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INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTING

HANDOUT BY OSAIGBOVO TIMOTHY
20 1

(T/F) A single hexadecimal digit can represent how many binary digits: (a) two. COMPUTER GENERATIONS The period. 10810. 4. 11100. 9. 10002. The value of a particular digit in a number is determined by its relative position in a sequence of digits. The result of 1012 + 112 is ________ (in binary). during which the evolution of computer took place. 8. 7. 16. It consisted of sticks in horizontal positions on which were inserted sets of pebbles. 17. 438. Slide Rule: English mathematician Edmund Gunter developed the slide rule. 53. subtraction. Later he developed a general-purpose calculating machine called analytical engine. 14. The machine consisted of wheels. The binary equivalent of a hexadecimal 35 is ________. E. The hexadecimal equivalent of a decimal 129 is ________. Leibniz’s Multiplication and Dividing Machine: The German philosopher and mathematician Gottfried Leibniz built around 1673 a mechanical device that could both multiply and divide. It was called difference engine. The result of A116 + BC16 + 1016 is ________ (in hexadecimal). 12. 1 Self‑test answers1. and the binary numbering system has a base of ________. 2. multiplication. The binary equivalent of a decimal 28 is ________. 20. 3. The decimal equivalent of a binary 110101 is ________. Babbage’s Analytical Engine: It was in the year 1823 that a famous English man Charles Babbage built a mechanical machine to do complex mathematical calculations. 6. The decimal equivalent of a hexadecimal 1B6 is ________. USA by John Eckert and John Mauchy. It was named Electronic Numerical Integrator and Calculator (ENIAC). The result of 6010 + F116 ‑ 1001001 is ________ (in decimal). 18. ENIAC: It was the first electronic computer built in 1946 at University of Pennsylvania. manipulating it according to the set of instructions (called program) and producing the output to the user in desired form. This machine could perform operations like addition. 11111111. F. 81. T. 31. 2 19 . and division. can be divided into five distinct phases known as Generations of Computers. 16D16. 5. gears and cylinders. 2 The result of 112 + 278 + 9310 ‑ B6 is ________ (in decimal). 7. It was widely used in Europe in 16th century. The decimal equivalent of a hexadecimal 7 is ________. SELF TEST 5 The hex numbering system has a base of ________. 16. You should know that Charles Babbage is called the father of computer. 15. The device was known as Napier’s bones. 9. or (c) four? The bases of the binary and decimal numbering systems are multiples of 2. 10. The hexadecimal equivalent of a binary 1110 is ________. 2. Napier’s bones: English mathematician John Napier built a mechanical device for the purpose of multiplication in 1617 A D. (T/F) The binary equivalent of a decimal 255 is ________. 11100. Pascal's Adding and Subtracting Machine: Blaise Pascal developed a machine at the age of 19 that could add and subtract. storing it for a desired period of time. 4. 438. The hexadecimal equivalent of a binary 1001 is ________. The decimal equivalent of a binary 110110110 is ________. . Each phase is distinguished from others on the basis of the type of technology used. 22810. HISTORY OF COMPUTER Calculating Machines (1400 BC): The first calculating device called ABACUS was developed by the Egyptian and Chinese people. 11. 19. (b) three. The word ABACUS means calculating board. 110101. The hexadecimal equivalent of a decimal 49 is ________. 13.CHAPTER 1 WHAT IS A COMPUTER A computer is an electronic device which is capable of receiving the inputs (data from the user). The binary equivalent of a hexadecimal 1C is ________.

