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Wind-Turbine technology.pdf

Wind-Turbine technology.pdf

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Published by Deepak Ashokan
Wind-Turbine technology.pdf
Wind-Turbine technology.pdf

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Published by: Deepak Ashokan on Feb 26, 2013
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Figure 4.7 illustrates the main structural parameters and various stresses or forces act-
ing on a section of a beam. Te structural parameters are described as follows:

Webs

Foam

Gelcoat

Glass fibre mats and epoxy

Figure 4.6 Blade fabrication details.

126 ◾ Wind Turbine Technology

EI1 = bending stifness about the frst principal axis
EI2 = bending stifness about second principal axis
GIv = torsional stifness
XE = distance of the point of elasticity from the reference point shown in
Figure 4.6
Xm = distance of the center of the blade mass from the reference point
Xs = distance of the shear center from the reference point
β = angle of twist of airfoil section measured with respect to the reference line
v = angle between chord line and frst principal axis

Te point of elasticity is defned as the point where the normal plane will not give
rise to a bending moment of the beam. Te s point where the shear stress is con-
centrated will not give rise to a defection under shear stress and will not rotate the
airfoil. Te moment of inertia (I) about one of the principal axes plays a key role in
the blade defection. Te impacts of critical quantities such longitudinal stifness
(EA) and moment of centrifugal stifness (EDXYR) defned in terms of reference
coordinate system on the blade must be described in detail. Te reference coordi-
nate system (XRYR) is illustrated in Figure 4.7.

EA = longitudinal stifness
ESXR = moment of stifness about the axis XR
(XR, YR) = reference coordinate system as indicated by black dot
EIXR = moment of stifness about axis XR (Figure 4.8)
EIYR moment of stifness about axis YR (Figure 4.8)
EDXYR = moment of centrifugal stifness

Chord

EI1

EI2

Second principal axis

Symbols:

First principal axis

β + ν

c/4

Xs

XE

v = Angle between first principal axis
and chord line.

c = Chord length
XS´ Xe and Xm various force components
acting on the blade

EI2 = Second principal axis
EL1 = First principal axis

Xm

ν

Reference point

Figure 4.7 Structural parameters and stresses.

Wind Turbine Blade Design Requirements ◾ 127

Using these quantities, the point of elasticity PE (XE,YE) can be calculated in the
reference system as:

XE = [ESYR]

(4.19)

YE = [ESXR]

(4.20)

Using E (Young’s modulus) and ρ (material density), the point (XE,YE) represents
the center of mass for the section illustrated in Figure 4.8. If the moment of stif-
ness inertia and moments of centrifugal stifness are moved to the coordinate
system designated as (X´,Y´), which is parallel to the reference system (XR,YR) as
shown in Figure 4.8, the expression for the point of elasticity can be easily writ-
ten. Te angle of attack (α) between the X´ axis and frst principal axis and the
bending stifness about the principal axes can be calculated from these equations.
Also the stress equation can be written as:

Σ (x,y) = [E (x,y)][ε (x,y)]

(4.21)

where the expression for the strain can be written as:

Σ (x,y) = M1 y/[EI1] – M2 x/[EI2] + N/[EA]

(4.22)

where the constant σ, ε, and N are positive for tension and negative for compression
and the normal Force N can computed from the loadings on the blade. Tese param-
eters now can determine the main structural characteristics. Since a wind turbine
blade is generally very stif in torsion, the torsional defection is normally neglected.
Shear center and the torsional rigidity can be calculated using computer analysis.

α

yE

PE

XE

y

X

Figure 4.8 Forces acting on wind turbine blades.

128 ◾ Wind Turbine Technology

Various structural data for a 30-m turbine blade used on a 2-MW Tjaereborg wind
turbine are summarized in Table 4.8. Defections, various forces acting on the
blade, and bending moments of the blade are shown in Figure 4.9. Note the coordi-
nate system used in Figure 4.9 is diferent from the system shown in Figure 4.8.

4.3.9.2 Shearing Forces and Bending Moments
in Presence of External Forces

Te magnitudes of shearing forces (Tz) and Ty) and bending moments (My and Mz)
acting on a blade in the presence of external forces are diferent from those in the
absence of the external forces (py and pz). See Figure 4.10. Te shearing forces and
the bending moments can be calculated using the following equations [3]:

[dTz/dx] = [– pz(x)] + [m(x) d2

U(x)/dz2

]

(4.23

[dTy/dx] = [– py(x)] + [m(x) d2

U(x) / dy2

]

(4.24)

[dMy/dx] = Tz

(4.25)

Table 4.8 Structural Parameters of 2 MW Tjaereborg High-Performance
Wind Turbine

Radius
(m

EA
(GN)

EI1
(MNm)2

EI2
(MNm)2

GIy
(MNm2)

Mass
(Kg/m)

XE
(mm)

Xm
(mm)

Xs
(mm)

v
(deg)

β+V
(gdeg)

1.836.012000

12000

7500

1700

00

00

00

00

00

3.06.14 1630

1725

362

330

2

2

0

5.4

14.4

4.55.82 1080

1940

328

389

54

159

11

0.94 9.44

6.05.10 623

1490

207

347

59

165

13

1.3

9.30

9.04.06 255

905

92.8

283

63

170

18

1.09 8.09

12.03.33 129

557

47.7

235

58

158

15

0.86 6.86

15.02.76 64.8

349

24.7

196

51

137

15

086 5.86

18.02.33 32.4

221

12.9

166

45

121

16

0.91 4.91

21.01.83 15.2

131

6.23

172

41

110

17

0.83 3.83

24.01.21 6.04 65.7

257

90.3

40

102

16

0.63 2.63

27.00.63 1.82 28.1

0.84

52.6

47

108

14

0.16 1.16

30.00.21 0.32 9.5

0.18

24.2

82

136

10

–052–052

Wind Turbine Blade Design Requirements ◾ 129

[dMz/dx] = Ty

(4.26)

where m is the mass and d2

Uz/dz2

and d2

Uy/dy2

are the accelerations along the z
and y directions, respectively, and U(x) is the velocity in the x direction as illus-
trated in Figure 4.10. If the blade is at equilibrium, the fnal (inertial) terms on
the right sides of Equations (4.23) and (4.24) approach zero. Although these equa-
tions have been taken from Walker [4], the expressions can be derived using the
Newton’s second law on an infnitesimal section of beam and using the parameters

y

z

x

(a) Locations of various axes of the blade

M

T

M + dM

T + dT

pdx

(b) Various bending moments and forces acting on the blade

Figure 4.9 Defections and bending moments.

x

y

z

R

N

pz (x) [N/m]

ii + 1

Figure 4.10 Shearing forces and bending moments.

130 ◾ Wind Turbine Technology

illustrated in Figure 4.9(B). Newton’s second law is best suited to solve fuid dynam-
ics problems.

4.4 Application of Beam Theory to Various
Turbine Blade Confgurations

Aerodynamic studies performed by the author indicate that beam theory can be
applied successfully to design various blade confgurations. Tis section describes
how a rotor blade whose outer contour adheres strictly to aerodynamic consider-
ations is fabricated to be sufciently strong and stif to withstand various forces
under unusual wind conditions. Materials used in the past such as wood, alumi-
num, glass fber-reinforced plastic (GFRP), and carbon-fber-reinforced plastic
(CFRP) have not demonstrated the required strength and stifness under extreme
wind environments.

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