HSDPA – An Introduction

By Juha Korhonen
A TTPCom White Paper

TTPCom Headquarters, Melbourn, Cambridge
World leading independent supplier of software and silicon IP for digital wireless terminals For more information – www.ttpcom.com

2 3.2 2.3 3 Why is there a need for HSDPA? What does HSDPA do? When and where does HSDPA deploy? 3 4 4 5 6 7 7 10 13 16 HSDPA TECHNICAL DETAILS 3.1 2.HSDPA – An Introduction 2 Contents 1 2 INTRODUCTION HSDPA – THE PRIMER 2.ttpcom.3 What is HSDPA? How does the Air Interface work? What is the future for HSDPA? 4 GLOSSARY ©TTPCom 2004 www.1 3.com .

This white paper explains why this enhancement is needed.3gpp. the future development of HSDPA is discussed. The first part of this paper discusses the general aspects of HSDPA.ttpcom. The 3G technical specifications can be found at www.HSDPA – An Introduction 3 1 INTRODUCTION The field of telecommunications is full of peculiar abbreviations. However. In addition. discussion on the impact HSDPA has on services and applications and the probable timetable of HSDPA deployment. including a presentation of HSDPA channel structures and procedures. The second part is a technical discussion of HSDPA. and HSDPA is yet another new entrant.com . and what kind of improvements it brings.org ©TTPCom 2004 www. Modern telecommunication networks are constantly under development. HSDPA is not just a minor change to 3GPP system specifications. and new features are introduced regularly. how it is achieved. It includes an overview. followed by a detailed example of HSDPA data transmission procedure. 1 3G Partnership Project Organisation that deals with most of the 3G specifications. as well as when it will happen. HSDPA stands for High Speed Downlink Packet Access. It is a new improved downlink packet data transfer scheme for 3GPP1 systems. but a major upgrade that brings clear capacity improvements andmuch higher data speeds than the existing 3GPP systems.

The maximum data rate per user in Release 99 systems is typically 384kbit/s.ttpcom. UMTS Forum report “3G Offered Traffic Characteristics”2 concludes that data traffic on downlink will exceed uplink traffic by a factor of 2:3.com . It increases both the system capacity as a whole. or just over 100 kbit/s at best. and it is the most important part of it. but in real systems. ©TTPCom 2004 www.6 50 130 384 rate (kbit/s) Theoretical max. and thus remove this potential bottleneck from the system. The maximum theoretical data rate for one user is 14. There are no reliable studies available from open sources. 3GPP systems are expected to be capable of handling the mobile data transmission needs for several years to come. and the data rate that can be allocated for one user. such as web browsing and many games.1 Why is there a need for HSDPA? Unlike two-way voice communications that are essentially "symmetric" in their use of radio. http://www. 2 UMTS Forum Report #33. HSDPA offers a way to increase downlink capacity within the existing spectrum. November 2003. Release 99 is a full 3G system. it is clear that a Release 99 system will first run out of capacity in the downlink. whereas in 2. with clearly improved capabilities compared to 2G (the basic GSM) and 2.4 Mbit/s.4 170 384 2048 data rate (kbit/s) Table 1 Data rates of telecommunication systems (downlink) HSDPA 2048 (or more) 14400 HSDPA is included in Release 5 in 3GPP standards. After this upgrade. ThusS. The HSDPA scheme adds an additional wideband downlink shared channel that is optimised for very high-speed data transfer. SYSTEM GSM GPRS EDGE 3G (R99) Typical max. HSDPA aims to improve downlink capacity.umtsforum.org. whereas the downlink carries lots of payload data for those applications. HSDPA improves only the downlink throughput although a corresponding uplink enhancement is being specified for later releases.5 G systems it is a few tens of kbit/s. but the estimates generally state that HSDPA increases the downlink air interface capacity 2-3 -fold. data 9.such as web browsing or streaming live video create more traffic coming to the user (downlink) than from the user (uplink). Some applications. many 3G mobile services . this is likely to be limited to around 2 Mbit/s at first.HSDPA – An Introduction 4 2 HSDPA – THE PRIMER 2. The first 3GPP networks conform to a 3GPP standard version called Release 99. 14. Current 3G technology can accommodate only a few maximum data rate users at a time before the cell capacity runs out in the downlink direction. A typical user consumes more downlink than uplink resources. Therefore.5 G (GPRS and EDGE) systems. “3G Offered Traffic Characteristics”. use uplink only for control signalling.

