Distribution Transformer Guide

Distribution Transformer Division Jefferson City, Missouri June, 1979 Revised March, 2002

ISO 9001 CERTIFIED

Foreword
The purpose of this guide is to assemble fundamental information concerning common ratings, connections, and applications of distribution transformers. The information presented is a summary of these fundamentals and is intended as a reference for those who deal occasionally with distribution transformer applications. This guide does not purport to cover all aspects of selection and application; if questions arise or further details are required, contact ABB Inc.

© Copyright 1995 ABB. All rights reserved.

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Index I. General

Page A. Application ................................................................................ 4 B. Physical Description ................................................................. 4 C. Protection and Accessories ...................................................... 11

II. Performance
A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J. K. Designation of Winding Voltage Ratings ................................. Polarity ...................................................................................... Terminal Designations .............................................................. Short Circuit Ratings ................................................................ Sound Level Ratings ................................................................ Tolerance Definitions ................................................................ Impedance Calculations ........................................................... Efficiency Calculations ............................................................. Regulation Calculations ........................................................... Performance Example .............................................................. Secondary Fault Current—120/240 Volt Systems ................... 17 20 21 22 22 23 23 24 24 26 27

III. Three-Phase Transformers and Banks
A. Application Considerations ...................................................... 34 B. Summary of Common Connections ......................................... 41 C. Common Three-Phase Banks Using Single-Phase Transformers ........................................................................... 48

IV. Loading
A. B. C. D. Paralleling ................................................................................. Delta-Delta Bank Loading ........................................................ Overloading .............................................................................. Single-Phase and Three-Phase Loading of Symmetrical and Unsymmetrical Transformer Banks .......................................... E. Dedicated Motor Loads ............................................................ 51 51 52 53 66

V. Voltage Unbalance
A. B. C. D. Effects of Voltage Unbalance ................................................... Voltage Unbalance Definitions ................................................. Causes of Voltage Unbalance ................................................. Voltage Unbalance With Three-Phase Loading ...................... 1. Delta-Delta and Floating Wye-Delta Banks ........................ 2. Open-Delta Banks ............................................................... 71 71 73 73 74 75

VI. Reference Data
Solid and Concentric Stranded Aluminum and Copper Conductors .................................................................................... Temperature Correction Factors for Resistance of Aluminum Conductors .................................................................................... Logarithm Tables ........................................................................... Nominal direct-Current Resistance, Ohms per 1000 Feet, at 20°C and 25°C of Solid and Concentric Stranded Conductors .... Natural Functions of Angles .......................................................... Typical Isokeraunic Map ................................................................ Selected SI Equivalents ................................................................ 80 81 83 85 86 87 88

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........................... Physical Description ............................................................................. Pole Mounted ........... C.......................................................... 3 .............. General ................................................ General Page 4 4 4 6 11 11 11 13 A.. Application ... 3............... 1........................................................................ Protection and Accessories ............ Types of Accessories and Protection — Pad Mounted ............................ Pad Mounted ................ Types of Accessories and Transformer Protection Packages — Pole Mounted .............................. 1..... 2.....I.......... B.............................. 2.....................

All other conditions are considered “unusual service” and should be avoided unless specific ABB Division approval is obtained. pole. The transformers described herein are designed for the application conditions normally encountered on electric utility power distribution systems.0 19920-22900 2 25. oil-filled.12.0 -34400 34.I. B.12. Physical Description 1.0 13200-14400 18.7 7200-12470 1 15.2 2160.and pad-mounted distribution transformers are specifically designed for servicing residential distribution loads.5 1 Optional 125 kV BIL 12000 volts available 2 Optional 125 kV BIL 19920 volts available Basic Impulse Level (kV) 30 60 75 95 125 150 200 4 . they are also suitable for light commercial loads. As such they are suitable for use under the “usual service conditions” described in ANSI C57. and industrial lighting and diversified power applications. Pole Mounted • Meets Industry Standard ANSI C57.0 4160. Application Single-phase and three-phase.20 • 0.1000kVA • 65° C temperature rise • Insulation levels: Rated Insulation Voltage Ranges Class 480.4800 8.2400 5.600 1. Power and Regulating Transformers.5 . General A.00 General Requirements for Liquid-Immersed Distribution.

5 .400 volts 240/480 3 5 10 15 25 371/ 2 50 75 100 167 250 333 500 667 750 833 1000 Three-Phase Pole Mounted (Three-Phrase) 15 2400 to 208/120 30 13.5 2400 through 120/240 1.5 34. The JUMBO ® is also available for industrial and commercial applications or for resale customers. The JUMBO single-phase step-down transformer is especially useful during utility system voltage conversions when it is desirable to convert a portion of a substation or a feeder to a higher voltage and still be able to supply the remaining customers at the existing voltage.Type CSP kVA Type S High Low Voltage Voltage Pole Mounted (Single-Phase) 0.800T 240x480T 45 480/277 75 1121/ 2 150 225 330 500 Jumbo JUMBO ® Step-Down Transformer.

safely and economically provide underground electrical service to single loads. particularly. full-line. single service. Maxi-Pak. Designed to aesthetically. rural residences. Mini-Pak. multi-service. 10-50 kVA A single-phase. 10-167 kVA The Maxi-Pak is designed specifically for those customers requiring straightup feed (Type I) rather than cross feed (Type II). The additional height of the Maxi-Pak allows installation of air load break switching in this low-profile design. safety and operating requirements of any distribution system. Pad Mounted A single-phase.2. low profile distribution padmount transformer available in loop or radial feed. Micro-Pak. The Mini-Pak can be furnished in a complete line of ratings and in a wide range of configurations to fully meet the reliability. farms and ranches. 10-250 kVA 6 . low profile padmount transformer designed for loop feed or radial feed on a grounded wye underground distribution system.

Enclosure Integrity or ANSI C57. and is removable.…Separable Insulated Connectors ABB recommends the use of ANSI C57.12.IEEE Standard Test Code… NEMA Tr-1 .Transformer Standards IEEE 386 . Ratings @65° Rise kVA: 10.…Terminal Markings and Connections ANSI C57.28 . 6. 125. all single phase transformers are supplied with: a.12.IEEE Standard Terminology… ANSI C57. 167. 480/240.70 . The front sill latches with the flip-top hood. 240/480 2 1 Maxi only 2 Available only on micros with cable lead secondary 3 Mini and Maxi only (micros available thru 24940GY/14400) Standard Features: 1.29 . 50. A hex-head locking bolt is available. 7. 1/ 2''-13 NC tapped hole 7/16'' deep. b. e.25 .IEEE Guide for Loading…for the establishment of proper distribution transformer loading practices. 150 kV LV: 240/120.00 . is attached on the side of the tank.371/ 2. NEMA safety labels per NEMA Publication 260-1982. A recessed locking assembly with padlock provisions and a pentahead locking bolt is standard for tamper resistant operation. In addition.Enclosure Integrity for Coastal Environments ANSI C57. 120/240 3. 75.12.ABB single-phase padmounted Distribution Transformers meet the following Industry Standards: ANSI C57.28.…Pad-Mounted Equipment . All tanks are constructed of heavy gauge steel.90 . 5 8 / ''-11 stainless steel lifting bosses Oil level/fill plug Oil drain plug Self-actuating pressure relief device Two ground bosses. Externally clamped low voltage epoxy bushings. 8.Pad-Mounted…Single-Phase Distribution Transformers with Separable Insulated High-Voltage Connectors… ANSI C57.12.25. 100. 7 . 4.80 . Tank seams are welded and each unit is pressure tested and inspected for leaks prior to shipment. 5. Equipped with two universal high voltage bushing wells for loop feed. Tamper-resistant design that exceeds ANSI C57.Pad-Mounted Equipment . 95. c. 3. stainless steel hinge pins provide safe and durable service.91 .12. A removable flip-top hood and heavy-duty 3/ 8 ''.) 2. (Only one bushing well is provided for radial feed. A parking stand between the bushing wells is provided for attachment of bushing accessories.12. 250 1 HV: 4160GY/2400 through 34500GY/19920V 3 BIL: 60.12.12. The high voltage universal bushing wells are externally clamped and removable. 9. d.IEEE Standard General Requirements for Liquid Immersed…Transformers ANSI C57. 277 V. 75.

Max. 1 Actual dimensions will vary according to voltage.0 Recommended Pad Dimensions 8 .Minimum/Maximum Design Dimensions 1 Micro-Pak A B C D 24 24 30.3 2 Not available on Micro 3 Maxi only Dimensions are in Inches “C”+6 CABLE OPENING 5. Externally operated dual voltage switch.2 d. A partial range current limiting fuse mounted under oil within the transformer tank.25 14 42 44 46. Externally operated loadbreak oil rotary (LBOR) switch.50 16 Mini-Pak A B C D 24 32 30. A current limiting fuse mounted in a dry well loadbreak canister. b.2 • An expulsion fuse is supplied in series with the partial range CL fuse. Switching a. EFD CL fused air loadbreak switch available for either radial or loop feed. c. Overcurrent Protection a.0 “B”+6 5. and accessories. 2.25 14 42 44 46.25 14 24 24 35. Externally operated tap changer. This fuse is a drawout design and is supplied in series with an isolation link. A drip plate is provided to prevent oil from dripping onto the bushing or elbow. A secondary breaker provides protection against secondary overloads and short circuits.00 20 Maxi-Pak A B C D 32 32 30. loss evaluation. b. An internal primary protective link to remove the transformer from the system in the event of an internal fault. d.2 c. e. Optional Accessories 1. and 150 kV BIL.00 20 Min. • Available at 95. An oil-immersed bayonet-type fuse link to remove the transformer from the system in case of an internal fault (fault sensing) or secondary short overload (overload sensing).2 • The high interrupting rating of the CL fuse permits its use on systems where the available fault current exceeds the rating of normal expulsion fuses. 125.

NEMA type. tin-plated copper alloy spade. b.3. Secondary Connections a. Copper studs with rotatable spade type bushings. Integral (one piece) loadbreak bushings. 4 4 Micro only 9 . Polypad mounting base. tinplated copper alloy spade. 4. ANSI C57. Universal bushing wells (standard) and loadbreak inserts.29 Full 400 Series Stainless Steel b.12.4 5. Primary Connection a. Cleats for anchoring sill to pad. Sill. b. in line. • Four-hole. Partial Stainless Steel • Mini-Skirt™ and Sill • Sill Only • Sill and Hood • Mini-Skirt™. • Four-hole. Cable lead secondary. Miscellaneous a. b. Corrosion Resistance a. and Hood 6.

12. 480d.500 for Delta systems. 216Y/125.90 . • Insulation classes: 35 kV (200 kV BIL) and below.Pad-Mounted… Three-Phase Distribution Transformers with High Voltage Bushings ANSI C57.…Pad-Mounted Equipment .Pad-Mounted…ThreePhase Distribution Transformers… With Separable Insulated High-Voltage Connectors ANSI C57.26 .12. Ratings • 45 through 3000 kVA • 65°C average winding rise over 30°C average ambient. 216Y/125.00 . 1 208Y/120.80 .IEEE Guide for Loading…for the establishment of proper distribution transformer loading practices.Enclosure Integrity or ANSI C57. 10 .IEEE Standard Test Code… NEMA Tr-1 .Separable Insulated Connectors ABB Recommends the use of ANSI C57. • High voltages: 4160 Grd Y/2400 through 34.IEEE Standard Terminology… ANSI C57.Terminal Markings and Connections… ANSI C57. 240d not available above 1500kVA. Industry Standards ABB three-phase MTR units meet the following industry standards: The ABB MTR Padmounted Transformer Three-Phase 45-2500 kVA ANSI C57. It is available both live front and dead front construction.12. 460Y/265.12.91 . schools. institutions and industrial plants. various dual high voltages. 2400 through 34.…Pad-Mounted Equipment .500 Grd Y/19. three phase.12.22 .IEEE Standard General Requirements for Liquid Immersed… Transformers ANSI C57.12. 240d and 240d with 120 volt mid-tap in one phase.The ABB MTR is an oil-filled.70 .12. for radial or loop feed applications. commercial padmounted distribution transformer specifically designed for servicing such underground distribution loads as shopping centers.Enclosure Integrity for Coastal Environments ANSI C57.Transformer Standards IEEE 386 . • Taps: All voltages are available with or without taps.920 for Grounded Wye systems.12. • Low voltages: 1 208Y/120. 480Y/277. or without taps.29 .28 .

Together they represent a wide range of protective capabilities to meet nearly every application. but omit the internally-mounted low voltage circuit breaker. fault and overload protection for these transformers must be provided by the purchaser. lightning. Protection considerations include: (1) Protective devices must be rated for the conditions anticipated. but omit the lightning arresters. it is normal practice to apply overcurrent protection on the primary side of the transformer so that a faulted transformer is isolated from the primary system. Therefore. To do otherwise presents a hazard to life and property in the event of violent transformer failure. Re-energizing should be performed from a remote location unless the cause of device operation is positively identified and corrected. • Surge-Protecting “SP” Transformers The “SP” transformers include transformer-mounted lightning arresters and internally-mounted high voltage protective links. • Current-Protecting “CP” Transformers The “CP” transformers are equipped with the internallymounted low-voltage circuit breaker and high voltage protective links. 2. Protection and Accessories 1. 11 . CP and CSP ®. Protection from excessive voltage transients and severe overcurrents should be provided.C. Caution: Operation of a primary protective device may indicate a faulted transformer. • Conventional “S” Transformers This type transformer contains no protective equipment. Types of Accessories and Transformer Protection Packages— Pole Mounted There are four basic transformer types: S. (2) When the transformer(s) is provided with overcurrent devices — coordination with system devices should be achieved to allow proper fault isolation. General The distribution transformer functions as an integral part of the distribution system and consideration must be given to proper protection of the transformer from system disturbances. SP. In addition.

whether caused by lightning surges. Under high voltage surge conditions. the block resistance rises again. Once the surge has passed. The protective link operates to remove a defective transformer from service if an internal failure occurs. crossarm or transformer mounting. however. The general purpose fuse is only available on padmounted transformers. 12 . The HMX gapless metal oxide arrester is a heavy duty design utilizing the non-linearity of a metal oxide resistor to provide protection levels equivalent to gapped silicon carbide arresters. thereby protecting the system. the resistance in the blocks drops. restricting the flow of current. LVBB Surgemaster™ and HMX distribution arresters are available for either pole. The partial range fuse requires a protective link applied in series while the general purpose fuse does not.Types of Accessories and Transformer Protection Packages— Pole Mounted (Continued) • Self-Protecting “CSP ® ” Transformers In a “CSP” transformer the arrester protects the transformer from over-voltage caused by lightning and/or high voltage switching surges. a. The Distribution Surge Arrester protects the transformer (and other electrical equipment) from dangerous overvoltages. The gaps will then interrupt this low-magnitude current flow. The big block arrester operates the same way as the LV with additional protection capability. The breaker provides the transformer a degree of protection from overloads and short circuits on the secondary side of the transformer. restoring the arrestor to an insulator. The Type LV Surgemaster™ valve type arrester has one or more arc gap assemblies connected in series with one or more current limiting “valve” blocks. CL Fuses Two basic types of current limiting fuses exist—partial range and general purpose (full range). The LV. switching surges or other transients. b. This type transformer offers the most protection of all protected transformers except for a “CSP” with a current limiting fuse. The metal oxide distribution arrester offers the benefits of reduced complexity. providing a low-resistance path to ground. The LVBB Surgemaster™ valve type arrester is a big block (heavy duty) design which is capable of discharging a 100 KA surge. improved reliability and improved performance characteristics. The partial range fuse is available on pole-type transformers (bushing mounted) and padmounted transformers (internally mounted).

