Contents Preface Introduction Dedication
VIII viii


Chapter One


ix IX XIll Xlll


,. ".

1.1 The Origin of the Alphabet 1.2 The letter A 1.3 The Four Vowels 1.4 The Letter Head 1.5 The Punctuation System . 1.6 Ending a Sentence 1.7 The Order of Strokes 1.8 The Thirty Consonants 1.9 Place of Articulation 1.10 Pronunciation 1.11 Tibetanized Sanskrit Alphabet .1.12 Combining Consonants with Vowels 1.13 Examples 1.16 Reading Exercise 1.16.a The letter Ba 1.16.b Example Exercise l.a Er;erci~e l.b Drill Er;erci~e

1 1 1 2 2 2 2 4 4 5 7 8 9 10

(n in ,11






Chapter Two
2.17 Consonantal Denominations 2.18 The Root Consonant 2.19 The 10 Suffixes 2.29 Reading Exercise 2.31 Post-Siffixes Exercise EXlircise 2.a Exercise 2.b Drill 2.32 Prfixes 2.38 Drill 2.39 Passive Consonants 2.40 Subjoined Consonant5 Exercise 2.c 2.e Exercise 2.d Drill 2.46 Surmounted Letters Exercise.2.e Exercise 2./Drill , Exercise 2.g , 2.53 Irregular Pronunciation 2.54 Chart of Prefixed Consonantal Denominations 12 12 13 13 13 13 16 16 17 17 17 17 18 18 18 18 22 22 22 22 23 23 26 26 26 26 27 27 30 30 30 30 131 131 31 31 33 33

Chapter Three
3.55 Articles ArticIes 3.59 Noun

34 35


f'. f'-

....~-. ....


3.60 Examples of Simple Nouns 3.61 Examples Complex Nouns 3.65 Ending in Special Suffixes 3.66 Dimunitive Nouns 3.67 Dissyllable Nouns 3.68 Derived Noun Stems 3.69 Nominal Compounds 3.70 Synonymous Compound 3.71 Abstract Noun Compound 3.72 Number 3.72 Gender 3.77 Adjectives 3.80 Degree of Comparison 3.81 Adverbial Superlatives 3.82 Prenominal Adjectives 3.83 Numerals 3.85 Ordinal Numbers 3.86 Aggregative Numerals 3.87 Fractional Numerals 3.88 Multiplicative Numerals 3.89 Approximate Numerals 3.90 Measurements

36 37 39 39 40 40 41 42 42 43 43 45 46 47 47 47 49 49 49 50 50 50

Chapter Four
4.91 Cases 4.92 Nominative 4.93 Accusative 4.94 Instrumental 4.95 Dative 4.96 Ablative 4.97 Genitive 4.98 Locative 4.99 Duration 4.99.a 12 Lunar Months 4.100. Vocative PART TWO 52 52 52 53 54 54 55 55 56 56 57

Lesson One
1.1 Consonant Drill 1.2 Pronouns 1.2.a Personal Pronouns 1.2.b Possessive Pronouns 1.2.e Demonstartive Pronouns 1.3 Auxiliary Verb 1.4 The Infinitive 1.4.a Examples 1.5 Word Order 1.6 Vocabulary 1.7 Examples 1.8 Exercises ofLesson One 1.8.b Seven days of the Week 1.8.c and d Exercises 1.8.e Cardinal Numbers 1.9 Some Useful Expressions 60 63 63 63 64 65 65 65 66 66 67 68 68 68 69 70









Lesso n Two
2.1 Vowel Dr;!! Drill 2.2 Nouns 2.3 Vocabulary 2.4 Auxiliary Verb "la;' yin iiia;' 2.4.a Examples 2.5 Exerc ises a,b, c ofLesson Two of Lesson The 12 General Months The 12 Tibetan Months Exercises e and f 2.7 Some Useful Expressions 71
72 72

73 74 75 76 76 77 77

Lesso n Three Less on
3.1 The surmounted and Subjoined Consonants Drill 3.2 The Use of Combined Auxiliary Verbs The Examples 3.4 Tibetan Verb 3.4.a Vobaculary Verbs 3.5 Vocabulary Nouns 3.6 Expressions on the Notion of Time 3.7 Exercises ofLesson Three of Lesson 3.8 Some Useful Expressions

..... -: -,,"'


79 80 80 81 82 82 84 87 88


Lesso n Four
4.1 Substitution Drill 4.2 The Combined Auxiliary Verb "l'\'''''\' yod red 4.3 The Combined Auxiliary Verb "i"'r:>.5,"1 yod 'dug Ui,\·rl.5,"1 4.4 Negation 4.5 Examples of Affirmative and Negative Sentences 4.6 Participation Drills 4.7 Vocabulary 4.8 Interrogative Negatives 4.9 Exercises ofLesson Four of Lesson 4.10 Useful Expressions

;:~ ;:"

"l"''-' '

89 89 90 91 91 94 94 95 96 98

Lesso n Five Less on
,L' .


5.1 Interrogatives 5.2 General Interrogative Pronouns 5.3 Participation Drills ofInterrogative Sentences 5.4 Vocabulary 5.5 Adjectives 5.6 :Adjectival Interrogatives Adjectival 5.7 Examples of Adjectival Interrogatives 5.8 Exercises ofLesson Five ofLesson 5,9 Useful Expressions

99 99 99 102 103 103 104 105 107




Lesso Six Le sso nn Six
es 6.1 The Seven r1l'~il\' la don Particl 6.1 The Seven "l'~il\' la don Particl es datives 6.2 Examples of accusative, locativ and datives 6.2 Examples of accusative, locativee and resssion Expresion 6.3 The Use of Honorific 6.3 The Use of Honorific Exp 6.4 Honorific Nouns 6.4 Honorific No uns 6.5 Monosyllabic Honorific Verbs 6.5 Monosyllabic Honorific Verbs 6.8 Vobaculary 6.8 Vobaculary 6.9 Examples 6.9 Examples 6.10Exercisses at Les sonnSix 6.10 Exerci es at Lesso Six Tibetan quotations Tibetan quotations 6.11 UsefullEx pre ssi onss6.11 Usefu Expre ssion 108 108 108 108 110 110 110 110 112 112 113 113 114 114 115 115 116 116 117 117

~: ~: t

Lesso n Seven Le sso n Seven
7.1 Tense 7.1 Tensess 7.2 The Simple Presen Tense 7.2 The Simple Presentt Tense 7.3 The Simple Past Tense 7.3 The Simple Pas t Tense 7.4 The Simple Future Tense 7.4 The Simple Future Tense 7.5 The Presen Perfec 7.5 The Presentt Perfectt 7.6 The Past Perfec Tense 7.6 The Past Perfectt Tense Future Perfec Tense 7.7 7.7 The Future Perfec t Tense Conditional Perfec Tense 7.8 7.8 The Conditional Perfect Tense 7.9 Table Tense Terminations 7.9 Table of Tense Terminations 7.11 Kinship Terms 7.11 Kinship Ter ms 7.12 Exercises Lesson Seven 7.12 Exercises at Lesson Seven 7.13 Useful Expressions 7.13 Useful Expressions
118 118 118 118 119 119 119 119 120 120 121 121 121 121 121 121 121 121 122 122 123 123 125 125

Lesson Eigh t Lesso Eig ht
8.1 Progressive 8.1 Progressive 8.2 Present Progressive 8.2 Presen Progressive 8.3 Pas tt Progressive 8.3 Pas Progressive 8.4 Future Progressive 8.4 Future Progressive 8.5 Future Conditionall Progressive 8.5 Future Conditiona Progressive ssive 8.6 Presentt Perfectt Progressive 8.~ Presen Perfec Progre gres~ive Perfectt Progres~ive 8.7 Pastt Perfec Pro 8.7 Pas 8.8 Future Perfectt Progressive 8.8 Future Perfec Progressive 8.9 Conditionall PerfecttProgressive 8.9 Conditiona Perfec Progressive 8.10 Vocabulary 8.10 Vocabulary 8.11 Counting Over 100 8.11 Counting Over 100 8.12 Exercises of Lesson Eight 8.12 Exercises ofLesson Eight dita 8.13 EleganttSayingss By Sakya Pandila 8.13 Elegan Saying By Sakya Pan
126 126 126 126 126 126 127 127 127 127 127 127 128 128

128 128

129 129 129 129 130 130 130 130 133 133

Lesso n Nine Le sso n Nine

ormationnof Adver. ormatio of Adver. 9.1 ADverbbof Place 9.1 ADver of Place 9.2 Adverbbof Manner r 9.2 Adver of Manne 9.3 Adverbbof Timee 9.3 Adver of Tim 9.4 Vocabulary 9.4 Vocabulary 9.5 Classical Tibetan 9.5 Classical Tibetan 9.6 Verbbto be in Classical Tibetan 9.6 Ver to be in Classical Tibetan 9.7 Examples of Comppletive Terminations, 9.7 Examples of Com letive Terminations, 9,8 Classical Tibetan Readingg 9.8 Classical Tibetan Readin 9.11 Exercises of Lesson Nine e 9.11 Exercises ofLesson Nin

-- ----------

134 134 134 134 134 134 135 135 136 136 137 137 137 137 137 137 138 138 139 139

vii 9.12 Elegant Sayings by Sakya Pandita 141

Less on Ten
10.1 Conjunction 10.7 Disjunctive Conjunctions 10.8 Examples of Conjunctions of Contrast & Similarity 10.9 Vocabulary 10.10 Classical Tibetan Reading 10.11 Exercises of Lesson Ten ofLesson 10.12 Elegant Sayings By Sakya Pandita 143 144 145 146 147 147 150

Less on Eleve n
11.1 The Continuative Particles 11.5 Examples of Continuative Particles 11.6 Gerundial Terminations 11.8 Instrument of Reason 11.9 The Ablative of Reason 11.10 11.1 0 Vocabulary 11.11 Classical Tibetan Reading (Life Of Buddha) 11.12 Exercises ofLesson Eleven ofLesson 11.13 Elegant Sayings by Sakya Pandita 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 161


Less on Twel ve

'-~ ,~,-'

,l. c::'.

12.1 Particle ;;;'. na Emphasizing a Special Point 12.2 Express a Condition 12.3 Interrogative Reasoning 12.4 Express Contradiction 12.5 Making a Wish 12.6 Expresing a Doubt 12.7 Expression of Certainty 12.8 Emphatic Expression ~. ni 12.9 Vocabulary 12.10 Classical Tibetan Reading (Life of Buddha) 12.11 Exercises of Lesson Twelve ofLesson 12.12 Conversation Between the Prince & his Charioteer

162 162 162 163 163 163 164 164 165 165 166 167

Less on Thirteen
L-·.': ~.-~.


~:1., ~~.


13.1 Abilitative Forms 13.3 Expressions of Obligatory Forms 13.4 Permissive Expressions 13.5 Causative Expressions 13.6 Idiomatic Expressions of Genitive Datives 13.7 The Use of ,\~l!f dgos and r::>.~'\. 'dod ,\~'!f r.>.~'\. 13.8 Benedictive Expressions 13.9 Vocabulary 13.10 Classical Tibetan Reading (Life of Buddha) 13.11 Exercises ofLesson Thirteen ofLesson 13.12 Sayings of the Buddha

170 171 172 173 174 175 175 176 176 177 179

6ln finitiv e ~..10 Exercises ofLesson Fourteen isliSay ional Buddhist!Sayings 14.2 Exclamatory Expressions 14.\·tj· byedp a Verbal Compound 15.7 Examples 200 200 201 201 201 203 204 205 PART THREE List of Verbs .5 Examples 14.@c.2 Relatives Clauses 16.11 Elegant sayings by Sakya Pandita 189 190 191 191 192 193 194 196 196 197 199 Lesso n Sixte en 16.8 Vocabulary 14..3 Examples 16.6 Adjectival and Adverbial Clauses 14.1 Verbal Compounds 15."I.tj' myong ba "'. 15.1 Passive Voice 16..2 Examples of Verbal Compounds ofS".9 Classical Tibetan Reading (Life of Buddha) ofLesson 14.11 Tradit 180 181 182 182 183 184 184 185 186 188 Lesso n Fifte en 15.viii Lesso n Four teen 14.3 The Use ofS.7 Beginning a sentence in Classical Tibetan 15.10 Exercises ofLesson Fifteen 15.1 Various Auxiliaries 14.4 The Verbs of Becoming -5c.5 Examples 16.4 The Imperative 14.4 Prenominal Adjectives 16.7 Alphabetical Notation 14. 15.6 Derivation Word Classes 16.8 Completive Dual Syllables 15.·t r 15.5 The Auxiliary Verb . rgyu and "'I' ya 15.9 Classical Tibetan Reading (Life of Buddha) of Lesson 15.

.) :. Learn ing Tibetan language is key to understand the Tibetan people. His Eminence Chogay n school text book under the auspices of the Council of Tibetan Education in Dharamsala. !..IX Pref ace . I have had a thorough traditional training in both school and monastery under the leading Tibetan linguists.} 1. A cassette tape to go with this book is being prepared for the benefit of those who cannot find a suitable teacher. Numerous courses on 'Classical Tibetan' are taught at academic institutions around the world by people who do not speak or understand the spoken language. who want to acquire a good working knowledge of the language in a short time.. It is important to remind ourselves that the scribal.. this and written Tibetan.:~. read. Unlike Sanskrit.} }. My teache tutelage of some of the Trichen Rinpoche was on the board of writers who designed the Tibeta r. I have been Tibetans some years now and this book is an outcome of my own interes teaching Tibetan to nont in teaching the language. Grammatically there is no great differe nce between the spoken and written language.S: 0.v· f :.~'IJ. Subdu e your fear by learning something new every day. This Tibetan language course handb ook 'A Primer of the Tibetan langua ge' is designed for people . i. poets and grammarians alive today. Tibetan language is a living and progressive language which is spoken in many countries in the Himalayan region. I have written this manual because Tibetan is my mother tongue and I am well versed on the subject. as far as this is possible in print. learnin special reason which only a keen student will be able to feel within themse g Tibetan will have a lves.~'lJ' rtag 'jug. Graduates of such courses are left frustrated and confused as they cannot speak and understand a language they supposed to have studied several years at University level.. and who will probably be working at home without a teacher. (l. write and most important of all. 'A Prime r of the Tibetan Language' begins with the Tibetan alphabet and the sound system of the language. it is essential to use this book stage by stage according to the lessons. A separate lists of verbs is also provided in the three tenses and imperative so that so student can examine the pattern of spellin g change caused by consonantal gender harmony called ''1'''' 'I)"'. religion and history.l ~.uition. In order to maxim ise the enjoyment and your endeavour. I have used it for the various Tibetan language classes I have conducted over the years and have proved to be effective as teaching material for both class and individual t.. There is nothing in this book that the so-cal led classical Tibetan courses would not have covered.:- tBi tB! 0J. t: / 1: ~ . When you are not with the Tibetan people you will find before you a mine of Buddhist knOWledge and wisdom preserved in the scriptures.:-. Understanding the grammatical rules and their applic ation in will give textual scholars a greater access to the use of language as a spoke the spoken language n language. It will enable those with no previous knowledge of Tibetan to reach the point where they can communicate effectively and can read.convention was created to do service to the spoken language. not a barrier to speak. People who are interested in Buddhism will find the importance of Tibetan language and appreciate the rich Tibetan literature on Buddhism and related subjects. Even if you know how to read Roma nized Tibetan and know few of its grammatical rules. a of gramm ar are explained and illustrated.~' r. Completing this course will bring you closer to the Tibetan people whene ver they are around and you will become part of their unique culture.. Studying Tibetan will also help to preserve the Tibetan culture which is facing great threat under the repressive policy of the communist regime in Tibet. Students who successfully complete this course will not put through such difficulties. their way of life.S: :. there are exercises with vocab ulary lists and useful expressions. This manual strictly follows the unique grammatical rules which makes this language so different from any other language. This will provide you with an eye into a new culture.. Originally written as a textbook for an intensive Tibeta handbook covers the essential elements of Tibetan grammar of both spoken n language course.1 . / .:~ b. While many learn Asian languages for financial reasons.. In each lesson.. you are not a Tibeta n language scholar if you do not know how to speak the language as spoke n among Tibetans..'.. you will be able to feel and think in the language. write and converse on a range of topics. (l.1 '_'. The only difference is that you will know how to speak.~.

Drogmi Lotsawa Sha ky a Yeshi. Thonmi together with the king he had already began in India. wh o all belonged to the old Tibetan e see these three nam es in the colophthe opportunity to read any Tibetan translation will frequetnly bts an) . Thonm min iste r of the famous Tibetan kin i g Songtsen Gampo (srong blsan sga Sambota. Rlags kyi . it gave a much needed motiva tion amongst the Tibetans to sen d more Tibetans to study Buddha na. Sum eu pa primarily deals with 'jug pa discusses the unique conson of the various dependent and independent particles. so it is a mistake to ge pow erf ul expression of Tibet's indepe family'. Within several decades. ' . Of his eight great grammatical treatises the eight fold case system and the uses kyi 'jug pa are extant today. kya others. many Bud Ka wa PaI tse k. The entire Tibetan Buddhist supervisio n of Buton Rin poc he and xylographs. the intelligent Tib eta n in early 7th century. As a result. The y were responsible for Tib et and standardisation of the com the revival of Bu ddh ism in can on were compiled und er the plex Tibetan Buddhist terminology. Nepal. in 10th century galaxies of eminent Ng ok Lotsawa Lodhen Sherab and ing Lochren Rinchen Sangpo. coi n the term 'Sino-Tibetan langua but has no great association with Chinese. u. Tib eta n translators em erged includ dharma in India. Sin ce Tib et came ~:g ~J '~"~ / i'} a t . India and South We st China. Sikkim. were prin ted in wooden Th e firm re-establishment of Dharm instrumental in subduing the ruthless a in Tibet through the dedication of counness scholars became Mongols and the nation building of ntie Tibet. He the temple of Maru Pal ace in Lhasa to finalise his wo rks which vow els which existed in Sanskrit. decided to have four vow els i. Its written langua ge was based on the 7th century grammar is easy to fol low in spi te San skr it. Aft er returning from India. e and 0 ins tead of sixteen Q! the Sanskrit alphabet while six consonthe thirty consonants. Kalapa and Candra Sanskrit gra mm ars under ikara and Devavidyasinha. He m po) invented the written was pur pos e of mastering Indian langua first sent to India with fifteen oth er Tibetan youths for the sole ges ent ire Buddhist teachings into Tibetan so that a suitable written language is invented to translate the Son gts en Gampo went into retr eat in . the Bra hm in Lip luding Panini. Tibetan is a me mb er of the .S of spelling in relation od. Those who hav en and Sha ng Na-namde. Tibetan lan gua ge wit h its sep ara te alp hab et is a Gu pta script of India and its logical ndence. Chokro Lui Gyalts dhist scriptures were translated into Tibetan from Sanskrit by translation school. of its close ass ociatio n with Aft er studying Indian linguistics inc em ine nt linguists. Du rin g the reign of Tri son g Deutsen (khri sro ng lde'u an prosecution of Buddhism by Lan Dan extensive revision. namely sum eu pa and rtag Sanskrit into Tibetan. Bhutan. It is Tibeto-Burman group of languages e had traditional monastic education. twenty four consonants we re based on ton gue which did not exist eve nm llle ants were created according to the neeaor Ti1 5et an speaking tile alphaoeCSixrevetsed'"corrsonants TiO e'ta n facilitate the standard transliteration Sanskrit alpha1Jet--Sixrevetsetl'"corrsonants were later added to of onl y two. In spi te of the dar k era cau sed by the g Darma.A i<' Introduction / Tibetan is spoken by approximately the Asian sub-continent including Tib ten million people in mo re than a hal f a dozen of countries in understood by Mongolians who hav et.morphological relationship between antal gen der system wh ich determines the pho nol ogi cal and phOnologi con to the three tenses and imperative mo sonants in orderito systematize the rult. Tibetan language received ons.

Only recently somee fifty young boy som two hundred Tib eto log ists studies. Since most Sanskrit Buddh Tib eta nntranslations of the Buddhist st the best tran slat ion s to furtherr the study and pra cticce of the study and practi of Buddh ist canon is among Tibeta n Bu ddh ist can on is am ong st the best transla tions to furthe Tib eta n Buddhism.texts translated faithfully In spite of many books written on Tibet during the last three decades. monas stayed hen when carne . Subsequently n Sanskrit and Prakrit with the eminent linguist late Kh unu Lam a emine linguist late Khun u Lama Prakrit with relation gramm ar and poetry in relatio to Sanskrit gra mm ar and poetry he came and stayed at my monastery a year before he died . In exile many Tibetans sch oolls we re many Tibetans schoo were of His leadership of His Holiness' the Dalai Lama. Mode rn meticu lously invented that every Sanskr rit syllable can be transliterated ist me ticu lou sly invented that every e comparative study on the translations in sev era l l Bu ddh ist tions in severa Buddhof done Buddh ist schola rs who have don comparative study on the transla Bu ddh ist sch ola rs wh o hav e is no translaion which can match the consistency and acc ura ten ess of tency and accura teness . II used to think they were badly written religious ideas by Christianity. a aries appeared as early as mid nineteen century. Since most Sanskrit Buddhist literatuureare not extant . . There are already nt Tib eta nworks into Englis h and other significance of the Tibeta West and translating important Tibeta n works into Eng lish and oth er translating importa n six teaching the language in the We st and teaching the language in the relatively eas language in less tha thisrelatively easyylanguage in less than six important languages. Tibet had someof the biggest tmonasteries in the world attract learn Sanskrit gramm ar harmony. my Tib eta n edu cat ion wa s fulfilled bey ond my educa tion was fulfilled beyon d eta n Tibeta years.' I recall reading pamphlets by Khunu Tharchin. The study of the uni heritage. I was fortunate enough to thoroughly study am hig h schooll. Having served as his secretmy remarkable Tibetan poets alive Eminence is one of Eminence is one of the mostsome six years. used to think they ly. to thesur viv al of and is a great thre at to the surviv al of comm unist invasion of Tibet can never be forgiven and is a great threat l and our national Thecom mu nis t invasion of Tib et can never be forgiven destroy Tibet's culturaaland our national Th e cultur anarchists from China has triedto traditional culture Maoistanarchists from China has tried to destroy Tibet's 6000 monas teries and traditional culture. There isisaagreat need for stige of ancientTibetanntranslators are ors are miserably few There from the Tibeta pre of ancient Tibeta translat ddh ist engaging in the collaboration of translation works. The first interest of the study of Tibetan language in the West ed perhap with the help of some e first interest Th Bible Bible wit h the hel p of the translat sh courses Tibetan . expectation. His Chogay works under His Eminence Chogay Triche Rinpoche Lumbini. religion and langua Holiness' the Dalai Lam a. the birth-place of the Buddha.Xl. Nepal. II Nepal n language training in India and a. all the childr no classes. know the Tibetan language proper and studied in many countries and husiastically studied in many countrieses of Times have changed since as the written language is enthusiasticallydies programmes. Tib et had somecountries. r in o allowed all traditioonsto pro spe r in traditi ns to prospe the one united Dharm rule of the great Sakya as wh allowed all hundreds of studen ts underthe one united Dharma arule of the great Sakyappas who rld attracting hundreds of stu den ts und er ing of the bigges monasteries in thewo harmony.. Mo der n into Tibetan. ing them proper Tibeta e of their young children in their young children in hopread giv write Tibetan under a tree in a refugee tam p in Pokharra. classes. Some took crash courses in Tibetan and translated the st missionaries Som e took cra the exa mp les fro m the missionaries. The prestige this importantaspect of Buddh ist laboration of translation works The intain engaging in the col important aspect of Bu has bee given to ma forgotten and veryylittle eattentionnhas beenngiven to maintain this forgotten and ver littl attentio . India to study Tibetan in Tibetan monasteries. the two gra mm atical alp hab ong other things the two gramm thoroughly study amongst other thin high schoo . From mid 11 th centuryyTibetans could learn Sanskrit gra mm ar ns could from many neighbouringcountries. Only recently som e yearssomeetwo hundred Tibeto logists inars. Number of scholars haveestudieddthis to put a steadyeffort over raaperiod of of aa ges Number of scholars hav studie ed put a steady effort ove period of of important langua is if one is prepar monthssand haveeremarked how easyyititis if one is prepared to month and hav remarked how eas languageeteacher.· I recall reading pamphlets n English diction aries appeared as early as mid nin Tibeta n English diction they were talk ing about Tib eta did not know they were talkin g about d "God Will Save You" during my school days but Ius ideas by some foreigners who did not You" during my school days but I did not know foreigners wh odi d not entitle d "God Will Save entitle some were badly written religio Christianity. Maoistthe unique Tibetan language wa s prohibited and 600 0 mo nas teri es and and Tibetan language was prohibited heritage. giv ing mo English giving most of the examp les from ned mm Tibeta n scholars and wrote Tibeta n grammar in English Kalimpong was primarily run and owned n scholars and wrote Tib eta gra printing press in Kalimpong primarily run and ow Tib eta translation of the Bible. et The first thing we memorized were Sum cu alphabet Th e first thing we memorized were Sum cu pa gs. . Buddhism. . a tree in a refugee tamp in Pokha nce the . n languag teacher year ror less withhaacompetent Tibeta yea or less wit competent Tibetan texts translated faithfully last three decades. Every thremany Ind ia to study Tibeta al conference and sem ference on Tibetan studies as wel as ts in Buddhist studie hav rea lize the attend international conference on Tibetan studies as well las many region ist studiesshaveerealize dd the attend international con in the Buddhist literature. Every three yearsregionalconferencessand seminars.Tenzi s motivated by Christian West was perhaps motivated by Christian study Tibetan langua som e . know the Tibetan language proper ly. n in Tibetan monasteries. His birth-place of the Buddha... Nepal. . ary works under His Emine most remarkable Tibetan poets alive today. The stu dy of in Tibetquere destroyed. Tenzin Gyaltshen when n Gyalts . Having served as his sec reta ry today. Hu univer es have introduced Tib more recently numbe r of universities have introduced Tibeta n ch needed interestt in the Tibeta n mo re recently num ber ofaround siti world havee generated much needed interes in the Tib eta n ted mu the Tibeta n Buddh ist centres around the world hav genera tral Asian Republics havee been sentt to Tib eta n Bu ddh ist centres fifty young boyss from the central Asian Republics hav bee n sen to from the cen studies. year before died . The firstt Tibetan printing press inSpiti in Jammu.. translat tion which can match the consis languages all agree that there languages all agree that there is no ist canon. From mid 11 th centur Tibeta the writte Tibeta was so from many neighbouring ut havin g to use the San skr it alp hab et as the wri ttenn Tib eta nn wa s so to use the Sansk rit alphab et as throug Tibeta witho thr oug hh Tib eta nn wit hou t hav ing Sanskit syllable can be transliterated into Tibetan. Xl.ignerslearninggTibeta nnand ny books written on Tibet during the d for moreforeigners learnin Tib eta and In spi te of ma more fore great nee from the Tibetannisismiserably few. Some hastily compi led ion of the Bible. The firs Tibetan Christian from Spiti in Jammu. There are already aahandful lof non-Tibetan sch ola rs wh are han significance of the Tibetann language. Hund res of d since as the written language is ent eta n stu ndr Times have change studies programmes. After finish atic al by Thonm Sambhota. Som e hastily com pile d translat Tibetan speaking by Khunu Tharchin. I wa s fortunate enoughTrichen Rinpoche in Lumbini. In exileing to escape from Tib et with exile under the in exi le under the leadership in uing to escape from Tibet with s were rebuil Hundreds of refugees are continu opened and monasteries were reb uiltt Hundreds of refugee are contin opened and monasteries hope of giving them proper Tibetan language training in India and Ne pal . ist literat re are not extant e Tibeta translations of the Buddh canon. In spi te of all the catastrophic destruction of the catastrophic destruction of the were tions in Tibet we destroyed. and write Tibetan under can recall learning how to can recall learning how to read and en sat together under a tree learning how to pro nou to prono unce the . and person al assista for and per son al ass ista nt y som e fortunate to discuss som e of the more finer elements of Tib n more finer elements of Tibeta Subsequentl I was fortunate discuss some expectation. studen dfu of non Dueeto its important place in the Buddhist literature. In spite of all theserve their language and culture educa ional institu educattional institutions and language. students in Buddh -Tibetan schola rs whooare Du to its important place lariguage.. a Tibetan speaking Christian from eteen century. Tibetans have managed to pre ve their language and culture preser ge.. Tibetans have managed to s Tibetan culture religion Tibetan culture. all the children sat together under a tree ilearning howAft er fini shiing my ng my There were The re we re no pa by Thonm i Sambhota.

~. Very few translators are able to stay on the job due to lack of incentive and prospect for their future.a. :t . fame and r«latio relationships.:t. ------b y Sakya Pand ita I ~.•'l Ill'll 'I' 'J.. may the fortunate people of this genera tion do not forget their compassionate deeds and try to emulate their examples by studying and practising with diligence and patience..: Even if one is to die tomor row.c:.' Ujt. :.j . of gocxl use to many students of Buddhism and the Tibetan language. Lama Choedak T.. '. .. one shoul d study know ledge. As more material progress is made without obtaining any lasting happin ess from wealth. Tibetan Buddhist centres bring out young Tibetan monks to work as translators for little or no payment. " ~ @'q-~'''l'''''l~nj''l'UiI @'<:r~'''l''''l~rlj''l'UiI t: I~' p. who is ne. 'I p. thus disregarding the important role of the translators. the interest of Dharma in the West will continue to grow. Ujt:. Howe ver if Westerners do not master the language in which the Dharma is prcserved and dedicate time to work seriously on the translation of impor tant texts into English. who is indisputedly Thonm regarded as an emanation of Manjushri. The energy a person devote s for the study of Tibetan can be extremely beneficial for one's spiritual progress and may help to speed the flourish of Dharm a in all corners of the world if done with the right motivation.--~. In the old days a pair of a qualified Lotsawa (frans lator) and Pandita (lo-pan) received equal (la-pa respect and honour. .:if ""nj' ". l ~ ~. is one of the easiest language in the world. . but someo ne.'~ j. Traini ng of translators should be high on the agenda before opening centres and sendin g resident teachers. stUdy For it is like claim ing one's own entru sted posse ssions in future rebirt hs." '" 'I' "l'§'" '1 I~"'rlj' "c:.wh o equally qualified as a teacher on his /her own right with special expert ise in an anothe r language.:(:p. j" of :'- i'_:' ~-:' .''1. I hope that this manual will be I~'l/' (I' ~c:. scholarship. l' t. .. they will be unable to help their future generation with Dharm. ~I .. ·~"iil<Jj· 'J'p.~~ In paying my tribute to Thonmi Sambhota -and all the Tibetan Lotsaw and as who unselfishly gave their lives for the benefit of others.- t t' ." "" ''If'l~' 'I'"l'§"'~c:.5. Yuthok Tibetan Language Group canbe Canberra.~"iil<l'j' '1·P.~ j<:. written by Thoomi Sambhota. Lotsawa should not be regarded as someo ne who can merely speak two langua ges..:(:p.--~. j . Tibetan. .5. 1994 .

.Dedic ation 'f<\~ 'I ~~ '~9' .j~i J' . ~i>J~'1 j"il 'I.. Although this manual is the result of many months' hard work.. ~ - ..q'49 1~'~9'~~~'~~'tl""l:l..I~'~~'l:ll.. Speci al thanks are also due to my wife Mirabelle for her understanding. 'l.S""\l("i'~~·1 1~' ~~'''i~' cil~'t:l.!.t.I"" c>J e:~'S9 ~1111 ~ 'l. ~ "i' .t.q~l1l' l~i>J9~'~l11'~"i' I~ i>J9~'~l1l'~"i' ~~'~9'. . it was much easier than attending classes under trees while missing my little sister who died on our way in Mustang when we were escaping from Tibet in 1959.I""Oil~ 'I 1~1Ijr:l.I "" ~ .~ ~ ~ ~ .. I also express my gratitude to Merrill Cook and Ken Gardiner for their help and to my studen ts for their suppo rt and encouragement.I' i>J~' .... ~.j' "i ~l .. My very existe could not have appeared witho ut the loving care." ~ .I' 'l:ll.' ~"i' ~i>J~'7!Ij"i1 1E.q'49 . patience and constant support in my work. ~ ~ c. ~ ~ .- .t.q' .t. the first drop of the fluidity of my repaying of their kindness.~.r~~~'.I'~~'1'I " IE..j~ "i'~~.dedicate this book for her and many other young of communist Tibetan children who died as the result ofcom munis t nce and this book occupation of Tibet.\'9 ~11l1 ..'~'l.... _. protection and guidance which I have received from my parents and His Eminence Chogay Trichen Rinpoche.j~ "i 'r:l.Ir:l.t.I""O ~'1 1~7!jt:l.... c.S""I1("i·~~'\ p~r7!j"i'?9'7'~~"i'.'lf! ""l...j' ~I 1\lJ'l..j~'2j9' .t...q~l11'i>J' tl~ 'f<\~'\ ~ eo. 1~'~9' ~~~'~~' tl""l:l...I~.I' ~~ P ~r1lj"i' 1) 9'1)' r:l. _.j~i>>J' .j~'\lJ9' Illf l.- .. 'l.r~~~'.t.. «:? ~ ~~'''i~' j:j~'r:l. I .~ ~.t.'lf! ""l...t.t.t. I hope that this is..q' .

~:--:. The Tibetan alphabet is based upon the Devanagari script. ~::}-..----). ~ .~·Uj"l".- The last letter of the Tibetan alphabet a is considered to be a consonant in Tibetan and not a vowel. All these characters are called "children letters" since they can only function by depending upon any of the parent letters discussed above.~·Uj"l"Q«f dbyangs yig bzhi are marked "9£:. 1.o or 1iIi"l0JJoog =chino there is no way of explaining Tibetan words like 8'l'~E:. Treating a as an ordinary vowel does not do it any justice. Presumably to emphasize this.' 'L. sum-bcu-pa and rtags-kyi-Jug-pa are extant today.--_·)..2 THE LETTER A W:.' J' When either of the four Tibetan vowels known as "9E:. which kn play the active role in their pronunciation while the inherent a passively gives real life to the other consonants. According to Tibetan grammarians. Without the inner a no Tibetan consonants have sounds of their own. Thon-mi Sam-bho-{a first studied Sanskrit with PlllJ4ita Pll1J4ita Devavidyasiizha and Brahmin Lipikara of Kashmir and then invented the Tibetan alphabet with thirty consonants and four vowels. ~::}-- ".1 THE ORIGIN OF THE TIBETAN ALPHABET Thon-mi Sam-blw-ta was one of the most celebrated ministers of the famous Tibetan king AD. Thonmi's Tibetan alphabet is one of the few scripts in the world which was solely created fOr the purpose of translating Buddhist scriptures. a is an inherent sound of all the Tibetan consonants . It also represents the wisdom of unborn Dharmakiiya .....' i khung = hole Or 1iIi"l'JJ'og ma =chin. Srong-btsan-sgam-po (617 AD. the normal pronunciation of the letter 'ka' is modified into 'ki' when the vowel sound 'i' is added. the Bodhisattva of wisdom he was the son of Anu ofThonmi clan from central Tibet.Q«f with a consonant. As he proved himself to be the most brightest of all. - . The remaining twenty nine consonants from k£l to ha are called "father letters".3 THE FOUR VOWELS '1::. /' it ~~. Recognised as an emanation of Maiijushri. his Indian teachers named him "Sambhota" which means 'best' or 'perfect Tibetan'. Strictly speaking there is no long and short vowels in Tibetan except in the Tibetanized Sanskrit words. they modify the inherent sound 'a' of the consonant into the relevant vowel sounds.Thonmi specifically placed the letter a as the last letter of the consonants to stress its special role.it is the life-force of every sound . Designed to conform with the existing Tibetan language...i-. tS. Under different circumstances a is either sounded or silent..and is therefore called the "mother letter". /' PART ONE CIBIAnJElR <!J)NJE CIBIAnlElR <!J)NlE 'lI'IHIJE ''lI'ITIB3lE'lI'AN AJl. 'The king sent Thonmi to India together with carefully selected fifteen other young intelligent Tibetans to study Sanskrit. tE~.~:·- t:o:. Where there are lenthening sounds they are usually caused by certain suffixes with or without vowel marked root letters: letters.' . The three vowel signs that are placed on top of the letter are said to 'soar like hats' and the one vowel sign that is placed at the bottom of the letter and subjoined "l ya and'" ra are said to be 'beautiful like bolsters'. If a is regarded as a vowel 8'i0~£:. No two vowels occur together without a medial consonant. 1.JFlIBIAIB3JE'lI' 'lI'IHIlE lI'ITIB3JE'lI'AN AJl... For example. ~'~"- " .-:·. in writing a vowel is always placed either at the top or at the bottom of the root letter of a syllable.JFlIBIAIB3lE'lI' 1. He wrote eight important works on Tibetan grammer but only gram mer two. This will be explained below. Scholars and students of for Buddhist Studies in modern times have recognized that the Tibetan language is one of the most important languages which has preserved few of the most accurate translations of the complete Buddhist Canon.

considered inauspicious to have a nice books published without the yig mgo. Each clause is divided from the next by a single vertica ation. ~ ~ ~':3 fiQ~'~ fiQ~'~ glgu gl gu u On top of the letter On the bottom On top of the letter On top of the letter e zhabs kyu zhabs r. ed completely from the side A of a folio or page.. The meaning of a Tibetan senten ge should not dilute the and with patience one wiII discover why Thonmi SambhoFa was cautio ce comes through context.s (" II) had'. Inverted (Q~''''''). (Q~'4"').' ). - 1.jl:lj THE LETT ER HEAD Ultlj'J.~r. There is no special mark to denote the end of a word of introducing too many in English. Howe ver there are two exceptions to this rule: when a sentence ends with ga "I it is neither followed by a dot nor a stroke. thus making their publication the yig mgo untraditional.. Vowel signs Name Vowel sound Positio n in Writin g . the letter which ends a sentence is not follow "S'~~' ed by the dot but only a stroke.L. However Tibetan scribal characters such as ge. when a sentence ends with nga t::. colons. case. it is followed by both a dot and a stroke. the printed form and cursive writing.l. senii-colons. It is also mgo. By in large there writte are two main styles of writte n Tibetan. in chissicalTibetan. 1..::q. will Sambh ofa us punctuation signs. each sentence by double vertical lines ( " ) called (llji5llj' '4'" II 'nyis shad' (~~4"'). . All schola rs concerned to preserve the traditional form of the Tibetan langua traditional Tibetan puntuation system. Tibetan culture as extremely important. The information conveyed by punctuation marks in English nor are words spaced like is conveyed through context in Tibetan . Communist China's deliberate attempt to destroy the Tibeta very unTibetan and have forced captive Tibetan scholars in Tibet to ignore traditional Tibeta n language and culture n yig mgo and have thus diluted the Tibetan language.. 7 THE ORDE R OF STRO KES Just as in English Tibetan is wrillen in several ways. Some scholars and Tibetan publishers in recent times have exclud r.::q. ntal line which each of the ntai . 1. each paragr aph or chapter by four vertical lines (II ") called 'bzhi."'). scholars and linguists living in the free world should preserve and protect important characters like yig mgo. question marks and brackets are not used as. In this book we will dwell on the printed style known as dbu can or 'headed' lellers. and (~~.jtlj The side a of every pair of pages (folios) begins with a "universal letter-h ead" called 'yig mgo' Ul"l'. 'greng ~'~' nara naro ~ a o 1. When learning the written language in traditional Tibet these scribal conventions were treated To ignore them is to demean the language itself and.jilj in the form of~'1" followed by a rsheg and a double stroke in of~' 1 tsheg the upper left hand corner.5 THE PUNC TUAT ION SYST EM Each syllable is followed by a dot' called 'rsheg' (~9 ) as there are no 'tsheg' hyphens and other forms of punctuation. thus. commaS. Yig mgo is also always used at the beginning of a chapter or an import ant sub-section of the same chapter.6 ENDI NG A SENT ENCE In "S'~~' dbu can script.thus punctuation marks are redundant in Tibetan. .. . l stroke ( I ) called ' gcig shad' (11ji5"1. 'grengpo t:\~r.4 Ultlj'J. It is similar to the rule in English where the rust letter of the sentence alway fIrSt s begins in upper case. It is named after the horizo letters.

ja l) ta '? nya Q ~ '? C . ~ u .J ) J ili na .P-. which do not have the perpen dicula r Iine or in some cases there Iine are no horizontal line.. U"U.' ~... C [l."J r:::.. {i '/ ~ tha ) -c:y~Et C:y~Et " da - ...- .. nga -rJ :.\ .-) ~ E--.. Howe ver there are some excep tions for looped letters such as ca. .----v...t a:.3 / dhu can fmm has as the top line of the letters. The cursiv e style is known fOlm as dhu med or 'head Ie as they lack the Horizontal line as their top line which in itself norizo has severa l degre es of I.. ~ f\ 9 ". ga -rz::.J C1-J ya Z.r:C:.l pha a.~ ~..r ~ E. . .• '.. C":..e.~~ r~~~ () - ..l i(-. tsha (SC/-t..a k.~ 2j va ~ za IJ-. -rz ::.0':7 ro ~7 GO r E.. r:c:.r -"'i /fj fl f! kb.\ "9 ". the horizontal line is drawn first from left to right then the distinc tive portio n of the letter and lastly the perpen dicula r line is drawn from top to bottom . In writin g Tibeta n alphab et in the dhu can ("i~r""i) ("i~ri5"i) script.J Ina d-J z:.. "" &.l l. (f:.J:._ ~ (JV'... "p-'\ {?<2 .j fa la r - {?(2.3-. (1'!=f! A\.~~ .. '5 ca \Sea a.. cha ..' . I cursiv eness. .I i{--I IJ-. sha ha <: " - ~-Ej ~ sa rJ::. (1':. 'a (" ... "'-9 - 0 . j -"ra - .i ~_ &....\ "7 (Ii..: ....<..r r T (Jv.l.. 7fJka 7!Jka .6 '--3 -<> .z"7 ~ ~ ~ GIla e "\ "'\ r cr \3\ t3\\. ~ {..(' () a. 7 e" .a - T.q pa / ~ ~ t.\ '2::\ 11 zha - r... (1'i=f!A_e.(5O bib oObib {' r fl...! ..."\ ~ r .l1. U'U.CJ.-~ "3 ~ ~ t:l.zr 1Ti -'-.l .r ~... . Some schola rs assert that the headless script derive d from writin g the heade d script " a faster speed than a calligr apher would write.:.CJ. r -. n. .-. <'-.rj (S<u -r) E::dza e::dza . cha etc.J::.l z. <'.~Z4 q ba -r~t:t . " -v.r tsa -T~..

"''1 v U e '*/ '*f o • Practise hoy.'(~'/ F/ r'\' - . ta . Written characters are designed to help to express the unalterable sound and meaning of the spoken language (this is what the Sanskrit word for letter aksara means).9.9 Ul·"'IQ.r§"i'~. The five broad ~"I·<JiS. tsa C<\ '. '~".. ..j'9""~J.' to pronounce the consonants clearly. tsha I =1 za ~ e: Q. teeth and lips.... .'~·"'I"i~1 PLACE OF ARTICULATION Uj''''ICl.~. Try to recognize the characters of the Tibetan alphabet so that the appropriate pronunciation of the letters can be learnt with minimum help of the Romanized forms.l'~' THE THIRTY CONSONANTS "'I~[lj'9""~J. Cl dza..l j nya na rna '.:J ba '? "i J. ~ sa .·"Ii!il>l· places Ult:.'~''''I''i~1 Origin Palatal Palatal and Labial Palatal Platal and Labial Method of Articnlation Articulation Partial bending from the head in narrowness Nearly closed lips in narrowness Slight contact with head.>l·qil· gsal byed sum bcu are "I'w'. palate.·~·"Ii!i»r (yi ge'i Uj·~iS. Thus Tibetan alphabet is traditionally written sequentially in four columns in seven and half horizontal rows as given below. we will never be able to speak or write it properly if we do not use the script..r§"i·~.. " 1.>r skye gnas) is discussed in great length under four important topics: The three narrow places of articulation ~"I'<J():"I~~r(dog pa'i gnas) are throat. nose and inside of the head. ja .f. 1. e-.. Column 1 Columu Rowl ~ lTJka 1ka 7. if.1 / / : ~~" ~~" \'-". Even if the Romanized forms prove helpful in the preliminary stages.8 "'I~[)..a In most Tibetan grammmaticalliterature. rising in broad space Uplifting of lower lip Vowels 1 '->(~.·"Ii!i»l· (yangs pa'i gnas) of articulation are chest. < Row 8 '? f'>. fIrSt gtroup is called "l'~' ka sde or ka group etc.l'~' The thirty consonants of the Tibetan alphabet known as "I'w'..»r<:liS. Historically.·~·"Ii!i. the place of origin of a letter clj·~iS. do not develop a habit of not writing and reading in the language one is supposedly learning. tongue.t .4 1.'>r<JiS.j [lj {l'j tl'l la a "9 -9 .' dza' 2:j 2:l va zha ra ha e-. _ eo. Grammatically these groups are named after the first letters of each group ~'<J'sde pa and hence the "l. cha e:..'J pa I Column 2 f kha Colnmn 3 Column "'I ga Column 4 ~ nga Row 2 \'5 ca Row 3 Row 4 Row 5 Row 6 Row 7 a:.rqil· classified into seven and half groups of four. No phonetic system can teach the correct pronunciation unless one listens and learn it from a native speaker.·"I"I~·(dog "lc. The order in which the four letters are arranged in each group are very significant in terms of the Tibetan phonology.. until Tibet's recent colonization there had been no attempt to enforce a foreign script and leave Tibetan redundant. c-.'~' (gzhi'i rgyu). Even if we know the grammar of the language.q . These eight organs are also called "the fundamental cause" "I~iS..l:l Il tha I<l pha '" da z." -" '~ ". 'a sha Uj Ul ya ~ [)..} .\s'l .

\'!J' ad po) .' . 1. som e com mo n nam es andnounce the Tib eta n alphabet as near as pos sib le to the original pronunciations.in oth er wo rds . "l ga E' ja a i "I zha k_. The se are called "the cause of articulation" n."<J . even if one sees a friend in the street.9 .j·9"r::~ tsha ec dza ~ za e: sa )~ J "" ra I "" --.9 .10 ..1l'i'=l'i"!JJ' (cung zad phr ad pay. ba) .<" .e The lett er is con cei ved in conception pro duc es the motivation the min d wh en the mind itse lf cog niz es the letter. Sort Sof "I Ext rem e!v Sor t I ely Sof 143j'~'Qi'i'!J 143j'~"Qir::. wh ich we " E.~-.'. ~" g.) r I. cal l the nam e. Generally it is said Eng lish wo rds have been cho sen to sho w the ir cor rec t that there are three lellers with wh lett ich the arti cul atio n of a consonant is based. . In order to help the student pro sou nd.9.t::.d Thr oug h the mo vem ent of app rop riat e vital energies from wit c fro m hin the body. The y are: I?< \?1 (a). The character and the pla ce of articulatio n cannot pro duc e the sound by the mselves. o<Iol'.).-. " ~''i. .\"!Jq"$" (skul bar byed pa' i rgyu) to produc / e the sound of a letter. na 11J'la I1J-I ba ~ I!J pa pha ~ rna '21 va "."!Jq QS~'!J":S'i'!Jq'~'('byin par bye dpa'i "~"('byin d pa'i rgyu).j . nga r.\'=l..<:'''''J)" J)' ~"<i ~'<i I " tsa " 1.<:"~'=l.·q" ~rlia:..c The results of the various acti vities are eith er voiced 'is''l~fi'q" i'q' (dbugs che baY."!J I:i.9 .\"i'!J' or in a "broad" UK~ff!J' (yangs pay "lc'~ !J" pa) space. "clo sing" qi£~"!J" (btsum po). the fro m cha rac ter in the min d.'a "j ha <j ~~.S~·!J">::Sr::.\~' ~'i' <J I Guttural I "I ka flkha I Palatal I" ca ~cha I I Har d I Sor t I V. act ual .' ii). and by qi£~V pa) "op eni ng" ~"q" (phye bay ~'q' either in a "narrow" '\"l"!J" (do gpa ) . o<!oli I Dental I Labial Africates IHead IHe ad.l"~" d pa' i u). For instance.~4~"'l"Qi'i"!JJ :i. tf~ §"'W:Sj" §"W ~~J)'!J ~~J)'!J t.j. This to ver bal ize the sound of the motivation to pro duc e the sound derives from the recognition of the lett er ..- -- - PR ON UN CIA TIO N CIA .'~Fq' (sgra than chung bay <l)"~Fq' sof t sound. unvoiced ba) '\S"l~j"~:Fq' (dbugs chung bay. Motivation causes the inner vilal energies to move and vita this is called "the root cause of the motivation" ~nrq-":§'\'!Jq'$' "":§. it coordinates the place and activators to vators produce the sound which is called "the cause of movement" §'\" !J"·99'\'!J~'~' (skyod par bye dpa 'i rgy !J"' 'i"!Jf..\~"!J I ~r::. one will not call the person unl ess we have a reason to remember.~s ~." pa) §c.tljt.(!.'q· (sgra than che bay or ~"Il ~·li~·:i.. "slight touching" §c.~4~''l'Qi'\'! I <:.10 .>. ('a) . '5 (ha ) and n.--- ---. -------~- I '? ~ nya "l ~ ya I - '5 ta t. 1.\j tha '\ da Q I <la:. ilj.Q CaJ The actual me diu m of any sou nd of a ~' • / .~ 1.' >fJ~ ~.b Tbe ma in activity is carried out by one 's tongue and pal ate in var iou s ma nne rs of activating those organs by "internal touching" <l)<:"~"=l'i"!J" (nang du phr a:. har d ~"ll~':i.<" I'" 1.1l.\'! " . I JPlace of articulation I .

1.1 O.f The first one of the following group ( C'\.~") is pronounced very softly through a soft cof\.~") ordination of the tongue tip with the palate and with a semi-hissing sound. Za is pronounced very softly through the joint function of teeth, palate and loose co-ordination of the tongue tip. 'A (D.") is pronounced very softly from the throat by the slight co-ordination by the root of the tongue and ya ( Uf) Ill") is produced very softly from palate and middle of the tongue.


ZHA As in Leiillre, Pleaillre
'A As in

~ ZA As in ~al, Zambia


f.l. 0.


tl.l tl.j

YA As in Yellow, Yeast

1.10.g The first one of this group, ra ( .... ~) is produced from the tongue tip slightly touching ~") the palate and is extremely soft. Its place of articulation is head. La (01") is dental and is produced is palatal (fricative) directly from the action of the tip of the tongue and is extremely soft. Sha and it is produced rather tightly by the inner part of the tip of the tongue. Sa fl") is pronounced ('!l") exactly as's' is in English, that is, from joint articulation of teeth and palate.


'" RA As in lli!.te, Rl!.lIy R.l!.lly

f1.I fl.I

LA As in l&ndon, Ll!.st Li!.st

'9 SHA

As in £harp, £hame

~ SA As in £un, £antiago


1.10.h This group ( '5.~. ) generally is called a half of a group (~·'r§~·) as it has only two letters.
Ha ('5") is guttural and glottal and is produced extremely softly from the vocal cords with an out


coming breath. A (II;. ) is slighly shorter and harder than Ha.

, HA As in Hall, Hamburg '?
_ C".C'-.-

G'l A As in .APple, Ashoka


1.11 f1.It1J~·~-,,·~·t1J~f1.I·S~·~~·~S~~·tl.ll:lj TIBETANIZED SANSKRIT ALPHABET fl.I"I~·~-"'!l1·"I~fl.I·S~·~~·~S~~·tl.jl:lj

~gt "''',;';-

(' t

Before introducing how to combine and spell (sbyor klog) ~"'·ili"l the consonants with vowels, prefixes, suffixes, surmounted and subjoined consonants, it is important and auspicious to have a basiC knowledge of the Sanskrit alphabet on which the Tibetan alphabet was based. Sanskrit (legs basic r'ii"l~r~...·, sbyar) iil"l~I"~"'·, which means 'well created" is the highly respected language of the Devas. created', Tibetans have extraordinary faith in the special power attached to this language from which all the Buddhist scriptures in the Tibetan Buddhist canon were translated. Tibetanized Sanskrit syllables, names, Mantras and Dharanis are commonly found in Tibetan literature and one should know the Sanskrit pronunciation of them - it is very different from the Tibetan pronunciation. In Sanskrit every letter is always pronounced in the same way no matter what letter preceeds or follows. In Tibetan a prefiX, a suffix and vowel of a syllable can either remain mute or modify the sound of the prefix, root consonant as we shall see later. Do not try to read the Tibetanized Sanskrit syllable or Mantras in the way you pronounce Tibetan as many Tibetans do, but try to pronounce every sound of the letter. When transliterating Sanskrit in Tibetan Le. Mantras, tsheg should not be used between syllables. This is common mistake commited by most Tibetan calligraphers.

\L t~




v U W J<;L::> (Soft) Short Long Diphthongs



ga Iga




a la



ll'l t3'l

''TJJ !



.:; .'5
ya a
OJ ra



..... ll'l t3'l









.:r; .;t;

g: I~
Qa. IQa.


"9 -9
~a ~a

I ~ I~









da Ida


.:l\ .:1\

f'Y f'Y1~

.:.\. -'.\.



l:j l:l






I.:l I4

Iba ba


J.j J.l

~ ~1r1j

IOj ~

0 10

~ ~



ll'l t3'l


'.l:l l:!


I t!i L~



..ll'l I~


-.... ..... -"'r:<~ 9" ~n.jl 1.12 9~nr S~"I1l't:-" -""r::<~ 9' ~11l1




Most of the thirty Tibetan consonants 'gsal-byed' ("l~"r§"i·) can be followed by any of the four ("l~'"r§"i') vowels 'dbyangs' ("i9t:.~). When there is a vowel it follows the root letter of the syllable and ("i9t;.~). sometimes suffix letters 'a can be followed by a vowel. No vowel follow vowel. A vowel can not be added to prefixes. When a vowel sign is combined with a consonant, the inherent sound of the preceding root consonant's "a" is dropped. This also implies that no two vowels can ever be joined without a medial consonant. A vowel cannot be pronounced by itself without depending upon a consonant. When the four vowel signs, namely gi gUo zhabs kyu, 'greng po, and na ro are compounded with gu, the consonants, their inherent sound 'a' is modified by the relevant the vowel sounds i.e. Vowels

~·5 ~'5


~"kai=ki ~·kai=ki

-:l kau=ku I'\Q~.~. I'\Q~'~'


A~t;.·S· A~t:.·S·


~.~. ~"~-

I" "I. J'r
t;.. t:..

kha i = khi ~. gai=gi t:.. nga i = ngi t;..
~. ca i = ci

F· F'


kha u = khu ga u =gu = gu nga u = ngu

1· l' fl· fl"


;. kao = ko ;"

::I. ~"
S" s·

kha e = khe ~. gae=ge nga e = nge ~. ~" cae=ce

fi· fi' iif· iif'

kha 0 = kho

,,' ".

c:. c:-


.t. cha i = chi

11· cau=cu 11' ~. cha u = chu

ga 0 =' go ~. ngao = ngo ?j. ?j' ca 0 = CO

a;. .3;" cha e = che

g;. cha 0 = cho

1;.' r;.'


.,' ".
'j' 5'

~. ~' ja i = ji

5' ja u = ju

?' ? jae=j e
~' nyae =nye ~.
~. ~' ta e = te

~. ~' ~ya i = nyi ~. ~' tai= ti

;r. if' ja 0 = jo
~' nya ~.

l nya u = nyu
ta u = tu ,g' tha u = thu S' da u =du



l' ~r

'<5'' 5
ii' .ii'


'". " "\' "'i'

ij' tha i = thi
~. ~' da i = di ~. ~' na i = ni ~. ~' pa i = pi
l.j' pha i = phi i.j'

:ii' :iI'

tha e = the

tao =to =10 tha 0 = tho 0

~. ~' dae =de


na u =nu

~. ~' na e=ne

'J' 'f
rq, rq.
~. ~'

~:r S' pau= pu

<j' lj'

pae= pe

"\' "'. na 0 = no l.<j' lj' pa 0 = po
l,f' "". pha 0 = pho q' ba 0 =' bo


~. ~' da

= do

!'j' pha u =phu !"j'

~J' ba i = bi ~r

S' bau= bu mau = mu ~. ~' tsa u = tsu
J( Of

i4' pha e = phe q. bae= be <:r bae = be


.;r rna i = mi
~tsai=tsi ~tsai =tsi

J( Of

mae= me

.;;. .;j' mao =mo
~. ~' tsa 0 = tso 0

i\" tsa e = tse i\"'
tsha e = tshe ~. ~' dzae =dze va e = ve ~. ~' zhae =zhe ~. ~' zae= ze



j; j,'

£. tsha i = tshi £'
~. ~' dza i = dzi

~. ~'

tsha u = tshu . dza u=dz u zha u =zhu za u=zu

",. ; E('
Ill' 2l'

a:. a:'

g' !f
~. ~'
~. ~'



va i = vi ~. ~' zha i = zhi


'?}. '?j' va u =VU


Ill' 2 l'


a· a:

~' ,",' zha 0 =zho = zho %. %' zao= zo


g, g. tsha 0 = tsho ir' dza 0 = dzo

= vo

'a i = 'i

So 'a u-=

'a e = 'e Ie

"/' "I'
nj' t'./'

~. ~' ya i = yi
~. ra i = ri ~:rai=ri


ya u =yu :;.' rau=r u :;"


(5: n:


0:;::: '0

til· ill' ya e = ye
;<:, :.:. ra e = re
0)' Ia e = Ie

01' yao = yo ..:. .<:' ra 0 = ro

11J'la i=1i nfIai =li sha i = shi ~. ~' sa i = si
~'ha i=hi ~'hai=hi

~. ~'


Qi' Ia u = Iu f2!'
sha u = shu "/' sa u = su "I'


n;. n;'

Ia la 0 = 10

"1 "'1

.y <y

sha e = she iil' sa e = se


sha 0 = sho ~. ~' sao= so

.i' .iff

. ~' ha UI': hu ~. u\So
~-......: ~-......:

ii"ai =i




" hae= he ha e = he tR· ae=e !R'

5' 5"'

hao= ho

!l'i' ao=o &i' ao =0


1)13 EXAM PLES 1>13
Tibet an '. Spell ing ma-gi-gu (i) = Mi ra-gi-gu (i)= Ri ba-zhabs-kyu (u)= Bu sa-zhabs-kyu(u)= Su ma-'greng-po (e) = Me kha-'greng-po (e)= Khe KM sa-na-TO (0)= So ra-gi-gu-ri-ma-na-ro-mo= Ri rna rno ma-gi-gu-mi-'a-gi-gu-'i= Mi'i . ,. S",. S sa-zh abs-kyu-su- ,a-gl-g u-I= ....lU , " ...JU ma-'greng-po-me-a'-gi-gu-'i= Me'i Me'j Engli sh
Man Mountain Boy (son) Who Fire Profit Tooth Painti ng Man's "''hos e Fire's

t,; t.;




~:Jl ~'Jl


a<R. a<r:t



en the vowel e and i. .iJil:. As seen above r.>: 'a, the suffix of .ilil:' me'i is the media l letter betwe only when there is a media l There is no real diptho ng in Tibetan in the strict sense of vowel s but suffix 'a. • ~ter ed have~tered ining the vowel s with the conso nants shown above once you have Practi ce comb thems elves how to read and prono uncin g the conso nants clearly . Someo ne who has taught and spell Tibeta n the way it is unders tand Tibeta n manus cripts may feel that learni ng how to read s to learn to speak the langua ge traditi onally taught is a very tiring process. Howe ver, if one wishe the spoke n langua ge other than proper ly there is no short cut that will help you comm unicat e in learning it in the traditional sequence. noticed the simila rities 1.14 We have alread y seen the Tibeta nized Sansk rit alphab et and have It is very important for any studen t and disimilarities betwe en the Sanskrit and the Tibeta n alphabet. nship betwe en the two langua ges who wishe s to learn the Tibeta n language to see the uniqu e relatio which do not exist in the Sansk rit and remem ber the additio nal charac ters in the Tibeta n alphab et and spoken Tibeta n langua ge are: alphabet. The six charac ters that were added solely for the classical r.>. and r:>. ('a ). 1"1 " (ca), a; (cha), e. (ja), l"I (zha), >l d as legitim ate memb ers of the transli teratin g Sansk rit into Tibeta n but they are not usuall y counte used. In Tibetan, the sound s of Tibeta n alphab et - there are almost no Tibeta n words where these are will see shortly. these reversed letters are create d by subjoined conson ants which we

~'!l.t'ii" "':§"l which are chiefl y used for 1.15 There are also six reversed letters logscyig-drug ( ~'ll'Ul"II"':§"l )

Tibeta n "I·tj·Ol· 1. "I·z:nij· Spelli ng

Pronu nciatio n

Englis h



Iw-pa-la-gi-gu=li= lw-pa-la-gi-gu=Zi= kha-na-ro=kho-tsha-na-ro=tsho = nga-tsha-na-ro=tsho= tsha-pa-na-ro-po= da-la-na-ro=Za= da-la-n a-ro=l da-na-ro=do-pa-na-ro=po= ba-zhabs-kyu=bu-ma-na-ro=mo= ra-gigu=ri-ma1-naro=rrw ra-gigu=ri-1rU -naro= rrw

ka-pa-li ·kho-t sho kho-ts ho ga-sa-ga-Ia nga-ts ho tsha-p o da-lo da-Io do-po bu-mo ri-mo

skull they everyw here we hot this year bagga ge girl painting

3. "l·'ll·"l·or ga-sa-ga-la= "l"~r"l'nr

4. c:i' 5. a:;·Zi· a:;'Zi'


6 "i' ai' ''''OJ' ~·Zi· 7. t;;·Zi· 8. S·.ij· 9. ~:.ij. ~:.ij'

le or three syllab le word, z:r) When the letter "ba" ( .t:r ) appears as the second syllab le of a two syllab it is generally pronou nced "va" instead of "ba".