These computers are called microcomputers. Other Important Computers of First Generation EDSAC: It stands for Electronic Delay Storage Automatic Computer and was developed by M. programming language and input and output units were developed.Examples of Binary Arithmetic Examples of Hexadecimal Arithmetic EDVAC: It stands for Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer and was developed in 1950.V. Higher level language such as BASIC (Beginners All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code) was developed during this period. 4. Computers of this generation were small in size. CATEGORIES OF COMPUTERS Broadly they can be divided it to the following categories. It is still in a developmental stage. The concept of Artificial intelligence has been introduced to allow the computer to take its own decision. These ICs are popularly known as Chips. Wilkes at Cambridge University in 1949. Manufacturing cost was also very low. 3. Its CPU is a microprocessor. Thus the size of the computer got reduced considerably. Later very large scale Integrated Circuits (VLSIC) replaced LSICs. memory. FORTRAN were developed during this period. The operating speed was quite slow. UNIVAC: (UNIVersal Automatic Computer). Due to the development of microprocessor it is possible to place computer’s central processing unit (CPU) on single chip. 18 3 . 2. low cost. The speed is extremely high in fifth generation computer. Power consumption was very high. It is in the second generation that the concept of Central Processing Unit (CPU). large memory and processing speed is very high. Microcomputer: Microcomputer is at the lowest end of the computer range in terms of speed and storage capacity. The concept of storing data and instructions inside the computer was introduced here. Fifth Generation Computer The computers of 1990s are said to be Fifth Generation computers. Fourth Generation Computers The present day computers that you see today are the fourth generation computers that started around 1975. Second Generation Computers Around 1955 a device called Transistor replaced the bulky electric tubes in the first generation computer. Apart from this it can perform parallel processing. Transistors are smaller than electric tubes and have higher operating speed. 1. programming languages such as COBOL. Third Generation Computers The third generation computers were introduced in 1964. the first electronic computer designed and sold to solve commercial problems. Limitations of First Generation Computer Followings are the major drawbacks of First generation computers. The programming capability was quite low. They used Integrated Circuits (ICs). They have no filament and require no heating. It required large space for installation. It uses large scale Integrated Circuits (LSIC) built on a single silicon chip called microprocessors.

Supercomputer: They are the fastest and most expensive machines. Distinguish between Microcomputer and Mainframe computer. remote sensing. They have high processing speed compared to other computers. Who is called the father of Computer Technology? 10. just as you do in decimal arithmetic. disk drives. monitor. Figure 9 demonstrates the conversion of a hex 3E7 into its decimal equivalent of 999. E. quite powerful software for their size. For example. Software: refers to the set of computer programs that tells the computer what to do. Both have to work together to produce meaningful result. barometer. scanner and speakers. air conditioning system. microwaves. mouse. 4 17 . Examples of supercomputers are CRAY YMP. then convert the binary number directly to hexadecimal. We do binary arithmetic. It possesses large storage capacity and operates at a higher speed. Notice in Figure 10 that you carry to and borrow from adjacent positions. printer. Define the following terms: I) Computer II) Data III) Information IV) Program Hexadecimal to Binary To convert hex numbers into binary. in the same way that we do decimal arithmetic. The mini computer is used in multi-user system in which various users can work at the same time. as well as that of other numbering systems. keyboard. perform the grouping procedure for converting binary to hex in reverse (see Figure 8). State six advantages of computers over humans. We can say that it is the collection of programs. TYPES OF SOFTWARE Application Software: Application Software is a set of programs to carry out operations for a specific application.Mini Computer: This is designed to support more than one user at a time. TYPES OF COMPUTER We have three different kinds of computers: i) Analog computers. Electronic computers like desktop computers and notebooks are examples of hybrid computers. etc. etc. 2. 3. SELF TEST 1 1. CHAPTER 2 COMPONENTS OF A COMPUTER SYSTEM Hardware: is any physical part of the computer that you can touch. Mainframes: These types of computers are generally 32-bit microprocessors. payroll is an application software for an organization to produce pay slips as an output. speed and so on. They operate at very high speed. Figure 10 illustrates and compares addition and subtraction in decimal with that in binary and hex. speedometer and hygrometer Digital computers: These are devices that are used for counting.g. ARITHMETIC IN BINARY AND HEXADECIMAL The essentials of decimal arithmetic operations have been drilled into us so that we do addition and subtraction almost by instinct. Hexadecimal to Decimal Use the same procedure as that used for binary‑to‑decimal conversions (see Figure 7) to convert hex to decimal. which increase the capabilities of the hardware. Supercomputers are mainly being used for weather forecasting. have very large storage capacity and can handle the work load of many users. What is VLSIC? 4. Examples include adding machine. electronic wrist-watch and calculator Hybrid computers: These devices combine the functions of measuring physical quantities as well as counting. Palmtop/ Handheld/PDA: known as ‘organisers’. billing machine. CRAY2. ii) Digital computers and iii) Hybrid computers Analog computers: These are devices that measure one form of physical quantities or another like temperature. the only difference in doing arithmetic in the various numbering systems is the number of digits used. Examples of analog computers are thermometer. it is easy to transfer data to a PC Embedded Computers: Build into appliances such as TVs. FIGURE 9 Converting a Hexadecimal Number into Its Decimal Equivalent Multiply the digits in a hexadecimal number by their position values. The only difference is that we have fewer (binary) or more (hexadecimal) digits to use. As you can see. see and pickup. FIGURE 8 Converting a Binary Number into Its Hexadecimal Equivalent Place the binary digits in groups of four. biomedical research. pressure.