B. The fault-sensing link is sized to operate only in the event of a transformer failure. usually on the core/ coil assembly.2kV. The Protective Fuse Link is an internal.5 kV 23. ABB offers a number of devices including a protective link. the overload-sensing link is sized for additional protection from secondary system faults or prolonged heavy overload conditions. a. connected between the coil’s secondary leads and the secondary bushings. Standard Ratings: Voltage Class 8. Amps At . expulsion type fuse consisting of a fiber tube supporting and surrounding the fuse element usually made of copper and EVERDUR ®. isolating the transformer from the primary system. 3. Two types of fuse links are available—overload-sensing and fault-sensing—and an internal isolation link is supplied in series for additional safety. drawout loadbreak design available through 19. The link is sized to operate only in the event of a winding failure. It is a hookstick-operable. secondary circuit breaker and current limiting fuse. It is mounted under oil. Protective Fuse Link b.9kV1. oil-immersed. Interrupting rating is 3500 amperes at 7.3 kV.3 kV 15.c. short circuits and overloads. The breaker is calibrated to trip when its bimetal reaches a predetermined temperature. Types of Accessories and Protection—Padmounted For system and transformer protection from surge currents. The Secondary Circuit Breaker provides the transformer with a degree of protection from secondary overloads and short circuits.0 kV Interrupting Amps (RMS) 3800 2000 600 L.8 PF 135 135 45 Bayonet-Type Fuse 13 . An additional instantaneous magnetic trip element which responds to high fault currents is available on some breakers. distribution surge arrester. The Bayonet-Type Fuse Cartridge contains an oil-immersed expulsion type fuse with an interrupting rating of 3800 amperes at 8.

dry well fuses. Drywell Current Limiting Fuse Canister d. loadbreak. which are applied in series with an internal protective link. block-mounted current limiting fuses. Partial range. Loadbreak. Current Limiting Fuses are available through 15 kV in either the EFD air loadbreak switch or in a drawout. The EFD is an loadbreak air switch available for radial feed applications. 14 . Switching. silver sand current limiting fuse is normally provided to the switch’s transformer connecting pole. internal. A mechanical interlock with a loadbreak oil switch (LBOR) is recommended when using parallel drawout. Some of the higher kVA designs may require current fuse ratings that are not available—contact Division. loadbreak dry fuse well.c. are also available through 23 kV. “dead front” type construction that enables the switch to be externally-mounted on the tank in the terminal compartment. clamp-type connectors capable of accepting cable sizes ranging from #6 to #4/0. flexibility and safety are made possible by a compact. A sealed. High voltage cables are connected to the switch contacts by means of solderless. Some applications may require parallel current limiting fuses to obtain sufficient full-load or inrush current ratings.

.... externally-operated...../Assym. Tap Changer Operating Handle 15 .. 200 A Close-in ..... 10...9 kV 200 A 12 kA/ 19........ 5......) 95 kV 15..... The LBOR (Loadbreak Oil Rotary) switch is gang-operated and available for either radial or loop feed switching.............. LBOR Ratings: BIL Maximum Voltage (L-L) (L-Grd) Continuous and Interrupting Current Momentary and Making Current (RMS Sym..... 200 A Loadbreak ................. The stacked deck rotary switch has a unique...2 kA 125 kV 150 kV 27 kV 38 kV 15....9 kV 300 A 1 12 kA/ 19. springloaded cam-operated kicker system which provides quick make and break action to the contacts....5 kV 8....000 A e.......... The Tap Changer and Series Multiple Switch.2 kA 300 A 10 kA/ 16 kA 1 200 A 3c rating also available...... LBOR Switch f........EFD Switch Ratings Continuous current ......000 A Momentary . and are designed for de-energized operation only.5 kV 21. Both are oil-immersed..

................................................ Short circuit ratings ..... G...................... Polarity .................................... (a) 1c pole-mounted ............... Pad-Mounted ......................... H............ E................................................ Designation of winding voltage ratings ................... Efficiency calculations .. Pole-Mounted ...................................................... 2..... I............................................................. C............................. 1.................... D............... Performance Page 17 20 21 21 21 21 22 22 22 23 23 24 24 26 27 A.............................................................................................................. 16 . (b) 3c pole-mounted .......................... Secondary fault current—120/240 volt systems ....... J.................. Impedance calculations .................... Sound level ratings ............................................................................................................ K............ B. Tolerance definitions ....................II........................................................... Regulation calculations ........................................................................... F............................. Performance example ........... Terminal designations .......

Performance A. provided the neutral end of the winding is effectively grounded. E 1 GrdY/E 12 470GrdY/7200 Usage E 1 GrdY/E shall indicate a winding of E volts with reduced insulation at the neutral end. or which can be connected in series for operation at 2E volts. or line-to-line voltage of a delta winding.00) 1.II. E/2E 120/240 Usage E/2E shall indicate a winding. two-wire full kVA between extreme terminals. 2E/E 240/120 Usage 2E/E shall indicate a winding for 2E volts. or for 2E/E volts three-wire service with 1 /2 kVA available only. the sections of which can be connected in parallel for operation at E volts.12. Designation of Winding Voltage Ratings (from ANSI C57. The neutral end may be connected directly to the tank for Y or for single-phase operation on an E 1 volt system. from midpoint to each extreme terminal. or connected in series with a center terminal for three-wire operation at 2E volts between the extreme terminals and E volts between the center terminal and each of the extreme terminals. 3 F (2) E 1 = CF E 17 . Single-Phase Symbol E Example 12000 Typical Diagram Usage E shall indicate a winding of E volts which is suitable for g connection on an E volt system. Notes: (1) E = line-to-neutral voltage of a “Y” winding. E/E 1Y 2400/4160Y Usage E/E 1Y shall indicate a winding of E volts which is suitable for g connection on an E volt system or for Y connection on an E 1 volt system. V x V1 240 x 480 Usage V x V1 shall indicate a winding for parallel or series operation only but not suitable for three-wire service.

or line-to-line voltage of a delta winding. E/E1Y 2400/4160Y Usage E/E1Y shall indicate a winding which may be g connected for operation on an E volt system. Three-Phase Symbol E Example 2400 Typical Diagram Usage E shall indicate a winding which is permanently g connected for operation on an E volt system. Notes: (1) E = line-to-neutral voltage of a “Y” winding. E/E1Y/E 2400/4160Y/2400 Usage E/E1Y/E shall indicate a winding which may be g connected for operation on an E volt system or may be Y connected with a fully insulated neutral brought out for operation on an E 1 volt system with E volts available from line to neutral. E1Y/E 4160Y/2400 Usage E1Y/E shall indicate a winding which is permanently Y connected with a fully insulated neutral brought out for operation on an E1 volt system. E1 GrdY/E 12470GrdY/7200 Usage E1 GrdY/E shall indicate a winding with reduced insulation and permanently Y connected. with a neutral brought out and effectively grounded for operation on an E1 volt system with E volts available from line to neutral. with E volts available from line to neutral. 3 F (2) E1 = CF E 18 . E1Y 4160Y Usage E1Y shall indicate a winding which is permanently Y connected without a neutral brought out (isolated) for operation on an E 1 volt system. or may be Y connected without a neutral brought out (isolated) for operation on an E 1 volt system.2.

or line-to-line voltage of a delta winding. 3 F (2) E1 = CF E 19 . Notes: (1) E = line-to-neutral voltage of a “Y” winding.2. which may be g connected for operation on an E volt system or may be connected Y with a neutral brought out and effectively grounded for operation on an E 1 volt system with E volts available from line to neutral. Three-Phase (continued) Symbol E/E 1 GrdY/E Example 7200/12470GrdY/7200 Typical Diagram Usage E/E 1 GrdY/E shall indicate a winding. Windings are permanently g or Y connected. or may be connected in series to obtain one of the voltage ratings (as defined above) of V1. V x V1 7200 x 14 400 Usage V x V1 shall indicate a winding. having reduced insulation. the sections of which may be connected in parallel to obtain one of the voltage ratings (as defined above) of V.

single-phase distribution transformers 200 kVA and smaller. All other single-phase transformers have subtractive polarity. then the connection behaves as an auto transformer with the secondary voltage adding to or subtracting from the primary voltage. The lead polarity is additive if the voltage across the other two leads of the windings in question is greater than that of the higher voltage winding alone. The polarity determination is as follows: a. Additive E3 > E1 Subtrative E3 < E1 By industry standards. Primary and secondary leads are said to have the same polarity when at a given instant the current enters the primary lead in question and leaves the secondary lead in question in the same direction as though the two leads formed a continuous circuit. The polarity of a three-phase transformer is fixed by the internal connections between phases as well as by the relative locations of leads. The lead polarity is subtractive if the voltage across the other two leads of the windings in question is less than that of the higher voltage winding alone. If one pair of adjacent leads from the two windings in question is connected together and a small voltage is applied to one of the windings.B. and the recognized counterclockwise direction of rotation of the vectors is used. The vector representing the voltage of a given winding is drawn parallel to that representing the corresponding voltage of any other winding having the same phase. it is usually designated by means of a vector diagram showing the angular displacements of windings and a sketch showing the marking of leads. The lead polarity of a single-phase transformer may be either additive or subtractive. 20 . b. Polarity The lead polarity (or polarity) of a transformer is a designation of the relative instantaneous directions of currents in its leads. The vectors of the vector diagrams represent induced voltages. having high voltage windings rated 8660 volts or less have additive polarity.

2. the terminal designations follows: (a) Single-Phase Pole Mounted Connection E/2E with three external low-voltage terminals Series or Three-Wire Additive Polarity Subtractive Polarity Parallel E/2E with four external low-voltage terminals Series or Three-Wire Parallel E Note: The H1 terminal for either additive or subtractive polarity is located on the lefthand side when facing the low-voltage terminals. Pad Mounted The terminal designations for pad-mounted distribution transformers are clearly marked at the terminals of both the high and low voltage. Terminal Designations 1. 21 .C. Pole Mounted For pole mounted distribution transformers.

00) The short-circuit ratings for distribution transformers are set by industry standards.5-100 167-500 3 c kVA 15-75 112. Short-Circuit Ratings (ANSI C57. E.0 where: t = duration (seconds) I = symmetrical short-circuit current (per unit) *1/ZT = The short circuit current will be limited by the transformer impedance only. The maximum magnitude required for units with secondary voltages rated less than 600 V is as follows: 1 c kVA 5-25 37.12.Terminal Designations (Continued) (b) Three-Phase Pole Mounted All three-phase pole mounted distribution transformers have terminal designations as shown above regardless of internal connection. Neutral terminals (HV and/or LV) will exist as required by the winding connection and will be noted on the transformer nameplate. The maximum sound level (A weighted response curve) is: kVA Rating 0-50 51-100 101-300 301-500 -750 -1000 -1500 -2000 -2500 Sound Level (dB) 48 51 55 56 57 58 60 61 62 22 . Sound Level Ratings (NEMA TR-1) The sound level ratings for distribution transformers are set by industry standards. The duration of the short-circuit current is determined by 500 kVA and Below ________________ 1250 t= l2 750-2500 kVA ___________ t = 1. ZT is transformer per unit impedance.5-300 500 750-2500 Rating (times normal) 40 35 25 1/ZT* Two winding distribution transformers with secondary voltages rated above 600 volts are required to withstand short-circuits limited only by the transformer’s impedance. D.

If the transformer load losses are known. the impedance may be separated into its reactive and resistive components.F. Impedance Calculations Transformer impedance is shown on the transformer nameplate (Note: transformer impedance.12. Z R X kVA Cu R= impedance (percent) resistance (percent) reactance (percent) transformer kVA rating load loss at rated load at 85°C (watts) Cu 10 kVA X = CFF – R2 Z2 FFFF 23 . Losses The total losses of a transformer are the sum of the excitation losses and the load losses at rated load (with winding temperature at 85°C). Transformers shall be considered suitable for operation in parallel if impedances come within the limitations of the foregoing paragraphs. and the tolerance for those with impedance voltage 2. provided turns ratios and other controlling characteristics are suitable for such operation.5% of the specified value. Differences of impedance between two duplicate two-winding transformers when two or more units of a given rating are produced by one manufacturer at the same time shall not exceed 7. Impedance (two-winding transformers) The impedance of a two-winding transformer with impedance voltage larger than 2.5% shall have a tolerance of ± 7. reactance and resistance are typically given in percent or per unit).5% of the specified value. shall not exceed the specified losses by more than the percentages below: No. the losses represented by a test of a transformer. Unless otherwise specified.5% or less shall have a tolerance of ± 10% of the specified value. on a given order.00-1987) 1. of Units On One Order 1 2 or more 2 or more Basis of Determination 1 unit each unit average of all units No Load Losses (Percent) 10 10 0 Total Losses (Percent) 6 6 0 G. Tolerance Definitions (ANSI C57. (See Paralleling) 2. or transformers.

10 3 + Fe +.105 percent . Efficiency Calculations The efficiency of a transformer is defined as the ratio of the output power to the input power.000] /2 – 100 24 . Regulation Calculations The voltage regulation of a distribution transformer is the change in output voltage which occurs when the load is reduced from rated value to zero with the primary terminal voltage maintained constant. (X.000] /2 – 100 For unity power factor 1 REG = [R2 + X2 + 200R + 10.H. E L kVA Cu Fe a E= efficiency (percent) load (per unit) transformer kVA rating load loss at rated load at 85°C (watts) no load (excitation) loss (watts) power factor angle L. it can be shown that the per unit load which results in maximum efficiency is: L (maximum efficiency) = I.kVA.10 3) + Fe + L2.Cu percent Regardless of the load power factor angle.cosa) + 10. It can be calculated at any load and power factor if the transformer losses are known.kVA.Cu (L At rated load and unity power factor E= kVA. The regulation can be calculated from the equations below or by the nomograph which follows: R X REGa resistance(percent) reactance (percent) percent voltage regulation power factor angle (positive for inductive load) 1 REG = [R2 + X2 + 200.sina + R.cosa.105 kVA.cosa.

scale nine.Regulation Chart Place straight edge at percent resistance. scale one. and at percent reactance. Read the percent regulation at different power factors as given by scales two to eight inclusive 25 .

kVA . 10 3 + 104 + (0.0% (25) . cosa .85) 1.53 + 1.596 26 . (Nominal Z) = 1. (25) .85) . 105 E= .26. 10 3 + Fe + L2Cu L = (0.992 + 200.6% For the above transformer determine the following: (1) Nominal reactance (2) Minimum impedance (3) Minimum efficiency at rated load (4) Expected efficiency at 50% load (5) Expected regulation Assume an inductive power factor (cosa = 0.5) . 105 = 98.262 + 0. cosa .(0.10) . cosa .99.262 = 0.85) .000] /2 – 100 1 = [1. Minimum Efficiency at Rated Load Maximum total loss = 1.85) + 10. 10 3 + (444) = 4.85) .6 2.85) . (419 – 104) (0.J.000] /2 –100 = 1.25 X = CFF – R2 = CFF 2 – 1. Nominal Reactance Cu (419–104) R = ______ = _______ = 1.kVA 10 10.44% 3.99% FFFF FFFFFFFF Z2 1. 10 3 + (Fe + Cu) kVA (25) .5 L . 105 .5)2 . Expected Regulation 1 REG = [R2 + X2 + 200.sina + R. cosa .26% . (.06 . 105 = 98.cosa) + 10. kVA . (25) . Expected Efficiency at 50% Load L= 0.5) 5. 419 = 444 watts E= kVA . Performance Example Example Transformer Ratings (Typical) Single-phase kVA High voltage Low voltage No load (excitation) loss Total loss at rated load Impedance 25 7200v 120/240v 104 watts 419 watts 1. (. (X.0. (.3% . Minimum Impedance Minimum Z = (1 – 0.0. (.