1.16.b EXAMPLE
Tibetan Spelling



1. "l'Q' "I"':r 2. I'l'Q' fl'.c:r
3, E'Q' 3. E'.c:j' 4.
I".c:j'~' I"Q'~'

ka-ba= kha-ba= kha-zhabs-kyu=khu-ba= kha-ba-zha-zhab-kyu-zhu = cha-'greng-po=che-ba = nya-'greng -po=nye-ba -na-ro-bo.= tha-na-ro=tho-ba= da-zhabs-kyu=du-ba = ra-'greng-pa=re-ba =

Ka-wa Kha-wa Khu-wa che-wa nye-wo tho-wa du-wa ,re-wa. ·re-wa.

pillar snow juice


Kha-wa-zhu snow melts

5. a;'Q" as'.c:r
6.~'Q' 6.~'.c:j'

near hammer smoke hope


.ll'.c:j' 7. .ll'Q'


8, ~'Q" 8. ~'.c:r ~'.c:j' 9. ~'Q'

Exercise La


Transcribe the following words into the Tibetan script:


ka-kha, kha-ba, ga-ba, nga-tsho, ja-ma, nyi-ma, do-bo, naoma, pa-pha, pha-bu, ba-ra, rna-Ie, na-ma, tsha-po, va-ma, zhi-m~ d-bo, I~ sha-ba, sa-cha, ka-ba, khu-ba, ga-sha, ngo-tsha, nya-ba, ri-bo, li, du-ba, nu-ma, mi-tshe, Exercise 1.b Drill
~.l:r ~.I:r

tl]•.q' El]'.q'
E,r :1:: El'




().'~' (:l.' ~'




ar or





-- ~'~
~'~' ~'~'

a;' .I:j' fl' ~' 'j' a;' .I:j' fl' ~' "

"'W w

~. ~'-9'




.. _·, t .._"




~'Ch' ~'.t'


f'll' ~'
~'.q' ~'.q'




-.< fl' .t' Ch'

a;' c;,1" c;,1'
'> "



-- - ~'~' ~'~'


El]' tl]' .q


.q'a.J' '>


"'w "'W



*' ~W



'-'0' !



-.q~"I~f bskyugs (vomited) has thus: 1. mi-'jug-ming-gzhi 6. There are seven important denominations: t'.~:.L ~L rj:. The numbering here conson only refer to the sequence of spellin g and writing but it does not correspond to the order of the explan ation of the consonantal denominations we have listed above and will discuss hereafter.€"1 ~""r<€'lj jj'r<€'lj jjc.Jug yang-' jug 4.'''I~' :ljc. rjes-Ju g rjes-'j ug 3.'<r ~c.. ~.. ' 'II'W <OJ JP'II'IEl 'Il'W 2. 4. The follow ing sample of the syllable sampl e .'<'_-_' 2.' o>l~'i5"" !>:.17 CONS ONAN TAL DENO MINA TION S Each Tibetan syllable consist from one to seven letters including a vowel though Tibetan words do not necessarily have to have a vowel.J b-:':J tiJ The following example show a Tibetan syllable with seven characters above consonantal denominations.11'o..'<r o>l~'i5a:. surmo unted s. the root letter k.'''I~' 2. the prefix . suffix and post suffix all the rest of the four characters namely the surmounted. the post suffix s.. the suffix g and 7...) " ~"".CCIHlAJPl'Il'IElR!. the subjoi ned y. inatio ns ter.)t consonant of a syllab le.11c. ~ .. mgo-can ~~'r<€'l1 ~~'r<€"j .. Excluding the prefix.~:.'<'_-) 0..€ "I . rkyan g-pa g -pa 7. ~".. occur in a syllable. subjoined and suffix whether it is written on the top or the bottom of the stacked eonsonants. ming-gzhi ':..' q ~ ~ ~r J::J '""" "'" b IS \:. they are spelled according to the order of in which they are written. jjC.e< !.. .'r<€ 'lj "lc. <)t natii " .'o. yang.::" \::? g s k Y II 1/~ 6 7 .. 3.q~'lj~' b.''lj~' . the vowel u. '.€"I' jjc. vowel are stacked from top to bottom : The vowel is spelled before the root letter." tL 1.'o.fix Post-suffix Prefix before the root consonant Passive consonants Independent Surmounted consonants "lC.. 2.' 1£":. 0.'" i. sngon -Jug 5 .:.. 6.:i ~""'''. 5.-. l~ . Students should be aware of have the importance of the various sets of compound letters which are so essential for the formation of a syllable or a word. [fix letter of the root consonant !. :... ~. When all of the seven denomination belonging to all of the s.''lj~' .

f1 kha 3. .>. ~9·9 Pronu nciatio n Tibetan l"llZlj'IJ' I'llZlj'<r t:. name which is to say the core letter of asyllable.19 E. These ten letters: tlj ga.2. By nantal denominatio n have to link up to the root conso nant to design of Tibetan words conso have already learnt a dozen recogn izing the thirty Tibetan consonants one would les: which is not indeed that common in other languages. Ming gzhi consonants which make a a syllable. ~ ra. Suffix add JJ~ is pronounced mar 'a'. nation of a root consonant and a suffix.t·~iIi 'mtha'-rten'.tlj~ ming-gzhi. There are many single unded consonants. "i da.'l. I'll fa cow mountain pass salt "'1 9. tsha E. j.r~ili and':' l"ll I'll la and -:. nga I tea nya ra 4. Il ba. cr. 7.~9·q~· 2.becoming often its last r.zr"lZlj'Q- 2.j" ~~·r:l~9·~· THE SUFF IX NGA ~~·P.~9·q~' THE TEN SUFF IXES g. ga.Zlj >lZlj'IJ' >lZlj'<r Spelli ng la-ga-lag-pa = nga-g a= = tha-ga=thag-pa = na-ga=nag-pa-na-ro=po= pha-ga=phag-pa = ma-ga=lnag-pa = ya-ga=yag-pa-na-ro-po = lag-pa ngag thag-pa thag-pa nag-po phag-pa mag-pa yag-po English hand speech rope black pig groom good ilioriJ ili"l"iJ'' 'lZlj'IJ' 'lZlj'<r .t:. t:.~·P l.20 ~~·o. Thus instead of mara.21 jIlt:. t:l. ja 6." ba l"ll 8. ~ ~ mouth a pair fish goat meat 2. There are ten consonants which can be used as suffixes. When a syllable is formed by the combi its own sound when then the latter loses its inherent a and often remains sil~t. pronounced but it always drops its naturally held vowel sound 'a'.18 CJC.j" "IZlj. suffix suffix es. E. a syllable must have a ~t:.Il 6. In spite of the presen thus means the basis of the ~t::tlj~ inations. . Other the word in tbe Tibetan language witho ut a vowel marker or any other compo ate their usage. sa. cha 5. ili na. Here are few examp fl 1.~9'9 THE SUFF IX GA ~~·P.:"1Wf CJc"'9 ro1" ROOT CONS ONA NT ~ ~ I consonant but the vo~els What is a root consonant? All the thirty consonants can becom e a root e of other consonantal absen ce ce or absenc can never become the root of a syllable. iii by a post-suffix.~9·~: khang pa house = kha-ng a=kha ngpa = .~·r:. denominatio ns.lIZlj·IJ· olIZlj"l. . the root consonant..·IJ· jIlt:. Known as rjes-Ju letter when it is not followed consonants succeed the root letter of a syllable . Practice the following examples: ~ 2. are also known as JJJilr.\Ir. 'a. "1 sha' 10.>l rna.. final" "the final n since they are positioned after JJ.

e. nga as suffixesswe haveenoticed that both of them and I:.cr "" f'l'l' f'I'l" " _"."i' q ~'( lie l.ili' q I:.\'tj' ba-na-ro bo=da bodpo= po= Qilj'!J' ba-na-ro-bo-na-bon-paQil)'lJ' ba-na-ro-bo-na-bon-pa-na-ro-po na-ro-po= = ClJil)' OJ~' ili Na is pronounced more with a post-na "i Na is pronounced more with post-nasalized effect salized effect and also mo ies the sound modif 2. "i na and "I{ sa are not to be pronounced sa are not to be pro nou nce d but the y mo dify the pre ced ing roo but they modify the preceding roottconsonant's inherent aa into e either effe ctor with aa glottal sto p or bot consonant's inh ere nt into e eith er with aa vowel lengthening with vow el len gth eni ng effect or wit h glo ttalstop or both. '>: .~·r:l.cr 2.'<J' "II:.1:.~'l~· TH E SU FF IX 2.~ll~' THE SUFF NA - I:.nga = ga-ng a= nga nga =ngang-pa nga.=ged--po = cha-da=che-pa = cha-da=che-pa = da-da= de-pa da-da= de-pa = na-da=ned-pa na-da=ned-pa = tsha-da=tshed-pa tsha-da=tshed-pa = la-zhab-kyu-lu-lu-da=ludla-zhab-kyu-lu-Iu-da=lud-pa = gepa gep a chepa che pa depa dep a ne pa 15M pa 15he Iud pa 5.~r. nga as suf fixe we hav not iced tha t both of them arepronounced.24 ~.23 e.2 2 ~~rr:l.e..nga=ngang-pa na-nga=nangp = na-nga=nang paa= ma -ng a=m ng pa-na-ro=po = ma-ng a=maang pa-na-ro=po= ya.'<r ga. pronounced wit h a glottal sto p regardlessof which vow el it precee Syllables end ing in da suf fix is pronounced with a glottal stop of wh ich vowel it preceeds.nal en = la-nal en = Q"'Q' ba-na-rO bo= da--bod Q.' /' /' yan yangg Inthe above examples of using "I ga the abo ve exa mp les of In using "I ga and I:.~'r:l.~r. ili na and "I{ other suffixess i.' "II:.1:.)'tj' ')')'Q ')')'tj'' - .lI:..nga = ya-ng a= gangg gan ngang paa nga ngp nangppa nan g a mang po ma ng po what wh at swann swa buddhist buddhist manyy man agam again ilil:./'~' THE SUFF IX DA DA "1')'<1" "I')' tj' J. ~fr:l./'~' TH E SU FF IX 2.~ ' . Syllables ending in da suffix is h..' - Th e suffix q ba is pro nou nce d as The suffix '1 ba is pronounced aspp in 'cup' with aasho rtenning effect to in 'cup' with shorte ing effe ct to the syllable: the syllable: lI'l'' 'I' "'1'''1' """I "l'l' "1'1' ibq' .) da.' "II:. ". Howe ver are suffixe i.~fr:l. nga"na=ngen--pa = nga-na =ngen pa = ~ili'Q' nya -na =n yen -pa = ~"i'tj' nya-na =nyen -pa = ?ili'?~' ta-na=ten-ta-na=ten = 'J"i''J''i' ta-na=ten-ta-na=ten = ~~'?~' na-na=nen-ta-na=ten = "iil)'% na-na=nen-ta-na=ten = la.'<r 1:.'Q "il:. i{_~ i{_~ 2.. <.'tj' ' J.c ngem-pa ngem-pa nyem-pa nyem-pa ten-ten ten-ten nen-ten nen-ten len len bod-pa bod-pa born-poo born-p II evil evil to listen to listen defini e def initte eagern ess eag ern ess answe ans we rr Tibetan Tib eta n Bonpo Bo npo 2.:r. ') da.>:-.~ ~ L~ t) A-~ ~A-~ ~- 14 14 "II:..' 1:. ga-d<J.=ged po = ga-d{J.lI:.e.'<J' J. ~~ cleanerr cleane punishmentt punislunen faith patient pat ien t fever fever sputum sputum "i"i"tj' ~"Q' ib') 'q cb')'q ~')'Q' ~')'tj' I ofthe difies the sou nd oft he pre ced ing roo t con son ant 's inherent preceding root consonant's inherent a into e as in 'hen' wit h a slight length a into e as in 'hen' with a slight lengthening effect.. ening effect.~~~'. Ho we ver oth er pro nou nce d.'1' TH E SU FF IX BA THE SUFF IX BA kha -ba = kha-ba = tha-ba=thab-ka == tha-ba=thab-ka pha -baa= pha-b = tsha-ba a = tsha-b = khab khab thab-kaa thab-k phab phab 15hab tshab needle needle oven oven yeast yeast representativ representative e :.22 e.24 .:.23 ~l~fr:l.')' Q' J. regardless ds.

>J nul is pronounced so clearly that it does not cause any major modification in the suffix <>J ma sound of the root syllable.J r>la:r~<. For instance the word Acarya is syllable.a Furthermore 'a is a very special suffix as it is also used in transliterating the long form of Sanskrit vowels in Tibetan scriptures by adding a small 0.25 ~~rO-~llj·J.'Q 1l.ll'lo. A 'a chung is . However its practice was abolished during a language revision conference in mid-10th century.' (horse). "i"lo. HOwever A' written in practice unless the syllable is preceded by a prefix in which case it is a legitimate suffix. "'.' 2.i~~ 2.26.'J:l' = to be happy. . j'la:( ~r j'la:r (S.'<lic:. consonant as if ending in 'a.' = sky and 0.l· THE SUFFIX MA ~~r(.l.·'J .J ~ 1l<>l''J 1l"I'''l kha-ma=kham-ba-zhabs-kyu=bu = cha-nul=cham-pa = cha-ma=cham-pa da-ma=dam-pa = tsa-nul=tsam-pa = tsa-ma=tsam-pa la-nul =lam-ra-gi-gu-ri-ma=rim la-ma za-ma=zam-pa = ~ kham-bu cham-pa dam-pa tsam-pa lam-rim zam-pa apricot cough holy roasted barley flour stages of Path bridge ~ ~r(.>J'''l (S<>J''J "Ia:('J "ia:r"l is". 2. "I'" ga-ra= ga-zhabs-kyu gu .' = some.· "1"10.26 ~~'O-~llj'O-' THE SUFFIX 'A In theory the suffix r>: 'a occurs to every syllable where none of the first nine suffixes occur.e. .. fixed at the foot of a letter to lengthen the vowel of a syllable.....' is not iJ(>..]0.l.l. A A'~c:... This means all the syllables which do not end in either of the first nine suffixes and those that have vowel endings phonologically take the suffix P: 'a.."10.. o.! 15 1l<f1l<f 1l"I'1l"!' Gl<f Gl"1' za-ba=zab-za-ba=zab = ya-ba = zab-zab yab carefulness father (Honorific) 2.' rust. However in most Tibetan scriptures 0.~ llj'(.· for iJ' (horse).~l:!J''''' THE SUFFIX RA g. 'J a..>J' 'J is"<>J' "l rlla:( .'''1' il\<>l'<>lj'lA' 0.' = command. A suffix.l.' il\J.~llj'J. syllable that take 'a suffix must necessarily have to be prefixed by either of the five prefixes which we will discuss below..l'l"'Q . It lengthens the inherent a of the preceding root A' 'a.l' I The suffix."1(>. Il.~'O-~llj''''' "I. iJo.gu ra = cha-ra=char-pa = tha-ra=thar-pa = tha-ra=lhar-pa gar gur char-pa thar-pa dance tent rainfall liberation ~ 'j" 'j'" a. 'a or o. written in Tibetan as ~~~ Il'l and is"..I'J. chung.27 ~~'(... is". In some old Tibetan manuscripts the suffix P: is retained regardles of A' the changes that were adopted i. Following examples which indicate 'a suffix in association with prefixes will not be transcribed J:l"]p" as we have not yet discussed the prefixes: "I Glo.

.~'r:(~9·~· TH E SU FF IX (~9·~' SA The suf fix ~ sa is not pronounced but it modifies the preceding conson ant's inherent a into e wit h a len gth eni ng effect to the syl lable as in 'pay'. -~ -. C:OJ'oQ' C:ClJ''l' llClj''l' ljClj'oQ' . _c-.R "'' ' t c\. they pronounce the suffix sa and som e so-called nonolars is not wh eth er it is classical or moder how classical Tibetan should be pronounced.J 'J"" l..{J'"''\1 J' "':..\Clj'oQ' a. c:"'.. if a syllable end s with a ClJ la suf OJ la fix and is suc ded ed by a single (" ) ba. _e-. tV\./i '\ ' .} ' "'- 2. nJ9' .. It however modifies the sound of the preceding conSonant'siliherent a into e as in 'day'.1 l:!J' Uj'\1 i >~~ - pha gpa nag po de nga 'i red g pa That black pig is mine..{J''''a)'l::IJc:..J mo-ra'Tmar= ra"f pa-ra=par-pa = ba-ra=bar-pa = sha-ra=shar=pa= ~ mar par-pa bar-pa shar pa butter photographer middle Easterner (Sherpa) <~ .1 l.1 nga'i thag pa ser po red My rope is yellow..~.{J' ~9' q:..'t::.. .... -~ c:.\ 16 J<'" "'''' Q""l .{J' ~ l:IJ'Uj:..' I:: OJ'FI::.. R "':.J' r.{J':.-. The difference is n written lan gua ge which we can find but the simple variation of pronunciation in the spoken and in most languages.-.....1 ~ c:. certain Tib eta n dia lec ts e. \' c:. ...... _ _ -. s.~' .l. I::.OJ nga-la=ngal-ba = tha-la=thal-ba = tha-la=thal-ba da-la= dal-ha = ba tsha-la= ba-la=be~ 'lClj'' oQClj ~~.{JS "':.f "':.. -. .. n. '.1 nga ng pa de mo'i red That is her swan. de kho 'i lag pa red Tha t is his hand. "9""Q -9"" 2. se.2 9 E.f'lj' .... ngal-ba (wa) difficulty l·ba thaI-Ia thal dust dal-Ia la leisure tShal ISha veget{!ble etable be M> 1M> '': wool Fl~ .1 e-.0..f'lj'.. te... '. ..r:<' ~l:lj' q ~ ""..c:. Ladhakhi lan Tibetan Tibetan scholars think that guage..WFc:..jr:(' "''\1 I::. In som e Himala yan fro ntie r towns. - rwd pa de tsh o gan g nas red Where are those patiients from? pat entS '~. nga la kha ng pa yag po zhi g yod I have a good house.\Clj''l' ..3 0 Re adi ng Ex erc ise ~'Fr:( ~'Fr:( -.' .{JS a. I..g. C\.' i<j..-.~. ~ ~:.J''.l oQ".{J' ~l:lj' .l 'l""ll. '.{J' ~ 9' . .ClJ' a.' a)' !J1::. c-.....sa= ra-sa =ras=pa= la-s a = ngay nay re-pa lay byr ne from. . In spoken Tibetan...~: f r OJ~' ~f ~~ 2.Z.c. '.r:< c:. I::.2 8 ~~'fr:(~9'(1r TH E SU FF IX ~'~ r:(~9'(1r LA Th e suf fix nr la is not always pronou nced but occasionally it is pronounce d softly. i<j. barley cotton clad action (Karma) a:.. nga -sa = na... .f ''OJ9' J. 0 (1 (1 b. ~ " ..~'l...c3)~' "''\1 "':. then the ba syllable is substituted by the la sound while the suffix la remains mute...

Some pretenth century manuscripts and even recent calligraphers use da drag in their work to show their loyalty to the Tibetan grammar but in practice it is not used. Like prefixes and suffixes whose pronunciation is modulated.~Il] POST -SUFFIXES There are two suffixes which can also be used as post-suffixes after selected number of the suffixes. 19. 16. I ~~ ~ c:.·r. 'Il]' it~· flt:.r.f .a Transliterate the following words into Tibetan script: 1. • . 0.~' . 13. 3. It remains silent and does not modify as it does as a suffix.r.' la.·l4.l ~t:. 15. 10. ra-ga-sa = za-nga-sa= tha-ba-sa = rug zung thab brass copper method realm .....or [IlQ' ~ c:."I~' . the post-suffix is seldom pronounced but it has a lengthening effect to the syllable and the inherent sound a of the preceding suffix is not reinstated in consequence of their union.r t:..r ~t:. ':J ba and ~ l.. '14 L::r ~~lI ·[1. . 20.J 6l rna suffixes."I~' -'lC~· -'!I:. 4. 9.·!oJ· a. 6. [Ilt:.rfl. The ''It:.~Il] POST-SUFFIXES Ulc:..' ra and or lao .Q' ~ ~ nga la khab dang phab med lti kJulb I do not have (a) needle & yeast... .o..'~s"I"''i' in modem writtenTibetan although it is introduced inTibetan grammer as "i'~"1 da drag.a The post-suffix ~ sa can occur after syllables ending in "I ga. 5. 2.llq~' . khong gi tshad pa ga tshod red mi de ngan pa rna red What is his /her temperature? That man is not evil. 2. 12. lagpa lug gu khang pa zhing pa chung ba dad pa yin na'ng 'on pa yabyum rus pa TUS khab lam rim yam shing shubs gar ba yol ba thaI rna thai mospa thos pa sang nyin hand lamb house farmer smaller faith i but deaf father and mother bone needle stage sof the path twig sheath dancer curtain clasped palm intention to hear tomorrow f· .Q·~c:._ c..!lq~' fl~~ I'l~~ kha-ma-sa= kham kJul-ma-sa = Exercise 2. It denotes the imperative or perfect mood if it occurs as a post suffix to verb stems which we shall see in a following chapter. 11..t:. The three suffixes after which da technically occur as post suffixes are: <Ii' na. ..JSc:.l ".·r:l.'Il]' it~' ~rIl]' it~· ..·~s''I"''i· yang-Jug da is no longer used Ujt.. 12.l....r. C nga. 18.!·r a.l. c:..l J..r. However it also occurs with nouns... 17.31.t:. 2.l. _ -. 7. .31 UJc:. 14. 8.

'Uj'iij'I'!' (shin tu gees pa'i yi ge lnga) which -9"i'~'i'''I~''l'<..l... '\ 1a.. ...'''?lI i1J'~' ~t:.'iJ' e... C'\"..i1J'l.f'~~l l"i1J' a. ..' '9~1 ~ ~ ~ ~ '" -.e.q'.'S' i1J~' iIJ' ..Jrl.....31 -..ij~'~i1J1 l"iIJ'l.q'tIl' '" _ -.e. In some cases prefixes reduce the effect of the aspiration and low and long tone root letters are changed into high and short.!l.. '~' a.'..z:q' '9~' ~·~t::...l~''9~1 It:.'..Ej. r. They mute orsi1emfottliey o. .e.Ej..-..El. ...l.... 'a are not pronounced as syllable.r'-<51 ItIl' a..l... affectthe pronunciation of the root cons0!!e.e.q'l. '~'~~'rll'~"'l.Jrl. verbs.' ~I i1J~'l.z:q'l.'SW~a.. JJ rna and r:l...r~'l.t::.q'.Il!..l' ~~'iIJ' ~~' iIJ'f!1 IrllIlf'l.J. Ia. .' iIJ' ~~' ~I 1i1J'4~'4~'l.'~.e..(fflcif siiriIiWremain modify the whole sound of a root consonant with some exceptions.' ~'rll' C>J~'l. ..-.Jrl: ll.'1 liIJ' C>Jt:..' ~'iIJ'~"'" a.z:q ...a verbs..JiS. 'rll'tAl~ '?~ '~.q~' i5' :qt:.' i1J'f!1 .l'~e:. tlj ~' ._ C'\"..~''9~' . They are also called r:l.- - ~ 2.e.q'l. £z:q'~'~~ '.q' iIJ'. ~I ~ IrllIlj'l...3'z:qe:.-Therefore" iprefixeBfiouldnoitJe iprefixeBfiouldflottJe described as b-eing muteorsi1emfot1neio'(fncifsiiripWremain silent...e...... .q' iIJ~'l.l.c:: I J.f''51 _ '"" eo. '" ItIl'i1JO.. .e.. - 2. li1J ~'.e.. forms the presept.32. -.lo" SW ~ a. c-.z:q Sw..'ii1J. '..' '9~' ~i1J' i51 1"'tAl'''~ '''' ~iIJ'.J' ~t:. A prefix is a letter which precedes the root letter of a syllable.r'~~1 ltIl'a.J.Jtl)~'l..e. liIJ.e.~''9~' ~.q".l. ~' C>J ~' .J' ~~'i1J' ~.la. .. e.. Q ba.Exercise 2... .!lQ~'Ci1tl)'2~f ~ ~'Ci11 I~ 'tlj~'llQ~'C1tlj' 2~f ~'C11 ~ '" I. groups....~I J' '9 liIJ' .'I ~ ~ ~ liIJ'4~'4~'l.~tlj There are five extremely important letters -9"i'~'i'''I~<Il'<.ql . .fr:l: ~'i1J'~"'" a.Jrl.. _ l"iIJ' a. 1 "'l.ql . 'a.e:.'S' iIJ~' i1J' ~z:q·l.c tonic pitch and make the sound more compact.q'tIl' C<F ilJt:..' iJ'. ~ '~t:. ~ ~ 1i1_e..... .' a....q~' .~'. "i da.'~'~~N~"'l.tl) i1Je:.Jr~: ..~yllable without a vowel or a suffix.. The five prefixes "I ga...~tl) PREFIXES ~~'rl. ¥ C'.''.. perfect and imperfect 2. ICAl~'?~' .Jrl.1 'rll'CAl~ ...~N C>J~'l.l ICJ. -..J(.32 ~~'O. e-.-Therefore in the olden days but they generally.e.lrJ:~' '" (\.'Uj'iij'I'!' are prefixed to most of the consonantal denominations. 'fl'.t::.." c. __ ''''CAl'''~ '.j"'l.~' C>Jt:.... 'I ltAl~'?~'ll~'l.<CleO' .f~' ':. Ia._ iIJ"'z:qt::. -.' a..32. fl For example "I ga cannot be prefixed to "I ka.l.. 'z:q~' "".' i1J"'z:qt::.e. __ e.:i(lJ' r:\:i(lJ' 'phul in the Tibetan grammatical terminology.a A prefix modifies the meaning of a wbrd..l~'i1J'~~'~1 '" ~ I~'tl)~'.Ji5.~yllable . r:\ consonant.!l~'l.Ja' £z:q'~'~~ '...' ~ ~ ~ S'i1J'.. e-.j' i1t:..rrl. .q'~' iIJ' i1' ~ t:. 1i1J' a.l0'1 ItIl'ilJrl..'fI CJ.b A prefix cannot be used to letters which belong to the same group of a root consonant.El...32..32.. '? 1t:...e.Jtlj ~'l..t:..1 II ~. ...-N_' 2. _ _ .\ Iz:qt::..b Drill e....c The effect of prefixing to a root consonant and to a syllable as a whole is that it raises the 2. 'F' . .ij~'~ilJl -.J' ~F 1"1' . 232. F kha and ~ nga since they belong to the same group and this principle applies with all the other groups.e. .q'i1J'.l..N__ ... c. A prefix does not occur in a exceptions.

~ sa. Tsa retains its sound without any modification under any circumstances as it is a radical letter.~ lJ' J The prefix Go is applicable to eleven root consonants. ma'a and a'o.' "I4i1i' ga-'o-sha-gi-gu=shi-na = is pronounced shin (death). honorific). Ya is modified by the prefix ga which is the 'II"l~' ga-'o-ya-sa only prefix that is applicable and no surmounted and subjoined letters occur with ya. the ZlI~"'ga-'o-ta-'greng-po=lecra = is pronounced ter (treasure). 6. ga'a. pa and tsa. '5 ta. .' ga. However the usage of ga as a prefix is limited only to these eleven root consonants.8. ba'a.'.e..' ZlI~r. ZlI"l~' ga-'a-ya-sa =is pronouced yay (right-side). ga-'o-za-'a= is pronounced zah (planet). When spelling the prefixed consonants... Here we have used the example of 'a as a suffix as we have discussed above.· ga-'o-na-na-ro=no-da = is pronounced noe (harm).. Zha retains its sound without modification with prefixes and it does not take the surmounted letters.·ga-'o-da-na-ro=dho-nga is pronounced dhong (face). ta. Sha retains its sound without going ZlJ4i1i' through any changes caused by other consonantal denominations.' '11-'1(:). .' ZlI-'lr:>.' . The effect of compact. "l~jr. " da. When ga is prefixed to nya. ga remains silent as the letter k in 'knife' and p in 'pneumonia'. 4 sha and 11. ga-'o-sa-zhabs-kyu=su-nga =is pronounced Soong (speech. even if it is followed by a vowel or a suffix." "1~c:. . '? nya. ~ ca. Sa is not modifiable by any prefix or other consonantal compounds.ZlIiS"r. 9. Na is modified by any prefix or any 'II~'" surmounted letters and it becomes equivalent to the Sanskrit retroflex na.:: . ga-'o-zha-'a =is pronounced shaa (to joke). ta cannot be "1~"'ga-'o-ta-'greng-po=lecra modified either by the presence of a prefix or surmounted letters as stated above.'o-ca-gi-gu= ci-ga is pronounced cheek (one) as in chick pea. da'o.~'"1''l'1 THE PREFIX GA ~"i't:I. ma'o Practise following examples.' 'II~(:). 2. As a radical consonant. da'a. ZlI~~' ga-'o-nya-gigu=nyi-sa is pronounced nyee (two).. lI"J zha. iii oa.5 tsa. 5.'o-Isa-nga = is pronouncedtsang (central province in Tibet).. how words are spelled and pronounced when a root consonant is preceded by a prefix and succeeded by a vowel and a suffix: ZlI~"r ga. ba'o.32.d Prefi~never take vowel and a prefix is only applicable to certain root consonants as Prefi~never shown below: 2. ZlI~r:>. the a'a sound is added tq the prefix i. -'l za. a'o ga'o. They are: 1. 10.101 1':1 2. It is not prefixed to any coIisonantal consonantal compounds even if the root consonant is oile of the eleven consonants shown above. . the vowel sound remains regardless of the modification caused by the prefixes. -'I prefixes. Ga remains silent when it 'II~"l' is prefixed to ca. 3. Like most of the "J na. -r. Being the first letters of the TOWS one to four they are radical masculine letters. Da is modified by any prefixes or "1~r·:ga-'o-da-na-ro=dho-nga any surmounted letters and it becomes equivalent to the Sanskritdha.. na . 7. it is raised 'II~~' to tonic pitch and uttered more GOmpact. 4.- . "l ya.'II.33 ~"i't:l. ZlI~.

11..sq sha . il ea. ~'L. if it is preceeded by a sunnounted or prefix letter.3. "i9'da-'o-ga-'greng-po =is pronounced ghe (virtue).. sa. .l"lr:l. C'\ zha..." ga. surmounted . .. with all the possible consonantal compounds ofsuntlouDted and subjoined letters.:.. "i da. It never takes subjoined letters..·ba-'o-ka-'a =is pronounced kah-(advice). nga.j 11 <1 zha-"l za.'l za.-'.it'. nga.~ . Da is never prefixed to surmounted letters. ~il\'r:l..34 ~i!i'r:l.~tljS There are six root consonants to which the ~refix "i da is applicable whether or not they are subjoined. 12. '9 sha and 13.~lljS THE PREFIX DA ~il\·r:l. subjoined.~ or.. Ea is modified into a when iI Ba prefixed by a da and this modification retains to a degree even if it is followed by a vowel or a subjoined letters. I I:Ij llj ga C..i. But it goes through J.. The six letters are: 1. 2.!ijj ~. ~ nya ~ da il\ na i!i ---~----.. 3. 'lj ga.Jnj'~-pa-la= ~l..3. l. 7. . ~'ii. Nga is modified "iS Cll (silver).~ tlj'z::r /4 14 ~ t-J ... ~ nya.. "iJJ'lj da-'o-ma_ga = is pronounced (high pitch) rnaag (war). ~ sa.'da-'o-ka-na-ro=ko-lla = is pronounced kon (rare).i~ < ~.. ~i:_. nga 1ba 7 cq rna . l. Ma is modified equally by the da-'o-ma-ga (war).: . 's":.\.[ 2. . 6. 4. Q"lr:l. "iSnj'' da-'o-nga-zhabs-kyu=ngu-la =is pronounced (high pitch) ngoo (silver). 0:" i5 ea Prefixed lia l'rel1xed Ga 1) ta .·ba-'o-ka-'a qiij"i' ba-'o-ga-na-ro=G¢-da = is pronounced ghoe (laughter).. Ka as a masculine letter is not modified "im. Ga is modified by the prefix da into a pitch sunnounted toned gha as it also happens with the presence of any surmounted letters or with other prefixes.. 4.. <Pii"i' (laughter) l.::.~ llj' .-. 2. 'J ta. " ~.. ~nj' ~Cll' da-'o-a-zhabs-kyu=u-la = is pronounced 001 (poverty).- ~..:. 3. . differently. surmounted ~l. .l~' Q~' ba-'o-ca-zhabs-kyu = is pronounced chu (ten).:. 5.etains surmounted a draq(atic change when it takes subjoined letters as will be shown below.:?.jCll'~-pa-la= is pronounced pal (glory) or as pale in English..[ .. "i na. 9.cr ~i!i 'r:l.-No Change Change .is most commonly used prefix is th~ of surmounted letters. "1 ka. Pa only takes da as a prefix and it "etains its sound without being modified as with the sunnounted letters.j~. i5 2. ~.i or.. "im.. Q ba and 6.35 THE PREFIX BA There are thirteen root consonants to which ba is prefixed and this prefix. 10.j pa.'. . 5.·da-'o-ka-na-ro=ko-na by any of the prefixes or surmounted letters unless it is followed by a subjoined letters which will be discussed below. The thirteen letters are: 1. Ilj iI tsa. "I ka...:-.. c. . c. sunnounted letters and prefixes. Practise to spell the following examples: 5.!\. tsa ~ sa u. (}t (-'it Prefixed Da Prenxed ua No Change t.. This is exceptional in this case as other applicable prefix modify very differently. JJ rna._~t<~~- I "1 ka ~Pa Change .-- . 2. 8.-..- ya -------- / '~.

. e: 9 t:.()..).I mo tshen-rno (night)..--- . Tsa ~ Sa ~ Za 7!] No Chan ge Cban ... ja ~ -------- nya I II fha~ da~na tha" da ~ n~ .6.tsa-zh abs-ky u=tsu -na = is pronounced tsun (diligent)..9. Chan ge 9 ~ Ga l:. generallJnodification.. 'l:S'".ij. The eleven letters which take ma as'prefix are.I. 'l..lE. cha.I"..~ 9''''1" 2.·Q' ma"'o-kha-na=khen-pa-nacro=po =is pronounced khem -po (abbot J.. nab J.. 3. shaan if.' ma..3. . Q~fba--'o-sa-zhabs-kyu =is pronounced su (recep 'l~fba 'o-sa-zhabs-kyu .... ". dza. 7.' ma-'o.>1~9 .r>l' ma.~9·J.36 't!. £!.sha-da = is pronounced she (to explain). r:. Q~"i'Q' 00-'o-za-na ro=zoe-da -pa=is pronounced zopa (patience)...'o. 10. !l fha.lfl".)r:.'.. '\.J1 .' hon.na-'a= na-ma =is pronounced nah rna (bride) J.?". an) (boatman).tli·t.lif. ja."i·ba-'o-da-zhabs-kyu=du-da= 'l'5.Prefix rna prenas 2.(higb pitch) ngah (w~mb).' ba-'o.lr:. ~ dli.".lf"'·Q ma.. na.". ).' ucedjb ab J.lSa ...'o~cha-na 'Pis pronounced chain (footnote). can also be prefixed There are eleven root consonants which can be prefixed with ma which alizes to some letters in addition to the oined lette!s . ngli.'J. flkha ..ja-la = is prono ucedjh ah (to see).'o.t. before certain number ofsubjoiIied 1ette!s.I~ ma-'o -ga-na -ro =is pronounced gho (head). d 11.r<'J. nga E.'.l8' ma-'o.lif. 1. en-pa =i5 J. c"& a:.tha-zh abs-ky u =is pronounced thoo(p ower) .>18" dbog{ J.)r:.lr:. . '" mi.I' ma-'o. J."1 ga. Q.2. ma-'o. E. also the prefix ma has ngab (w~mb ).. . modified nga intO high pitch ngah with a lengthened ending without prono cbain 'o~cha -na 'Fis J.I~'" ma-'o~a-na-ro=dz¢-da .tsha-n a=tsh en-ma -na-ro -mo =ispro nounc ed tsben. 4.l· THE PREF IX MA .' tion). as prefix eleven ktters which lake .>1.I".ro.·ba-'o-ta-nga = is pronounced tang (sent).. . 5."1 ga.!Jza-na-ro=dz¢-da = i~ pronounced dzoe (treasure room).'~ No Chan ge Cban Cbang Chang e f r . nga ~ nya " Da'" Na t:.".... fkha. 8.lE!".·Q·ma-'o-nya-na=nyeil-pa =is pronounced (high pitch) nyem -pa J.Sha '. nga.·ba-'o-ta 'l.ga-na J.. Q'5. if..".I~9 ma-'o-dha-na-ro=dho-ga = is pronounced dhog{colour).·ba-'o-da-zhabs-kyu=du-da= is pronounced dhu (devil). !j tha. fc\ zha zba ~ // 't!. prono unced (higb J..l EiN ma-'o. khern J.Prefix ma .. Q:S'''. Here J.. Prefix ed Ma . . . genera modification. J.. Ga l:. Prefix ed Ba I) 7!j ka ~ Ca 7 Ta . Tsha is seldom J. '? Bya.r>l·ma-'o-ja-la J.<j". Dya. tlli. J.9.1 modified by any prefixes.I.l. u-ga-s QCj9""ba-'o-zha-z 'lCj9""ba-'o-zha-zhabs-kyu=zhu"ga-sa = is pronounced zhoog (sit.rll· ma-'o -nga-l a =is pronounced..kha-na ma.".'o-nga -la lao uncing the la. 'l~""Q' ba-'o- sbe Q""1"i' ba-'o..I kha a.

eo... _ c.."ii e-. pMI-w r.I' a..:lD.. .>.'''1 r.19~' "~'~D.'C'l.J'C'l. 5..' THE PREF IX 'A There are ten root consonants which take the prefix 'a which exactly has the same effect as rna prefix. ~ ~ ~?. 2.ii 'if.37 '@....E.. rJ. stick).l" LJ'D. 7. fle:.j9'" co.! .. 4.. E..I·a..' ~.J."I ~(~ -.'9=lD. . c. c-.1' ."I ~ khong gi gdong pa gtsang rna red His face is clean.::~ .~.1:\. --..·a.~! <..1' l:j..J.. 'C'11' .J.j. 2....9~' il)e:.:lD ."I"i' 'a-o-g a-na = is pronounced ghen (responsibility). a..J fle:.ilA'a .>.J.' L.''. ''. c. 6.J. e-.rJ. = )..q'9~a.Iil)'Uie:.'\... ..."'~ D....j9'l:ja.'''1 'a-o-tsha-nga=tshang-ga = is pronounced tshang -ka (crowd).'\.J.. _ _ _ f'~'9'9~~'LJ'Q)~e:. :: -_ ..J._ co.jrJ. K/ ( _ co. _ co....''..'Il· r.. e-.. gyag dkar po 'di su'i red Whose white Yak is this? ':f:-~"C ~iii'- _. -. c.~I gyag dkar po'di nga'i a zhang gi red That white Yak is my uncle's..j c6 tsha ':.}·' i~:.._ ~' a..j'l"'Q' 'a-o-kha-ra=khar-ba =is pronounced khar-v a (walki rJ.~ D."il fI~ '9=lD.. a> rJ..J. '\ da.. (.. i~:.__ (.. ty)..J.' r. J. The ten letters are: 1.:e:.q'9~a. 8.<4rlfQ phel-w a (to increase). ja " da . r.."9 v " '.'"~ .l'jQ'a:r-o-tha-ba=thab-rna-na-ro=mo =is pronounced thab-m o (quarr el).>...~~ 1'..' ce~ 'fI~' .''.j~1 ".J.}3-!i-}Z·- ~ 1 9 Ga e.>.. _ e-.. S...'fle:.d dzin-c hay (furniture).>. c. books.a.qfat9~' ~"I tl'j' a.J.D.' ~' D..c..Iil) 'Ui~ ~"il khoflg khong gza' nyi ma'i nyin yong gi red He / she will come on Sunday. ja.j.li-~i£:'- K.. e: dza..q ba t[ dza 1'. . r....9 fI~ '9'9~~'D.' LJ' C119~' V.m.. 2.f-o-tha-ba r:>.>- 1.j' a.~. c-..'Il' 'a-o-dza-gi-gu=dzi-na=:dzin-cha-sa=chay =is pronounced na".. ''. ~ ~ ~ w ~ ~ a:. hand.[. r.... 'di nga'i lLlg pa gyas pa red This is my right hand.~' 9Ui9' ""l. '''I' .I"D.. _ -C'o. "I ga. a) tsha and 10....' -o-ja-'a =is pronounced (high pitch) jah (rainbow).e-. 'di pa lags dang nga'i tshong khang red tshang /chang .jrJ. '''I' 9 ~F D....~I D. cha.a>l.'Q ng stick)..a.~.i)'i!i'a..J...~ "I'D....38 Drill ~"J.>...'9'Uiil)! a._ <.'C119 ~'9Ui~r~' .1 " ..a.}" 9Ui9' ""l. r:>.j'C11 19~' il)~ l.Iil) 'Ui~ '9'Uiil)! a.J. rJ...' ..j' ~'D. c. _ co..~'e:.. rJ. ~ ~ t· D. /'l kha. ~ 0."'~D.l'l j'l 2.j' ~". -» ~...J.J. r.>.'9.::ft .J.' ~l:jl f'~ '9'9"~' ~'9~~' ar ...Q"I 'a-o-bha-ga = is pronounced bhag (mask).. ~ 'C'l. I e-.r 'a-o-c ha-ma =is pronounced chaam (religious dance) .Iil)'Uie:. 3....~' 'a-o-d a-gi-g u = is pronounced dhi (this).'9.! ~ nga la deb gsum ma gtogs med gtags I have only three books...' <i>e:. D. ~'~D.J.D.e. 'tl'j' fat~ '9' ..j'979~' a......il)'D./'l. -.''. nga tsho gza' mig timar nyin yong gi yin dmar We will come on Tuesday.l'l tha.1-~'- No Chang e Chang e I Prefix ed a fl fI kha ce cha 1:1 tha !4 pha J. a rna lags nang la bzhugs med tl'j' a:.>.' LJ'D..<4(lj'Q·' 'a-o-pha-'greng-po=phe-lLl=phel-ba =is pronounced r.. '4 pha. 'tl'j'fat~ '''I' .l'jQ'. Q ba..' ~F ..~' ~'C'l." I ~"l.a)!.19''LJ'9Ui~rLJ' . 9..qfatQ)~ · ~ 1:\.i~ khong gi gsung jampo 'dug His voice is soft.

2. any time to form one syllable except ya and va which can be subjoined to number of the passive consonants.'q'1"1~ ra btags.~9·~c:. When ya is SUbjoined it takes the form of .'" sha.>J rna.. '? nya.l. 8. the latter is spelled and pronounced last of all after whatever sound changes the root consonant may have undergone.. 5. ~'i<I' q 7."\f. prefixes and post suffixes in forming a Tibetan word is called ~·t:l. 2. When a root consonant is subjoined along with a vowel.::l 4.~9·~c:. 11.lj'J.~f. 2. ~ e: 15.a i ya.j ph a. f. When theya' is subjoined to: 1. blags. 5.lj~' SUBJOINED CONSONANTS ~"\'r.3. .lj~ SUBJOINED urz::J1)f. There are four consonants which are joined to the bottom of a root consonant of a syllable which radically modify the place of articulation and pronunciation.l.5 tsa. a. suffixed. . F . ~ ya. tsha.!jC'\' PASSIVE CONSONANTS J. 19 kha-ya-btags =is pronounced khya ego khyi. .'f. 2.1'\ t. 12.jc:.§"" va-zur. ib cha.r Mother is not at home. 3. This means that there can be no two passive consonants written together at consonants'. The subjoined Ya modifies the pronunciation of the root consonant of a syllable which has otherwise remain unchanged in connection with the prefIxes and surmounted letters. . £ll la.!:! B kha-ya-btags=khya-gi-gu =is pronounced pa-ya-btags =is pronounced into that of pa-ya-blags is ca as in porc!l 5. " ra. kbyi. it is necessarily the root consonant of the syllable. F lilia. This I have freely translated them as ~·t:I. 2. "I zha.'q')"1~ . 18.!j~ There are seven consonants in Connection with the first three guttarals and the four labials to connection which ~ ya is subjoined. '1 lij pa.'l za.l.oJ subjoined which means subjoined Va. The four consonants which are also known as liquids or £1l semivowels are: 1. . pha.41 urz::jl)f.~f. Q pa. and 'lj va which are then respectively called "fq'j"l~' "fq'j"l~r ya blags. 15. Q ib . 16. . The passive consonants are: 1."l ka. 4. ba and 7. dog. E( dza.J and is spelled Yatag . ka-ya-btags=kya-'greng-po=kye-ma is pronounced kye-ma.ljC'\' The twenty consonants which do not occur as suffixes.j'r.'f. 3.jc:. ~ va. "I ka. 3. !!l ka-ya-btags =is pronounced kya. 13.39 J.!j'J. lil tha. 1<j pha.)9~' £ll'q'19~' la-btags la-blags and 'lj'. 5 ga-ya-btags =is pronounced gya ga-ya-blags 4. £1l'q. ') ta.. :J pha-ya-btags =is pronounced into that of ib cha as in cheese ofib . <j ha and 20. is ca. This method of compounding consonants or consonant clusters also produces exact pronunciation of other simple consonants within the Tibetan alphabet and also pronunciation of some Sanskrit alphabet which are not covered by the simple Tibetan alphabet. 4. YA 2.'9~· mi Jug ming gzhi.!j~' - Il'l a.40 ~"\'r. 19. 14. 17. 9 ga.. ~ ~ ~ 23 This is me and my father's shop. If any of the passive consonants occur in a Tibetan word.j'r.l. surmounted and subjoined as we have seen some and will see more. ja.·9~· 'passive consonants'. They form the basis to which other consonantal denomination can be prefIxed.. they are ma.. btags. 6. 6. "l spelled and pronounced in the following manner: ~ ~'i<r 1. 7."\f. 9.10. Alas! kbya 2.

42 ". auspicious. 7.~-~ +-~""'~' "~"~~'--. S ba-ya-btags = is pronounced into that of E. It is joined to these letters in the fOIDI of <l')"l'll foml 1.'1::]15"l<>1 ''- The thirteen consonants consonanis pa. ~'j':rrl1 ~'j":rrll 5·0 ha-ra-btags = is pronounced same as Il see above. -J.~t:. "l ga.. :I"l Ba-ra-btags=da-ga=dag. 3.11 tha. rock.~ pha-ra-btags=tha-zhabs.~-~ I _ _ _ __ .!1 pha-ra-btags = is pronounced as in Tom and ~'..i' sa-ra-btagscsa. <l'59'll Ra-btags' or subjoined ra occur.6:1 rna 11. ~ pa-ra-btags = is pronounced as in toll. <J .J. 4 sha. :I ba-ra-btags = is pronounced dra as in~' da eg.'" btags=sha-gi-gu=shi sa-gi-gu=si-nga=sing-ha = is pronounced shri-sing-ha. ..""'~~~'--.6:1 'll 1.' 6. 12..~. 9.?-~. ~ pronounced drang-po. 5.. ego ~.!!/ ga-ra-btags =is pronounced dra 3• ~t:. Q ha. ha-ra-btags=hra as in hurrah ego hri as in ~l ha-ra-btags=hra-gi gu= is pronounced hrih ~he seed syllable of Avalokiteshvara. 7.i·da-ra-btags=da-nga=dang-pa-na-ro=po is ~r. . . clever. :<: 10.'----' ~ ~ " M " " ~ ' ~ . <j 'I! ') 6. fl 2. ogress. 0. honest..43 f'lJ·.~~""""~. fi . 'i da. "'I OJ ~ 4. Hmvever there is one exception when it is subjoined pitch. ~ kha-ra-btags =is pronounced as in Tom ego pa = is pronounced torn-pa. ~ lea-ra-btags =is pronounced tra as in toll Iea-ra-btags sa=she is pronounced ta-shi. 14 '4 pha. 12. 9. ~~.!l/ a-ra-btags = is pronounced sa or hra.' Avalokiteshvara. 9 ga. "I ka. it·:. 3.'Q1)"l<>l SUBJOINED RA . 9. . 5. child. an ogress. q~r4'll ba-'o-lea-ra-btags=ta-sha-gi-gu=shi[!j6:l'<j' [!j6:l'<J' kha-ra-btags=ta-na-ro=tho-ma=tom- 3• ." 10. ? ta.. $' $'(j) ta-ra-btags =is pronounced as in toll . which take the subjoined la.i ga-ra-btags=da-zhabs-kyu=du-nga'=doongpa_ na-ro=po = is pronounced droong-po. 7. 6. 2.. "I ka. a as III lar in jar . sa. a well.· 5F<.gigu si-na sin-pa naro=po is pronounced sirnpo. fI . .!:/ ~'~ kyu=too-ga=toog-ga-zhabs-kyu=gu = is pronounced too-gu. ba and 10. ?. flf· 6. 2. 'll sa and 13. " ra and 6. 4. a name of a teacher. '!i ma-ya-btags =is pronounced into that of '? nya 2. 13ti) 13ti\ 2.s za.q7"l~ SUBJOINED LA C"lJ'Q1)"l~ i1'~.!lI 12. ~"i'<." ha to which a ". This brings very unusual modification to the pronouDciation lao pronouDcialion where the sound of the root consonant is completely dropped while using the inherent a to make the sound of the La more compact and high pilCh.' .. 8. 2. straight-forward.' ~~ 6. 4.~ da-ra-btags = is pronounced dra as ~r. ' 24 . teacher. Q ego Q"l . sha-ra~'~t:. a-ra-btags=ta-gi-gu=ti-sha-zhabskyu=shoo-Ia = is a Sanskrit word used in Tibetan to denote a trident religious staff and is pronounced tri-shu-Ia..@ ha-ra-btags = is mainly used to transliterate Sanskrit words such ~. q a. 8 .Jma-ra-btags =is pronounced rna with a high pitch sound. . ?:Jma-ra-btags 11..'<. -. There are six consonants: 1.

i ~ ~ •.jJ ~. In some descriptions of the Tibetan alphabet.~ 1'" 'l 'if :1 I .25 to za where both the sound of za and the sound of la are replaced by an unrelated sound dha.) tI'r. ·~ '\1 " . =is pronounced tsha zhva ma-na-ro=mo = is pronounced zha-mo zva= is pronounced za rva-ca-na-ro=co= is pronounced ra-cho nettle horn a kind of a deer ~.. salt which are both pronounced the same. Va-zur means the angular of the letter ill va.. =is pronounced lang-pa. ffl"i'ij' ba-la-btags=la-na-ro=lo-na=lon-pa-na-ro=po is pronounced 10m-po.jJ •. r:J'Q' r:J'''' lm-ba=:. Lfi . '\ 5 ~~the form of.gument that the Tibetan letterba represented both ba and va which are denoted by ba and va in Sanskrit. We know the rule where the letter ba is to be pronounced va when it is the last or medial syllable of a Tibetan word. Iil ba-laga-Ia-blags. ~ racla-btags and ~ sa-Ia-btags ru sa-1a-btags are all pronounced la with a high pitch sound. . But it has some important orthographical uses to distinguish between homonymous words. ~ ga-la-btags. ~"r ~"f ra-la-btags-1a nga-lang-pa ra-la-btags-la 0. .11' . iP" SUBJOINED VA The Va-zur should alphabetically come before the subjoined ya but I have placed here as the last group of the subjoined letters as it is traditionally introduced in this sequence. . 1.£ 1 ~Ilj~rij· ~llj~'ij' vacga-sa=dvag-pa-na-ro. ili~·ij· ba-Ia-btags=la-na-ro=lo-na=lon-pa-na-ro=po 4.lr~~·q7l:!j~·Z:.r fj.l:l·~~'q7l:lj~·l:J· '.r ~ tJ'r.r IIJ !JJ .] . '!j'Uj' '!j'ur ~.. hot and 2.~ /t# II . sa-Ia-btags=la-na-ro=lo 6.? ~'? ~. btags.l Tshva.f bla ma.)~.!/ ~V I I (ijf (ij~ 5. When a va is subjoined to a consonant it remains silent. school. subjoined la is spelled and pronounced as follows::lJ ka-la-btags.. a va-zur is mainly used in transliterating Sanskrit. However. minister.=po dag-po tsva . barbarian.~.po va~ga-sa=dvag-pa-na-ro.pa dra-pa a place in Tibet salt hat cl. \. The lifof mao Tibetan word for a Buddhist teacher is Iif'. song. Tsha.r " " ' fj.. fOITI1 cl.44 '. . ffi"~ sa-la-btags=la-na-ro=lo ba=lob-ga-ra-btags=drwa =is pronounced lob-dl-a. ii'''' za-la-btags-da -ba= is pronounced dha-wa. va is explained as "a letter without which can function". L 2. The use of the Tibetan ba at times cl. moon. The follows::JJ ka-Ia-btags.. 3. lob-dl"ll. It is actually the lower right corner of va in 21 which is similar to the form of the Bengali va. lva-ba= is pronounced la-wa .. m'm ka-la-btags=la-ka-la-btags =la-na-ro=1o is pronounced la-Io. They are not easily confused in Tibetan as they are in Sanskrit. lorn-po.:. Tsha.i pronoun. ~ ga-1a-btags=la-zhabs_kyu ga-la-btags=la-zhabs-kyu =is pronounced 100. students wishing to look for a Tibetan word with Va-sur should look up before the subjoined letters. - kva=ya-'greng po=ye is pronounced ka-ye khva-ta is pronounced kha-ta ga-ra-btags=drva-pa oh magpie monk . steam.=po is pronounced dag. =is pronounced dra. Beside the following example of the usage in Tibetan.ced va does not substantiate the ar.~ .