such as interactive networked games. that is shorter delays. HSDPA technology can provide up to 10 Mbit/s user data rates. The selection of a suitable packet data scheduler is an important network performance issue for operators. in some cases HSDPA could be more efficient than a dedicated channel for real-time data. in addition to increased capacity. ©TTPCom 2004 www. it is not only a performance issue. Thus. However. causing the cell to become code limited.ttpcom. HSDPA provides a short feedback delay. HSDPA is not only a pure technical method of enhancing radio network performance. as higher data rates would consume too large a share of the code resources of a cell. users must have high-end HSDPA terminals before they can enjoy these benefits. Background class services do not have very strict endto-end delay requirements.com . Moreover. Note that HSDPA is not the only method that can be used to increase downlink capacity. Nevertheless. as HSDPA employs a shorter frame length. as it is also possible to give higher priority to data packets going to prime users. In fact. and thus it can react faster to problems in the radio channel. as the network can employ data schedulers that give higher priority to real-time applications. However. However. The basic HSDPA is unlikely to provide higher throughput.2 What does HSDPA do? HSDPA is most suitable for background and streaming class services. HSDPA also provides another important enhancement. but it can also be used as a marketing tool. which increases the throughput. Streaming class applications can also withstand transmission delays and delay variations quite well if large enough reception buffers are used. Both background and streaming class services typically generate much more downlink than uplink traffic. and thus this enables the network to employ more efficient (throughput-wise) data scheduling algorithms. If the application reacts quickly on the commands given by the user. there is more data in the downlink than in the uplink. HSDPA can also be used for other data applications. which itself is a scarce resource.HSDPA – An Introduction 5 2. it gives the impression of a high-bandwidth application. For example. it is probably one of the easiest ways to do it. HSDPA capacity can be further increased by either by HSDPA-MIMO or by employing new frequency channels that would be allocated exclusively for HSDPA. the transmission resources can be allocated for UEs with the best radio channel conditions. It is up to the operator to decide whether it wants to provide such rates to users. and of course. even for conversational ones. Streaming class services are also typically asymmetric. and thus it improves downlink throughput only. User perception of a fast connection is not only dependent on the bandwidth available. HSDPA increases the typical user data rates up to 2Mbps. but also on the feedback delay of the channel. HSDPA is a downlink enhancement scheme. Short feedback delay also enables new applications. and it saves spectrum.

as new models have to be redesigned to include new HSDPA features. and the easiest way to deliver this is by implementing HSDPA. and their data services are highly advanced when compared to European offerings.HSDPA – An Introduction 6 It is also clear that HSDPA is not suitable for applications with very low bandwidth requirements. 2. which can occasionally be very large. HSDPA channels employ spreading factor3 16.5G operators can provide quite similar services to early 3G networks. In 3GPP (FDD mode). The real bottleneck for the HSDPA service growth will be the availability of HSDPA capable handsets. In both countries. network operator interest is proportional to the number of subscribers planned on the network and the deployment of asymmetric high bandwidth services. As a summary. some 3G operators may use HSDPA as a competitive advantage in Europe. and HSDPA enables new kind of applications that can attract new customers. HSDPA is best for applications with highly variable bandwidth requirements. The higher the spreading factor. 3 Spreading factor (SF) in a CDMA system indicates the number of chips that are used for spreading one data symbol. and using that kind of high-capacity channel for voice is clearly a waste of resources. but it seems quite certain that the first HSDPA launches will take place during 2005 in East Asia. and adopt it quite early. such as voice.com . Increased data traffic in their networks demands increased capacity. One factor that may speed deployment is that HSDPA is often only a software upgrade for the network. There is already strong interest in HSDPA by some operators in Japan and in Korea. the competition among 3G operators is fierce. They have operated 3G networks for some time now. downlink spreading factors vary between 4 and 512. The European schedule will be country specific and depend on the success of new 3G data services. However.ttpcom. In countries where GSM-EDGE networks are deployed. ©TTPCom 2004 www. These operators are also most aggressive in delivering interactive and high-bandwidth applications.3 When and where does HSDPA deploy? Are operators interested in HSDPA? Because HSDPA can be seen as a capacity enhancement for 3G networks. but they cannot compete with HSDPA upgraded networks. the lower the data rate as in each timeslot a fixed number of chips are transmitted (2560 chips per timeslot in the FDD mode). and thus easy and quick to undertake. 2. The launch schedule estimates vary.

