cross stitch). lately bought by the British Museum this Churchman is gratefully recorded as the giver to their convent of several precious ornaments.

Translation by Thomas Arnold. (the ancient Erech). in APPENDIX VIII. which the rich deep and broad fringe forms the ornament and accentuates the shaping of the garments of kings and priests and nobles. The following poem from the Anglo-Saxon poem of Beowulf shows that the hospitable hall of the Saxon earl was hung with tapestry embroidered with gold. . and touch and startle the thinking. a civilization. Fcela pcera was Much people were Wera and Wifa pe pat win rued Men and women who that wine house Gest sele gyredon gold fag scinon That guest-hall garnished. TO PAGE 369." pp.mind. APPENDIX The Assyrians were VII. Manche schmucke Decke von Arras da lag Aus lichthellem Zeuge und manches Uebcrdach Aus arabischer Seides so gut sie mochte sein. p. and in one of them was a cushion. 275 291. Of this we can judge from their great in fringes. iibersetzt From the " Niebelungen Lied. Wundersiona feld Those along the walls many wonderful sights Sioga gustryleum para pe on swyle stara $ To every person of those that gaze on such." tells of the only actually existing remnant of their textile art of which I can find any record. TO PAGE 350. on which the head. gone to dust. Some terracotta coffins were opened at Warka. recomposed from earlier sagas. The lines which follow are from a poem. Cloths embroidered with gold Web-after wagum. " Loftus. 9182). in his Babylon and Susiana. details. in the South Kensington Museum (No. 294. Such fragmentary echoes from a life.." von Karl Simrock. sculptures.412 NEEDLEWORK AS ART. and an art dead for thousands of years. especially regarding the heraldry and the subjects in the quatrefoils. in It serves to show that arras was used the beginning of the twelfth century. The poem of Beowulf is supposed to have been written in the early part of the twelfth century. had reposed. It was covered with linen fringed. " to Rock's Textile Fabrics.. in bedrooms thus early in Germany. Nothing else had survived the ages except a huge wig of false hair. Dariiber lagen leisten du gaben herrlicher Schein. are curiously pathetic.

morning before she went to her work. could not bear to lose them. . and deaths of men and women. and portents. said that they were sure she had such treasures with her as would be hard In that in (A. especially the embroidered hangings of a " I will not lie in the but Thorgunna refused to part with them. Wilmington Ingram. Her richly worked bed- clothes.) which Christianity was established by law in Iceland ship from off the sea out to Snowfellsness. straw for thee. from Sodor and the Hebrides. O. and a rain of blood and how Thorgunna sickened and died. (From the Ezrbyggja Saga. bed . A. and her bed-hangings and " canopy were such that men thought nothing at all like them had ever been the ^hole story by the details.APPENDICES. by some means.. and strong and very stout.D. APPENDIX IX. and apparitions of ghosts. incident of the corpse cooking the supper of the convoy at an inhospitable farmhouse where they had sought refuge and received no entertainment. and burned them in the fire. until Kjartan (Thurida's son) brought out all furniture. Thurida. and went to church every thick. whose name was Thorgunna. and thinkest great things of thyself. Abridged from Trans. and that priests might there sing dirges over her. I 4 3 ! owe these notices to the kindness of the Rev." air An of truth is given to tall is described as " . "After this followed many signs and persuaded Harold to spare them. the housewife at Frida. with eyes set close together her hair was brown and very She was well-behaved in daily life. but few Norsemen. On Harold's return home after the funeral." Then comes an account of a storm. and at her own desire was carried to be buried to Skilholt. Dasent. Thurida. which she prophesied would one day be considered holy.. including the seen. her English sheets and silkeft quilt. he proceeded to carry out the wishes of Thorgunna. and on board it were Irishmen and men Iceland. to possess herself of them. however. though thou art a fine lady. On board the ship was Her shipmates a woman from the Hebrides. was envious and covetous of these precious goods.. TO PAGE 362. there summer came a to get in Iceland. and therefore she had desired they should be burned." Thorgunna made her own terms with Thurida and Master Harold. who had warned him that the ownership of her embroidered hangings would cause trouble. and set up her bed at the inner end of their hall. There is a curious and picturesque account of the two days' journey to Skilholt. 1000). and the adventures that befell the funeral cortege . in It was a Dublin ship. and received Thorgunna into her home in hopes. by Sir G." Thorgunna's bed-hangings and . She was Thorgunna swarthy brown. .