K. This section presents equations and data which can be used to calculate the available currents for both phase-tophase (240 volt) and phase-to-neutral (120 volt) faults. In order to select service entrance equipment with adequate interrupting rating. Before explaining the use of the equations. and 240 volts from phase-to-phase. Figure K. for convenient reference. and defines the terms appearing in the equations.1 27 . The equations for calculating these currents are quite simple and can be easily evaluated with a handheld pocket calculator Fault Current Equations Figure K. the available currents for a bolted fault (short circuit) must be known. or to coordinate over-current protective devices in the transformer-secondary systems. the assumptions used in arriving at these are discussed. the equations necessary for calculating the available currents for both 240 volt and 120 volt bolted faults. Secondary Fault Currents — 120/240 Volt Systems Service to individual residences in the United States most always is single-phase three-wire operating at 120 volts from phase-to-neutral.1 gives.

Reference to Figure K. then including the effect of primary system impedance may show that a “problem” does not exist.0 XT. the difference between the approximate and more exact values will be greater for “weak” primary systems. or where the calculated current is slightly above the value at which overcurrent protective device coordination can be achieved. for those cases where the calculated current using methods neglecting primary impedance is slightly higher than the interrupting rating of a fuse or breaker in the secondary system. For most cases where the calculations are made to determine available fault current at the service entrance for sizing equipment. or increasing the secondary circuit length to the fault point reduces the difference between the approximate and more exact calculated values of bolted fault current. the difference resulting from the assumption is negligible. Increasing the “stiffness” of the primary system. or to determine maximum currents at which overcurrent protective devices must coordinate.1 that the equations do not include the effect of any metering impedances which may be present in the circuit.1 shows that the expressions for calculating the available current for the 240 volt and 120 volt bolted faults are different. Letting RT + jXT be the “full winding” impedance in percent on nameplate kVA rating looking into the primary winding.5 RT + j2. However. Also notice from Figure K. the calculation of the 120 volt fault current requires a knowledge of the transformer “half winding” impedance. and short secondary circuits. In contrast. Including these impedances will further reduce the calculated values of fault current. Calculations including the effects of primary system impedance are not contained in this guide. or any “fault” impedance. reducing the kVA size of the transformer. As the relationship between transformer “half winding” and “full winding” impedance is not fixed and can vary from design to design. 28 . The effect of this assumption is to make the calculated values of current for a bolted fault in the secondary system slightly higher than those which result when the effect of primary impedance is included. While the 240 volt fault current can be calculated from a knowledge of the “full winding” impedance of the transformer. large distribution transformers. the most typical relationship for present day designs was used in arriving at the equation for 120 volt fault current.The impedance of the primary system supplying the distribution transformer is very small in comparison to that of the distribution transformer and secondary circuit up to the point of fault. the “half winding” impedance in percent on nameplate kVA can be approximated by 1.

Calculate the transformer leakage reactance in ohms at secondary terminals X1-X3 (X T in Figure K. Calculate the transformer leakage impedance in ohms at secondary terminals X1-X3 (Z T in Figure K. 6. 2. 7. 3. 29 . 4. This requires that the transformer total losses at full load in watts. Calculate the transformer resistance in ohms at secondary terminals X1-X3 (R T in Figure K. The values in Table 1 are for triplex cable.1). Calculate the available current for a 240 volt bolted fault (I 240) using the equation in Figure K. This requires that the transformer nameplate impedance in percent (Z%) be known. Calculate the available current for a 120 volt bolted fault (I 120) using the equation in Figure K. typical values for R S1 and X S1 in ohms per 1000 feet are given in Tables 1 and 2 for circuits using aluminum conductors under the header “120 V FAULTS”. This is due to the larger spacing. If a full size neutral conductor is used.1). then the impedance values given under the header “240 V FAULTS” should also be used for the calculation of the 120 volt fault currents. and those in Table 2 are for rack mounted conductors. In both tables. the values listed are for circuits using a reduced size neutral conductor. Also determine the reactance of the secondary circuit in ohms per 1000 feet for a 240 volt fault (X S). but the reactance values are greater with the rack mounted conductors.1 and the values calculated in steps 1 through 4.The steps to follow when using the equations in Figure K. Determine the resistance of the secondary circuit in ohms per 1000 feet for a 240 volt fault (R S). 5. Determine the resistance (R S1) and reactance (X S1) of the secondary circuit in ohms per 1000 feet for a 120 volt fault.1 and the values calculated in steps 1 through 3 and step 6. and no load losses in watts be known (W TOT and W NL respectively in Figure K.1 to calculate the bolted fault currents are as follows: 1. Typical values for R S and X S in ohms per 1000 feet are given in Tables 1 and 2 for circuits using aluminum phase conductors under the header “240 V FAULTS”.1). From these tables notice that the resistance values are the same.1).

but to aid those who want to check their own calculations.576 759 – 204 = 0. X T.1 gives: I 120 = 4071. Placing the above values into the equation for I 120 in Figure K.Example Calculations The use of the equations in Figure K.75 = 0.0604 ohms per 1000 feet 7.211 ohms per 1000 feet XS = 0. R T = 0. I 240 and I 120 would be equal. 1. X S. the resistive and reactive components of the impedance for a 120 volt fault with 3/0 aluminum triplex cable (reduced neutral) are: R S1 = 0.75 percent L = 80 feet The calculations proceed following the steps outlined.1 amperes rms symmetrical For this example notice that at a distance of 80 feet from the transformer. and no load losses of 204 watts has an impedance of 1.0589 ohms per 1000 feet 5.1. from the equation for I 240 and I 120 in Figure K. 30 . the available current for the 120 volt bolted fault is considerably less than that for a 240 volt fault. From Table 1. X T = CFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFFF = 0. the resistive and reactive components of the impedance for a 240 volt fault with 3/0 aluminum triplex cable are: R S = 0. and L into the equation for I 240 in Figure K.012787 ohms 502 1. What is the available current for both a 240 and 120 volt bolted fault at the end of the service? From the statement of the problem: W TOT = 759 watts W NL = 204 watts kVA = 50 Z = 1.02016 ohms 50 3.0576 2. Z T = 0.0 feet).1 gives: I 240 = 6676. notice that for a fault at the transformer secondary terminals (L = 0. R S. Thus at some distance L from the transformer. and at distances greater than this.1 is illustrated with the following: A 50 kVA transformer with total losses at full load of 759 watts. However.0127872 4.020162 – . the available current for a bolted 120 volt fault is greater than that for a 240 volt fault. 6. A service entrance circuit which is 80 feet in length using 3/0 aluminum triplex with reduced neutral is connected directly to the transformer terminals.015586 ohms . From Table 1. the available current for a 240 volt fault will be higher.273 ohms per 1000 feet X S1 = 0.75 percent.6 amperes rms symmetrical Note that the large number of significant digits included in these calculations is not to suggest that they are accurate to the last digit. Placing these values of R T.

The curves are for transformer sizes of 50. For most all single-phase services rated 200 amperes or less. the available current at the service entrance for the 120 volt fault is less than that of the 240 volt fault. especially for the 120 volt fault.Figure K. (c) As the distance from the transformer to the fault location becomes large. and 100 kVA supplying a secondary circuit made with 3/0 aluminum triplex with reduced neutral. even for the rather large 3/0 aluminum service conductor. 75. 31 . (b) With the 3/0 aluminum service conductor. From these curves notice that: Figure K. the distance from the transformer terminals to the fault point in feet. the available current for a 120 volt fault is less than that of a 240 volt fault at distances greater than about 10 feet from the 50. 75. or 100 kVA transformer.2 (a) The available current for both the 120 and 240 volt faults is rapidly reduced as the fault is moved away from the transformer.2 is a plot of the available current for both the 120 and 240 volt bolted faults vs. the available current for both the 120 and 240 volt faults becomes independent of the transformer size.

204 .095 .217 .193 . (2) Reactance values based on secondary rack with 12 inch spacing between conductors with neutral in top position and phase conductors in the two lower positions.547 .0633 .142 . of (AWG or MCM) Strands ___________ ______ 2 7 1 19 1/0 19 2/0 19 3/0 19 4/0 19 250 37 350 37 500 37 Aluminum Neutral Cond.435 .) ________ ________ . Typical Impedances for 120/240 Volt Circuits With Triplex Cable 240 Volt Faults ____________ RS XS (j/1000 Ft. ____________________ Size No.0583 .0570 . of (AWG or MCM) Strands ___________ ______ 4 7 3 7 2 7 1 19 1/0 19 2/0 19 3/0 19 4/0 19 300 37 120 Volt Faults ____________ RS1 XS1 (j/1000 Ft.095 .0589 .) ________ ________ . Resistance and reactance values given for 120 volt fault assume fault is to phase conductor in middle position in rack. all current returns in the neutral conductor with no current returning in the earth.072 .174 Notes: (1) Resistance values based on a conductor temperature of 25°C.182 .691 .435 .102 .134 .167 .142 . Typical Impedances for 120/240 Volt Circuits With Rack Mounted Conductors Aluminum Phase Cond.211 . ___________________ Size No.199 . 32 240 Volt Faults ____________ RS XS (j/1000 Ft.217 .335 . (2) Reactance based on following: (a) 600 volt insulation with all 3 insulated conductors in contact.0652 . ___________________ Size No.199 .273 .691 .547 . 0. (4) For secondary circuits with full size neutral.0574 .062 inch for #4 to #2.534 .) (j/1000 Ft. of (AWG or MCM) Strands ___________ ______ 2 7 1 19 1/0 19 2/0 19 3/0 19 4/0 19 250 37 350 37 500 37 Aluminum Neutral Cond.345 .177 .211 . of (AWG or MCM) Strands ___________ ______ 4 7 3 7 2 7 1 19 1/0 19 2/0 19 3/0 19 4/0 19 300 37 120 Volt Faults ____________ RS1 XS1 (j/1000 Ft.) (j/1000 Ft. .184 . and .167 .176 .424 .078 inch for #1 to 4/0. (b) For 120 volt (Phase-to-Neutral Fault).168 Aluminum Phase Cond.345 .177 .424 .188 .193 .223 .0588 .266 .211 .) (j/1000 Ft.0629 .189 .217 .) (j/1000 Ft. use resistance and reactance values given for 240 volt fault for both 120 and 240 volt faults.0596 .335 .0659 . ____________________ Size No.0547 Table 2. use resistance and reactance values given for 240 volt fault for both 120 and 240 volt faults.072 .273 .) ________ ________ .0558 . (3) For secondary circuits with full size neutral.) ________ ________ .0616 .266 .0659 .0604 .Table 1.212 .0576 .0628 .102 .217 . (3) Insulation thickness is 0.534 .205 .134 .0530 Notes: (1) Resistance values based on a conductor temperature of 25°C.094 inch for 250 to 500 MCM.

.................... Three-Phase Transformers and Banks Page 34 34 34 34 35 35 35 35 36 37 38 41 41 42 43 44 45 45 46 46 47 48 A........... Summary of Common Connections ...................................III..................................................................... 5....... Application Considerations ......... 2................................................... 1........ b...................................................... Primary neutral grounding ... 3.............. b.. Secondary neutral grounding .............................. 1......................... Secondary (service) systems . Angular displacement (phase shift) .............. B. 6...................................... 7..... Wye-wye ............................. 4........ T-T (O degree angular displacement) ..................... Types of distribution systems ...... C............................................................. Common Three-Phase Banks Using Single-Phase Transformers ...................................................... Wye-delta ......................... Delta-wye ..................................................... 8............................ Open Delta-Open Delta ........... Ferroresonance ......... 2... a..................... 4. Primary winding connections which can prevent or minimize the possibility of Ferroresonance .............. 3............................. Grounded wye-wye ......................... Delta-delta ........................ Primary (source) systems ..................................................... T-T (30 degree angular displacement) ............................................ a..................................................... 33 ......................................................................... 9........................................... a... Neutral grounding ................. Primary winding connections which can result in Ferroresonance .... Open Wye-Open Delta ........................................ b.......................

distribution transformers applied must be connected phase to phase using either delta. In addition. Three-Phase Transformers and Banks This section presents many important factors to be considered when selecting the connections used for both three phase transformers and three-phase banks of the single-phase transformers applied in threephase distribution systems. open delta. the primary windings of the distribution transformers can be connected from either phase to phase or phase to neutral. or T connected windings. open delta. A.) With a 4-wire effectively grounded neutral system. the transformer secondary winding may be connected in delta. A summary of commonly encountered connections is provided. floating wye. or ungrounded. floating wye. Whether the neutral point of wye connected primary windings should or should not be connected to the system neutral depends upon the connections used for the secondary windings. proper application and determination of permissible connections requires an understanding of the characteristics of both the primary system which will supply the transformer. a. Since it is a system component. floating wye. open delta. b. To supply a 3-wire ungrounded (delta) system. Thus. or a bank of singlephase distribution transformers should be thought of as a system component which connects the primary to the secondary system. open wye. grounded wye. This permits usage of the following connections: Delta. Loads which require both single-phase 3-wire 120/240 volt service and three-phase 240 volt service can be supplied by a 4-wire service consisting of transformers with secondary windings connected delta or open delta 34 . and T. (An effectively grounded system is one where at any point in the system the ratio of zero-sequence reactance to positive-sequence reactance is less than three. impedance grounded or ungrounded systems are frequently found in industrial plants. Primary (Source) Systems Distribution systems are either effectively grounded. These systems provide no path to carry neutral load current. or 4-wire grounded. Application Considerations 1. Secondary (Service) Systems Secondary systems supplied from distribution transformers and operating at 600 volts or less usually are either 3-wire ungrounded. Types of distribution systems A three-phase distribution transformer. impedance grounded. and the secondary system which will be supplied by the transformer. and the ration of zero-sequence resistance to positivesequence reactance is less than one.III. Most electric utility distribution systems in this country are three-phase 4-wire multi-grounded neutral systems which are effectively grounded. connection diagrams using singlephase transformers for three-phase banks are shown. Although they are not commonly used by electric utilities for distribution. or T.

it is generally undesirable that a distribution bank act as a ground source for the primary system. a primary wye should only be grounded if the secondary is also connected in wye and a T primary should never be grounded. The 4-wire grounded secondary service can be supplied by either the wye connection or the T connection with the neutral point grounded. or both. which can be grounded. In addition. That is. b. The delta wye and wye delta connections produce the 30° phase shift. a. For unsymmetrical faults the line currents do not transform in proportion to the voltage ratings. a low impedance ground source must be established.with a center tap ground on one leg of the delta. 2.15 times the secondary fault current on a per unit basis. The T-T transformer can be designed to exhibit either a 30° or a 0° phase shift. Note however that the open wye connection must be grounded at the neutral point to function properly. This can be achieved by grounding the neutral of a secondary wye connection provided that the primary is connected either delta or wye grounded supplied by a 4-wire multi-grounded neutral (effectively grounded) source. 3. Whether the neutral point of windings should or should not be grounded depends on factors discussed below. This additional 15% must be considered to achieve selective coordination. The neutral of a secondary T connection may also be grounded. the primary source must be a 4-wire multi-grounded neutral system. To prevent creation of a grounding bank. or the neutral point of the secondary windings can be grounded to establish a 4-wire grounded wye system. When paralleling three-phase transformers or banks. In the 4-wire grounded (wye) system. For the connections which have a 30° phase shift. the transformer secondary windings must have a neutral point which can be grounded. the 30° phase shift has an effect on the coordination of overcurrent protective devices located on the primary and secondary sides of the transformer. Of particular importance is a line-to-line fault on the transformer secondary. the phase shift of each must be the same. The delta delta and wye wye connections produce no phase shift. a delta or open delta winding may be grounded at any one point. 35 . NeutraI Grounding Some transformer connections or winding connections (wye or T) have a neutral point on either the primary windings. secondary windings. Secondary Neutral Grounding To supply phase to neutral connected load on the secondary. Angular Displacement (Phase Shift) For standard three-phase connections the phase-to-neutral voltage on the primary side either leads that on the secondary side by 30° or is in phase with the phase-to-neutral voltage on the secondary side. the neutral point of the primary windings can be connected to the multi-grounded neutral conductor of the primary system. In addition. Primary Neutral Grounding For the primary neutral point to be grounded. In addition. this fault produces a fault current in one primary phase which is 1.