The decimal equivalents for binary. It is not possible to run application software without system software. Refer to the equivalence table in Figure 2. sound card. In Figure 7. calculating and decision making takes place. The easiest conversion is binary to hex. As you examine Figure 1. INTERNAL MEMORY DEVICES The two main types of computer internal memory that you need to clearly understand are Random Access Memory (RAM) and Read Only Memory (ROM) Read Only Memory (ROM) Data stored on ROM is not erased when the power is switched off . DOS. Computers operate in binary and communicate to us in decimal. DISK DRIVES The purpose of a disk drive is to read data from a storage device. Rotate the remainders as shown in Figure above. notice that you carry in groups of 2 in binary and in groups of 16 in hexadecimal. or base‑10. When you count in decimal. Combine your result. It is where all the searching. any number greater than 9 is represented by a sequence of digits. keyboard. hard disk and various other external ports and peripherals all attach directly to it. sorting. and hexadecimal numbers are shown in Figure 1. removable hard disk drive. etc. All of the components and peripherals plug into it. These are the: Control Unit. Central Processing Unit (CPU) :The CPU is the 'brain' of the computer. and the conversion is complete. CPU Components: You need to have a basic understanding of the three main parts of a CPU. Figure 6 illustrates how the same division/remainder technique is used to convert a decimal 453 into its hexadecimal equivalent (1C5). To convert binary to hex. The ROM is used to hold data that cannot be changed by the user. Examples are: Monitor. floppy disk drive. Use the two step division/remainder technique to convert a decimal number into an equivalent number of any base. the CPU. less than or equal to another. Computer manufactures build and supply this system software with the computer system. RAM chips. For example. network interface card. for example. 16 System Software: may be defined as a set of one or more programs designed to control the operation of computer system. decimal. The motherboard houses the ROM chips which store the BIOS instructions. Step 1. binary 11010 is converted into its decimal equivalent (26). Follow these steps to convert decimal to binary. zip disk drive. 5 . Converting a Binary Number into Its Decimal Equivalent Multiply the 1s in a binary number by their position values. Peripherals: A peripheral is any device which connects to the computer and exchanges data with the CPU. the result (10011) is the binary equivalent of a decimal 19.it is permanent.CHAPTER FIVE NUMBERING SYSTEMS AND COMPUTERS We humans use a decimal.It performs the calculations on the data e. Binary to Decimal and Hexadecimal To convert from binary to decimal. mouse. Arithmetic and Logic Unit (ALU) The Control Unit It controls and monitors the hardware attached to the system It controls the input and output of data It controls the flow of data within the CPU The Immediate Access Store or The Primary Memory This holds the data and programs needed at that instant by the Control Unit.this deals with logic and comparisons. It consists of two parts: Arithmetic part . you "carry" to the next position in groups of 10. UNIX and WINDOWS are some of the widely used system software.DVD drive . the graphics card. We know that in decimal. Arithmetic and Logic Unit This is where the computer processes data either by manipulating it or acting upon it. 3 + 2 = 5 Logic part . Divide the number (19. In a decimal‑to‑hex conversion. This two‑step technique is illustrated in Figure 5. Common disk drives that you will come across in your studies are: hard disk drive. CD drive . The CPU reads data and programs kept on the backing storage and store them temporarily in the IAS's memory. CONVERTING NUMBERS FROM ONE BASE INTO ANOTHER Decimal to Binary or Hexadecimal A decimal number can be converted easily into an equivalent number of any base by the use of the division/remainder technique. The speed of the CPU is measured in either Megahertz (MHz) or more commonly now in Gigahertz (GHz). and record the remainder of each division Step 2. This is called 'non-volatile memory'. numbering system. MOTHERBOARD The Motherboard is the central circuit board of your computer. it works out if one value is greater.g. the remainder is always one of the 16 hex digits. Also note that any combination of four binary digits can be represented by one "hex" digit. multiply the 1s in a binary number by their position values then sum the products (see Figure 7). Immediate Access Store. and assign each group of four binary digits a hex equivalent. simply begin with the 1s position on the right and segment the binary number into groups of four digits each (see Figure 8). This data will usually be the software that tells the computer how to load the operating system when it is switched on or re-booted. in this example) repeatedly by 2.