.' ~9' a:.. a. gtsang-po 6."9 '''9~' ~"<:"Er ~9'9~J. .r::.q'~'l. The effect of subjoining ha is to lengthen the partial root letter to make it full letter. _ _ "'-."9 -.· ~r::.~·o.....q~\~' . e-.. ... Transcribe the following words into Tibetan script and practice how to spell out the correct sequence and the pronounciation of the letters in a syllable..J·o.z~ ~ 2.... c.."9 'Uj9' ~. -.J' ~ ·1::IJ..._ -... The ha-btags has no simple Tibetan root consonant to be joined with but it is the root consonant 'ha' that is used to make up equivalent Sanskrit letters.... co.J·o..J'rll~' J. ..g'~' ~'9~"<:" ~'~J.' '''9~'~"<:"Er~9'9~J.r::.<:... C\. gsung-rab 5."\. btsir-ba 18... dza-ha-btags = is pronounced Jha." . C'. '> __ co.q1)9~ SUBJOINED HA deer h: i Subjoined ha is not used in the Tibetan language.'o.' ~"l I~'l'ro'~' i. bgar-ba 4. co.' .r:" ___ c-. l~"'''r::.. dbang-po 16..-. ' '\ . e-. but it has been adopted solely for the purpose ka of transliterating Sanskrit 2J' La-ha-btags=fha is not to be included in this ha-btags section as it is Sanskrit.....<:.j' .J'~'."·rll~'!lI' ~·o.J'"<:'' 1 I"·o." co.' l~"·"r::..<:.....'lI!'Uj'I... 4."" _ -. dtnigs-pa dmigs-pa 14.\'~' S... 4..f!''<:''OS ~'9~"<:"~'64' .'flJ. '> _-.-. dkar-mkhan 7.45 '5·. dgu-bcu 13..~'Q' shva -ba = is pronounced sha-wa 2... 5..J' .J' 'i::IJ."\.d Drill p.. _ _ . z.\'~' ...q~\~' .. bzhi-bcu 20..J~'flr::....<:.. dpung-pa ZO.<:.. bzung-ba "'" .·r::...g'~' ~'9~"<:" ~'~J..P<l~rll'~'~' ~9' I'"~ ~..\'~' .P<l~rll' ~.. c>. J...\.. dkon-mchog 10.. Exercise 2.J'~'.. ~ t rr da-ha-btags = is pronounced Dha.<:. gnyen-po 8. Learn to use a Tibetan English dictionary to find the meaning of these words: 1. I'"~ a..~.. dgon-pa 12.. ~~} ~.<:. .. 'f!J...\'''9~'~' J. ...<:..e ~."9 C"."'rll~'!lI' ~'o. co.."9 IUl9' a..<:. gcung-po 3.\'''9~'~' J. -.J'o. "<:""9~ 'l.'o.. being-pa 17..q' ~'l.. not a subjoined ha rather it is surmounted fa upon ha which is discussed in the surmounted letter ka section. ~ '> - ~ '> ~ ~ - ~ '> '> - - - C'.. -... 1II 2.\''._ -....r =F ."" _ ' -.J'rll~' J.. gsang-ba 9..\'~· S.''r::. bcu-gsum 15.J~'f!r::. -. e-. \...~' ::i9' J. 11.::i'o.". co.~.J' . Ha can be subjoined to any consonant as long as it occurs in Sanskrit.<:..J'o."9 !"~rll'o. _ _ c>.~ ~+~~:::: ~+~~ ~-~ 3.' a.<:.. C\.O:Rjt::: ~r .<:. Following are only some examples: 1.' Qr::..c Z.bkang-bo Exercise 2.\. bshad-pa 19. ~ ba-ha-btags =is pronounced Bha. I'"~~. !II ga-ha-btags = is pronounced Gha.. "<:""9~ 'Z..'9~"<:"~' J.'o.. __ -..fl"<:"OS '''~rll'o.. '" da-fog=da-ha-btags = is pronounced Dha...

.'1 "' l"n59'r:l.. ra-nga-btags =is pronounced (high pitch) nga. >ljt:.. e Tja.!. The roundish head of nya is compensated with the full form of ra surmounted on nya in the shape of f ..s .o emphasize the sound of the root consonan. rI'.'" e. 6.1Hion. _ - w q~s ~9~'9il)t:.t.:. 2.. 5... 1"'~9' L... The pronunciation of the following three radical letters do not change: "I ka. 1-9f1l·tj9·-. _~.. ~ tsa and 12. E dza. a camel.. rna. ·.\'t:. 9. r>J . The 12 root consonants surmounted with which . This is why I prefer to characters. 2.un£i. ~"i'iIl' = 'li a mare. The three last letters of the ten suffixes namely. \Yh.ificalion.) (CPr (}"¥. ga..all the other consonantal denominations make connection in order to develop a collective sound based upon the root consonanl.46.~_~~e~:f~~ have already •. J:: l ba.~~ .. eo. "i da...... e-.."'~·ft:.-.reJ~otha prefix ~\~X t. ~\~~ where it raise. ra. ''''I' .. f.. ).e. co. (MiL 1->'M>vJ -<... !'9[1j'l)9'. translate the word ..- .j 10. .a (J:. 8. 3.A/).cf~ cJ-P....~een..."'·9·~r:l.~~ \->"M>vJ .~_IIl~e~~. nga.the. '9' "\Sw qtjc.~' if.. "I ka.~een.'1 _ c-.' ~t:....m. e-. ~ .. ~"'iIl' ra-ga-btags=gha-na-ro=gho-da=gho-ma = ghll-ma. -Gf~cJ-P.AA) (}-<¥.'Q' ra-ga-btags =is pronounced gha.a The effect of a mgo-can or (J:::l~'lJ"l' ) brtsegs.' ra-nga-btags=ngl1-ma-na-ro=mo/:"jjt:.l!Jion. "5 ta.. and it is the basic or root letter to which._rmounted roo!-~~_~_onaIl~_"...f "'~ I . Therefore mgo can letters are consonant..c.. _ e-.\S'f1J'S9' ~9' ql)c-'q'UlCliI (:l. >lj1:. ~wever the sound o~_~'prefixed and _tb. \Yh.... /:.-¥) rI'._~'-t-. surmounted upon the root consonant ofa syllable. .~~~.. - 11' tj9' r:l. if._~-t-. _ c-.-.?X_!::~1rer.46. the stacked is similar to that of the prefixes '-t/ 2. e-.jt:::'lJ~' ming gzhi 'root consonant' instead of 'initial' as other grammarians have ~t:::'lj~' done..oniC.. 2.re_botha ~/ and a surmounted letter ar~ present..46 ~9'\5Cli' SURMOUNTED LETTERS "'19'\5<1\' The root consonant of a Tibetan syllable. co.'1 ~9~·9il)t:.46. c-.~. J:..he.b There are no prefixed and surmounted consonants which are subjoined by lao The inherent sound a of the surmounted is dropped as a result of the compounding with the root consonant.·1 ".:. 'lJ 2. f... ill '5 9.qr ~t:...qr~t:. Na..~~f!~st_~[th~_prefix.. .· e-. /:".he.-.. -.~ ~ l~" '-' . · /~.t:.. v '" 2..the..47 ""~9'\5Cli SURMOUNTED RA """'19'\5<1\ ..~~f!~st_~[ th~_prefix. 11.mod.pJ. nya...ificalion_QLthe prnll._rmounted roo~~~_~_onaIl~_".mod.I. When ra is surmounted.a . 7.. ra are: 1. a suffix.\~'ft:. ''''I' ~9'[1r lj[1j' ~9~'9il)t:..1.l·r:l.... ! '-l-/ 2.~en sUbJO!Il~". 0? 2. 10.' q'Ul<l\1 1"\~9' L. They are called ~'i5"'·'lJ~iIl· mgo can gsum.48 EXAMPLES >lj ra-ka-btags =is pronounced ka.·1 (:l. Literally translated as basis the name ming gzhi is not necessarily the first letter of a syllable done.tCh t. I.QLthe prnuunS. '9' ~9'[1r ljf1l' ~9~·9il)t:. leg. . pi. a surmounted letter and a vowel is positioned in the center of all the characters. only its top half ( ) is surmounted. I:.~~..j~'lj"l" . a subjoined letter..·1 -.. ".e..'jl:.·ft:. C!J'~~ l~"'-I. accompanied by a prefix.rr:<.tlJe root consonant surmounted1etter ar!! present. /~.V\. o~_~yrefixed ..:..\'9'~r:l. onic.~en subJo~Il~--:-?L!::~1rer'~~~~~..~. . 'lj 4.. t..'Q' ra-ka-btags=ka-nga=kang pa = kang-pa. t:. c~JKfuJlheLChange(Lthan -tb. la and "ll sa occur as surmounted letters.. "5 ta and ~ tsa as with the other '5 surmounted letters. nga=mong= nga-mong.""ft:. ~·i5"'·'lj~iIl· C!J .QLtlJe .

49 (1j'J. wave. five. ~ ca. . ga. ka..'" ~~ -- tA b\. or a follower. ka. name of a horse-necked deity. jj'(1J~' ra-ma-btags=ma-gi-gu=mee-la-ma=lam jj'()j~' ra-ma-btags=ma-gi-gu=mee-Ia-ma=lam =mi-Iarn. '5 2.J r::.·S· la-ga-btags=gha-nga=ghang ba-zhabs-kyu-bu = 1lft:. . lit:. ear.-Qil'Q' ra-da-btags=dha-na-ro=dh¢-ba-a'-o-za-na-ro=zo..·S· Ghang-bu. ~'lrn. l)ra-ta-btags = is pronounced ta.. dumb.f'.>"1 .ed to a mere residual echo. .r wave_ lab. ¥ ~ 2. la-ka-btags=ka-zhabs-kyu=ku-ga-kug"pa =kug-pa. the sound of ha is reduc. q pa.ra-ja-btags=jha-'greng-po=jhe-sa=jhe-'a -o-jhazhabs-kyu=jhu-ga=jhug= jhe-jhoog. follower. " ra-da-btags = is pronounced dha.0.~ ~ No Change Change l:lj ga <lj 'lj 11 Surmounted ra urrnounted ka ka I) ta <r tsa --. !ra-tsa-btags = is pronounced tsa.ja '? nya ~ da ili na I. jhang-khu.. mason.'Jl' la-ca-btags-ca-nga-chang-ma la-ea-btags-ca-nga-chang-ma = is pronounced chang-rna.. "I ka. a suffix.. ~ra-na-btags = is pronounced (high pitch) na. '5 ha. green. 8.. lie. \l:'t:.!I'<r ra-na-btags=na-ba =na-wa. q'I1lQ ra-ba-btags=bha-ra-la-btags=la-ba-sa=lab =bha>:. la-ka-btags=ka-zhabs-kyu=ku-ga-kug-pa III la-ka-btags =is pronounced ka..50 l!!"I.? '" ha with which the la is palatalized and it has a soft and lengthening effect while. 4.-. t ra-nya-btags = is pronounced (high pitch) nya. . ja. La remains silent except with 6.r q'!iJQ>:..' a-ja-btags=}ha-nga=jhang-kha-zhabs-kyu=khu jhang-kbu. !!["I'q '. . :.j rna e.'. 7.. debate. 2.28 ra-ja-btags = is pronouncedjha. The ten letters which la can be surmounted are: 1. nga E. l)'~~"l ra-ta-btags=ta-ma-a'-o-ga-ra-btags=da-gi-gu=dil)'. 'I! la-ja-btags = is pronounced jha. rf'. Hayagriva.50 EXAMPLES 2. te. willow. "I ga. ? ta.. 1lle. i"i'<r ra-tsa-btags=tsa-na-ro=tso-da=tso pa = tso-pa.'.J ba J.jl:lj'.· ra-nya-btags=nya-gi-gu=nyi-nga= fC::: nying.-r. . ~ra-na-btags ... e:. = i". t:. e. dream.!.. a builder. III Ilf la-ga-btags = is pronounced gha.: / ". .5ili SURMOUNTED LA ('lj'JJ<lj''5''i ~:J:. . 2. 5. a ballon. ~ ra dza-btags = is pronounced dza. heart.: dza ' "i JJ '>. fortress e.J~~ deity_ na=din = tam-din.9. ra-dza-btags=dza-na ro=dzo-nga = dzong.~-':1(/. :<.:. La mgo do not occur as common as the others. "i da.'<r = dispute.. 'e! la-nga-btags = is pronounced (high pitch)nga. fortress. 6.. ':1 1 ' / r~ v~~ N~ . 3. . .? ta. The effect of (1J-~~ la-mgo to the general pronunciation of the echo_ ()j'~~ / ~".. ~ ~~ .' a-ja-btags=jha-nga=jhang-kha-zhabs-kyu=khu = = 'l!q. 'l!e. syllable is similar to the effect of surmounted ra and prefixes except with "I and q pa.5 ca.J' \!:'e.·<t~·Q· ba =dho zo wa..!\·<r ear_ q ra-ba-btags = is pronounced bha. Q Ba and 10.Jj ra-ma-btags =is pronounced (high pitch) rna.

na=mon-la-ma=lam =mon-Iam.·sa-la-btags=ta-ra-'grengpo=re =Ta-re.ja ~ .: lli laeda-btags =is pronounced dha. axe. skin. ~·:i. There is only one Tibetan word in this combintation which is: 2J com bintation 2l"l~'<J' 2J"I~'<J' a-pa-btags=pa-ga-sa=pag-pa =pag-pa.'i' sa-nya-btags-nya-gi-gu=nyi~c:. ~.29 'l! la-ta-btags =is pronounced ta. ~'\':J' sa-ka-btags=ka-ya-btags=kya-gi-gu=kyi-da=kyee-pa~"i':J' na-ro=po =kyee-po. ------- No Change l7lJ 1ljka ka ~ca7taQpa '5 ca 7ta Q pa . ':' nya. iit :4' sa-da-btags=dha-na-ro=dho. 'i!.- . nga=thang = Nar-thang.q ba '5 ha 2.i. Q ba iii ~ rna and it tsa.51 l~ra.:c. sa-ng-btags =is pronouced nga.jbe.E:. ~"I't1l~' sa-ma-btags=ma-na-ro=mo~"I.nga=dhong-pa-na-ro=po iic:. \V'Q' la-ta-btags=ta-'greng-po=te-ba =te-wa. name of place in Tibet.r. ~. ~ sa-ta-btags = is pronounced ta. E:.·.. ~'~'la-ha-btags=lha-sa the capital of Tibet. ~'~'la-ha-btags=lha-sa=Lha-sa.:F sa-ba-btags=bha-ya-btags=jha-nga=jhang sha-gi~sa-ba-btags ~d'F gu=shi-nga=shing =jhang-shing. ~. compassion. goitre.).'~' sa-nga-btags=nga-da-ra-btags=da-na.52 EXAMPLE ~ sa-ka-btags =is pronounced ka. prayer.:c.J9·'50\ SURMOUNTED SA ~·a.ro=da =nga'i!.' la-da-btags=dha-zhabs-kyu=dhu-ma=dhum-ra =dhoorn ra. blackboard. c:... '1isa-ba-btags = Is pronounced bha.jhe. ~ sa-ga-btags = is pronounced gha. nga. ~E:. 2l la-pa-btags = is pronounced pa.·'. 2.jE:. \!j ~ la-ba-btags = is pronounced bha.IF sa-na-btags-na. sa-ga-btags-gha-ra-btags=da-zhabs-kyu=doo-nga =doong. ~ sa-nya-btags = is pronounced (high pitch) nya. story. happy. ? ta. a tree. I!I'Q' \!j'Q' la-ha-btags = is pronounced lha. ili na.·sa-ta-btags=ta-ra-'grengpo=T(f ~·". ~. ~ sa-na-btags = is pronounced (high pitch) na. navel. Change 1 9 ga I:.t1l~. ~ sa-da-btags = is pronounced dha. ~ili ~iIi sa-pa-btags=pa-ya-btags=cha-na = chen. =Nying-. t5a. morning.. Sa surmounted letters occur very frequently. '!) letters. nga Eja " da E..J9·~Oi There are eleven letters upolwhich sa can be surmounted bringing similar changes as other upolwhich surmounted letters. "I ga. "i da. place of the gods. garden. dro. the Surmounted la urmounted a -. Q pa.j Is sa-ma-btags = is pronounced (high pitch) ma.'i' nga=nying ra-ja-btags-jha-'greng po=jhe =Nying-..·:J' =dhong-po. eye (hon.r. .IF ~"'·. - 'I!.~.:. "1 ka.nar-ra=nar-tha- ~ sa-pa-btags = is pronounced pa. la-ba-btags=bha-ba =bha-wa. ' J.

1~'~ ::J(1j'q"... ...J' ~ lq~"II'''II' J.. klu-sgrub khrom-pa 'gyod-pa sngon-po bco-brgad rje-btsun smyu-gu bden-pa-bzhi sprin-pa dmyal-ba tshul-khrims zil-gnon khrungs-pa 'khor-ba sgrung lnga mchin-pa brjod-pa nyon-mongs 'tire-goon 'tire-gdon phyag-'tshal smyon-pa zhing-pa yangskyar k:~..I:IOl' Cl..J~'-9"11 C'\..!'~"'" q'~'~.'''II~''II'?'~':x..'flo... _ .!~·o~·~tII' L:J""'-9t11 1~~'~!r~"II'.I~' ~~' ~"II' L..!' m~' Cl.!~' ~"II' L.. - I ~nl' Cl..I' ~~' ~ ~ ~ Iq~tII'~t:."" ~ ~ ~ -~ ~ &. co..J~' -9"11 1~~·~'~tII·. eo.'Qj'7~' ::!~' J....I~~' L.... '0 ..'~' ~'l'lq'-99 ."II'Qj' ~tII'.J·~Z'ii l>Tjt:... c. co..' q'~'~"."" ¥ Y _ l~nl' Cl...r Drill -2. eo.· "9~' ~q' ~t:.!c'6Cl. c. q'~~l I~nl'Cl.. .'I1i~'''II~~'~' 1~~'~~r~tII'.e L- +-. .'~'~' s:jq'-99 lq~'9ol:lj'':J~''5'Q".. eo. " ....' ~"'" q'~~1 CJ.....' q'~~l l~nl·Cl.' -9~r ""q' ~t:..I~' ~tIIQ'I1i~·tII~~'~' q~~' L:J"'" "9t11 L.'~' q'~~1 l>Tjt:. to bestow.... ~ .JiQj'Qj~J.J~'-9"11 co... eo.. . ..jq·~Cl. ~"II' ....I:IJ.. C'o.'l'l~''S'~~' q'~~l.r ~M.J rna ""'" Exercise 2.I:IQ' L:J"'" "9 til ~ ..q' L..I' CJ... Qj' CJ.." co.. .. eo..!'~'qQ'tII~tII'?'~"'"q'~~1 -~ ~ 11'l0l' Cl.!~'~~. ~'<l' sa-tsa-btags=tsa-na-ro=tso-la tsol-ba =tsol-wa..~ "II' .'l'l~' ~... .J~'-9"11 I~q~'~t:..·Qj'7~' ::!~. co.c. Cl...jq'l'lCJ.l. eo.: ~Qj'Qc'6(1j' q~l ~Qj·o...jq' ~tII'L:J"'" "9 til q~"II'~t:. ~"".J:. co.' co.. eo.. ..J<f> Qj'Qj~J.l.. . Surmounted sa No Change Change til 1 "II ga ~ nga '7 nya ~ da ~ I' ka '5 ta ~ . eo.J:.J'~ J....!'~t:." eo. C'\..-c-.."9t11 1~~'~~r~"II' .. .. c-. "- e-..l:lq~r~t:..I'~.jq'l'lCJ. co.. .... co.'Q~til' ~. '0. 'S.c6(lr q~1 - 100Qj'''II'7~' J... q'~~1 I. eo..t tsa ~ na q ba J. r u~~ fl~~ ft3' Exercise -2.... ~ lq~'9ol:lj'':J~''5'Q"."" ."" c..'Q~'~~.J'7Cl.~'~~' 5l~' L. Il'lOl' CJ..$" 1l'l0l'CJ..J~'-9t!J Itll:§9~'~:rQj'7~'~'Q~'~~'51~' L:J"'" "9t!] c.!' ~ "'" ..tII'Qj' ~"II'..J'~'(1j' q~Qj~' r.J~' ~(1j' CJ.""co.!~'~ ::JOl' q.J~' o~'~"II' L..J:.c.." . ~tII· L:J "".... co.Jo. .I~' ~~' ~tII· L:J ""..jq'.. A Transcribe the following words into Tibetan script and find their meaning in a Tibetan English dictionary: skye-ba snga-phyi khyu-mchog 'khrungs-rabs 'greng-po ngu-'bod che-ba rjen-pa rta-mchog rnam-dbye phye-ma smon-lam zhing-khams dkar-po mkhyen-brtse mgon-pb mngon-shes ngang-pa cha-shas snye-ma rten-'grel spyang-ki phru-gu rtsa-ri zang-zing..I:IOl' CJ....!~' ~"IIo. co.-e-.J....I'~t:. . .co.'o.Ie6CJ......'~' Il'lOl' CJ."" _eo _eo..."9t11 It:. co.I' .. _ e-..· ~~.I'~' qo..:..!' ~"'" q'~~l I(1jQj'tII'7~' J.. ~'1~' ~Qj' ~"II' ~~'-9"11 l.jq'~Cl... " " _ ....J' ~ :x. "- co.jq' ~Cl.'q·~~I.J'~'Ol' q~Qj~' r.."" .. ". !f.'-9"11 lr..r~Z'ii ~ ~ ~ 1"ll:§9~'~'Qj'7~'~'o.J:. ..!' Cl.l.J'7CJ..·flQ'~~''S'~".....J:.!~~' tJr. It:.- ~ Iq~tII'~'J../" ~ sa-tsa-btags = is pronounced tsa.. J... "c-. eo.1' L. ..' ~~' q'~~l I~nl' CJ.

Q~I:l!·riP·1:l!7· ~I:lj' ~a:..tj.. _ e:. ~Cj~'J. ~ _ IQ7JP' ~~. gya-rntsho is pronounced gyam tsho..2· J.J'UiI ltil·~~· ~Q~'I.J~~' Skyabs-rngon is pronounced kyam-ghon.... a loan ~"I'tr J.. 2.J'UiI lQ7JP' Q~~'I:l!(1F~I:l!~' i)1:lj~'I.p'·q·Red-mda'-ba is pronounced Ren-da'.r:.:i. the latter is sometimes pronounced as the suffix of the first syllable without losing its effect to the succeeding syllable ego "l~'''I~~' bcu-gnyis is pronounced choog. _ ..J()" IRREGULAR PRONUNCIATIONS 2. a reknownedscholar of Sakyapa tradition of Tibetan Buddhism..·J. the protector..·J. ~~'Q' sbyin pa is pronounced jim-pa.' ~r ~Q' <Q~rlf ~~l . q~~'Q' bden-pa is pronounced dem-pa.31 Exercise 2.El~·~~1 lQ8'~~ ·El~·:. q~'''I~~' cboog-nyee.J~· a-bza' is pronounced nab-zah...JEl~· ~Q·()'~·. Cj~"I.J()" ~~.....b When the first syllable end in a na and if it is followed by a syllable whose root consonant is pa without prefix letter..Ja. "I'''l'lp'' ~'q"p" fl·J. Ma-mchu is pronounced kham-chn. generosity 1iI"1'<r Blun-po is pronounced lum-po.. nyan-pa is pronounced nyem-pa.c When the first syllable ends in a ba whether it is followed by a post-suffix or not.. succeeding syllable begins with a rna prefix.tj." .. kham-chu.. .. it is pronounced as the suffix of the preceding syllable ma ego ~q~.. .53. to listen ..j~:<J'Blon-po ~ .53... sharp ~"I..g fOl/owing: Romanize the following: lQ8'~~ ·El~·:.p"Cj'Red-mda'-ba wa..... court case. a fool Iil~'<r lii"l:<l'Blon-po is pronounced 10m-po. cloth (hon.53. oyi_eo.JEl~' ~Q·()'~·. _ "-_ .J~"I' Skyabs-mgon 2. Q'ij~' Q'5~'I:ljI'F~I:lj~' i)1:l!~'I.:i.r:.J.Jj'l~'<r mlchan-po '?"I'tj. gya-mtsho .2· J.scholar i . 1. if the . When the first syllable ends in a da and if it is followed by a rna prefixed syllable... truth ~"I'<l' ~~'<J' mon-po...Jj'l"l'<r rnkhan-po is pronounced khem-po.53... ~'J..d When a syllable ends in a vowel sound and if the following syllable begins with ga. an abbot J..a. eo. ba or rna prefix...... ~ ." _-' eo. minister [... 2.. .. then ma it is sometimes changed into that of na sound ego ".J~· fl·J.) nab-zab. Q'~'7'1:l!~l"lJll Q'~'7'1:lj~l'lJll lm'~~' ~Q~'I.Jr:.Jr:. ~ _c-. "e-. reknowned . twelve.. _e-.Q~nr ~~I eoo. it is sometimt.. is pronounced nom-po..nyee..El~·~~1 .. 1<Q~I:lj'riP'1:lj7' ~I:l!' ~~.....?~·tr nyem·pa.S pronounced into that of rna ego ' ~~'tr kyin-pa is pronounced kyim-pa. ocean..

Jflt:l' t:l§) J. ?'J.l'r.lflr. goddess.I~"l' Hayagriva.~'J. a monk... t~. ngo-mlshar is pronounced ngom-tsbar. rgyu-'bras is pronounced gyun-W!cause and effect. then the ra is pronounced as the preceeding syllable's suffix while the ra-bags is pronounced as the second syllable's root consonant which parts the relationship between the ba and ra-btags. I' J.f sound of suffix na for the preceding syllable while preserving its direct effect to the second syllable. IlfQ'" lha-bri-pa is pronounced Ibab ri pa.: 2.l§) t.>. ij'Q'=pho-brang is pronounced pbob-rang. .. ngo-mtshar ?'J.r..r.J."l' ~'J.53. reason. 'gro-'dod is pronounced dron-do.53.r. dge-'dun is pronounced gen-dun. ij'Qr=.pho-brang 2. desire to go.'55 "~'''''55 ~'r.e ba subjoined witb ra.~' C.J.~'ro.r.l~'" mkha'-'gro is pronounced kban-dro.. palace.>.:'J.S3.I.t:l~'" r.S3.J~~' rta-mgrin is pronounced Tam-din.' C::'J. ~-'- . ~~- ~t~: :J:'f .lQ~' ~'t:lQ~' ~ t:l§).f When a syllable ends in a vowel sound and if it is followed by a prefix 'a it produces the 2. Thanka painter. a horse necked deity called Hayagriva. wondorous.l§)'r.' rgyu-mtshan is pronounced gyum-tsben.J:t ... one who is intent on virtue.I. go. an artist. space dweller.e When a syllable ends in a vowel sound and if the succeeding syllable's root consonant is 2.'--! . reason.

!'."::lff &..b..:-'-.I..b.t:.."::l.J.~.n.. ~2. .".r:.l<.fi.Lt 1l<.b..1l:dtJIn.b.l<.ItJ.-r.r.r.6-. 1!...ln.'::l~.~.tl!'.>1 U3Sfl SNOI.!:.'::lff b.:.'eJ.@ I:i' ."::lff t1.!1I lIili.tlI 11>!l..Iii..lii.2 1!'..'eJ.b.~~ b3tl..'eJb.ltJin..".LVNIWON3U 'lV.~.b3tJ.LUVHJ S3XU3'Hd .~.1.S.~..P.~.2.r.tl.'eJb.ib.!i1 Ii::.~ l?o.'" l).'::l~.:.P.:I.lo.'f.tJl<. -."::lff t1.~...1}.f..!'.l."::l~.".'eJb.! .It.rb~tl Iflk.".~.'eJb.til Ii::.>l U3Sfl S3XUffiId ..S.b3tJ.Ii.~ l)..tO..~..il.~.~.6-.~.t1..l1I I:i' .~.~.f.r:.t1.l<.~.~. 'i'.1iI IS.Il:!.b3'cJ SNOI. -.'f.t:h~.~.~ ~.~.'::l..LNVNOSNOJ SflOrnVA "3:0. 'i'.!l."./k l!lr..ltJ.b3tl.'eJb.! :i1:~."::l~.rb~tJ t1.~ lfir.b..~. b~ 'tJ .Itz.rb~tl .!'.r.~.til Ii::.LNVNOSNOJ SflOrnVA 'HO."::lff t1.6-.~..'eJ..S·Z I>S'Z ~ P" ~ po.lk / ~.b. ~2.!'. .1u 1!'.f.Iii."tJ .~.6-.L'HVHJ !:.lii.f..b!1' ~2.til 1/1>. Iflk.1u Iff.2.lk lIili.l<.b3tl..~./k Iff .ln.b. "..rb~tl t1.ff.b.ln..ib... .LVNIWON3U 'lV.r.~ .tJ.'::lff t1.~ 1?O.r.:i' .1_".. I I b.b~ .~. 'i'. 'i'.1i.b!1' t: t: .'eJb.rb~t: ~2."::l~.b 3"eJ b.1.n.'eJb.lil IS.~~ \ t1.ln.rb~t: ~2.l1l.) - .~.tlI Ii::.'::l~.I'..@ 11ii.'::lff ~2. .r.Lt ~2.~.."::l~.2 .'eJb.~. b3tJ.ln. ttJIn.>10 .!'.1.~.lll.@ 11.l.~.r.~~ b.I'.'::l~.~ IH I~.>10 .'" 1l<..I.It.1n.'::lff b tJ tl ( ~2.'eJb.til 1/1>.b.:I.l1I I~.I.ff.rb~tJ ~2."::lff t1..rb~tJ ~2."::l~.z."tJ ~ fir bi'£' •'tJ"r .~.'::lff \ \ ( ( ff ~ ~ 11>!l.'tJ ~ fir bi'£'•'tJ'r .'eJb.~~ ( ~2.'::l~.'!.ltJin.rb~tl t1..rb~tJ ~2.'r..~.l<.jl..'eJ.@ 1:.~.!1I .

C1l ell la and vowel ending syllables thus: .~"I ~'J:ic."Ir.'~"1 'IJ"iiJi·~"I "I"'iJi'~"1 ~iJi'~"1 ~iJi'~"I ~iJi'~"I ~iJi'~"1 ~<>ri'i\'IJ ~<>r~"1 4ell'''i .'Jic. 14.4). 3. but in order to fully understand Tibetan grammar we will briefly discuss the two types of particles: L_~ !1"i'''It1iJi'''i<lt:::''iJi 1. ~ ~"I ~ ra.-. certain. three are also used as imperative particles. '11"1' i5'IJ 'iI"I'i5"1 lug cig lugcig stag dg 'brug cig bya rgad cig byargad snod cig 'ad dg khab cig. ~~ %' ~~ / Indefinite articles are dependent particles since the applicability of an article is determined by the suffix of the preceding syllable.'''iJi !1"i'"'t::.55 ARTICLES In Tibetan.>.. any. "I~'~'IJ "F~"1 g. These sometime.'~c. ~"1 zhig. (See 14. particles.>. Tibetan.4).~". Hence articles are post-positions in the Tibetan grammar.>. ."i<!t::.'~"1 ~"i'~c."Ir.}.'i5"1 rr"i'i5 "I r'r".'''iJi Dependent Particles 2.qQ' ~~'~"I thab tshang zhig slOd thUl zhig thUi mga mang zhig gdanzhig gtlan zhig thunzhig !hun zhig spunzhig spun zhig sgam zhzg sgamzhzg a kitchen a shirt a camel a mattress a session a relative . r. articles are not used as commonly as in English.'i5"1 1'l':ri5 'IJ I'lq'i5"1 ~<I'i5"1 ~q'i5"1 i!lQ'i5"1 /!lq'i5"1 ~\i5"1 a light a neddle aneddle a book a shield khrab cig ~(:~-"- 3..!j"l'i5"1 S'~"i'i5"1 S.>.r~''I 4C1l'''ii>l'~''1 elli<J'~"I C1li>l'~"1 ~ she! dam zhig lam zhig lamzhig ~~.'~"1 ~3- gangzhig gang zhig whoever (whatever) tshang pa 'ga' zhig some merchants tshong nyi ma 'ga' zhig some days .3 ' " CHAPTER THREE 3.c.'~"1 .>.>. someone. "i da. ~'. . a'. i<J rna. an.. !1"i'"'"-"i'lt::. and <I ba and thus: q I ~.'~"1 ~'i<J'r.'~"1 i!."Ir:>. The three indefinite articles are: i5"1 cig."Ir:>.qq' ~t::. !1"i'''It1iJi'''iq t::.'LJ'r.~'LJ'r.'''iJi Independent particles l' . ~"I some.57 The form ~"1 zhig is used after syllable ending in t::.>. somewhere.~'IJ'i5"1 r.~ '2l'IJ'i5"1 '2l"l'i5"1 " ~.A-~ rd~. and"1"1 shig signify a.'~"I ~'i<J'r. iJi na.'~"I a:.>. and sometime. deb dg cig a sheep a tiger a dragon an eagle a vessel r.56 The form i5"1 cig is used aftet a syllabe ending in "I ga. There are no definite articles in Tibetan.>.>.or a brother (sister) or a box a glass bottle a road ~". nga.

.\(~.1'\"1 ~ ~ ~ ~ '!l.3:> .>J"I'~""I'\"1 ~ me mda'zhig gur zhig mkharzhig dmag sgar zhig mdel zhig khal zhig dkar gyol zhig mizhig rizhig su zhig khe zhig lee zhig so zhig a gun (fire arm) a tent a castle a garrison a bullet akhal a porcelin a man a hill whoever a profit a tongue a tooth (..>J'I'\"1 lhamozhig a goddess 3.~"1 ~~'r:>. Jl~' ming denotes the meaning of a word which nominates either a label (q')"1~'.~[. dngos-ming) of an object.. Jl~. common or proper name of an ("("I'.j~ btags-ming) an (q')"1~'~~ object or an actual name (.l:i"l shig is used after a syllable ending in a"l sa and thus: ~~'4"1 sras shig apnnce spas shig ii~'4"1 an incense 5~·.jj..·~"1 ". A noun must have at least two letters to nominate an object whether it is an actual name or a labelled name..>Jfl . Btags-ming is a name given to an object which resembles an object that has an actual name and therefore labelled after it eg..>J r:>. for instance an object which is hot and burning is called 'fire'. [1J (and all Vowels) ~ . and a Brahmin's son who has big eyes.. . nJ - " "\ q ~"1 1'\"1 4"1 .>J"Cll·~"1 FCll'~"1 "\"] ..l:i"l 3. ..p. An actual name is given to an object which has a relevant function denoted by the actual name." .. This . a small fly which has a mere fire-like appearance in the night is called 'firefly' .58 The form.......'''IUlCll'~ "I ... ~ .>J P.~"1 jii'~"1 ~~ ~'I'\"1 ~'I'\"1 -- bu mozhig a girl ~ . ..<i~ dngas-ming) animate or inanimate object.~"1 i "'I "I ~ "I [.. and a creature who is dignified and proud like a king and who does not mix with other beasts is called 'a lion'...>J'I'\"1 . includes nouns in single consonant. flat nose and with a big mouth is also called 'lion' (faced).>J"P"~"1 ~ . nouns in one or more consonants followed by a vowel and nouns in one or more consonants ending in either of the ten finals or ending in a vowel. ~"1 .59 £tlj JJt::: £tlJ NOUN Tibetan substantives appear very frequently inmonosyllabic words which are formed of two or more letters and consist of one morpheme and this will be called a simple noun stem..l:i"l dus shig at a time S·Jj·~"1 -- ~~.

60 EXAMPLES OF SIMPLE NOUNS fl !Xl E:: Q A.l5t:."1 ngag speech 'lI"I t:.. Tibetan relies heavily on combinations of morphemes as a means of creating words and has a large number of compound noun stems which are constituted of at . t:.j ."I tshig word ~"1 tsheg dot !2!"1 12!"1 lug sheep -9"1 shig louse ~t:. There are also nominal compounds in Tibetan which are composed of noun stems standing in a specific relationship which can be in cO-<Jrdinate relationship or in sub-ordinate relationship... There are synonym and abstract nominal compounds too..dpung strength I4C . I:.. rkyang wild donkey 1:1" khyung eagle gyong loss mdung spear rndung gong price pnce I 5t:.... J.. '>l wa ra sa ~~" OJ '1 B. MONOSYLLABIC NOUNS ENDING IN THE TEN SUFFIXES 1:.Jlc mchong gem "13'" phing vermicelli '\::'"i::'. '? nya rna ya sha fish mother an odd meat l. . --'" 3.j '4 pha father fox goat land ..< A derivational suffix is affixed to a simple noun stem to form a derived noun stem which expresses the meaning connected with a person's occupation or what he does with himself. ~" J!lt:.f. MONOSYLLABIC NOUNS IN SINGLE CONSONANTS a.. ~" 5"1 ~"1 ~"I dug poison "i"l nog hump ¥ ~"1 jj"l JJ"I mig eye zog cattle . -.There is also complex noun stems which are composed of a noun root and a formative or additive particle affixed as a suffix thus making the complex noun stems polymorphemic with two or more syllables.j Ji tshe life ro corpse su who <1l <1i ~ ~ . It is not to be confused with the nominal compounds as we shall see their differences in the examples.. MONOSYLLABIC NOUNS COMBINED WITH VOWELS f.J Ul "l .l5" .c rnchong "I3't:.i.j.j '4 ¥ 51 tho list ~ S jj JJ ~ mu together zho curd . least two morphemes where each constituent is attested as a free form and can occur as a simple noun stem and as well as complex if a formative particle is added to it."1 stag tiger phug inside :ii"l thig line li"l phog ration il9 zug pain ~t:. -. 5" J.r / ~ khu juice co brother pho male me fire zo eat 10 year F ~ khe profit chriwater bu mo son she [ii fii [ kho he jo mi rni brother person ( ngo face ~ l. ~ ri OJ rli 4 hill ~ sho dice '>l ~ Ii bell-metal <ii so tooth C. mouth kha nga cha I pair ja ba tea cow nettle hill . gcong chronic desease .. -.'ll >1 >l za la .

field zhing lung handle :k zong ~c."q ~"1"" ngang pa thag pa thig pa dad pa swan drop faith rope c..rll tshil fat ""rll zhal face (hon) (han) mal bed ~rll sbrul snake 3..\.c.. ~Q yab father ~Q srab bridle <E.61 EXAMPLES OF COMPLEX NOUNS A complex noun can be formed by adding a formative suffix to a simple noun stem.\.\ "l"\ yid mind 5"\ >lj~ palate >fJ~ rkan thun Session sman Medicine rdzun Lie "1~"\ "1'?. The root of a complex noun is always the first syllable and the formative suffix can be dropped when assimilating in general context of a sentence without losing the meaning of the nominal root.J PO AND ~ PU j'lc.. tsang nest commodity wood tic.. ~c.\"q nad pa patient 2]"1'" ..~i'l 'jim clay ~"l ~i'l ~Q phub ~"phub <E...q a.".) (han..."l <E." ~"1"" !:l"l"q ~. c.~ i'la:.'" khur load ~'" Q~"l bsnum Q~i'l bsn~m rlli'l rll"l lam road yum mother (hon.i'l ~"l ~i'l khyim house "1']"l "1']i'l gtam talk cham ritual dance oil r::'" r:.q ~.) (han. shing ~ if~"i ~"i ~" 'iI~ Q~ rlung wind Q~.\. there are number of complex nouns whose last member of the stem also cannot be elided unless compounded with another complex noun stem..\"q ~"i"q "l"1' q mag pa groom ~"\.'~ "1.~ 3.."" ~"1.) "lj'l'" mkhar palace i'lj'l'" rug 1lI'" sgar camp :lj'" q".. Most complex nouns are free forms of simple nouns if nOuns the formative suffixes are not added to form complex noun stems.e.'" rkang pa khang pa house leg "\"\. ~"i"" Ipag lpag pa skin phrag pa sbyin pa shoulder gift smyon pa mad man .) rud avalanche 5~ 5~ !I~ !I~ gun loss ~~ ~~ spyan eye ~~ ~~ QiI'~ Q.\ beud bend essence "l.c.Q~C. i)Q deb book (han.. btsong onion ~ a:.q . 4C..c. .62 ENDING IN FORMATIVE PARTICLE ~ PA.. rdzong fortress ""c.. >ljc." tshab representative r:>..c.. "1~'" gter treasure thur downhill slope "1-'"'" "1"'" gzar "lrll i'lrll par photograph "l'" mar butter i'l'" j'lCll 4'" shar east j'lC1l khal load "li)rll i'l~rll Qrll bal wool mdel bullet a..'q ... However.~ "1-'"~ btsan a spirit gzan upper robe khab needle "l...~ s:~ 5~ rll~ ~~ rin Price an answer j'lQ j'lQ I!lQ I!!" khrab shield armour a.'" >fJc. otherwise it will remain as a simple noun stem. PA.~"l r:>.Q "lQ UlQ chab water (hon.\ gnyid sleep nad sickness Iud manure stan seat bran servant mtshan name (hon.

"I.. '\"1' a.j'' ' zhim phrug stag phrug phu nu brothers cub kitten :0:'. '14"1" .' rntshan rno rno mtshan mo va mo vIxen night vixen bzang mo zhwa mo Iha rno rno rno lha mo gcung mo rno hat goddess younger sis.'~~..<jr: -'1e: she'u lamb ~iQ'.:j 'ltad mo lI'" .\t:.:j rgyal mo rno queen 'll'.Il"l"..\"1' a.:j ~ .."1 £1.I"I" a.:j <1".·"1 long ga belly i'i:: iii·t:.""~~- phru gu child i9"~"1 khyi phrug puppy S'3. The special suffix in complex nouns are determined by the final of the preceding syllable. Twa co horn j'l"~ F'~ ..~" .'f1. lag cha tool ~':3 "113 "1'3 Gau amulet box cJ. dag cha spelling f1.'. gla cha wages ... "-1"1' a.. 'If"! gdengs ka hood Ulor"l "lor"l ~"... exemplified below."~ seng ge lion ~£ ~~ mu ge rnu famine Q"I'a._ .~ ~.. iii·t:. a female name hat 3.:j .:~ <.:~ <l.:~~" - .>:..:J"I -~ I.'~ gzhon nu youth rile: iilr: le'u chapter ~f~ ~f5 .'' 1 'l!"'''1 star ga walnut '\~"5 '\~:5 £1".. _ K. Q"I'a.__ "I~'>:"j'l "I~"'j'l "\S'>:"j'l "\S"'j'l g~er ston kha dbyar kha gter kha mme mine summer autumn '11..>:.:j ~ .. go nga collar ~..:j rno show ~ ...:" it"'!. or a.q~. There are several such formative particles which perform the function of dimunitive nouns as will be.:J"I 4"1'.·"! dpyid ka spring "I.:j rno rno thab mo ba mo dew quarrel 1lI'~ IJI'~ "I~t:...r1j a.:j <r..~ rtse mo rno peak "1~t:.. b_..t:. :"':'-.Ja.' la cha seal wax ~":3 ~':3 kha che Muslim .:j rgad mo rno old lady / ~or..~ dbyu gu the 9th month ~"a._ b< '\s..:.:j ~'."..:j .66 DIMUNITIVE NOUNS Br: i. i~. yal ga branch ok:"1 0it:.'> ~"'>~ .)t:. 1ll":3 8'l":3 a ru myrobalan "1':3 '1':3 ba ru myrobalan -- skyu ru olive byu ru coral bse ru rhinoceros i"~~ 3.Il"r.:j i. c_~:"_ ...:J"I lu gu lamb >l1e: ~'3 se u pomegranate l ''.:j '. sgo nga egg ~.".'' 1 s.65 ENDING IN SPECIAL SUFFIXES Generally nouns ending in the following special suffixes serve to differentiate the meaning of noun stems otherwise somewhat similarly spelt and pronounced.. ~t:.~ .'' 1 ~> ber ga stick /'.:::...'j'l K.\t:."~ >l1t:.:j .. brag cha echo ku co cho nge lamentation noise ora.Ja..I cho 10 dice :'.. ::Q~'::- itf. pebble ~e: ~'3 dre'u mule ~ ri'u goat I· Se: S~ byi'u bird "I~"..c~_ it"'~- khye'u infant ~f3 ~'3 sge'u ginger 'le: <1'3 he'u be'u calf l?J"~ 1?J'5 ~e: ~'3 rte'u foul ~f3 ~'3 rde'u ..

.J .>/ "'ilI • snye rna fern gter rna treasure ~~ •ill ~'!l' .<.Q ~il\'Q '2!c::. so ba unhusked grain §l''3 !'l·s gro bu belly ~{1rs ~{'lrs gling bu flute . - skra rna star "I~-"..Q ~"\'Q skyid po happiness ~~.'>/ ll'l'ilI .i zhing pa farmer ~ ~~.·" bung ba butterfly ~c::..\.S BU ANDL:l BO PARTICLEL:l BA.i "\.i 1l. <>J .'<.... ". old man blue v .r<. S AND L:l .i 1l.... tshong pa merchant ~.· <i nie::.~r.>J 5'.. Q "\"1"'-'Q dkar pa white ""\'lJ'Q ""\''I"Q bdag po owner ~"." "I'" Irn-ba ka-ba pillar ".>J bla rna bJa teacher nu rna breast .i Gj.'.. " lj.>J' '3 -1_ "'.i !'Ie::. ." .'" gna' ba antelop 1'1..i rgad po sngon po gcung po sprang po younger bro. rnchan bu snam bu felt footnote ~....64 ENDING IN FORMATIVE PARTICLE ~ MA AND ~ MO ~"'-'<>J ~-"...'<.<>J ~'.i zarn pa lungpa valley bridge v v v ~c::.~c::...'<.63 ENDING IN FORMATIVE PARTICLE L:l BA.Q ~~.i "\' <....i !e::.i sprin pa cloud "\"1-".Q 'lj~'i:i ril bu pill dgra bo enemy chu bo river gte bo gang leader do bo load nu bo younger brother 3..'Q Gj..Q ~'i:i ~.g'Q ".'.i ~il\' <.~c::....lj"'.i:j ".\..·9 ~e::.·Q Iii'lj'Q sog po og po Mongolian crow ~". <>J Il'l.q ~''l ~c::..\'<. "" "1.i ~e::.'Q rlJ Q 5rll·'Q "." "'<>J..J ~'<>J .>...l:i ~'i:i QC:S Qc::. beggar bro.iJ khyi mo rno dog (she) ..<..''l long ba blindness ~c::.~ ~"'~ 3...Q .. rtsod pa dispute ~c::.>/ 'lj~"'-'ilI [!l." .>/ thur rna spoon S·<>J S'.''3 I ij'" •<>l"\ -".>Ja.i ~"l'<." 1'1'" kha ba snow Z:F'l sc::." '~"'-'" rngar ba tho ba phyu ba black smith hammer gown ~.>J dri rna smell ~.>J rgya rna rnga rna tail scale S·<>J S'. sprang bu bong bu beggar-boy donkey ~.~ ~"'~ rtsid pu sgyid pu young goat oven ~".>/ <>Jil\r. <.Q '!l'Q v srne ba mole yung ba tumeric nic::.>.ill rnna' mna' rna bride snas rna yarn .~ri:i "\~rl:i <>Ja...~-".J~r.. Q ~'lj' Q "...>J khra rna spite . ..<...q ~F'3 ~ .Q ~c::...~..>.>/ ~"I'ilI v grog rna ant ~"'ilI ~"'•. " .Q ~'.g.>J a rna rama ama ra rna goat (she) mother is is'· ..>..Q ~e::..'<. " 'ljil\r.Q 'lJ~e::.>/ 5·<>J ~." ~'" ~."..>J ~ ~"I ..<>J [!l'.."l''3 ll!...<i ~e::. plate m·<>J 1ll'..''l ~ ~ s·q S'" du ba smoke ~.Q "I~"'-'Q blon po minister drnar po red gtsang po river rgyal po king gyar po loan Iii".Q 'lj~e::.ll'" .>J bye rna sand sderrna .

>I1'l~ "1' .>If'l~ q~n<' .>If'la:.gj'q 'l}.\'.~e.S-'"-' " rnal 'byor pa Yogi i i ltad mOjba mOiba spectator Q"I~'" Q"I"'l'" et"'!'" ct"'l' " chos pa religious person j'la:J'Ij'" j'l."-OJ'~ ~t:.>Jf'l~ nyo mkhan buyer "l t:. Ilj~"'" gcod pa Chad student Chod ~~"'" '?''' 'f" nya pa fisherman 1'l'r1J'" f'l'r1J' " kha 10 pa driver ~n<'r:>.>1' a:Jl'lili .>Il'lili ~'.67 DISYLLABLE NOUN STEMS There are several notable differences between complex noun stems and disyllabic noun stems in the following ways: In the disyllable noun stem.>Jf'l~ v It:.: " q-:ra:Jl'lili "-:r . Disyllable noun stems are generally bound and are not free: L / ""J-..li'q rnga pa drummer f{. the bare root of the simple noun need not to be the first constituent but can be either the first or the last without definite reasons provided.>If'l~ beol mkhan investor q~'a:Jl'lili "~'.68 DERIVED NOUN STEMS Derived noun stems are connected with animate nouns who are nominated by the things they do.l'j'.'~-'"- .! et"'!'-' ct"'l' -'""''''I chos ra ba so monastic class ivory UlOJ'''l "lOJ'''l '5'''lt:.>If'l~ "~r>l' . and most appropriately by their occupation.""' 'bri mkhan author thsong khang rdza mkhan seller potter bzo mkhan manufacturer yong mkhan comer i:.>J'Il' " khams pa Khampa ..>Jf'l~ ~'."-'Ilj"in< ""J-'"-'~"ir>l dkar gyol porcelain &q'~Ilj &"'~ll! "~'IlJ~ "~'IiJ~ dge rgan tutor -.\ .. ha yang aluminium ral gri sword yal ga branch to.>Jf'l"'l'" r150m mkhan mkhas pa rtsom composer scholar 8'. The 'doer' noun derives from verbs and is formed by adding a derivational suffix to the simple noun stem which expresses the meaning 'connected with .>I1'l~ ~' ..>II'la:.<:. ~'.l'l'a:Jn<'" . q'".>If'l~ gru mkhan boatman ngu mkhan cner ~'.>Jf'l~ ~-'"-'" sger pa private 'l}.>I1'l~ .'" to.' " bod pa Tibetan v sbrags pa postman f:_'.~-.k."~t:.>II'l~ S·.- r fju "}' . skub steg chair v ~n<'~ ~r>l'~ grong khyer rgyal sgo town gate t-< . There are number of categories of derived noun stems which are added to the distinctive simple noun stems as we shall discuss here.~' a:Jl'lili . There is also derived noun stems from verb stems by adding an agentive suffix either to simple or compound verb or noun stems: [:It:~.3.>Jf'l~ ~.>Jr>l'" tha mal pa ordinary <:I.>Ij'l~' mkhan or belonging to '" pa.'" <:I.'a:J1'l ili ''It:.' . .>Jf'l~ bshu mkhan copier a:J1'l"'!'" .>If'l~ rku mkhan thief r:>.'a:Jl'lili . The dropping of non-noun root will not maintain the meaning of the disyllable stems of the noun but will often modify it into an unrelated simple noun. S·..S-'"-'" ~r>l'r:>..\. [.-- 3.

'flt.·<:!~"i·~I:. chang khang alcohol house = tavern sman khang medicine house= hospital ~"I~'f1t.I' is compounded as ~·"i9·<:!"Ir..J.JigCl'\·"I~t.J~"'·eI"I·"...'r.t..'r.I" ~·"i9·Cl"lr. Geluk..·"I~J.. <£..nouns which are compounded. adjectives and as well as adverbs. ?'J..J· gsum Cakrasamvara.~ ci:~.t.i:"I·"I~t.. Kagyud and Nyingma.\·J. king's prince = rgyal chu'i mig.J is compounded as 'lI"I'~t. 10 pan Lotsawa l.:.. it depends on the last to determine its meaning.>. ubordinate nominal compounds are formed by disyllabic nouns where the genitive case suffix of the former and last particle of the latter are dropped in its process of compounding.·'lj~J.~.>. ''is''ff1t..'Cl~"i'~I::.5.J is compounded as ?·eI'lj·I.~"I'''I~J. q compounds of nouns..·<:!f. ja khang tea house ~r'lJ'~"..·"I~J.:·~~ <1'lr.>. Tibetan has a largely developed jjl:..'l!("i'q mingsdud-pa (co-ordimltive nominal compounds) consist of two nouns and when there are more than two nouns compounded together they are followed by the number of the nouns listed.>.~''I'S'i'''I~J.'f11:..i:"i' 11::.'ff11::. ~"rlil'" rgyaI blon rgyal bIon king and ministers ~ J.J.~ rgyaI po'i sras. dnguI khang money house =bank a...~"I·"I~J.J ?·eI'lj·§I::.~"I·S'i·"I~<>I· is compounded as Cl'\·"I~t..>.'''I~J..:'jj"l Il'lr. ~". J..~ . It is the first syllables of disyllabic or polysyllabic ..J~"'·eI"I.''lj~J.J rta-phyag-khyung-gsum Hayagriva.!t.:'jj"l ci:~. water's eye = chos kyi sde. lion & 'lI"I.'11:.J "''\'J. 'lI"I'~I::.~. ~·~r"i9·12i"l'!l·<:!"jr.'§I::..·"I~J..'''I~J...J~ tshogs khang assembly hall.·"I~J.>.>.\· sa-dge-bka'-rnyingbzhi Sakya.otsawa and Pandita byang sems Enlightenment thought "l.!l:.5.'ft.·~t.!I:.·9·1.\· ~'~r"i9·!2i"l'!fCl"jr..·~·tl.·r.~·r.'I. ~['lJ'i:ir. verbs.• 3. hence the Tibetan nominal compounds are difficult to follow if one does not know the forms of the root noun stems of the compounded.·J. The first constituent of the compound stands as an attribute of the last and. Generally the Jll::.69 NOMINAL COMPOUNDS In Tibetan nominal compounds are formed by a juxtaposition of one or more noun stems and each of its constituents are meaningful in themselves unlike the disyllable noun stems where the formative particles have no separate meaning of their own.'~t. ~". 11::..=hall ~'''lfll ~''''r'lJ rgya bal India and Nepal "i9'~"1 dge sdig virtue and non-virtue n:.. e.J ?·J.J.'Q".~~ ~fll·i:ir. religious community ~r'lJ'~~ !5ifll'~~ rgyal sras = prince rgyaJ ~'jj"l ~.'9'§t.·r.'l!("i.jj"l chu mig =spring chos sde=monastery = ci:~'~ ci:~.·Clf. "iSr'lJ'f1t.>.J 'lI"I·~1:.>.'J.>. mchod khang shrine room ~'fi1 ~'fil nyi zla slln and moon ~F~J.J..¥:"i'f11:.J stag-seng-khyung-gsum eagle.¥:''I'''I~t. the four Tibetan Buddhist traditions..J bde-gsang.~t.~'r.J stag-seng-khyung-gsllm tiger. Vajrapani and Garuda. Guhyasamaja and Yamantaka...!I::..~·ti..!I:.

a:.t.'~<:.g<>J'~Q r:l.in Tibetan in a definite mode of expression in which two syllables either nouns or adjectives of similar meaning are grouped together to simplify in explaining the either meaning of the two words by its usage: "inja:.'!!I"I glen lkug dumb l:lia:.l.~ "i<Jr.'~<:' Dyin dgung ~a:.'<>JE(<:.. l.' <>Ji"I "j.'!i"l "i"llr:l. 4j~'''Ii>."i<>J'~l:l glu gzhas song ~nr~<>J~ ~nr~<>J~ snyan grags fame ga:. dga'-sdug dgra-gnyen rgas-gzhon snga-phyi che-chung 'jam-rtsub tho-dman dwang-snyog phan-gnod phra-sbom rtsing zhib rsha-grang . . -.'.it.' .'~c:..: dpa'mdzangs brtson 'grus bravery diligence ~~r"l"~~'''ll''' zlos gar drama -9~'''-l:l -9~''''l:l ~ tshul khrims tshon mdog morality colour "I11'Q~"i "ll:1l'Q~"i I zhe sdang hatred L<l" Lf <>J ~~~'~"1 ~~~'!i"l shes rab wisdom gzibrjid glory mdzes sdug beauty I <>J pha rna parent 3.'t:l.'~"'1~ r:l.s dkon mchog jewel "i<Jr:l.l'~<:' nyi ma'i gung...~ t.'~"1 'ic:. ...'<>J~"ll 'dam rdzab mud ~.'<>JE(<:.'~"1 <la:. < Synonymous compounds are also used.'<>J~"1 ga:. nyin = mid day SYNONYMOUS COMPOUND ..l.0" .~ ~a:.'... ~'~<:' -... ..71 ABSTRACT NOUN COMPOUND [< Abstract nouns are formed by grouping together two adjectives with opposite meaning: ~ "1"-' ru "ll""1ij ~i>f~a:.'r. "$i.g<>J'~Q <>J~'''i<>Ja:. rope etc (coarse-fine) fineness of flour (hot-cold) temperature ~'\'~"1 ~"i'!i"l ~'~a:. "i"lr."i<>J'~l:l r..'''I~''i ::j'~<>J :nj<>J ~ ~c:.~~ W'''I'"J~ W'''I~~ ~a:.. gar-sla skam-slon skyid-sdug khe-gun i (thick-thin) thickness of liquid (dry-wet) dampness or dryness (pleasure-sorrow) condition of life (profit-loss) price of goods (good-bad) quality of things (enemy-friend) relationship between people (old-young) age (early-late) time (big-small) size (smooth-rough) texture (high-low) height (clear-muddy) cleanliess of water (benefit-harm) effect (thin-thick) size of thread.i'~<:.l. ~ '1('::/ ~'~c:. .~'<>Ji'.~<:.l. "i~r"l~a:.l.'~"'1~ ~a:../' ""-. "ic:.'''ll~''i <la:. ~'<>Ji'.'<>Ji"I "inja:. . r.~~ l:lia:.'~"1 "i~'''I~a:.'~Q a. sun's middle = ~a:.