Notice that during the switching operation (open conductor condition) where only 36 . can be placed in series with system capacitance. Under normal conditions where all three primary phases to the transformer bank are energized through a continuous path from the source. rumbling.1 illustrates a frequently encountered system condition which produces ferroresonance. and (3) failure to connect jumpers. When ferroresonance occurs. Overvoltages of five times normal and higher have been measured during ferroresonant oscillations in test circuits. (2) normal switching operations with single-pole devices such as distribution cutouts to energize or de-energize a transformer.1: Cable-fed transformer with single-pole switching devices located at the junction between the overhead and underground circuits. the cable circuit is connected to the open wire line using distribution cutouts. Some causes of open conductor conditions which may result in ferroresonance are: (1) the operation of single-pole overcurrent protective devices such as fuses or single-pole reclosers. the non-linear inductance of a transformer or transformer bank. Figure 4. it is characterized by high overvoltages whose waveform contains appreciable harmonics. ferroresonance will not occur during open conductor conditions because the non-linear inductances cannot be inserted in series with system capacitances. Figure 4. Ferroresonance Ferroresonance is a non-linear resonance which can occur during open conductor (single-phase) conditions in the distribution system. or whining sounds.4. with certain connections. These are considerably different than those which emanate from the transformer when energized at rated frequency and voltage. At the riser or transition pole. An unloaded three-phase pad mounted transformer with delta connected primary windings is supplied from an open-wire line through a cable circuit. with other transformer connections. The transformers involved in the ferroresonant circuit may emit unusual noises which frequently are described as rattling. Whether ferroresonance will occur during open conductor conditions depends to a great extent upon the connections used for the primary windings in a distribution transformer bank or in a three-phase distribution transformer. But when an open conductor condition occurs. ferroresonance may result. However. ferroresonance will not occur for any of the connections used for the primary windings. If the capacitance lies within a specified range.

the possibility of ferroresonance can be minimized with the following measures. at higher primary voltage levels (more likely at 35 kV than 4 kV voltage level). overvoltages and ferroresonance usually do not occur during open conductor conditions. wye. Whether it does or does not occur with these “ungrounded” connections for the primary windings depends upon the amount of capacitance between the open conductor and transformer. In higher voltage (25 kV and 35 kV) overhead systems. the non-linear inductances of the transformer windings between phases A and B. Because of the high probability of ferroresonance in underground systems using conventional single-pole switching devices.1. with small transformers. and with unloaded transformers. This is due to the internal capacitances of the transformers. This makes a series L-C circuit where the L is non-linear. 37 . are placed in series with the cable capacitance on the open phases. This is because the capacitance per unit length of a cable circuit is in the range of 50 times that of open wire lines. open delta. the transformer size. Primary Winding Connections Which Can Result in Ferroresonance Theoretically. a. 25. as with the delta. the transformer internal capacitances. the system voltage. ferroresonance will occur. and tee connections.the switch in phase A is closed as illustrated. or 35 kV class. or tee. Ferroresonance became an important concern in the utility industry with the advent of underground distribution and the use of 25 and 35 kV class voltages. A system illustrating this situation is shown in Figure 4. Studies have shown that ferroresonance is more likely to occur with cable circuits (due to higher capacitance) than open-wire lines. If. Figure 4.2 summarizes in a qualitative fashion the probability of ferroresonance occurring in 15. or the amount of load on the primary circuit between the open conductor and transformer. and the circuit between the transformer and possible location of an open conductor (single-phase) condition is made from cable. and phases A and C. 25. even when the ungrounded primary winding connections are used for transformers. and 35 kV class overhead systems when the switching is performed at the terminals of small banks made from single-phase units. ferroresonance can occur during open conductor conditions in either one or two phases if the primary windings of the distribution transformers are connected in delta. open delta. floating wye. however the transformer primary windings are ungrounded. The probability of ferroresonance and the associated overvoltages is very high if the circuit between the location of the open conductor and the transformer is made from shielded cable and operates at voltage levels in either the 15. and if the parameters are in the proper range. and the amount of load connected to the secondary terminals of the transformer. many system operators will not use the ungrounded primary winding connections in cable-fed transformers. Industry experience has shown that in overhead distribution systems operating at 15 kV and below. overvoltages and ferroresonance have occurred when single-pole switching is performed at the terminals of small transformer banks with their primary windings connected in floating wye or delta.

the use of these connections for capacitor banks is very uncommon in distribution systems operating in the 15 kV class and above. However. This minimizes the possibility of having single-phase conditions. This is true for both overhead and underground systems operating up through 35 kV. Instead. they prefer to use transformer connections which have either a zero or very low probability of ferroresonance during open conductor conditions at a location remote from the transformer.(1) Application of only three-pole gang operated switches and fault interrupters. Although these measures can be very effective. ferroresonance may occur. b. operational. ferroresonance will not occur during most open conductor conditions in the primary system. Figure 4. Primary Winding Connections Which Prevent Or Minimize Possibility of Ferroresonance When the primary windings of single-phase distribution transformers used in a bank are connected in open wye or grounded wye. many operators of underground systems consider them unacceptable for either economical.2: Probability of ferroresonance in overhead systems when switching is performed at the terminals of small transformer banks made from single-phase units. or technical reasons. But if either a floating wye or delta connected shunt capacitor bank is installed on the primary line between the transformer bank and location of the open conductor. If there is a very long length of open wire line between 38 . (2) Location of the single-pole switches and overcurrent protective devices only at the transformer terminals. or if a three-phase unit with the grounded wye primary windings employs triplex construction. (3) Connection of resistive load to the secondary terminals of the transformer during remote single-pole switching.

25 per unit. Test data shows that crest voltages as high as 2.or five-legged core. The preceding discussion of ferroresonance is both very brief and very qualitative in content. based on the good experience and performance they have had with the grounded wye primaries on fourand five-legged cores.the location of the open conductor and transformer bank with grounded wye or open wye primary windings. This minimizes the possibility of having single phase conditions. (2) Location of single-pole switches and overcurrent protective devices only at the transformer terminals. ferroresonance will not occur when the grounded wye or open wye connections are used for the primary windings with single-phase units. As it may be necessary to quantify certain aspects of ferroresonance. heavier. ferroresonance can occur because of the phase-to-phase capacitance of the open wire line. but usually they are considerably less than this. or a three-phase unit with triplex construction. such construction generally makes the transformer larger.35 per unit are possible. Thus.or five-legged core units. the length of primary cable circuit which can be used with transformers with four. 39 . Furthermore. the measures listed below can be employed: (1) Application of only three-pole gang operated switches and fault interrupters. and no other load is connected to the line beyond the open point. Although the use of triplex construction essentially eliminates the possibility of ferroresonance in cable-fed three-phase transformers with the grounded wye primary.or five-legged core and grounded-wye primary is in the range of 50 times that possible when the ungrounded primary connections are used when the voltage on the open phase is limited to 1. If it is necessary to further minimize the possibility of ferroresonance when the grounded wye primary is used on a fouror five-legged core.2. The probability of such conditions existing. (3) Connection of resistive load to the secondary terminals of the transformer during remote single-pole switching. even in 25 and 35 kV rural distribution systems. When the grounded wye-grounded wye or grounded wyefloating wye connections are used in a transformer constructed on a four. have not been able to justify the added cost for triplex construction. such as determining the maximum length of cable circuit which can be used between a switch and transformer if voltage is to be limited to a specified value. overvoltages of 5 per unit and higher are possible when the transformer has the ungrounded primary winding connections. In contrast. The probability of ferroresonance is zero when the switching is performed at the terminals of transformer banks in overhead systems with the grounded wye or open wye connected primaries at all voltages as illustrated in Figure 4. A few are listed below. Most system operators. the reader is referred to the many references which exist on the subject. is very remote. overvoltages and ferroresonance may occur during open conductor conditions at a remote point when cable circuits are involved. for practical purposes. and more costly than conventional four.

R. R. L. Schmid. L. L.9 kV Rural Distribution Systems. W. 4. and P. Maxwell. I.” AIEE Transaction (Power Apparatus & Systems).. 1843-1853. F. 3. Smith. Fergestad. L. vol. Sept. 1208-1212. R.” IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus and Systems. S. 1954. Flickinger. vol. and M. S. pp. vol.” AIEE Transactions (Power Apparatus and Systems). “A Laboratory Investigation of Ferroresonance in Cable Connected Transformers. pp.. Crann. 78. pp. B.References 1. Oct. 2. Young. D. “Ferroresonance in Series Capacitor-Distribution Transformer Applications. 1969. “Overvoltages on 14. B. E.4/24. pp. Swanson. Manning./Oct. 438-449. PAS-94. May 1968. pp. Transmission and Distribution. 114-117. “Overvoltages With Remotely-Switched Cable-Fed Grounded Wye-Wye Transformers. D.. F. August 1959. 73. Borst. R. PAS-87. Kratz.1240-1249. “An Analysis and Results of Ferroresonance”. 40 . and J. vol. 1975.. and R... Oct. Schmid.” IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus and Systems.. 5.

the voltage between the two transformers closing the delta should be checked to verify the voltage ratios and connections. a bank of single-phase units can be reconnected as an open delta. Notes: 1. 6. the rating of the bank when supplying only three-phase load is about 57.7 percent of the bank rating when all three units are in service. Summary of Common Connections DELTA-DELTA Connection Phasor Diagram: Angular Displacement (Degrees): 0 Source: Suitable for both ungrounded and effectively grounded sources. Single-phase transformers with primary windings rated E volts usually are used for this bank. 4. Impedance mismatch among units of a single-phase bank will require derating of the bank. Service: Suitable for 3-wire service or for 4-wire service with a midtap ground. Caution: Each unit in a bank of single-phase units must be connected for the same voltage ratio. With one unit out of service. open delta bank. Frequently installed with mid-tap ground on one leg when supplying combination three-phase and single-phase load where the three-phase load is much larger than single-phase load. 5. With one of three identical units out of service. otherwise high circulating currents can occur. 2. 3. Prior to completing a closed delta secondary connection.B. Single-phase units having a secondary breaker should not be used for a bank providing 4-wire (mid-tap ground) delta service. 41 .

Service: Suitable for 3-wire service or for 4-wire grounded service with a XO grounded. 2. 4. ground relay for primary system does not see load unbalances and ground faults in the secondary system. 42 . Instead these zero-sequence currents circulate in the closed delta primary windings. With XO grounded. Fundamental and harmonic frequency zero-sequence currents in the secondary lines supplied by the transformer do not flow in the primary lines. 3.DELTA-WYE Connection Phasor Diagram: Angular Displacement (Degrees): 30 Source: Suitable for both ungrounded and effectively grounded sources. When supplied from effectively grounded primary system. the bank acts as a ground source for the secondary system. Single-phase transformers with primary windings rated E volts usually are used for this bank. Notes: 1.

Frequently installed with mid-tap ground on one leg when supplying combination three-phase and single-phase load where the three-phase load is much larger than the single-phase load. neutral point of primary windings is essentially locked at ground potential.7 percent of the bank rating when all three units are in service. ferroresonance can occur when energizing or de-energizing the bank using single pole switches located at the primary terminals. 3 43 . or load unbalance. the probability of ferroresonance is higher. Opening of breaker in one leg causes severe voltage unbalance and wave form distortion. With one of three identical units out of service. 2. When used in 25 and 35 kV three-phase 4-wire primary systems. 4. With smaller kVA transformers in the bank. 6. Service: Suitable for 3-wire service or for 4-wire delta service with a mid-tap ground. a bank of single-phase units can be reconnected as an open wye—open delta bank provided that the source is 4-wire effectively grounded. With one unit out of service. Neutral point of primary windings with unbalanced and/or singlephase secondary load is locked at ground potential if each unit in bank has same impedance. Notes: 1. 7. Single-phase transformers rated E/E 1. 3. This could subject the transformer to severe overloading during a primary system disturbance.WYE-DELTA Connection Phasor Diagram: Angular Displacement (Degrees): 30 Source: Suitable for both ungrounded and effectively grounded sources. the rating of the bank when supplying only three-phase load is about 57. Y volts usually are used for this bank (E 1 = CFF E). Single-phase units with secondary breakers should not be used whether there is or is not a center tap ground on one leg. Even with different units in the bank. Grounding the primary neutral of this connection would create a ground source for the primary system. 5.

This connection is incapable of furnishing a stabilized neutral and its use may result in phase-to-neutral overvoltage (neutral shift) as a result of unbalanced phase-to-neutral load.WYE-WYE Connection Phasor Diagram: Angular Displacement (Degrees): 0 Source: Suitable for both ungrounded and effectively grounded sources. When supplied from effectively grounded source and made from single-phase units. the neutral point of primary windings is practically locked at ground potential. Service: Suitable for 3-wire service only. Notes: 1. very high third harmonic voltage (of the order of 50%) appears between neutral point of primary windings and ground (tank). and from primary lines to ground. 44 . When supplied from ungrounded source and made from singlephase units. 3. If a three-phase unit is built on a three-legged core. even if XO is grounded. Division of total third harmonic voltage (of order of 50%) depends upon capacitances of primary lines and transformers. 4. third harmonic voltages appear from neutral point of primary windings and ground. 2.

GROUNDED WYE-WYE Connection Phasor Diagram:

Angular Displacement (Degrees): 0 Source: Suitable for a 4-wire effectively grounded source only. Service: Suitable for 3-wire service or for 4-wire grounded service with XO grounded. Notes: 1. Three-phase transformers with this connection may experience stray flux tank heating during certain external system unbalances unless the core configuration utilized provides a return path for the flux. 2. Fundamental and harmonic frequency zero-sequence currents in the secondary lines supplied by the transformer also flow in the primary lines (and primary neutral conductor). 3. Ground relay for the primary system may see load unbalances and ground faults in the secondary system. This must be considered when coordinating overcurrent protective devices. 4. Three-phase transformers with the neutral points of the high voltage and low voltage windings connected together internally and brought out through an HOXO bushing should not be operated with the HOXO bushing ungrounded (floating). To do so can create very high voltages in the secondary systems. T-T Connection Phasor Diagram:

Angular Displacement (Degrees): 0 Source: Suitable for both ungrounded and effectively grounded sources. Service: Suitable for 3-wire service or for 4-wire service with XO grounded. Can also supply 4-wire delta service. Notes: 1. Because of winding voltages required, this connection is generally only available as a three-phase transformer. 2. Neutral point of primary windings, if available, should not be grounded unless it is desired that the transformer serve as a grounding bank.