Laces. "Anglia Christiana. Silk or Colein Silk. | LEOFLEDA.. upon pain of forfeiture of the same.414 NEEDLEWORK APPENDIX X. pur ceo que diverses defautes sont trovez en loveraigne de diverses assentiez. KING Oswic. 365. ATHELFLEDA. bring or cause to be brought by way of merchandize any wrought silk thrown. 3 Edward IV. touching or concerning the mystery of Silk women. any Corses. to That no Marchant. LEOFWED. See Liber Eliensis. These acts appear to "An Act for Silk Women. . concerning the craft of Silk women Whereby is prohibited or restrained. . the importation of any wrought silk thrown. ed. Ribbands. and there she embroidered with her maidens. que persons occupiantz le mestier de brouderie. Stranger. a Northumberland Chief or Alderman. the following in vol. J. That if any Lombard or any other person. i. 1848. into any part or place of the Realm from beyond the Sea. thrown or wrought. TO PAGE Aelfled or Athelfleda was the founder of a race of embroiderers. deceitful workers of gold and silver embroidery. 33 Henry VI. a small property belonging to the convent.. &c. sister Aedelfleda was She was a IOswic's AELFVVIN. Laces. I AELSWITH. AELSWITH. Also Richard III. I She embroidered the daring deeds of her husband. be forfeit. D. 526 (in old French) 2 : Henry VI. Item. or any other thing wrought. Corses of Silk. 22 Edward IV. Ordonnez est A penalty on tout loveraigne & stuff Luke melle avec faitures ein laton de de brouderie d'or ou d'argent de Cipre ou d'or de Spayne & mys a vent en deceit des lieges du Roi sont forfait au Roi ou as Seigneurs et autres accenz franchises d'autielx forquy franchise autiel overaigne soit trouvde et durera c'est ordi- nance longue parlement prochainement avenir. i. . Stewart. Ribbands. great embroiderer. or other things wrought. the corses which come from Genoa only excepted.. - Their pedigree is as follows : BRITHNOD. adopted by Hilda. p. TO PAGE In the Statutes at Large there is 377." vol. Coll. APPENDIX XL. Corses of Silk. Ribbands. Girdles. 3 and 5 George III. nor other person shall bring into the Realm be sold. Stranger or Denizen. AS ART. Abbess of Whitby." have been partially repealed. and died 713. Leofwed made her will in the time of King Cnut dividing her revenue between her daughter Aelswith and the Abbey of Ely. Laces. Ribbands.." Also 19 Henry VII. Aelswith accepted the residence of Coveney. "An Act touching the bringing in of Silk Laces. She succeeded Hilda. that the same .