Records DEFINITION: A record is all of the data or information about one person or one thing. Advantages of Magnetic Tape: Compact: A 10-inch diameter reel of tape is 2400 feet long and is able to hold 800. but only temporarily. IR. It is widely used in micro computers. The CPU cannot access a number unless it is in a register or loaded from main memory. Magnetic disks are most popular for direct access storage device The information stored in a disk can be read many times without affecting the stored data. If you save your work. Long term Storage and Re-usability: Magnetic tapes can be used for long term storage and a tape can be used repeatedly with out loss of data. The data is held on a chip. In BCD code a decimal number is represented by four binary bits. AC Accumulator. In the table. When the CPU needs to know the address of a target word that an instruction is using. so data can be accessed and stored faster. For example. the AMASK is AND'ed with the instruction to eliminate the opcode. The cost of storing data in tapes is inexpensive. Stores a previously calculated value or a value loaded from the main memory. BCD 2. The registers are located in the processor. 3 is represented as 0011. AMASK.&) in terms of 0’s and 1’s.Define the following database terms: 1. ASCII . SELF TEST 4 Give the full forms to the following 1. Magnetic Disk: Data is stored on both the surface of the disk. CHARACTER SETS AND DATABASE Codes are used to represent the letters and special characters (such as +. CHAPTER 4 COMPUTER CODES. AMASK Address Mask. Fast: Copying of data is easier and fast. and MBR.*. But if you want to write a new data. +1.Primary key 6 15 . it would be transferred from RAM to the hard disk where it would have been stored safely.Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code: It is pronounced as “ebb-see-dick”. MAR Memory Address Register. So the reading operation is non-destructive. EBCDIC . TIR Temporary Instruction Register. DATABASE DEFINITION: A database is a collection of data or information which is held together in an organised or logical way. 1 A constant that represents the number one. Stores a copy of the instruction loaded from main memory. MBR Memory Buffer Register. It is standard code in large computers. WHAT ARE REGISTERS? Registers are temporary memory units that store words. ASCII 3. all of the information about each cartoon character is stored in a 'row' or 'record'. and are used as follows: Registers: PC: Program Counter. The eight registers in our example are called PC. from a few dozen for a small database up to millions for a large company database. Magnetic Tape: Magnetic tapes are used for large computers like mainframe computers where large volume of data is stored for a longer time. File 3. it stores the edited instruction in the TIR. TIR. Tables can store many records. leaving only the desired address. As the CPU evaluates exactly what an instruction is supposed to do. Micro computers using 8-bit word length use 7-bit to represent the basic code and the 8th bit is used for parity or it may be permanently 0 or 1.Random Access Memory (RAM) RAM is volatile memory. 1. EBCDIC 4. The maximum capacity of such tape is 180 million characters. It is an 8-bit code without parity. 1600 or 6250 characters in each inch of its length. then the existing data is erased from the disk and new data is recorded. Stores the address of the instruction currently being executed. or somehow computed.$. CHARACTER SETS BCD .Records 4. IR Instruction Register. This register contains the address of the place the CPU wants to work with in the main memory.Fields 5.Database 2. Economical: The cost of storing characters is very less as compared to other storage devices. The data disappears if the power is switched off. This register contains the word that was either loaded from main memory or that is going to be stored in main memory. instead of in RAM. AC. Tables Databases store data or information in tables. It is also directly connected to the RAM chips on the motherboard. It is directly connected to the RAM chips on the motherboard. MAR. just like the one below: The table allows you to see all of the records stored in the database. 2.-. Therefore this register is set aside to represent this often used number.Binary Coded Decimal: BCD code is the simplest code to represent decimal numbers.American Standard Code for Information Interchange: ASCII is pronounced as “ask-ee”. AUXILIARY STORAGE DEVICES OR SECONDARY STORAGE Most widely used secondary storage devices are magnetic tapes and magnetic disk. Fields DEFINITION: a 'field' is one piece of data or information about a person or thing. Thus data are stored much more compactly on tape.