45

T-T Connection Phasor Diagram:

Angular Displacement (Degrees): 30 Source: Suitable for both ungrounded and effectively grounded sources. Service: Suitable for 3-wire service or for 4-wire service with XO grounded. Can also supply 4-wire delta service. Notes: 1. Because of winding voltages required, this connection is generally only available as a three-phase transformer. 2. Neutral point of primary windings, if available, should not be grounded unless it is desired that the transformer serve as a grounding bank. OPEN WYE-OPEN DELTA Connection Phasor Diagram:

Angular Displacement (Degrees): 30 Source: Suitable for a 4-wire effectively grounded source only. Service: Suitable for 3-wire service or for 4-wire delta service with a mid-tap ground. Notes: 1. When two units of the same kVA rating are used to supply only a balanced three-phase load, the combined rating of the two units must be 115 percent of the three-phase load if the load on each transformer is not to exceed nameplate rating. 2. Single-phase units with secondary breaker can be used, even with a mid-tap ground on one leg. However, with the secondary breaker open in only the grounded leg, high voltages due to capacitive coupling may appear from each terminal to ground of the transformer in the other leg. Sufficient phase-to-neutral connected load will limit these voltages. 3. Can be connected to either a three-phase or V phase primary line. 4. Frequently installed with one large and one small transformer to supply a combination of single-phase and three-phase load where single-phase load is much larger than the three-phase load. 5. With ungrounded secondary windings (3-wire service), voltage to ground from one or more secondary phases can be greater than secondary phase-to-phase voltage due to unbalances in the capacitance network. With sufficient length of secondary circuit or connected load, phase-to-ground voltage for each phase will approach in magnitude the phase-to-phase voltage divided by CFF . 3 46

6. When primary terminals H1 and H2 are supplied from the same system phase, the open circuit phase to phase voltage from secondary terminal X1 to X3 is two (2) times normal phase to phase voltage. OPEN DELTA-OPEN DELTA Connection Phasor Diagram:

Angular Displacement (Degrees): 0 Source: Suitable for both ungrounded and effectively grounded sources. Service: Suitable for 3-wire service or for 4-wire delta service with a mid-tap ground. Notes: 1. When two units of the same kVA rating are used to supply only a balanced three-phase load, the combined rating of the two units must be 115 percent of the three-phase load if the load on each transformer is not to exceed nameplate rating. 2. Single-phase units with a secondary breaker can be used, even with a mid-tap ground on one leg. However, with the secondary breaker open in only the grounded leg, high voltages due to capacitive coupling may appear from each terminal to ground of the transformer in the other leg. Sufficient phase-to-neutral connected load will limit these voltages. 3. Can be connected to only a three-phase primary line. 4. Frequently installed with one large and one small transformer to supply a combination of single-phase and three-phase load where single-phase load is much larger than the three-phase load. 5. With ungrounded secondary windings (3-wire service), voltage to ground from one or more secondary phases can be greater than secondary phase-to-phase voltage due to unbalances in the capacitance network. With sufficient length of secondary circuit or connected load, phase to ground voltage for each phase will approach in magnitude the phase-to-phase voltage divided by CFF. 3

47

C. Common Three-Phase Banks Using Single-Phase Transformers Phase Relation Diagram Angular Displacement Polarity Connection Diagrams HV Connection Diagrams 48 .

LV Connection Diagrams * Represents opposite end of winding from X1. may be X2. or X4 depending upon the low voltage rating (2. 3. 49 . X3. or 4 bushing).

....................................... C................................................................ Dedicated motor loads ....IV.................. Loading Page 51 51 52 53 66 A.... D............................ E................................................... Delta-delta bank loading .............................. 50 . Overloading ............................................................ Single-phase and three-phase loading of symmetrical and unsymmetrical transformer banks ........ Paralleling . B................

This derating can be approximated as follows: K 1 .6 50 + 25 f / (50 + 25) = 0.6 1. Paralleling Transformers or transformer banks may be connected in parallel to increase capacity by connecting terminals of like designation together provided that the frequency and voltage (including tap setting) ratings are the same. Loading A.2 1.IV.9 . Delta-Delta Bank Loading Unequal turns ratios (voltage rating and tap setting) in delta-delta connected transformer banks can cause large circulating currents within the deltas.Capacity of the unit or bank with the smaller percent impedance Z 1 .98 1.97 .7 Derating Factor _______ 0. Similarly.Capacity of the unit or bank with the larger percent impedance K 2 . three-phase transformers or banks must have the same phase shift. a requirement for such banks is equal turns ratios for all units.87 (50 + 25) = 65 kVA B.1 10 .0 percent impedance respectively.3 1. Derating factor = e 1.Impedance of unit or bank 2 Derating factor = e Z2 . an impedance imbalance can cause a small circulating current which makes it necessary to derate the bank.87 2.0 Parallel rating = 0.6 and 2.Impedance of unit or bank 1 Z 2 . the derating for balanced loading is approximated in the following table: Ratio of odd unit impedance to impedance of other two units _________________________ 1.94 0.93 0.91 0.97 0. Mismatched impedance between the parallel units or banks requires a derating because the load does not then divide in proportion to the kVA ratings. Thus.95 0.00 . For units of equal capacity with one odd impedance.4 1.8 . In addition.90 51 .93 .5 1. K 1 + K 2 f / (K 1 + K 2) Z1 Example: 25 and 50 kVA single-phase transformers with 1.

07 52 . The table below shows the approximate peak overload capability for a typical distribution transformer for normal life expectancy (these values are extracted from C57.68 1. transformer parameters and environmental conditions to be accomplished without damaging the transformer.07 1.21 1. The table applies to a 30°C ambient.C.57 1.0% for each degree C that the ambient is below 30°C. the load capability at other ambients (0–50°C) can be estimated by (1) decreasing the load capability by 1.90 ________________________________ 2.12 1.91).44 1. ABB distribution transformers are fit for planned overloading providing that such overloading is in accord with the ANSI Loading Guide (C57. Peak Loading Capability For Normal Life Expectancy (Per Unit) Peak Load Duration (Hours) _____ 1 2 4 8 24 Equivalent Continuous Preload (per unit) 0.96 1.79 1.5% for each degree C that the ambient exceeds 30°C or (2) increasing the load capability by 1.75 0.50 1.82 1.91).28 1.50 0.25 1.08 1.36 1. Overloading The overloading of distribution transformers is a complex subject requiring knowledge of load characteristics.

or a bank with three single-phase transformers where all three transformers are not the same. The single-phase load supplied from a delta or open delta secondary is balanced between the two phase wires and neutral wire such that current does not flow in the neutral. although not always stated.1 to D. Single-Phase and Three-Phase Loading of Symmetrical and Unsymmetrical Transformer Banks Single-phase distribution transformers can be connected in banks to supply a combination of single-phase and three-phase load.8. a three-phase transformer can be considered to be a bank consisting of three identical singlephase transformers. A symmetrical bank is one consisting of three identical single-phase transformers. The three-phase load is assumed to be a constant “current sink”' which draws only balanced (positive-sequence) currents. Most often the primary and secondary windings are connected in either wye or delta. they are the assumptions traditionally used in the industry. An unsymmetrical bank is one containing only two singlephase transformers. The transformer bank supplying the combination load may be either symmetrical or unsymmetrical. Basis For Loading Equations A cursory look at the loading equations in Figures D.1 through D. The service to the three-phase load is 3-wire at 240 volts. 53 . frequently it is necessary to know the load which will be supplied by each transformer so that it may be properly sized. the singlephase load may be connected from either phase-to-neutral or phase-to-phase. Transformer banks with their secondary windings connected in grounded wye can also be used to supply a combination of single-phase and three-phase load.D. and both the primary and secondary systems. (Note: for loading considerations [not ferro. Furthermore. it is necessary that certain assumptions be made concerning the characteristics of the three-phase and single-phase loads. tank heating]. When known single-phase and three-phase loads are to be fed from a transformer bank. the voltages impressed on the primary windings of the transformer are of a magnitude and angle which results in balanced output voltages from the transformer secondary terminals. Although these conditions rarely exist in practice. to arrive at these simplified loading equations. These systems are supplied from a transformer bank with the secondary windings connected in either delta or open delta with a center tap ground on one leg of the delta.8 shows that they can be easily evaluated numerically using a hand-held pocket calculator. Equations for calculating the load supplied by each single-phase transformer in the bank are given in Figures D. In order to arrive at these relatively simple equations. The basis and assumptions used in deriving these equations are discussed in the following. Losses in the secondary conductor between the transformer terminals and both single-phase and three-phase loads are negligible such that the phase voltages at the load and transformer are the same. and the service to the single-phase load is 3-wire at 120/240 volts.) The “4-wire delta” system is a common type used to supply a combination of single-phase and three-phase load. In a 4-wire grounded wye system supplied from such a bank.

Equations for calculating the load in kVA supplied by the lighting leg transformer (kVA L) and that supplied by the power leg transformer (kVA P) are given in Figures D. Examples are given to demonstrate the use of these equations.If it is desired to make more exact calculations for the kVA load supplied by each transformer in the bank. 54 . Open WYE—Open DELTA (Lagging) Figure D 1: Load equations for the open wye-open delta bank with the single-phase load connected to the lagging phase. but require the use of a digital computer for implementation. or by Seematter and Richards3 may be used.2.1 and D. providing sufficient information is available for representing the load and system. the symbols used in these equations are defined in the Figures.” These are designated as L and P respectively in Figures D.2.2.1 to D. Load Equations For Symmetrical and Unsymmetrical Transformer Banks Use of the simplified loading equations is discussed in the following sections for the more common symmetrical and unsymmetrical transformer connections. However.2. then the methods originally developed by Neupauer 1. Furthermore. or to the leading phase as shown at the top of Figure D. The transformer across which the single-phase load is connected is sometimes referred to as the “lighting leg” and the other transformer is referred to as the “power leg.1 and D. these methods do not result in simple expressions similar to those given in Figures D.8. Open Wye—Open Delta Bank With the open wye-open delta transformer bank. The use of the equations is illustrated with the following example.1. the single-phase load may be connected to either the lagging phase as shown at the top of Figure D.

An open wye-open delta bank supplies a single-phase load of 70 kVA at 0. the magnitude of the argument of the cosine term in the expressions for kVA L will be greater for the leading connection. The numerical values for the symbols in Figure D. consider the lagging connection in Figure D. and a three-phase load of 30 kVA at 0. when the leading connection is used the kVA load supplied by the lighting leg transformer usually is less than for the lagging connection.47 kVA with the leading connection. For expected values of m.19° The load in kVA supplied by the lighting leg and power leg transformers for both the leading and lagging connection will be determined.8 lagging power factor. The expression for the load supplied by the lighting leg transformer is identical to that for the lagging connection except for the argument of the cosine term. 55 .1. Thus: a3 = arc cos (. The power factor angles (a3 and a1) are the arc cosine of the power factors. The expression for the load in kVA supplied by the power leg transformer is the same as for the lagging connection.1 are as follows: Next. Thus a3 – a1 is positive in sign.95) = 18. the power factor of the three-phase load is less than that of the single-phase load. For most combination loads. Consequently.8) = 36. and m is a positive number. consider the leading connection shown in Figure D.87° a1 = arc cos (.2 shows that the lighting leg transformer supplies 82.2. and thus the cosine of the argument will be less.95 lagging power factor. Evaluation of the expression for kVA L in Figure D. First.

Open WYE—Open DELTA (Leading) Figure D. Open DELTA—Open DELTA Bank (Leading or Lagging) The equations for calculating the load in kVA supplied by the lighting leg and power leg transformers in the open delta-open delta bank are the same as for the open wye-open delta bank.3 is a loading curve chart for the open delta-open delta (leading) connection.3 56 . and those in Figure D. Thus the equations in Figures D.2: Load equations for the open wye-open delta bank with the single-phase load connected to the leading phase.1 are used for the lagging connection. Figure D. • Transformer output limited to 100% of rated • Upper number — required kVA of power leg • Lower number — required kVA of lighting leg Figure D.2 are used for the leading connection of the open delta-open delta bank.

Because of this and the assumptions concerning the characteristics of the threephase load.4 for determining the load supplied by each transformer are independent of transformer impedance.4: Load equations for the floating wye-delta connected transformer bank.95 power factor lagging.4. A floating wye-delta bank is to supply a three-phase load of 100 kVA at 0. Floating WYE—DELTA Bank Equations for calculating the load in kVA supplied by each transformer in the floating wye-delta bank are given at the top of Figure D. the single-phase load division is independent of transformer characteristics and zerosequence current cannot circulate in the secondary delta.Floating WYE—DELTA Figure D.8) = 36.95) = 18.19° 57 . and a single-phase load of 50 kVA at 0. Since the primary windings of the transformers in the bank are connected in floating wye.87° a1 = arc cosine (.8 power factor lagging. and the single-phase load is connected from phases b-to-c. the equations in Figure D. Use of the equations is demonstrated with the following example. What is the smallest size transformer which can be used in each leg if the load supplied by each transformer is not to exceed nameplate rating? From the specified power factors: a3 = arc cosine (. Notice in these equations that a double subscript is used to specify the phases to which each transformer is connected.

4 with K 3 equal to 100. • Transformer output limited to 100% of rated • Upper number – required kVA of power leg • Lower number – required kVA of lighting leg Figure D.Evaluating the equations in Figure D.09 KVA bc = 65.5 58 .68 degrees results in the following: KVA ab = 40. Figure D. The one between b and c should be a 75 kVA unit.5 is a loading curve chart for the floating wye-delta connection. and m equal to 18. K 1 equal to 50. and between a and c should be 50 kVA units.78 KVA ca = 47.15 Thus the transformers connected between a and b.

DELTA . plus it is assumed that the impedance of the transformers between a and b. The assumptions used in deriving these equations are the same as previously outlined. and between a and c are identical.6.6: Load equations for the delta-delta connected bank with identical transformers in each power leg. DELTA—DELTA Bank The equations for calculating the load in kVA supplied by each transformer in a delta-delta bank are given at the top of Figure D.DELTA Figure D. and their 59 . These two units are sometimes referred to as the “power leg” transformers. and a different unit in the lighting leg.

b 2. This unit is referred to as the “lighting leg” transformer and its impedance is designated at Z L. and m into the loading equations gives the following for the load in kVA supplied by each transformer.47° b3 = 4.04 kVA ca = 43.5 % on 50 kVA base % on 75 kVA base From the previous examples where the three-phase and single-phase power factors also were 0. The equations for calculating the M’s and b ’s are also given in the Figure.84° b 4 = 115. b 3. The impedance of each transformer in percent is: Z P = 1. K 1.0 % ON 50 kVA 75 Placing the values of Z L and Z P into the equations yields the following: M1 = M2 = M3 = M4 = 2.6 may seem rather complicated.8 and 0.8 power factor lagging) and a 50 kVA single-phase load (0.1 + j1. Although the equations in Figure D.6667 + j1. their evaluation is quite simple as illustrated by the following example: A delta-delta bank containing a 50 kVA unit in each power leg and a 75 kV unit in the lighting leg supplies a 100 kVA three-phase load (0.66 kVA bc = 73. kVA ab = 33.9802 .15 60 .5) 50 = .3 Z L = 1. first put Z L on the same kVA base as Z P.7835 . M 3.9199 b 2 = -113.702 . The M’s are the magnitude of the impedance functions as shown in the figure.0 + j1. M 2.95 respectively: m = 18.0+ j1. b 4.12° Placing these values plus the values of K 3.68 degrees Notice that the three equations at the top of Figure D. To calculate these.6 for calculating the load supplied by each transformer contain the terms M 1. These are real numbers which are a function of Z P and Z L. M 4. Across the transformer connected between b and c is the single-phase load.leakage impedance is designated as Z P.95 power factor lagging). and the b ’s are the angles in degrees for the impedance functions. Z L = (1.

although it is desirable that each transformer in a delta-delta bank supplying a three-phase load have the same impedances. DELTA-DELTA with Equal Leg Impedances Figure D. in contrast. If the delta-delta bank is supplying only three-phase load.If the delta-delta bank is made from three transformers with the same leg impedance (on a common kVA base. When the impedance of each transformer is the same. the loading equations in Figure D.8 if all transformers have the same impedance angle. Notice that these are the same equations as used for the floating wye-delta bank in Figure D. or in actual ohms). However.B. One per unit load is the load carried by the transformer when all three have the same impedance.4. these transformers must have the same voltage rating and tap settings as discussed in Section III.7: Load equations for the delta-delta connected bank with identical transformers in each leg. 61 . then the loading equations reduce to the simpler form shown in Figure D.11 is a plot of the per unit load supplied by each transformer as a function of the ratio of Z L to Z P where the impedances are on a common base. Thus. From this plot. this is not an absolute necessity. but one of the units has a different impedance.1. notice that reasonable difference in impedances do not produce large unbalances in loading. Figure D. the load supplied by each is 1/3 of the total three-phase load.6 reduce to the relatively simple form shown in Figure D.7.