Each standard 10 ms frame is divided into 2 ms subframes in HSDPA.ttpcom. HS-DPCCH is always code multiplexed with the dedicated uplink control channel. The shared HSDPA data channel (HS-PDSCH) is a more capable upgrade of the Release 99 . See Figure 2 for the illustration of the new channels. and it cannot exist alone.1 What is HSDPA? HSDPA is a scheme that supports a very high capacity shared data channel in the downlink direction.67 ms. Thus there are 3 timeslots within one HSDPA sub-frame. The High Speed Shared Control Channel (HS-SCCH) is a downlink control channel that gives the UE the fast changing parameters that are needed for HS-PDSCH reception. HS-PDSCH is a shared channel. so the HS-PDSCH is time multiplexed. that is 0. an HSDPA UE will also need new control channels to support this function. a new fast retransmission scheme. In addition. there is the High Speed Dedicated Physical Control Channel (HS-DPCCH) that is a low bandwidth channel for sending back data packet acknowledgements and channel quality information. The transmission resources can be re-allocated in each sub-frame. and indicates when there is data on the HS-PDSCH that is addressed to this UE. In the uplink direction. This channel is shared in two dimensions: it is both time and code multiplexed (see Figure 1). as not all users will have HSDPA capable phones. but the network has to support both. ©TTPCom 2004 www. Timeslots are still the same length as in Release 99.HSDPA – An Introduction 3 HSDPA TECHNICAL DETAILS 7 3. 1 frame = 10 ms 1 sub-frame = 2 ms user 1 user 2 user 3 user 4 user 5 user 6 user 7 user 8 user 9 user 10 user 11 user 12 user 13 user 14 user 15 user 16 HS-PDSCH spreading codes user 1 user 3 user 3 user 4 user 5 user 5 user 6 user 8 user 10 user 11 user 12 user 14 user 14 user 15 user 16 user 17 user 3 user 2 user 5 user 5 user 5 user 6 user 8 user 9 user 10 user 11 user 11 user 12 user 12 user 13 user 15 user 16 user 2 user 2 user 3 user 4 user 4 user 5 user 6 user 7 user 9 user 10 user 11 user 13 user 14 user 14 user 15 user 15 user 1 user 2 user 3 user 3 user 5 user 5 user 5 user 7 user 9 user 10 user 12 user 13 user 13 user 14 user 15 user 16 Figure 1 HS-PDSCH channel time and code multiplexing In addition to HS-PDSCH.specified Downlink Shared Channel (DSCH). it employs a new frame structure. it is shared between all active HSDPA users in the cell.com . and a new adaptive modulation scheme. A UE only has to support one of them. Furthermore each sub-frame can further be shared up to 16 users simultaneously because each active user is allocated at least one spreading code of SF=16. It encompasses three new channel types: two control channels and one data channel.