embroidecorative. . Asbestos linen. 271. 38. Book-coverings in library of Charles 20. 40. 114. 284. Arras. glass bowls. at Kenilworth. 300. Italian. 103. 160. . 299 Auxerre. 70.INDEX. 339. of. 3T5 Romanesque. 136. 98. 29. by Queen . Bombacinum of. 153. Bayeux of. Egyp37. Alessandri Palace. 245 . 310 . 338. Aragon. 340. Arrazzi. 287. pall of. 46. 346. Egyptian woollen embroidery. Hampton Court. Banner. 396. Gothic. 366. embroideries 147. 93 . Greek. Aesthetic. mantle of Demeter. 36. Achilles. of Brittany. 80. mantle Altar. 305 . 42. 283. tian. 331. 273. 31 . navian. Aryan. Boadicea. 346 . Balawat. 303. Florence. Catherine by. 3 1 ?. 383- 283-4. 64. 38. 65. Roman. tapestries. Ecclesiastical. 312. 78. tent of. 243. 1 01 carpets from Nineveh. 155 Japanese. 311. Celtic. Black. Aelgitha. 187. 187. Christian. bronze gates from. . Arachne. dress Art of dress.. 123. wife of Canute. 142. 332. portrait of Mahomet II. 268. 282 . Aristophanes. 25. of Parthe- 393 . mention of worked palls by. golden garment of. 59. 69. 289. Amasis. 96. Atrebates. Assyrian. silk arm-bindings. 43. 142. 215 . Bede. 249 trade Blue. 255-6. 395. 68. Beads. 134. 311. 105 non. with. Museum. 34. of. Lornbardic. 138. 39. 17. 73. 328. British 310. Alexander the Great. altar-cloths. of. of St. 56-7. Alkisthenes. Baldachino. 52. . 35. at Bellini. Bedsteads. Scandi- V. Blode-bendes. shield of. 87. 349. 237. Apollo of Branchidoe. 31. Agrippina. Attalus I. Bishop of. 324. . 90. wedding 142. 170. sculptures frieze in. 60. 250. 41. French. 306 . corselet 308 Bishop Anne 299. or cotton.. of needlework. 18. 130 fine linen printed. 143. Chinese. 263-4. Prince of. Pagan. 359. 238. 184. 246. 42. 43. 22 . 289. 242. Rome. 307. 20. or 374. Arabesque. deries by. 274. 298. 367. Bas-relief. 306. 323. 93 . vases. 366. 252. 37. gar. Emma. Egyptian dress. altar-piece. Cuthbert. Borghese Palace. Art. 296. 33. 277. 298.

Stephen of Hungary. 335-6. woollen trade 390. woven. Chenille. Chaldean house. 366 . 379. city of Pan. 192. 23. of James I. ordered 312. 133. 177. pure. 398.. 139. 337. Coverlets. of chair-backs. in. Confusion. 191. prismatic. 358 Brown. 255. Corselet of Amasis in temple at Lindos. Curtains. 374. 147. 306. 371. 390. 309. Burleigh . bronze 289 green. of 132. 326 at . Cushion Cuthbert. 165. at by 362 . 376. Crimson. reign. 281. foundation. emblem Ciclatoun. St. Chair. Charles I. 285 Persian. Conventional. library Chasuble. 390. Cope of St. Buckram. 393. Castle Ashby. Sion. Complication. Charles X. 288 . 73. cotton plush. 256. Cinnabar. 306. Consutum. 304. 134-5. in Rhodes. 144. 66. 261. at Hatfield. 184. 366. Oriental. 362. 127. House arras. 144 "opus pectineum" from Egypt.. Henry III. . for Coire. 71. silk garments in 190. . 124. 236. historical embroideries. by Sergius. 88. liturgical. Andrew. 364-5. 251.416 NEEDLEWORK . Charles V. 286. 308. 229. Crusaders. 384. gas. 369 .. 175 purple. AS ART. 320 Byrri. at Dur- ham. 184. 184. Isabella Cotton. St. 384. 141. Anne of. Oswald. Byzantium. 183. 381. St. 184. 189. crimson. Brocade. 335.. speciopus Anglicanum." 376. 371. 308. statues. of Boniface VIII. Chemmis. 345. 188. tomb of.. of Edward the Confessor. of. 281. 289. at 328. Spain.. 144 . men statuette of Minerva.. Carpets. of 272 . iodine. Cashmere. . Cochineal. 289 305 mystical. by Pope John. 184. 193. of. of 137. 395. at Stoneyhurst. 285 . Constantine. tapestries Catacombs. chromatic. 180. 89. Clavuslatus. 261. prehistoric. . 295. Croyland Abbey embroideries. . Chaucer. 238. Contrast. yellow. Rheims. Crewels. of Innocent III. 139. 318. 312. Andrew. 144. 277. 320. Bronze age. . 163. 138. 270. 190. work in. at. 191. 206. 390. Code of Manu. 321-2. 20. " 297. 145. 163. 307.'s copper. 316. of Counterpane worked by Queen Valencia. pavements. cotton trees.. Daroca. 133. Church Greek. of James II. 241. Byssus. Copper.332. of St. 65. 348. 165. Cleves. 214. Katherine. 97. 322 . 339. 359. 187. ment with gold ornaments. 393. by Stephen IV. 185. 295. 272. 271.. 392. 139. 316. 67. 314. Cross. Colour. 312. Coronation robes. 164. Coral.