. tsho or .'?ll!~ 3.' j'.. .g ~~'ii grogs po thams cad all the friends jj' . and everyone. all.lj~'''i''l ~~'1''15 Ui'1'~'~'lj Ui'1'~' ~llj cog: 'dod dgu yod do cog' everything desirable everything <:.i<l~<:'"f@.l.\ mdzangs-blun mdzangs-bJun bzang-ngan ring-thung brJan-gsher brlan-gsher gsar-rnying (wise-fool) intelligence (good-evil) quality of a person (long-short) distance. plural are the three numbers. 75 I. singular.. They are independent of the suffix of the preceding syllable. every noun is of the masculine. rdzogs.o'1 thams-cad.g'lj~ ii"l~ dge ba mtha' dag all the virtues ~. i<l. 3.. feminine or the neutar gender.l mang-po are used to express plural..g i5"1 ii tsho and j. "C! brgya.::I<:' kbyu everything.'0<:"<:'.'?llI~ - shing phung heap of wood -- .l lug khyu Jug kbyu flock of sheep mi thsogs gathering GENDER In the Sanskrit.~r£"1 gnyis-tshig. i<l<:. collection. has followed the order of nature.72 ~t::.. . 3. q~'4'" llj~""f<:' llj~""f<:' Tibetan nouns and adjectives have grammatically three numbers although dual is seldom used in practice. "I.lj~''1''l mtha'-dag. 14'c>Jr:l. Collective nouns are formed when the appropriate i<l<:"l.'1<:''<:'"\ ~'g<:.::I<:. The grammatical dual suffix is '1"1 dag but it is also used for plurals and ''1 nyid is used for singular.\ "1. ~'lj cog. "I.sllj'£"1 gcig-tshig.. which.\"1 '1~'q'i<l.74 EXAMPLES i5.73 COLLECTIVE NOUN SUFFIX There are number of collective noun suffixes '1"\ kun. 3. . The names of males are of the 3..g tsho. nga tsho we 4<:.. Ui<:. There are several dual and plural suffixes: . 72 c>Jt::.:i<l tshang rna.i<l~ rnams which are attached to nouns.'~c:.0'1 ~q'ib<:'li<l ~q'ib<:'li<l deb tshang rna all the books '1~'q'i<llilr:r. ib<:.lji<l~ri5'1 ~llj i<l.~' .l lexical plurals are affixed to the correct animate an inanimate nouns.lji<l~r. . ~"\'~c:. and § khyu which all signifies many..'l.g"l~ tshogs.4'JJf.'£"1 mang"I iSllj'£"1 i<l<:"£"1 tshig. This however is not the case with Tibetan.o.""- . It is difficult to see the logic of applying the term 'gender' to things and substances which are destitute of sexual properties. in this respect.\'~c:. '15 dgu.Ji''J''\ sems can kun all living beings §J'lj~'ibli<l~'i5'1 §Jllj~' ij' . sprin phung cluster of clouds ~ 'di tsho these nJ'lj'e! ~"I'1..... French and other languages. These terminations are more common in classical Tibetan than in modem spoken language where the appropriate enumerative numerals or the word j'.Ji''J''\ ~i<l~' .0"1 cag... 4<:"~<:' p'~.lj~''1''l ii ii"l~ ti'''I~ yongs rdzogs.!li<l~' . £ll! NUMBER <1. length (wet-fluidity) moisture (new-old) new.' £1lI 3. and i<l<:. adjectives and pronouns in the sigular number to express plurality. phung. dual.

j '.. skyes drnan wife '\iiI' ~e... the names of females are of the feminine gender. .ij ~rJj I I '\Q(:l. "l'q ' '1' '1 sha ba sha rno i l":. and all other nouns are of neutar gender.<:l~""Q dge slong rna fully ordained nun ..-.>..'q "iQ".ill .\Jl".i' ill -- ~.I"q dpon rno ladyship ~O.~-- is khyi kbyi dog '\iiI'~1'..I"Ji horse "iqr:>:'l . gender.76 1.Ji "iQr.: 'i."ilJ btsun pa monk 'i/"I 'l/"I stag tiger btsun rna nun .'Q'~ rin po che Venerable ~\..".:-. and feminine or if they share the same stem then the feminine is formed by adding suffixes such .<:l~""ilJ grva pa monk ~..I"ilJ "i~' ~O. =<.~-1. \. Q pa.f' rgyal po king >.~~" ~ jS"Ji IS""-l khyi rno bitch - ~..i'J:j ~1'.':~j.'-<: l"-..\Qr:>:<5 dpa' bo hero I ~..'-<: J'... ending in . me.76 EXAMPLES 3._.'Jj dpa'rno heroine I ~rij ~r?'.masculine gender. _~ as Jl rna or J:j rno to simple or complex animate noun stems. However animate nouns have either seperate word for masculine language.<:j'J:j 4'.j stems. /: ~j. khyo ga husband "i"l'~e:.. rna or J:j rno to form or. Q po and i.'Q '7 rta - dpon po chief ~O..i'Q ~1'.Q ba."I ~'''I ~~..\q"..ij 'l"i'Jj bod rno Tibetan lady 2j'Jl 21' J:j va rno vIxen t. / In spite of the gender division in the Tibetan alphabet...-.Q~""Q .' ill "ilJ' me:: ilJ "i~'~1'.."'-- dge tshul novice ~'Q ~'Q dge tshul rna novice nun Il'l. Complex masculine noun stems or....I "ilJ' ~O.j feminine.!"l'q "'l"l"Q phag pa Q"i'.':- .~--- . there is no grammatical gender ?"1~ rtags in Tibetan language...<••. glang ox bya rno hen q"(~"I~) Ji q'(~"l~) Jj bod pa Tibetan man 2j 21 va fox t...- bya pho rooster me:.i pho are substituted by Jl .i .i Q.d- rje btsun rna sister "iQ~'Jj "iQ~'Ji 'l/"1'Jj 'i/"I'Jl stag rno tigeress ~"i'Jl <iI"i'Jl rgod rna mare - / tt"":tt""-- .~ Il'l'~ dge slong fully ordained monk . feminine word.'ill f'qil".. a ne nun f'qii'".".~-" .. and simple animate nouns also take either Jl rna or Jl rno if there is no seperate "-.". 3.-~ / word..'Q'~ =<..Q~"".. "iilJ·~e... ~~"Jl". ~"."".\'Q 'l"i'q '".!"l'Jj "'lQr Ji phag rno - ba (phyugs) rno (Phyugs) cow ....$' rgyal rno queen ~r.<:l Q .

~ t>.'rs:" sun's rays JJ'~'LJ ~":::F" <:J intelligent 'iI"I'~''1j''l'll"Ll 'iI"I"~"'1l"l~" Q rs:"'Il!~ O:""2!~ bright light q""~"<:Jrll q"'~'qr>.."q Gi.'q Gi"'Q or by adding either of the five q"~"Q ""1 2!"1 J.lc. ~~""q"l physical isolation I I I .78 EXAMPLES ~"I~"Q ~"I'll'Q fat "I41"..'" Il!'" J.g.".J J. im. rough ~q'll'Il!~ ~<:J~"2!"1 round ~~f2!~ ~'ll'Il!~ iii"ri!"""I ill'ri!'"'" lazy ~rll"2!~ ~rll'Il!'" corporal precious ~~f2!~ ~~'Il!~ powerful strong "i"lt>._J J. Please note that ~ Zi J. The English.l ~ ~"1 .buck doe o..J particle e. and "q"..>lD. genitives.. These represent English adjectives ending in ate.\""I~ tiger skin ~"I~'.>liF"l~ J.J ~'" .ili ~~'J:ili ""-"l"Q """I' Q coarse ~c. ive.jl"U.~ pIg sow ~riJ bu mo girl (daughter) "I"l"l gyag yak ':J ':l bu boy (son) 'bri female yak 3.rO:~"Q ..t>."<:j "I41di"<:j dead "C.lfl~"Q J. TilJetan most adjectives in Tibetan frequently appear after the noun followed by either of the additional J."1 ~'ll'''".lilr.>l·li "J. verbs. etc.. two or more adjectives take place after the additional particle of the last adjective. en!. pronoun or after the article if there is one."Ii clever ~q'li ~q"Ii "I~".jl" "I~ which correspond in their use to dis."Q genitives. In some cases there are adjeCtives which are put before the noun" seen."2!"1 "i"I0.l . Majority of classical Tibetan adjectives are formed from substantives by adding q. ~ . Q Zi J.~ .. noun.'<:j first ~~"J.77 6'\' a..'ll'Q . J... latter two can be used as adjectives as well as verbs."Q c. C."<:j long antidote ~"I'li ~"I"Ii rich ~ clever ~.j'<b'q ." ~"1 «~. eous.j:j" "I'll Srll ~c. nouns as we have seen. ADJECTIVES An adjective is used to indicate a specific attribute.l . ish.Jfl'll'Q learned 3.j""'"<:J fire's heat . With exceptions attribute noun.l golden spoon . less."<:j "c.tJ .·li ~c.ij etc. connected with a noun.~~ meaningless unsuitable ~"Srll ~'SI1l unsuitable ~"I"Qrll ~""Qrll boundless stainless faultless "I1'\~'~c.g...l"Ii tight ~~". and un prefixed adjectives in English..jl" unobstructive Tibetan wool «". ive.>l "I~"""5'!l"""J.>l·li ~J. empty of other ~~'"q".<:j ~C.tJ ~c.Jc."O:" ~" ..i . ii."<:j " '.""Q evil "I~". Declension of one.lD. ious. Jul. "I1'\"I"~c.-"Lj "I'll"'" Ll new ~ .<:j "I~"..r 0:'ll"Q fortunate ~"J.l"Ii ".ij also occur as the last syllable of some e.o.'Il!'" joyous "I~""-'5'!l""-" .j:j" ~"l~".. Negatives are formed either by prefixing or suffixing J.j:j'U.

t"l miscellenou~ miscellenou~ problematic ~.80 ~ In some Tibetan dialects the adjectives of comparative degree is expressed bye:: more than.3.\<:JrJ.\<:Jr.E.I§"I"l' .q·J.q .t"l ""I'.L"l'~c:. -".lll -".J'<J -- x a.E.L"l'''I~a.'c:.ij ~'ij'~'q fl/de flIde ~ "'1"1'''-1''1 "-1"1' 1' better "I~c:. younger §ic:'c:.L"l'~J.'§ic:.J. x .>j' rJ. These are more colloquially used than COlloquially literary: ..q ~J. Adjectival suffixes are dropped in all examples..I.J'J.i'j"l P.80 DEGREE OF COMPARISON 3.'<:J .'c:. j .J' J..i'j"l best rJ. /'t (q) ("I) cleverer : "l"l'''I "-1"1'' 1 ~c:.L"l'§ic:.>j' ~J.i'j"l "-I"I".'<:J x .79 REDUPLICATED ADJECTIVES 3.J§"I~' ."l'''I~a."l'§ic:.i'j"l .L "l' J...J.J' smoother "I~d)'a.\<:Jp"q .\<:JI<'q braver <:J' tastiest ~c:.fjc:. "I~d\'a.J' <:J tasty ~c:. In spoken Tibetan the comparative is formed either by reduplicating the final of the adjective.' ~F~.i'j"l fastest ~.'.' 'c:.F ~-". Very early very late worse very clean 3. a.q'.i'j"l cleverest Ul"l".\<:JI<'q brave better P.L"l'P.L"l'..J' .\"1-".J' <:J' tastier whitest J. thus ".' .\"1-".>j' ~J..q ~c:.L"l'~.i'j"l bravest x .q clever "-I"I.".E.q whiter J.i'j"l youngest §c:.\"1-".lll· common degrees of comparison in Tibetan.I§"I"l'. rough ~"I'~"I :2"1':2"1 straight '?"I.L'If '\"1"" q x .E.i'j"l but this is more superlatives.q'J.i'j"l J.I' ii smooth "IIW<J "IIW<:J young §c:.:.I.' ~""~"" ~h§"I crooked (1jq'(1jq iihiljq flat ~"I'~"I ~ §ic:.\<:Jr..q rough . root stem of the adjective as shown in the examples.>.>j' <:J . are expressed by "l"l' q"l' and <:J"l' meaning "than" (1j"l' which are put in between the name of the person or a thing to which comparison is made and the adjective.>.Jf .' roundish ~"I.".L"l'.lll = higher and the superlative by "'''I'.".E.i'j"l '\"1"" Superlative Classical .. rougher .I§"l"l'''I faster ~.'''I~c:.\<:JI<".'-".I.i'j"l x .' q' x . most.I§i"l"l'ij fast ~J.) '\"1"""" ("I') white J.q rJ.L"l'r.Jf.\"1-".~.' q '\"1"" . q "-I"I'q /.·q .."l'''-I''I'''I ~"l'Ul"l'''I x .>j' .'q x !: A .J.E.".lll' =highest.:.' Concave .ij.L'If.E.t"l'.>.L"l' J. Adjective Comparative Superlative Colloquial .'c:. .. frequently usSd in the spoken language than in classical.t"l hasty ~'q'~'q' ~'q'~'q' ~F~c:.' (q.' .79 There are also various semi-reduplicated forms of adjectives which are used either by duplicating the first adjective or by adding some particles. However the most ~·J.~"I '?"I'~"I .i'j"l roughest .>.>j' .E..J.>j'.'~-".' -' good P.J.\<:Jr.I§"I~' <:J' .'q .i'j"l SmOO(des( smootdest "I~a. Similarly superlative is formed by adding. "I"q"c:.J§"l"l'''I J. comparative and superlatives. /- thus ~'J.fjc:."c:..

~"l ~"I and.j"4r§)'~<:'2\1 l"1l1l·l.>l<:'·'7<:.. from "l~"l Q into'" "I~"I ..~" <ll\l'"\ therefore ~"~'\ ~'~'\ thus ~"~o. thus ~"~"'""'l<:' ~''l!''''''..c some 0.e:..>l'iI"I"~ immediately that is so someone .\ accordingly upto o.Ij.'\I"5"J"4'\1 fractionals..S"~ and q.~"r'\"1 1t"~'\'~.. Fifteen and eighteen do not share Q~ but are said and written q.l:.' ~"I some r. .t."lo..la . Generally the prefiX 9 is thousands. and a. e) 0. 2\1 mea~urements.~.qf.l\l'5·"'·4l\l J~\o. prefix "1 when it is used to count higher dropped and also the root letter Q is changed into a. some also "1t'\"'i "It'\"\ other ~""1C"'\"l ~f"lC..c.~"'·1li<l multiplicatives f) ..l q·~"q"C"q very good . 3.\"I "1C"UlC "IC.t which are put after all tens.\ whosoever ~"q~"l'5 ~'q~~'5 ~.".l:.l\1" x -9"i"~" x -9"'i"~" extremely x eminently x J.'\I o."~C..>."<l whatever anything "1t'\"l"~""lC "It'\~'~'''IC ''It'\''l"~''1 "It'\~'~"1 another thing 1t."Io.l: i.' ~"I only (lj"(lj"~"1 Cll"(lj"~"1 f'l.~''l!'" ~''l!'" in this way likewise -. .~. Adje~tive Adje~. ~"~ o..e:N~'\·5'~<:'l\l mea~urements. Tibetsn numerals : can be sub-classified follows: a) . - approximatives and g) fJ.q.~".(lj"~'\"5"~<:.c ~''l!o..82 PRONOMINAL ADJECTIVES 'j"\ 'j"'i all 'ljC' ~.~"'"lliq is as .S'~ q..l CARDINAL NUMERALS aK"'?t:.'Qr~c.>lc.q"~'''12\1(lj"(j q'~'''Il\ln.>l2\l qF~.\·o.r'\"1 however many ~2\I'''l ~l\l'~ therefore o. ~c.r§j"~<:'l\l ordinals..~". ·Qr~t:. The tens are also suffixed with ."~"1 Cl.>l'q to denote a decade..l\j ~c. <ll>.\ >-' until ~'''l2\l ~'~l\l thereupon ~""l<:' ~'''I<:' even so however with regard to ~"q1¥\"'\ ~'<l1¥i''\ similarly ~ < 3. "1C"UlC'~'q "IC. There are other suffixes decade. someone "IC''\''I "Ic.2\I" J.... .~ Numerals occur in the same position as number suffixes in a noun phrase.'UlC whatever "Id"t"l "Id "t"1 whosoever ~"UlC ~'UlC.81 ADVERBIAL SUPERLATIVES There are adjectives which are formed inyto comparative and superlative by puttinmg number of adverbial particles before the positive.>l'l..rCll someone -- 1t. d) ~C..>ll\l those who r."l:r:F~ ~ ~ The Tibetan cardinal numbers are simple to count with the exception of some spelling <l.~"~". c) i"llll"qr..l\j aggregatives..lt:...qo...tive Compa~tive Compa~tive S U P E R L A T I '1"i"~" '1"'i'~' V E S q"c:l.. q2\l""'i ~..l "l"c.>l'i1"l"~ ~·.j"(j Clear Very clear J.>..Ij.l NUMERALS '1It:.~ ."UlC o.('~c. 0."Qr~C2\I cardinals.·'7c..l . whichever ~"'\"I whatsoever ~"UlC'::::C'q ~'UlC.j" q "I2\I(lj"l. .?t:."UlC."I0. There are several choice of superlative forms for one comparative form ."~"1 Cl.S'<l!.l\l .~"l"l.la"~c.q::J'\ .. b) i..l\l' x -9"l"~" -9~'~' x extremely x eminently x UlC.'.84 J..q.\"1 whatever o.l\j'l\j' x "ic'\I"2\1" ~ entirely x UlCl\j'l\j' x "ic~r~r ~ entirely x x completely x '1"l"~" '1~'~' x completely x 3."II>.\ o.\ 1t.q"~·q"C"l.3.'\I ~c. 1t"~ just as ~. They can be rendered into Enmglish coparative and suprelatives which are formed by putting more and most.'q good_ "Il\ln.j-:~.~"1 ['l'~"1 .~"~. hundreds and thousands.~'~.'Ulc":~r::<l 0.~.2\I' J.g:~.\sq(W"i '\S<lt'\~'"'i ~'.l respectively.\"1 I>."10..j'\ irregularities.83 '1It:. whosoever 1t.~''\''I these Q"t'\"l Q't'\"1 any (lj"(lj n.s.~.. .

."1~"1 q~'''c:.'::I"I'''I~'ll ~'a..~ poooo ~'::j"l'''I~''1 or ~'a. t "I~"I "I~'ll "I~'Il "I~"l "I~"l 1 one 2 two 3 three ~ 11 eleven 'I 12 twelve 13 thirteen " ''I p~ P'I qil'''I~''I 'lil'''I~''I qil'''I~'Il 'lil'''I~'ll qil'''I~''l 'lil'''I~''l ''-"" ~: e e 'I qil'ql'j 'lil''ll'j ~ 4 four 5 five 6six 7 seven 8 eight· eight' 9 nine 10 ten 14 fourteen 15 fifteen 16 sixteen 17 seventeen 18 eighteen 19 nineteen 20 twenty '" " .\t:.a. ~~ ~':r~'''I~''1 ~':r ~'''I~''1 ~"l' ~ " q~'q~...\'il'S'''I''''I ~ - §"I'il':<""I~'ll §"I'il':<""I~'Il q. . P(llJJ. 'St:.... ij.."I~"l ~'Il..S"l·::j"l'''I~''I p(llJJ.8a:J a thousand millions.. 32 thirty two etc. 42 forty two etc.'. etc.~(ll'l £"I·I'l. between the ten and the units upto ninety nine.. etc.'''I~'Il "'I "''I ~' iiW' '" §"I'il':<""I~"I 5i"l'''':<''''I~''I ~ pJp 'l~"i'ir~"i'''I~''I "" q~"i'il"~"i'''I~''I ...\t:.·"I~'ll "-'I ~'qil·t:.!: ~-:.\ '\~ po '0 t.''l''"i'il'~"i·~ five.'''I~''I £"I.~t:. £"I·r:>. 'l~.'''I~''I or £"I'~ ~'::I"I'''I~''1 W."I~"l or ~'ll'~c:..a.:t.. ~ pooo ~c:.-. ~~) ~u Wt:. etc. ~t:..:t..'::j"l'''I~''1 ~t:."I~"I or £"r~c:. Each scores of ten has a separate particle corresponding to ty in English which is put numbers.. 22 twenty two etc..\'il'~'''I~'Il I'~ ..00 q~'Jq"l'<I '00 q~'Jq"l'<1 - - ~ ~- pop po p p(J!JJ.S"l· qw~' ~'~t:.% 175973 One hundred and seventy five thousand nine hundred seventy three.· llij' ~.:a:J ~. ij . Q~i'"c:. 2000 Two thousand etc. 82 eighty two etc..·v numbers above one hundred.. 62 sixty two etc.'!'i"l 'l.·~''1 il''ll'''I''''I il''Il'''I''''I 21 twenty one 31 thirty one 41 forty one 51 fifty one 61 sixty one 71 seventy one 81 eighty one 91 ninety one 100 one hundred etc.'. 1000 One thousartd.~ qil'q~ 'lil''l~ q~'~ 'l~'~ .S"l I'l. etc.\'il'~'''I~'ll ~'I q~.. etc.\'il'~'''I''''I "'" q~. <\000 '\000 thousartd." L..S"l·::I"I·"I~"I or £"I·I'l. I'l.\"i''''~"i'''I~'Il 'l~"i'il'~"i'''I~'ll ~ ~ . q~'...S"l 100000 One hundred thousand. "" I' <' / I' ~:f" ft:f" '" pJ §"I q..\"i 'l'\"i ~ . q q~'qil'~'''1~~ eo 'l~''lil'~'''1~~ "'I ~·qil'c:. 72 seventy two etc etc. ~t:.\~''lil'''I'''I~'ll <'. 92 ninety two etc..'::I"I'''I~''1 or ~c:. 'Il'''l S'Q 'Sc:.·r:>..~(J!'1 £"I·r:>..~ 'l~. ~"l'il'<. 'l~'qil'~'''I~''I "'" "" ~'qil't:.·q~"i'il·~"i'~ 175 One Hundred and seventy five. nine. The elision of prefix "I applies to "I~~ and "I~"l for higher hundred.e p"" p"'" p" '''' . 52 fifty two etc.\ 'l~''l~.i'''I~Z.'~"1 ~''lil'c:......\~'qil'''I'''I'?'Il <''I . ..'''1~''1 101 One hundred and one etc.\ 'l~.pJ '" '"" '" ~ q.~'''I~''I e.'!'i"l ~~ qil'q~"i 'lil''l~"i q~.\"I'q~' 'l'\il\'il'~"i'''I~''l1 ~ ~ ~ ~~ ~.. 1>::':. '1'1 '1'1 ~'1 ~':l'~'''I~''i ~':1'~'''I~'>i ~"l'il'<. 'I' q:fJq<>f<l 'l:fJqM<I w qil'..a. 1" '\5'qil'~'''I~''I '\"I''l'''~'''I~''I ~ .-> q~·.i'''I~Z. 10000 Ten thousand. numbers. .. a hundred million. 'll'''l a million. etc.a.\"1 'lil''\''1 ~':l'Jq"l'<1 '?':I' Jq"l' <I ~ 8.\ q~'q~."I~"I £"r~t:. S'Q ten millions.J I' / pooooo r:>.S"l· QW~' ~'~c:..'::j"l·"I~'Il or ~c:.'''''I''l~' q'\il\'il'~"i'''I~''l1 P(J!JJ. Wc:..

"1 all four "l~'''1 all six "I~"I' Salone q"\il)'''1 q~. 15% Q:Jj'a.'. is the 18th letter of the alphabet . each !jt::.'''l~'a.. 51st 91st etc. ~"'''I~''I'l..J ~'..J r:.j'::!1'::!t::.fl....J 2l:st ~"'''I~''I'<J 21:st ~'''I~''I'l.'Q~'11J. ~'~'a..'o.. ll'I.Si<J·.J 41st ~'''I~''I'<J :'r"l~"I'l. The volume number of books on Buddhist canon or collected works of great scholars 30.J.J 31st ~'''I~''I' <J ~'''I~''I'l.J 81st :...\r:...'q' ~'''I~~'l..9~·. is used after the cardinal numerals.~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ORDINAL NUMERALS except the first.Oj.i. §"\'''l §. volumes from 61 to 90 are expressed by the letters added with the vowel u ("I to!!3 )..'9~9 §.J which is . '!. 3.'9~9 a quarter q~'a.OJ'l.\r:. either "I or a...Oj·q· million.J' The "I~"I'<J ~'.. volumes from 121 to 150 are expressed by the letters added with the vowel 0 ("j to instance the volume number 78 will be marked ~ since with the vowel u of the third cycle.'''I~9 "\"I'a.\r:.87 'I!.q. :<.'q~''I!..J q:Jj'a.\r:..86 a. ).~ In order to express the meaning both.SilJ''!.'''1~~ "l:Jj'a. l1i ll'l ) ll'I and lastly ll'l ll'I ). which correspond to a fraction a.ljJ....c:. volumes to f!3 from 91 to 120 are expressed by the letters added with the vowel e ("I to ~ ~ r ("i to I1i ). billion..·"I~9 One and one quarter "\5'a..·q~·a.'4~ ~ FRACTIONAL NUMERALS Tibetan fractional numerals are formed by adding~" and a. denote the numerals from 1 to 30.\r:.J "I~~'<J 2nd "I~ilJ'l.]~·':!Il:. though the latter is used more frequently in spoken language. All ordinals are formed from the cardinals by adding to them the particle l<J .\'. ten thousand million..J ~'''I~''I' <J 3...\r:...''5r:.i.'''1~~ "l~'a.I·::!l·~t::.'''1~~ two and a half §.J 61st "'''I0''l'<J ~ ~ili'''I~''I'l.'Q~'.86 a..f<J 100% Q:Jj'a.\'.'''l5ili six and a half §.'''\5 9 % Q:!i'a.J q~'<J r:..'''I~''I' <J 4rth etc.\'.J 7lst ~ili'''I~''I'<J 71st ~'''I~''I'l...·q5ili Two nineth "I~"I·..85 9'. . This form of aggregative numerals or distributive adjectives apply only from unit 2 to 10.. ~'''I~~'<J' ordinals from twenty one onwards are somewhat abbreviated and modified form of the cardinals... Volumes from 31 to '60 are expressed by th thirty letters added with the vowel i thr I .·o.. "I~~'''I both ~"I'''I ~ "I~i<J'''I "I~ilJ'''I all three ~ q~..'''I~''I'l.\'''1 all eight "l"\"i'''I all seven "l~.':<. are expressed by the thirty letters of the alphabet from "I to ll'l..' ~r:.\r:.9~·..Oj'<J.r"l~"I'<J "'''I0''l'l.\r:..'''l~''I!.\'''1 "I~~' q. "I~~'<i'''Ir:.'q ~ 1st "I~~'l.~ 9·. ~9'iS9' ..\r:.\r:.z:.\5 Q:li'a.:<.. ~'~'a.\'''l half one fourth "l~'~"'9~"1 q~'~"'9~"1 §.J. - For :1 ".'''1~~ "I~"I'. ~QriS9' ij.J..'''l all five "\5'''1 all nine :<. either of the two 3.. a billion. Or percentage. cycle. all five of them etc.q.'4~ ':!It::.q .J "I~i<J'<J 3rd "l~'l..\e:::q instead of "I~"I'l. etc. .]~·':!jI:. etc.4Y ij.\'.~ AGGREGATIVE NUMERALS 3.( a::."Ir:.

q-.tili ~rll. £"'o.'.~-".>Jiij'ili'q'=<-'\1 il'I-~rll' .E!: 01'1 I had a headache just before the class finished.ib'\ ~rl1' ib.q· "-'\1 story four times.. five. double ~"I'~q ~"I.."I"l·A~·~e:.l:~c.'C.jq"l·q·"-..--__ _ _~ When cardinal numerals are suffixed with. approximate numeral in Tipetan.t.·q-il'I·q.")-q' q~j" .>J.'-~.\1 He went to India twice. years. wr:J"I' q~' £d'I'~' . d'I~'''Ie:.4~-.·'.J'd'I'qq' .>.'.'r:>.wA5"1 ~'J:l' '\' J.\ repeat three times.P.i"5ij~·"I~~I.\'''l'=<-'\1 '4rll' a.il'I'il'I.J'=<-'\1 '1!..q~e:.·~·-:!·8·1".-<lie:."I"l'A~'~e:."'" C..\'4"1'A. ~ £"'o. 24 finger-widths). 'iij~ ~"" how to multiply.sr.>il'I'1'i"l augmented by '4rl1'.'ib".>il'I'fll'fll"l'''r ili "l'ni"l'''ic. sheep_ fie:.q-"-.88 D. ~~'~"l'~e:.'JJ grain A half of a leg.>J'Ol'.-JJ ~".'Sj".90 D.>. He will be returning home from work at about 5 o'clock..·~.g:il\' q[l:~c.J:'~' d'I'd'I'4"'" . About nine of us will be renting a house together. J:.~q six times etc.\ fllili·"I~il'I·q~. height. ~"" finger-width leg one-fourth of a ~.\1 It appears that there were about 100 cavalries.C.'fll'r:>. l". and ib"" also can be rendered to times.>l-Oj" . firtger approx_ finger-widths)_ (rhe "ie:. ~q corresponds to 'times' and 'fold'.E.::: ""c__ .q1'\·..'JJ ~. .' ~.'J:sr.·~· "-.'$' "I'>.q4. 1.E.(lr§"·~·~F~ MEASUREMENTS Measurement of length.'~'-:!'8'I".- Examples iii'~"I' .\'I".>. finger)_ a cubit (fhe distance from the elbow to the extended middle finger approx.")."". ~e:.>d'I'1'\"I can be .·.tili if.q~' £il'I-~' .J. e:. However none of them are used when learning ib.\-q. a smaller unit (Generally a finger width is one smaller unit) leg_if..5"1 I will meet those students approximately before sun rise_ rise..\·"'1~~·.·.J'. times.j'§"·~·~F~ D.~- 3.g-. o'clock_ I have money to buy about four sheep.>.>il'I·Aiij.>d'I'rl1'I1"r~'Ulilil - ~ - e:.' ib~·~·.'. ~e:.\1 iii'~"I'.\1 ~e:. large unit = 12 small units (Generally one face measure is one large unit) face measure = 12 finger-widths one span (The distance from the end of the extended thumb to the tip of middle finger). The cat was in the garden just before it rained_ rained.'-lie:.-~e:.>d'I'Aiij""'~'=<-'\1 It will take about six years.>.J'q$'.>liij-ili·.'~'q1'\'q4. .J.>. ~"r~q two times.\-4"1' A.:-".>d'I and indefinite article 1'\"1 with. times.().>il'I-rll'I1"r~-Uiilil m' ~"I-".89 Five times five is ~enty five.' .>il'I 1'\"1 ":~-.>il'I-~"rtil'\'''l.>.il\' qf.J'1'i"l'IlI'''rUlilil ~-J:l·"·if. fllili'''I~d'I'q~.t"" (almost) before the numeral.>.'~""srq~e:.i"'iij~'''I~''f'4q''l·C..t. cavalries..>d'I'fll'~d'I'""p.t'\'C.\"1 ~~-- i? q mq· ~"I''\' J. The following terms were used by traditional artists for the study of Tibetan Buddhist iconometry and architecture as well as by common people to measure things.' ~' J. §'''Ie:.>.>d'I'1'i"r"i.'1 1". ~. although the cardinal "I~"1 is also used. rll~ rl1~ Tibetan. Approximative Numerals it forms t.\'''I~~'q' <-'\1 He had told that = ~~'~"l'~e:.J "F" "i"l"i"r J.\ il'I~-"Ie:. 3. .\iij"ll this mantra nine rounds of the prayer bead. '1!.'C. 5ij~ ~. together.>d'I'fll'fll"l'''l'ili "l·ni"l·tilc:~· "-.>.\1 e:.'~q ~ MULTIPLICATIVE NUMERALS There are several multiplicative suffixes in Tibetan.·1 3. ~. When a speaker is uncertain of the approximate. §-"Ie:.. width and distance were carried out with small and large units of the body.-JJ is called a leg ~". '4rl1'.>.' J.>..'I".I_.' q' .j.. ~>c.>il'IW~il'I·..f d'I~d'I':i'fl~'C.·AE!:"i-1 d'I'~rl1' ./_.f il'I~il'I-:i'fl~-q-~"I-IlI-~-Uiilil e:.\"1 e:.·1".>J.\iij"ll One should repeat "I""". . '4rll·. The things_ preferred term for one measurement is "Ie:.\'I".>."-.~' =<-'\1 .

00 fathoms)." is eight $<::." of Buddhist "l:J"I' a. one $<=-':'1"1'" is 500 fathoms or body spans..':'1"1'" $<=-':'1"1'" $<::.J L body span." "l:J"I'a. This is (rhe horizontally.':'1"1'" $<=-':'1"1'" which is equivalent to 4.) ([he distance from the tip of the middle finger of one to the another of both anIlS spread horizontal!y. . a fathom (approximately 6 ft.':'1"1'" distant of an ear-shot. ~ / \ . about four cubits and is also the height of one's body) ~~"r"l<::' ~~"r"l<=- $<::. Abhidharma a geographical mile (According to Abhidhanna tradition ofBuddhist cosmolgy one "l:J"I'a.

.rs'q' S' "i ili "J "l r:>.. other cases in Tibetan share same case signs. fi~'ei'''i''l'1'~''r"ili'~'''1'~''i'<I fi~'e)'''i''l'1'~''r "ili'~'''1'~''i' I."I·"l~r~·iJ·<Ii~·q·<i:iilil = (1. ~ The subject of the sentence or a clause is called ~'q~«r'1!ili'q' nominative.. The nominative is used more frequently in spoken Tibetan than in classical Tibetan.s"l· "I ' q '1 ~ "l~·r.JL ~- CHAPTER FOUR 4. in the sentence 1"·i\i~·ta.q (lj'~r~r~r.: : ~.§ THE CASES ~dr". ~"J·r:>... But all sentences . so one has to comprehend the meaning of the sentence in the correct context.>. Since there are more than one case signs for most cases in Tibetan. it is ~.-----"> He (she) went to China to buy brocade(s). " -t~~ OJ'>~s.q ACCUSATIVE The accusative expresses the object of transitive verb..g. and express the distinctive form before the use of the case signs.il = man.g. adjective and verb are established.s"l· "l~·r:>. :3 ~ ..Q·i>'.s"l· O1~'~. Forr instance. (and all vowel endings) . ~q book etc.. ~i. ending with <i:iili without an obvious subject does !lot necessarily imply the subject. r.-.:r"iSD:· ~ili between words and clauses strings together the words in the correct order to express the meaning of a sentence. pronoun or adjective of a sentence. and are also used for expressing: (a) the subject of the intransitive verb (b) the subject of the transitive verb (c) duration of time and extension oI ~pace (d) the object of desiderative adjectives. 1"·i\i~·t>.<.'t::.a EXAMPLES ::i. locative and genitive cases'.l (» The Tibetan case particles are placed after the syllables they refer to and not before as in some 'lf1t" ~i.<h'·"l·~ili·q· ~?MI~ATIVE ~·. "i "1 01 ~ "l 'i '5. we) came early 1"·i\i~·t>. The use of the case signs aI"l'''iSD:' a.? = horse.r '1' O1~r~. OJ>~s.. __ _ wei'c We&'c"-~-.>. The subject "lor we" is implied by the auxiliary verb <i:iili. 4. .'t::. A noun remains as a noun unless it takes case signs. For instance.? subject is given it is implied. in the sentence 1"·i\i~·ta. important to identify the appropriate cas~signs or particles allocated for each of the ten suffixes ~ and vowel ending syllables.93 l1.91 - ~dr. <I"l 4. A messenger was sent [0 Rajgriha . Nominative takes no case suffix e.e1 other languages. As the applicability of the case signs are determined by the suffix or post suffix of the preceding syllable. fi = he. A nominative case can be a noun.e1 ~ "."."I·"l~r~·iJ·<Ii~·q·<i:iilil morning yeste'rday. "l JJ . When no ~'1 e.s"l· ~"l·r.. the case signs belong to the dependent particles."I·"lZ'l·~·iJ·iij~·q·iijili·q"Jl = did (you) come early morning yesterday?.93. Except for instrumental..>..92 ~·. 4. ~'<r~"l''1!ili'q simply· ~'qi>'a:r'1!ili'q' ~'q'i>'JJ''1!ili'q simply' nominates the subject of a sentence.' Case is a grammatical category in which a noun and its relationship with another noun.§ ~L ."I·"lz'r~·iJ·<Ii~·":riijOi·q"ll the interrogative particle q"J implies the subject. The Five accusative case signs are ~pace used to express the goal with verbs of motion are as follows: • . to - ------- (.>rWili·q· j. 'if1t. .l~·'~rs·. This will be shown below as we discuss the cases respectively.J ~"I ei01' iJi'(·f'lq·?·Zi·'?·~"I·q?~· q' ~"I e)01' iJi":Rq'?'Zi''?'~''I'q?~' .

fl"l'1:. The Buddha knew it through (his) clairvoy Sherab heard the airoplane noise..'il '~"l'~c.R GfU. ~'o.i.I' ~'il ~<l)'~"l' '1!ll"\'q'"r4"l'q' :<''11 ~<l)'~"l' Q!ll"\'<. "l' ~k'~ -<: ~ q 0.. The five instrumental case signs ~"l ~"l ~"l fJ. in conformity with. ~ 'i'~'il jiic.S "I' "l ('.1. "f ~c. 4. He hit me with a chair. or the instrument through which an action is . I:.I"l'.·tii "\' <. mistaken."l Uj"l perfonned. a. -" " (and all vowel endings) iil"l 4.'~"i'~"l'D. Senge.\I leiter This letter was written by Lekshe.'~' j"l'q' :<'' \1 I -"q'~"l''lj<l)~'~iJ. S'i'~' ~"l GJU.'il t.'o.'A\~"l' ~<l)'<."rq INSTRUMENTAL S.·Oi "\'q':i.a EXAMPLES ~'Ji'~''i!''I'~''I'~''l'1"l'i''-r:i.'il ~'Ji'~''i!''I'~''I'~'\f 'Q"l'i' '-f :i. following English phrases: on account of."':>'~'~'~' Go into the shrine and look who is there. he (1.'~' Ij"l'<.: g.'il ~'.i.>I~<l)' 4"l'~"l'Qj!lQj"l' ~I "lI:. Qfll'~fll'5'D.I':i.e" ~c..'il iil'~'o.. we) was unable to g (I. by means of. <l)) <l 0..>I'~fJ."rq ~ ~ The instrumental expresses the agent.>IfJ. '~'''Ic.'.'''l R"l "I C. Deliver this book to the teacher.1-"'0. '~"I' "14'11 story.=-'~'~'~' "I""5.I' <I"lfll' "I' :i. Tendar told a story.I' ~"\I ~fJ.'~'F'c.'.~ '~ 'I "l 'I <11 ClJ :!"l ~"l ~ . 'rlr'!l'1':'J"I'~"l' '1SC.~'.E. He did not know that he was mistaken. performed.'il Q"l~'''I''l' <. Wu<.I' ~'il f2j"lW ~i<f S"l' ~Qj"ll ~'lj"ll '1'i!<l) ''I "'S"l'~1:.~'iil'lj"l' Q4"\'~"l:Q"l' <. the manner in which etc...~' 'i~'<1i<l) '<11"1"l'~' ~<111 ~ Q'D. Uncle will not go until the sun rise..>I' ~q'q' :<''11 ~iJ.:S'i' . house. We will not go to Nepal. the doer. with.".~' 'fll"l"l'~' ~flll Samye.:S'i'.i~ Wu<.94 s. by."':>'~'~'~':i.'~"r "l4'i1 Q'i!<l) "'S"l'~I:. "ll:. He went to Samye.' q. I wish to go to your house.' ~'=-'<11'~' Ds'ri¥"ll IlfF''=-' 5.'I fi"l'I:. in.I' :i. the thief was impris The price of the wood varies according to its we The sun's rays dispelled the darkness. in respect of. because of.~'~' ~q'<.' ~c. D. Because of that. "l'~"l'5' .'~"i'~"l'r:>.'=<.'=."l Ul"l may be rendered to the iJ. "I' ~ .\ '1C.: g' '1<11'~<11'5'o."l'o."I' I\fD.b ~I Ilfo."l'o.j<11'~"l~' Ji' ~"ll a. d J. '~"l'~c.'il The cat was killed by a tiger." '1"l~'''I''l' '~f ~<l)' q':i.J' 4"l'<.>I'~"l'q"l'. Choephel painted the drawing.jfll'~"l~' .~'i'ai'il t:.. 'If >lj<l)' .'il ~'~iJ. <:J .. I will give this book to Senge. ~'~' Ji<l)1 r.'il «r~.\ QC.E. JiJe.1. t.R ' 'D. "l'~"l'5' ~~<l)' 4"l'~"l''lj!l'lj''l' 4"l' "q'~"l'Qj<l).' ~'=-'{1r~' t<'l'l"J'=-'~'~'~' 4'" "l""5. noise. D."" ~'i'~' Uj<l)1 ~'1'o.·A\~"f ~<l)'q' '1"lClJ'"l':i. through.94. Apply (your) body with some oil.' ~c.' Ul<l)1 I:..'!li"l' '1~<l)S ~'il >li<l)' ~'~"l'<.)j QfF''=-' aF 5.I' i/.. ~ih"" V"~f. W'!lQ':'l"l'~"l' QSI:.I' ~. Owing to his crime.~'iilQj"l' '14"\'~"l:Q"l' q' :<'' \1 iil'~'D. '''i''l' Q~<l) S ~ ~ 4C. ~'o.

j'''I')c:.·1 '''I"ic:. Thereupon they saw a city" The friend fell off the horse.' <J' QQ. 4. ijjc.'1 ijj"l~' ." . Wool comes from sheep.~'5"S"~"i' L.~. As independent particles !:!'\'.>.' Iil' J.g "I~' L. Smoke arises from fire" fire.I·"I.I' ~') ~"I'"i"l'Qfll' ~c:.. Q~'Jlj.' I' IiI'J. '.'-'-'.Jl·!ll~"1· Q·(.I" ~QI ~. fear She fetches wood to lit fire..'1 ~c.l1 ~"I~' 'Jj~'~' '1. monastery I put a fence on the land. ~c:.J.Qc:.' Q~<'5:1 c:.I§"I~I . I r go to the monaStery to practice Dharma. through.r.jj~' j. It takes five minutes from town to the momnastery. ~.c:. on' "i~' nJ~' on" account of because of. I r give to the poor.' J.I.' J.'I ~'''SnJ' L.I. ~'''S!ll' L. donkey" I r could not come because of tha t.Jl·~"Ii~ ~·(.I''5i"i' .:z.:z.'1'. The case sign of this case is same as with the accusative case.l1 ~·"I..j'~Q'Z'IiI' J.lE:..~'5"S"~"i' L.lW ~"i.·el.r. ik· S'!ll"l''')" J.- .h.:z. ~ .c.:z.:z. The ablative case signs "i"f !ll"l' can be rendered to from.I' ~'\I (.L. (I) make offerings to the Buddha.lE.'"i ~'''~"i' qr..~ ABLATIVE - Ablative expresses the source or direction from what place.95.:z. L..J. "i~"~C.~'~' a.J. 'e:...)c:.I·~rrl .'~"I' J. 4..' Q~"i' 4~' 9<'5>:1 :' "I1'l"i' ~"i '1' "~' Q' Q~~.Q.~<'>:1 c:. Did you dedicate the merit for the benefit of others..."lA'mQ 'Jj~f~' 'l.£~' DATIVE t.jW ~"i' L.J.j"ASflll ~~"!ll' J.:z.~I c:.' J.. through and amidst.'<5"i particles can be used after all suffixes and vowel endings" endings.a Examples ~.·~"I· J.96.:z. ~'~~'~'I'l!ll""i "I.l1 "I1'\"i' ~"i ..J. The teachings came from the Buddha's mouth.~f·e:1 ". He gave an advice to his (spiritual) son.J.' F~'.J.'."J.§.J. ~ r:l. One shoud know how to associate a teacher.\I ..-.:z.".'I ~ ~ ~"'. case."' "WQ~"i'"i~"iiic.95 ~~~ .I'~rrl ijjc:.'''Qc:."'" E"'£ . harm or benefit of an action to the object or to an indirect object whether the subject is mentioned or not.• ".Jl'~"Ii~~'A~I F~·..t'r1'A ~AJ. or for the sake of the action itself.h7"nJ~'2!.:z.· L.:z. It mainly intaI1?itive verbs.':'"' !il?'"' 4.- I' "- Dative expresses the purpose of an action either ~ith transitive or inta!1?itive verbs.·1'IiI' J.·1·1il· J.'1 ~"I""i"l'Qfll" ~C.fll"1·(.J. the purpose for which an action is performed."ruQ·"I"iC.... '" "i~'~c:.~'~~'~'l'\nJ'"i~'. One remembers the Guru to protect from fear.lJ..~' ~c."l(.J.".J.J'+ ~(' 4. 4.:z.' q" QQ'L.i. It is 15 miles from here. . expresses the purpose..'"i "I. Q~~' ~J.'A ~<'5:1 c:.jj~·j. '1::.'. city.l'nJ~·a. Will you go to India to see the teacher.I.I. A~'"i~'J.I"ASflll (.c.:z. However it need not to be benefit to the object alone since the purpose of performing an action may either be intended to benefit or harm the subject.I..Jl'nJ~'1'Q'(. ~J.'<5"i these two !:l. '~c:.·Q~<'>:1 ..:z.)"!ll"l·2!..'"Qc.J.r.:z.96 QSc:.j·(.I'J.I' J.~'"i~'J."J.I'':i"i1 Ag L.£~. ~(.jc:.:z.j' ~.".:z. time or object anything happens or proceeds. liP.j' ~"i "IJiJ.."~"i' <Jr.:z.:z.SC::~c:.95 ~~~'. "IJiJ. land. horse" Rain comes from the sky.c:..§.~c:.~.j'AQ......a Examples '<C. amongst.·el.l'!ll~'a.'~"I~' ~'''Iiii''l'~1 c:.~' ~~W J."1 ~c:.'. 8''!-8''!-' . L..I:i:jc:." ~'ll!.·(.L..:z.iij' Q~·~·iii. Therefore dative denotes the person or thing for whom or which the object of an action is intended.I:i:jc.~"~" a.j.'~"I~' ~'''Iiii''l'~1 He waters the flower.l1 ~'''I.I'iij' Q~'~'iii". object.·1·4c:.I·~Q·Z·Iil· J.. L.I"~QI "WQ~"i·"i~'iiic:.\'.·S·nJ~''7' /'f'" /i' ! ..~f'e:1 . Horse is faster than donkey.

. q q 'Il III (and all vowel endings) "\ 'Il III D- "'" Ol .·[Q~·L.' JliJ..\1 k[Q~ '~'~'~"I'Il'~'i!!' J:i"l"'I" q·cJi'\l qtll·~Ol·~Ol· <1iJ.j"l'll'~'''''J. ~'''I"".'.' ~.expresses comparison. ~ lIl·r.JJ Ablative also expresses time after which anything takes place and reason.!'5~'2J"I"l' tl' ~.g.\S (cases marked by i).'. :".>. -_.l·~"il r..Qt1..--. Where is the key for the shop's lock? It is the will of the Nepalese king's mother..>.I.·f'l~·L.\I '. L. The genitive particle is put between the possessor and the possessed. or where it is placed. "\ 0\ "i J.'§j"l'll''.97 (:l. "I ~ .l1 ~ 4. ~ S 5 Uj eli ---- i .~ Genitive is quasi-adjectival.>.>.·~"I·r. His hat is made of lamb skin.\I ~ ~ ·s· She is my daughter's girl friend.'~'i'i'r.j'~ GENITIVE (:l..· 8' Jl'~'i'i'r. .Qnr~ ~.~·.\I !'i'eli'G'jJ'~'12f5iJ.\I 4. ~~.~' i'i"\'~'J:i'~"I'~'~'''I' ~.J. since it expresses the connectedness of the possessed and possessor...a Examples r.>..·~J.· '3' '.~J.·&r. .·2J"I"l' l·r ~'\I fi'ti:l'G' jJ'~'12..liJ. at. anything takes place.'~' .. ip.. 4~·~"I·~·r.Q{1..' "15cr~' ~O\' tl'ti:lO\I This is the price of Yangchen's ring.lIl· iI""i '~'~"".·r.."~' ~"I'Ul"l' -9l1l' ~'\I -9'1l' ~.<>l"l' ~.l· ~.g.Qtll·~ r.l'~"I'"i~"i~'''\' nJ"I'iij He returned home after six days.·~J.\·L.·d'>. r. ~'~"IlIl'~'i!!' 51"1"'1'q'''i.98 tljil) ~rZlj~ Zlji!) ~rtlj~ Locative shares the same case signs with dative.iJ.· ~'\I '. rendered by on.' Cl"~'~"i' L.' J. The Indian merchant's goods are the best.·q = 4t.>.\"1 q'.liJ. e.~"1 r. the noun or pronoun to which the sign indicate the location.J. It may generally be expressed in English by the preposition 'of or apostrophe..>.>..\I kf'lt.k..'\"1 ~'''I"". The 1l:l·!liO\·:)ta.~. ~ 4. The ablative vn. by and upon.·§j"llll·'. They always follow.l'S'I"IOl' ..t. Locatives denotes the locality of the agent or object of an action.~ ~'Il'r.. location.J.~. the time or occassion when or the circumstances under which. where it happened.l r.>. q·:l"llll·~·"-·J..lW%'\" tl' ~'\I t.>.~.:.·~"I'e"q may be dropped in the process of nominal compounds i.>. . ~'.la.l"S·I1Ol· &<>l"l' ~'\I qtlj'~Ol'~Ol' <liJ. ~'J.\ <lO\'~' &~. The tip of the cow's tail is sharp..iJ.l·. Genitive in Tibetan refer to the possessor and to the thing possessed.·q Fruit juice.liJ.'S' &1:. d'>.rtlj"r nl"l'iij ~ ~ !'i~·~·"I~·iijt.>.~ "I Ul~·r. ring.\1 His dzi (stone) is more expensive than my house.lw%. Either of the five genitive case signs 4~'~"I'~'e'q 41:.\I r. e.91.\:lt. The difference between the two is that an additionallll which is added to the instrumental as we saw additional 'Il above.iJ.l·tll"l· d'>. But they are not prepositions to the noun or no! pronoun as in English.- This is a Tibetan man's pen.-.tliJ.' '. sharp.l'~"I"O\~O\~'''\' ~'J.~'i'i"\'~'J:i'~"I'~'~'''I'~"\I .~"1 Ul~·r.J. Either of the seven case signs ~ :3 "'" 5 "i (1j 1 can be 0\ fll to. Locative denotes the place or location where an action occurs or is directed to.\~~ 'Il'''O\ ~"". the place where or near which anything is.la.>..\<1"i'S' J.>..r. among.e. fi~·~·"I~·iijl:.\s case signs of genitive and instrumental are known as !l:i·!li"i·S·J\J..'~'~'J. into.'~iJ. The swan egg was found at the sea shore.l·.

.A .1"1 is.>." Q' l' r::. Tibetans became exposed to the Euopean calendar.q for loc.>. We (I) took a rest near by the forest. '~'r>1llj'!.I etc.q for the first Tibetan month and ~'ci!'"r::.ative ~'cij'"r::.. 4.\"1 '!." r::..I' qZ\lJ.\"1 ~"I'?'(fl' ['Ir::. Hence the case sign for.2"1'~r>1''S' il)r::. '~'(ll"l'qr..' 'S"i/.I'iii".."ir::.. ..~"1 uK'r:<~"I uK'r:<~"I "I3jZ\l'''I~ "I"iZ\l'''I~ i "I r::.~"I ~Z\rro..'q.I x iI)"I' q Magha Phalguna PhalgulIa Caitra Vaisakha <1'1'cij'"r::.l~'~'r..>.j-li'ci!'Q" (in Magha). the month. w~' ql'i"'(:). There are Buddhist monasteries in Bhutan.f<f . (and all vowel endings) " ~ " 4.D UA. Q' :<''\1 I" is.>.'q''''''1 came with me from Lhasa.t.\I is'\'''I~~r~i/.~ "Jl''f:lj'''5wr. "i r::.>. Z\l r.j~i/.99 ~'itlq~ .~ ~ ~ (:). For instance when mentioning date it takes ~ilj after the ~iI) date. I " ~ Z\l ~ ~. 5"1 f!jJ. ~..\' ci!'"r::. Location of time is not always iI-I-li'cij'Q" (iii expressed with the above case signs.J V /'- ~ Z\l'(:).fU/Z\l' "i "IZ\l' "I~ Q' ~' r.'Q'''"''1 This Amdowa (man) (fl'Jl~'~'r..2"1'~(ll'5' iljr::. but since the ci!'Q'"r::. 'qr. We two met in Samye.q x "I~Z\l'Q "I~Z\l'!.t.'I!f'wil)Z\l'iiir::.>.' [!jJ..' -li' ~r. Do not go to the garrison."1 ~ ~ """I "'' I You two went to the market.r<f.I' Ul"iI .I Q~'q x Q~'!.\iij"i 'q' iI-Ir::. period or duration when a action takes place.names of the month instead of the ordinals then the case sign is ci!'. If one were to use the tes.I'i/. e.<J-li'ci!'Q . Lhodrak. '(ll'l~f ql'i"'ro. "9i1)'q'iii".<1' x "ei' iljllj'!.'S"I fir::.t'o:"IW -9"1' ~rr.t'o: "Iw 4"1's'r.I' ~'\I S3j'q' ~.Ir.'!."i/.'"9ilj'!.\' i'i..'I!fZ\l'ilj"l'iiir::.<J'!. suffixed to cij'q.>.1 5 ~ ~ ~I ~ ~."r::. 'qr.~'r::.>. and cardinals for other notions of time.rU/Z\l' ~'r.r>1' Q~Z\l'!.<J-li'cij'Q . In order to use the locative of time case signs some notion of time in Tibetan will prove useful.<. Who is staying at home? There was no water in the well.r'\·iI-I~iI-I·5. (ll' Q~Z\l'q' Ul3j ii' ~"I'')'(lr ~r.'!.q for January.'.. Not long ago the twelve months were simply called cij'q'"r::.'q' ~"'!. q Q '\ 3j "i '\ i/.jr::.I x "I~.. There were many nunneries in Lhodrak.q ei'1'ci!'"r::. I" Locative of time denotes the time.r.\I ro.t.j'r>1' r::..a NAMES OF THE 12 LUNAR MONTHS Tibetan Sanskrit COJloquial Translation . .~'r::.hnical ..<J'q "I~.'Q etc... 5"1 Locative also expresses 'with'..98.g.I Ist Tibetan month 2nd 3rd 4rth x x x .a Examples is'\'''I~Z\l'~iI-I'(ll' S"i'!.'!...j iI-I 1 '.. There is paper under your hand. Tibetan lunar calendar has a technical name for each month which are only used in literary works but most commoners identify the twelve months in their ordinals.>. '''I~Z\l' QZ\lJ.Ii'>.A Trot>( u.r. - 4. the loe.>.!"r..ative of time is suffixed to the ordinals of month and hour. it has been prefixed and abbreviated into i'l.r'\'i/.>. thus it will be i/.j'5. '-I" ~.'q. I" "l'llj Z\l'''I x . It takes all the case signs of locative.99.>..q cij'"r::.q. <lri/..t'.I''f:ll.' "r::.Ir.

sunTise six..'21.r~c:.J'''Ic:.'<1 "1~'''I~''I' x <l~'''I~''I' <I "1.' Saturday ~.'<I <l'Sa.'~"1 x <>1~ J. ~'~il) day after tomorrow tomorrow next Year . May.<>1 '\f ~"i x I§:...\-.."o.. ~a.'je:. 7th.':l~·'::l"'·S "I-'"~''::l'''''S Tuesday '\I "1-.\c:.' 3. anger and adoration which are commonly used with the nominative.I' 4"'" i)e:.' <I x "1~"i'<I <l~"i'<I 5th 6th 7th 8th 9th 10th X X x X 1§. ~'J.'a... lamentation.' a.b Examples jilt::.I>\l'I§..'ii:le:. 4.~a. hour i)'"-e:.' a.. .JE.':l~' ."o. "\il)J.99...'~a.·'jc:..J '\.l''\Ie:.\-.J "I-'"~'~' <>1 la' "1'<>1."~'t.J'''' .J. used in Tibetan to express joy. "I. They are independent of their preceding finals verse.'''1 full moon ~a:..I'''Ie:.':lr:>.'.. afternoon ~il)'~ <>1a.·c 1a·<l·'?·"Ic:... .>\l'<l'Sil)'<I""''je:.'a. surprise.<.il)' J."~ '1!.'\I' ~ il) "Iil)c:... new moon waning moon "i9.'i:i" daytime '\Ie:.' <l"i' a.\'~' Oq.il)''''je:.''\It::.1)"I'''. J.·j'I "9""'j'l summer .':l~'~' J.''!i''\' <I ..- c:..'Ill"l't. "il)'ClJ"I"l'~' 1a''1'. '\' "'c:...r"l~'\I'<I' <l~'''I~~'<I' X la' "1'Ul"::c Ia' <l'Ul"::c waxing moon "i~"i'''1 "i~"'''1 spring "I.'<1 "I.J~ ~"1' ~ClJ' Bhadra Asauja Kartika Mrgasrah x "i5'<1 x x x <l.lE..~ ~'~ ii'.\'~' ~ Vocative Case is grammatically counted as the eighth case.'Qj'j'Il"'" J."11 jiic:.J' "9"'" Q' :i:"il These days the sUllTise at six."i midday .t:.l "I.'~a. month. They are generally put at the beginning of a sentence but in poetry nominative.' J.'iija.1)"I'''iJ. .' ...>\l' <l~' '4<l"r~' Honourable teacher will come on the 18th of May.-· ~. a..'Ill"l' Q Wednesday Sunday "I.'<Ii>:a.I Jij"'" J..>\l·"l'Sil)·<I .·<l 1a'''1''?'''Ie:.' ~ x "1.'la' "1 'P~'Ia'<l Monday "1-. 4."0.'''l''i1 We have a holiday on the Tibetan 7th..':lr:>.J .·ii:!c:.il)'''i'jc:.'~ morning ~"i dusk ~'a. "l autumn "I.J J. ~a. There are number of vocatives case. '1!. dawn Thursday Friday ~a.ClJI They met in Lhokha in Bhadra month.-- . "lc:. midnight night minutes ~c:.'i:i"i '\Ie:..'~c:..<:C 1a·<l·J.~ "i'jil)'j'l "i'jil)'j'I winter r.'''i'jc:.Ja.'<1 x ~"I'<I x "1'Sa.J"" "Iil)J..J>\l'~"i' Ia' <l""' J."i''!i''l' <I""'~'J.~'i:i"i year after next "Iil)e:. ~ .il)' ~ Jij. they are put also at the end of a line or a verse.·"l"il e:.>\l' "1~' <l~"i'~il)' '4<l"l'~' :i:"il "il)'''1''1''r~' 1a·' ' <Ii>: a.' if.100 Oq.\-'"0. today "Iil)e:.<>1>\l'~"i' la' "1". <>1a.'.' x ~'~"i x ~'''1~il) ~'<l~il) "i~''j x x Jyestha Asada Shravana x '1'.' ja.Ja.':l~·t..J>\l'~J.'\I'i:i"i "Iil)c:.

\' Loc.>.' ~I { / ~ r/~ I.sa:.~' I:.>.~' .I"l1 Q~(1j'5"'r l...\"l' 6"i'''\''l' 6'\'.. listenhere. Dat.'llj' F!:.a Examples' "l'iij''l\''i''\'~'l\'~'l\~'Q''\''l "l'iij''l\''i''\'~'l\'~'l\~'Q'''i''l .:i\ "" ~~'''i'l\a''\ l. J:-.. Alas! Yogis and Yoginis.'llj"l' F!:.and their use is determined by the context of a sentence.: .: l.(1j'r.n: c::. -. "... Nom.' FI:.' ~'\'~'l\' 3./ / "".. .\'. Accus.· <l\"I' FI:.\:r.' -..~ \ . Oh! Master please think of me. 1:.sa:. '.\'.(1j·r.J. ' ~.' ~"i'~'l\' 3....W FI:..1\ -.. b ~ y! .§. 5' Jl'~'l\' Q~(1j'5"'l' Jl.j'Jl'~ ''. Gen.. I!:.J._. .>. 6.. 5 'I I.: "'.'lij"l' Fl:. 'L~ " J?' ...~'4''f::J1 J.'(1j ' !:.'S'l./lnstr.. 'c Abl.J:. ~. '~.100.'(1j I 6"i'(lj' 6'\'(1j' 6"i'~' 6'\'~' i). b... ~i)''\'l\a'''il. H I..~L.~' ~'a:.'. H 1.-. 0'~' 1<)7J(".W FI:.iij lJ1'iij hey ".·lij' FI:..W F!:.j(1j'Uia:..I"l1 Alas! Sentient beings of six realms who are inflicted by the sufferings! lJ1'iij £Q"l'..// C .j'Jl'~ i<i'Jl'~ wondrous! 4..l'Q"i'l\'(1j'''i'l\!:..'<Ii~' F~'''\' '1' '7" i)"Clf '1'flf i)"l' "7"l' ...".J- .§""'S·Q'. ..J:.J:. please enjoy the glory and quality of bliss and joy 1 PERSONAL Case Nom.jO: :<'''l~'~'l\'lij' .<>\ ~.J1 /..-L.' 1:.. Dat.' 3.~' '.' F!:...I'l\"\'l. J:-. !:. i / \.' "7"'" i)a' "70-' i)' <l\"l' '1' <Ii ")'''\' i)'''\' c::.. and are used to express spriritual joy and devotion and they usually begin number of devotinal prayers.' I:..L- Accus. me..-. j .'(1j'(1j ". 5'Jl Alas lJ1. J."" v.I'l\"\'l.j'Q'\'l\'(1j''\'l\I:...-J' / .lO: :<'''l~'~'l\'llj' ~Jl"l' . ...W F!:. Erg....n: ~'a:.\1 "'.-_' '..~ ""(1rrlr~ ""(1r(1j'~ ""~ i<i'Jl'~ i§.'3. .\Q"\1 Hey! Master grooml £Q"'f"iQ.l(1j'a:ia:. i /./.• '" '0. PRONOUNS Third Noun First Second !:.: >. I '. .."" . J! c .~'4''f::l1 Hey! Freinds listenhere."'I 6'\' 6'\"(11" 6\(11' 6"i'~"l' 6'\'~"l' F!:.i.'(Jj'(1j wondrous! Oh i§..'.~I \.I'iij 'liij 'I 1... 0'~' i<" ~.