DELTA-DELTA. Grounded WYE-DELTA Bank The equations for calculating the load supplied by each transformer in a grounded wye-delta bank are the same as those for a delta-delta bank as given in Figure D. Same Impedance Angle for Z P and Z L Figure D. However. 62 . for reasons previously discussed in Section III.8: Load equations for the delta-delta connected bank supplying only a three-phase load. Equations apply only when impedance angle of all transformers are the same.6. Three-Phase Load. this connection is not recommended to supply distribution loads.

9 or from phase-to-phase as shown in Figure D. 63 .9: Load equations for the delta-wye connected bank when the single-phase load is connected from phaseto-neutral. the single-phase load on the secondary may be connected from either phase-to-neutral as shown in Figure D. The equations for calculating the load supplied by each transformer are given at the top of each figure. DELTA-WYE.10. Phase-to-Neutral Single-Phase Load Figure D. The terms appearing in each equation are the same as used in the equations for the other connections for which examples have been given.DELTA-Grounded WYE Bank With the delta-grounded wye bank.

64 . Grounded WYE-Grounded WYE Bank The grounded wye-grounded wye bank also is used to supply a combination of three-phase and single-phase load. Phase-to-Phase Single-Phase Load Figure D. The load supplied by each transformer in the grounded wye-grounded wye bank can be calculated using the equations for the delta-grounded wye bank in Figures D.10: Load equations for the delta-wye connected bank when the single-phase load is connected phase-tophase. or phase-to-phase.9 and D. Single-phase secondary load may be connected either phase-to-neutral.10.DELTA-WYE.

“Motor-Starting Lamp Flicker on Open-Delta Transformer Banks. pp.l. 1A-12./Oct.Figure D.6. and C. No.” A. Neupauer. 65 .5. The transformers between phases a and b.E.” A. Trans. 3. Smith.E.. Transactions PAS. Transactions PAS.” I.. References 1. “Computer Analysis of 3-Phase Induction Motor Operation on Rural Open Delta Distribution Systems. C. F. III. Richard. S. Vol. pp.E.E. III. 479-485.E. L.E. Vol. August 1956. 1568-1576. on Industry Applications. “Unbalanced Open-Wye Open-Delta Transformer Banks. pt. Neupauer. 1976. and E. 75.l.E. February 1959. pt.11: Per unit load supplied by each transformer in a deltadelta bank to a three-phase load when one of the transformers (connected between phases b and c with impedance Z L) has a different impedance.. 2. C.. J. pp. J. C. Vol. 570-572. 77. Sept. and between phases c and a have impedance Z P as shown in Figure D. Seematter.

the motor load can be ignored because it represents a small percentage of the total load connected to the transformer.25 4 f lp where n = number of starts per hour Ip = the pulse current in per unit of transformer rated current then the transformer will fail prematurely due to the repeated mechanical strains placed on the coil. When applying transformers to commercial or industrial loads. and the motors are only started on an infrequent basis.) 66 . Extensive data has been gathered on pulse duty on power transformers and the conclusion was that if the current pulses per hour exceed n = e 4. the motors that are to be served can present a major limiting factor on what size transformer is necessary to serve the load.E. (See Curve 1. Motor Starting Load The major consideration in sizing transformers for Motor Application is limiting the starting current so that it will not shorten the life of the transformer due to thermal or mechanical damage from the starting pulse. Dedicated Motor Loads Many different types of motors are used today and are an important consideration in sizing a transformer to supply power to a given load. For most transformers supplying individual and multiunit residences.

Curve 1 Maximum Allowable per Unit Pulse Number of Current Pulses Per Hour 67 .

Move up to the intersection of the starts/hour and the correct locked rotor code letter curve and read the kVA of transformer required per horsepower of motor.Dedicated Transformers (One motor is the entire load on the transformer) When a transformer is dedicated to supplying the power to only one motor then the problem of sizing the transformer can be solved very methodically. calculate the motors locked rotor kVA (kVA’s = CF x VR x IS x 10-3) 3 F Where IS = starting current at rated voltage VR = rated phase-to-phase voltage of motor 2. The procedure to size the transformer proceeds as follows: 1. 68 . 3. 5. Enter Curve 2 on the abscissa at the correct starts per hour for the motor application. 4. After the transformer has been sized so that it can withstand the starting pulse due to the motor. Determine the number of starts per hour planned for the motor under normal operating conditions. On Curve 2 find the curve letter that corresponds to the locked rotor kVA/HP of the motor. 6. Curve 2 is based on the locked rotor code letters but it can be used for any motor by selecting the curve that corresponds to locked rotor kVA/HP of the motor that the transformer is being sized for. MuItiply the kVA/HP found in “Step 4” by the rated HP of the motor and that is the smallest transformer that should be used in that application. If the starting kVA or starting code letter is unknown. the voltage regulation of the system must be checked to determine if the voltage is adequate under locked rotor condition to start the motor. Sizing the transformer with this procedure is conservative since it assumes that the voltage maintained at the motor terminals during starting is motor rated voltage. Most motors require 60–80% of rated voltage at the terminal under locked rotor conditions to successfully start. a table giving this relationship is shown on Curve 2. On squirrel cage induction motors Nema Standards call for a starting code letter which corresponds to the kVA per horsepower required to start the motor.

0 10.5 12.Curve 2 NEMA StartingCode Letter Code Letter Locked-Rotor kVA per Hp A B C D E F G H J K L M N P R S T U V 0 -3.15 -3.6 5.0 9.0 -18.0 14.0 -16.55 -4.0 -20.3 6.0 -10.15 3.0 4.0 5.0 -4.3 -7.4 and up 69 .55 3.0 -9.5 4.0 8.0 20.1 7.0 -5.0 16.0 -11.2 -12.0 -22.2 11.5 -14.1 -8.4 22.6 -6.0 18.5 -5.

V. Voltage Unbalance

Page 71 71 73 73 74 75

A. Effects of Voltage Unbalance ................................................... B. Voltage Unbalance Definitions .................................................. C. Causes of Voltage Unbalance .................................................. D. Voltage Unbalance With Three-Phase Loading ....................... 1. Delta-Delta and Floating Wye-Delta Banks ......................... 2. Open Delta Banks ................................................................

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V. Voltage Unbalance
A. Effects of Voltage Unbalance Voltage unbalance in secondary distribution systems affects the performance of induction motors, with motor derating required when voltage unbalance exceeds 1.0 percent. Figure 5.1, extracted from NEMA MG1-14.34, dated June 1980, gives the derating factor for fractional and integral-horsepower induction motors. The performance of semi-conductor rectifier circuits also can be affected by voltage unbalance, with proposed revisions to ANSI C34.2 indicating the application is unusual if either the negativeor zero-sequence component of voltage exceeds 5 percent of the positive-sequence component. This level of unbalance usually is not present in utility distribution systems. However, some voltage unbalance will be present in any type of low-voltage system, whether it be 4-wire wye, 3-wire delta, or 4-wire delta. The subject of voltage unbalance in secondary distribution system is a very complex matter, due to the many system and transformer parameters which affect unbalance, and does not allow a detailed discussion in this Guide. Considered in the following sections are several special cases where the transformer bank is supplying just a balanced three-phase load through a symmetrical secondary circuit, with each transformer in the bank having the same kVA rating, although not necessarily the same impedance. Furthermore, the primary system voltages are assumed to be balanced. For these special cases, the following points are noteworthy. 1. With either the floating wye-delta or delta-delta bank supplying three-phase load, it is not necessary from a voltage unbalance standpoint that low impedance transformers be used. For these banks, voltage unbalance is caused by impedance differences between the single-phase transformers in the bank. Reasonable differences in impedances are tolerable and will not cause objectionable voltage unbalance. 2. With either the open wye-open delta or open delta-open delta banks supplying just three-phase load, voltage unbalance is caused by the dissymmetries of the transformer bank (due to use of only two transformers), regardless of transformer impedance magnitudes. Voltage unbalance with the open delta bank can be significantly higher than that with a closed delta bank supplying the same load. B. Voltage Unbalance Definitions Three different definitions are employed to quantify voltage unbalance. The one used depends upon the task being performed, for example, calculating unbalance from measured quantities or developing equations for unbalance. When quantifying voltage unbalance in 3-wire and 4-wire delta circuits under unfaulted conditions, all three definitions give nearly the same result.

71

In NEMA induction motor standards, percent voltage unbalance is defined as: Percent Maximum Voltage Deviation from Voltage Average Phase Voltage = x 100 Unbalance Average Phase Voltage When phase-to-phase voltages are measured at an actual installation, voltage unbalance is easily calculated with this definition, the one frequently preferred by individuals not familiar with symmetrical components. For example, with phase-to-phase voltages of 235, 230 and 222 volts, average voltage is 229 volts, maximum deviation from average is 7.0 volts, and percent voltage unbalance is 3.06 percent. Some engineers have advocated that percent voltage unbalance be defined as 100 times the ratio of the magnitude of the negativesequence voltage to the magnitude of the positive-sequence voltage. When an analysis is performed with symmetrical components to obtain sequence quantities, it is expedient to calculate voltage unbalance with this definition as this eliminates the need to calculate the phase-to-phase voltages required with the NEMA definition. In a three-phase system where zero-sequence voltages are not present, the ratio of the magnitude of the negativesequence voltage to the magnitude of the positive-sequence voltage also can be found from the following equation.

In this equation a, b, and c are the magnitudes of the three line-toline voltages (or line-to-ground voltages when zero-sequence is not present) and: S= a+b+c 2

For example, with phase-to-phase voltages of 235, 230, and 222 volts, the equation shows that the ratio of the magnitude of V2 to V1 is 3.30 percent. In comparison, the percent voltage unbalance for these voltages using the NEMA definition is 3.06 percent. A third definition for percent voltage unbalance is 100 times the per unit negative-sequence voltage, where the per unit value is the actual value in volts divided by the system nominal voltage. The voltage unbalance calculated in this fashion does not differ significantly from 100 times the ratio of V2 to V1, as V1 is close to 1.0 per unit under loading conditions. In the curves in section V-D, voltage unbalance is quantified in terms of negative-sequence voltage.

72

Transformer bank symmetry is defined in Section IV-D of this guide. Furthermore. in general. secondary circuit.2.C. and primary system voltage unbalance. is supplied from an infinite bus primary system. This is because the impedance of the primary system typically is much smaller than that of the distribution transformers. a negative. when an unsymmetrical transformer bank supplies only a balanced three-phase load. three-phase and single-phase load magnitudes. A symmetrical secondary circuit is one which has identical conductors in each phase with the conductors arranged such that the mutual impedances between its sequence networks are zero.3. With a symmetrical primary system. An unsymmetrical circuit is one where the same size conductor is not in each phase.or zero-sequence component will not be present in the secondary phase-to-neutral voltages. distribution transformer bank. Any one of these parameters can have a significant effect on voltage unbalance in secondary systems. the voltages at the secondary terminals also will be balanced. Nominal loading occurs when the positive-sequence current in the secondary windings equals winding rated current. the open circuit voltages at the transformer are perfectly balanced. when a symmetrical transformer bank supplies a perfectly balanced three-phase load and a single-phase load. or the same size conductor is used but the spacings are such that the sequence mutual impedances are not zero. and is made from transformers of equal kVA rating. and 5. The main parameters which can affect voltage unbalance in secondary systems are transformer bank connection. with the only exception being primary system impedance which usually has a minor effect. A complete discussion on the effect of all of these parameters on voltage unbalance is beyond the scope of this guide. transformer impedance. Voltage Unbalance With Three-Phase Loading Figures 5. For a given bank. That is. Since. 5. the secondary voltages will be unbalanced regardless of the symmetry of the secondary circuit. floating wye-delta. load power factors. and open delta transformer banks. Illustrated in the following is the effect of distribution transformer impedance on voltage unbalance for the situation where the unsymmetrical transformer bank supplies only balanced three-phase load through a symmetrical secondary circuit. Causes of Voltage Unbalance Voltage unbalance in secondary distribution systems is caused by dissymmetries in either the primary system. D. secondary circuit characteristics. or loading on the transformer bank. They apply respectively to the deltadelta. or both a balanced three-phase load and a single-phase load. However. each transformer has the same kVA rating. the secondary voltages will be unbalanced irrespective of the secondary circuit symmetry.5 show the effect of transformer impedance on the maximum negative-sequence voltage in percent which could appear in the secondary system with balanced three-phase nominal loading on the bank. 73 . Whenever a symmetrical transformer bank supplies a perfectly balanced three-phase load (one where there is no coupling between the sequence networks) through a symmetrical secondary circuit and the voltages at the primary terminals of the bank are balanced. primary system impedance.

For an example of the use of the curves in Figure 5. and Z P is 3. Also. be replaced by a “new” unit with a higher impedance without creating objectionable unbalance. Thus. the maximum negative-sequence voltage (voltage unbalance) will not exceed 0. the curves are plotted assuming the primary system voltages are of equal magnitude and 120 electrical degrees displaced from each other. Loads with these characteristics are three-phase induction motors. consider the following situation. 1. as long as the ratio of Z L to Z P is between 0. with the impedance magnitudes being the same or different. If one unit fails in a bank made from three “old” units of “low” impedance. or impedances of equal magnitude and angle connected in either wye or delta. considering voltage unbalance when serving balanced three-phase load.5 to 1.and negative-sequence impedances are either the same or different. but there is no coupling between the sequence networks representing the load.2 and 5. or greatest upper bound on negative-sequence voltage at the load in the secondary with nominal loading (three-phase) on the bank.2.5. It is unduly restrictive from a voltage unbalance standpoint to require the same impedance for all units in the delta-delta and floating wye-delta bank supplying a three-phase load.a negative-sequence component of current is present under nominal loading conditions. Furthermore. the negative-sequence impedance is less than the motor’s positive-sequence impedance. regardless of impedance magnitude. For the three-phase induction motor. in most cases. designated as Z P. secondary circuit impedances.2 percent impedance. and the three-phase loads negative sequence impedance. Given on the abscissa is the ratio of Z L to Z P. it could. Reasonable impedance differences are tolerable. The utility decided to order several spare units and requested units with 2. The curves show that if all three transformers in the bank have equal impedance. The curves apply to banks supplying balanced three-phase loads. Actual unbalance can be considerably less. The curves apply to banks with transformers of the same kVA and voltage ratings. Also with balanced three-phase nominal loading.2 percent. When the supplier 74 .0 percent or less on nameplate rating. For these loads. It is emphasized that the curves give the maximum. whereas these impedances are equal for loads made from either wye or delta connected impedances. the impedance angles of the transformers in a bank were assumed equal.3 respectively show on the ordinate the maximum negative-sequence voltage in percent in the secondary system with balanced three-phase load supplied from a delta-delta bank and floating wye-delta bank. Delta-Delta and Floating Wye Delta Banks The curves of Figure 5. it is not necessary that all units have the same impedance or low impedance in closed delta banks.6 percent. depending upon the relationship between the transformer bank impedances. the bank will not produce voltage unbalance with only balanced threephase load. A utility had some 1500 kVA delta-delta banks made from 500 kVA units with nameplate impedances of 2. the actual winding currents may be somewhat greater than or less than winding rated current. the positive. Two transformers in the bank have the same leakage impedance. and the third unit’s impedance is Z L.