Queen. Dyes. tapestry works Furniture. 359 50. 33 J . 291. 294. 70. of. Chinese. 135. 387. 104. 306 materials 305. 388 . 393. 31-2. 53. 366. 300. 104. III. Russian. Scandinavian and Celtic. 146. robes. Fulham. Floss 372. 31718. 116. 44. 389. Fictile vases. art of. Roman. Eighteenth century decorations. 271. 341. Dalmatic of Charlemagne. 301. Greek. 43. 394. 143. 313 . 136. 365. 195. 97. English. Flat. 132. 357. 395. 153. 313. Emma. 22.262. 69-70 . reign. . 292. for images. 43. Indian. Italian. 185. Etruscan borders. 372. . 378. 127. Filatorium. crosses of. 93. in Henry VI.. . 3 1 9. Assyrian. 134. Edward Edward II. 381-2. 71.. of Frames. . 130. Emare. Persian. 210. 306. 139. English. churches. 129. Spanish. Flowers. 351. 280 293. 257. Egyptian. 131. 31. 311. 236. 271. ingham. Durham Cathedral. Flax. at Durham. 81. 311. 103. Flemish work. tombs. Decorative. Babylonian and Ninevite. 114. 112. 70. 273. Frescoes. Footstools. 5. 393. 299. 289. Detail. 149. 348. 266. . 133. Dais. Embroiderers' Guild. Eleanor. . 297-8 Roman. T 93> I0 3> 350. 272. white. of Duke and Duchess of Buck. 360 . 173 200. 222. 147. 127. tile fabrics 33>353. 377 stan. Company in Eliza- beth's reign. Gammadion. Queen. 373. at Valencia. 299 109. 285. 377. 332- drawing on. 271. 113. spurious. embroideries by. the chamber 45 of. 42. 109. 373. . . 345. 158. 271. Ecclesiastical embroidery. 355.INDEX. 91. Floral patterns. 371. ancient Egyptian texfrom. 71. Dress. 68. 290. 345Flavius Vopiscus. 151. Damascus. in 299 early 300 of Claudius. Portuguese. stitches.. 187. 's Embroidery. monopoly of trade by. floral. Embroideries. 374. 383. 301. 250. Enamel. 206. 105. 358. 116. 208. 377. 303. 136. Delphic. 127. 329. 5481. 388. . Cyprus bowls. 183. 299. E e . 214. 3 2I > 3 2 5 350. mantle names. German. 47 Fashion. Japanese. . 313. 316. 93. 16. 39 East India Company. 127. Decoration. 373 Greek. Fringes. 201. Fayoum. > 282. names of garments in. priests' used in. by Dun- 35 6 art 39 6 of. embroidery. at. Fitness. 93. 381. 313. St. English. 316. 81. 99. Dado. Design. Field of Cloth of Gold. 1'st silk. 327. Christian. 45> 15. 32. 71. 273.