to make HARQ more efficient. the UE can inform the network every 2 ms if the transmission failed. HARQ is a link adaptation scheme in which link layer acknowledgements are used for retransmission decisions in the UTRAN. Release 5 employs two modulation schemes. length is needed. the modulation scheme and the code rate) depends on the channel quality. The new shorter TTI will be only 3 timeslots long (2 ms). When a shorter TTI is used. if the radio channel condition is good. the network can use higher-order modulation and less redundancy. Successive retransmissions will include more redundancy. whereas in poor conditions. a more robust modulation scheme can be employed and the data packets may have more redundancy in them. the received (corrupted) data is stored to a buffer regardless. This is repeated until the data in the buffer is considered to be correctly received. this kind of high-level retransmission scheme is too slow for the high-speed data transmissions envisaged for HSDPA.ttpcom. or Transmission Time Interval (TTI). specifically within the new MAC-hs logical entity that is just above the physical layer. In the old scheme. A Release 5 HSDPA capable handset will include both Hybrid ARQ (HARQ) and Adaptive Modulation and Coding (AMC) functionality. or the maximum number of retransmissions is reached. Shorter frames also mean that the system can respond more quickly to changing channel conditions. and they are combined with the old data in the buffer. and re-assign capacity amongst users.HSDPA – An Introduction 8 HSDPA upgrade dedicated channels Standard 3G System dedicated channels Uplink DCH Uplink DCH HS-DPCCH Downlink DCH Downlink DCH HS-SCCH UE PDSCH shared channels UE Node-B Node-B HS-PDSCH shared channels Figure 2 HSDPA upgrade HSDPA is a combination of several techniques which all contribute to the enhanced capabilities of the downlink channel. The quality information is transmitted to the Node-Bs via the uplink control channels. compared to 15 timeslots (10 ms) employed by the other physical channels. That is. However. With HSDPA the HARQ retransmission buffers are located closer to the physical layer. Later releases may introduce other schemes. Release 6 will further enhance HSDPA capabilities by introducing Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) antenna techniques.e. if a transmission fails. ©TTPCom 2004 www. and the transport format used can be dynamically changed in every frame. namely QPSK and 16 Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (16QAM). Note that older non-HSDPA releases only support QPSK. that is. a shorter frame. The ARQ combining is based on incremental redundancy. This is monitored constantly. Adaptive Modulation and Coding (or Link Adaptation) means that the shared channel transport format (i.. 10 ms would have to pass before a failure could be reported. such as 64QAM. In Release 99 retransmission functionality is part of the RLC layer. Moreover.com .

The HSDPA data channel is shared amongst all active HSDPA UEs in a cell. and high-end UEs can implement the highest classes potentially having better throughput. the scheduler in the network may favour higher priority real-time data streams. There are altogether 12 different physical layer HSDPA categories as seen in Table 3. The HSDPA upgrade requires new handsets with the HSDPA capability.com . Reference combination 1. The maximum number of multicodes a UE can support is a UE capability parameter. Note that in principle only 16 spreading codes (of SF=16) are available in a cell. The shared character of the channel means that maximum transfer delays cannot be (easily) guaranteed.6 Mbps class Category 5 7 Mbps class 10 Mbps class Category 7 Category 9 Corresponding FDD HS-DSCH category Table 2 FDD UE Radio Access Capability classes Each HSDPA capability class has been defined a corresponding physical layer category class that as a minimum is required so that the UE can achieve the capability class requirements.2 Mbps class Category 1 3.ttpcom. and can be 5. such as for (mandatory) control channels. the resource allocation in HSDPA channels is very fast. thus the use of 15 multicodes means that the cell could be very close to becoming a code-limited cell as only 1/16 of the code space is available for other purposes. HSDPA is not suitable for all kinds of services. On the other hand. and applications that have strict real-time requirements should use dedicated channels and not the HSDPA. 10. low-end UEs may conform to the lowest category classes. There will be different UE HSDPA capability classes (see Table 2). Additionally. However. the network can allocate several such spreading codes to one user. Note that categories 11 and 12 include QPSK only support.HSDPA – An Introduction 9 All HS-PDSCH channels use a spreading factor (SF) of 16. The capacity allocation can be dynamically changed in every sub-frame (2 ms in HSDPA channels). to increase the throughput of a user. these two categories are actually low-end HSDPA categories capacity-wise. so despite the high category number. or 15. For example. ©TTPCom 2004 www.

