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10/21/2013

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INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTING

HANDOUT BY OSAIGBOVO TIMOTHY
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(T/F) A single hexadecimal digit can represent how many binary digits: (a) two. COMPUTER GENERATIONS The period. 10810. 4. 11100. 9. 10002. The value of a particular digit in a number is determined by its relative position in a sequence of digits. The result of 1012 + 112 is ________ (in binary). during which the evolution of computer took place. 8. 7. 16. It consisted of sticks in horizontal positions on which were inserted sets of pebbles. 17. 438. Slide Rule: English mathematician Edmund Gunter developed the slide rule. 53. subtraction. Later he developed a general-purpose calculating machine called analytical engine. 14. The machine consisted of wheels. The binary equivalent of a hexadecimal 35 is ________. E. The hexadecimal equivalent of a decimal 129 is ________. Leibniz’s Multiplication and Dividing Machine: The German philosopher and mathematician Gottfried Leibniz built around 1673 a mechanical device that could both multiply and divide. It was called difference engine. The result of A116 + BC16 + 1016 is ________ (in hexadecimal). 12. 1 Self‑test answers1. and the binary numbering system has a base of ________. 2. multiplication. The binary equivalent of a decimal 28 is ________. 20. 3. The decimal equivalent of a binary 110101 is ________. Babbage’s Analytical Engine: It was in the year 1823 that a famous English man Charles Babbage built a mechanical machine to do complex mathematical calculations. 6. The decimal equivalent of a hexadecimal 1B6 is ________. USA by John Eckert and John Mauchy. It was named Electronic Numerical Integrator and Calculator (ENIAC). The result of 6010 + F116 ‑ 1001001 is ________ (in decimal). 18. ENIAC: It was the first electronic computer built in 1946 at University of Pennsylvania. manipulating it according to the set of instructions (called program) and producing the output to the user in desired form. This machine could perform operations like addition. 11111111. F. 81. T. 31. 2 19 . and division. can be divided into five distinct phases known as Generations of Computers. 16D16. 5. gears and cylinders. 2 The result of 112 + 278 + 9310 ‑ B6 is ________ (in decimal). 7. It was widely used in Europe in 16th century. The decimal equivalent of a hexadecimal 7 is ________. SELF TEST 5 The hex numbering system has a base of ________. 16. You should know that Charles Babbage is called the father of computer. 15. The device was known as Napier’s bones. 9. or (c) four? The bases of the binary and decimal numbering systems are multiples of 2. 10. The hexadecimal equivalent of a binary 1110 is ________. 2. Napier’s bones: English mathematician John Napier built a mechanical device for the purpose of multiplication in 1617 A D. (T/F) The binary equivalent of a decimal 255 is ________. 11100. Pascal's Adding and Subtracting Machine: Blaise Pascal developed a machine at the age of 19 that could add and subtract. storing it for a desired period of time. 4. 438. The hexadecimal equivalent of a binary 1001 is ________. The decimal equivalent of a binary 110110110 is ________. . Each phase is distinguished from others on the basis of the type of technology used. 22810. HISTORY OF COMPUTER Calculating Machines (1400 BC): The first calculating device called ABACUS was developed by the Egyptian and Chinese people. 11. 19. (b) three. The word ABACUS means calculating board. 110101. The hexadecimal equivalent of a decimal 49 is ________. 13.CHAPTER 1 WHAT IS A COMPUTER A computer is an electronic device which is capable of receiving the inputs (data from the user). The binary equivalent of a hexadecimal 1C is ________.