Helen. 105. Florence. Hemp. . 19. 394. Sanctuary. 275. 392-3- Harmonies. Lace. 360. . 370. 187. a silk tissue. 242. cotton 89. 223. threads. for ecclesiastical purposes. Kunigunda. in reign of. 381. 277. French. manufacture of tapestry in reign work Juno. 247. and St. 384 bed at. lace-books. Green. 33. 265 . Hebrew James I. Gobelins. in France. 309. 311. 121. Josephus. 9. in Holland House. Hair. fabrics. 331. 346. 360. 138. . blonde. from time of Harold to Book of. 260 Hampton . by Euripides. 130. 146. 234 . 131. 262 . 299. in Florence. n. 263 portraits on. in. Honiton. toilet of. tapestry Geoffrey. Grotesque. embroideries. Hawaiian royal mantle. 323. English. 229. 229. 203. 277. 269. 386. Hephaestion. 243. 222 384. on Greek vases. 276. manufacture of tapestry in reign of. six- 274 modern Kells. arts of. 66. Burano. . 234. 275 . Venetian. AS ART. 384-5. Hexsemeron work of St. bobbin. 209. 277. 75. 272 teenth century. 232. needle-made. French. Henry VIIL. 284. the sacred. schools Henry II. 121. Museum. 362. 234 Irish. 233 . . Grey. 374. 225. Ambrose Queen. 252. Imperial. Icelandic Sagas. 7. 316. . 305. needlework for Horn. 255. 341 in. 163.. 334. Hand-looms. 381 Gradation. of Alexander's tent. Bishop. mantle of. of the Hangings. Isabella of France. worked by Mrs. Prince 156. 223. in tapestry. 234. 227. ancient 228. Helena. Indian carving. 140. 388. yak. Empress. list of. Limerick. 276. Basil. Kosroes' hangings. 203. 302. of Spain. 168. Khotan. of. India." 268 . Gisela. Pawsey. 225.4i8 NEEDLEWORK of.. 83. Illumination. 99. Gaudry. manu- Guimp. 231. 230. 268. 307. 288. portrait of. Court. catafalque of. 237. 267. Gregory Nazianzen. 375. in Kosroe's "white palace. 242. 273. 363. 133. Jacket in Lady Waterford's collection. 333. 202 . Abbot. 75. bone. Homer. 161. stitches. 247-8. 384. 369 j Spanish lace. 285. factures. woven Inscriptions. Spanish. Gothic design 377. of. Jute. and others. 133. Elinor of Aquitaine. Empress. 235. 274 . 391. in Rome. 389. 30. 27. 305. Giustini Palace. 67. 297. 75. 254. 274. embroideries. saffron. 389.. 269 in mentioned Pompeii. 187. 160. shawls. 43. 323. dyes. 261. . Gold. embroidery. 233 . 277. 33. 143. caskets. Edward IV. Holland House. 187.

117. 333. of King Wiglaf." Hall. 117. 84. 158. 357 . T 60. in 24. netted. Louis XIV. 139. of Cluny. 95 palm animal. at Linen. applique'. Alban's. 117.. 379Melito. 167. wave. at. 213. Lotus. 257 . Patterns. Cuthbert. 93. 40. 89. 251. Opus Anglicanum. 104 . of. lion's gate Agamemnon 304. 419 in mis- sal at. leaf or shawl. Oudenarde "hallings" or 251. 364. tomb of 19. Code of. 314. Manu.. Mummy. 323. 42. 387. Louis XV. the steel. 247. 249. 252. Northumberland House. crenelated. 151. 322. 242 . 161. 168. Lyons. Cluny. by. 339- Durham library. Patchwork. 247. in 63. bronze. 59. wheel. of Fleury. 108 . cross. 376. 151. Lares. Opus Alexandrinum.. 325. Nunneries. 307. Needle. 187. 277. of St. 4. 129. 392. 309. 144. 332. 183. 249. 82 key. 47. 99 .wrappings. 30. no. Coventry. Normans. Marcus Mark's. Empress Theodora's dress figured in. 49. 275. 314. 242 . . 211 . 276. first. 79. 41. 310. 56. "salles. of Alkisthenes. 109. IOT . 325. 363-4. Palermo. of Gisela. 100. 273. Monks of St. 357-8. at Palermo. 95 . Lilac. 247. book on 73. Orange. 373. 145. 62. of Servius Tullius. 202. Maria Maggiore. 299. 214. Oriental work. pine-apple. 12. lily. 242 . 127. England. Monuments. 291. fundata or 109. Muslin. Venice. 103. 89. at. 317. of Sta. 99. at Lyons. Orphrey. 332. 290. bone. 323. 103 . Mycenae. Manufactures of Nineveh and Babylon. 69. 187. 105. Nimroud. 392. 137. Order. 101 . Renaissance. 321. at. 14. Painting. 165. honeysuckle. silk-weaving 125. Nineteenth century. early Christian. Louis XVI. style of. St. 195. William. Mary's. 306. Bishop of Sardis. cloud. 10.. 369. tapestries 257. Symbolism Middle Ages. 368-9. Maniple of St. of Ajax. 315. 22. Oriental. Thomas a Becket. Museum. Lombardic. 114. Aurelius. 23. 345. 308. Florent. 393. 300. 97. 102.INDEX. 239. 167 . Mary. 346. of silk. 338 . of St. 366. egg and tongue. St. Mantle of Demeter. 96 . Morris. Queen of Scots. Boulac. Lambeth tapestry works. 358. 93 . 314. no. Moor- e 2 . Panels. sacred horn. 47. lotus. 123. 332. 242. Pudenziana. 102 . Mitre at Milan. Leather. rose. Mosaics. 306. Saumur. Sta.