'ii.0 'i<:...: / I' "'" -:..... .0- ~{L-D ':iLD 1...j (.']i.0" '::".PART TWO :.- A TEXT BOOK OF THE TIBETAN LANGUAGE· -i'f. i 'V" "'" ~.j t<:.·S.l... '.i ..'..!.'. -..•. :. -~"'. -~--. l<::". q~'~~'~F~r~ql q~'~~'~F~r~ql 'V"...\.. .....'.!l 1.1. 'i%.: 0'.-' (. GW I' ."".~.

.q' ~'Q' (Gang-ri) (Ngang-pa) hide boat \~~:.ll "c:. . "l' r:.i' "ir:.e:.sr tsr things big ten (Chern-po) (Chu) (Chao) (Choo) (Ja) ~"...' ilj'e:." egg I ~'r:.i' ~''-I' Translit..' r:..' ~ ~..r eb ill' ~jI.q' "I'Q' ~'<.q"l'..q' S'Q' (silver)'\S"l' money (silver)"iS nr '1[ e:.vv ...o: r:.~".r:.4' .'.fo'- we my our to cry five byrne r:.g.:.' e:. ka-ba Pronunciation (Ka-wa) (Kha-wa) kha-ba ga-ba sgapa rkang-pa khang-pa gangs-n ngangpa ko-ba kho go-ba bgoba go-nga sgo-nga nga nga-tsho nga'i nga-tsho'i " ngu-ba dngul lnga ngas ca-Iag chen-po chell-po bcu chu JQ 1. r:.''-I' flr:.:&0: S'.o: d'.i' I'lr:.' ~'e:. "f .'(1j"l' .r .i.' r:.''-I' ~'.c~-· 1. ~ "c:.'!l' e:.q' I'l" cr "I'.' r:. "f:i: "l':i.1 Consonant Drill ~"" ~- Engish pillar snow where Ghapa leg Tibetan "I'..'''l''l' J..-- LESSSON ONE ~j1.i'.<!i'q' ." A TEXT BOOK OF THE TIBETAN LANGUAGE q~Y~~YdjqY~ql q~Y~~YdjqY~ql -v' -v' -v' ''""" """ .'g.t.q' Q"I'Q' ilj'r:.'<.[.-f.qil' Qil' i§' iii' ~..( \~}~ (Ko-wa) (kho) (Gocwa) (Go-wa) (Gho-wa) (Go-nga) (Gho-nga) (Nga) (Nga-tsho) (Ngay) (Nga-tshoy) (Ngu-wa) (Ngoo) (Ngaa) (Ngay) (Cha-Ia) (Cha-la) 1 he to hear to divide collar F' OJ'l!Or OJ' .: <..iit' .r cb f: B: '-. ~ 1. "ir:..c~-' (Ga-wa) (Gha-pa) (Kang-pa) (Khang-pa) I' ~..q' "r"!" I'l'.'<.' water lea tea 0'f ~r eo' ~. "Ie:.' fb.''-I' house ~- mountain goose .

J' ~ ..j'Ji' ..i 'OJ J.\.cr~"I~f <r~"I~' nrQ anrQ' Q~' blaze r.pa) (Nye-wo) (Nyet-pa) (fa) (Tho) (Dom) (Dhom) (Da-13) (Da-ta) (Dhaah) (Du-wa) (Thu-wa) (Na~tsha) (Na-tsha) ~'q' t.q.\' 5'<1' 8'. (Va-mo) (Wang) (Ook) (Yook-pa) (Mi-mang) (Mi-lam) "l<!ir:<w "lOir..j' ..a.j'[lJ"l' "l'OJ"l' diamond bubble vixen power breath stick crowd dream ~'<I' ~'<r r:<. '1...' "\'a.01 rainbow sun old near to find horse list bear armspan arms pan now arrow smoke to fetch pain ink last year bride when woolen father parent ru.j'S· father & son "l'S' r..' .cr'r r..\Qc: '\S"l~' '\S"l"f "~"l'. ~"I'a.\" "l' "'ll{ "'Il{ y "l"r:<' "l"r.o: ~'''l' ~'::(r I Ja' nYl-rna rnying-pa nye-ba nye-bo rnyed-pa rta (Jaah) (Nyima) (Nying.\<le: .cr 8'<r iI)' a.'Q t"'Q • '1' Ii' li' ~"l' tha tho dam 'dam da-ita da-Ita mda'a du-ba thu-ba na-tsha snag-tsha na-nmg r:<""l' r.j' "l' 'r"l' grand-father ii'q' grand-mother ~'ij' S' son (boy) daughter cow frog calf to ~JciJ' ~J~' .o: rJ.Cj.f'.l' Ji' IJ." ll!"I.~t:: (Naak-tsha) (Na-ning) (Naa-ma) (Narn) (Naam-bu) (Pa-pha) (Pha-rna) (Po-wo) (Mo-mo) (Bu) (Bu-mo) (BHhuk) (Ba-chuk) (Bay-pa) (Beu) (Bhar-wa) (Pha-wu) (pha-lam) (Boo-wa) .\.pa) .cr "~"l'<J' "l'"le: "l' ''It:: J.' '.q .(Nying. r..j'[lJJ..Cj.J" J.~t:: iI)..\w iI)"l: "\"l: ~"l'S' mna'-ma nam snam-bu pa-pha pha-rna spa-ba spo-ba sma-sma smo-sma bu bu-ma bu-mo ba-phyugs sbal-pa be'u 'bar-ba pha-bu phalam lbu-ba /bu-ba va-ma va-mo dbang dbugs dbyug-pa ml-mang rmi-lam <J'r..

:. /.'ii . q"l~'q' "I~~'q' "I~~'q' lj'.• ij.·t.!f <r "!~F'!r<r q.0:.' fortress to eat ... i..'Ojw a.. (Shu-wa) (Zo) (So) (Zo-wa) (So-wa) (la) (Lhaa) (Loong) (Loo) (Laa-ma) (La-rna) (La-ma) cat to die ~.'ii "..". I'-'>'i.<=r q "'1''1'' deer ~~'"-' field ~q:r ~ fruit "..' ~'Ji' .62 to plough visualization root all ".j~":r q"l~":r ~ ~:.·t.<)"! ~r<r ..:' ~'q' ~~i.)'1"'1' 4''1' trii'"' tr.j).J· OJ'ill' klu bla-nw bla-ma lo-rna teacher leaf -h:t '--.~'i<j' a.r rmo-ba dmigs-pa rtsa-ba tshang-rna rtsod-pa tshad-pa tsi-tsi tsha-lo-rna rdza-nw rdza-ma rdzong mba zaba 'dzer bzungba gsungspa bzangpo gsangba zhva-mo sha-ba zhing-kha shing-tog zhi-rni shi-ba zho sho gzhanpa gshanpa zhuba shuba zo so zo-ba so-ba la fa (Mowa) (Mik-pa) (Tsa-wa) (Tshang-ma) (Tsot-pa) (Tshe-pa) (Tsi-tsi) (Tsha-lo-ma) (Dza-ma) (Dzong) (Za-wa) (Dzer) (Zoong-wa) (Soong-pa) (Zang-po) (Sang-wa) (Zhaa-mo) (Sha-wa) (Zhing-kha) (Zhing -kha) . "<:F'1"1' ':F')"!' (Shing-to) (Zhi-mi) (Shi-wa) (Zho) (Show) (Zhen-pa) (Shen-pa) (Zhu-wa) . 4' .. ~['<.· deity (god) handle serpent lha lung r..j~' d.q " .r a.<)"1 ~r<.~7f..:i" - yogurt dice others butcher to request c.i. ill' IJ i<j' i<J' Oi·i/.!C'ji!i'<r "Ifijili'<r "I"<W'l" "I'1i!i"'r C'j' qfij' ~ 1f..."r a..-'. '" .j~.~'i<J' dispute heat ~[. ~...j'q' "l'q' ~~'>.'''1' Fi-.' q.'q- a.r i5'i\" i5'i5' a. !/"$...q. . . "I~~ .'Oiw rat orange earthen ware f!:' i<j' i<J' £(~. nail to hold to say (hon) good secret hat / \'4'i... or \Ii' Ili' ~. ~'j)' .' 1'\'.. r.~~ - ~ peel to p~l off eat (imp) tooth bucket spy pass (Mt) "'1''1' ~ r..' ~~".' "-.

.jj' rK ' fic' ~ s.."f ming tshab meaning "substitute noun". Instead of saying the girl (a noun).jj.· g. All case endings come after the pronoun. In the honorific form.(·rr <1.jj' personal pronoun of the third person singular (e. .a Personal Pronouns: Words which substitute for nouns refering to persons: Singular C' c· nga (l) (I) gus (1.2.f ha-yang a-long (Ha-yang) (A-long) (Ho-ma) (Ok-rna) 'a-rna 'o-rna og-ma Cfl"l' "r ~ 1.) kho (he) rno (she) khong (he.('~Q'~' Singular 'di'i kha rndog de'i spun rnched pha gi'i grib so ya gi'i gtsang po rna gi'i ( the colour of this) (his! her relative) (its shadow) (the river up there) (family of down there) "l·iljf. plural suffix tsho replaces gi for pronouns which have gi as their second syllable in the singular form. tsho which is added to the pronoun or to the noun when there is no pronoun.l~"I' "(:('~"i'<1. i." o:J.' Cfl'rk Cfl·rilc. it is A!tI1l'!!j' 'breI the Latin equavalent of gentive case.l~"I' A'I(:('F' J.) khyod tsho (you) khyed tsho (you) (han. Usually a pronoun comes after the subject of the sentence in Tibetan..lJ. Singular and plural are clearly distinguished by the klwng plural suffix.l' iljf. Only pronouns take the plural suffix tsho and nouns related to the pronouns do not have to be marked with plural suffixes.J' 'brei sgra (drel-dra) meaning "expression of connectedness". fic' khong is used for both genders.Q' A pronoun is a word that is used in place of a noun. In Tibetan it is called Jle. usually marked by the allowable possessive endings governed by the suffix of the pronoun.' "f.". f' kho and .. han. she) khyod (you) khyed (you) .:!.2 Pronouns a:..OJ b5 alluminium hook milk chin '? '''le. we may convey its identical meaning by susbtituting she (a personal pronoun). ATibetan pronoun does not shOw the gender of the noun it stands for except the exceptthe show fi' klw .(' ~"i' J. Pronouns show number.2.b Possessive pronouns Better known as A!j. ~c' !J' .) kho tsho (they) kho tsho (they) khong tsho (they) (han.~r g. !4'Qj(:('~Q'~' !4'iljf. person and take case endings. Cl'" Plural nga tsho (we) gus tsho (we) (han.· S.(·"I iKQ' "l'Qj(:('''I iKQ· <1. not after the noun except when there is no pronoun.l·Qj(:('~c· J. fi·g. rno respectively for he and she) in the non-honorific form. The pronoun.g.jj. pronoun.. Possessive pronouns like any other Tibetan possessive are case. f·g· f·g· fi·g· fd' fid' S\g· S"i"g· Cl.· Cl'" c·g· . 1.c Possessive Case Signs A'If.I1l'. However it appears that there are more flexibility in spoken Tibetan than the following chart of the classical grammatical rule would allow us: 1.' a:...(.' Cl.:!Z\f f' fi' ..) 1.2.lJ.

.e Demonstrative Pronouns..~.~'~~·iM.i. fa r.('£q~'!J ik~i'i.~..) (his!her hon. gi OJ' gi .>.<: fir:. ~ "I.>J-.~'~' r.(' "'Fr:.>.2.. sa "...' ra OJ'la "i·na OJ·ma ".('~' ~ClJ' iiir:.>.) it~i~:~"Iw ~~~·~'lJw r. nr la ~.b4 r::. fi· ~i'i. gyi .: ' r::.~ - . Words which substitute for nouns and also function to Demon~trative point out: Singular 'di (this) 'di ru (here) pha ru (there) de (that) ~.\' !' 'e~ 1.. ~' kyi ~.~·OJ'f / nga'imgo kho'i dpung pa mo'i rgyug shad khong gi sku dpar khyod kyi deb khyed kyi gsung Suffix Snffix (my head) (his ann) (her comb) (hislher photograph han.i-' (and vowel endings) 1..('r."\·fl"l (the weight of these) (remainder of those) (luggage of those) (thread of those up there) (parent of those down there) (our restaurant) (their vegetables) (their horse han.' ~f.. da q' ba ~'sa <!i'na OJ'ma :.) (your motor car) (your relatives han.· ~f.\'~'''I~F '.' 6. "I' ga .\·~·''I~F is.' nga I Post suffix OJ.' ~f. "i:F q fi~'''i:Fq Jii:\·§"1·4\ Ji~'§"1'4"i" (iir::..d Plural 'di tsho'i ljid khog de tsho'i lhag rna pha gi tsho'i ca lag ya gi tsho'i skud pa a· Ii 0: 'i iij.OJ.·~~·Jl·Fr::.~.. r.t. """ / >" .~.:3.Oj..cr ~. r. ~..i"i.fOJ' 0..Jl.>.r q.• .·<r 'Jrlif~~'~"'<r OJ·Oj·~f.c:r ~.>.".. r." is. OJ'f r:. r:..>]--.'.fOj' UfOj· UfOj' OJ·Oj· OJ'Oj' pha gi (that) ya gi (that up there) ma gi (that down there) ir. .. is') ~f.r "\ q..>. ~~·iM.T ~i'i...\·~·~.>.~' r.>. 'OJ'~.) 5 Genitive signs (iii:\..~.~.·Ji·:'l· fucT fu.~. ma gi tsha'i pha ma nga tsho'i za khang kho tsho'i sngo tskal khong tsko'i ckibs pa khyod tsho'i mokra khyed tsho'i sku mched r::..· r:. ~' de tsho (those) tsho <I.(·<I·Jl· OJ'Oj·~f.('Ji':'l' is.>.~.f~' i'f~· pha tsho (those) i I "IX OJ'~' "d· ya tsho (those up there) ma tsho (those down ~. '5'Oj"l' i5·Cll"l· / 'Jr"r~~·~.) hon.·£q~·!J .:.·~i'i. . <.c.(·~·OJ.) (your book) (your saying han."\·fi'lJ r. i:\::r i:i::r Plural r..i:\.". da ~ sa ~.~':3' ~''3' 'di tsho (these) ~.' 'a I ". r.2. is.fOj· ~~.' ~. ~ClJ· fl' ~f.~. iij' yl r.~.

c.'l' i§"'.'g.[ii.'q' ~c....· is.e.c. g.c.g. red (ray) "to be" represent is.c.e.'.c.~'q' q"1' q ' q"1'q' 4. 3.' .e.>..e.>.r:: l' is. ~.!:.3.c.r Translit. ~' :<. 4.e.>.' 1.~ He is that is She is They are 1.. .~.>.l":r 1.'q' ~c.'.c.>.'l' :<.>.".e dropped leaving the "to". . lessons. nann All An infinitive is a form of verb that may be used either as a noun or as a verb.>.c.'l' Plural nga rang tsho (ourselves) tsha gus rang tsho (ourselves) kho rang tsho (themsleves) kho rang tsho (themselves) khong rang tsho (themselves) khyod rang tsho (you) khyed rang tsho (you. 5.>.' ~'~' ::I~' .' e.r:.'l' ::I~' .r q~. $ 2. 1.>.' [ii'.3 Auxiliary verb Auxiliary verb assists the main verb of the sentence. she polite) khyod rang (yourself) khyad khyed{you. 2. 3. ~.>.' may. Red is mainly used in the 3rd person but is also used for second and third persons.' £. 1.£ Relative Pronouns Words which relate to. :<.c.. q'1r q ' q'1!'q' ~..:<-".g. pI) pi) .c.c: rang meaning "self" to other forms of pronouns. Thus ba and pa sometimes described as nominal particles can b.".>. 6".e..g.>.e verb stem in the process of forming different tenses.a.[ii'.a Examples F:<-".'q' p.>. .c.e. This is formed by adding .' .e..a Examples Tibetan .>.' ~. b.' ..' . Simple sentences with the auxiliary verb to be :<-". zaba blta ba sprodpa yongba yangba 'gro ba 'gra bshuba bgodpa Pronunciation za-va ta-va tro-pa yong-va dro-va shoe-va goe-pa English to eat to look to give to carne to go to copy to laugh . [iic. and substitute for.>:.:.\'q' ~.'..' ~.'£' I .-.:<-".c. is.c. ~':<'".' [iic. :<-'\' fiic. . [iie. 6.. .suffix: Singular nga rhng (myself) c..c.> 1. However ba and pa also occur as second syllables of disyllable nouns and adjectives as will be seen in the following lessons.' fc.g.>.. 7.. polite) khyed (you. are.2.>.>.>..'.4 The Infinitive . i§. fc.) 1.. q~.>.>...' .' e.. 4. 3.' gus rang (myself) kho rang (himslef) rno rang (herself) khang khong rang (he.' khored khared tiered de red IrW red khong tsho red tsha .a.' .>.[ii'... rang is added between the pronoun and plural.'.--...>. will and did in spoken Tibetan.' is. c... 2. :<.g. In the past tense they are retained in addition to whatever changes the verb stem has undergone.' [ii' .0.' .>.' .'.' nouns.'~' El'" -'.l"r .e.. In the plurals. previously mentioned . AIl spoken Tibetan infinitives end in t:rr ba (pronounced va) or q'pa which are the equivalent of the English infinitive 'O word "to".>. Verbs and auxiliary verbs come at the end of the sentence.4.

all four today yesterday weight remainder luggage thread horse (hon.~ •. 4.- 3. 5.>J.' . .a Examples Tibetan i'i. :il".~"i.J· ~~. PronunCiation 2.>l·{1ro. ~"I./ ~j i'i". 23.l1l. "611 ti..J.>l" I?!"f<>l" "·fll"l· ".. lil"· E.. r:\~. "I". £"I'll.'f . 18.J. Coming before another noun.E. r. <l~. 6.~.<l" smankhang men-khang debkhang dep-khang slob grva lob-clra lob-dra dgergan ge-ken sangnyin sang-nyin 'gro-ba nyima tshongpa zhingpa nya-ba mangpo tshangma bzhi de ring khaseng ljidkhog Uzagma calag skudpa chibspa mokra zakhang sngo tshal dro-wa nyi-rna tshong-pa zhing-pa nya-wa niang-po tshang-rna zhi de-ring kha-seng jee-coke lhak-ma Ihak-ma cha-luck cha-Iuck kue-pa chip-pa mo-tra za-khang ngo-tshay English hospital bookstore school teacher tomorrow togo sun businessman fanner farmer fishennan fisherman many . 22. ~.9·o1iol\· 'll~.>J·{1ro. <l"·lil"· ~Pl"l· !1Pl"l· ~ ~ ~.J.J.E. 10.~"~·Uj"i1 nga khrom la 'gro gi yin (I market to go will).) (han.~.>I~. lb. b. E. ~·~c: F·~~· "iM. 2. 11II.~·~·Uj"i1 which qualify other word or words always follow that which is being qualified. it qualifies it and fulfills the role of an adjective: 1. . the word i'i. 1Translit.E. 19. 'lI~. bodja bodmi bodskad rgya thug sogzhva boe-ja boe-mi boe-ke gya-took sog-zha English Tibetan tea A Tibetan I Tibetan language Chinese soup (Noodle) Mongolian hat jc.e:.>J~.".l1l "l" :il.·e:: i'i". o. object and verb (5-0-V).fll· V4i . ~·a. For example: (S-O-V).~.) motorcar restaurant vegetable / 13. bod is a noun meaning "Tibet". 8.>I. E.?q. 15.J" ~ \:2h¥ 17..J.>I" !b-.·F"l· iM. / ~"l.5 Word Order - The basic rule of the word order in Tibetan is subject. 20. I will go to the market.. ~<l./'l~ "·fl~· " ~. ~~.4' .\.~"i.."c' 1.-Q. Thus. 16. 21.5..a. -Q". Pronunciation ~: ~: . £q'll. 4.i>:'.?<l.4' O. 9.·F"I· I?!"f.~ ruq·~ . . 7.. ~" ~." i'i". Ji·~r ". .6 Vocabulary Tibetan ~oll·F~· ~ol\·F~· 1- Translit.66 1. 5. 14. ffi. Word or words ffi. ~·"r ik"E.7i' ~ ~q·F~· ~<l·F~· 3.. 2l.9·olioll· . 12.'~:. -Q~.

In either way the auxiliary verb comes last: l.· q.'q':""1 7. r.:·"I·"I"I"I'''''I'di tsho khong gi gyag red dhi tsho khong gi yaak re These are his Yaks.>:5l"l'''J.f..I. mother.·"I·"I"l"l'''''I'di 16.~'c.. "-!.~·t::.>:5l''l'''J. 19. ~"I·a.:i:\'(§l'.>..l'l' :""1 r.~'jfr. 5.l'l' dhi ngay ama re :<...'<r shaba zhingpa deer farmer 1.·"i's'gj':<'".r. ..i:\'(§l'. 25.i:\':<'''' 'di nga'i snag tsha 'dinga'i red naak tsha dhi ngay re This ink is mine.:'''I-'lr. 2. 13.I' :<'''1 9. 9.~'rk·ili'i5·0l"l':""1 L L .'a.ook re This is my cow.('lc..i:\'~·5l':""1 dhi ngay zhi mi re 'di nga'i zhi mi red This is my cat.r:>.. 6.>.....:i:\'~·5l·:""1 r:>. 26."..ri'ru'1'~Qr:""1 kho slob phrug red Is.~'c.~·r.>.j' J..l'l':<'''' de ngay 10 rna re de nga'i to ma red That is my leaf.) parent orange ink horse i6'~"J..\·z..~'t::. 4.~'t:.\·>ljt::.. 17-'" ~r...~·c.>.) relative (han.r:>.\'~'~"1 de ngay so re rkangpa 'di nga'i rkang pa red This is my leg.: :""1 17A'~r::..·<.'r:>.' q' :<.~·c.. 14.\·Ft::.f.: a. dhi ngay kang pa re 1O. lsKa. 'di nga'i rta red This is my horse.7 Examples There are two choices of sentence structure.l'/'lr::.."1 de ngay ko va re /co de nga'i ko ba red That is my boat...r:>..>.. \ 24. I de stho ngay sha va re Those are my deer.".~'t::.r~"I'\f:""1 dhi ngay ba cb.·r.:i:\·er:""1 r:>.f. 29.\' ~rJ.:i:\'flt::.. is.I' sku mched phama tsha loma STUlg.tsha rta kum-che pha-ma tsha-Io-ma nak-tsha tah sha-wa zhing-pa (han.j·''::<'''1 de ring zaah mi mar re de ring gza' mig dmarred dmar red Today is Tuesday.f..r..\'c.i:\·:""1 3..i:\'~"fi6':"'" 'di nga'i snag tsha red 1.".:i:\·~"fi6·:""1 dhi ngay naak tsha re This is my ink. .'c.a.. de nga'i so red That is my tooth..l'"i''1':i. zhi mi dhi ngay re zhi mi 'di nga'i red This cat is mine. 13."'Fr.-. 27.~'c..~·r.>..".:<r ~c.·<.pr 8.·a..f."'c.f..\d'~'.~'jfr:>. /chang de nga'i khang pa red de ngay khang pa re That is my house."'Fc. r.' a.!.r:>.'r.· Q'~'r. Iu..l·'1'~"I'1l·:<'''1'di nga'i ba phyugs red 6...j':""1 11..l·.:i:\'4'Q:""1 de tsho nga'i sha ba red 16.r:>.~'c.·flr.j" i6'~w ~"I'i6' <.ggage.r. ls....'a.~·r.l' :<''''khang pa de nga tsho'i red 20.~'rk'''i'i5'Ol''l':<'''' 14..~'r.j~.. :<.>.~·c.i:\·'7·:<'''1 dhi ngay ta re . 'di nga'i a rna red ma This is my mother. .l~..i:\· 4..' Q' ~"I 19.~'c:A"i''1' :<'''1 12..~·c..~'c."'t::.f.('lt::. de nga tsho'i khTUlg pa red 20.f. de nga tshoi khang pa re That house is our's. 12.~'t::.i:\' 4:1"'1' :<.:i:\·:""1 ~"I'a.l'~':<'".~·t::....~·r..·"I-'lr.".\' :""Ikhang khang pa de nga tshoi re That is our house.F'm'1'~"I':<'''1 kho lob took re He is (a) student. "d'~w:""1 .:·ili's'GJ':""1 . .. ~'J..>.>.' '7' 4''1' ~c:.f. de khong gi bu mo red de khong gi bu mo ie That is his daughter... 15K . de khong gi ca lag red dekhong gi cha lak re That is his luggage.r..· a.i:\'flc. 30.·flc.'r.\· '4' J.f. 8. 1O.f. one by prefixing the demonstrative pronoun to the subject and another by postpositioning the demonstrative pronoun to the subject. 28.

"I'1(:(·<. 'i!"I..."I'1(:(·<J·~!:.... J ...·c. . "I'1(:('~a:. tsa..·. "I'1Q'Jj"l' 'i..f -'1-<: ~ 10..>J~. dza 1. "·~· -(1...~ "I'1Q... 4·G·...c Translate the following into Tibetan and write in Roman characters and express: ~ H...... English Sunday Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday Planets (Sun) (Moon) (Mars) (Mercury) (Jupiter) (Venus) (Saturn) . That is a bookstore... Ji. khu ba rna . ra co 6.. :<."i· ~q""''''':<'a:. mdog deb .·Oi·J... 8... 1.8 Exercises of Lesson One 1.'-h: ..'...r 1. a rna su ....·Oi·.G· ..1' 5... sems rna ."I"r:l·S"·S· S .... tho..j' 2.. "I-'lQ'S"'S' 6...j' . This is my ink... ~.... go. 7.. These are four deers.....a Transliterate the following into Tibetan characters: nya. Those are our horses. !::..' 5..d Write down the correct possesive (genitive) case signs according to the above chart: 1.:..... khang pa .. 7... ~G .'<J' ~"""f!::.jr<r -1\'::-. "I'1(:('~a.!::. J.. 'a.. 6.' 1.j.b Seven days of the week in Tibetan correspond to the seven days of the week in English and are named after seven planets.... Pronunciation i:.... . .. The Seven Days of the Week Translit..lpags pa stag. i. S. ~....>J'" "I'1r:l'''J''I''iJ. 4. -il''... kha.·<.. This is my school.....<. ~"I' .. 6..8.. za......I' gza' nyima gza'zla ba gza' mig limar dmar gza'lhagpa gza' phur-bu gza'pa SOllgS gza' pa songs gza'spenpa zaah-nyi-ma zaah-da-wa zaah mig-mar zaah-Ihak-pa zaah-lhak-pa zaah-pur-bu zaah-pa-sung zaah-pem-pa 1. Today is Monday.~'J. lpags tsha 10 rna.b_~ 1. nga."r:>-:-.uu .'i- . pha. -'1-<.. ra.. 2j"l~<J.j.>J. 'l!"I. ca. (11J.. .:jJ.. va. ...·....8... mu.' 4..~ k ... ha.. "I'1r:>:...8.-~. 4.. 3... ya.·~· 4·q. "I'1r:l'~'J.:..'. ··.Il'l'Jf 7. 5. la...>J~"I.. The word for day "I-"r:>: gza' comes before the name of the day as "1-"(:>: the word gza' literally means 'planet'..I·~!::. sa..j~... rin .. 2j"l~<. He is a farmer... snag tsha.. .!:......e.. ka........'<J..... sha.zur sha ba ....rin rang . skra nga ..:. tsha. 3..... 2.mdog tsha ..·.~...j~"I..... q' 3....' ~..··ll'lW 8... ~"""f!:.. "1'1(:('21"1''1' "1'1(:('111"1'<.8. / 1. zur lam . I stag. - .....:..' tl1J....... &<1' 1. !:.&_~ tiger skin orange juice ink colour book price one's mind her hair my mother whose house road corner deer's horn 2. shu.. Those are his oranges.... S.I...1· 9 .:.

9.Ij«J"l. 29. 6.Ij«J"l." <I~"c::"lil"l" ngab-choo nga-ghoo drook-choo tham-pa drook-choo re-chik 1'!:<I~·r:. 60.J ~«J'~" ~""lil"l" ':1« <::::'0 <=.. I'!. 5I.""1~'.~ soom-choo so-ghoo ~«J"~"~SI zhib-choo tham-pa zhib-choo zhe-chik "1~" "1~' . ~ ..e Memorize the following cardinal numbers in Tibetan: No..SI ~"I""1~".Ij«J".../ 1. choo-ghoo nyee-shoe tham-pa nyee-shoe tsa-chik nyee-shoe tsa-ghoo soom-choo tham-pa soom-choo so·chik "10 "I~ ~""j' . 49.. Pronunciation ~ Spelling Transliteration I.« '-'-0 zhib-choo zhe-ghoo "1~""1~"~s:r ngab-choo tham-pa 1'!. 4l. "1~' ..J ~""j" ~""lil"l" "1« ':10 ':I~ ~""I'~"""l" ~ ~ ~«J'~' . 10 "1$'" « ~o "~r "1~' II. 30.. '<> rJJ J. 3I. <::::.8. 8. 50. ~~ ~« "1~'''Iil''l' "1~Sj" . 4. 59.. « '<>0 '<>P ngab-choo nga-chik I'!.0'.' ~"l' "15~' 7. 6I. 5.r ~"l" <l~" "'""Iil"l .Ij«J"l.J" "1~""1~"~""Iil"l" <=.Ij«J"l. 2. 40. chik nyee soom shi ngaa drook doon gyay ghoo choo choo-chik "lil"l' "l~~r "l~"r gag gnyls gsum bzhi lnga drug bdun brgyad dgu bcu bcugcig bcudgu nyi shu tham pa nyi shu rtsa gcig nyi shu rtsa dgu sum bcu thain pa sum bcu so gcig sum bcu so dgu bzhi bcu tham pa bzhi bcu zhe gcig bzhi bcu zhe dgu lnga bcu !ham pa lnga bcu nga gcig lnga bcu nga dgu drug bcu {ham pa drug bcu re gcig "I ~ 3. 19. 2I. 20.. 39...J' .

r 91.I1J. Go slowly. here.'r4~rQ~'ii)I5j~1 Q~'4~rQ~'ii)I\j~1 2...'1 7.~ }t~ ~"i~1 .J'<r ghoob-choo go-chik . Did you understand Please take a seat.1. See you tomorrow.\' Q~'" Qil' . ~~' J.J~ -tt.L1 ~c:.:>- /. slowly.\'qil'!r'\5' q~"i'qil'~''''j' .d\'Qil'iij'''5' gya-tham-pa Q~' t. 89.1"1~''.ij~' ~c:.~ gyay-choo tham-pa Q~..\'Qil'!'J"Ii5"1 gyay-choo gye-ghoo q~.~".1" 1"0 I"~ '\5'qil'IjJ. 'c:.1"1~''.j'''I3' 1' ...'~"i'"!E<OJ'Uilc:...r Qil'.11.jQ~1 ti. pJl" .d\'qil'~d\''''j· 79.' 3.J'<r I gyay-choo gye-chik' Q~"'Qil'~IJ"Ii5"1 Q~.:r doon-choo don-ghoo q'5.I1J.I. please sit here.-' . 8"1~'~'. 90. peace. ~~'~'q~"I~1 v ~ Slowly.J'JJE<OJ'cilc:.::''I~'''IiI)c:..J'r."i'qil'~"i'').I1"'r<J' q"id\' ." later.j' ghoob-choo tham-pa "'j'qil'IjJ.JE<OJ'c lc:. Stay in peace.\!qil'iij'''Ii5 ghoob-choo go-ghoo Q'5.'~d\'J. 9.>r"'E<OJ'Ulc:.. }~~.ij~' 5.'1 6. "I'iij' i.1" If ~ ~ doon-choo don-chik q'5.L1 2. slOWly.'1 ~~'..g. Qt.jQ~1 I.J'r. 80.1. /i /.. 81. 70...d\'Qil'~d\'''Ii5''1' q'5.~< ~"'. ~c:.I U ~ 69. ~ 'di ru bzhugs dhi-ru -shook dhi -ru ~3:i. 71.<#' 8. ~L::' Qt.!qil'i..'."i'Qil'~"i'''Ii5''1' q'5.. Transliteration Pronunciation English Hello! Thank you. 8"1~'~·.."i'Qil'iij''\5' Q'5.'J 5.1- 100. 99. Q~. (Z(Z ~oo -tt. "I'iij'Q~"I~1 8. '-'I" (lJ0 pJ~ drook-choo re-ghoo ~"I'qil':<'"')':r ~"I'qil-:':')~r doon-choo tham-pa drug bcu re dgu bdun bcu tham pa beu bdun bcu don gcig beu bdun bcu don dgu beu brgyad bcu !ham pa beu brgyad bcu gya gcig beu geig bgyad bcu gya dgu beu dgu bcu tham pa beu dgu beu go gcig geig dgu bdu go dgu brgya tham pa q"i"i' "I.j~ !h.9 Some Useful Expressions Tibetan ~. 1..<£-ti...:''I~·''I<Ilc:.. "I'iij'Q~"I~1 . ~I bkra shis bde legs thugs rje ehe sang nyin mjal yong rjes ma mjal yang shes song ngas bzhugs rags gnang galephebs gakbzhugs ga le ga Ie ta-shi de-Iek thook-jay-chay sung-nyee jay-yong jay ma jay-yong shay-song-ngay shook-ro-nang ga-lay-pheb ga-Iay-pheb ga~lay-shook ga-Iay-shook ga-Iay ga-Iay .').>r<r IjJ. Ij.J' <r 1.'1 4.0 . '"~ '-\_'._.~< ••. < . See you later.. "rii)'''I'iij'! 10.'.

g. .0::::- .~ 'Qj. ~S ras sras i- ~~. 'i.J ~.· UI"i' '6:&- ltos de ..~~f Cl....~.: by me He by him who by whom mcense look (imp) that by that seasame eye mind weight cotton prince action right (side) tent downhill groove this way snake money country trace body gold treasure [ii' fii~r fii~' 'll' ~..'_':r '..1 Vowel Drill Tibetan C>. "''ll' ~.:-. (Loa) (Say) (Tay) 'lj~ ...i: 2!'ll' 2i~' ijJ'll" iiJ~' 1<... ::!. ~ ~ .~r '~.# "l"l'll'.. 'lj~"" '?:!~...."'·' iI'....0:::: . '.. ~nr ." tlj~ ...'-~ ... <6.?~'J:.~..~~f t....?~' J:. ~'ll' 1l'~..... t.. English this by this I C>.t: g....! '?:!'ll' tlj~ .:" ~ .::'S ~ .i)"l" . 'lj .... g ..~'Qj. "l"l~' tlj.!I 2....1 ::J./ 1 f'· if.. des til mzg yid ljid (De) (Day) (Tee) (Meek) (Yee) (Ieet) (Jeet) (Ray) (Say) (Lay) (Yay) (Gu) (Thu) (Shu) (Tshu) (Doo) (Ngoo) (Yoo) . . ~ ~ Translit..31 k~ ~~ ~[1J' ~Ol' ''is[1J' "SOl' .: f.. ."" > • - LESSON TWO iljq' a:. t.l1 ct. ~'ll" Ol'll' [1J~' 0<'1 las gyas gur guT "'. Cl. "'ll' 1<"': ".~. ~ '!j[1J' '!jOl' ::![1J' ::JOl" thur shur ShUT tshur sbrul dngul yul shul Ius gsa gter :2 ~. (Shoo) ! I Elf- ..~ nga ngas kho khos su sus spos ~~.:. ~ ~.'i ~. c.il"l' UI. 'di 'dis Pronunciation (dhi) (dhee) (Nga) (Ngay) (Kho) (Khoe) (Su) (Sue) (poe) (Toe) .. <6 . ~ ~~..

E:. idea. that <I.". 2.that both adjective and noun share similar second syllables such as <I"pa. fl" r:>. Nouns also occur in disyllables and polysyllables as it is shown in a separate section containing list of simple... or activity. i:j" po.11" fire profit demon mixed jil. From the above examples..g. .~" r:>. <:1"'<1' Translit. 0.i':i.. The bOund morphemes are such as i5ili' and l1(ili'Q' iSOi· l1(Oi·q· morphemes_The bound which are never words by themselves and are always parts of other words..pa.-·cr ~'''I""cr 4_ 4. Nouns with two or more syllables can be of either bound or free morphemes. 7_ 7.E:". 6_ 6. 2. "lnr<l"lnr<l' ~".<:: tiger nest 6j..'<1' ~-.2 Nouns A noun refers to a name of a person.~~. tiger's nest 6j·~~·iSOi· 6j'~~'i5ili' intelligent four morphemes £"~'lrl1(ili'<I' intelligent £"~'ll·l1(Oi·<I· 'Ii"'. 'Ii"r 0.~'ll..i':i.. ~'<I' :>j~.11. boe-pa in-ji gya-gar-wa bay-po ke-gyur me-pa nyi-ma nga-<lro bhoe-pa khye-rang dro-wa drang-mo tshay-pa Ishay-pa dru-pa English Tibetan English Indian Nepalese Interpreter not to have sun moming to call yourself to go cold date boatman .. Tibetan nouns are prefixed to the adjectives. 10_ II. ~" drel 'dzer Ice me khe 'dre 'dres (Day) (Dzay) (ehe) (Che) (Me) (Khe) (Dre) (Dray) mule nail to~ue to~ue .. We have noticed from the words in the drills we have practised that Tibetan nouns are generally monosyllabic words which may be formed of one or more letters. 3_ 3.. 6j.<I. 8_ 8."l.I L ~nr r:>.~. . 14_ 14. They are called free morphemes. complex as well as derived noun stems (See Part One).11. 9_ 9. r:>. bodpa Pronunc.~. r:>." r:>."l~""~"'''l~''''' dhyinji rgyagarba halpo balpo skadsgyur medpa nyima sngadro 'bodpa khyedrang 'groba grangmo tshespa grupa 5_ 5. r:>.'cr 10. i:i.~'ll" 2. mo.o. .\ "90i-g"9ili' g' ~r". 6j"~~" intelligence three morphemes 'Ii"'.11.~.-<Ir:>.~. 12_ 12. W'r 6j. ~. Asingle syllable word may be composed of one Or more morphemes: or one morpheme two morphemes ''Ii"'.~'''l" ~..'<1. thing.. r:>.. concept.f ~'. we can see· that the morphemes 'Ii"l' and 6j' can constitute words by themselves.3 Vocabulary Tihetan I. :>Fg. 13_ 13.:.. It should be noted paris . 'Ii"r~'o. <:1.f '1(-g(. Unlike English.". ~"N .~.. ~"'''~" r:>. ~" rna and g. .. 6j" tiger mind 'Ii"'.~. place. 1. ~.g.-.:). adjectives.-<1.

girl colour mountairt dog name house q'Jj. 31. 43. 44.>J' ~Oj'i:i' ~Oj'ii' 35.. q' ll"l·q· . /~ /- to praise bstodpa toe-pa shing. where as by saying 'di khong gi red.>J~'l/ £ili·.rOj"l~' ~. It is mostly. 25. 17. did etc.. 30.>.'<J' qW.>J·q·'r . 26.. are. 22.j' qSJ)'!':j"l' qS'Y:J"I' q .) B"'£' ... Q"I~'<J' Q"I~'q' 16.73 15. q' . qOj'~Oj' >lj~'<J' >lj~'q' ~. boy daughter..ll"l'<J' rope ~'i.>. 40. ~' 27. £J)'. 37. 33.>J' ~r lam gyalpo che-chung drib-rna bu bu-mo I shadow son.>J'q"r. By saying 'di khong gi yin the person listening will feel /chong obliged to respond to the speaker if he has to..··r 4~·q~·q· 4~'q~'q' ~.·<ir:<''\' not a matter of being polite or impolite.. 28. nephew week photographer Nepal leg who road king SIze parpa balyul rkangpa su lam rgyalpo chechung gribma bu bumo ... 41.. OJ. / empty hot.. 24. kang-pa su postman to have 19.~'fiir.~'fii~·~·UjJ)' representing him so to speak. but does not Ulili' rnostly.· <J' Ui"._~.'i.~·jiir. 20.i'~F . Ui. ~' ~ father who su / 2.>.j' ~'q' "".4 The Auxiliary Verb tila..i·~F ~q'. 38...ri gangs-ri khyi mUlg mmg khangpa palags su kang"ri kang-ri khyi ming khang-pa pa-Iak is' Jj~' Ji~' p:l':.>J~'l/ "I~~r:<: "I~~r:<: mtshon mdag tshon-dok gangs. 18. For instance r. 3132. 42.>. 45.. will. q'Jj' ~ 39. It represents am. qW.' <J' fl'.' ym Ulili' Another important auxiliary verb is tila..' yin. he would nol feel /chong not . q <J.'<ir:<''\1 'di khong gi red although difference is sayingr. 36. It is not used for the third person. However yin can be used when the first person is speaking on behalf of a third person and r.used in the first person and present habitual and future tenses as shown below and is also used in the second person interrogatives. 29.~·jii~·~·Ujili' 'di khong gi yin meaning "this is from /chong himlher" is considered much nicer than sayingr..used indicate number... . 2l.'q' q'Oj"l~r .. 34. 21. • sbragspa yodpa thagpa drak-pa yoe-pa thag-pa nye-wo gong-dak de-pa khye-tsho tong-pa tsha-wo doon-trak par-wa bay-yoo. W~'q' W~'<J' "~~''\''1 W<J' nyebo dgongdag dadpa /chyed khyed tsho stongba tsha bo bdunphrag near evening faith you (pI.q.bzo ba shing-w-wa carpenter shingbzo tshem bu ba tshem-bu-wa tailor .

~'l·£::: la·Uj". 6"· -<J::. r:>. 4.·l·Uj9·i:j· :i. 9"l' gas etc..".. r:>. d'§'Q'Ulili' !9.'Q~·Q'Ulilil nga shing zo va yin 3.j['l"l." g'c.>J['l"l'(J':<S kho zhingpa red zhing pa nga nangpa ym nang pa khyod mkhas pa red denyimared 'di shing tog red 'di nga'i yin kho-zhing pa re nga-nang-pa nga-nang -pa yin khyo-khay-pa re de-nyi-ma re He is farmer. 2.· 4.t:... t:. 9"l· 2. r:>.~·l·~a·~"1 phi took gu I:!hi tsho sui re 6.a·Uj". !'it:.. c:i5.'9·:i. r:>."l".<J::.~·t:... Q"l' bas.·q·:i. These are tigers. q·:<S 19"i'..·"9".a·"i9"W:<'''i1 !'it:.'aF (J'''lili' 3. these are my children.b Examples of the use of red and yin auxiliary verbs in sentences: 1. !ll"l"l·~9·'j·r:>.4.. ~'l'. !'i.'l'Q"i'(J':<'''i' khong tsho tbod pa red nga tsho skyo bo yin khyod tsho yag po red de tsho rna he red 'di tsho stag red 'di tsho nga tsho'i yin khong-tsho bod-pa re They are Tibbetan.9·'ij"\":i.~...· 2. 3. You are learned.. obliged.'9':<'''i· 6.~·~r::.~·l·[:: la'Ulili' r:>. q"l.·~·"l.>J'£'Ulilil nga bo pay em chi yin nga bod pa'i em chi yin I am(a) Tibetan doctor.·q"ll dhi khyo kyI nyu ku re pay kyT .~·l·'i. d·§·i5·Uj". This is (from) me.. 'di khyod kyi smyu gu red pas Is this your pen? 2. nga-tsho-kyo-wo yin We are poor.~'~"i'~·~9'5·:<'''i'(J''l1 r:>.· ~'~w~"i' 5..~'l'~a'~"i1 ~9·5·r:>.".j·~·:i. (J' ~"i' !'i'~t:...·q"ll 6"i' . to the auxiliary verb yin or red Q~.~·~r::. !'it::l·i5.a Examples Singular 1.. phrug gu 'di tsho su'i red Whose children are these? lags phru gu 'di tsho nga'i red Yes.· r:>.·qa·Ifj. 2. t:.a·.74 obliged.' q.~·~"·~·~9·5· :i.·~9~"i' 6. ~9'5'r:>.·Q"i'(Ja·Ifj. c:~t:.~'l''i.·t:. This is fruit...>J'~':<'''i' 5. !9".·~9~"· r:>.· dhi-tsho-nga-tshoi-yin These are from us.. As will be discussed later interrogatives in spoken Tibetan are formed by adding (J"l' pas.q.t:. am(a) nga shing bzo ba yin I am (a) carpenter. r:>.j·£·Uj"'1 c.a·:<'''il 11l"l"l'~9"·r:>." g·t:.·t:.a· :i. That is Nyima.·Q~·Q·Ul"'1 c..4.~t:."1 laa took gu dhi tsho ngay re 7. khyed rang dbyin ji yin pas Are you English? khong nga'i dge rgan red He is my teacher. I am Buddhist.a·Ulili' dhi-shing-to dhi -shing-to re dhi -ngay-yin -ngay -yin Plural 1. 19"i'l'Uj9'i:j':<'''i' ~·l·."1 khong ngay ge ghen re 5.· !'it.. khye-tsho-yak-po re You are good.·"i9ili·~'''lili'(J''l1 khye rang in j i yim pay 4. de-tsho-ma-he re dhi-tsho-stag re those are buffaloes.· r:>. ~·~w~. ~"..·~t:.

. ~~.\~'~"i' ~"i·l. deb 'di su'l reb su 'f Whose book is this? lags deb 'di nga'i red Yes..' 12.. :i. lags !shang Yes.i'i' ~.i'i' ''r'''f ''r-l'f ~ ~ ~."il de ring bon dha soom pa re "". this is my book.l~1 khong ngay ge ghen re pay ~ ..~."".'\'[iit:.f>f. ~·~·Q5..l· :i.l' :i.l~1 [iit:·.£ n<'£ de ring bod zla gsum pa red Today is 3rd Tibetan month.~."'.l~1 khye tsho in ji yim pay 13. khong nga'i 'dge rgan redpas red pas Is he my teacher? khyed tsho dbyinji yin pas Are you (PI) English? lags yinnga tsho dbyin ji yin Yes.t:f.\' :i. nJ~~r:i.into Roman characters and translate five words into English.c::l.\t:. 2.\'. 7.l':i.. t:'~' ~'Jl' ~:Jr ~.>.".l·:i.t:f.\' 1M deb dhi ngay re laa 11. .t:f. 2..r.. 6.~..l' .o ."il nJ~~'" Q"CJ. a"i·~·'\S"i·~·Uj"i·l.\·~~·5· laa re de ngay nyu 1m re 9. 4. ~'~' 3i'~' (c) Render the following into Tibetan with possessive case signs: .\1 laa re khong tshong pa re 16.~.\·:i.~·~f... ."i'l..~. [iit:."i·l. lags red de nga'i smyug gu red that Yes.nJ~~'"Q"CJ.". We are English. ..5 Exercises of Lesson Two ~"..l':'FJi':i. 9.."il 17. Nepal's king Tibet's mountains Leg's size Whose house My daughter His father Their dog .l~1 . from '(b) Transliterate the following.\'[iit:' ~t:'l. "'~'l'j"i'~'~~<>rl.l' r::~' t:.-' (a) Copy out ten words with suffixes in Tibetan script from the above vocabulary... 5.'< . ~t:. khong tshong pa re pay 15.l.l·:i. (b) ~'Jl' S·Ji· ~'Jr S'Ji' .l· ~"i'l.\t:'Q' nJ~·l. ~ .lj. khong tshang pa redpas red pas Is he (a) businessman? . 8."il ~·t:f. nJ~~·Uj"i·t:·~·"iS"i·N"i1 nJ~~·Uj"i·t:· ~'''iS''i'~'Uj''i1 laa yin nga tsho in ji yin 14. 3..l·:lFJi·:i.c::l.l' :i. "Q·r.l~1 [iit:. he is a businessman.t:f. 8."il ~·t:f. ".'\1 ~~' :i.'\1 ~·~·Q5. 3j.-. spyi zla bdun pa grang rno red mo July is (a) cold (month).' . / "'' ' ' .lags red khong !Shang pa red .\·~~·5· :i.."i·l. . nJ~·l... [iid.. Road's name Son's pen ". '.~."i·l..~." 1.\'.. businessman.\~'~"i'~"i·l. ~hat is my pen."il deb dhi sui re 10.\1 chin dha doon pa drang rna re mo 17: .·~·q"i·~·~~<>rl.

q. 1995 is the nineth year of the seventeenth rab byung.l' ~'. 9. 4.q. q. q"i' ri'''I~<>J' q' q. ~'<i'q~"i'l.i.'<i' q"'.q.i'''I~~' <r ~'<i'''I~~'l.' ri·"I~<>J'l.l' 10.l' April May June July August September ~'.q:s~. 8.. AD.. signifying the twelve European months.' [lISt king "I~o..l' 10. ~·ri·qil·"I~"I·q· ~'fil'qil·"I~"I·l.i'§"I.i·. 2. q"i'fij'q'S".'<i' ~q'~.'l..\'<i'qil'l.l· October November 11.l bodzlilinga pa bodzlillnga bod zlil drug pa bod zlil bdun pa bod zlil brgyad pa brgyadpa bod zlil dgu pa bod zlil bcu pa bod zia bcu gcig pa zla 5th 6th 7th q.l' q"'fij'q~"'q.. 3. Hand's shadow (d) Memorise the following The ordinal numbers from [lISt ".l· bodzlil dangpo bod zlilgnyis pa bod zlil gsum pa bod zlil bzhi pa I bon-dha dang-po bon-dha nyee-pa bon-dha soom-pa bon-dha zhi-pa bon-dha nga-pa bon-dha drook-pa drook -pa bon-dha doon-pa bon-dha gye-pa bon-dha ghoo-pa bon-dha choo-pa bon-dha choo-chik-pa Ist 1st Tibetan month 2nd 3rd 4th 5.l· q"'ri'''I~~'q' 3.'~'qi5"~'<i' gnya' khri btsan po but since 1027 AD. in Tibetan is ~'ni' spyi 10 (chi-lo) meaning general year and century is called :i~r~q' dus rabs (doo-rab).i''''''<i' 2.l' 12. ~'<i"'i'j'l.q'S~.q~".'il' (dang po) to twelfth 'lil'''I~~r<r (bcu gnyis pay are fITSt "."·il· ~'<i'''i'''<:I' ~ .l'· q"·. ~·.l' 8th 9. ~'<i'q:s".l spyi zla dang po spyi zlil gnyis pa spyi zIa gsum pa zia spyi zia bzhi pa spyi zlilingapa zlillngapa spyi zia drug pa zla spyi zlil bdun pa spyi zla brgyad pa brgyadpa spyi zla dgu pa zia spyi zla bcu pa zia spyi zia bcu gcig pa zla spyi zia bcu gnyis pa chin-dha dang-po chin-dha nyee-pa chin-dha soom-pa chin -dha chin-dha zhi -pa chin-dha nga-pa chin-dha drook-pa chin-dha doon-pa chin-dha gye-pa chin-dha ghoo-pa chin-dha choo-pa chin -dha chin-dha choo-ehik-pa choo-ehik-pa chin-dha choog-nyee-pa January February March 5. Q":.q. 4.\'fij'§'lj'l. 7.r ~'<i'''I~<>J'l.~..i''''j.i' spyi zia (Chin-dha)..i·bodzla numbers.q §'<i'~'l. ~q'~'" rab byung. Q"'fij''''j'q' 9.l' ~·.l' q"'fij'§"I' q' q"'fij. Q"i'fijS:j'l.'~'qi5"".l' 4. Tibetan use their own dating system called ~""~"J'ni bod rgyallo (Tibetan king year) since the Q"'~"l'ni 'lj~o.i·"I~<>J·l.i·qil· q 11.i. 7. ~·ri·qil·"I~~·q· ~'ri·qil'''I~~'l. Q"'ri'q~'q' Q""ri'q~'l.q.l' §'.l' §·fil·Q~·q· §'fil''l~'l. q... ~·ri·qil·q· ~'ri'qil'l. q"'fil'~'q q"i'fil'~'l. q"i'<i'''i. ~:..l' ~'.i. 6.l· December The 12 Tibetan MOnths 1. 8. q"i'ri'''I~~'l. Likewise the zla lunar or Tibetan months are prefixed with Q"i'<i'bodzIa (Bon-dha) to the ordinal numbers.\'fij'q~"i'l.'l. Q"\·fij·qil·'lj~"I·l.l· Q"'fij'qil'''I~''I'q' 9th 10th 11th .'<:I' Qil'''I~~r<r §'<i' prefixed with §'. the fITSt sexagenary cycle was introduced. ~:<i'§"I'l. Memorize the following: The 12 General Months Tibetan Transliteration Pronunciation Months 1. 6.76 10..

S~'''I~''i' . ."I~"Iilie:. lly.' Zl"f ll"f <rr>.:"I~·"Iilie:. "I~~'''l''I'. r>.: ~.t.~'~·a:ilil e:.~' ~i'.pJ ?'pJ ?. <::. ~:o (f) Expre ss the following numbe rs in Tibetan: / /' P f.'1 r>.·ri·Q·~. "Ie:.~ 2.r.:.Q"I'<J' ~. ~.77 / 12. po ~'! :r. yang skyar gcig gsung rogs gnang Please repeat it once again (for me).·1 "l"fl:j. r_o.'g. c PC' J. 6. 5."I~·"I"ie:..'e:.'.Q"I' Q' ~'\I ~.7 Some Usefu l Expre ssion s: t'!'..C' ?'C' C'?.ti'~''I' e:."I~"I"ie:. e:.i'.·1 lak nyee yag po khoog chung 3.'. PpJ ?.4. '4 pJ pJ P?' PpJ gC A.' g.~.O ~o "C' gg ?. 4.' ~'\I ~.:-.·Ol·~~'~~"Iilie:.w~~·~~"Ii1ie:.·1 dzin dra !Shook ren song tshook ""~- <rf' 4. 7.~iIi·~·<ll"l·~"i·~e:.~·~·a:ilil ~. V.· t""'" ~'ri'\l!:<J ~'ri'\l!:Q' ""~'ll'i'~'Ol"l~'~.\'Q~1 ur~'e:.~. Ol"l~'''I~.'1 ~ yag po jay sen rok nang yagpo byas gsan rogs gnang yag po Please listen carefully. bod zIa bcu gnyis pa zla bon-<lha choo-nyee-pa choo·n 12th t<: (e) Transl ate into English: W" 1..C' "0 pp pg ?.:.:?'~.\1 ~'~·"IElr>. fie:.?. ~..\'<J~1 ""~'Il'i'~'Oj"l~'~.·<l'\··ri·Q~·Qwr>.r>.-' ::::. I slept well.\' -'J:.'1 "le:.i."I~·"I"ie:."I~'''I"ie:.g'B'\' ~..~ {. p". Ci'\'ri'Q~'''I~~rQ' i:i'\'ri'Q~'''I~~r<J' .<::.1':~1 f.::.t.\1 ~·~·"IElr>.\''". nga la jay dhoe nang rok nang 6.·1 e:.i.ti'IT'r~e:.O'.~1 "I~~'''I''l'li'IT'r ~e:.~ '*~ khong gru pa red khong tsho 'brog pa red de tsho khyed rang gi redpas red pas nga bod zIa bzhipa la 'gro gi yin zla bzhi pa Ia thag pa 'di su'i red bodzla brgyadpa bod zla d pa spyi zIa Inga pa zla pha gi a rna lags red pas redpa s ya gi nga'i rta red de ring gza'a zia ba red ~:.. 'dzin grwa tshug ran song The class is about to start. cg '?( ?l ?.·?·~'\1 ur~'d'.~ PP P'4 pJP p.t. PC' 2.·~~·"I~"I·"I~F . r1'" 1'" 3.'e:." g g ?. ~I zim yag po khoog song nyay gzim yag po khug song ngas Did you sleep well ? lags gnyid yag po khug byung Yes.r 1.·. .?l ~'?( ?l?.\I jiie:. c <::.·1 "'. p.~'\·''l''l·li·~''I·~~e:.·1 OJ''l~·''I \·''I''I·.. 9. .\I <l'\ri'Q~'\'<J' <i.·<i..\ ri'Q~·<Jwr>.\ri'Q~'\'Q' t'. p~ P~ C' pc P<::' "c c" .". nga fa rjes zlos gnang rogs gnang la Please repeat after me. . 10.·1 yang kyar chik soong rok nang / . 8. 5. 2.'~~'''I~''I'''I~F :l. ~. g'a.\'Q~I e:. Q' ~'\I <J' ~.. "I"fl:i' S~'''I~"i' :l.r>.~ili·~·<ll"l'~"i'~e:..·ri'Q'~'\1 w.·'.'.\I fie:.\'<J~I ~. PA.