display x then y. library books and membership numbers Magnetic Stripe Reader: At POS terminals. As the CD-ROM can be read only we cannot write or make changes into the data contained in it. 6. lightweight. 5. for input to Photo printers Microphone: Recording of voices for presentation software Web Cams: To input moving pictures from a fixed position into a computer AUTOMATIC INPUT DEVICES Magnetic Ink Character Recognition: (MICR) To input magnetic characters. They are more reliable than a floppy disk because they have no moving parts Disadvantages  At the moment. Effective analysis: With the help of flowchart. Barcode Reader: To input code numbers from products at a POS terminal. Here the storage density is very high. Touch Screen: Selecting from a limited list of options Scanner : Entering hard copy images into a computer Digital Camera: Taking photographs for input to computers. ATMs and in security applications 7 14 . 2. input x PROBLEM1 PROBLEM 2 2. input y 3.  They hold more data than a floppy disk and nowadays often more than a CD. Touch screen: for making selections by touching the screen. which is needed for various purposes. drag or move objects. Digital Versatile Disk (DVD): A DVD is similar to a CD in that it is an optical device and that a laser is used to store the data and read the data. Floppy Disk: It is similar to magnetic disk discussed above. Each disk is approximately 4 1/2 inches in diameter and can hold over 600 MB of data. Differentiate between machine language and Assembly language. if yes. Optical Disk: It is the necessity to store large volume of data that has led to the development of optical disk storage medium. What is higher level languages? Why are higher level languages are easier to use.g. It helps the programmer to put efforts more efficiently on that part.7Gb of data.ADVANTAGES OF USING FLOWCHARTS The benefits of flowcharts are as follows: 1. The floppy is a low cost device particularly suitable for personal computer system.etc. What is compiler? Why is it required? 9. such as those found on bank cheques Optical Mark Reader (OMR): To input pencil marks on a form such as a school register. Develop an algorithm and a flowchart that will compute the area of a triangle. the cost per megabyte of storage is more expensive than floppy disks. SELF TEST 3 1. Advantages  They are more compact and portable than floppy disks or CDs/DVDs. DVDs which store data on both sides can hold over 9Gb of data. What is interpreter? How does it differ from compiler? 10. 8. input x 2. MANUAL INPUT DEVICES Keyboard: to enter words and figures. It is now obsolete. 3. Flash Memory: Flash memory storage devices are typically small. Algorithm: Steps: 1. Proper Debugging: The flowchart helps in debugging process. is x > y? 4. removable and rewritable. 11. storage cost is very low and access time is relatively fast. Communication: Flowcharts are better way of communicating the logic of a system to all concerned. Efficient Program Maintenance: The maintenance of program becomes easy with the help of flowchart. Example of a flowchart: Problem 1: Write an algorithm and draw the flowchart for finding the average of two numbers Algorithm: Input: two numbers x and y Output: the average of x and y Steps: 1. Efficient Coding: The flowcharts act as a guide or blueprint during the systems analysis and program development phase. What is computer Language? 3. The program compares the number and reports which one is greater. Optical disks can be divided into the following categories: Compact Disk/ Read Only Memory (CD-ROM): CD-ROM disks are made of reflective metals. average = sum /2 output average Problem 2: Develop a flowchart to sort two numbers in ascending order. What are advantages and disadvantages of machine language . Tracker ball: For use by people with limited motor skills e. What is machine language? Why is it required? 4. Memory sticks are available from 1 Gb up to 8 Gb. 5. What is the difference between source program and object program? 7.Draw a flowchart for a program that input any two numbers. 2. Proper documentation: Program flowcharts serve as a good program documentation. sum = x + y 4. CDs or DVDs. 4. display y then x if no. Optical Character Recognition (OCR): To input text to a computer ready for processing by another software package such as word processors. They can be easily lost INPUT DEVICES These are devices that are used to capture data and send it to a computer. A single sided DVD can store about 4. Mouse: to select icons to run programs or select. people with disabilities Joystick: Used by a pilot to fly an aero plane or flight simulator. problem can be analyzed in more effective way. input y 3. It is cheaper than any other storage devices and is portable. What is assembly language? What are its advantages over machine languages? 6.