School of Art Needlework. . Silvester.376. 21. King of Sicily. Robes of Julius Caesar. Pamphile silk-weaver. 242. 94. Penelope. South Kensington. of Bruges. Polymita. silks. 114. 378. 383. 211 . 347 251. 23. 240. 152. 125. Peacocks. 182. 189.42O. of Childeric. 7. of fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. 163. at St. 114. Portraits of Charles V. cartoons of. panies. of. 378 . Queen Matilda.35i. 171. 299. wicker Indian Progression. Pectineum. 64. 336-7 Pall . Plush. 281. at Wilton House. 131. Reredos 98. 87. 64. at Aix. 219. Renaissance. rugs. 325 Roes. ish. style in reign of. 208.. Scarlet. Becker. 249. 346. Pulvinarium. 362. Plumarii. 391. Peter's. Roger. Pheidias. Roman 364. . Satin. 145. 397. 46. 45. 49. 144. 88. 331. Sicilian. 75. 26. 161. 374. 187. 245. 221. 67. 153. Pearls. St. Phoenicians. chrysoclavus or palmated. bridal couch Peplos of Athene. 266. 241 check. of Bishop Adof St. 1 NEEDLEWORK 10 . 112. Pompeii. 332. Persian carpets. 323. 109. silks. bowls from Cyprus. 45. Queen Anne. 207. embroidery 330. 32. of. 43. 295 of Richard II. Saracenicum. Queen 385-6 style in reign of. 269. or wheel and plate. geometrical. Purl. of London Com- Elizabeth. 251. 112: Portuguese 394. AS ART. 387. 285. 115. Rugs. 383. Roses. Proportion.'s reign. balcony. of Alexander. Phrygium. 379 . Sampler of Henry Vll. 170. 306. 202. 380. Rome. 367. Penates. 79. and lattice. 291. 288. 369. 241. 372-3. feathers. 379. . 29. 255. Romanesque. 376. Raphael. 1 1 1 5 shell. 235. in needlework in reign of James I. 73. Wars of. 176. Pere Labbe'. transports silk-weavers from Greece. Plateresque. 306. 371. 394. rise 388. Pictorial art. 291. 270. 153. 212. 62. metal-work. 271. German and Venetian books t Purple.work.. 142 . 187. . 3 20. 361 . fashions. at Dunstable. of. Perspective. 36. . 206. 113. Alban's. Richard Cceur de Lion. 161. 59. 379-80. Daroca. of Vintners' Company. 389. 389. 204. Runic art. Repetition.. 108. Indian dimity. 70. silks. Samit. 362. Pluvial of St. 319. at Bologna. Persian.357. Queen Mary of Hungary. 160. 44. 308. 113 . Thomas a helme. 392. 329. feather. daisy. 329. bead. Radiation. 372.