~·g·§.g:. 1..·q.- 'dzin grwa tshug ran song The class is about to start.".{ 'I " 1'1 '1'1 '11 '1'1 P(> p« .\1 jkg. )." i'i-'>c lags gnyid yag po khug byung Yes. ~"I'iJ'S~S~·"I~"i·~"I~·"Iili"'·1 &IT' E'IT' yag po jay sen rok nang yag po byas gsan rogs gnang Please listen carefully.r.>. "I:il<>l'~"I'. ~-:.:q. klwng gru pa red khong tsho 'brog pa red de tsho khyed rang gi red pas nga bod zla bzhi pa la 'gro gi yin thag pa 'di su'i red bodzla brgyadpa bod zla d pa spyi zla Inga pa pha gi a rna lags redpa s red pas ya gi nga'i rta red de ring gza'a zla ba red I:t'.1.>.er..er. 4. <:i.' fi"'·~·LJ ~'" fi".77 12.". -." (I:) Expre ss the follow ing numbe rs in Ti betan: ) P )[lJ PflJ ">[lJ ">flJ [lJ) flJP "> [lJ flJ )"> P"> )[lJ PflJ cJ. P(z p« po )0 pJ..f"' 7.{ J-l). 8.:-.\·LJ· ~·~·~·LJ· ~'~'~'LJ' "'·~·Q·r<>J·fll"l~· ~.): 5. .~·~t"i·~. )'1 P'I )-'1 P" / ">"> -'1« p) PP '10 10 2. < bod zla bcu gnyis pa bon-<lha choo-n yee-pa bon -<lha 12th (e) Transl ate into Englis h: 1. c:.\'~'Qil'''I~~rLr <:i"·~·Qil·"I~~rLr .:j·~''r:FI ~ gzim yag po khug song ngas Did you sleep well ? f"C.\~·Q~·LJwr.>. ~>.· "-·q."..Q"I·LJ·~.~·~·Uj3i1 .{c:.\·LJ~I ""~'Q'r<>l'Oj"l~' ~'\'LJ~1 ur~·". I slept well. LJ~I 2.(> J-lJ. "I'·~.{ ">(> (>1 (>'1 1..>...>' f"'"" lak nyee yag po khoog chung '!t-'..~ ".r. 9.. I.\·".:h~"I·~"'·"' ~I zim yag po khoog song nyay fll"l~·"I~'\'~''I'iJ'~''I":FI 2.\·LJ~J .:j· '''I~''i'~''I~'''I3i"-'1 4.7 Some Useful Expre ssion s: "" %.\I ur~·"-t"l·?· ~'\I ~·~·"I.·~·Q·~'\1 ~·~·"I. r.>.W~~'~~"IaF ~"I~·"I"i"'·1 nga la jay dhoe nang rok nang 6.~.\1 >.{ p)."..:~.>.Q"I·LJ·~'\1 ~.·~·Q·~.. 1).{ ). '4 J. 3.0 J.~ c:.: 0 ' '1.. )'4 )-'1 P" c:. / '1.~·~·Ujilil ".c:. yang skyar gcig gsung rogs gnang Please repeat it once again (for me). -'I (> pc:.\1 jkg.f" ".\·~"I·.~ pp PP pI. OJ''l~'''I~.c'·-·' .'".{ ".{ c).{c:.f!3i'~·~·~"I·"'~·~"'·1 r.. ~'\. ~"I·LJ·r.r. ~"I·.>.:i"j~"I'~"-'"-~J 1lJ:ii<>J·~"I· .~·~t"l·~'\1 q"·~·QS '\'LJ' q'\'~'QS. 3. 10.{ ~"'.'1 ~"'·~"'·"I%"I·-'~''1~'''I''i"-'1 yang kyar chik soong rok nang nga la rjes zlos gnang rogs gnang Please repeat after me. 1.\~· Q~·LJwr. I.>. ~"-'~"""I%"I'''I~""I~F ~"I~'''I''i".·~·~. g·iS. "-W~~'~~"IaF ~"1~'''I''i"-'1 ".\1 "."" 1)..>."' 5.t"i·?· ~..f!ili '~"I' "'3i'~"-'1 dzin dra tshook ren song fiQ:·'i. 6.

I didn't understand.l! PUelS1QPUn nOh P!G sv:iiu :iiuos o:ii /J1f 8.'ilj""r"i"-'! lag ha go rna song b~oti'o~o~olllb!tJ 08 1. Ol"l'll'."l"1 ha go song ngay i.Up!P I 'oN :iiuos /JUI o:ii vlJ s:ii1J[ llUOS llW 08 eq gill ha go song ngas Did you understand it? 11) lags ha go rna song No. °L °pUelSlQPUn 1. hellU llUOS 08 elj .>1/ 7.&'J0'J~0~0f. '5'~""i"-'".

'<r C<~""<r ~ .§"'l.f <l~4~' / j!3ill' j!3i1J' .1 The Surm ounte d and Subjo ined Conso nants Drill Tibeta n "i~~'l..e3i'I:!j~.· ~~''J' <l~"i' ~r:.l<iIJ'ij .. q..'Ji' ~""Ji' .J'~"i' ~.l' j.l· "i~llrl.j' I!l' J!l' ~'l....'"i' ~'lf'l:i' ~"'i:i' SiIJ~·l.j' ~r - 3. ~q' i§'''f 6""f ~"i''J' . ~ .l<ill'ij' Il.l' ...'ll' dkrugspa 'khrugpa dkrogpa sgrogspa bkrashis khrom skra khra grvapa sgrasnyan gru sgrung skyid po sgyed bu 'khyer ba skyer ba skyo ba khyo ga skyur mo rgyidpa pivan g phabo ng rgyaspa brgyad spyan gki phyug po byams pa 'iamp o bragphug sbrangbu dbangpo dbyangs Englis h Trook-pa Took-pa Trok-pa Drok-pa Tra-shi Tom Tra Thra Dra-pa Dram-nyen to shake to quarrel to rattle to announce auspicious market hair hawk monk guimr guitar boat Dru Droong kyeet-po gyet-pu khyer-wa kyer-wa kyo-wa khyo-ga kyoor-mo gyit-pa pi-wang pha-wong gyay-pa gyet chang-ki chyook-pa jam-pa jaam-po drak-phook drang-bn ang-po yIang story happy oven to take mke a wood to be sad husband sour tendon lute boulde r to increase eight jackal rich love soft cave bees senses tune .l ~ Trans lit..l' - &"i"S' &"i"s" c<~..j" j'lf~l.~l.§'lf'l..LES SON THREE q a:. ~' ~ . (j'2jt:..c3i'l:lj~.l "i~~'l.rik· 'r'5r:.to Q'lf'!1'lf' Q"'!1'" ~f'S' "i'K·ij· "i'K'ij' "iSr:.~· "iSr:.' ~...j" Sill'll'l..Jr:... Pronu nciatio n ProDu 1J.' ~ ~"i'l.f IJ.l Il..'q' ~q...j' m' a:.l' "i~llrl.

~·IlJ~ . .~'Q' -"" "~'fr..j·qQ·Q~·r:>.Q..:~·':<'''\1 de ring char pa bab ngey re fi·~e..·UjllJ·Uj"\·"Ii·fJ..r.~'q' fJ.r "~'ftr q~~'t.r.·...r. In Tibetan to comprehend the meaning of a sentence. fi·~c:.:~·':<'''\1 khong ISho sang nyin dro ngey re tsho ~·9rrs:·.t.81 de ISho nyi rna me tog yin gyi re tsho I think those are sun flowers.E:. a Tibetan verb comes with a single syllable verb stem which can have various verbal affixes to suit the context.·C:~·':<'''i1 shi mi ho rna thoong ngey re . As a monosyllabic language.J'~'"\~'<il"\'1.. tense and mood of the sentence. fJ. . ~·~c:. gender and person of the subject or the object which considerably makes it an easy language."'·'.a Vocabulary Tibetan ~e.~·1. <I' __0" .q' ~e. de ring charpa bah nges red char pa It must rain today...' --.q."1· 12.' . khong tsho sang nyin 'gro nges red They must be going tomorrow. ""·"\ilfe.j.·t."1' l·me.~·C:~·':<'''i1 fie. <1' r:>. .~"i.·t.51lJ 17.·<I·Ul"\·"Il~fJ.. ya tsho glang gog yin nges red Those up there must be oxes. ·.. one must be able to recognize the verb. There are honorific verbs as there are honorific nouns in Tibetan which will be dealt in a separate lesson. "I~~'<r ~ r:>..·~"\·r:>..:<. Tibetan verbs occur with or without verbal affixes... fJ.Q'''I' Q'i!"\'t.r...5'lj do gong char pa bab zo dook 18.. Infinitive form of Tibetan verbs come with additive particles pa and ba ego 3.e:.'. r:>. zhi mi '0 rna thung nges red The cat must drink milk. .. ..'. ':<'' \'i1l 'iifllJ' Ul"\'C: tsho ya ISho lang gok yin ngey re 13. .j...\. _J .·.r~·"\~·Ul"\·c:~r..51lJ kho drung yig yin w dook kho drung yig yin bzo 'dug It appears that he is the secretary.:~' ':<'' \1 khongjer rna ni nay yin ngey re khong 'jar ma ni nas yin nges red He must be from Germany.' A verb shows action or denotes a state of being. 11.J·~d~·':<'''\1 14... "I'i!"\. fic::fJ.~..·l·~e.r1."i1 fic::r:>.j.: ~. fie. 'ilf'lj'<il"\'1..·<I·QQ·"I~·fJ.4 Tibetan Verb 'di gsar pa yin bzo mi 'dug 'ill It appears that this is not new.r~e. -f 12.P'lr.4...5'lj 16.·. . Most verb stems chal]ge their spelling by prefixing an allowable prefix change consonant or suffixing (usually sa) to change their tense and moods.. do dgong char pa bab bzo 'dug It appears that it will rain tonight. ""·"iiife.. 15.·Uj'lj·Uj"\·qi·r:>..j·<il"\·QHm5'lj fJ. .~·'lj~ . '''1' ~ Verbs pronunciation Transliteration English thungba groba gyugpa btsugspa 'bri ba bstanpa 'khridpa thoongwa drowa yookpa tsook-pa lSook-pa dri wa tern pa tree pa to drink togo to throw to pierce to write to show to guide r:>. Tibetan verbs are not marked with number.·r.... ~·9rrs:·.51lJ dhi sar pa yin zo mi dook 3.r"ltrC:~·':<'''i1 ~·~·..·l·~e.·~"\·fJ.

'1.ll[.l'll'''J~''l' "dus gsum" which are "i' 'Irqm:k.J' ma 'ongs pa. llq' a:..'~'cJ:i"i' ~'!l~'~'cl:i"i' q~.. present.' q' "I"I~'q' to elect to like to lend..' !j[. 'Irq' da lta ba. Tibetan verbs are generally expressed in three tenses called '. namely present"past and tenses. 6.~"l'L1' P... the verbal affix 5' gy~ q~"\' bzhin.'Il'<. ~ . P.'!j[. mlll'''J!j' m'lI'''Jlj' l'lJ'"I'j'l' 1'1J'"I'j'l' ~'''li5[.~"l'<..'!l~'q~"\'Ui"i1 will have a detailed lesson on tenses later. 3.' 9.tlj"\' q[.' \MIlj'~' 11. are commonly used in participle present and future tenses. However the prefered "1 present).' "lj'lOi ~lr''1i5~' "lj'l"i ~ ~ glu gtong mkhan gzim chung thabtshang lcog rtse skub skyag "I~'"I'~[.82 "J')q' <l' "J. (nga ja thoong gi yoe) it could either mean "1 drink tea" (present !l~'arUi"i1 habitual) or it could mean "} am drinking tea" (progressive present). future tense. We ~'!. . ~' kyi or~' gi etc. 4.)q' <r ~ gtubpa 'demspa dga'ba gyarOO yalOO toob pa dempa ghawa yaarwa yal wa to chop P. borrow to vanish "I(1J'q' "Irll' q' In spoken Tibetan. "J]l'"l'~~' 10."i'll'<. ~"J'4"i' ~"J'4"i' l'lJ"J'~q' 1'1J"J'~q' Nouns comb hand gloves scissors watch (time) pocket knife torch road singer bedroom kitchen table chair rgyugshad lag shub jam rtse chu tshod ltebgri glog gzhu lamkha gyookshe lagshoob cham tse chu tsho teb dri 10k shu lam kha glu tong khen zimchoong thab tshang chog tse koob kyak £<'"1' ~' ~' ~ ~'l"i' ~q'~' 5.. past and m:k.'q' ll~'q' thungba nga thung gi yod nga thung gi yin zaOO zaba khoza ba red khozagired blaOO blaba khyod blta ba red khyod blta gi red (to drink) (I drink) (I'll drink) (to eat) (He eats) (he will eat) (to look) (You look) (You will look) Infinitive Present habitual Future Infinitive Present Future Infinitive [.. 2.'~'Uj"\' ~ ]l'q' Jl'q' fl'Jl'q' ~"i' fl']l'q' fl' ]l'~' ~"i' Jl'~' q'lr q ' i9"i'q~'q'~"i Present habitual Future i9"i'q~'~'~"i 3.. 7.'Il'L1' tense.J' ~'!.. 6..5 Vocabulary 1. 7. 12. 3."i'll'L1' das pa.llq' 0:. progressive present form in modern Tibetan would be [. present"pastand future.[..' Ita P.'q' "i"Jp..J' "i"Jp..'i<j'Ui"i1 ngaja thung gi yod.'I. 8. ~"l'~' 12. &q'~"J' liJ<r~"J' .. later.'q~"\'Ui"i1 nga ja thung bzhin yod.~' 10.~.'!j[. If one says [. 2. Action can happen at various times.

J' <:l~"1".ij' 15. -".!'fq.~".j to write to request to place to think 8. 2j. "J.!' 16.J' ffillj'lJ' . o. ili'""!' iii'".o.J' 14.·q· 13.. ffillj'l.. <:It'\''1'l. <:l'llM <r 1O. 22.. ~qW ~crrll"1'll"(lj" 32.'1'r 2j"'(1j' 23. .~". ~'ll'."..'<r <:l13~'ll'l.13. ~crrli"1'llW /\ ---.~'llW 30. o.J' 11.9~·e.9~'e. ii..'(1j' 26. i5". =l'cr -'I'cr -~ 3.. o. l3'q'· l3· q 9... ~c.:Ilj'(lj' 0:llj'(1j' 27.\· .o. r.'q' o.J' 4. ciic.r 10. i5"..>J)ili W 30..~·~. ~I::nr ~c..ij. <:l~c.ij. ZlJ Jiili'g"1'llW 25. <:l'llMl.ij' 17.'q' <:l~I:.:"F"1' Q.o.·q' ciil:.". downstairs right left on top underneath upward downward nearby in front behind behind 20..J' ii.. ZlJUl'll. upstairs below.-"' .- 1. 19. .. ~'ll'.o. !:j. ilit:::nr ili c: nr nangla phyi log la steng la shodla gyas phyogs la gyon phyogs la La sgangla ogla yarla marla fa 'khris la mdunla rgyabla rgyab logs la Verbs nangla chi log la teng la shot la yay chog la yon chog la ghang la hog la yarla marla ttee la doon la gyabla gyab log la inside outside above. q~'q' blta ba zaba mba nyanpa sdodpa bzhugspa bzungba 'bri ba zhuba bzhagpa bsampa 'darba yongba gcodpa klogpa ta wa zawa nyem pa doepa shookpa zoongwa dri wa zhu wa zhakpa sampa dharwa yongwa cho pa 10k pa to look to eat 2.. <:l13~'ll'<r 6.W 29. ZlJ~"'lJ' 13.>l)iliW 31. ~'rll"1'nr ~'rli"1'(1j' 21. 18.!'fq' to listen to sit to sit (hon) to hold .:"F"1' 14.J' 5.'q' to shiver to corne to cut to read 12.. Ul"W UI.'q' o.. ~'. . 7..~·~.g"1'll'nr ZlJUI'll'g"1'll'nr ili·g"1'll·nr 24.\· branggog pusmo rla sha grumo bodskad dbyin ji'i skad drang khog poomo laa sha drumo poke injee ke chest khee thigh elbow Tibetan language English language Location /'/ i9.W 28.·l..W "J. ZlJ~"'l. 'ili"4" '~'l. ~.'(1j' ~t:::1'r -".

. ~<:"i4"..J'nr 29.gj' . O1"1'.r 26.>l~~·'\5<:'· 11.... 7. ~'l'". Ii'q' <i'q' .ij·"I"I· 22. . 30. . Uinr"l~' Uinr~~' "I'l'"..>l· ni·fi~·...' thorangs sngadro da nang snga dro tho rang nga dro da nang nga dro nyin goong chi dro gongdak do gong zhok key tshen !Shen mo tshen goong !Shen gOQng dhanggong sang nyin naang nyin khesa khey nyin ga na ning nyima doon trak dha wa dhalhak dha nak sang phoe 10 ngonma dawn morning this morning noon afternoon evening tonight morning night time midnight last night tomorrow day after tomorrow yesterday day before last year day week month extra month bad month (astral) mextyear last year hour minutes.\~<:."1' q5~'~"I' 19.'. .\~r::..c.\~r::.~''\~f' 6.·q' dranpa lenpa mchongba 'thungba slobpa 'byor ba drempa lempa chongwa thoongwa lob pa Jorwa to remember to take to jump to drink to learn to arrive. "I'~r::. .r ruq·!.c. :il"l·.r 27. .>lie. 14.lij~'.jj'll!"I' 22.>l~"I''\:jr::.\'~c.IFq· P.c.' 9.>.~'''I' 17. .' nyindgung phyidro dgongdag dadgong zhog kils mtshanmo mtshan dgwlg mdangdgong sang nyin gnangs nyin khesa khasnyinga naning nyima bdunphrag zlaba zla lhag zlanag sangphod 10 sngon nul nUl chu tshod skilr nul skar nUl phyedkil zinpaln zinpa/n yol nos ga tshod 12.>l' 25.r ':i~·..'.\ij[r::.~4 15..''i!'~' 3.~.jj'~"I' 23. "I"1e. jj'~' 2. ~r::..J' 17..~. .c.rnr :ii~'!.·q· 17.' 12.9. 24.\<:".gj. ~'~'.'. 26.>l~~.' ~'~<:.' . :l"l·. ."I'''I' fI~'. mq·. fl~'.'.. ~~..''\''I' . ~. .··q P.. 'i".c:. q5"1'~"I' 20.J' 20.ij'll!"I' .' .'.>l.9. "I'l'".1Fq· ~ 19.>l."I''\:jr::.c. . . 3.'i4". ~"I'''I~' 10.. receive 18. 21. 18.r 16.' ~. star half to (as in time) past (as in time) what (as in time) ~ de ring nyin dgung de ring nying goong this noon 5..>l~"I.~.''\''I' 8. 10. ni·fi"l·. .6 Expressions on the notion of time 1. P. .\r::. lij.\~<:" 13. P."I''\:jr::..~·'\~r."I' ~<:.\il[<:.>lic. ~e. ~'~"I' "I~<:'~'~~' jil'~' 15~ F'~' 16..~. ~"'''I' chu !Shoe tshoe karma cheka zim pa la yolnay ga !shoe tshoe 28.r O1~'!. '\'''Iqd' ~·.: 4. ..

~·urU/ilil fll·r:>.·r:>... fit:·a.V'. ..~"l·.. :~"~. (Fu ture) 12.)J q-ffillJ'iirdi"il ng a lo b de b lo g gi yo e nga slob grva 1a 'gra gi sla la o yin I wi ll go to th e scho ol.. t:'~q-1liIlJ'''l'di.) 'IIl "l·c. ".er~·~'~"\1 zh i mi 'dis sh a za gi re d zhi mi dh ee sh a za gi re This ca t will ea t meat."· .)1 fii~rUj·~·r>.ij"r:>.Q·Q·~ \1 khos yi ge 'bri ba red kh oe yi ge dri wa re He wr ite s let ter s."i(. g'ffll~reC::fll·r>. fii~r ~t: ""I~r:. <'"~ !lit>') !lit"".. (pr esent Habitual) 8. (Fu nga deb Jdog gi yo d ya I go to the sc ho o! . t:·.1 t:·e·~t: :.. .. 'U/' ~..~.!IlJ·Q~i\t. "t. t::mq-~''''rr:>.~t:..~:: . :~.cr~'~'~.. Wili'j'I" li'j'l 1. (pr esent Habitual) nga ri di'i sg ang la 'gra o ya yin I'll be go in g on top of the hilL (Future Perfect) Ie"" 1. fs. Iking (Future Perfect) 10.fS<\j·. 'II1lJ·~"l·t. ol (present (Future) ".SIl fiit:·g·dit:·~Q"l·r: :>.~:.~rurU/iliJ _ nga ch u gr an g mo 'thung ma bzhin yo d hin ya I am dr in ki ng co ld water. '-fd ¢ 5. fii"l·4t:·~·Q~".:~ "·A')( nt habitual) ":~t:·t:·flJ·o.§j·~Q"l·di'\ a.§j·~·UiiliJ ng a lo b dr a la dr o gi yin nam dus dp yid ka dg un kh a na m doo ch ee ka ghoon kha ya ar kha ton kha se as on sp rin g wi nt er su mm er au tum n dbyarkha sta ston kha 2...· lJ'lret: 'flJ't>.'f1' ''is "'[''l' 35... (present Progressive) ~. ">." . .·dit:·~Q~rr>.)J ~·~·r:>. "'£ "'" .\.):1...' . fiilll'Uj'~'t>.\S.'~' ~"il fii~r "'I~"i'~' khas sh in g gc od kyi re os ad d kh oe sh in g ch o ky i re He will cu t th e wood. .S"l khas sh in g thu bzhin 'du os lh u hin kh oe ch u th oo ng zh in g do ok He is fet ching wo od .. 4.jll i\t...'--- ng a ri dh ee gh an g la dr o ya yin / 'I)...... (Fu ture) 7.'[''l' 34. "\'j"t'f1' ')':1"... (Pr esent Progressive) 9.§j'~Q"l' di.ff>. 3. .: .... Q~ili i"il ng a ch u th oo ng zh in yo e . ..§j'~'UiiliJ t::ruq-~·"'rr:>." "'" ... llJJ kh ang tslw yo ng gr abs on ISl kh on g tsh o ya ng dr ab 'dug do ok They are about to come .\1 l nga tslw las kh un g la 'gr ISl o grabs yo d nga sth o lay kh oo ng la ya dro dr ab yo e We are ab ou t to go to the office.<\r 32. . ..S"l Q~ili·o.Q'Q'~".)S.l· ~. t:..~t·._.·o.. 33. o!. . .jJ \j' q-~ llJ·o. (Future) 11. t:'e ..d..) ma mos ba ph yu g 10 ya re 1a mo e ba ch oo k jo ya re d She'll be mi lk in g cow.-: ~--.l·~"\I I stad des lug bs od pa re d taa g de y lo ok so e pa re The tig er kills sh ee p.ij"r:>.85 31.~t:·Q~ili·d'dir:. ~'~'r:>.S..). (Future) 6.-..'.jJ<"l·Q"~IlJ'A~~'UI'~"\1I . .. .~<\j'.

i·~e:.~·"I·~"i1 jii'i5"i"Ofr>..·~·u:j"i1 d'.·.: 26..·ct·.I..'OJ.'" 25. ."i"l 24.~·.'''I!lJ. ~6·~·.·~·Fr:..>.· ii"fF"Ofr>."I'<. '''I!lJ.·<.'S"I ra de khang pai thog kha la dook 28.'<. 14. smyu gu khong gi kOl pa'i 'og la 'dug kLl! My pen is under his foot. ra de khang pa'i thog kha la 'dug The goat is on the roof of the house.1[ q~~ 'u:j"il 18. ct'F'''l''l' !l. 'S"I jiir:..·"I~e:. spre 'u de mar mehong gi red The monkey will jump down.'S"I ". .·l·~e:. e:.. "'·~·Ft:... tsi tsi khang pa'i steng la 'dug fa The rat is on the roof. ~~. jiir:..·.""l"ill~1 nga Isho zhay tang ya yin ISho 20. nga gnyis mgyogs po yong gi yin Two of us will come quickly. chu 'Iii khol grabs 'dug This water isabaut to boil.J~"I~·<:i·u:je:.i hog la dook .P'l~~·r>.'r>.·1.e:.~·OJ~"I~'iJ'Uir:.J". '-..·"I~r:.If.' qr'l.· q'r>. ~''Ijile:.>..~·jii"r~q~'r>.·qf. 17.i·~r:..~~·~~'§'ill~1 16.Ir. e:."I·q"'·ru'lJ·~·ilj~1 nga Isho do ghong !shag par log gi yin ISho tshag _. r:.'S"I <1l·r>. roof.J".r:."i"l ~ khog tsho kha lag za zhin dook '-.'~r:.·i5"i'~"i·~r:. <li'r>.'nm'S"I khong zim choong nang la dook ~·~·Fe:.'S"I chu dhi khol drab dook 16. r:.'-:.""I"ilj~1 r:..."Clfr>.J.·.'g'F'''l''l' !l'q~~'r>. nga dong pa tm zhin yoe 19.kii(""i1 tre'u de mar chong gi re 27.: ii"fF"Clfr>.l"':J~~'r>.' g'~'''iiijr:.'~·Ui"i1 nga Isho poe ke jang gi yoe ISho 18. e:. nga ISho gzhas btang ya yin ts/zo We will be singing..~~·'!·.·ni·r>.!.l" <1lr:. .r>. nga tsho mar bsdod grabs yod We are about to sit down.~'''l·~''i1 kho poe la dro ya re 15. '~'>lJe:.~·~·r>.'ffi"l'~'ill~1 25. ~'~·Fr:...·r>.>.. jile:.~·~·r>.·~·Uj~1 r:.·'lJ."i"l ~''Ijiir:.· a. fa kho bod la 'gro ya red He will be going to Tibet..I'r>.·"I.'S"I lsi lsi khang pai teng la dook lSi lSi 23.'rli'r>.kilj·~"i1 ~6'~'OJ'>.·qi:i.'~'>lF<.~~·~~·§·ilj~1 'plzrin nga tsho sang nyin rlung 'phrin nyan gyi yin nga tsho sang nyin loong trin nyen gyi yin We will listen to the radio tomorrow. tomorrow.·g-"II1~·q'5r:. e:.'S"I '>.l[q~~'Ui"i1 nga tsho bod skad sbyang gi yod We study Tibetan language.·g'OJ. nga gdong pa 'khru bzhin yod I am washing face.l" <lie:..Ir'J:i5:''I'"m''i''l nyoog gu khonggi kang p.86 13.. nga tsho do dgong tshag par /dog gi yin Tonight we will read newspaper.'S"I ra dhee tsa za zhin dook ra 'dis rtsa za 'bzhin 'dug rlsa This goat is eating grass.'<.·£-"II1~·q'5e:..·~'Uj~1 nga nyee gyok po yong gi yin jilt:.. jil·i5"i"Clfr>..·qii"i·~q~·u:j"i1 nga Isho mar doe drab yoe ISho 21. r:.' ct· i5"i·~"i·~e:.' ~e:.'S"I 22.q~~'r>..~'jil"l.~q~.~r:.e:. khong gzim ehung nang la 'dug chung fa He is in the bedroom. khong tsho kha lag za bzhin 'dug They are eating food.'i5:"I"Clfr>.' a.·qii"i·~q~'Ui"i1 e:.' ct·~·"iiije:...

{' .-C.'..."i'lJ S·I'I·Cll''lJ'~'q~Oi'()...\·q~·l.. 6.lj' ...>.~·~· ~.-.' g'C'll'~·. nga mgo na gi 'dug I have a headache.>. ". -\i:" -!i:. 4..>. 9..·rl. Yester day was Tuesday.J[ ~"\I tho rang drang mo re '<f. 2. _ .o.~·~·Uit:. \. '<f.:~·$nr nrOf"i·iii·"i50i·I'l·o.i ..jj·'1!. S·J[o.~ . (c) Write down the suffixes which modifies the sound of the root letter. .'..\I khong chi gyalla da 10 goon kha dro gi re khong phyi rgyalf a da 10 dgun kha 'gro gi red He will go abroad this winter . f4 i:"<"c'-: ~~~ 36.~·~· ~"\I ~c.'.iij·0i·~·r. My book is on the table. 29... nga tsho fa zhi mi lnga 'dug I Inga We have got five cats.·g·~·§·g.5'lJ ~t:.Oi '(). C":.c. The girl has a headache.~<r$' JIg. g. I will be going there.i K~ .. \.>4"1'".Jj·'1!. tho rang grang mo red 30. lao (1) Trans late into Tibetan: >.>. bu mo 'di ru yong gi 'dug The girl is comin g here. 5..>. I will read this book tonight. It is cold in the dawn.~·~·Ui<::'·~·()..5'lJ 35. (g) Expre ss and memorize the following Tibetan names: ~ 1... (e) Write down the consonants which take subjoined la. '-~".. 7... (d) Write down the consonants which can not be modified by prefix es or surmounted letters and explai n why.0.lj·.'-..C' .) dan 'grub rgya mtsho (m. ~t:.5'lJ c.. khong tsho tha ta dro gi doak dook '.·g·i.·~·rl. They are eating food.~·~·(). I am learnin g Tibetan.>. She will go tomorrow.-.>. 3. S'I'l'C'lllJ·~·q~Oi"rl. g·"i·'1rr."-~"... 33.fl. Dondr up Gyatsh o :..t. S·J[r.l·C'lJ·Ui<::'·~·~"\1 ~<::.\1 30.'g·"i·'1i·o. 31. 8.~·~·rl. 'rl.i ti-.".iij·0i·~·O'5'l nga gho na gi dook - 34. He has one deer.: . khong tsho 'da Ita gro gi 'dug They are going now.l·nrUit:. . .0."i~':G- ~.·..~ (a) Write the subjoined and surmounted consonants which are prono unced same as: ca cha jl nya tta tra tha dra (b) Write the four labial consonants which take the subjoined ya.' .·~·~.C·~t:. ~<::'·~·$l'lf"i·iii·"i50i·1'I·r.. <::.~<::.5'lJJ <::. We have seven dogs. .. 10.5'lJ khong tsho chu tshod bcu pa la yang gi red Ia yong They will come at ten o'cloc k.--~:' Gt.: fuN 1. ..) .~q'$' q~' q~'4"l' ~ bkra shis tshe ring (m. .·().. ~<::.>.: g"Cll"~·.\1 khong tsho chu tshoe chu pa la yang gi re yong 32. Tashi Tsheri ng 2."i'lJ bu kha lag za zhin dook ~ bu kha lag za bzhin 'dug The son is eating food.7 Exerc ises of Lesso n Three . .\·q~·l.5'lJ nga tsho la zhi mi nga dook 3.: " K'.·J[~.5'lJ bu mo dhi ru yang gi dook rna tt.t..

q..~"q.·.'"c.' ~'~'~n.·"c.?r.c.5""i"q. dgongdag I am sorry.>..a.c. ~·'.-<.r""1"" ~'~.?''J. 5. r:>. you). 7.5""i'llI"J'q' Q"'''J'r:>.·o>J·o>J. ~n.) (m. c. 6".·ilj"l'i"l c..~·".·~".'~"q.·~· o>J" 4. Z\jl "I~"i'''I''ic.'"c. Nyatri Tsernpo 5.q. sen nang rna song ngey 8.'c. c.5""i'~o>J.) srong btsan sgam po (m..r "f "9C..Z\j'Ulc.."i·S·r.'"J' ~c.r "J" ~"1""«J""~n. Ngodrup Wangmo 9..~.·"J'''J..·1 dhi nay 10k nang dang 'til tzasklog gtzang dang 'di nas!dog gnang Please read from here.5""i.·.·1 khye rang chik pu 10k nang dang kbye nga tsho tshang ma mnyam po !dog do klog Let us all read it together. ga ie !dog gnang dang Ie klog Please read slowly.) Iha lingos grub dbang mo (f) (f. (purify your thoughts) ga ye byed kyi rna red It does not matter.' q.~."i'S'f).'." "Jfl'\r~(r "I.>.f ~"j"" <lJ. :". llamo Dolkar 8. "i~c. a:.) blsan pad ma 'byung gnas (m. Songtsen Garnpo 6. '~"..>.>.·"I~"I· ::·ili"l""I"ic.?r:>.c..) "e: ~'~'~n.~·ili"l·"I"ic. khyed rang gcig pu !dog gnang dang klog Please say it alone by yourself.~c.· "9C.~C. 2.?o>J·q·ili"l"~' nga tsho tshang rna nyam po 10k tho 6.r""I".q.>." o>JF'\r~(r 'j"i"""Ir:>. Yangchen Butree 'j"i"""Ir.'a. '''''1 gongdak "I"iil' S.·"I~"I'::'ili"l'''I''ic.q'ili''l'~1 c. Kunga Khedrup 4. ~c. gsan gnang ma song ngas Didn't you hear me (han. "I'ii:l'ili"l·"I"ic.·.'c. "j"Ul' S"'~' "J" ~'" ga ye je kyi rna re "I·ii:l·ili"l·"I"ic.Z\j'..·1 ga Ie 10k nang dang r.·"c. '''I''iZ\j' Q""o>J'r.) mig dmar sgrolma (f) (f.ISIS 3.'o>J'~c. "I'll"i'''I''ic.) gnya' khri btshan po (m..Q' Z\j'~-Q' "qc. 6. Migrnar Dolrna 10.·"c.8 Useful Expressions 1.. ~c.·-<..) dbyangs can bu 'khrid (f) (f.. Perna lungnay Jungnay 7.'''I''i~' kung dga' mkhas grub (m.. "I.)? ngas yang skyar kiog chog klog I can read it again (for you)..'"c.)? (han. a:."ilj"l'i"l ngey yang kyar 10k chok .~·"\Z\j'ili"l·"I"ic.) iha mo sgroi dkar (f) (f. ~·UlC. :'" 3.~"· 3.c.

~ !i.. To express what a third person has red is is/are)..~ Oi..d signifies existence and mainly possession meaning "to Oi...W~"l·a"l·d'i".."t' ~ j).'4<lJ <J"'"9"1 4..q.· yod red represents there is... there will be.".~>J1.. ~·Ol·51·jJ·.j· di tsho gyag gi rnga rna red ma lug gi lpags pa !pags sha ba'i ra co balpo'i sbrang rtsi bal po'i lag pa'i grib ma grw These are Yak tails.:.j!C\ 'I. I have teeth (to me teeth/tooth there is/are).:6~' Q!C\'..·~.j· :0:. I havq six sheep (I to sheep six there are) and red as we c.. ~q'...'<-. c.?!l{i ..j· ..· yod red The compound auxiliary verb ril.'ij.W~·'.2 The Combined Auxiliary Verb Ui. shog gu lteb gri zhasmyug zha smyug tirel rtsigpa -9"1" 4"1" ~Q'~ ~'~"1 ~'~"I paper pocket-knives pencil mule wall !i...j'~·~5"1 i)'''I~'!l' 'i'''l~~' f'l"l'... 1 Substitution Drills 1.ij.'Cll'~'d'i"i..'<:j' 1>*.' 1>*' l1i.. ~~·I·"I"1"1·~·~·.s~l: <J.r~·~5"1 fc.. ~.~y " LESSON FOUR m .jc. there are. they have. ~"I~'I' q'F'"9'!l' ~"I~' ii'F''9~' ~"I. he is.. i~-" - 4..:6 ~ .JI 1:::)" mQ' .j"~"I'''Ii5''1 !1i"f~"I'''Ii5<lJ .· YO..:: 2.~ ~nf ~"I'<J' ~ ~'j ~~~ ~~* :. ~"I'q. have already seen means it is. :.... they were etc..j· Cll"l·<J~·~Q·.jc.. When the subject is affixed with la . so yod.-..?tt{' nga la bya mo mang po med I do not have many chicken.·~S 4... were..~". ~'I'C1J'''''l'''''''IrilC1J'''I~Mril".·~. she is.~ :.jc.. It is mainly used for present habitual as we have already seen in the previous lesson. nga tsho la dkar gyol gsum yod We have three porcelain bowls...:. ~ f~·nr~·'... ril.L. nga la c.. ~q... fl"l" "It:. " \.wS·jJ·.d have" ego ~'nr~'lJ"a"l'ril"..j~.t..s~j: :. nga la lug drug yod. to express existence. ~~·I·"I"I"I·~·~·.q. debmangpo grogs pa kha shas Ide mig bdun sta re dgu khong la zhi mi mi 'dug rta gnyis khabmangpo lham gog gcig pad shag many books some friends seven keys nine axes He does not have cats. two horses many needles one pair of boot money /.- ClJ"I·<JA·~Q·..: 1'Cll'''''l.' 2.:". sheep skin deer horn Nepalese honey hand's shadow ~: ... ~." " ~"I'~'l1:I"I'!r<J' ~"I'~'l1:I"I'!r<J' "9'q~''''''~' '9'q~''''''~' qnrij~·~~~· qrlf<:jA'~~~' ~-.. . he has etc.IXc· 'iI'~Sj 'II'~Sj 3."t.·ij'jJ".·''Id'iCll·''I~''fd'i.. there d'i".· yO.ti.I! ~ i.j~·q·jJ"l c. they are. t@ ~ .yod can be used to express what there is in the speaker's possession ego ~'nr~'ril".

·OJ" !:l'''I~''ll'Ui".. 'rlrr:t~'''l' ~"i'r:t '5"1'''1 khyo goong seng la dro ya re doog ga ~"l" "fl.3 The Comb ined Auxil iary Verb' yod dug But it is different with the second person." ~I.· <>II::....·OJ"~"Ul.r~ent as well as for doing.wr:t~"~"Ul"'"r:t )"1""1 khyo goong seng la dro gi yoe doog ga Ia ~""~I.."rlrr:t~'''l'~"'"r:t ~"i'~I::.."<r"l~z.' ~"il lil<:t <1)1.....3.· riJ'jJ-Ui.l"~I. y.WUl"1 I::..· ~"I khong la so yad red.' Zi'Ui"i' ~"'I dhoom ray nang la me tok maar po yoe re khyod gung seng la 'gro gi yod 'dug ga fa I realize that you are going away for holiday. nga la gos thWIg mang po yod fa thung I have many trousers.·r:t~"~"Ul"." Zi"Ul"'1 nga la deb mang po yoe q'll<1)·~<1)Nfll....· yod (he to tooth/teeth there is/are) Unless it is explicitly expressed..'"iI::.. rno do dgong 'gro gi yodre d She is leaving tonight. ·Clj·<\l·Ui.... khong la bu soom yoe re Ji·~·"i~I::. <\l'''Ii5 ' 1 so gcig one tooth. wUi"i· ~I..r~l::.1 I.a Exam ples I.rr:t'5"1 "'II"i'~ "iw!'ll::.. it is usually ~""Ii5"1 considered plural.e.· ~"I mo do ghong dro gi yoe re rna khong la bu gsum yod red He has three sons" sons. This can also be used for the second person by suffixing "I ga to express what one knows about what the person II doing or w~lI b~ doing" It can be used for reportiv:.. The tenses are usually indicated by the second syllable after the verb 'gro. khyod gung seng la 'gro ya red 'dug ga I found out that you are going away for a holiday..... bstan 'dzin la lag pa gnyis 'dug Tenzin has two houses.."riJ"j)-Ul"" ~"'I thab nang la me yoe re ~1::.. "r. ~I::.l'''I~'' 'Ui.. ldum ra'i nang la me tog dmar po yod red There are red flowers in the garden. nga ia deb mangp o yod la I have many books.'Clj. Yad'd ug can also be used as an auxilia he himse lf saw the Yod'd ry verbal compound mainly in third person to express a sense of discovery or finding out about something."Zi"Ul"1 nga la goe thoong mang po yoe . ~"I thab nang ia me yad red la yod There is fire in the stove.90 suffixed to the yod ego ~I. <1)I.er~ent definite future. 'Zi'Ui"i1 I::..' ~I::. wr:t~· ~'Ui"i'r:t )"1'''1 ~"'"~I..r:t)"I khyod la (you to tooth/teeth there tooth/teeth is/are)."r:t'5"1'''1 'gra r:t~'''I'''l'''r:t'5''1'''I 'dug ga both makes definite future.. Ist perso n 2nd perso n 3rd perso n 4.. I.w~z.r:t'5"1'''1 'gro ya red 'dug ga and r:t~'''I"''l''"r:t'5''1"''I 'gro gi yod r:t~'"'' ". for instance means "You have teeth" when the speaker is certain that person he is speaking to has teeth. !... reporti v:." Zi'Ul"'" ~"il ~"l.. he has teeth yo<! ~I::.' ~I..·r:t~'~·Ui"i· Ji"~·"'~I."OJ' jJ'i5"1'""l.. 'OJ"~ "r"lC.' Zi'Ui." <>II... ~"'Clj'<\lr:t)"I khyad ia so 'dug ~""OJ·~" . WUl"'" ~"I ~ ngaia ngala yod khyod la 'dug khong la yod red I to have (I have) You to there is (you have) He to there is (He/she has) ~"i'~I::.r r:t'5"1 ten dzin la khang pa nyee doog I::.. However by using r:t~""" "".· Q""I~z. 4. .wr:t"'''1 ~I::.·nf~ q""lc. wUi"1 ~"iwr:t"i"l ~".W~l.. JilQ" "i1::."OJ"jJ'i5"1"""l....." ~I.

rings.~' ~r.:.5"1 A5"1 ~r. ~e.:.:.' verbs.f~r.' J. nga dge rgan min I am not (a) teacher.:.'.'Oj'r.5 Examples of Affirmative and Negative Sentences c.j ma and ~ mi that are prefixed to the auxiliary verbs or placed between the main verb and the .-.·~"i·~c. "ic.:. nyi rna sang nyin yong gi yoe re "I"i"'·Oj·llI.·~r.j)r. khyod la sor gdub lnga 'dug khyodLasorgdublnga'dug You.r i Ul"i' 1'1. .~''li''i'. j'j"i' min and ..'i: mi dhi la laa tsi yoe doog ~.JJ'f'l' "..'.:.Ji''i' nga slob phrug yin I am (a) student.' .. kho nang la yoe doog gay g 'r>.' ~r.. being.:.· ~r.:.:..4 Negation Known as r. Yaks.:. thai musk.:. 5"1 5.5"r"l~' kho nang la yod 'dug gas Is he at home? ja 'til tsha po red 'dug gas 'di Is this tea hot? .·r>.:..j)r..I e. E0 nga la due tshoe yoe &.Ji'r>. ~. Affirmative Auxilaries fl~ :is "'-'\' - Negative Auxiliaries J.J-' ja dhi tsha po re doog gay i:l~'.:.Ji·r>.5"1 "f" khyoe la sor doob nga doog [§r.JJ auxiliary verb and the other two.:.:..5"1 "I"i".1 ~e. negatives but these four will suffice for the time being.j'r>.~.1 ~..:."I"I'~ dgag sgra in Tibetan.:.'I'll'5~'lr.:.j)r.·r>. '9'~r.5"1'''1"ll Br. 'i"l'''I~' ~(. ..'r>. 'ru"1' ~"I'Uj"i' nga lob took yin c. ~'or:ll' ~'~r.w ~"'·"I5"1' 2£r>.Ji"i' ~"i' Mr>.91 ~c: £·Of"l"l"l·\!!'" "1~r~r.:.j)r.'r.'~"1' ~"I'cij"i' e.'r>.' ii.' 4..J-'" "".5"1 . r .:.~w:Jr~·~r.:.:.:.'or ~-".:.j'f'l' "'1"l'r>..' ij' ~r.. '~"i '~e.f~r.!"rr>.:..~''li"i' j'j"i' e.. There are two negatives .:.s OJ' ~Oj' .'r>. naam la kar rna kha shay doog [§r.' . 'or~r. gnam la skar rna kha shas 'dug La There are some stars in the sky.. tomorrow.-.:.:~ ~ .:.·.' med are postpositined to verbs..5"1 .·~c.'or:. a.f-".:~ :.. 4.·9·~r..J.5"1'''I~' KS/ - khyoe la ngoo see rna doog gay . There are other .'~r..'''I'i''1' 2£r>. khong tsho la gyag lnga brgya yod red La Lnga They have five hundred Yaks.. / '" khong tsho la yak nga gya yoe re ~·". nga la dus tshod yod La I have (some) time.'''1~r~r.'r. there are mainly four negative particles used in Tibetan as oppossed to the four affirmative auxiliary verbs we have already discussed.'r>.. nga ge ghen min cW5"l·lr.:. khyod la dngul sil ma 'dug gas Do you have some change? 'di La gLa mi 'til la gla rtsi yod 'dug It seems that this man has (some) musk.'orr.:..sor~or ""r>.·~r.. nyi ma sang nyin yang gi yod red yong Nyima is coming tomorrow.-. have five rings.'£'or"l"l"l'\!!.'~r.:.5"1'''I''l1 EO 'r>. 5"1'"I"ll ~'''ie.:.OJ' ~r.:.5"1 l5. 5"1 [§r.:..:.

\1 B.I' "'.j'.\'OJ' <il'~' <>It:. ..\'lj khyoe fa ngay par chh mi doog la chay i§.ij'<il~'l..'fl'St:..\'nr'lj~"l'~nr i§."l. "l·~(. address.\1 nga ia rogs pa med I have no companion.j' "-'\1 ..'or'<:'lj"rt. not khyod mo'i a ma yin pa red You must be her mother..If.·~· ~'lj'''i.I .:·.r "'.7L7"- "\ t:. 'OJ'~'J:.:.. friends.Jl.'ij'Ul.j' ..\'~' ~'lj"l' ..' t. 'or '<:'lj"f r.·t. zhig doog ~ t:..\'lj t:.\·(..l..'ij.'r:l.j. cats.\'nr'lj~"l' ~nr . nga ia grogs po mang po yod red I have many friends..'\'lj ~. khyod la zhi mi kha shas yod red You have some cats.l.<i'<il~' t.\1 khyoe la khang pay dhe mik yoe rna re B. khyod khYOd la nga'i kha sbyang 'dug You have got my address.\'.i'J.. iJ·"i.i'J.\I t:.:i'lj khyoe 1a ngay kha jang doog la i§.\'lj <>Jt:.\'.·OJ· 4t:.'OJ' 4t:.\1 B'\'OJ'~'~fl' "'l"l'''i.i'IIl'<>J'<il~' t..r "'.. camera..\'lj t:.\·OJ'I. ngaia ku shu yod ma red nga ia I do not have apples.1). iJ·"i.'~' ~'lj'Ul.ijf.\' "'.<if.\'lj nga la nyu g. you.i'lll'<>I'<il~'l.\1 t:.\·OJ'/'ll.\'r:l.\'~' <>IQ'~'lj"l' iJ· "-'\1 nga la shing tog mi 'dug I do not have fruits.\'<>J'''-..jf.\·"'..·fl· St:.\1 khyoe la nay tshoo me f§.\nrt:. khyod la deb gsum yod I have three books for you. khyod la nga'i par chas mi 'dug I You do not have my camera.\1 nga la ku shu yoe rna re t:.:i'lj B'\·OJ·I:.·5'lj·~·r:l. "'''l'~r:l..r "-'\1 f§.·l.\' "-'\1 khyoe la zhi mi kha shay yoe re B'\·OJ·!'lI:.·OJ·lj·"i.r~'lj'r:l. 'or~'lj"l'ij'<>Jt:. nga la drok po mang po yoe re t:. khyod nyi ma'i grogs po red You are Nyima's friend...I'.. nga la smyu guzhig 'dug I have a pen..\1 khyoe moi a rna yim pa re ~'lj"l'. companion. khyod la gnas tshui med tshul I do n()t have (any) news for you.'OJ'~'.\1 khyoe khoi drok mo yim pa rna re f§.r "-'\1 B. khyod la yi ge mang po yod 'dug fa khoe nyi may drok po re B'\'OJ'~'~fl'"'l"l'Ul.·r:l.i'J.r~'lj'r:l.\· <>1''''..\'nr ~q·'lj~<>I·Ui'\1 i§'\'nr ~q''lj~<>J'Ui'\I khyoe la deb soom yoe i§.'5'lj'~'r:l.r ~'\I nga la rok pa me Ia t:. khyod la khang pa'i ide mig yod rna red Ide You do not have the house keyes).i'J.\' "-'\1 'or~'lj"l' iJ· <>It:.'OJ'lj'Ul.\' .\'lj nga la shing 10k mi doog B'\'~'<>JQ'~'lj"l'ij' "'.·l. khyod kho'i grogs mo yin pa ma red You mustn't be his girl friend.5'lj i§'\nrt:.

6.Sllj f"-'[1J' i5'[1Jllj'~"-'·lJ·"lIlj·. i ~ f".\· .\jj-r:>.Sllj f"-W"-' a. f"-'[1J' Q!3llj~'~' .. f"-'mQ'~~'''i~'''il\'llj~~' <r6l' ~"I f"-'ru"'~~'''i~'''il)'Ilj~~' <r.· Jj·r:>. you.·Jj·r:>.. antique..~ ..S"I "I'" khong la pe shak yaar ya yoe mi doog ~j .:j'Ui. khyod la brngan pa yod mi 'dug brngall It seems there is no gift for you..Sllj 6"'(lj' "til)·.q'''l''l'..q~'Jj'r:>.'Sllj f"-'(lj'"-' a.. f"-'(lf"-' a. khong la nga tsho'i par mi 'dug La He does not have our photographs.:b.:j·Jjil\1 khong ngai tshap po min khong nga'i tshab po min He is not my representative.khong 'khrungs sa khams nas yin pa red I gather /lis birth-place is Kham (region). khong sol grva'i dge rgan red khOllg He is (a) school teacher..~·lJ~·r:>. Indian. f"-·r>.q~'r:>. khong la nga tsho'i par 'dug He has our photographs. wifi ~~~ ~ f"-'(lfi5'[1Jllj'~'....j·Il'ri~·Ui"1 khong la achor yoe khong la a char yod La I have (a) towel for him.' khong gya gar wa yim pa rna re khong rgya gar ba yin pa rna red He (she) mustn't be an Indian. photographs. f"-'[1J'Il'ri~'Ui'\1 f"-·r>.q' ~'\I 'r:>. khong la bzhugs sa med I have no place for him (her) to stay.§C-~'~'f'l'.:j'Ui''i·r:>.SIlj khong la nga tshoi par mi doog f"-W i5'(ljIlj'~".\'(lfQtil\'..\'Jj'r:>..\'ihQ'.\' Jj'r:>.<rUi.·4"1""IUl~' "l·Ui.· r: .:b'<5'~"1 khong ngai tsha vo re iii.'(If"-" a.:j·Ui.·....'S"I khong la pe shak yaar ya yoe doog f"-WlJ"·4"1·"IUl~·Ul·Ui.'S''I f"-'(lj·i5·(ljIlj·~·lJ·Ul"l·. khong la pad shag gyar ya yod mi 'dug It seems he does not have the money to lend.'ru"'~~'''~'''il)' ~"I khong lob drai ge ghen re :i.'5'1lj~'"'illil)'lJ' 6l' ~"il '5'llj~' Q'Ulil\'.93 /' khyoe la yi ge mang po yoe doog Ie' It seems there are many letters for you.:j·Jjil)1 f"-'"-f.q'''lllj'.~ 'lJ~' Jj·r:>.'r:>.'S"I khong ta ca lag rnyingpa yag po yod mi 'dug la rnying pa yagpo khong la cha lag nying pa yag po yoe mi doog It seems he doesn't have good quality antique.·r:>.S"I f".SIlj khong la ca lag rnying pa yag po yod 'dug khong la cha lag nying pa yag po yoe doog It seems he has good quality antiques. khong la pad shag gyar ya yod'dug It seems he has the money to lend.~'..j·lJ.SIlj khyoe la ngem pa yoe mi doog f"-'mQ'~~''\~'''il\'~'\1 f". 'S"I f"-'[1J' 4'lf"l"l~' "l'Ui. khong sol grva'i dge rgan gsar pa ma red He is not (a) new school teacher.q'.. .' ~'\I khong lob drai ge ghen sar pa rna re t. khong nga'i tsha bo red He is my nephew. f"-·"-f.~'il)~'illil) 'lJ' ~"I khong troong sa kham nay yim pa re (4 f".W "I'" 4"1'''I''l~'''l'Ui.§C-~' ~'F6l~' il\~'Ulil\'..ii"il f"-W "!3Ilj~'~' Ji"il khong la zhook sa me f"-'"-~'ih'<5'~'\1 f"-'"-~' ..'S1lj khong la nga tshoi par doog ti f".:j·Ui"i·r:>.q'Ui.\jj-r:>.

.~'I:lj' a. z:... 'lIj ~ ~'!... . co....J' ~z:..' a...' a. r do nbt have a headache.... .'f'll'7Tjt::... ~ ~ ~ c.'I..'t:l...... -.'a.JW ~z:.lI:lj'<3i 'l:lj'a..r:l..... .'t::. ~ C'..-... .'Ul<3i'I...W~Sf'll' a..'f'll' 7Tj ::.' -.l<3i1 a.. _ Negative "'. . Affirmative . ldumra thab garden stove many sky ~.z:. .z:.. eo. _ _ c.....j' ~''1j' ~~' a..1:lj jIlt::..'t:l.jllj'~ 'lIj'a.l't:l.S~lIjt::.r ~z:.1 ___ ~ .... legs.... .<r 1.. " ~ t::.~1:lJ " --~ t::.1 z:.lIj'lIj ~ .j' .-! c... mules...' a..'f'll~' Sz:.lW ~z:...lIj c. " __ Y' ~'Jj'S'fi'iI:ljW Jj.t:l. " -.....~I:lj'1:lj .'~f'll'a. -." " """- - ~ ~ ~ ~lIj'lIj ~ .. outside.l' ~z:.. t:l. -..l' ~'1TJ' <3i ~'Ul<3il _ _ co.....z:. r do not have torch for him I They are not officiaL official. z:....ilL<' "J[... ~ " ~ ~ jIlt::._ ~Wz:.. eo..'I:. ..'t::.~'I:lj'Ul~1 a. ' a. We are going tonight.-_co..~I:lj'1:lj r:l.l' ~~1 ~_ - .jz:..r:l..". 4... eo...........j' ~''1j'.......j~' ~ ~ ~ _ _e-.lz:..ll:lj' <3i 'I:lj't:l.1 z:....- t:l..J'Ulz:.... The cat is outside.l't:l..Sf'll'Ulz:..'<3iz:. e-. c.t:l.'r:l...'I:lj Ooll:lj 'I:lj'e:: ar ~z:....z:.r:l..~z:...I' ~z:. sick....lz:..' a.......l' ~~' a.Wz:.7 Vocabulary Nouns: These are not mules...... jIlt::.. He is not sick.W7Tjtt::..'I. 't::.l r:l..Sf'll'~z:. ~ c.. C\..~' a. "" . 'nrflJlIj'lIj~' a...'a...I:lj'1:lj z:.c...~'lIj' a.'t::. r am not from America.. C'.. r am from America....'t:l.l' ~'f'llI:lj'l'lI't:l.......... ~ t:l. These are not my books. ~ ~ z:.j' ~z:.:i:j- mangpo gnam "I". This spoon seems to be made of gOld.1 -.."... e-..... That is not Yak tail.1' Ool z:..~' a...1 ~' a.. ........'a..'Ul<3il a.1 ~ 'lIjOolllj'lIj'e.' a... ~ (lj' 7Tj ::.'a.1 ~'~'f'll~'§~'Uj~'I:....jllj' .' a...'Ool~' L...j~' ~..."...1:mz:. ~'I:ljUlI:lj'I:lj·e:... The cat is not outside.z:.I' a..' a.'a.. __ ~ .1:lj t::. " e-.j'r:l.Q't:l. .j~' a. This bird does not seem to have legs.z:. - ~ ~ .Q'r:l.. We are not going tonight. z:.' ~f'll' ~z:.. That is Yak tail... z:.~' a...l't:l.r:l..j' ~z:.\ " ~' g'f'll~'§~'Uj<3i'I.'l. 'lIjOolllj 'lIj' ~z:.' S't:l.....1 ~ t::.' <3i~'I.jz:..~lIj'lIj ""'- .. 'nrmllj'lIj~' Ool~' ..... not We do not have money... " ¥ _"'-_ __v t::...... - .' a...1:lj .lIj " S' r:l.. jIlt::.. This spoon does not seem to be made of gold.z:.j~' ~ ~ ...j' ~~... ~lIj 'lIj c.t:l. _ c...j'r:l.-! C\. He is sick..'t:l. " " Translation These are mules. .~1:lj ~' JJ' S't1'illjW JJ' r:l.. .. t::. -..j' a...j' r:l.1:lj ~'a. " S'r:l..j' .'f'll~' Sz:.' ~~'I:.~'lIj~~'~' a.....1 a..' ~z:. r have a headache. We have money. r have torch for him.J' ~~' a.lIj flt::.. t::... flt::.j' ~'f'llllj'nmz:.z:.1' Ool z:..j't:l.'~'~I:ljt::.]I:lj'I:lj~' a. eo.. 'r:l..J' ~z:...' a.l~1 a. ~ .3i ~'Ool~' t::.lIj ~ ~'a. _-. ~lIj t::.. z:. I They are officials...I'a.j'"'"" . . '(:l.~I:lj'1:lj r:l. eo... S't:l... '@j' a.'~' ~lIjt::.... '1:.z:. a. 'nrr..j' ~z:.. '@j' a. ~I:!j t::... ...W~Sf'll' a..: <jaJ[.. flt::..'I:lj~ ~'~'l... .. These are my books..~' a... '1:..... This birds seem to have legs..' a. Co.... z:..6 Participation Drills -..'a.j'r:l. .' a.l<3i1 .z:...z:. '(:l...-. c..S~I:ljt::...~r:l.. ~ -. c.. ... C'\() co.. t:l.. "_ c..3i 'lIj' r:l.z:....'~f'll'a...'Ool~' flt::....~'lIj'Ool~' a.J'Ulz:...94 4.... 'nrml:lj'l:lj~ 'Ul~l ... C'.l' ~'1TJ' <3i~' a.. c.......~'I:lj~~'~' ~~' a..