For this situation. a worst case upper bound on the voltage unbalance at the load is in the range of 2. the upper bound on negative-sequence voltage in percent at nominal load is the impedance in percent divided by the square root of 3.4 is a plot of derating factor as a function of the ratio of Z L to Z P for the delta-delta bank.quoted units with an impedance of 1. when one unit in the delta-delta bank has a different impedance. Recognizing that the voltage unbalance of the primary system could be in the 1 to 2 percent range. Section IV-B of this guide presents derating factors for the delta-delta bank made from 3 units of equal capacity supplying perfectly balanced three-phase load where one unit has a different impedance.5 show the maximum negative-sequence voltage (voltage unbalance) in percent which could appear in the secondary with balanced three-phase load supplied from either the open wye-open delta or open delta-open delta bank. Open-Delta Banks The curves of Figure 5. Practically.0 percent. This impedance is typical in units purchased today by some users. the voltage unbalance at nominal load due to the open delta bank is 1. nominal load is that which makes the positive-sequence current in each secondary winding equal to rated current of the winding. If two units in the bank have an impedance of 2.5 with either Figure 5.2 or 5. for any ratio of Z L to Z P.1 percent. A perfectly balanced three-phase load.3 shows that the maximum negative-sequence voltage at nominal load is much greater for the open delta bank than for the closed delta banks. nominal load is when the positive-sequence kVA of the balanced three-phase load equals 1. the maximum negative-sequence voltage at nominal load can be appreciably above 1. The impedance of one unit is Z P and that of the other is Z L. From Figure 5. the impedance differences will not cause significant voltage unbalance. A comparison of Figure 5. the impedance of the transformers in the open delta bank must be low if the negative-sequence voltage (voltage unbalance) is to be limited to less than 1. the curves of Figure 5. When both transformers in the open delta bank have the same impedance.2 percent (Z P) and one has an impedance of 1.7 to 3. For the open delta bank.2 percent (X L). Figure 5.5. 2. Even when both transformers have the same impedance (Z L = Z P).9 percent (Z L).13 percent. The curves apply to banks made from two single-phase units with the same kVA and voltage ratings.73 percent.9 percent (Z P) and one unit has an impedance of 2. consider an open delta bank made from units with 3 percent impedance. Also. the utility objected because it was thought that voltage unbalance problems would be created by the “low impedance” units.7 percent. 75 . However. the maximum negative-sequence voltage possible at nominal load would not exceed 0. for purpose of derating is defined as one which draws only positivesequence current.2 show that the maximum negative-sequence voltage possible at nominal load would not exceed 0.0 percent. For example.9 percent. If two units have an impedance of 1. This would be the total unbalance (upper bound) at the load if the primary system voltages were perfectly balanced. it may be necessary to derate the bank for thermal reasons.732 times the kVA rating of one transformer.

” When primary system voltages are unbalanced. 5.8 x 0. Under conditions where the two sources of voltage unbalance are in-phase.8 percent impedance. the upper bound on voltage unbalance with just three-phase load. from an open delta bank with two 1000 kVA. reducing transformer impedance reduces voltage unbalance at the secondary load. As transformer impedance decreases. Considering voltage unbalance. The effect of reducing impedance depends upon the relative magnitude of the primary system voltage unbalance and the voltage unbalance due to transformer bank dissymmetries. the total voltage unbalance (negative-sequence voltage) at the balanced threephase load fed from the open delta bank is the vector sum of that due to the transformer bank dissymmetries and the voltage unbalance of the primary system. one utility was serving a 460-Volt load. due mainly to primary system unbalance. plus the angle between these sources of voltage unbalance. by using transformers with the same kVA rating but with lower impedance. Measured voltage unbalance at the service entrance was 2. with a load of 1360 kVA or about 79 percent of bank rating. Decreasing the component of voltage unbalance due to the transformer bank by reducing transformer impedance may either increase or decrease the total negative-sequence voltage at the load.79/ CFF or 2.As another example.1: Fractional and integral-horsepower induction motor derating factor. When primary voltages are balanced the negativesequence voltage at the load due to the dissymmetries of the open delta bank will be reduced by either closing the bank (adding a third transformer). the negativesequence voltage due to transformer bank dissymmetries decreases. Using transformers with a higher kVA rating (same percent impedance) corresponds to loading the bank to less than “nominal load. assuming a balanced primary. the measured voltage unbalance at about the same loading was less than 0.3 percent. When the open delta bank was replaced with three 500 kVA units with 4.5 percent. Figure 5. is calculated as 5.65 3 percent.8 percent impedance transformers. In comparison. successful operation of the open delta transformer bank supplying balanced three-phase load frequently is enhanced by the use of low impedance distribution transformers. or by using transformers of a higher kVA rating. predominately motors. 76 .

Figure 5. 77 .3: Maximum negative-sequence voltage at nominal load in the secondary system with balanced three-phase load supplied from a floating wyedelta bank made from three transformers with the same kVA and voltage ratings.2: Maximum negative-sequence voltage at nominal load in the secondary system with balanced three-phase load supplied from a delta-delta bank made from three transformers with the same kVA and voltage ratings. Figure 5.

Derating factor is approximate as it assumes perfectly balanced threephase load drawing only positive-sequence current.4: Derating factor for a delta-delta bank made from three units of equal capacity (kVA rating) with the impedance of one unit being different from that of the other two. Figure 5.Figure 5. 78 .5: Maximum negative-sequence voltage at nominal load in the secondary system with balanced three-phase load supplied from an open delta transformer bank made from two transformers with the same kVA and voltage ratings.

.Vl.. Ohms per 1000 Feet............................................................................................ Natural Functions of Angles .. at 20°C and 25°C of Solid and Concentric Stranded Conductors ..................................................... 79 ................ TypicaI Isokeraunic Map ..... Temperature Correction Factors for Resistance of Aluminum Conductors .......... Nominal Direct-Current Resistance................................................ Logarithm Tables ...................... Reference Data Page 80 81 83 85 86 87 88 Solid and Concentric Stranded Aluminum and Copper Conductors ............................................................ Selected Sl Equivalents ..........................................

…….0 41.2 128.7 97.0 97.2 99..232 0.0 70.13 3.5 162.260 0.942 1.4 62.893 0.4 66.…….98 79. .4 62..8 79. ……….3 319.1 80. 3859 4632 5403 6176 127 127 169 169 64.7 101.0 85. . .2 90.3 50.…….154 5.4 29.3 104.8 108.…….8 93. …. Pounds per 1000 Feet _____________________ Mils Aluminum Copper Class B ____________________________________________________________ Number Nominal Approximate Approximate Weight.. …….…… .4 60.5 23.1 47.8 0.5 48.3 9. …….. ……. ………. .2 19.6 466.0 204.…….81 12. ………. ……….5 13. . Wire. ..1 68.3 16.528 0.3 324. ………. ….2 46.5 Solid and Concentric Stranded Aluminum and Copper Conductors* Conductor Size.80 Class C _____________________ Number Nominal of Diameter Wires of Each Wire. 157 . ……….9 128.…… .5 154. …….…….1 125 .0 48.036 0. . …….3 78..8 507. .…… . ……….470 0.728 0. ……. ………. CM Solid __________________________________ Nominal Approximate Weight. …….…….813 0.07 77.5 402.…… . 91 91 127 127 •IPCEA Standard Publication S-66-524. 37 37 37 37 37 37 600 750 800 1000 ………. .292 0.49 2.681 0. . 37 37 37 37 37 37 37 37 61 61 61 61 61 91 91 91 91 91 91 127 127 127 127 169 169 217 217 Class D ___________________ Number Nominal of Diameter Wires of Each Wire.…… .0 67.9 253.0 94.7 81.9 52. .06 51. .13 122.1 15.8 19 19 19 19 19 19 37 37 37 37 37 ….116 0.4 58.2 90.630 0.0 80.9 364.7 21. …….772 0.00 97.152 1.632 38.7 42.…… .4 125.4 88. .…….7 94. .…… .6 61 61 61 61 61 61 91 91 91 91 . 19 19 …… …… …… 14.6 39.2 89.2 77. ……. .058 0.3 74. …….5 83.44 126.41 31.8 64. 199 .…… .20 24. Mils …. .01 3.031 1. …….5 24.575 0.…….…….6 33.4 19.4 257.3 200.8 99. ……….15 38.…….43 49.0 105.10 4.1 26.5 128.38 3.…… .9 114.2 108.0 110.68 20.2 24.0 40.5 7 7 19 19 19 19 19 250 300 350 400 450 500 ……….92 7.4 37.092 ……….. Diameter. . …. of Diameter Outside Pounds per 1000 Feet ___________________ Wires of Each Diameter. ……….…….9 129 162 205 259 326 411 518 653 772 925 1080 1236 1390 1542 1850 2316 2469 3086 9.2 110.9 90..4 57.6 59.…….4 117.6 61.3 7 7 7 7 3 2 1 1/0 2/0 3/0 4/0 52620 66360 83690 105600 133100 167800 211600 229.412 1.……. ……….0 12. 235 282 329 376 422 469 .7 76. Mils …… …… …… 10.7 86.184 0..373 0. 61 61 61 61 1250 1500 1750 2000 ……….6 289.7 18.5 37.046 0. .3 75.289 1.6 46.6 37.015 7.998 1.8 7 7 7 7 7 10 8 6 4 10380 16510 26240 41740 101.974 12.8 96.3 70. .8 640.75 15.0 117..6 53. .4 74. ………. .. ……..…… .8 104.6 99.5 82. ………. ….526 1.8 409.78 6.5 0. .3 116. ……. 6.5 81.1 75.…… . . …….0 66.146 0. ………. Awg or kcmil Crosssectional Area. NEMA WC 7-1971..2 30.56 15. .7 52.4 194. .9 52.…… .2 49. .7 159.418 0.43 61. Mils Inches Aluminum Copper 20 18 16 14 12 1020 1620 2580 4110 6530 32.073 0.2 86.…… .…… . 563 704 751 939 1173 1408 1643 1877 0.16 32.. .332 0.

846 0.878 0.943 0. They are based upon aluminum having 61 percent conductivity and are derived from the formulae: R1 = R2 R3 = R2 248 228 + T2 253 228 + T2 where R1 – Resistance at 20°C R2 – Measured resistance at test temperature. Degrees °C 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 Multiplying Factors for Reduction to 20°C 25°C 1.780 1.808 0.980 0.020 1.818 0.110 1.063 1.910 0.Temperature Correction Factors for Resistance of Aluminum Conductors* Temperature.085 1.863 0.908 0.894 0.944 0.821 0. NEMA WC 7-1971 81 .835 0.925 0. T2 R3 – Resistance at 25°C *IPCEA Publication S-66-524.796 The correction factors given in this table are satisfactory for most applications.981 0.849 0.805 0.792 0.861 0.020 1.000 0.041 1.088 1.962 0.832 0.927 0.892 0.961 0.042 1.064 1.876 0.000 0.

085 1. Handbook No.879 0.040 1.981 0.020 1.020 1.797 0. *IPCEA Publications S-66-524.000 0. They are based upon copper having 100 percent conductivity and are derived from the formulae: R1 = R2 R3 = R2 254.825 0.” National Bureau of Standards.981 0.896 0.945 0. Degrees °C 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 Multiplying Factors for Reduction to 20°C 25°C 1.000 0.Temperature Correction Factors for Resistance of Copper Conductors* Temperature.944 0.836 0.822 0.963 0. 100.866 0.107 1.850 0. see “Copper Wire Tables.809 0.928 0. NEMA WE 7-1971 82 .912 0.084 1. T2 R3 – Resistance at 25°C For more accurate determination of resistance.5 234.962 0.5 + T2 where R1 – Resistance at 20°C R2 – Measured resistance at test temperature.812 0.061 1.864 0.927 0.852 0.5 234.784 1.838 0.881 0.041 1.800 The correction factors given in this table are satisfactory for most applications.5 + T2 259.911 0.063 1. allowing for different conductivities.895 0.

Logarithm Tables Four Place Mantissas for Common Logarithms N 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 N 0 0000 0414 0792 1139 1461 1761 2041 2304 2553 2788 3010 3222 3424 3617 3802 3979 4150 4314 4472 4624 4771 4914 5051 5185 5315 5441 5563 5682 5798 5911 6021 6128 6232 6335 6435 6532 6628 6721 6812 6902 6990 7076 7160 7243 7324 0 1 0043 0453 0828 1173 1492 1790 2068 2330 2577 2810 3032 3243 3444 3636 3820 3997 4166 4330 4487 4639 4786 4928 5065 5198 5328 5453 5575 5694 5809 5922 6031 6138 6243 6345 6444 6542 6637 6730 6821 6911 6998 7084 7168 7251 7332 1 2 0086 0492 0864 1206 1523 1818 2095 2355 2601 2833 3054 3263 3464 3655 3838 4014 4183 4346 4502 4654 4800 4942 5079 5211 5340 5465 5587 5705 5821 5933 6042 6149 6253 6355 6454 6551 6646 6739 6830 6920 7007 7093 7177 7259 7340 2 3 0128 0531 0899 1239 1553 1847 2122 2380 2625 2856 3075 3284 3483 3674 3856 4031 4200 4362 4518 4669 4814 4955 5092 5224 5353 5478 5599 5717 5832 5944 6053 6160 6263 6365 6464 6561 6656 6749 6839 6928 7016 7101 7185 7267 7348 3 4 0170 0569 0934 1271 1584 1875 2148 2405 2648 2878 3096 3304 3502 3692 3874 4048 4216 4378 4533 4683 4829 4969 5101 5237 5366 5490 5611 5729 5843 5955 6064 6170 6274 6375 6474 6571 6665 6758 6848 6937 7024 7110 7193 7275 7356 4 5 0212 0607 0969 1303 1614 1903 2175 2430 2672 2900 3118 3324 3522 3711 3892 4065 4232 4393 4548 4698 4843 4983 5119 5250 5378 5502 5623 5740 5855 5966 6075 6180 6284 6385 6484 6580 6675 6767 6857 6946 7033 7118 7202 7284 7364 5 6 0253 0645 1004 1335 1644 1931 2201 2455 2695 2923 3139 3345 3541 3729 3909 4082 4249 4409 4564 4713 4857 4997 5132 5263 5391 5514 5635 5752 5866 5977 6085 6191 6294 6395 6493 6590 6684 6776 6866 6955 7042 7126 7210 7292 7372 6 7 0294 0682 1038 1367 1673 1959 2227 2480 2718 2945 3160 3365 3560 3747 3927 4099 4265 4425 4579 4728 4871 5011 5145 5276 5403 5527 5647 5763 5877 5988 6096 6201 6304 6405 6503 6599 6693 6785 6875 6964 7050 7135 7218 7300 7380 7 8 0334 0719 1072 1399 1703 1987 2253 2504 2742 2967 3181 3385 3579 3766 3945 4116 4281 4440 4594 4742 4886 5024 5159 5289 5416 5539 5658 5775 5888 5999 6107 6212 6314 6415 6513 6609 6702 6794 6884 6972 7059 7143 7226 7308 7388 8 9 0374 0755 1106 1430 1732 2014 2279 2529 2765 2989 3201 3404 3598 3784 3962 4133 4298 4456 4609 4757 4900 5038 5172 5302 5428 5551 5670 5786 5899 6010 6117 6222 6325 6425 6522 6618 6712 6803 6893 6981 7067 7152 7235 7316 7396 9 1 *4* 4 3 3 3 *3* 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 Proportional Parts 3 4 5 6 7 8 25 23 21 19 18 29 26 24 23 21 33 30 28 26 24 9 37 34 31 29 27 25 24 22 21 20 8 12 17 21 8 11 15 19 7 10 14 17 6 10 13 16 6 9 12 15 6 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 8 11 14 17 20 22 8 11 13 16 18 21 7 10 12 15 17 20 7 9 12 14 16 19 7 9 11 13 16 18 6 6 6 6 5 5 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 3 8 11 13 15 17 19 8 10 12 14 16 18 8 10 12 14 15 17 7 9 11 13 15 17 7 9 11 12 14 16 7 7 6 6 6 6 6 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 4 9 10 12 14 15 8 10 11 13 15 8 9 11 13 14 8 9 11 12 14 7 9 10 12 13 7 7 7 6 6 6 6 6 6 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 9 10 11 13 8 10 11 12 8 9 11 12 8 9 10 12 8 9 10 11 7 7 7 7 7 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 6 9 10 11 8 10 11 8 9 10 8 9 10 8 9 10 8 7 7 7 7 7 7 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 7 9 10 8 9 8 9 8 9 8 9 8 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 6 6 9 8 8 8 8 8 8 7 7 7 8 9 * Interpolation in this. 83 .section of the table is inaccurate.