Si-ling-chi. 98. 159. . 1 68 . monopoly silkworm. of II. 154-5 attire mentioned in Latin poets. Aelfled. 214. 253. 160. at. 152 . 234. of silk manufactures in first in. 161. . 331. 421 Palermo. 236 woven. 399 . Arras. 292. 4. embroideries. 95. Saracenic." 1 6 1. Spanish at Malaga and Almeria. designs for. 203. 162-3. 238. plain. textile art in. unwinding the cocoon. Roman and 158 157 . Silk. Schools. 165 . 385. 341. 334-5* 352. 158. Gisela. 308 . Birmingham. 129. Sculptures.weavers. Spanish Armada. 196 . A. century. 169 . Stitches. Swastika. 235 . 307. sampler. radiated pattern of. 307. from Greece to 259.C. transported by Roger. wild silk in China. 397Screens. robes worked by. 160. by Hugh Falcandus. branch of Art Needlework. 153. Royal manufactory Palermo. cushion. 161 . Arras 277. origin of. 300 Chinese. 204. King of Sicily. 1 60. at Cos. mosaic. in Lyons. in Hungary under Queen Seventh century work. silk textile designs. specimens of silk in Auberville's " Im" Tissus. 151 . 337. 190. list of work executed description of at 398 . 1 allusion to use of silk in Christian Church. of. stem. Seres. 364 Queen of Edward . 61 Seam. manufactures. Thebes in 1161. 398. 124. 198. 160. 243 . Pamphile trade in. 1 1 1 . 124. 204. 315 ecclesiastical designs. satin. Italian. 159. 153 in cocoon. Diocletian. 287. 170. first woven by B. 353. edict of . 60 . plumage.D. mains wrapped in silk. inventor of woven . Symmetry. Sphinx. towns. Spangles. 153. Surcoat of Black Prince. 88. 156. 166-7. ecclesiastical. gold. 168. with prices of articles. hangings. . Gobelins. 207 . silken robes sold Stole. Jewish. 256. Empress. by Marcus Aurelius. 261. Society of Arts. 685. 167. 170. Bede's re- Symbolism. 169. 1453- mentioned by poets and historians from first to sixth 159 . 285. of Charles. 197. Sicily. 357. 9 1 . Constantinople. 162. 361-2. at Silk. 146. garments given by Emperor Carinus. 103. . Tanaquil. 265. 396-7 .. Sofas. 287. silk Sun-cross. 194 259 lists of. fabrics. 159. Duke of Burgundy. in British Museum. 364Style." silk tissues called perial. at. 63-4. in the Flemish Sicilian patterns. 333. Smock of Mary Tudor.. Sewing. 154. 237. 237 . Stamford. Asiatic. Shells. 158. 214. . palls of silk brought from Rome. 373. 59. 1 twelfth cen- three periods in Sicily. 1450. at Durham. Tapestry.INDEX. tury. Spinning. Table covers. Egyptian. 41. Sunflower. in India.

South Kensington. 74. Hebrew \elvet. 261. Wool. 331 . 161. 245 for pyx. . 265. 130. 309. Lady. Workhouse sheeting. Welby. 393. 221 sanctuary. 378. 240. 351. Windsor. 395. 362. 180. of. funeral. 125. 295. 129. Four Vatican. revival at 76. Toga. 245 . Cuth- Durham. 22. 'Worcester. 178. 257 277. Oriental. 370. 264-5 . Watteau. Tent. Titian. school of.. 130. 289 . founder of School of Art Needlework. Triptych in Will'-- i of Blois. 343 . Persian. 245 lish. Tree of Life. 337. 312 . 190. dress in tomb of Walter de Cantilupe. 388. 217. Windsor. 311. 174. 350 . Veil of Temple. of Ptolemy Philadelphus. 172. Textile art. of Ramses. 300. Italian. 187. Wroxton House. 107. modern. 366. 45. 281. 311. 345. Arras with Seasons. 59. Wiglaf. in Cluny Museum. of Alexander. 127. 310. 326. 152. 396. 205. 313. style. Anglo-Saxon. 160. presented to Romsey and Croyland by Canute. Zoroaster. stoles. York. 144. King John. Taste. of French. 215. 289. classical. 335. of St. 248. Tomb of Agamemnon. 277 . Wilton carpet works. 257. 104. Arras at. 93. " Tissus " of Auberville. 336. 263. . set Spanish.307. at Brussels. ban. ofAntar. 338. Tau.422 NEEDLEWORK . of an Egyptian queen. at Zurich. Italian. 329 . . Archbishop of the design 255- 256. 176. 161. 25. 393. Engof. 22 . Etruscan gold ornament. 19. set Shah. Vestments. bequeathed to Westminster Abbey by Henry VII. 264. 211. Trabea. 248. Saracenic. . 398. tomb of Cluny Museum. King. 163. Berlin. Tyrian purple. pall. of Nadir Venetian red. 263. 379. 347. silk-weavers of. Thebes. 322. . 320 cope of . 306. 140. 328. in bert at Crimea. 77. Ulysses. 20 of warrior at Ku- William and Mary. AS ART. 264.

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