.Q Q1° Qo'l)"l"oQo 'l)"l"oQQ~oQo to copy to borrow to count to sew to sqeeze to ask to fear p'~6loLJo P._ 1lJ~.8 Interrogative Negatives headache toothache to dig .\0Qo <\1o"\oQo ..--..ot:io ~'i:J.Jiljo~oQo <\1-..' '""..Eo C.'l0a..: C.~ ..o ~-- " t4.o~~ ~"oLJo 'lJ~~~rlio <IJ~~~rlio (lJ0? 'l)'If nJ"I')'l)'ll° til°j'l6l~o til°fl6l'll° ~~oLJo ~~rLJo - k' (l"o ~'ll0 (l"o~~o ~otilo ~°til° Li. Tibetan year farmer prayer book (l"o ~nJ"til° ~nftil° ~e:..ot:io !je:.°LJo L"c.~. t~~~- .j'l)°LJo ~:r{.~6loLJo Q~"oQo P'~oQo .• mgonaba so na ba r/wba r!wba bshuba gyarba brtsiba 'tshempa btsir ba 'dri ba skragpa 4.06l0 O ilj~r Ile:.95 "----=---- . .:..0 ilj~r!le:.1lJ~-" ~..:~ skarma gosthung mgama rngama dre1 dreZ shing tog skudpa gzugs po lortags 10khams lokhams tshespa bodtshes spyi 10 Zo bodrgya11o bodrgyaZlo zhingpa dpecha Adjectives star trousers tail mule fruit thread body year sign year element date Tibetan date l\l"o6l ~ ~. 0 E.W ~r~o 4e:.. fj6l 0 0 t:io :j0t:io :f t:i0 ~ "f t:i "J"t:i it§:_ it§..E.fjoQ_ . lasslapo khagpo rna po rnopo thungpo ringpo sbompo phrapo rtsubpo Verbs easy difficult sharp short long thick thin rough (lJ~0!ll0l:i0 rll'll°!il°l:jo j'I'l)0 0 fl'l)° t:i ~olio ~e:.>Jiljo~oQo .- .. / .vj0Qo Q1.

l.·g·~'i·~·9"J.l .. 6."..~'i' ~ '9' J.l.·g·:!i'''l..f <l.l.·~'6l".·~'i1 ':'1' g.. <i·cii" ..l.!:.)? khyed tsho ja 'thung gi min pas Aren't you drinking the tea? khyod 'dzin grva la 'gro gi min pas Aren't you going to the class? sgo 'di phye gi min pas Aren't you going to open this door? -" jilt:.5."I¢"-'''I~ZIl"''f~' ~'ZIl'li". t:..a.l.(ll·r.'<lZ\l1 t:: g'.~' ~'9'."l 4.. (l'.~·~·9·Ji"..\''.l.Jl"..<lZ\l1 g''lj~(ll'E' q~"l'~'li~' 'l'lll khye tsho sol ja shay kyi rnim pay mim ~'i' g. ']".·'l'll1 ."''''' ~'i''l'lll beu dei a rna ba chook dhi rna re pay ~'i' g..l.r.l.l.·:<''il lfl'l'\"-Will"-' 'l' ~..9 Exercises of Lesson Foul' Four (a) Translate into English: 1..j)".'~-nrr..·~·r..t:.f:<''i·'l''l1 ngo tshay dhi tsho khye rang gi rna re pay ~'i' g 'llJ~nj'!:' .~'9'.l. <lZ\l1 g.''l'lll nga rang tsho nyal gyi min pay nga rang tsho nyal gyi min pas Aren't we going to sleep? khong tsho slob phrug ma red pas Aren't they students? be'u de'i a ma ba phyug 'di ma red pas Isn't this cow the mother of that calf? khyed tsho gtsang gzhis ka rtse nas min pas nos Aren't you from Shigatse in Tsang? zam pa 'di gsar pa rna red pas Isn't this a new bridge? sngotshal 'di tsho khyed rang gi rna red pas Aren't these your vegetables? khyed tsho gsol ja bzhes kyi min pas Aren't you drinking the tea (han..·~'il t:..·qw:<. ?~... 5.·'i'ljr.f :<''i'<lZ\l1 jile:.j)"."1 3.jt:.'9'.'nr"l"l"l' j:j'il ']".f :<''i'<l'lll ~·cr..~·~· q'''I~"."I~"I"l. 7.~".iJ"-·~"I·q~"'·~·ill"."'·~·ill~1 nga stod thung 'tsem gyi yin slOd !hung nga fa gyag med la kun dga' (a name) a sa rko gi 'dug rfa rta de gzugs po ring po yod red khong tsho rgya gar ba rna red pha tsho nga'i lug rna red a zhang la khang pa rnang po yod rna red nga tsho shing tog btsir gyi yin 2.l.~ gho dhi che gi mim pay "l1l..·~·iil~1 di'i·8"-·r. :<'' 1'<J"ll zarn pa dhi sar pa rna re pay zam ~..<i·cii".j)~ ."l~Z\l""f~' ~'ZIl' .q~'Il'~'.1 "-' g·...><t:.t:.)? 4.j''l''''':<''il ':..l. ·9'.j)~'<l'lll ~'i'r..l.. g'..".l.~"I'r.r.·"l·~·9·r.·r..5.·'illJr.·'Il·~·9·r.. ~'9'li~' 'l"ll khyo tsho dzin dra la dro gi rnim pay mim ~'r.~-nrr. 8.J''I''''' ~'il ll'l'l'\t:.<i' ~'<i'cii'i' :<'' 11 ?'~'''l~''l'll'<i' ~'<i'cii'i' :<''il jilt:.'Il'l'J.'lj"l ..r g..nj'r.r.·~"l·q~"."-f. g"iJt:.l.l.)? (hon..l.g'ffiz:rfjllJ' J.l..?nj'§j'."l¢t:. 'l.'nr'lj"l"l'j:j'il ".(ll'§j'Ji".' <lZ\l1 ~·r.14"-'9' Ji~' <lZ\l1 g'E .·Ifl· q.·q·. ~.'lj'll. di'i·8t:.l.~'~'q'''l~t:.a.'9'li~' <:i'lll zim gho dhi che wa nang gi mim pay gzim sgo 'di phye ba gnanggi min pas Aren't you going to open this door (han.'':<''i'z:J'Il1 z:r.' g'ruz:r fj'lj' :<''i' 'l'lll khong tsho lob took rna re pay q'3'~i:l.~"l'r.j)~' <:IZ\l1 "I11 .f. z:r.\''.' 'l'lll khye tsho tsang shi ka tse nay mim pay -'lJ.\''''':<''i'<lZ\l1 q'3·~i:l.f q.!.'\' g.'il jil"-·g·:!j""I.~".Jl~· 'l'lll ~ khye tsho ja tboong gi rnim pay thoong mim ~'i..l.l.'\.l..'nj'!'lr:<l'.'~'r.. 'r..

....t:\:i"l 10.. t.....rJ..~...'-I"i...."~ &....'. . ~ ....'5.. -'i'CS'()J'...t'·r."I'" Jl"1 6.... '0. khong gi 'khrungs yullha sa nas red 4.... "\'Il'Ul... B"·~t..-.w..·..t:\~.:: ~..... rkw~llj~r2j·J. ·"I-'1I<·~· J...t..{ 7.r J....'-I.. khong dbyin ji 'i yi ge 'bri klog shes kyi ma red 10...t'·~·nft:\~·lij·······1 e.......·.r ~"l ~~ 't~-.j"l'9'-'i'I<:i"l (b) Transliterate into Tibetan: khong gis nga la 'dri gi red zhi mi khyi fa skrag gi mi 'dug zhimikhyiwsbaggimi'dUg 0. sku 'dra 'di rin thang bral ba red (c) Fill the blanks and translate into English: 2.a·~·. ~.f~q·r:l. gza' nyi ma la 'gro ... ..·nrrul.t'·..·.jgq·Jj·()J·~"'·"I:iq·Ui"I 9. ()J.......'-1.f~IlJ·~"1 f§"i'ml.l..·nr~l. e.~ ·<1i..." I~' Transform the following sentences into negatives: ~ 1.. f§... pha gir bung bung dkarpo gsum 'dug krung krung dkar po 3..~. (iit.·..JJt.\t.··I 9.: &.. r:l.:nrt:\~·il!·~" filc:lli~rc:nrl<~'lli' ~"i " "- -'i·CS·r>l·..t'W!"t..:.S"l 7. la pad shag gyar ya med nga tsho ri la 'gro gi .. " ~.t'·t.jgq· Jj·r>l·~ . min ~. "l"l.J"I·2l"l~r J.."1 3.....t"'r. ~·~"I·t:\~·~~·······1 ~'~"I'I<~'llj~"'''''1 file.je.. nga'i a ma rgyang rtse dpal 'khar mchod rten la yod red w 6.~·"i!)·~·Ui"i ...."1 2.t"·~·nrl<~·9"""·/ \:.·"I:iq·<1i"1 e.. sa skya gong ma bod kyi bla ma chen po zhig red 8.....t'·'Ilt. t...~.......j"l·lij· -'i.' 2j·iil"l t.:i'll 1"e.f~llf'~"/ 5.... Jl"il .jt..:.j········1 file.·~e.... Wd' ~ khong la grogs po mang po yod red nga la slob deb 'dug w 'di gsar pa red khyod slob phrug red khang pa'i nang la mi mang po 'dug nga tsho sang nyin 'gro gi yin khong tsho da Ita bzhugs 'dug gdub nga'i mdzub mo la sor gdUb yod nga tsho la khang pa mang po yod de tsho nga'i zhi mi red :&.. "l"l'''I''' .Ilj'll"'.··'-I'Il1 2... &1ilil 1O:..t'·qr>l·':jr>lWt:\~·lij······· ~"I 9.:..\e..J~' ...t"·e.. (iit....A·J. I<~'.. (iic:il!~rt.: ......f<1i"·J...\''-I'Il/ "\ 'Il·Ul. ...t"·'Ile......j..r ~"I ~. ~t. !"t...''ii:"..·2j·Ui"i·~"ii e."'.'Il.~''lI'Il'''''-I' ~"il 4....sgang la nga'i dpe cha yod .w..j·······1 "'.·~·qlj"l'll·r:l....'i:/'r:l...:illj 6...j / t:\~ . t....'. khong bba shis bsam gtan lags red bkra 2..·~·qlj"l'll·r:l..t'·r>l·~l..J~.......­ 5....' 'di tsho lug lpags ma . 4. ...r:l.(lJ..... i:/...:".... khams dar rtse mdo 'di nas thag ring po red 5. rgya leog 'di su'i ...._" '(.: (e) Express and memorize the names of the 12 animal signs of Tibetan lunar calendar: ~il...... .·..t"·q()J·':j()JWI<~·9""·"~"ii 8. t..·..pas lho ..t"WI"e..A·~·._..r>l...r>l..'-I".J- B"i·~e..S"l 8..·········1 1O:·······"I-'1t:\·~· J.. file. lha sa nas yin pas khong tsho la deb yod ma ...j'(lJ'I<~"""" &!ilil (d) ~-... tshong pa 'di tsho stod la dvagspa red 7.f~q·r:l..je....\·'-I'Il1 3. sgang ....jt.' . Icog khong tsho bal yulla 'gro gi .'l...a·J. 2j'0l"i/ 10.'V 1.j . ~"I r:l.99....t"'.. red .....·.'{' ~"'{' " ..·'-I········'-I'Il1 3...·'-I .·rul. .·~"i·t:\~·il!·Ul"i1 e.J"I'2J"I~r J.. .''-1' JJC.fUi"i·J... Ipags khyod zhing pa ..t"·()J·~l.·2j·<1i"·~"1 rkW~'lI~r2j·J.·~ili·I<~·lli·Ulili/ (iit.'5... nga tsho bod skad slob phrug yin 9. ···. .·()J·e. .." L)..'- 1.

l" J. 7..'Ij'll"'Ij"iC"1 ha rna go na dri rok nang :. . 12.·c·. 'lj'iii'i. ~" ~r i rta lug sprel bya khyi phag look trey jab key paak er I!f ~ "I'lj "I'1j 4. Pronunc. '·J. English l.l'J. ll'i'iil'I1i'~'~~' J.jQ'll". tshang ma yar bzhengs rogs gnang rna Everyone..cw"'l""Q~c~' ~'Ij'll''ljilic'l a.~"-~·~·t'r~·Ujilil ""C""~"'ll'~"(ir~'Uj"i1 ~ da nga gong pa zhu gi yin 6.~'Ij 3.10 Useful Expl"essions 1. ha rna go na dri rags gnang Please ask me if you did't understand.cw"'l'""Q~C 'll" ~'Ij'll"'Ij"iC"1 bzhugs goon Jags rogs gnang gdan Please take a seat. a Ie anijey majay yang 7. 9. 7" 8.!'Ij ~.lE<nrliic·1 l1i'iil"I!i"~"~~" J. . 5. a Ie a ni rjes rna rnjal yang Okay I will see you later.!'lj r:.E<'lj'll· ~'lj~''ljili"-'I Q~'Ij'll"'Ij""i "r>. 11.i. may I be excused.70 Tibetan Translit. ~ !4rll" !4rll' '7' '7" r:.~'lj r>.i. 4.l·~·'Y~·~'lj'll·'Ij~C·1 '·J. Q~'lj~·'lj"ili·r:>. a.le<nrUic"1 da nga dgongpa zhu gi yin dgong pa Now. please rise up. . 10. 'lj'iii'Q~'lj'll''<:'lj~''lj~"-'1 'Ij"iij" Q~'Ij'll' .'Ij'll"'Ij"i""1 ga Ie zhook ro nang 5. S'Q' S"Q" byiba glang stag yos 'brug sbrul jeeva laang taak yoe drook drool tab mouse ox tiger rabbit dragon snake horse sheep monkey bird dog pig 2. le phebs rogs gnang Ie Good bye (Expressed by one staying) ga le bzhugs rags gnang Ie rogs Good bye (Expressed by one leaving) tshang ma yaa sheng rok nang rna 3. 1.l"~""i"~·.'Ij'll"'Ij"iC"1 ga Ie phe rok nang 4.jQ~' ~'lj'll''lj~C'1 'Ij"iij"i.e< 'Ij'll" ~'Ij'll''Ij''i''"1 zhook dhen jaa rok nang 2.i. 6. me: 'II'lj 'II'Ij "'I'll' "'I'll" r:>.

" .j .~ .""I" Ui"" e.~·~"~"\1 3.<i"il e.. j§'\"I"".~'~' 'lIe.I' ~"il khong chu tshod bdun pa la phyin pa red La khong chu !shoe doom pa la chim pa re tshoe He/she left at 7 O'clock.I·~"i1 khong ga dus phyin pa red khong ga due chim pa re When did he/she leave? 3. ba.-..3 Participation Drills of Interrogative Sentences ~.>.."(1J" QIj'lj~""i"i" ~"\I Ill" J.- «.. ' ii.>. 'iii:. understood from the context of the sentence.2 General Interrogative Pronouns <!.>.i'-f' . No question mark is used in Tib6tan as questions are sterns.' 'itt.': th'.r.': "I"~" ""~' gam ga ru 5.''S' ~' ~" gang byas nas whylhow why/how sufi whose gangdu where to ci "Ie.. na. !:j' '~' - q\ ql 5.-. When there are interrogative pronouns the interrogative particles 'lJ~" gas Tibetan.' ~"~\ Q'S".i "I"~'S~'"." 'l!e.e.(1J." 10. da.~- i2~1 to)."".·"'·'S'!l·~""l... ~".r.~""ie. nga.~ \::O). Tibetan interrogative sentences have either the interrogative pronoun at the beginning of the sentence or before the auxiliary verb. ~\ Q'S". t<.<i"\1 m.· "I' Ui". ~" "" '"'!l' where gaba from where ganas ga re byas nas whylhow why/how 'lJ"'S~.' '6.'(lJ' QIj9~'''i''i' ~"il 4. ~''lj"\.I'(lJ' ~""l..~·r. file.~" IJii IJ. The general interrogative particles gas and pas are put after selected Q~r auxiliary verbs and to the verbal sterns.. and Q~' pas are not used... fie.""I"'SZ\l"~"'·Q"~"\1 2.' '"'!l' what where to "r~' th'.1Il· iJJ'(lJ"I~'''i''~r''l' Q' QIj'lj~'Ui"i' ~.." q.5i·"I"r.~' ~.>.-.Z\r ""~'S~'".~'Uie. e.I·(lJ"i~S'1!·~"'·fle.r. Ill' J.'z:rUi"'1 khyod ga nas yong ba yin khyoe ga nay yong va yin ga Where did you come from? Questions e."'S" ".>.~·r. ~. Some modern writers have been introducing the use of the question mark and various punctuation marks in their Tibetan writing which are unacceptable" unacceptable.\. Out of the ten suffixes ga... instead ofpas in making interrogative past f".e.~"~" 'l!'r.LESSON FIVE ~!:I' J."z:rUi"'1 j§.u.:W ~~ ~t /'.' J' ~i 5.1 nga rgya gar rdo rje gdan nas yong ba yin nga gya gar dor je dhen nay yon va yin I came from Bodhgaya.~.' "''!l·Uie. ''lj' qlJ" "I""..''''~" "..~""ie.'l."~"'lj"'"~"~''lJ"\..t 'di 'tira ga 'tire se red dhin dra ga dre se re How did this happen? nga ha go gi med nga ha gi ki me I do not know" know. m.\""".'~' "'. ~"\I 4.. rna and sa all can invariably use gas or pas in making interrogative ma sentences."~"~".~.>.. The non-pronoun interrogative particles are placed at the end of the sentence. ra and all vowel ending syllables use bas. Answers ti 2." q" ~"\I fie."i. India.j·(1J"i~S'I!" ~'" ·fIle. su gang gangnas gare who what/who where from what ~a· "Ie.".>..·~·~·.5i'''I·r.' ~.. 'lj''S~' 'lI..1ll· ilJ·(1J"I~"'\"'~r"l· Q" QIj'lJ~. Spoken Tibetan has completely a different set of interrogatives 'lj~' from the classical Tibetan..'S~·"'~· gadus ga'tirese ga 'tire se when how 'lie." Interrogatives are about questions. :\.."S~""'~" 'l!e..1 Interrogatives '6.>. India. For interrogative future gas is used and for interrogative past pas is used.\I 1ff .·.: /": 1.~..~·~·~''i1 file. However 'a.

\·~·~r:>.\I fll"l'll·.·~·fic· g~'~~'q'~'\1 lags red ra de /chong tshos nyos pa red laa re ra de khong tshoi nyoe pa re Yes. "I~.t. fll"l'll' ~'r<.c:. '''I~ClJ'1< . 'l'l{'~'I{'q'. .~. '''I~nrl<'. 'ClJ' .\'~e:. t:: Ji'fl'fll"l' ~'~ ~.~p:rucr ~'riil~' q'l{l 8. C Ill' q"~·.t....~' "I':':S~l"~~r.'fll'~nmS"I'''I~1 lO.>J*'''l" ~'r:>.~"~'ll"S"I" t:i"l' ~~.\·.\'''Icli''r ~.e:.\1 6.rr:>.. '\ "1'' 1'1{1 /chong gsol ja mchod kyi mi 'dug gas khong so ja cho kyi mi doog gay Isn't he/she drinking the tea? ~ lags rna red nga tsho kha lag za gi rna red laa rna re nga tsho kha la za gi rna re No..>I'~·].' ."I~ .. we will not eat food.\I 'fle:.'r:>. ·6. fll"l'll' ~'\I fll"llll' .ll"'·..·Ji~·~~·q·. ~ ~ nga kho ngus pa go ma byung /cho nga kho ngoo pa go rna joong I did not hear him cry.·1 '[!i'e.\'q~1 .>I'~.'~e:.. 9'3 .\I .\·~:~·r:>. 'ruQ'..·§·~ . [!iS9~'''Ie:.\"1 ~ ~ lags mi 'dug khong gsol ja mchod kyi mi 'dug /chong laa mi doog khong so ja cho kyi mi doog No.\I gser gyi thur rna 'eli su'i red ser gyi thoor rna dhi sui re Whose golden spoon is this? 4" khyi de zas dug phog nas shi ba red khyi de zay dook phog nay shi va re The dog died of food poisoning.>Ii.~' ~~' ~.9G'~' a.·fl'ClJ"I' ~'\I byi'u de tshang nang la nyal 'dug gas jiu de tshang nang la nyal doog gay Is the bird sleeping in the nest? 11.·~·fie:. '[!i'C'll' q'~'.."C1J" .>Ii. 8'&.t.>Ii..\"1 fll"llll' [!ie.'fl'fll"l' ~'~'.\'q~1 '6'\'.·5'.>Ii..'~e:.~~'ffiq'~"r~~I e. ClJ"IIll'.C·q'~~' ~. a.~ ~.. .' .~.fie.'~e:. byi'u de tshang nang la mthong ya mi 'dug jiu de tshang nang la thong ya mi doog I cannot see the bird in the nest..&'\' ffiq"'r:>."r:>.· 4' <r ~'\I "I'~' S~f ~ 'If.e:.fic·"I~fll·I<·.\'''Icli''l' ~.>I'~' J.·~·fie:.e.>I' ~'\' q'l{l ra de khong tshosnyos pa ma redpas red pas ra de khong tshoi nyoe pa rna re pay Didn't they buy that goat? 13.. . I am not a student of this school. '~'~.~"~ '\'"I cli"l' ~..·.>I' ~.\I ~ " gser gyi thur rna 'eli tshong pa de'i red ma ser gyi thoor rna de tshong pa dei re This is the businessman's golden spoon.rr<~·~~·~'\1 7. they bought the goat.. '~' ~ '\' "I "l" ~'\I khong sman khang gi nad gyog red /chong khong men khang gi ne yak re She is the hospital's nurse.IUU a ma lags da Ita ga ba bzhugs yod red a rna la tha ta ga va shook yoe re Where is mother staying now? a rna lags da Ita sman khang la bzhugs yod red a rna laa tha ta men khang la shook yoe re Mother is now staying at the hospital.9G·~· a.t.~~'ruq' ~"I' ~~I fll"l'll" lags min nga slob grva 'eli'i slob phrug min laa min ngalob dra dhee lob took min No..'\"I·"I~1 13.<)' q' ~'\I §'~' ~Ill'S"I' t:i"l" ~ 'I{' ~.t. a little while ago? 7..\'~' ~r:>.>IJ~'\·q~1 12.' cr ~.>I"~'\1 e.e:.· g'l{'~'I{.'r:>.>I·:lC·1 e.\I khyi 'eli ga re byas nas da nang shi ba red khyi dhi ga re jay nay tha nang shi va re How did this dog die this morning? 6.'S'I{'~'I{'S'q'~.t.'''f ~"r:>.t.\' ruq'.. c:: l'fl'ClJ"I' ~. [!iS9~·"Ie:.§.'q'~~' ~'\I "I~"'·5".t. ."I~.~~ ·fle:. fie:.'~'fie.\"1 [!ic '''I~nrl<' .\1 C'].\'~:~'r<..~p:ffi<r ~'rUl~' q~1 khyed slob grva 'eli'i slob phrug yill pas yin khye lob dra dhee lob took yim pay Are you student of this school? 9 fie:..'J.>Jilc.\·~e:. '~'~.\'q'l{l nga tsho kha lag za gi redpas red pas nga tsho kha la za gire pay Will we be eating the meal? 12.~.. §... he/she is not drinking the tea.\'q'l{l khong khyed rang gi nod gyog redpas red pas khong khye rang gi ne yak re pay Is he/she your nurse? lO.>I':le...ll.·s~r~~·s·q·~'\1 kho da byin gang byas nas ngu ba red byill kho tha jin gang jay nay ngoo va re Why was he crying for. . 'ClJ'~nmS"I'''I'1{1 ClJ"I'I{' ~~I C'ffiCl".q' ~.e:.\I 5is'r:>. S"I ~e:.

>. Q~'" <l'tiit1J.\'..·~')·"r ~"I a. khrom la~spru gu g~ tshod 'dug tom la too gu ga tshoe doog Ia How many children were there at the market? .i. ".·r.'~'a:Ji:l'~:li'~"I' ~~·etjilll gza' nyi ma'i nyin dreg rtsis yin zaah nyi mai nyin drek tsee yin I am planning to mow it on Sunday.>J[.~[.'.!·"I·~~r~"I·~'tililll spang kha'i rtsa ga dus dreg kyi yin rlsa pang khai tsa ga due drek kyi yin When will you mow the lawn? t¥{.:i·......'Q~"I~' jj-r.tiit1J.il khyod rang shing tog de tsho za gi min pas khye rang shing tok de tsho za gi mim pay Aren't you eating those fruits? ~" ~'" lags min thugs rje ehe laa min thook je che No.~ .2...§.iye rang nga dro ga due yong gi yin "J.J·fl. - 22.l 14. .\· Q~' khyod La chu tshod 'di 'dra med pas khyoe la chu tsho dhin dra me pay Don't you have a watch like this? lags nga la gcig stan rags gnang rogs laa nga la chik ton ro nang Could you please show it to me? t1J'lJ~' jj-r.5"1 ~[.~.·~·til:liJ [.ii..)' 23.30. tiJ .>.~"1 snod 'di'i nang La zho gog ga tshod 'dug noe dhee nang la zho gok ga tshoe doog How many potatoes are there in this pot? jXltatoes 19iF·I"i:\·.>J'I'!'!. ~"I~'?'.llfl.·"I·5~· i.'~' a:Ji:\ .\"I·.>J~i!)' .&... .' g".>Jw ~r"l·"I·l.')"1 ~o>J"t1J"~'''I' . wi'\'~"I'"j"Oi'''I~~' ". he is not there.'\"I'''I~I .·-9[. t1J"I~'[.t::.~~.- 17~o>Jw ~r"l·"I·l.>.·Oi"o>J"r..~·l·~i:l·~'\1 20.5'\' . g"..:j.r.~t::.t.r. i!) '\l'll! -'" o>J"l ."1 I ."1lJ" tii[.·0i· .>.' ~[. '\~JQ'lli!)' QW ~"..~·fl. wi1\'~"I"'Oi'''I~~' ". ~"r. tsha 10 ma 'di tsho la bdag po mi 'dug La La tsha 10 rna dhi tsho la dak po mi dook . thank you.' .>J'r. t</0!" r 20. ~".iii.~.>... ~ g.-.ctj~ nga snga dro chu tshod rgyad pa yoL nas skar rna Lnga la yang gi yin nga dro chu IShoe gye pa yow nay kar rna tshoe nga la yon gi yin I will come 8.\·r.\·.\"1 ...~·l·~i:\· ~.J~''1!.·"1·5~·i. ii.\. ~'fl. ~"I' ~ ~.B. '\"1 ~.\·fl.5'\·:q. ~t::...o>J~ill 'I"t::.·0i·.>J"1lJ"~'Ilj' .30. ~"I~"?'.\·fl..~·l-nrQ. ..)' ~ ~ ~ ~.J.5"1 16.5"1 t1J'l!~' jj-fl.·~·"I·~~·tilt::.\I !:.o>J~ill' . pOL "I.-nri'\·~"I·"I·l.j.\'l!·')[.t::.~.jQ~r~' :i.§. J.'-9t::.'i§' g').\1 21.c{:Jj?."~.)·nr i§·l')·fl.>.:Jj- ~.-- 15S"'nri§·l./ .~1>: ~[. ~'\. "~J 'I' ilill"<lW ~-'" a:J' .ill'\l'll["'" .\' Q.etj:li I t::.~·l"t1J" Q'\"I'.-- ..:j'~' :i"l' ~'r.)·~..·0i".fl.~·r.ii...'lJ'''t::.>. ~"1 snod nang la zho gog lei 10 gnyis tsam 'dug La noe nang la zho gok ki 10 nyee tsam doog There are approximately 2 kilos of potatoes in this pot..·r.. t1J"I~'t::.!·Ilj·~~r~Ilj·~·tili!)' 19iF·I"i:l·...\·r.~"1 18.'J .. -nri1\·~Ilj·Ilj·l')·fl.>Jt::. Q~.1' tsha 10 ma 'di tsho su'i red tsha 10 rna dhi tsho sui re Whose oranges are these? 2Li§·l'\·"I·g..''I' :i.·2. U .... morning..jQ~r~'~"I .\"I'''I~' 16.:j' ~'. ~1-:t>- khyed rang snga dro ga dus yon gi yin k.~. ~[."t1J"tilt::..jQ'\l'~" :i..\."..>.:j'~'.:i·.:/l ~ mgron po de mgron khang nang la bsdad mi 'dug gas dron po de dron khang nang la de mi doog gay Isn't the guest staying in the guest house? lags mi 'dug khong bzhugs mi 'dug laa mi doog khong shook mi doog No.:' At what time will you come in the morning? 23.·~"I·~·l·.>.'Q~"I~' jj-fl..." a:J·l. ~- 18.J~"I'!.>J"fl.\· <l~1 15.>.2:~'i§' . ·2. ·~·til~1 22..:j.·r~" i. .J.>i·r.1l'~·~:li·<l~1 t1J"I~r ~:lil ~~. fl.w"l~"I"~:li''>:"1~'''I:lit::.r. chu tshod ga tshod red chu tshoe ga tshoe re What is the time? ehu tshod dgu dang phyed 1m red lea chu chu tshoe ghoo dang che ka re The time is 9.>.'~"I'~'l·..5"1 ~t::.ctji!)' "I.:z:>:.>J~i!) '1"[..1lr.>. These oranges have no owner.05 in the morning.ll·~·~~·Q~' 14.'t1J' Q:t".~.>.>.·~·"I·~~·tii[.'(lJ' Q:t')' ~.\·:q.. w"l~"I·~~· ->:"I~'''I~[.>J'fl. g".:j·~·.1.i§·l'\·"I·g"·~"1 1. 9.."1 khrom kz spru gu mangpo zhe drag 'dug tom la too gu mang pozhe drak mi doog There are not many children at the market.'r~' i.jQ'\l'~' ~"1 .~.J.\..:z:>:..l.~1>::lit::.

/:!'~' ~.z.:£I"ll. 5..>J<:.. ~.'lj"l"l /!!.45.ii' EO:.z. <£I'll'flj<:" f·~· f'~' -~ kho rtsi jamngarmo kophi thugpa khuba rIangpa rgonga rganga phagsha gIang sho nyasha lug sha 1<.' RF"9' ..<. o>J~ .I"i'<J' 'lj~.' . ~1'll'Q' nguba shiba gadrgyagpa rimo 'briba rkolba rngoba rdzi ba gtubpa dregpa nyanpa thurma spangkha mgronpo mgronkhang gnyerpa rungylg rungYlg mabyan thabgyog khu ti Ii sderma tshal rlang ngoova shiva gegyakpa ri mo dri va kolva ngova dziva toop pa drekpa nyempa thoorma pang kha drom po dron khang nyerpa droong yi majen thab yok khu ti derma tsay laang kho lsi ja ngaar mo ko phi thookpa khoova laangpa laang pa ghonga phaksha laang sha nya sha look sha to cry to die to sweep to draw to boil to fry to knead to chop to mow to listen spoon meadow guest guest house manager secretary .Q..l'lQ. cook kitchen hand kettle plate woke chop sticks sweet tea ~ ~ E:.. . ~'lj·<r /:!'Q' /!!'Q' !li~...Q..6J..I. <..z.Q. !li~..I.t.. ~'lj'<J' ~ili·<.:'.jJ-r>.Q.. coffee soup sauce vapour egg pork beef fish mutton '-"'" ~~ ~'lj..z.Q.4 Vocabulary .. <r 'lj~.. ~..z.<.'6J' ~<:"f' ~':::f· 6J:>. 'lj"jQ'<J' ~ ~'lj.Q.. E:'Q' ~.l'jQ''lj''l''l .z. '2l'lj' "9' .jJ-r>. flj<:"<J' ~.I..6J.I· 6J:'.:j. 6J~ili·f~· 6J~"i'f<:" ~~..<.~"I ~<:"~"I 6J·:1ili· 6J':1"i' . -- '<. ~'Q' 'lj"jQ.I.z.I· ~"i'<J' ~... ~'''9' ~ '2l'lj' . "] -~ .:"Q' 4· 4'Q·' 'lj'\'$'lj'<J' 'lj'\·$'lj·'r ~.'6J' .<.iili·<..~.. ~.z.· .102 khong ga dus pheb kyi red khong ga due phe kyi re What time is he arriving? khong ehu tshod dgu pa zin pa Ia skar ma beo fa lnga Ia phebs kyi red Inga fa khong chu tshoe ghoo pa zim pa la kar ma cho nga la phe kyi re He is arriving 8.I...' ~'<:" "'lj'''9' "'lj'''''' /iF.Q'Q' ~1"ll.

generally disyllabic and end either in l. ~'5itlj'q ring dragp a meaning "too long"..l~. rag pa it forms the notion of "too" in English.'../ "v v ~ q.I~~'Jf mngar rno O-I~~'Jf 'lj.i ~' Q.. "i"f...'q' "iQ.'4~ Good light heavy rough soft loving red slow beautiful high sweet .ij"4'll' O-I.\"'i" W"\"'i' ~<rq' ~<rq' yagga yangn ga /jidda rtsubpa 'jam rna mdza' 'a dmarra yagsh os yangs hos ljid shos rtsub shos Jam shos mdza' shos dmars hos dal shos mdzes shos mthos hos mngar shos gtsang shos rnying shas ~.ij~' £:i' O-I.' 4'll' 'i 0-1. JJ" ma and Jj' mo l. 01' q. to the adjectival base: "I"1~·I'll~·Q..'{ij.IE!Aq'mdza' bo O-IE!A "iQ.~' f~'~' ~C:'4'll'' f<:.I.' "iQ....I.I.l' £:i' lijO-l' dmarl od serlod sngo lod skarn lad ~'{ij"i' ~'{ij'i' JijQ..5~' 4'll' "'I~~'. do not have to have affixes though in some contexts they have to be used with affixes. For example: "I~~'lJ'gsar pa.I?'ll'4'll' 0-I?'ll'4 Q. "new".. 01' 01' O-IE!A(l.ij"4'l O-I~.l:'ll' "i 01. sa or ~'nt:l are added with r:r 'a.\' lijO-l'nl.. dmar po 'iO-l~'q' dalpo dal po Q.'{ij.. tsong owner oman s.l'ni. Q.\' 'iO-l. There are some adjectives that e.l".i 'll' (l.e..g 0-1' Q' (l.' 'iO-l.ij'''r gzhan las mtho "I"1~'ClJ~'O-I.€.i'll'(). syllable. ~'5i"'l Engli sh ~tE- Adjec tive "I'lj'q' yag po "I"]'Q' "I~'q' yang po "I~'Q' Comp arativ e "I'lj''lj' "I'lj''']' "lC.6 Adjec tival Interr ogativ es By suffixing ni"i' lod signifying 'how' to the basic adjectival syllable.. 'lj~~"4'll'gsa 'lj'll~' ~'gsar r shos.'[1J "i"f"'['lJ"\' "i01. Tibetan adjectives are . pa and by reduplicating the suffix of the adjectival i.r Q' which are governed by the final consonant of the adjectival syllable.5~W 'lj~~w "i['lJ'q' 'i[1J' Q' "iOfOf 'ioror .i'j'll' ~~. Those ending in ~' le.e. i.I~"·4'j~' .ij'''r ba.\"r q' q.\'. "newer".ij' q' ~~'~' ~""~. rndzes 'a mthob a mngarra gtsang nga rnyingnga clean ii~ ik-~ old ~~'lJ' f~'lJ' gtsang gtsangma rnyingpa rnying 'lj..s Adj~ctives Adj~ctives ~i.e.€.' " t~ Adjectives modify nouns and they generally follow the nouns they qualify ..'q .f pa.II"A().'.. 01' 4'll' Q..q. Q.'£:i' ~~'£:i' JijQ.q. ..e." formed by prefIXing I'll'll' las of the ablative case." "Than" ~ st.I?'ll.i'j'll ~ 5. .IE:r.'~ ~'~' Supe rlativ e "l"l"4'lll' "I"'I"4'l ' "IC:'4~' "I<:. i. nl'i' adjectival interrogative can be forme d in modem Tibetan without the use of any interrogative pronouns or interrogative particles.' "i['lJ'4'll' 'i[1J'4'l Q.!<r q' rtsub po ~ W.ij~' JUj'q' O-I.\' ~.' .€.i'j'lf ~. Comparative is forme d by dropping the adjectival suffIX i... 'jam po (l... Superlative is formed by adding 4~' ~'na shos to the adjectival base.'q' 'i"f.g 0-1' ().' mdzes po O-I?'ll'Q mthon po Q.\'4'1f ~q'4'll' ~q'4'll' (). "newest. fi ~~ W"\'q' /jid po W"\'Q' . 'lj'll~'~'gsar ra.l~'~' 'iO-l~' ~' (l.' dalla ~.q... t&%- Q.\"]' Q' ~r:: bdagp o tsong dag po .. q' po.l:44~' 0-Ie:r." By adding 5i'lj'lJ'dragpa to the adjectival base others.g 0-1' 0-1' (). "higher than others.'{ij'i ~"'{ij"i' ~ dkar lod how white? how red? how yellow? how blue? how dry? iii.5~'~' "]~~'~' 'lj.~~ ~ dkarp o dmarp o serpo sngon po skamp o white red yellow blue dry 'i"f.

r:>.Q' ~...r:>.S''l gur gyi ka ba 'di tsho gtan lod'dug How stable are these poles of the tent? ~"i'.e.' 'If'j~ 'iii".. .<j'JlI. 'lf~I:.' yaglod yag lad gtan!od gtanlod gtsang lad lod 'lj¢'I:. ...>l a.' ~F[ij.'iii".Sllj 5. ~'" khong gi rta 'di mgyogs lad yod red lod How fast is his horse? ti' '4'l'i~Sn:i"i'a:i".'JJ' ll'lj' ~e::...' Olllj'iii"i' Ol'lf'iii.'a:i.S'lf a ma lags kyo kha lag zhim po zhe drag 'dug Mother's cooking is very delicious.'[ij.'ii' ~ ll'lf' ~'[ij...'iii.Q"i' "i~'[ij''lf~JJ' ~"I ~ dpe cha 'di tsho than nas 10 gsum red cfza thon It is 3 years since these books were published..e.~' g'....>l".>l"0l'lf ~:~'r<Olllj' ~...'[ij...IV'! jIl"Zl' jIrZl' .."q' a..'r:>.' ..~' g''lf'j~'[ij.r 4'~'lj"..<j'llI.. khong gi rta 'di mgyog ga gcig rna red 'eli This horse of his is not a fast one.. "I a rna lags kyi kha lqg zhim lad 'dug Zqg How delicious is mother's cooking? ~ (iiI:.5"'~'''I' Q'r:>.Q'l!~' .r sha rgyags pa fat sha skam po thin (body) chen po zhim po zhimpo yang po rnthobo dma'bo yagpo gtan po gtanpo gtsang rna thag ring po grung po grungpo mdzes po mdzespo ring po mgyogs po .' JJE~f[ij.'~'?'r:>.' ~c:'[ij.'[ij.Q' Ol'lf'ii' 'If'j~'Zl' "JJr:>.S'lf .' sha skam lad how thin? big delicious light high low good stable clean far clever beautiful long fast .:UlI:.\..g.>l§"I~''lf''lf~''I' {iiI:.Q'~'~"I'r:>. 1l'I' .Jfii' ..'cil.Q' ~I:. one.Ill'.' "''1i' ..Q'1i~'~"1 tkJ bo phatsho'i yang lji da Ita bltas med I haven't checked the weight of those luggage.~...il'r:>.JJ'[ij.<j'~'lf'iii".' ~I:..'o. ~"I dpe cha 'di tsho gsar lad red lod How new are these books? "iq'a. "iJJr:>.S'lf skyon mi 'dug Not too bad. ~'iii".i'iii"."iq' a.J"I ~'ti' '4'lO:UlI:... Ole::..'JJ' 1lj¢'I:. ~'<i' '4'gf.>l§'lf~'[ij. 2jiil:.'.Q' ..~'l''lf'j~'[ij''i'o.' khelod granglod how cheap? how cold? how hot? how soft? how well? how fat? how big? how delicious? how light? how high? how low? how good? how stable? how clean? how clever? howcIever? how beautiful? how long? how fast? tsha bo 'jam po bde bo a.' r:>..' "''l!' .. '1M.' JJ~'iii".7 Examples of Adjectival Interrogative Sentences 1. ~"I JJ§llj~'n:i. tsha !od lod 'jam !od lod bde!od bde !od rgyags lod lad che !od lod lad zhim lod yang lad yanglod mtho!od mtholod dma'lod Q~'ti' Q~'<i' 4"~llj't.i..>l§"I~''lf''lfi5''1'JJ' ~"I .JfOl"l~'~'fl'Ol"l'~JJ' . ~"I tkJ bo pha tsho ljid lod yod red lad How heavy are those luggage? 4.i.' n1"i' "JJr:>.~'l''lj~ "'n:i".Jf0l'lf ~:~'r<Ol'lf' ~.' Q~'iii".\.Q' ~'ii' skad snyan po melodious JlI.Q' ll1lj'~'ii' ~I:.>l"Ol"l~'~'J'l'Ol"l'~JJ' ii'~'~"I'r:>..>l'[ij"'r:>.'<i' Ol'lf'..~'ii' ~.. .' skad snyan lodhow melodious? JJ§'lj~'.>l".>l'[ij..'<i' r:>.' /:'1' JlIJJ'[ij..' ~JJ'iii".>l'.>l§llj~'[ij.'~~'iii"i' llI"'~~'iii.>l'ii' ~e:: ~c: khepo grang rna grangmo cheap cold hot soft well ~'[ij.' thag ring lad how far? grunglod grung !od mdzes lad lod ring lad lod mgyogs lad lod JJE~rZl' JlI"i'~~'.'ti' a.'lf~ "'nl'" ~'" 1.<j'~'lf'iii".Q' llI"i'~~' ii' ~'. i M.. "illj .e. 3.'<ii. Oll:.~'l'..~' .i'iii.Q' JJ§1lj~' ii' 5.~'.~' JJ§'lf~'nl. 'o. .. '4'llI JJ'[ij.Q' r:>.'~'?'o. 5'5"'~'''I'Q'r:>..'o.Q"i' "q'a.~' <i' '4' g'i~Snl"'<ii.Q' .Q' Olc: ii' JJ~ti' JJ~<i' Oll:.Jfii' .' ~c: '[ij...'ti' "iJJr:>.

r.\.>...:~".~.>.'llI"\'''l'l\' qO~il)0 ... ~'J' (b) Express and memorize Tibetan ~..C. ~ .\°r.)"l nga'i ang rtsis dge rgan sgrigs dam po 'dug My math teacher is strict...>. Translit..>.\0. The fire in the stove is not hot.\'r. .. Translito Pronoun.\iljil\' ~B.~ [>.J' 9C. ~ft ~.'i&.\JJil\' <.0 ~·4:(.>.d'~'§JJ'~~~~'1jc.. . My math teacher is a clever man.'S"I bzhugs grum 'di 'jam po a'u rtsi 'dug This carpet is quite soft.°Iie:.>.. 60 7. "'i. 40 longo 5.i'i:~e:. 90 carpetso 10.B.0 4:(.°§Jio Ji~~~o lie:.E.°Iie:..C.>.. These trees are not long.~'r.>.~°r. 50 6.0 ~F4:(. o~o ij"l0 ~.'0 ~e.:I.>lij.. My neighbour is not far from my house.. ~o r.>l0 ~o <.~. properlyo ~0.. How far is your neighbour? 70 8. 1/.o:.J' i£B i£2 / SI.} ::.Jioiii'i"r.>.>.: !:F !F4:(.'Ifc.o.':4:'iii.."01 . "1'~' gB. o.'t . lod mthong byunf.>.0 §e.hl"\·~il\'iii.\'r. ne tso ya tsho skad snyan lod 'dug lad How melodious are those parrots up there? e:.\~oQjil)0 ~"1"10 ...' ~'ri~ ~'rid ~o ~' ~ shar lho nub byang byangshar lhoshar lho nub byangnub shar lho noob jang jang shar lho shar lho noob Iho jang noob ~qo ~<.>.'S"l grum rtse 'di 'jam lad 'dug lod c:. o ilJije:..~~·~·r.\°r.>.t_.J"\I ngas ne tso'i skad yag po nyan med I did not listen to their sound properly.\iljil) 0 'Or.p'ii.\~oQjil)°"l"l°iii.\"1 ~ - .>l~"l0~o lie:.t. 100 / tt~ [.'S''I ~ ..o.>l0 qOIfl~0 r.J' (a) Translate into Tibetan.E. My mother has five new carpets..>. How tall is my neighbour's tree? treeo 5.. Bow soft is this carpet? How t. 80 houseo 9. 30 mano 4.\"1 9.'~z:r ~F~z:r \'i.' JJ~~r~'1je.J~"I"1'§J.:- 8.\or< 'S"I 8.\'!<'S"I §e:.-.ii'iii..I'r. 0 "1''\~'''i.~· g"'l' £o~.'.' Ifr::ilJijc..-. muttono 2.. 1Ooe:.'S"l 6.'~ "1 0 khyod rang gi ang rtsis dge rgan yag lad 'dug lod How good is your math teacher? 7.\~'''iil\'~"I~r"\JJ'q.~·iii"i'r. dgon pa'i 'du khang de thog mtho lad 'dug lod How high is the monastery's assembly hall? 9.. ~o~qo ~'~<. o~olfle:..E.... 'S°fle:..>lil)0 q~O$0. 'S"l d'i:~c::~ "1'..\.E. ql1"1"1 0 r. Jf Jf~e:.~·r.ii"l'JJij.>. I do not have a new carpet. softo ij"1 0 .q'\ll~'~'r. '0 "". r..· is. I will chop the mutton.>.\o~il)°iii.>l0 ~FI .>. oiii"or<'S"I nga'i khyim mtshes kyi shing sdong ring lad 'dug khyim mtshes kyi shing sdong tnthong ma byunt.V J 'V 60 §.'S'flC. §'\' ~'~'lflC.c:.: 1.' ~04:(...&.~0 gw .ii"l' Jiijoiii.. Those parrots are beautiful..>..>.>. English east south west north north east south east south west north west 4:(.8 S. I did not see the neigbour's tree.S Exercises of Lesson Five . 'S"1 §.. How hot is the sweet tea? 20 3..0 ~ 'Ir.\·!<)"'1 ~r:>.J'\I ~o e.J~'$' JJ'!FI ~ thog mtho timan Ita rgyu rna byung dman I did not check the height.'''' ~.Y''lr. is.>.. "1 0 gr:>.>l0 q0r.'S"I 70~~r~°r.°lll'\°"l'l!° q'~il\' ..

.>J~f "l~' JJa..·/UFilj· o>J. . JJjf'q" ~c.. '<il"l'C'J"I~' . ....·..Jj.'/Ult:.'ilj'. r:>.<:j.. '\JJ... t:.\' ~'\.....S"I -- ~~ .\''11' "l~"I~'r:>..fr.>J (d) Write down the comparative and superlative fonns of the following adjectives: 1.·C'J·~·r:>. . 6.. a::t:. 2. 7. jiie:. 9. 2...·i'l·ClJ·r:>. "l.. 4.. 6.f. .~"l't:.<..fro>J'~'\' i)·g·~·...>Jg~'<:j' JJe:...... i).fr nga tsho zhing kha la 'gro gi ....~'g. 10.. ...\....~·ni·"l~·"I~Jf..f. ~ 2. ..\·.\·S·Jj·r:>. '''l''l'ClJ''I~''\''Ii' "l~"I~·r:>. . ..§j·ilj···"··"·1 1.lg drung yig lags da Ita bzhugs 'thlg .·. 5.t:.~..'\"I"""""1 -.t:. ~t:.f. .' g·~e:..l~1 ~ 5. smyu gu de su 1 .....lg khong tsho yong gi yin pas de tsho zhi mi ma red rni rna nga 1a smyu gu rna 'thlg la srnyu ma 'dJ..\"1 3. r:>.·g·Uie:..~·S·Jj·r:>..."<J' i~·<:j· mdzespo rndzespo mngarmo mthobo rnthobo rmgpo chen po chung po dmarpo dam po darn rnyingpa yangpo 3.'<:j' ~ a.. 'dJ... 3.. pha gi bod kyi gyag .~. t srnyu nga rkang pa na gi . jiie:..lg 2...S"l·S' fiit:...·l. :'~e:.....'<:j' '\JJ..... 6'\' -<.. g·~t:.. ...·. .·... spu gu 'di 10 bcu gsum .§j·ilj··"""".o>J~f steng 'og phyogs bcu phyogs bzhi mtshambzhi teng hog chogchu chogzhi tsham ISham zhi upward downward ten directions four directions four intennediate directions (c) Complete the following sentences with the appropriate auxiliary verbs and translate: 1.f..·ilj"<il~·l..~t:..l ~ -.S"l·SI 4....·g·Uit:.· ·1 ~·'j'r:>.'~e:.~' g.'·<J~' fiit:.·.. E... khong tsho ja 'thung gi ma ...>J...~"l'e:.1_ ~...'g·E. q..'Q' ~t:.. .\"I""""'" i :'it:.....l· "1"1' <:j.... 8 8. 'J ...w~·r:>..g.. .'C'J'~·"Iwr:>. de nga'i gos thung ma ..j·ilj·e:.'...q'\'~'''I''1''1'''"''''''1 "I. 1"1' a::e:.f.. . 'ClJ''.\o>J' <:j. 8. jiie:.... JJjf..\'~''''1''1'''1''''''''''' !le:...~·ni·"l~·"I~Jf· .. .. 10....... .~.w~·"I'Jfr:>.lg khong la rni 'dug bu mi 'dJ....· "l....\'~~' ~'e:.\"1 "·ilj·t:. khyed rang ga nas yong ba .·ilj·"l'.Jj...'''1'~ ~rUie:..·I'l·C'J·r:>. 7.S"I e:. - ~e:.·. .~....... 9. 1.. '11"1" ~"I.>J·~'\1 6.<:j . o>Jg~'<:j' .· ~r·l~·~~· ~r·I~·~~· ··1 ~·>Tpr~·~ ....' o>J. 5.q.fr. ... 6... ~·>Tpr~·~ . jiit::g'E. JJt:. ~·':Ir:>..c:..>J'<:j' te:.. ~~·Uit:...... "1"1'<:j' ~ (e) Correct the following sentences if incorrect: 1. .. stag phrug de tshang nang la mi .·<J· tt:..\'~'\I 'm 'di tsho deb nga'i red pha gi ngai'i bu rno 'thlg mo 'dJ. 7.IVU ~c:: ~C:: ~"I" ~"I' ~"I~r"l~' ~"I~r"l~' JJa..\'~~' !It:. 1O... t:...·.( . 4... <:j.

j·.>.j·.>."i·1'i·~·!'i"l' A~·~"I~'.~C. JrA5"1'''I~1 ~C:~·JrA5"1'''I~1 drang gi mi doog gay grang gi mi 'dug gas Don't you feel cold? khyed yig gzugs yag po 'dug You have a good hand writing.>.·g·r.-~-.5"1·"I~1 khong yi ge 'dri gi 'dug gas mo chu thung gi min 8..!'i'r.>.} @. li\'. ~c.·"·'lf!l·~·Uj"'f nga tsho 'gro gi min nga da lta za gi yin 'di bkra shis kyi lham gog red t.!'''l''l'i:i' ~"il t..>.'Uj"l'''I~ "I~'''l''l' q.· 'l~1 tog tsam zhook long yoe pay \i\'.~.!' Q~"I~.:.·~·~"'1 Jf~·r.>.·~·~"'1 / (1) Transform the following statements into interrogative sentences: <..>.>.'J.!~·"i·~·r.?' ~~s- ~:<-" / <ire'. C.>.l~·"i·~·r.>.~·Q~·.>.~·Q~·..:i 'di snyogs sgra chen po zhe drag red This is a big problem.~·~·~"'1 d'·r.:i·r.l·~"I·~"1 4.5"1 '0.. tog tsam bzhugs long yod pas Do you have some time to stay? nga mgyogs po 'gro dgos yod I have to go soon. de ring nyi rna yag po bstan sa red It is going to be nice day today. "-·J.iY de ring nyi yag po rna ten sa re " it.!§"I~'1'i·A~· "~~'Gi"1 ~.~'~·~"'1 2..>.>. 5"1 khye yik zook yag po doog tl..5"1 nga mgo na gi 'dug khong deb !dog gi mi 'dug 5."i· i:i'~' :i"l' ~"I dhi nyok dra chern po zhe drak re ~.~C. "'. J.<--~-~- 1.. t.~ ii'J.l'''l''l'1'i' q~".~.Hi ~Hi §.!·"I.·r. 7. Jf~·r.. . '0: 5.Q·~'r.l' Q~"I~·aiC.fi nga gyok po dro goe yoe A~·~"I~·.S"l"iJ. r. S"l"iJ.~.~~'Gi"1 "-'J...l·"I..>. ~"I '.' @... 3.5''1 de ru naam shi gang dra doog .>.>.. "-·"·'l/·!l·~·Uj"'1 C.·Uj·~·r. / l.:r 1:i:t de ru gnam gshis gang 'dra 'dug How is the weather up there? .ij~·~·~J. ·Gi. t.I.>..I..c:. r.Q·~·r.5"1 l:. ~ .5"1 ~.·~Q·ffi"l·~·~·r.ij~'''I"-·r.a. .!·~"I·~"1 r.5"1 ~l:...>.. <ire:.i t.ij~·"IC.5"1 §"'Uj"l'''I~"I~'''l''l' .9 Useful Expressions ~> ~.ij~·~·~J.·J.>. ~~I ~"I' ilJ.5"1·"I~1 ~c:Uj'~·r.:. c.J..w2c ~C':~. ~"-·~Q·ffi"l'~·~·r.l§"I~·1'i·A~· .

iJ'. 'r'ii'i'~)"1 khang pai chi 10k la mi mang loe doog 5. da I will not affix this stamp on.'<J~'''it:. t:.ga due rok pa je kyikhyi phrug 'diwill anybodygalook after these puppies? khyi took sue re When O'~ fi(.-i . They are called nr~"i 'q'S"i' "the seven la don particles" which sUo consist of~f su. Their application is largely governed by the na. on. §'~'lj·~~·Ft:.'<Ji' ~'r'ii'lj'tlJ'. me tog de tsho khong la 'bul gyi yin I will offer those flowers to himlher.~t:. kyi ~.1 The Seven La-don Particles .'.:. at. '(II"?t1l'5' ~'il khyi phrug 'di khang pa'i nang la nyal gyi red khyi took dhi khang pai nang la nyal gyi re This puppy will sleep inside the house.·~''i'll'r :<""ftlJ'r:\~llfill"il nga tsho sang nyin a me ri ka la dro ki gi yin .r§'i·~'~'i1 7.. t:. m.'(1J'r:\StlJ'5'ill"il 6.LESSON SIX mrcr. used as follows: :sufiIx SufiIx l: I:llJ 'S' du.' '\' ")' r:\~'iijl:lJ'~l:lJ"t1l' nga tha ta tri ka dhi yig kog la jar gyi min 4. i9'::!'lf'~~'l't1J'~~f"r'i'!l':.~'~Qrql l: ~ .'i)''i' phrad gzhan dbang can dependent grammatical particles ::!'\''ljl'\''i'. durational (~~f~~1:lJ Ujt:.j ~ . Ft:. <Ji'l.\qt:.. q I Post suffix 'i .'l''!lt:. The seven particles are tlJ'la ~'ru particles.'~~'lj ~'ru. tsho la sus dus rags pa byed kyi red . 6.~t 6. dative. :t. ~~'lf'i)'l. in. ~~'lj'i)'l·~t:.""." :.' ro. i9·::I'lj'~~·lW~~"I·'i'll·:'("I'll'l. ladon spoken 'i i. /.. Locatives.·l''llt:.dhi tsho la.'i' ~'~' ")'(:\~'iijl:lJ'~I:lJ't1J' ~ '" 5' . gyire nga do Ita kri ka 'di yig lkag la sbyar gyi min 'di. Ft:.. ru in place of the allowed particles. for..iJ"i':j'~'S'lf khang pai chi 10k la mi ghoo doog J.·<J~·"it:. . t:. house. 'r'ii'i'~)"1 4."i' no. (~~f~~l:lJ or Ult:.c- " ~ 6.-'.iJ"i1 t:. final and locative cases..>It:. Datives and Durational 1.·~~'lj ) of the previous syllable and are used for accusative. Ft:.2 Examples of La-don Uses of Accussatives. §'~'lj'~~'Ft:.' We shaH also see them used for adverbial expressions as well as many other uses cases. 1.>I :t.' shall of la-don in future lessons. towards etc. but are put after ie. However in modem spoken Tibetan there appears to be considerable flexibility of using mainly t1l'la and ~. 2.U: nga tsho sang nyin a me ri ka la 'gro gi yin La Tomorrow we will go to America.>It:.'~·r'ii"l·Ol· . ~ 'i '\ nt~-- "i 'll '!l t1l tlJ ~ 5 ~ t1l tlJ t1l tlJ t1l tlJ t1l tlJ I .' There are number of ::I'i''ljl'\''i''iqt:. to.' <Ji'3:~'r'ii"l'ClI' .'~''i'll'r ~ :<""ft1l'(:\~llfiJl"il t:. America. the syllable they are associated with.'i)''i' which have the function of English prepositions ie.tlJ' la and '2' tu. the envelop now. 'Cl!''?tlJ'5' ~.iJ'.iJ''i':j'~'S'lj 5..j ~d 3. :t. on now.:I:lJ~Fr§'i'~'~'i1 'di..' <Ji'3: ~'r'ii'ljw. ra.-i f1. etc. I (and all vowel endings c.t1l' tu. khang pa'i phyi log la mi mang lod'dug How many people are outside the house? khang pa'i phyi log la mi dgu 'dug There are nine people outside the house.\I 2.'t1l'(:\St1l'5'iJl"il me tog de tsho khong la bool gyi yin / ~- 7.