each HS-SCCH sub frame can be allocated to a different UE.HSDPA – An Introduction 10 Minimum Maximum number inter-TTI of bits of an HSinterval DSCH transport block received within an HS-DSCH TTI Category 1 5 3 7298 Category 2 5 3 7298 Category 3 5 2 7298 Category 4 5 2 7298 Category 5 5 1 7298 Category 6 5 1 7298 Category 7 10 1 14411 Category 8 10 1 14411 Category 9 15 1 20251 Category 10 15 1 27952 Category 11 5 2 3630 Category 12 5 1 3630 Table 3 FDD HSDPA Physical Layer Categories HS-DSCH category Maximum number of HS-DSCH codes received Total number of soft channel bits 19200 28800 28800 38400 57600 67200 115200 134400 172800 172800 14400 28800 The difference between these categories lies mainly in the number of multicodes supported. UE Radio Access capabilities (Release 5). HS-SCCH is a shared channel (time-wise). each of these channels has a different spreading code. However. It involves the interworking of three physical channels: HS-PDSCH.com . and HS-DPCCH. it is sufficient for it to monitor only this HS-SCCH during the next HS-SCCH sub frame. v.2 How does the Air Interface work? In this section. and the length of the inter-TTI gap during HS-PDSCH reception (i.e. we will discuss how HSDPA scheme works in the air interface. but only maximum of four can be allocated to one UE. ©TTPCom 2004 www. 5. This arrangement is because now the UE is already receiving at least one HS-PDSCH channel. and these have to be monitored simultaneously as the Node-B can use any of these (but only one at a time). HSDPA related categories and other capability information is defined in the 3GPP standard4. 4 3GPP TS 25. the ability of the UE to receive HSDPA data in successive TTIs.. HS-SCCH. so they can be received simultaneously.306. and it would be quite difficult to monitor in addition up to four HS-SCCHs simultaneously. There can be up to 4 HS-SCCH channels configured for a UE. Of course. whereas HSDPCCH is a dedicated uplink channel. September 2003.6. or sub-frames). HS-PDSCH and HS-SCCH are shared downlink channels.0. Note that there can be many more HS-SCCH channels in a cell. 3.ttpcom. if the UE has already received a HS-SCCH addressed to it in one frame.

control) Figure 3 the timing of HSDPA channels The HS-SCCH frame structure is depicted in Figure 4.33 ms 19200 chips = 2. timeslots HS-SCCH (downlink.5 frames = 7.HSDPA – An Introduction 11 The timing of these channels is shown in Figure 3. Note that the HS-SCCH frame and the corresponding HS-PDSCH frame are overlapping by one timeslot. The first timeslot also indicates the spreading code(s) used. control) HS-PDSCH (downlink. ts 2.ttpcom. In the rather complex coding process. and the start of the HS-PDSCH frame. There is a gap of one timeslot (0. data) 2 timeslots = 1. A HS-SCCH sub-frame contains the following information: • • • • • • • Channelization-code-set information (7 bits) Modulation scheme information (1 bit) Transport Block size information (6 bits) Hybrid-ARQ process information (3 bits) Redundancy and constellation version (3 bits) New data indicator (1 bit) UE identity (16 bits) Note that the number of bits indicated in the previous list refers to the raw data bits. and the modulation scheme employed. so that the UE can start receiving the HS-PDSCH if necessary. because the UE has to first receive and decode the HS-SCCH frame before it knows whether the corresponding HS-PDSCH is addressed to it. Only the correct UE identity can decode this timeslot. these bits (38 altogether) are transformed into 120 channel-coded bits. The data in the said timeslot is masked using a bit string that is derived from the UE identity.5 timeslots = 5 ms HS-DPCCH (uplink. ©TTPCom 2004 www. This may seem strange at first.&3.com .667 ms) between the end of the first timeslot of the HS-SCCH frame. It all becomes clearer when we discover that the UE identity can be resolved after reception of the first HS-SCCH timeslot. 1 frame = 10 ms 1 sub-frame = 2 ms 1.