These computers are called microcomputers. Other Important Computers of First Generation EDSAC: It stands for Electronic Delay Storage Automatic Computer and was developed by M. programming language and input and output units were developed.Examples of Binary Arithmetic Examples of Hexadecimal Arithmetic EDVAC: It stands for Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer and was developed in 1950.V. Higher level language such as BASIC (Beginners All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code) was developed during this period. 4. Computers of this generation were small in size. CATEGORIES OF COMPUTERS Broadly they can be divided it to the following categories. It is still in a developmental stage. The concept of Artificial intelligence has been introduced to allow the computer to take its own decision. These ICs are popularly known as Chips. Wilkes at Cambridge University in 1949. Manufacturing cost was also very low. 3. Its CPU is a microprocessor. Thus the size of the computer got reduced considerably. Later very large scale Integrated Circuits (VLSIC) replaced LSICs. memory. FORTRAN were developed during this period. The operating speed was quite slow. UNIVAC: (UNIVersal Automatic Computer). Due to the development of microprocessor it is possible to place computer’s central processing unit (CPU) on single chip. 18 3 . 2. low cost. The speed is extremely high in fifth generation computer. Power consumption was very high. It is in the second generation that the concept of Central Processing Unit (CPU). large memory and processing speed is very high. Microcomputer: Microcomputer is at the lowest end of the computer range in terms of speed and storage capacity. The concept of storing data and instructions inside the computer was introduced here. Fifth Generation Computer The computers of 1990s are said to be Fifth Generation computers. Fourth Generation Computers The present day computers that you see today are the fourth generation computers that started around 1975. Second Generation Computers Around 1955 a device called Transistor replaced the bulky electric tubes in the first generation computer. Apart from this it can perform parallel processing. Transistors are smaller than electric tubes and have higher operating speed. 1. programming languages such as COBOL. Third Generation Computers The third generation computers were introduced in 1964. the first electronic computer designed and sold to solve commercial problems. Limitations of First Generation Computer Followings are the major drawbacks of First generation computers. The programming capability was quite low. They used Integrated Circuits (ICs). They have no filament and require no heating. It required large space for installation. It uses large scale Integrated Circuits (LSIC) built on a single silicon chip called microprocessors.

Supercomputer: They are the fastest and most expensive machines. Distinguish between Microcomputer and Mainframe computer. remote sensing. They have high processing speed compared to other computers. Who is called the father of Computer Technology? 10. just as you do in decimal arithmetic. disk drives. monitor. Figure 9 demonstrates the conversion of a hex 3E7 into its decimal equivalent of 999. E. quite powerful software for their size. For example. Software: refers to the set of computer programs that tells the computer what to do. Both have to work together to produce meaningful result. barometer. scanner and speakers. air conditioning system. microwaves. mouse. 4 17 . Examples of supercomputers are CRAY YMP. then convert the binary number directly to hexadecimal. We do binary arithmetic. It possesses large storage capacity and operates at a higher speed. Notice in Figure 10 that you carry to and borrow from adjacent positions. printer. Define the following terms: I) Computer II) Data III) Information IV) Program Hexadecimal to Binary To convert hex numbers into binary. in the same way that we do decimal arithmetic. The mini computer is used in multi-user system in which various users can work at the same time. as well as that of other numbering systems. keyboard. perform the grouping procedure for converting binary to hex in reverse (see Figure 8). State six advantages of computers over humans. We can say that it is the collection of programs. TYPES OF SOFTWARE Application Software: Application Software is a set of programs to carry out operations for a specific application.Mini Computer: This is designed to support more than one user at a time. TYPES OF COMPUTER We have three different kinds of computers: i) Analog computers. Electronic computers like desktop computers and notebooks are examples of hybrid computers. etc. etc. 2. 3. SELF TEST 1 1. CHAPTER 2 COMPONENTS OF A COMPUTER SYSTEM Hardware: is any physical part of the computer that you can touch. Mainframes: These types of computers are generally 32-bit microprocessors. payroll is an application software for an organization to produce pay slips as an output. speed and so on. They operate at very high speed. Figure 10 illustrates and compares addition and subtraction in decimal with that in binary and hex. speedometer and hygrometer Digital computers: These are devices that are used for counting.g. ARITHMETIC IN BINARY AND HEXADECIMAL The essentials of decimal arithmetic operations have been drilled into us so that we do addition and subtraction almost by instinct. Hexadecimal to Decimal Use the same procedure as that used for binary‑to‑decimal conversions (see Figure 7) to convert hex to decimal. which increase the capabilities of the hardware. Supercomputers are mainly being used for weather forecasting. have very large storage capacity and can handle the work load of many users. What is VLSIC? 4. Examples include adding machine. electronic wrist-watch and calculator Hybrid computers: These devices combine the functions of measuring physical quantities as well as counting. Palmtop/ Handheld/PDA: known as ‘organisers’. billing machine. CRAY2. ii) Digital computers and iii) Hybrid computers Analog computers: These are devices that measure one form of physical quantities or another like temperature. the only difference in doing arithmetic in the various numbering systems is the number of digits used. Examples of analog computers are thermometer. it is easy to transfer data to a PC Embedded Computers: Build into appliances such as TVs. FIGURE 9 Converting a Hexadecimal Number into Its Decimal Equivalent Multiply the digits in a hexadecimal number by their position values. The only difference is that we have fewer (binary) or more (hexadecimal) digits to use. As you can see. see and pickup. FIGURE 8 Converting a Binary Number into Its Hexadecimal Equivalent Place the binary digits in groups of four. biomedical research. pressure.