Logarithm Tables Four Place Mantissas for Common Logarithms (Continued) N 55 56 57 53 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 83 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 N 0 7404 7482 7559 7634 7709 7782 7853 7924 7993 8062 8129 8195 8261 8325 8388 8451 8513 8573 8633 8692 8751 8808 8865 8921 8976 9031 9085 9138 9191 9243 9294 9345 9395 9445 9494 9542 9590 9638 9685 9731 9777 9823 9868 9912 9956 0 1 7412 7490 7566 7642 7716 7789 7860 7931 8000 8069 8136 8202 8267 8331 8395 8457 8519 8579 8639 8698 8756 8814 8871 8927 8982 9036 9090 9143 9196 9248 9299 9350 9400 9450 9499 9547 9595 9643 9689 9736 9782 9827 9872 9917 9961 1 2 7419 7497 7574 7649 7723 7796 7868 7938 8007 8075 8142 8209 8274 8338 8401 8463 8525 8585 8645 8704 8762 8820 8876 8932 8987 9042 9096 9149 9201 9253 9304 9355 9405 9455 9504 9552 9600 9647 9894 9741 9786 9832 9877 9921 9965 2 3 7427 7505 7582 7657 7731 7803 7875 7945 8014 8082 8149 8215 8280 8344 8407 8470 8531 8591 8651 8710 8768 8825 8882 8938 8993 9047 9101 9154 9206 9258 9309 9360 9410 9460 9509 9557 9605 9652 9699 9745 9791 9836 9881 9926 9969 3 4 7435 7513 7589 7664 7738 7810 7882 7952 8021 8089 8156 8222 8287 8351 8414 8476 8537 8597 8657 8716 8774 8831 8887 8943 8998 9053 9106 9159 9212 9263 9315 9365 9415 9465 9513 9562 9609 9657 9703 9750 9795 9841 9886 9930 9974 4 5 7443 7520 7597 7672 7745 7818 7889 7959 8028 8096 8162 8228 8293 8357 8420 8482 8543 8603 8663 8722 8779 8837 8893 8949 9004 9058 9112 9165 9217 9269 9320 9370 9420 9469 9518 9566 9614 9661 9708 9754 9800 9845 9890 9934 9978 5 6 7451 7528 7604 7679 7752 7825 7896 7966 8035 8102 8169 8235 8299 8363 8426 8488 8549 8609 8669 8727 8785 8842 8899 8954 9009 9063 9117 9170 9222 9274 9325 9375 9425 9474 9523 9571 9619 9666 9713 9759 9805 9850 9894 9939 9983 6 7 7459 7536 7612 7686 7760 7832 7903 7973 8041 8109 8176 8241 8306 8370 8432 8494 8555 8615 8675 8733 8791 8848 8904 8960 9015 9069 9122 9175 9227 927Si 9330 9380 9430 9470 9528 9576 9624 9671 9717 9763 9809 9854 9899 9943 9987 7 8 7466 7543 7619 7694 7767 7839 7910 7980 8048 8116 8182 8248 8312 8376 8439 8500 8561 8621 8681 8739 8797 8854 8910 8965 9020 9074 9128 9180 9232 9284 9335 9385 9435 9484 9533 9581 9628 9675 9722 9768 9814 9859 9903 9948 9991 8 9 7474 7551 7627 7701 7774 7846 7917 7987 8055 8122 8189 8254 8319 8382 8445 8506 8567 8627 8686 8745 8802 8859 8915 8971 9025 9079 9133 9186 9238 9289 9340 9390 9440 9489 9538 9586 9633 9680 9727 9773 9818 9863 9908 9952 9996 9 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 Proportional Parts 3 4 5 6 7 8 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 5 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 6 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 7 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 8 9 7 7 7 7 7 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 6 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 9 84 .

……….0440 0.0431 0. NEMA WC 7-1971.0278 0.92 4.103 0.256 0.68 1. ………. ………. ……….03 0. 600 750 800 1000 ……….161 0.0295 0.164 0. ……….0 6.0108 0.330 0. ………. ……….. ……….18 2.0222 0.. ……….0367 0..00867 11.0512 ……….103 0.0525 0. ………. ……….00539 ……….264 0..0642 0.0795 0.0111 0.6 10. ……….0132 0.0495 0. ……….00555 Conductor Size.. ………. ……….0145 0.679 0.659 0.0180 0.0353 0.103 0.0630 0..0354 1.419 0.0302 0.26 2.261 0. ……….6281 0. ……….08 0.0374 0.259 0.. ………. ………. ………. ………. ………..253 0.207 0. ……….00871 0.Nominal Direct-Current Resistance.0289 0.130 0..0694 0.. ……….44 2.0247 0.68 1.169 0.09825 0.7 6.134 0. ……….04998 250 300 350 400 450 500 ………. ………..10 2. ……….07793 0. ……….0320 0.00885 0. ……….06303 0.8 6.0393 0.0173 0.0176 0. ………..0217 0.0360 0.57 1..05 4.0235 0.00991 0. ………. ……….207 0.06 0.161 0.58 4.323 0.. ……….00605 0. ………..53 4.00888 0..164 0.6404 0.07 0.203 0.0836 0. ……….2534 3 2 1 1/0 2/0 3/0 4/0 0. ……….66 4..427 0.67 1.52 1..02 2.0264 0.0509 1. ……….9988 0.0423 0.106 0. ……….104 0.39 4. ……….0 10. ……….641 0.0139 0. ……….0212 0. ……….22 2.00846 0.51 4.0136 0.646 0.0449 0.159 0.59 17.68 1. ……….403 0..0144 0.0814 0.126 0.0385 0.06182 0.130 0.415 1. ………. ………..0139 0.407 0. ……….2485 1.10 2..0148 0.72 1.648 0.211 0.66 4.101 0.203 0.162 0. ……….0272 0.0218 0.410 0.130 0. ……….164 0..0101 0..0183 0.0668 0. ……….00616 0.0803 0. ……….207 0.. ……….168 0.57 1.00622 0.0242 0.100 0.. ……….0116 0.00726 0.05 0.5 6. ……….02 0. ……….6 6.00863 0. ……….07946 0.00544 Annealed Coated Copper _______________________________________ Solid Stranded Class B ___________________ ___________________ 25°C 20°C 25°C 20°C 11.0118 0.6 6.0820 0.0500 0.35 2.0270 0. ………..2010 0.0820 0.0798 0.209 0.213 0. ……….018 0.256 1.1594 0.1002 0.166 0. ………. ………. ……….0221 0.0314 0.2 7.0216 0. ……….65 10.336 0.1239 0.18 2. at 20°C and 25°C of Solid and Concentric Stranded Conductors* Stranded Classes B.0142 0.666 0. ……….105 0. ……….04 0. 85 •IPCEA Standards Publication S-66-524. 1.407 0.00740 0.101 0. 0.654 0. ……….00529 1.266 0.3952 0.0656 0.0515 0.128 0.1 6.261 0.0106 0.62 1.79 4. ……….133 0. 1250 1500 1750 2000 ………...415 0. ………..0843 0. ………. ……….0811 0.1971 0.0236 0.00719 0.0578 0. ………..05 0. ……….102 0.00634 0.04901 0.0240 0.329 0.0187 0.62 ………… ………… ………… ………… 2.0177 0.68 1...66 10.0347 0.62 1.1563 0.4029 0.0827 0.64 1.0135 0.62 10 8 6 4 1.06 0..73 1.131 0. Ohms per 1000 Feet. Awg or kcmil Aluminum and Annealed Uncoated Copper Solid ______________________________________________ 20°C 25°C ____________________ ____________________ Aluminum Copper Aluminum Copper 20 18 16 14 12 16. ……….0645 0.261 0.0590 0.0505 0..0231 0.415 0...4 6.67 1. ……….0434 0.04 0.424 0.661 0. ………..0633 0.. ……….0308 0. C and D _____________________________________________ 20°C 25°C ____________________ ____________________ Aluminum Copper Aluminum Copper ……… ……… ……… ……… 2...71 10.674 0.128 0.0502 0.00705 0.201 0. .0141 0.65 10. ……….. ……….72 4. ……….66 10.70 1.1264 0.269 0.14 2..661 0.205 0.0442 0.60 10. ……….0708 0.3 6. ……….0109 0.129 0.

0349 0.9816 0.8480 0.6157 0.3839 0.8693 0. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 Deg.9781 0.6018 0.9272 0.2460 2.7314 0.0777 2.6643 1.8807 1.3090 0.1106 1.1504 1.2867 0.3420 0.3584 0.5543 0.9925 0.7071 Sine Tangent 0.7002 0.2900 28.0698 0.1446 4.4826 1.6713 5.3640 0.9626 1.3746 0.4245 0.6009 0.6691 0.2756 0.6363 19.9336 0.0000 Tangent Deg.7660 0.2126 0.8572 0.9205 0.5317 0.1564 0.9004 0.3315 4.9962 0.9397 0.6051 2.2924 0.2419 0.9877 0.9135 0.9455 0.4384 0.6947 0.2079 0.9903 0.6003 1.8829 0.3249 0.1228 0.3559 2.6293 0.8988 0.2309 0.1392 0.9994 0.3007 11.4848 0.5592 0.4663 0.8290 0.4226 0.0175 0.3443 0.1219 0.7265 0.8040 1.9613 0.1405 0.6428 0.7331 0.9511 0.1443 7. Sine 0.7880 0.1908 0.5150 0.2709 3.3256 0.6745 0.0875 0.4695 0.9703 0.0175 0.9657 1.4067 0.7475 2.7986 0.9998 0.2250 0.4452 0.1918 1.4040 0.7321 1.8746 0.4301 9.0503 1.9325 0.1584 0.5095 0.5878 0.0349 0.2493 0.0811 14.7547 0.9063 0.1944 0.1045 0.3270 1.Natural Functions of Angles Deg.9945 0.7071 Cosine Cosine 1.0355 1.3057 0.5399 1.5299 0.8192 0.0000 0.0108 3.0000 Cotangent Cotangent oo 57.8910 0.0000 0.9563 0.7321 3.9042 2.5736 0.5000 0.7536 0.5446 0.7193 0.7046 4.4874 3.0724 1.3907 0.8098 0.2349 1.8391 0.8090 0.0872 0.1445 2.4751 2.9848 0. 86 .6820 0.9744 0.2799 1.1154 6.0000 0.2679 0.7813 0.1051 0.1763 0.4281 1.3764 1.0523 0.5144 8.9986 0.7771 0. 90 89 88 87 86 85 84 83 82 81 80 79 78 77 76 75 74 73 72 71 70 69 68 67 66 65 64 63 62 61 60 59 58 57 56 55 54 53 52 51 50 49 48 47 46 45 Deg.4540 0.0699 0.3138 5.5774 0.8660 0.2588 0.0524 0.8387 0.9659 0.9976 0.6561 0.1736 0.4877 0.6249 0.6494 0.

Typical Isokeraunic Map 87 .

609 km 506.32 dm3 0.Ibf 1 cal 1 Btu 1 kW.40 GJ 2.448 N = 9.K = 0.Ibf/lb 1 Btu/lb 1 Btu/ft3 1 Btu/gal = = = = = = = = = = 1 N.7 nW/m2.187 kJ/kg.08137 kg/s.2931 W = 746.9144 m 1.16 K AREA 1 cmil 1 in2 1 ft2 1 acre 1 mile2 POWER 1 watt 1 Btu/hr 1 hp = 1 joule/sec = 0.8 Pa 1 in Hg = 3.488 Pa.7646 m3 TEMPERATURE 1°F (interval) = 5/9°C temp (°F) = (9/5) temp (°C) + 32 Ice .7 kJ/m3 MAGNETOMOTIVE FORCE MAGNETIC FIELD STRENGTH.K = 5.895 kPa 1 kgf/cm2 = 98.m 1.Selected Sl Equivalents LENGTH 1 in 1 ft 1 yd 1 mile = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = 25.K4 = 1.02 kg/m3 = 27.m/s = 4.645 kW/kg = 56.609 km/hr = 28.ft F VELOCITY 1 in/min 1 ft/min 1 mile/hr = 25.88 Pa.3048 m/min = 1.ft 3 1 hp/lb POWER DENSITY SPECIFIC POWER STEFAN-BOLTZMANN CONST.h 1 MWD 1 ft.0929 m2 4047 m2 2. ft2 1 Btu/hr.34 W/m3 = 1.40 mm 0.8066 N PRESSURE 1 pascal = 1 N/m2 1 mm Hg = 133.0 W = 3.39 cm3 28.678 W/m2.35 gram = 0.15 K Triple-point of water = 0. B ENERGY 1 joule 1 ft.01°C = 273.ft2 F 1 poise 1 Ib/ft. KINEMATIC MASS VELOCITY FORCE ELECTRICITY 1 coulomb 1 volt 1 ohm 1 farad 1 henry 1 weber 1 maxwell 1 kiloline 1 tesla 1 gamma 1 gauss 1 gilbert 1 oersted 1 farad/m = 1 kg.590 km2 1 dm3 29.68 Mg/m3 = 63.7 um2 6. H DIELECTRIC COEFFICIENT PERMITTIVITY CONST.s = 47.326 kJ/kg 37.356 J 4.K 88 b O .4536 kg = 0.57 ml 3.8542 pF/m = 4n x 10-7 henry/m =1 VOLUME 1 litre 1 fl oz (US) 1 gal (US) 1 in3 1 ft3 1 yd3 POWER FLUX 1 Btu/hr.K Gas constant: R = 8.731 W/m.0929 m2/s = 1 ampere second = 1 joule/coulomb = 1 volt/ampere = 1 coulomb/volt = 1 volt sec/ampere = 1 volt second = 10-8 Wb = 10-5 Wb = 1 Wb/m2 = 10-9 T = 10-4 T = 0. point at 1 atm = 32°F = 0°C = 273.58 amp-turn/m = 1 coul 2 /N. ft2 1 newton 1 Ibf 1 kgf VISCOSITY. o 1 Btu/hr.3048 m 0.3 Pa 1 in H2O (60°F) = 248.26 kJ/m3 278.4 mm/min = 0.152 W/m2 = 10. ABSOLUTE FLOW RATE 1 gal/min 1 ft3/min 1 Ib/hr .314 kJ/kg-mol.989 J/kg 2.sec/ft2 1 stoke 1 ft 2/sec DENSITY 1 Ib/ft3 1 Ib/in3 VISCOSITY.785 litres 16.s = 10 -4m2/s = 0.F = 4.187 J 1055 J 3. 2 = 1.600 MJ 86.4719 dm3 = 0.7958 amp-turn = 79.m2 2 THERMALCONDUCTIVITY MASS 1 oz (avdp) 1 lb 1 short ton THERMAL CONDUCTANCE 1 Btu/hr.377 kPa 1 psi = 6.09 cm3/s = 0. uo c2uoeo SPECIFIC ENERGY SPECIFIC HEAT: ENTROPY 1 Btu/lb.452 cm2 0.sec 1 lbf. PERMEABILITY CONST.m2 = 8.3 kPa MAGNETIC FLUX MAGNETIC INDUCTION.1 Pa.9072 Mg = 16.07 kPa 1 bar = 100 kPa 1 atm = 101.

MEMORANDUM 89 .

MEMORANDUM 90 .

3A49299H01 .

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