The network signals whether the channel condition indicator (CQI) should be reported and how often it is repeated.67 ms 2 timeslots = 1. note that this is not an HSDPA specific channel but a common pilot). Figure 5 depicts the structure of HS-DPCCH channel. because the input consists of only one bit (ACK=1. the UE may be required to repeat the ACK/NACK transmission over a number of consecutive HSDPCCH frames. then the UE will not be scheduled more downlink data in as many consecutive downlink frames after the received data frame. ©TTPCom 2004 www. An active HSDPA may also be required to report the channel conditions back to the Node-B (this is in a way an HSDPA specific channel measurement procedure). and fills completely the two slots allocated for CQI. so the output is ten bits long. UE id other information 1 timeslot = 0. so a CQI can be addressed using 5 bits. The UE has 5 ms to spend for this procedure. mod. and the channel coder simply multiplies this ten times. However. CQI values are coded using a robust (20.ttpcom.33 ms Figure 4 HS-SCCH frame structure After the UE has received the HS-PDSCH frame and successfully decoded it. NACK=0). Note also that ACK/NACK channel coding is a very robust one. but a CQI value that indicates the maximum amount of data the UE estimates it could receive given the current channel conditions and UE capabilities (for example how many multicodes and what kind of modulation schemes it supports). if repeated acknowledgements are used. The UE measures the received common pilot channel (CPICH. Depending on the channel configuration. scheme. it has to send an ACK (or NACK in case of errors) back to Node-B using a HS-DPCCH channel.com .HSDPA – An Introduction 12 HS-SCCH 1 frame = 10 ms 1 sub-frame = 2 ms #0 #1 #2 #3 #4 SF = 128 Bits/slot = 40 code set.5) code. There are 30 different CQI values for each UE category. so the channel coder output is 20 bits long. However. The network can then use this value as a guideline when it schedules the next block of data. The reported value is not a straightforward reception level value.

but the HSDPA upgrades are embedded in other physical layer specifications – Physical channels6.3. 7 3GPP TS 25. Physical layer procedures (FDD) (Release 5).4.214. 5. v. as a minimum. 5 3GPP TS 25. v. v. March 2003.0.0.308.67 ms 2 timeslots = 1.0. 6 3GPP TS 25. New improvements will be introduced to increase data throughput and to save system resources. If there is no demand for HSDPA. and in the uplink. March 2003. both in the uplink and in the downlink.ttpcom. and Physical layer procedures. March 2003. Physical channels and mapping of transport channels onto physical channels (FDD) (Release 5).e. For the physical layer a similar HSDPA-specific document does not exist. but it is code multiplexed with an uplink DPCCH. HSDPA will be continuously under development. 5. The need for HSDPA and its enhancements will depend on the success of the new bandwidth-hungry 3G services. This is because.8 3. December 2002. ©TTPCom 2004 www.211.4.212.0.33 ms Figure 5 HS-DPCCH frame structure The HS-DPCCH channel has a SF=256. and it never exists alone. Multiplexing and channel coding (FDD) (Release 5). then it is unlikely to be developed much further. High Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA). the downlink-dedicated channel is needed to transfer configuration data for HSDPA channels. changes to layer 2 and layer 3) is described in the Overall description of Release 55. 8 3GPP TS 25.4. The pace of this development work will depend a lot on the success of 3G and especially on the success of HSDPA.com . Overall description (Release 5). 5. HSDPA channels need dedicated channels to accompany them. acknowledgement and channel quality information is transmitted.3 What is the future for HSDPA? As most telecommunication systems.. Multiplexing and channel coding7. v.HSDPA – An Introduction 13 HS-DPCCH 1 frame = 10 ms 1 sub-frame = 2 ms #0 #1 #2 #3 #4 SF = 256 Bits/slot = 10 ACK/NACK CQI 1 timeslot = 0. The HSDPA protocol stack (i.5.

