Hydraulic Circuit Design & Analysis

Dr. Sunil Jha

MEL334: Low Cost Automation

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Design Considerations
Safety of Operation
Pressure and Temperature ratings Interlocks for sequential operations Emergency shutdown features Power failure locks Operation speed Environment conditions
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MEL334: Low Cost Automation

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Safe and Functional Access to parts need repair or adjustment Design to keep min operational cost Design to prevent and remove contamination.Design Considerations Meet functional requirements Meet required performance specification Life expectancy same as machine Facilitate good maintenance practice Compatibility with electrical and mechanical components Withstand operational hazards MEL334: Low Cost Automation 3 Design Considerations Efficiency of Operation Keep system Simple. MEL334: Low Cost Automation 4 2 .

5 sec What Size of Cylinder is needed? Force known. Cylinder Area & Operating Pressure must be selected. F = PA Standard bore and rod size cylinders MEL334: Low Cost Automation 6 3 .Linear Circuits Simple reciprocating circuit • Reservoir • Strainer • Pump • Flexible coupling • Electric Motor • Connectors • Relief valve • DCV – 4 way • Hyd. Cylinder MEL334: Low Cost Automation 5 Circuit Design Approach What are the specifications of the job? Force requirement – 8 kN Length of work stroke – 15 cm Speed of piston and rod assembly – 0.

Circuit Design Approach Cylinder Selection Reasoning Large Diameter Cylinder Operates at Low Pressure Requires Bigger pump for speed Small Diameter Cylinder Operates at High Pressure Smaller pump give speed Cylinder selected = 50 mm bore Find Pressure and then select suitable pump MEL334: Low Cost Automation 7 Circuit Design Approach What Capacity Pump is needed? Max Cylinder Speed required Flow rate = (Cyl Area)x(Stroke)/(time) Pump selection What size of Electric Motor needed? Calculate power required to run Pump Consider efficiency of pump Shaft size. type and electric source MEL334: Low Cost Automation 8 4 .

type and electric source MEL334: Low Cost Automation 9 Circuit Design Approach Size of pump inlet? Inlet flow velocity = 60-150 cm/sec Size of Discharge tubing? Outlet flow velocity = 200 – 450 cm/sec Relief valve selection Pressure range Valve port size Direction Control valve Based on function MEL334: Low Cost Automation 10 5 .0 times the pump capacity What size of Electric Motor needed? Calculate power required to run Pump Consider efficiency of pump Shaft size.5-3.Circuit Design Approach What Size reservoir should be used? 2.

Control of a Single Acting Hydraulic Cylinder Two Position Three Way Manually Actuated Spring Offset DCV MEL334: Low Cost Automation 11 Control of a Double Acting Hydraulic Cylinder Three Position Four Way Manually Actuated Spring Centered DCV MEL334: Low Cost Automation 12 6 .

Regenerative Circuit Qt Pressurized fluid discharge returned to system Speed up extending speed Retraction bypass DCV Extend Retract Qr Qp Qt = Qp + Qr MEL334: Low Cost Automation 13 Drilling Machine Application Spring centered position – Rapid spindle advance Left envelope – Slow feed Right envelope – Retracts piston MEL334: Low Cost Automation 14 7 .

increased pressure opens unloading valve to unload low pressure pump.PUMP Unloading circuit Unloading valve unloads the pump at the ends of extending and retracting strokes As well as in spring centered position of DCV MEL334: Low Cost Automation 15 Double Pump Hydraulic System Punch Press Initial Low Pressure high flow rate req. MEL334: Low Cost Automation Relief Valve Unload Valve 16 8 . When punching operation begins.

17 MEL334: Low Cost Automation Hydraulic Cylinder Sequence Circuit Left Env: Left Cyl extends completely and then Right Cyl extend. MEL334: Low Cost Automation 18 9 . Counterbalance valve is set to open at slightly above the pressure required to hold the piston up.Counterbalance Valve To keep vertically mounted cylinder in upward position while pump is idling. Right Env: Right Cyl retracts fully and then Left Cyl retracts.

MEL334: Low Cost Automation 20 10 . MEL334: Low Cost Automation 19 Locked Cylinder using Pilot Check Valves Lock Cylinder so that piston can not move by external load.Automatic Cylinder Reciprocating System Two sequence valve sensing strokes completion by corresponding pressure build up.

Cylinder Synchronizing Circuit Cylinders connected in parallel Loads identical – Moves in exact synchronization Loads Not exactly Identical (practical situation) Cylinders also not exactly identical (packing Friction) MEL334: Low Cost Automation 21 Cylinder Synchronizing Circuit Cylinders connected in Series For two cylinder to be synchronized Piston Area of Cyl 2 = Piston Area of Cyl 1Rod area MEL334: Low Cost Automation 22 11 .

Cylinder Synchronizing Circuit Pump pressure should overcome load acting on both cylinders.P2(Ap1-Ar1) = F1 P2Ap2. For the Cylinder Synchronizing Circuit. P1Ap1. what pump pressure is required if the cylinder loads are 22kN each and cylinder 1 has a piston area of 65 cm2? Ap2 = Ap1-Ar1 P3 = 0 P1Ap1 = F1+F2 MEL334: Low Cost Automation 24 12 .P3(Ap2-Ar2) = F2 MEL334: Low Cost Automation 23 Cylinder Synchronizing Circuit Q.

If Cyl experience excessive resistance.Fail Safe Circuit Designed to prevent injury to operator or damage to equipment. Prevent Cylinder from accidentally falling on an Operator in the event of: Hydraulic line ruptures Person inadvertently operates manual override on Pilot actuated DCV when pump not operating MEL334: Low Cost Automation 25 Fail Safe Circuit with Overload Protection DCV-1 controlled by Push button valve-2. This drains pilot line of Valve1. causing it to return to spring offset mode. When Overload Valve -3 is in spring offset mode. Nothing happen if push button 2 pressed unless overload valve shifted manually into blocked configuration. it drains the pilot line of valve 1. MEL334: Low Cost Automation 26 13 . Valve-4 actuates overload valve -3.

MEL334: Low Cost Automation 27 Speed Control of a Hydraulic Motor Hydraulic Motor – Rotary Motion Spring Center Position Motor hydraulically locked Left Envelop Rotates Clockwise Right Envelop Rotates Anticlockwise MEL334: Low Cost Automation 28 14 . operator must depress both manually actuated valves.Two hand Safety Circuit Designed to protect an operator from injury. Any one button prevents operation. For circuit to function.

acts as a pump. MEL334: Low Cost Automation 30 15 . Stopping motor. Provisions should be made for discharge fluid from motor to be returned to Tank.Speed Control of a Hydraulic Motor MEL334: Low Cost Automation 29 Hydraulic Motor Braking System Hydraulic motor may be driving Machine having a large inertia. Circuit is designed to provide fluid to the motor while it is pumping. This would stop motor without damaging. Creates Flywheel effect.

32 MEL334: Low Cost Automation 16 .Hydraulic Motor Braking System MEL334: Low Cost Automation 31 Hydrostatic Transmission Open Circuit Drives Pump draws fluid from reservoir Pump output directed to Hydraulic Motor Discharge from Motor into reservoir Closed Circuit Drive Exhaust oil from the motor returned directly to pump inlet.

MEL334: Low Cost Automation 33 Closed Circuit Reversible Direction Hydrostatic Transmission MEL334: Low Cost Automation 34 17 .Closed Circuit One-Direction Hydrostatic Transmission Closed Circuit that allows only one direction of motor rotation. Torque capacity of motor adjusted by pressure setting of the relief valve. Motor speed varied by changing pump displacement.

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