The decimal equivalents for binary. It is not possible to run application software without system software. Refer to the equivalence table in Figure 2. sound card. In Figure 7. calculating and decision making takes place. The easiest conversion is binary to hex. As you examine Figure 1. INTERNAL MEMORY DEVICES The two main types of computer internal memory that you need to clearly understand are Random Access Memory (RAM) and Read Only Memory (ROM) Read Only Memory (ROM) Data stored on ROM is not erased when the power is switched off . DOS. Computers operate in binary and communicate to us in decimal. DISK DRIVES The purpose of a disk drive is to read data from a storage device. Rotate the remainders as shown in Figure above. notice that you carry in groups of 2 in binary and in groups of 16 in hexadecimal. or base‑10. When you count in decimal. Combine your result. It is where all the searching. any number greater than 9 is represented by a sequence of digits. keyboard. hard disk and various other external ports and peripherals all attach directly to it. sorting. and hexadecimal numbers are shown in Figure 1. removable hard disk drive. etc. All of the components and peripherals plug into it. These are the: Control Unit. Central Processing Unit (CPU) :The CPU is the 'brain' of the computer. and the conversion is complete. CPU Components: You need to have a basic understanding of the three main parts of a CPU. Figure 6 illustrates how the same division/remainder technique is used to convert a decimal 453 into its hexadecimal equivalent (1C5). To convert binary to hex. The ROM is used to hold data that cannot be changed by the user. Examples are: Monitor. floppy disk drive. Use the two step division/remainder technique to convert a decimal number into an equivalent number of any base. the CPU. less than or equal to another. Computer manufactures build and supply this system software with the computer system. RAM chips. For example. network interface card. for example. 16 System Software: may be defined as a set of one or more programs designed to control the operation of computer system. decimal. The motherboard houses the ROM chips which store the BIOS instructions. Step 1. binary 11010 is converted into its decimal equivalent (26). Follow these steps to convert decimal to binary. zip disk drive. 5 . Converting a Binary Number into Its Decimal Equivalent Multiply the 1s in a binary number by their position values. Peripherals: A peripheral is any device which connects to the computer and exchanges data with the CPU. the result (10011) is the binary equivalent of a decimal 19.it is permanent.CHAPTER FIVE NUMBERING SYSTEMS AND COMPUTERS We humans use a decimal.It performs the calculations on the data e. Binary to Decimal and Hexadecimal To convert from binary to decimal. mouse. Arithmetic and Logic Unit (ALU) The Control Unit It controls and monitors the hardware attached to the system It controls the input and output of data It controls the flow of data within the CPU The Immediate Access Store or The Primary Memory This holds the data and programs needed at that instant by the Control Unit.this deals with logic and comparisons. It consists of two parts: Arithmetic part . you "carry" to the next position in groups of 10. UNIX and WINDOWS are some of the widely used system software.DVD drive . the graphics card. We know that in decimal. Arithmetic and Logic Unit This is where the computer processes data either by manipulating it or acting upon it. 3 + 2 = 5 Logic part . Divide the number (19. In a decimal‑to‑hex conversion. This two‑step technique is illustrated in Figure 5. Common disk drives that you will come across in your studies are: hard disk drive. CD drive . The CPU reads data and programs kept on the backing storage and store them temporarily in the IAS's memory. CONVERTING NUMBERS FROM ONE BASE INTO ANOTHER Decimal to Binary or Hexadecimal A decimal number can be converted easily into an equivalent number of any base by the use of the division/remainder technique. The speed of the CPU is measured in either Megahertz (MHz) or more commonly now in Gigahertz (GHz). and record the remainder of each division Step 2. This is called 'non-volatile memory'. numbering system. MOTHERBOARD The Motherboard is the central circuit board of your computer. it works out if one value is greater.g. the remainder is always one of the 16 hex digits. Also note that any combination of four binary digits can be represented by one "hex" digit. multiply the 1s in a binary number by their position values then sum the products (see Figure 7). Immediate Access Store. and assign each group of four binary digits a hex equivalent. simply begin with the 1s position on the right and segment the binary number into groups of four digits each (see Figure 8). This data will usually be the software that tells the computer how to load the operating system when it is switched on or re-booted. in this example) repeatedly by 2.