Often we see how flowcharts are helpful in explaining the program to others. d. LIEBNITZ MACHINE f. it is better to use connector symbols to reduce the number of flow lines. Hence. There should be no ambiguity in understanding the flowchart. PASCAL MACHINE ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE INTEGRATED CIRCUIT (IC) or e. b. it becomes easy to write the program in any high level language. j. The usual direction of the flow of a procedure or system is from left to right or top to bottom. neat and easy to follow. Avoid the intersection of flow lines. Once the flowchart is drawn. it is correct to say that a flowchart is a must for the better documentation of a complex program. It is useful to test the validity of the flowchart by passing through it with a simple test data. The flowchart should be clear. all necessary requirements should be listed out in logical order. h. These flowcharts play a vital role in the programming of a problem and are quite helpful in understanding the logic of complicated and lengthy problems. c. In drawing a proper flowchart. Only one flow line is used in conjunction with terminal symbol. BABBAGE ANALYTICAL ENGINE VERY LARGE INTEGRATED CIRCUIT (VLIC) 8 13 . Only one flow line should enter a decision symbol.Introduction to flowcharts A flowchart is a graphical representation of an algorithm. Symbols used in flowcharts: ABACUS NAPIER BONE MECHANICAL CALCULATOR SLIDE RULE TRANSISTOR VACUUM TUBES Guidelines while drawing a flowchart: The following are some guidelines in flowcharting: a. one for each possible answer. If the flowchart becomes complex. Only one flow line should come out from a process symbol. should leave the decision symbol. Ensure that the flowchart has a logical start and finish. i. but two or three flow lines.

-. There are mathematical oriented languages like FORTRAN (Formula Translation) and BASIC (Beginners All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code) where very large processing is required. LANGUAGE TRANSLATOR ASSEMBLER An assembler is a program which is used to translate an assembly language program into machine-level equivalent. HIGH LEVEL LANGUAGES High level languages are simple languages that use English and mathematical symbols like +. Advantages of High Level Languages Higher level languages have a major advantage over machine and assembly languages that higher level languages are easy to learn and use. precisely defined i. the person must familiarize himself with the problem & with the way in which it has to be solved. One of the major disadvantages is that assembly language is machine dependent. translate it into machine language and immediately execute it. 12 MAINFRAME COMPUTER UTER COMP P LAPTO PERSONAL COMPUTER PERSONAL DIGITAL ASSISSTANT 9 . It takes one statement of high level languages. the steps must be not be repeated creating confusion. Translation and execution are carried out for each statement. It is called compiler because it compiles machine language instructions for every program instructions of higher level language. The advantage of interpreter compared to compiler is its fast response to changes in source program. High level languages are problem-oriented languages because the instructions are suitable for solving a particular problem. The disadvantage of interpreter is that it is time consuming method because each time a statement in a program is executed then it is first translated. for its program construction.Disadvantages: 1. Generality: An algorithm should be able to solve all problems of a particular type (for all inputs) for which it is designed. Thus compiled machine language program runs much faster than an interpreted program. Interpreters are easy to write and do not require large memory in computer. / etc. Characteristics / Properties of an Algorithm: Finiteness: An algorithm should terminate (stop) after a finite number of steps. It is because that they are similar to the languages used by us in our day to day life. %.e. It scans the entire program first and then translates it into machine code. Before any problem can be solved using a computer. The program in assembly language is termed as source code & its machine language equivalent is called object code. Higher Level Language --> (Compile) ---> Program --> Machine Language Program INTERPRETER An interpreter is another type of program translator used for translating high level language into machine language. After this program is converted to machine languages by the compiler it is called object program or code. The programs written by the programmer in high level language is called source program or code. COMPILER It is a program translator that translates the instruction of a high level language to machine language. Definiteness: An algorithm should be simple. It eliminates the need for a separate compilation after changes to each program. A program written for one computer might not run in other computers with different hardware configuration. ALGORITHM AND FLOWCHARTS Algorithms: Algorithm is a step by step procedure to solve a particular problem.