This is easy to implement. and thus does not send anything to Node-B. If the UE misses a data burst. In addition. 3GPP has decided to continue the standardisation work of three other HSDPA improvements: • • • CQI enhancement for FDD mode ACK/NACK transmit power reduction for HS-DPCCH with preamble and postamble Fractional dedicated physical channel CQI enhancement means a more efficient channel quality reporting towards the network. during periods of inactivity in the downlink no indications are required. and code. because now the Node-B has to decode at least two successive timeslots erroneously before the scenario described earlier could take place. In addition. However. but on the other hand. ©TTPCom 2004 www. MIMO introduces a new way of handling the radio interface channel resources. In Release 5. The network needs to know as up-to-date channel quality as possible because this information is used for data scheduling and coding decisions.HSDPA – An Introduction 14 However. thus increasing the system capacity considerably.ttpcom. HS-DPCCH channel is used for transmitting ACK/NACK bursts back to Node-B. A MIMO system with m transmit and n receive antennas can have up to c = min (m. and will be used in many other systems. then the network assumes that the transmission was successful even though it was not. and code (CDMA systems such as UMTS). n) independent sub-channels. even before the first HSDPA systems are launched. some improvements are already under work. time. the better the channel estimate. Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) antenna systems have long been seen as a potential enhancement for HSDPA systems. However. ACK/NACK transmit power reduction for HS-DPCCH with preamble and postamble is a logically complex scheme. It has been shown that it is possible to separate two transmissions in the receiver even if they have been sent using the same frequency. time and code space. Previously transmission channels were thought to be shared and allocated amongst users by means of frequency and time (TDMA systems such as GSM). This method reduces the probability of a DTX->ACK error in the Node-B. The situation will only be corrected once the higher-layer retransmission scheme (in RLC) notices the error.com . if their spatial signatures are sufficiently different. The main problem in MIMO systems is the antenna cross-correlation. which can cancel the capacity gain because of the increased interference. although MIMO is by no means an HSDPA-specific scheme. these indications themselves increase the uplink interference. these can form several parallel transmission channels. MIMO systems can achieve this by using several transmit and receive antennas. In optimal conditions. AND Node-B erroneously decodes this missed burst (=DTX) as ACK. MIMO introduces a new spatial dimension. after a feasibility study. the reporting rate is fixed. The more frequent the indications. one particular scenario seems to cause problems. or by means of frequency. The coding of these bursts is quite robust and probability of an erroneous decoding decision is small. but the problem is that a fixed rate is not suitable for all occasions. The proposed enhancement is to send special Preamble and Postamble bursts in the uplink HS-DPCCH before and after an ACK/NACK burst. which can still employ the same frequency. time.

This scheme proposes to time-multiplex several DPCH channels into one code channel.HSDPA – An Introduction 15 The rationale for fractional dedicated physical channel enhancement is that the associated dedicated channels for HSDPA channels may be quite unused in typical usage scenarios. One has to remember that all HS-DSCH channels would have SF=16. Allocating a full DPCH to relay these few bits is a bit of overkill. then the dedicated channel will most probably only transfer power control bits and pilots. and some of those frequency carriers could be used exclusively for HSDPA channels. thus the gain in comparison to the main channel is minimal. The new DPCH sub channels would only carry power control and pilot bits. and the gain would only be a few spreading codes of SF=256. However. and occasional RRC control messages related to HSDPA channels. then it is possible to multiplex three F-DPCH channels into one DPCH. This would cause many changes to several specifications. If HSDPA is used for bulk data transfer. It is also possible that new frequency bands will be assigned for 3GPP.ttpcom. and there is no conversational component in the session. Fractional dedicated physical channel is proposed to fix this problem. Possible RRC control signalling would be relayed over the air interface using HS-DSCH.com . this does not come free. but so far. ©TTPCom 2004 www. there has not been an alternative for this. If the existing numbers of power control and pilot bits are used in the proposed enhancement. as the timing of the power control and pilot bits in the combined DPCH channel would be different from the normal Release 5 DPCH.

HSDPA – An Introduction 4 GLOSSARY 16 16QAM 3GPP 64QAM AMC CDMA CPICH CQI DCH DPCCH DPCH DTX EDGE FDD F-DPCH GSM GPRS HARQ HSDPA HS-DPCCH HS-PDSCH HS-SCCH ITU MAC-hs MIMO PDSCH QPSK RLC RRC SF TDMA TTI UE UMTS UTRAN 16 Quadrature Amplitude Modulation 3rd Generation Partnership Project 64 Quadrature Amplitude Modulation Adaptive Modulation and Coding Code Division Multiple Access Common Pilot Channel Channel Condition Indicator Dedicated Channel Dedicated Physical Control Channel Dedicated Physical Channel Discontinuous Transmission Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution Frequency Division Duplex Fractional Dedicated Physical Channel Global System for Mobile communications General Packet Radio System Hybrid Automatic Repeat Request High Speed Downlink Packet Access High Speed Dedicated Physical Control Channel High Speed Physical Downlink Shared Channel High Speed Shared Control Channel International Telecommunication Union Medium Access Control – high speed Multiple Input Multiple Output Physical Downlink Shared Channel Quadrature (Quaternary) Phase Shift Keying Radio Link Control Radio Resource Control Spreading Factor Time Division Multiple Access Transmission Time Interval User Equipment Universal Mobile Telecommunications System Universal Terrestrial Radio Access Network ©TTPCom 2004 www.com .ttpcom.

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