It is considered to the first generation language. Some of the basic natural languages that we are familiar with are English. Low Level Languages The term low level means closeness to the way in which the machine has been built. As an example. It is very difficult to program in machine language. Ex. Mouse. It is efficient for the computer but very inefficient for programmers. On the other hand COBOL is used for business applications. We also call it machine code and it is written as strings of 1's (one) and 0’s (zero). The set of symbols and letters forms the Assembly Language and a translator program is required to translate the Assembly Language to machine language. and COBOL etc. Therefore some combination of letters can be used to substitute for number of machine codes. on storage media. The programmer of a virus is known as a virus author. Managing programs: Single user/multitasking operating systems allow a user to use more than one program in a computer at one time 4. Providing file management and other utilities 8. Central Processing Unit. 3. Visual Display Unit. Write True or False: (a) Secondary memory is called Auxiliary memory. You should know that computer can handle numbers and letter. Low Level languages are further divided in to Machine language and Assembly language. Hindi. etc. McAfee Virus Scan. 5. for scientific application FORTRAN and C languages are used. Providing user interface: You interact with software through its user interface. 6. The programmer has to remember a lot of codes to write a program which results in program errors. Spreadsheet. SIGNS OF A VIRUS INFECTION:  An unusual message or image is displayed on the computer screen  An unusual sound or music plays randomly  The available memory is less than what should be available  A program or file suddenly is missing  An unknown program or file mysteriously appear 1. Database CHAPTER 3 TYPES OF COMPUTER PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE AND TRANSLATORS WHAT IS LANGUAGE? It is a system of communication between you and me. The user interface controls how you enter data and instructions and how information is displayed on the screen. Configuring devices: A driver. This translator program is called `Assembler'. Low level languages are machine oriented. These are Low Level Languages and High Level Languages. BASIC. The programmer has to know details of hardware to write program. It is considered to be a second-generation language. Operating System. Mac OS X: Linux: Palm OS: Symbian OS VIRUSES AND ANTIVIRUS PROGRAMS COMPUTER VIRUS A computer virus is a potentially damaging computer program that affects or infects a computer negatively by altering the way the computer works without the user’s knowledge or permission. Antivirus programs protect the computer against viruses by identifying and removing any computer virus found in the memory. So there are programming languages specially developed so that you could pass your data and instructions to the computer to do specific job. a program instruction may look like this: 1011000111101. is a small program that tells the operating system how to communicate with a specific device 7. 2. It does not need any translator program. Your computer will not understand any of these natural languages for transfer of data and instruction. 3. Joystick. Norton Antivirus. These are programming languages. or on incoming files. Which of the following do you think is hardware and which is software Keyboard. Administering security TYPES OF OPERATING SYSTEM Command-line Interface – text only Menu-driven interface – text and menus Graphical user interface – buttons. 11 10 . Because this is one-to-one translator between assembly language program and its corresponding machine language program. (d) Mouse is an output device. text. Assembly Language has the same efficiency of execution as the machine level language. 2. For example.FUNCTIONS OF OPERATING SYSTEMS 1.It is not an easy language for you to learn because of its difficult to understand. Floppy Disk. images. short for device driver. Word Processor. Scheduling jobs: The operating system determines the order in which jobs are processed. It is easier to correct errors and modify program instructions. (a) Machine Language Machine Language is the only language that is directly understood by the computer. 3.It is difficult to debug the program. So instructions or programs are written in a particular language based on the type of job. Advantage The only advantage is that program of machine language run very fast because no translation program is required for the CPU. 2. Disadvantages 1. Starting a computer Booting – the process of starting or restarting a computer Cold boot – turning on a computer that has been turned-off completely/properly Warm boot – process of using the operating system to restart a computer 2. (c) A CD-ROM is read only memory. Advantages: 1. Managing memory: The purpose of memory management is to optimize the use of random access memory (RAM).The symbolic programming of Assembly Language is easier to understand and saves a lot of time and effort of the programmer. (b) Assembly Language It is the first step to improve the programming structure. Controlling a network 9. PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES There are two major types of programming languages. animated elements EXAMPLES OF OPERATING SYSTEM DOS. Windows XP. You must have heard names like FORTRAN. (e) Printer is an important output device. (b) The magnetic tapes and magnetic disk are primary memories.

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