~'lj·'lj~1 lcog rtse'i sgang la thur ma gsum mi 'dug gas chok tsei gang la thoor rna soorn rni doog gay Aren't Aren'! there three spoons on the table? 10.. J.\Q'...~'lj''lj~1 WI:lJ·~r.~.l'1:IJ~'lj'.\·iii'$·'lj"·'i·r..- 16..\'lj lag pa yay pa la sor lioob rni doog \loob .~'lj ngai rna wo lag kyi kha nang la so mi doog rno 20.·.\1 khyi phrug 'di tsho la rogs byed mkhan yod ma red puppies.\'i>lflil\'<Ji"\'i>l'~"\I Et. ~"\I ~'~i:\'''l~'r:e:.>. khen be ra spyi zla bdun par gnam grang mo red Canberra is cold in July.'r.\'''!'~' g.·.. !'It:..i:\'a:.i:~t:. ~di khong tsho da 10 rgya gar du 'gro gi rna red They will not go to India this year.\.\1 'l5·r.·J.i:i'r.i:\·~·l:i·"lI:lJ~·~·fl·il\e:.~'lj gza' nyi rna la dmag sgar la ltad mo ga re 'dug zah nyi rna la rnaag ghar la tey rna ga re doog What show was there at the garrison on Sunday? mo 19.rr:>..'i'lj khang pai yay chok la shing rni doog 15. t:. ''is..I'''l'. khong !dum ra'i nang la las lea byedpa red byed pa He works in the garden.I''lj~<>I'.I'lj'~''''''l''lI''\'a:i''lj'~'r:>.~' g.\'a:i''lj'~·P. ku shu 12.>.~'lj ~'lj·~i:\·~e:.109 8.I' ~"\1 g·.i:i'r.''\'<>I'~. '''l'''l~'''I' S"\' £.g'nr~.>.~'lj tll'lj~' .~'~· ~.. khyi took dhi tsho la rok je khen yoe rna re There is no one to look after these puppies..\·~tJ·"l·~·i>l·4"'· z:j' ~"\I chee ka chu tshoe nga pa la nyi rna shar va re 22.\' ~. '''l'''l~'''r S. nJ'lj~·.l"1:lJ~'lj·.I· ~e:.a..·.~'lj .\I khong tsho da 10 gya gar du dro lei rna re tsho spu gu 'di tsho la red These apples are for these children.\'tJ· ~..I·'lj~'lI·~e:..>.. e:.~ ~'~'Ujil\1 mig shey dhi lag pa la joo kyi yin 14.I'~e:..\I dhi ru sui lay khoong yoe re .>.~'lj lag rni doog drang rna thong ya rni doog 13.rr.' gSiii·$·'lj..'i'lj''lj~1 ngay gyab la drang rna chik rni doog gay nga'i rgyab la sbrang rna gcig mi 'dug gas Isn't there one bee on my back? lags mi 'dug sbrang rna rnthong ya rni 'dug No.>.i:i'r:>..~·g·nJ·~"\1 ku shu dhi tsho pu gu dhi ISho la re tsho 17.. 18.\J..!·'lj!Jl~·£'!w~"''lj.\I khong dhoom rai nang la lay ka jey pa re 23.~' :!-'~i:\'''l~'r:t:.. There is no ring on the right hand.>.. e:. children. flil\' it.>.\.~·"l'lj·tJwr:>. the sun rises at five o'clock."l' ~'ljZ\rS.'~'J.W~"'J.'i'lj·Qe:..'. "l'lj'£.!"·"il\J. 19..>.~ £'!w~' <>I' 4'" Q' ~.I·'lj~i>l·.~.i'j"l·r.' £.g'~'.\'lj "l'lj·tJ·'ljlJl~·tJw~"'·'lj. iiic:.i:\'$<:1'''l'Qt:.W~"'·J.\<:1·.ijt:.j·r:>.I· ..I"~:'F Ji' ~. ~'.rr.'i'lj·'lj~1 c:. I cannot see any bee (on your back).i'j"l'r. 9.. 'J'5'r.'i'lj'Qt:.I' ~t:...i:i·r.' tJi:\·'ljlJlZ\f~'lj~·"l·..e:.J...~...·J. 'di ru su'i las khung yod red Whose office is here? 21.:t'lj'r...·I'1l·~·.· 11.>.~. mig shel 'di lag pa la 'ius kyi yin I will hold this spectacle in my hand..1:IJ-'lr.·.W~·.\J.j'P."l'~"'J.'~J.>.i:\·~·l:i·"lI:lJ~·~'fl·il\t:.·'i·r.!' ~"\I "i:\'il\t:. dpyid lea chu tshod lnga pa la nyi rna shar ba red clut In spring.\"T~' g...a.I'lj'~'''''l''lI..i:\·$<:1w Q J..·r.~'lj lcog rtse'i sgang la thur rna gcig kyang mi 'dug chok ISei gang la thoor rna chik kyang rni doog tsei There isn't even one spoon on the table.I'''l'.i:i·r.>. c:.>.·~·ia·<:1'iil\·tJ .>.. iiic:.~'''l'lj'<JWP'~ ~'~'Uj"1 ~·. .i:i'P.il\J. r..\I can be ra chi dha doon par naam drang mo re rna nga'i smo bo lags kyi kha nang la so rni 'dug There are no teeth in my grand-mother's mouth.'<Ji.i:i'r. Ei' t!'lj'r.I''lj~'lI'~t:..·Ji· ~"\I flil\' it "'~'Ia' Q~il\' £.!i:\''lj!JlZ\r~'lj~'''l'.>.i:i'P.>.~'lj 18.·Uf . 1:lJ-'lr.w~ .i:i·r.~·~· J..~·g'~'. khang pa'i gyas phyogs la shing rni 'dug There is no wood on the right side of the house.g'''l'~'ljZ\rS''\'<>Iflil\. WI:IJ'~r.\I "\S. lag pa gyas pa la sor gdub rni 'dug hand.'~·J.>...>.i:i'P.>.i:i·r:>.l:~e:.>.'i'lj i'le:.ije:. ~'lj'~i:\'~t:..>.

25.~'~Oj o.~'~Oj ". For example to transfo an ordinary word for word.. gtsang provinces of Central Tibet than in other parts of Tibe!. . In Tibetan there is an exclusive honorific vocabulary for most nouns..!. adjectives and pronouns. teachers.' bus "I~t:.4 Hono rific Noun s I i ...Q'Jj' word of hand :1"1 phyag since finger is connected with hands... ~~ 1'..iQ'Sr.Q'Jj. honorific is more widely used in 'iS~'dbus and "!~t:. ~~.- .>1"!'''9Oj' jj'lJ'-9O phren gba rnigshel skra rna khrag ::I"I.~t:.::c ':".. We will try to give the basic examples of Tibeta n honorifics and their formation.-.<>1' O gzim chas 'khrungs yul phebs zam bedding birth-place bridge !.t:.~. or when he addresses someo ne younger or junior and discusses his concerns and property.' Q' -. 'l'r.b Hono rific by Natur e '!¥t.0-:...' ~"I.-".. This is formed mainly by focusing on the nature of the object for which an honorific is required by prefixing it with an honorific verb to express the use of the object: '.~' There appears to be at least some six general theories in explaining the iormation of Tibetan honorific nouns: 6.5"I khye rang gi ke la chik doog ~'t:.24.{ / i:~ .iQ<sr. seniors. There is a joke about people of use of honorific expressions that they even use when quarrelling. But the speaker uses polite words and expressions which may be of concern to his parents.j.]:.a Deriv ed honor ific v.r I.6'i·~·~·~·nr"Ii5"I·o.0.. ordain ed monks.~.~t:.3 Use of Hono rific Expre ssion ~... 6.~.. nuns or to strangers.j>1' .~ nyalchas skyes yul zampa wmpa "I3J.&c:...•. One gtsang makin g excessive form of honorific can be more polite than the other. Know n as "zhe sa" in Tibetan. rm the ordina ry word for finger ..~ "I3l<>1' o. 'di ngas su la stan chag gi red Who can I show this to? dhi ngay su la ton chog gi re 6.4.>1' if.( . verbs.>1§. The basic idea is that the speaker should use ordinary words and expressions when speaking of himself or of his property and concer ns. The use of honorific expression in spoken Tibetan has almost its own vocabulary. . The final additive particle Jj' rna Jj.. ~~'~Oj' '. is dropped in forming ~"I' <>1!g' Q' ~'lj'.-'- . ~'Oj'~"i'l ..' "'" ~l M rl"! rl"l ~"i'Jj' ~"i'4nJ' 'is'.5"I ~·~·~'n 'o. Englis h '/.>1!g' phyag mdzub..>1'''OJ'r '. mdzub rna into honorific.j' ::I"I'~"i ~"I'~"i'' ~ phyag phren g spyan shel dbusk ra phyag sen skukh rag skukJzrag prayer beads spectacle hair fingernail blood ~: ~rrl"I ~rl!l"I ~ 6..~ OJ' a.. Likewise: Ordina ry Honor ific ..4..OJ' a. one prefixes the honorific <>1§.0-'" !it:. ~'Oj'~"i'l"r~' ~'il khyed rang gi ske la gcig 'dug There is something on your neck. '1.~. ..&t:. 'lX$ This is formed of one honorific word in its own right which is prefixe d to which there is otherwise no separate honorific word..

"1~c:.'Q' [jags /jag zha l ras tongue face .I.""~" j.. ~' Ord ina ry Ho nor ific Eng lish lee gdo ngp a 'li.'~" ~Q" .w ~"1'"9'\' ~"l"- rgy ugs had '\S'"9"\' "'S"-9"'" sca rf to greet wit h /da mjaldar phy agt sho d watch spo on bzhes thur comb ldb ush ad ."Q" 2.J" I4<1 "'rlIO l' dzhugsgOOn dzh ugs gda phe bs lam mattress road 6.f Su bst itu tio nal Ho nor ific by disyllabic y form by a totally new word formed s is formed by substituting the ordinar .' Q~"'!l~" .q~~"Q' bzhes pa hes bag " by prefixing the syllable of ..d Re lat ive Ho nor ific ary ress the relationship between the prim h two or mo re syllable word to exp the first syllable is changed into hon orif ic This is formed wit to it.\ilj' ~"l" ". cutleries and so forth may be Qi'i " es 'li'i''" fur the rmo re honorific nouns for edi feb Q'lj"i].' aJ"~Q"" grw apa ~'Q' ~"Q" servant zha bsp hyi ~.q~~"I' ~Q'lf~"I" ans hel spyan she l ehibs sga zha bs kya g spectacle saddle chair 6." :!''!".1.'~' gyo gpo "1a:i"l"l:i' "la:i"l' Q' nep hew dbo npo "\<i"l:i' ". of the aforementioned six types of honOIifics owing hODOIifics belongs to either foll 6.ijr"l..c Ho nor ific of Or igi nat ion into ect to express how the object cam e ed by referring to the origin of the obj Thi s is form existence in the first place: letter phy agb ris '" :!'lQ"" yi ge j' Uj'ilj" OJ"i1 6.I.<I .g" \' ~'..q..t'\' .--'.g "..' ~r"l.ijrll' ~"".q~".Jill! .'~' ~..Q11"l'lr"l"'~" lam I4.'.-- rr .JEN.<:1"1' "bz .4 .t:I"I" honorifics.q11"1~r"l"\"I' .4 . Th e Q~" 'Q' the honorific verb . In this case only object and the thing which is related its Ordinary form"."I" ~rlI' .\ ~' :!"I.I"~"" "l~c:.q' wo rd for bread 'l'lj'iiijQ" bag leb becom the verb "to eat".~".. Thus the ordinary honorific for m of "to eat".Jlllj' :tj0l" 'i'~' ?'~" ~':r~'lj" ~':r~'lr ~ :til'll' mig shel rtasga sku b kyag ~".<i~"l'ij' tsha bo ' ~'<i" formed by prefixing the bles.. 1.q'5"1'" FQ'5"1"" ~.q""r"l.4 ..t".5 Ex am ple s ~" 1.db 6.'.q. 1.e Fu nct ion al Ho nor ific ction of the obj This is formed by expressing the fun ry form: ect wh ich is not explicit in the ordina . ord inar form sy llab wh ile leaving the second syllable in ..1 .1 "1"\"1' "l"'~" 0l... . Thi honorific wo rds : student thugs sra s !l"l""~"" ~"I"'~'" dge phr ug ~"1' .q. .l" j.\~· OlE N..4 .ilj' mo nk sku zha bs aJ'~.J" OlOl' goon gda . ~ !l~w kha bta gs ehu Ifhod fhu rma thu .

'~·LJ·lf"l'!j· .J..jf['i'LJ' <>IE<'i'LJ' ~'Q' to do to give to know to 10 weep . >fJ~' ~'i' 18.~'Q' 'gra ba 'gro .·LJ· gdong pa "I~~'LJ' chung rna ..7 Mono syllab ic Hono rific Verbs ~ /1 ~ i Ordina ry .if <>IE<Q' ~ f'\rll' ~"l'...j' ~~'<>I' 4''' 4"" khyed ~l:.!. ~Jl'9"l ~Jf9'" 16.k'{..jf[Q' ~""<>IE<Q' ~ l£. zaba mba thung ba lenpa byedp a sprad pa sprod shesp a nguba Q~~'<r Q~~''l' Q~~'LJ Q~~'<J bzhes pa bzhes pa bzhes (mchad) pa (mcho mdzad pa stsal ba I mkhye npa bshum spa to eat to drink to take/receive Q~~'<J' Q~~'<J' . "i't~~' bzhugs khri throne gzhugs gdan mattress dbu mgas dbum gas pillow ~6 6.Ij!.i:}' khyad khyod 6'1' ~ a. <>19 4.~'LJ·lf"l'll· 'i9!.j' \li<>l' .· chibs sgyur gnang a.<>I·<>I6i1i· "liil.1"l~'i!i' QI. c mga mgo maba kha lagpa rkangpa rkLlng snakh ug mig gzugs pa po chu mchu mdzub rna mo sor gdub /ham gog mig shel rkang sud khri gdan mgasm ga go 'I':!" ..'. .· Highe r Englis h.~~L- 3.. <>1f[Q'.. a. ~'IS"l ~'" t'\Q~' f'\Q~' "F ~i1i' ~iIi' al'''l~''~' ar"'~"Il~' ~"l phyag zhobs zhabs shang spyan sku gzugs chab :t:~ :t:.. '*JiIi·..J.Q'll'Q~"'·"lilil:. ~~'<>19 ~~'<>I9 ~'f"l)Q' ~"I""I)Q' t'\Q~'~Jl' f'\Q~'~Jf ~i1i'"1nJ'' ~iIi'"1rll ~Q~'~'i' ~Q~'~'i' w. 1iYi' shi ba ~.Ij"l~' .j·LJ· rstarn pa . "I~"l~'i:j' 11.'Q' 4.S. <>1~' <>I~' 13.Ij"'~' t'\nJ·.~ }). 1:£.>.. h.ljl:.. 'i4Q~'LJ'phebs pa "i4Q~'L J'phebs Lower ~"i' '&.j6i1i·<J' <>I6i1i'<J' Q4.'l" a.1"l~'i!i' QI..Q'!rQ~"'·"lili!.·LJ· grongs pa ~~'LJ' grong spa thugs zhal ras lcam al'~'i' ~ &'~'i' sku nyid to go you 'i9l:..<>1'. "l~nJ'~Q' gsal zhib "l~rll'~Q' gsol dgangs pa rdzags pa ~ie dgongs rdzogs <.lie mam mkhyen mind gser zhal face gsang yum gsang wife [jags !jags smin tsampa 'I!"l'll'~iIi' 'I!"l'!j'~i 1i' 6.!<>I'LJ' ~l:...6 Some honorifics have more than one level: Ordina ry r.. Jl"I Ji"I 10.-:: 14. .j~· <>I~' 12.'): .-:: i£.j'Q' ..}' /: QI. i... 9.j.t"l '*JiIi' <>Ii".~ zhal mchu zhalm chu phyag mdzub phyag gdub zhabs !ham spyan shel zhabs sud i'f.~ f'\rll· .'~Jl' ~.'Q' Honor ific Englis h ~ Ia I rilili'<J' rliili'<J' S"i'<J' ~'i'<J' 4'll'<J' 4~'<J' S'Q' r. r:r 6."Q' . >fJ~'LJ' >fJ~'LJ' 8. ~"""l)" 15. ~. \li.'r t'\nJ·... j!j' 19.J. .j~'<J Q4<>J~' <J ~ .·t'\nJ· "Iiil .j~' sems ~<>I~' "I~l:. "l'iili' 20. nJ"l'LJ' rll"l'LJ' 7. .1"l~"l'iili· QI.'~Jf "l~l:.....j'Q' .j6i1i· . Jl"l':q>l' Ji"l":q>l" 17.1"1~"l'iili· "i't~~. t'\nJ' f'\rll' dbu snyan lcog zhal head ear mouth hand leg nose eye body water lips finger ring shoe spectacle sock 5.·f'\rll· "l'!j!...

8 Vocab ulary 'Ij<:" "1<:" ~~'~~' ~IloI'~IloI' :>.~' tj' ~ Ill'<%>' Ill'".>.'~<:" ':lr:.f1rq ' ".'''l ~'q' ~'''l' q~"i'tj' qllol"i'tj' ~ 'Ij~'Ij~'<l' 'lj~"IIlo1'tl' 'Ij~'Ij~'tj' "I~"IIlo1'tj' 'Ij~'Ij~'tj' "I~"IIlo1'tj' ~<:"tj' ~<:"tj' 6.".'q' 'ljW "IW 'lj~<:"~"i' "I1lo1<:"~"i' ~ §IloI'['l<:" §~'['l<:" "li"i'f'l:.>.'q~' a.~' ~f1f <%>IloI' q"i"l'L:j' "l"i'lj'L:j' 'Ij~~'tj' "I~IloI' tj' r.>.~fll' ~ 'lj~IloI'~'''l' 'Ij~~'~~ ".'q' ~-".I.flf q' illE..'q' ql'\~'tj' ql'\~'tj' ~ rkhrungs pa mjalba ' snyungba chibspa bsnam spa gzigsp a gzigsp a gzigsp a bkran gspa to be bom to meet siek to be sick to ride to take to look to see to buy to kill .j'rK ' "i'!ii' "i'iii' !ii' .'' illiW< <:.!'lj ~' gong skyes tshes rmpa gla cha zakha ng dala loche npo 10 chen po pad shag chu chu tshod tag tag dus chen lagsar gungs eng theng gsum tshar bzhi mdog nyesp o dug log nyal chas bdagp o gnasp o 'grulpa gnass korba gdan gsang spyod khrus khang mchod khang gong tshe kye !she rim pa eha la cha zakha ng da 10 10 chern po pay shag chu tshoe due !shoe tag tag due chen 10 sar goong seng theng soom !shar zhi tshar dhogn yepo doogl o nyal chay dhakp o nay po drool pa nay kor va dhen sang cho sallg tookh ang choek hang price birthday cost wages restaurant this year old (in age) money ( paisa) water time exactly festival new year holiday three times four times ugly clothes bedding owner: landlord traveller pilgrim mattress toilet showe r shrine room ~:.-".'''l~ ill~"I'~Il~'ij' <>l~"I'~ oI'ij' 'S"I'!ii'lj 'S"I'iii"l ~nr".q"1'tj' q~<>lI!f Q' q~illllfQ' ~".'''l' q'lfq' "l'lf"l' illij<:.~'ij' iii' tj"i'".§<:'''1' tj' <>lE.113 r. .'q' <>lij<:..~f1l' tj' r.' .' iii'''I Ilo1 ''''' 'jr:.¥. ~'~"i' 'j'lj' 'j'lj '5"1''5"1 I!j' 'Sill' .:~<:" ~<:"'lj~i>l' ~<:"'Ij~< ll' a..'q' ~ ~Ilr<r ~I!r<r ~"I'tj' ~"I'tj' skyes pa thugp a naba bzhon pa khyer ba blta ba mthon gba nyaba bsadp a "..~' !ii'''I~-''.I.<:.

:t. "l' i4Q"r "IiIi~ ~"il /chong ga ba phebs gnang gi red khong khong ga va pheb nang gi re Where is he going? ~'~ili'''Je.:t. "I.r.)~"f . sang nyin thug yong sang nyin thoo yong 4.::>."l' mar me rtsigpa parchas parehas pingshog nyal/chri ." I" t.~ 3..".e.'<... 'I 3."..)'"""\' r. tomorrow.. rll"l·r.:...1. "l':<:ZlJ<:"ZlJilie:.'::.)' <>I":':" ..-. (" ''t.:t.j. L F'''I')''l·r:>." ~".:r:a. <l~. B"~"l B-~"l Dl"l-Qj"l Ul"l'Qj"l ij.'~iI)'~"I·Uie..~'fi . "le.. """.>.""l)q" <ii"..)-"'-"\Ill'..r ~'f. dmagsgar ltadmo {:::~ .'ZlJ''S''l'i4"l'll' q' ~"il fi~ '''l's''ri4q"r '" ~"il /chong ga dus phebs pa red khong khong ga due pheb pa re When did he arrive? w /l /: /cho ga dus 'byor ba red kho kho ga due jor va re ti~ ti!4 2../ e.9 Examples Ordinary Honorific fJij fJi.~"~' ~"il /cho ga ba 'gro gi red kho kho ga pa dro ki re Fe..r <l.1j"l <l~:Jj"l ~nr~ 'i. "I.d t.-"' /' gyabkha leags ri dgonpa lhakhang yaab kba chak ri gom pa lha khang mar me tsik pa patchay ping sho nyal tri ngay gho ameri ka key took yigko thoorma chog tse drangma sor doob ku shoo maagghar temo lay kboong ke I varendah bOlmdary monastery temple lamp wall camera fihn bed pillow America puppy envelop spoon table bee . "l'<>Iilj ~-.'''l)''l' 1-j' 1-j" ""J"I':.. "l.'fii~'1 yarlong yar long mja/ sang nyin mjal yang sang nyin jay yong See you tomorrow. 6.' ClI~"r:~" ~' ~" las /chung khung ske ~~ ~t.jilj Ill-.nrUiq -~ .' "l~~~' '<:"l<:'""li!i~ 'I yar bzhengs rogs gnang rags yar zheng ro nang Stand up..§.:. '~' ~"if fi~ '.j"l":.:t..j.:. ~ W"l'~' W"l"~" ~e. fi""I")~"r. ."..jJ" ring apple garrIson garnson show office neck . ~.... t:t "l":':" "l~e.~<l":':" J.:t.:. F-"I'''l'A~'~'~"if F-"I""l"r.j: iX.'fiie.. ~~ '~iIi' ~"I'Ui~ h'..:.§..].rll'Uiq ~'~i!i'.'f 4..>.:t.'..114 "l"l"l-fl"l"l"l'f1' 9!"l"l' ~' 9!"l"f ~­ "iljil)'<l' "iljili -<l~-J'lt:: ~'J'lt:: .je.'"l' ~"il 1.jJ' ~. '''I""l'i4"l"l'"IiI)e:.~ <il.>..j" ij":':"<>I' ..W ~~W ·K..:. nyal khri rngasmgo amerika khyiphrug yig lkog thurma lcog rtse leog sbrangma sor gdub leu shu i.j":':" "....-"l"~"i1 Fe:.r.

......'~':i"l' :l<. 3.'tj.... 7.' <:j't:>..... 6.j~'''ni"-'j)'''<J''l1 tog tsa bsdad long medpas med pas tog tsa day long me pay 8. "l'"Iiii"' '''I"ll EJ"i'''I... sang nyin mchong gi ..j13"1"l'nic::' j). 9...'.·Cll·i'i"l·EJ"i·~C::·1 r:>.t:>.. She will show this photograph to my mother.. . 10.... "i·".rE...~.'4'r:>....o:... 9...c. khong kha lag za gi ma .. ........... 3. 10... .'~''l'''Ii1iC:: 'S"-'I r::>.. .. '''i~C::''l'I3'~'iililil '''i~C::'<J'13'~'illili' da gus rang dgong pa zhu gi yin da gu rang gongpa zhu gi yin l!r~"I'~. khrom la 'gro gi min ..j~ "l'"Iili"-..ijr.j~'~'~"il ~'i'ic::... 4.'. 6.... 'He has no cows..~·~·Ulilil da nga 'gro gi yin da nga dro ki yin EJ"i·"I.. ']"I·~·'..10 Exercises for Lesson six (a) Translate into Tibetan I 1...J' '....·ni".]"I'~''.. nga la deb bzhi yod pa .... is''i·E.... gyag mang po . t:>. ~'i'ii!i'\7"~r~"i1 ~'i'ii!i'\7'~'~"i1 de kho'i rta sga red de khoi ta gha re de khong gi chib sga red de khong gi chib gha re ?-o....."I"ll khyed gsol ja bzhes gnang gas Will you drink some tea.'i"l i'i"-'~':i"l'::<. khye sol ja zhay nang gay "i''j''l'.... This is the biggest dog in the shrine.. . I have the film for you..'~".. 7. yin .J''. La khyod spyi zla dang por yang gi yin .'i"l khong gi phyag lag ring po 'dug khong gi chak ring po doog kho'i lag pa ring po 'dug khoi lag pa ring po doog 9......c.t:... zLa Lags . ''.. 2.......... 4. 5.·~"-·''I''l1 is''i'E.·j)"·'l"ll .- He gave me this to me..c. shog gu de khong gi yin . I have two long legs.~·". Who has a better camera? 5.....r:>... sku khyug tsam bzhug long medpas med pas ku quook tsam zhug long me pay Can't you stay for a little while? i'i".j~.. . They have twenty seven pigs.....j~'~' ~"il - .... That is his horse saddle. j.... chu tshod 'di khyod rang .. .....'I 'di gus la khong gis gnang byung dhi gue la khong gi nang joong ~'i'ic::...~·"-wi'i"l·EJ"i·~C::·1 'di nga la khos sprad byung dhi nga la khoi trey joong His hand is long..'1"1 i'ii':i:Cll"l''l':l<.... 1..... i'ii':i:r>l"l'<J'::<.. He 2...'t:>..j139"l'nic::'j)... .rE.. . 7.~·~·Ulilil "i·"-·r:>....j......c.......'''I''l1 kyod ja 'thung gas khyo ja thoong gay 6. 8.. 10.... 2.... We will go to America in March..q. yul bod . 8..... khong tsho bal yuL la . .' Now I will go... 6... go..ijr... ~'''I''lwi'i"-'~''l'''IiliC:: 'S".......' <J~I ~r~"I' ~.115 5. t ~'''I''lwi'i". Where are the bigger oranges? (b) Fill the blanks of the sentences and transliterate into Tibetan: l.. I will not go to China in December. ...~. nga'i a ma lags ma ..

'Z ·~·~aJ~' ~'~'~~[lJ1 ~ "'" sdig pa ci yang mi byazh ing dge ba phun sunt tshogs par spyad rang gi sems ni yongs su 'dul 'di ni sangs rgyas btsan pa yin " " 5j'UlI::.~~' q~'~~1 I~z<\' q'~5j a:.'~-"<\f1i1i ''"I::.?"'[lJiIi' ·m~1 Even if one is to die tomorrow One should study knowledge... . c. rig pa nang par 'chi yang bslab tshe 'dir mkhas par rna gyur kyang ma skye ba phyi mar beol ba yis nor la rang nyid len pa 'dra ~ I~' -Q'~'aJ~' -Q'S[lJ' -Q'Ul[ q'~' aJ~' ...·1 r~Z<\'!J' ~'UlC..'" 1~1::.Z<\~' !J~'~~I .. '.'aJ' ~Tf1I::.q'UlI " ~ ..? ')::1 -------sakya Pandita -------Sakya 1 i (d) Write the honorific forms of the following words: 1.S~'~~·aJ' -Q~ili' ililI W"SZ<\'Z<\~' ... ..' 'S'Ul"r 1"'~"'z .. -.. Iljc:~r 1. sor gdub . p~' ".. C'o.' w_l Do not commit any non-virtuous deeds And apply the perfect accumulation of virtues..t.. ...·... "l"l' <. >ljc:~r 2. " ~ I-". For it is like claiming one's own Invest ed possessions in future rebirths.... l "IaJfl~' J:J' -Q~S "..... ~'~~..".. " " aJ' e. la ston gyi .qllj..Q'i.Q~iIi' iii ..... su bsdad 'dug nga'i lag ..110 II... 'di .'6' " ~'Ul-".. 'I I~~' .. 1112.. "'iii skra bagle b p P ~t. " ~ ~ ~ -~ ~ rlnga la dbyug gus rna bsmm na ma de srid'gzhan dang khyad ci yod I The learned cannot be fathomed Until inquiring and questioning (his background) How is it different from . 7..<\'~aJ~' 5j'UlI::...r 'S'Ule.~..q~S 01::.q~S~?I::. \..... c....... 'nr -". J:J' 5j1::.l5j'q'Ul5j[ "- /........·-Q1lj-Q/ 1 ~Z<\'!J' 5j1::.yong nyi ma'i mdun .. e-. ~'~~ -Q'i.....ql r~·~~~ ~~' aJfI~' !J~' aJ'!:!!~'~1::. 'dug . iii ..' ~Tf11::..-.l5j'!J'Ul5j1 iii '~C... c...'Ul' .·aJ·-.....: .. c... A drum not beaten by a drumstick etc.. 6. Completely subdu e one's own mind This is the teaching of the Buddha.q~~[ 1"'Ul' q~SZ<\?I::.-:: tt. ....'[lJili' q'~~1 '.ii " .'~f1ili-"..q~[lJ' "~ lili I ~'(1r ~I::..... ~........ _ . Ia (c) Express and memorize the following Tibetan quotations: r~~·~... 13.. ·Ull::.?-".. 'UlC. Q"I'ii)z:r Q"I'ii)~r g' 3. . c... 14.. q~'~a..·['I ~'t:l.. .1::.'.." . ~ ~ " /........ ~'~'~~[lJ1 1~C. Q. 15..I ..aJ'~~'!J1 aJfI~'!J' ..."- ili '~I::...~ " 'C::~.. 1 ·aJfl~·q~·aJ·~~·~I::...'aJ'''!Jz<\~1 "" ~ c.1-"..q'~5j '~aJ' a:.I' fll"l' rkangpa lagpa mgo 5... _ mkhas pa rtsad cing rna dris pa de yi bar du gting rni dpogs mi Ie:.. "... c...' <.. -----B uddha ""I~~. 'S-".'!J~'~a....yong gi 'dug gas .' aJ'~~' qr -.. zhva mo de da Ita .

'1l1 r.:t.'q' ~ a.11 Useful Expressions ~q'Ul9'q'A~9 ..\' . C>.'~I:.c.. 'I I:..·...j'9' . I:.ij~' "I~""....'~I:.' ~.< ..~'A'\9 7IJ''9'~' a.~9 Q'I1'~9''"''\9 ~ -."...:t.\'~~'1lJ9'~q' ~9~'9"iI:.C>..~'"iI:.: .'9~'''iI:.'Ll" ft:..l.\'J.:t.'9'r..I:.....):j.". Excellent..-~ ~ " . Did you do your homework? homework. TIley are very good.· c:: ft:...l.'t:. ~ Il"-'t:.ij~' """I'll' .9~' 9"iI:.'1 .' ~I:..j~l ~'\' ..l.' ". _ _ ~ - ~~' ~I:. ""_. How are those apples? good. Excellent.)"1 4...ij~' ~ - Jl~~'Zj' Jl~~'Zl' "I~'q' "Ill' "1~' -~ gsarpa gsarra gsar~a I gsarshos Igsarshos rnymgpa rnyingnga rnyingshos thug po thug ga thug shos chen po cheba cheshos thungthung thungnga thung shos yagpo yagga yag shos mthonpo mthoba mtho shos new newer newest I old older oldest thick thicker thickest big bigger biggest short shorter shortest good better best high higher highest .. Please spell this (for me). '~I:.l..' '\ "i' '\9' q...~r. 1Ij'-9S a...! """I' ..:t.j' ~I:..' S~'Ul~'J.r 7.l..'9~' "il:..'~ '\ 9' 9' .j~1 ....:t."l" ft:.IF _...\1 ".~' ~..~l '"''\'"'''\ "i''~9'9'.... .\Q'Ul9'Q'A'\9 .~r.~'A~9 " " " Ul9' q'I1'~9'r.ij~' ~ ll"l'Zj' Il"l' Zl' ~"I'''1 Il"l'...'1lI9' ~q' ..ij~· ll"l'.".. '. llt.\'n.' S~'Ul.- It is very good. """I'Ll' """I'. 8.l..._..'c:: fr~:. " :-:~": :-~": 6.~'Zj: j.".. r.~'Zl: j..'\. Ji"l mlg 8.'1 _ _ e-. ~Jl''<' rtsampa (e) Make ten sentences by using the following adjectives: "I~""'<' "I~"""" "I~"""" "I~""...l.ij~' llt:. --- r.'S~'flll:.\F llt:... " What is the meaning of this? What is the meaning of this in Tibetan? me). I did not have time to do my homework.117 4.'.:t._. ..' J.'.6.' Ilt:. .'9'. C>....' S'\'f'lll:.~' "iI:.):j~'fll'9' ~'1l1 C>.ij~' ~ j..ij~' ft:.'~"i' ~9' q~'.'''1~' ~ ~ Ilt:. ...:t..

§j'q'~"i' r:tQ"I'<r ~"i' r:>. C'J."I·q"'·RiG'~·rlrn. and condit ional-p erfect) tenses usi ng var iou auxilia t) tenses by ry verbs and adding verb compl ement s to express the add ing verb com ple me nts to exp pat tern of cha nge to the spelling cor rec tenses The pattern of chang ess to the spelling of the verb stem in forming differe ress thecorrec tttenses.~~·cr... .§j·q·~"i' 3.·"i9"i·<J"''()."I "dus gsum bya tshig" in "dus gsum bya tshig" in Tib etan ."1 mai tenses called 5'!r"l~iQ':r J. . future-perfec rfec t.. For examp le if ons of tim wit hin one tense.Q-G"b ba. future." .§j'~'ilj''il nga tsho gza' pa sangs lj''il nga tsho gza' pa gs rrag par dgon pa la 'gro gi yod rtag par dgon pala 'gro gi yod san nga !Sho zah pa san g tag par gam nga tsho zah pa sang tag par gampar dro ki yoe par dro ki yoe Eve ry Friday we go to the monas tery. future-perfect.~·~·i 5. future. added compl ver b phrase which com ple me nt and f1uxiliary verb. action and expresses a general trut Gener ally the spellin h."1'<J'<.2 The Simp le Prese ntt The sim ple pre sen shows habitua The simple presen tt shows habituall action and expresses a general truth. ~:'~ ~:. kho zho g leas rtag par slob grwa fa 'gro ba red kho zhog kas rtag par slob grwafa 'gro ba red t'f~ /t /t \:i":i . r:t§j'q' r:>.. Gen era lly the spe lling of the ver b stem rem ain unchanged for g of the verb stem remain unchanged for this tense. conditional) conditional) and the fou com pou nd (presen -pe and the fourrcompo und (presentt-perfect. As in Englis there are sub As in Eng lishthere are subtle variati Tibeta n.\ ~~I. c::·l·"I-'lr:>.:I'Il:::<J·q~f·q·~''i1 4. h tlevariations of timeewithin one tense. sent. is'r:>. ement and fluxiliary verb.t:: 'i.f3·~"i· q~J.'''i9"i'<l. past. . For firstt person. Every Friday we go to the nas tery mo . fii"~"I'''Il1/'. to eat to eat tog o togo Eng lish Englis h ? 'k·~ 'i.JI ru.·<r~c ~'.\ ' 'I.!l"l'~'~"i' r:t!l"l'~ '~"i' iQic::'~'~"i' iQ. C::·~9"''I'~r.q' r:t{'q' ~l!r<r~"i' ~~r<r~"i' r:t{' Q' ~"i' r:>.SiO: i. morning.§j'~'ilj"il 1. auxilia verb ~"i'yod."I'<J. For second and third persons. past-perfect..SiO: .{.£ to jum p to jump to smell to smell to hide to hide to milk to milk -'l'G' -'l'G" r:>.f3'~"i' ~~~'~"i' ~l!f~'~"i' r:>.>. This is then follow ed by the auxiliary ver the n foll ow ed by the is b ~"i·yod.1188 11 LE SS ON SE VE N LES SON SEV EN m. added con sist of the verb.''I' <J'>.Q"I' q' r:tQ"I' <r iQa.. and con diti ona l-pe rfec byusing variou ss aux ilia ry verbs and t.Q.c'q'~"i' iQa. go to school every morning..ff qgiQ'<.C'q qgiQ'l. ~c< 7.{'q'~"i' ~~ !i:o~ nga zho k kay tag par lob dra la dro nga zhok kay tag par lob dra la dro ki yoe ki yoe 2. For firs person.C'~9""Il1/' .2 Th e Sim ple Pre sen 7.:£. This le infinitive verb.Q"I'<r~"i' iQa. i. He goes to school every morning. i§"i'~ 9""Il!r. This dog protects my house..' Riq·~·rlfr:>.JI '> '> 7. 4.ruq'~' >. eith er of the particles~' S' of the particles~' ~' whict we wil call her e "ad ded verb com ~.q. "."f q.'''I-'lr:t'<rll/C lI/'.C::'q'~"i' q~iQ'q'~"i' Q~iQ'<l'~"i' r:>.):'.Sj 3.1 Tense ss We hav lear nt tha there are thre We haveelearnt that tthere are threeemainntenses called 5l!r"l~iQ':r.~-.0 .::r ~(Y oQ.::r ~(y .€'~'~"i' r:t€'~'~"i' r:>.C::'q iQa. past.§j. The of nt of ver bs pro vid ed at the end of this the ver b stem in forming different tenses can be see n fro m the lis! of verbs provid ed at the end of this manualll Tense in Tibeta n is largelytenses can be seen from the lis! manual Ten se in Tib etan is largelyexpres sed by the exp res sed by the verb phrase wh ich consis tss of the verb.:I'II:::<J' Q~f'q' ~"il khy i dhe e nga y kha ng pa soo ng wa khyi dhee ngay khang pa soong ware re khy i 'dis nga'i khang pa bsrung ba red khyi 'dis nga'i khang pa bsrung bared This dog protects my house..9" <J'>. /.-n. we we tak the verbbto write r:tQ-G"'bririba.k'~'~"i' q~J. an infmitive form second third person an infm itiv e form of of the verb is follow ed by ver b is foll owed by the auxilia verb the auxiliary verb ~S. we can easily form the fourrsimple (prese can easily form the fou sim ple (pre nt.~ .'ruG"~'ilrn..§j'~'~"i' r:t§j'~'~ "i' r:t§j'<r~ "i' r:>.c: to cut to cut ~.1 Te nse 7. fii"~"I'''l~'.''I·<J'''·Riq·~·rlfr: §j' ~'ilj"il (lfr:t nga zho g leas rtag par slob grva la 'gro gi yod nga zhog kas rtag par slob grva la 'gro gi yod IIgo to sch ool eve ry morning.' ruq'~'rlfr:t §j' Q' ~"il kho zho k kay tag par lob dra la dro kho zhok kay tag par lob dra la drova re va re L .''I'<J". is"r:t~lI/'Cr. ~~rq' ~l!r<r Inf init ive Infini tive per son 1st person -'l'~'ilj"i' -'l'~'ilj"i' 2nd & 3rd pers on person -'l'q'~"i' -'l'q'~"i' r:>.>. past-perfect. §j' q' ~"il 2. He goe s to sch ool eve ry morning.~ 5. /. i§"i·~9""l~·. either this tense. wh ict we willl call here "added verb complement" substitutes the second syllab plement" substitutes second syll abl e of an infinitive verb. For exa mp le ifwe takee the ver to wri te r:>.§j' Q' ~"il khy od zho g kas rrag par slob grwa fa 'gro ba red khyod zhog kas rtag par slob grwafa 'gro ba red khy o zha g kay tag par lob dra la dro khyo zhag kay tag par lob dra la drova re Yo u go to school every va re You go to schooleve ry morning.~ .

".·~"i·~c:.5 Present .119 t:. . The spelling The present of the verb remain unchanged. ti<>J"rll"Il." A~q'~·'t.. This is formed by placing ~"i'i4".~ lf~"i'i4~" A~<:r~'i'i4~' 1.."i' ~c:. ."~t:.'q ~I... rk·~'Il"~"'Il"""<i.'Il' .>JI<or ~r Ul"." . E::g·~'.9'" "~~" ~Z::.· 'l'lj'll" <r ::<.·nrS·rii"l·nr~·-'l·~"cJiz::." .I. An infinitive verb which ends in~" pa remains unchanged..~ .''i' <>Jl<nr~j" ::<'Z::. This is formed by pladng~' gi future" placing~' between the main v.' .~"~" ::<. ~'.·.''i' t:.>J'rll'A~'~·Uj~1 nga tom la dro lei yin fa nga khrom la 'gro gi yin I will go to the market." ~~'~''t.c:.. 3.'Il"<r::<'z::."i' .'" Il.'orS'rii"l'or~'-'l'~'<Ji"i1 IIga tsho nyi ma'i gung la phyi logs la lIya za gi yod nga tsho nyi mai goong la chi 10k 1a nya za gi yoe We eat fish outside during the day. only difference between simple future and simple presell\ is the use of different auxiliary verb for the first'person.~"~"::<'Z::. mo tom la dro ki re mo khrom la 'gro gi red La She will go to the market. ~"i' g'~.l'5c:...>Jk'~''t....'''l'Ul'''' ~ ~ ~ ~ 1st person - 2nd & 3rd peI'Son person <>Jk"~'::<'Z::.·g·~·<>J~·5t:.Perfect Tense ." Q~'<ri'i4". ~Z::."" "" <>JJ."i' Il..::<i.' khong gee lha sal' bo ke jang pa re Iha sar ngas Ion gron du dhyin ji'i skad sbyangs pa yin IIgas I studied English in London."1 2." . c:. The."~'Il"ru""~"""~"I" LJ~"~z::. The verb stem itself may go in~' through some spelling changes allowed by the phonological rules governed by gender harmony of the consonants. c:."".~f~"i'i4".~'~'i'i4"" q\y~'~'i'i4".erb and the auxiliary verb as we have seen with the simple present. la 7. 't.""j"tll".' "\y1\r~"i'i4". 'Il"~" 't. English Infinitive Il.>JJ.~·.·~" . ::<'Z::. 'Il'rii""~""5"Z::. English Infinitive <>Jit:. 3.Q'i'i4"'1 ngay Ion don du in jee ke jang pa yin rk·~~·~'~. 2. khyod tsho khrom fa 'gro gi red You will go to the market."~." <>J!<tll" q' A~q'.>Ji'.' ~'Il"~" ::<'Z::.."i' ~c:." ~'11'~' 't..' q'li~'<r't.>J·rll'A~·~' 't." the syllable ~'i'i4".5j" .'Il'."i' pa red for the second and third person after the main verb.~r<r't.>JI<OI'~t't.3 The Simple Past Tense This tense expresses an action that has taken place in the historical past.·~t:. k1wllg gis lha sar bod skad sbyangs pa red klwng He studied Tibetan in Lhasa.>Jic:.Q' to jump to meet to suck ." ~c:.l'~''i'~c:."i· ~t:.cri'i4"" 1. t:.'pa ::<'Z::." AQ'q' 5j'll" <ri'i4".Q' ::<.. ~"i'~~'m<:r~~'~"I'LJ~'~"i·~c:.~r<r't.[~.Q· Il. tl'.>J!<OI' .r A~'q' to dig to purify to look to write 1st peI'Son person ~~f<ri'i4". 6."il ~z::.>J'rll'A~'~' 't.' 2nd & 3rd peI'Son person ~'Il"~" ::<'Z::..'pa yin for first person and ~.~"~"Uj~.. 7.~ ."~z::." ~~'<ri'i4"" ~1."~I. ~·rii"'·~"'·5'''i9''''~i'..4 The Simple Future Tense This tense express an action that will take place in the future. <>Jl<rll"~·tll"."" q'I{q' 'l'lf"" 1l."i1 khyo kyee lob drar sog poi ke jang pa re khyod kyis slob grvar sog po'i skadsbyangs pa red You studied Mongolian at school." ::<'z::.' khyo tsho tom la dro lei re 7..[~<>J"nrll."g"~<>J"Ol"Il. '11' .z::..

1'.'q'~"i' e.::~'iijt::' "it::tt:. .·q:<'''i1 kho e dro ong soo m dri nyo ng va re B'\·~~''l!''l't:l.·'J' ~'\' ib".t:.o:.\t:..' -'1'q.~.·'qUlilj' q"'1~' qUiilj' q'5~' ib. ib"" q'Uiiljl .·q· q\\.\I khy o kye e taa lkjo o nyo ng va re kby kho s sgrung gsum 'bri my ong ba red He wro te three stor ies (a lon g wh ile ago).~I'lJ'. As for the sec ond and third per son .t:. ~~~ khy o kye e sho o tsha r pa re Irye tsh ar ~q r~ Thi s tense indicates an action that started at som e time in the pas t rem ote r tha n som e oth er pas t tim e me ntio ned .·q·Uiilj· St::~ib.·Q·~"i· I f~ t:.:.'q' e.\t::t::.'Q' "it::t:: ~'iijt::'q' :<.·q·~"i· ~t:.\' "it:. ~l' iijc.·''J' ~'\I q"'1 ' q' ~.~' ib. 2.o:.Q' ~tIj ~''J' ~l:lj~'q' t:l. riat e ver b com ple me nt as Eng llch to eat to stu dy to loo k " If"'" t~ ~~ -'1.Q·~·1 1.r ~"i' Q\\.'l.~nfq ~ 2nd & 3rd person <:.o:. en.''J'Uliljl t:. i-:' .~t:. . F~'~t::'l:lj~<>l·t:l. He re the aux ilia ry ver b is not use d for the first person. the ~'\. khy od kyis bsh us tshar pa red bsfuts Yo u have copied.·q·Ujilj· .o:.tjt:.. t::~·l:'i"i·~'nJ·~~'t:l.Per fec t Ten se Pa st· ~'-% 1st person e.Q·-!it:.~"i' ~l:lj~'iijt::'q'~"i' " / . vow el end ing ver b stem s do not cha nge their spe llin g as wit h the sim ple past. Inf init ive 1st person -'1~ ib.g~'iijt::'q'~.'iijc.·'J'Ulilj' q'lJ~ ib-<-'qUlilj' ib"" qUiilj' ~t:.' .~ 'lJ'iijt::'q'~"i' t:l. kho s spr ad tshar pa red He has given.q:<'''i1 F~'~t:. <:"iijt::' '\t:..~IflJ'tjt.o:. khy od kyis sta g 'ius my ong ba red You cau ght a tige r (a lon g wh ile ago ).'Q' 'to experience'is affixed to the ver b stem plus the auxiliary ver b ~'\' red 'In the pas t per fec t tense.6 Past . pas l Eng lish to har ves t to sho ck Inf init ive <:. or is perhaps eve n now in the pro ces s of finishin g the writing.'o@t. Thi s is formed by affi xin g the wo rd ib.o:.''J'Ulilj' St:.\~nJ'~t:. nga y dre e tsha r pa yin tsh ar j'ii~~"i' ib-<-''J' ~"il i6~''~"i'ib"" q' kho i tre tsh ar pa re Ire is''i'§~ q'5~"f ib.·' tshar bet wee n the ma in ver b and the aux iliary ver b prefixed with the app rop sho wn for the sim ple pas t..o:.'! nga y hoe kyi 10 gyo o dri nyo ng Iryi nga s bod kyi 10 rgyus 'bri my ong I wro te (a) history of Tib et (a lon g wh ''4 l '-41 ile ago).'q 7.'~'q'~. ~. ple ted writing.o:.lLU Thi s ten se ind ica tes action that star ted in the past and con tinu ed into.\·~·Ol.' ~tIj~ 'iijt::' r.' J'iijt::' to roll t:I.' ~tIj~.g~· -!it:. r.~ib.q .Q'iijt::'.\I nga s bris tshar pa yin I hav e written. 'q' ~'\.~'~t:.o:. the infi niti ve form of iijt::'q' my ong ba tjt:.o:.·'J' ~"i' . to cop y q'5~' ib...·tIj~"rr..~' ib". It is form ed by affI Xing the wo rd iijt::'myong (ha ve exp ifF my ong erie nce d) afte r the ma in verb.'q ~t::'q 2nd & 3rd person -'1~r ib.>.:.''J' ~"i" .'q. ~t::~' ib.'Q' ~''il B"i'~~''li''l't:l. r .~·15..'" W'" to exc ava te i ~l:lj~r!it:.. t:: ~Q~' ib.o:.q t:I.~~·t:l. 'q' q'1!'q' q'1!"Q' q'5''q'' q"'1 Q . The imp lica tion oftthe illustration of he used is that I have jus t recently com or nearly into the present.

"l..~."..·''I·:i. "l~f~' a::. "lilj~' a::".i·~"i·Q~~·a::".>Jf. a.. their nol ba (pronounced wa) as not all base. ete until Sunda y ..·Q· Q ' Q"I' Q ~ Infini tive ."1 3.. ~ ngas yi ge 'di gza'ny ima'i nyin bris tshar ya yin 1. """1' .j0i' Qilj"f a..~·ill·iij·~Q·Q·Ui"1 I would have writte n the letter if I had the ink.".8 Cond itiona l ·Perfe ct Tense in the past if the condit ion was As the name implies..''l'~~'''I''~'~'.."l" "lJ!!e:.. F~·j'le:. and then adding "l'~'" ba yod (would have) after the main verb.'a::.. comsu mated . While the but it canno t be used for the 2nd the 3rd as it is used in the 1st person media l particle are chiefly follow ing terminations can be used on the whole for all verbs.-'tshar meaning "finish" s in the conditional perfect Ui."..".·~·. the action will already have taken place.·~"i·(lj~·"I·a::".". Your son will have finished the work tomorr ow. yod is used for all three person of present tense. w"I"I"" Q'~"I kho la iiyoo gu yoe na nga la yaar wa yoe la kho fa smyu gu yod na nga la gyar ba yod He would have lent me if he had the pen..i"i' ~~'a::.>Jf...'>. govern ed by the final of the verb base."":i!':i. Qilj~' a.·'l·p.'Q' me:...J·5·~"'0i·e:.~·f·Q·Ui''1 1:>ought this house if you had the khyo la pe shak yoe na khang pa dhi nyo va yoe' You would have bough ...·Uf . 7.. this tense is used to show an action occurr ing Oi' ional phrase consis ting of "i' na ons.. . Englis h to hide to discus s to divide to wash Ql!je:. ~...-·"l·:i..""tsh future perfect.. ~"·~·S·~~~·~e:.9 Table of Tense Term inatio ns differe nce is in the past and tenses. which is characterized by a::".. nga la naak tsha yoe na ngay yi ge dri va yoe F·(lj·.~·f·"l·Ui"1 ~"'(lj''l''·-9''1·u:i''·Oi"J'le:.ai nyin dree tshar ya yin I will have writte i rna'i nyin bzos tshar ya red 2.'''I·ti. The follow ing table gives the terminations of all the tenses..' a.-':!!':i."1 khos khang pa 'di gza'ny built this house on Sunda y.."'·~·:i.·~"·Oi·e:. '" fa nga la snag tsha yod no ngas yi ge 'bri ba yod "I·a::·~"·"i·e:...·~Oi·(lj~·"I·a.·~·:i. money . classic al grammatical rules are observed in spoken Tibetan.willOiI y. verb.lLl Futur e 7. tsOOr rgyu after the main verb...'~'tl:j0i' "l~"fa::"'-'~'Uj"i' ~§'Q' ~§'Q' me:.W"l"l".. the action will not be compl the deed will already have been the end of Sunday.'''I' :i.~.tl:j')' Qilj"ra::"'-' ~.i'~Oi'Q~~'a.-·Q·~"1 pi'(lj' ... The termination Ui". n this letter on Sunda y.J·5'~.ti.. a.. khyo kyee bu dhee sang nyin lay ka tshar gyu re -Perfe 7.·(lj·~"I·a.. :i.~' a. Q~~' a."l.:i.' Q~~'a::". nyo ba la khyod fa pad shag yod na khang pa 'di nyoba yod ~"·(lj·'l"·"9"1·u:i"·"i'j'le:.tlj').". tsOOr ya or a::..''1 2.>Jf.-·"l·iil"i1 c.'''l.-'~':i.. Q~'" a. ~~·a.· condit ional perfect."...·'l·p.. So there is an added concep t of the past in the idea.7 Futu re· Perfe ct Tense concep ts of future and past.. In This tense is a paradoxical weddi ng of the apparently contra dictory future.~. But by one of the illustration used.~'ill·iij'~~'''I''~'~·."""I'illOi' 2nd & 3rd £erson Q~f~' a... me:.i'~Oi'Q~·a.a time in the future. c... work... The choice is betwee n po and n. Q'~'" (if) . 1st person "l~e:.~' a::. This is formed by the condit verb....·"l·iil"i· Q~e:. not affecte d by some other situations.·')·e:.i·~"i·Q~·a.>Jf.Ul' This is formed by adding a::. The main particl eQ'ba and the media l particle "l'ba for a.."1 3.·~·.~·iil·ilj·~Q·Q·Ui"1 e:. In:ai ngay yi ge dhi zah nyi lll. khoi khang pa dhi zah nyi mai nyin zoe tshar ya re He will have khyod kyi bu 'dis sang nyin las ka tshar rgyu red ~~·~e:. pi~'J'le: ·'l·~~·"I"P..~·iil·ilj·~~·"I"P.

J'Oj~' <J'''l~' !i r.~. ~.".j'e' ak hu a.. t:lC "l' 'I' t:l...'Ul'"' '\' q" 'i' l:f"ll'i ' Q~ . ' <ri.j'Jf ll'i'Of 7.· "j·o. . ~:\ ~-:c am a am a ap ha aph a 1/"'" '. ma sm ao mo sm ~'Ji' ~'Ji' a. <:j~(1J'Q ~'q~(1J'q'' ~f '.J' )~-:.'Q'£"l'l.j'e' akh u 1l'rC<F 1l'rC<F rny ung ba rn yu ng slat thang mn yel ba slat thang ye l slat bsil ba slat bsil slat slat tsh ad tshig gnang ba tshig gnang to bec om e sic k to be co me sic k to be tired to be tired to bec om e co d to be co me col ld to feel hot to feel hot so m o som o uncle (rnaterna1) uncle (rna tem a I) auntt (paternal) aun (paternal) uncle (paternal) uncle (paternal) auntt (maternal) aun (maternal) mother mother father father nephew nephew II"'" nelcee nelc elder brotherr elder brothe sister sister elder sister elder sister elder brother r elder brothe grannd-father gra d-father grand -rnot he r r grand -rno the son son daugghtr dau hte er ..""-'" "" -"/ t{ Te ns es Ten ses Pr sen t Pre es en t Past Past Fu tu re Fut ure Pr sen t Pe rfe t Prees en tPer fecct Pa t Pe fec t PasstPer rfe ct 1st pe rso 1st per son n ''j"Oj'i' "j"''l'i'. ~ ~ q'Ji' r~ uu um ao um f f .'.~.1)'''1' £"l'<J' J' ~.. ~« OJ'Oj. \W i"l ..· "l·u.. .""Oj'Oji\' .l\'<:j' oli'<:I' llr.j'E..\' ~e:: <1'"'''\' '1.\· qOj.- '--'.· l.'" ~'.'<l' * ~P'lr.~.J'"'''\ 'lJ' "'''' '!:Ie '!:Ie:::: a:.. 2ndd&& 3rdd per son 2n 3r Derson <r~._ _ ___ _ J ~ oli"'·l'Q ::..9"">li"i'q aajagssrgannpa jag rga pa "l~i\''ii' ii' cen pa "l~. '< Q' ~ "I' Q. '\·l..!.' Il'i.\ <1' ~"\..<j~(1J'l:fq '< ~ )~-:.. .[.r ~'i' ' <1' ~'i 'lj' ""i' 'I' ""\' ' l.'\' . t:\'\'lj '< '< [0- rr '-'...1)"·"f"l. t:\ '\'lJ <l'1.\' ii ~e::<l'''...\ cen po ~'Q' ~'Q' pa ba po bo ~.\' l:f"l 'i' QI '''''i' <l'1~'W''l'i' "''5 <:Ilf1.<l~(1J' ~'l'lc:. '..l'<:j~.j.· q' '< ~ .'\' .:'.'i"1 '< i .'Ji'i' .J· .Ji.'Q' '.l\' ogresive_~_"l'''l~~~_ __. naba naba thang ch ad thang cha d pa 'kh ya gp a 'kh yag pa tsha ba tshigpa ISha ba IShigpa ~e::Q' ~c:.'.. ~.j a chi a chi a.1lj'1lj~c:...j'E..C!l"l'l.qc:. ~~.1)"'''1'''. ~ ~ a:.\_..11 Kinship Te rm s a zhang a zhang ll'i'~'' an e Il'i'~ ane a.11 Kinship Te rm s 7.l\" <:1::. ..\' a:.'\.l.Ilj"l'>li"i'q a..'Q tsha ba ISha bo a:...\'Oj..<J..)'J tsh am a tsh am o ~..[.9·9~c:.._~~ "l' ~'\...!.. Fu ure Pe fec t Fut tu rePerrfect O:mdition l Pe O:mditionaalPerrfe ct fec t Pr es enttPro gre ss iv e Pre sen Pr og re ssiv e Past Pro gre ssiv e Pr og re ss ive Past Fu Futtu re Pr re siv e ure Pr og II .\·(.c .\'''l''\' "''5/..'Q' ' '. ca ja coj o ll'i.· <1'iilil....:·..." ~..

'S"I tl~'QS.~.\! r:>.l'J'~'i1 r::.A'..'. karma to leave things behind picnic dishes to wash radio postman post office biscuit to pour (liquids) to rest is'''] ~r::.".12 Exercises of Lesson Seven (a) Repeat the following by substituting the last part of the sentence : r::. ""I'~i"~i<J'r:>."] ~'iS' lifE.'S.\' g.:i' "l~r::.'ti' "l~r::.~..\·l>l~'~'D."] "]' jags khyo ga o jo'i bza' zZa zla gcenmo gcungpo gcungmo tog tsam las bzhagpa gling kha snodchas 'khru ba rlung 'phrin sbragspa sbrags khang tan shel blugpa ngaZ gso rgyag pa ngal ~'~A'Q.~'Q'Ui"1 r:>."I "Ic:.'J r:>..r tl~1 "iilj~' Ll~1 3..rs.gr::..\! "1"1'''1''']' g.'lD..'.'Ui'\1 'lj~'" tl'J'j·r:>.:.\' q' jj' r:>.'ii!' Q-'lD.r>r"l~'~"]'q' ~.q'r:>.\' If-'r:>.§j'.t.. ~A'~"il ~A'~"il c:.§j"'rtil"il r:>. ""I'~r~ilJ'r.'ii!' za'zZa hyoga hungma spouse husband wife brother in law sister in law elder sister younger brother younger sister a little (for a little while) than.' ').'jr>r 'i"i'.g. q~1I i<JC:: q'Ui '" q~ "1"1'''1'.'i"l v r:>.'jr>r Iilllf tl' €l"l'tI' r::.ar:>.§j'~'~"il 2.'i'll "Ir::.123 Q.'ii!' 'lj~. '1"1 'lj~"'Ll'Jl'r:>.\'J:i' 'lj~"i'J:i' "l~r::... is'''l>l'mQ'~'']' is'''I>l'ruQ'~'']' ilJc:.rl' ~'Q' ~"'~~' If-'r:>.§j'~'~"\1 r:>." 7.~.l'J' ~ ~"I'~ilJ' ~"I'~i<J' l>l~' I>l~' Q~"I·tl' Q~"I'tI' ~r::.§j'~'til"il r:>.'.Ui.·q'Ui".q."I i!.'S"I "iljz.~'t'il"\J r:>.\':.l'J'~'i1 '?l"i'ij'jj'r:>.~'Q'Ui"1 r:>.~''i' 5l"l~tl' 5l"l~tI' 5l"l'r<r::..r:>.§j·"rt'il.'1 flr::..~' '5' tl"l'll'~'<lj"l'q~1 tI"I"I'~'<lj~'q~1 .l'J' lifE.§j.A'.'g·lfl·5j· ~'"l'l>l' r::.'S"I tI~'QS"i'I>l~'~'D.' g'lfl'5j' ~'''l'I>l' r:>.g..

•••• •••• •••• •• "K' .~·~·Ui'\1 2. ~·l see sleep bear read copy 4.\'~' J:J'r<'. c:.'·9·r.l..>. ~i2 ~ "f! ".·~"i·l.... '\"I·"I"l1 "l"ic ' I"r..rUj~1 c:~ ~'m~· i·. ~·ficc·~"l·l.'\"I'''I''i1 -CJ~ "i' q.r.....·"l~nr€. .jl.. 2. <J"il "l..) ~- ..·Ji... .>.. Q~·i·~?l·~'\r Q~·i·~A·~'\1 combs pocket knives hand gloves fruits prayer books 3.1:: ~':1:: w."\"l l.. i9'\·.. ..\1 Uf: t& school hospital bookstore restaurant student (c) Transform the following senten ces into' negative.' i·mc:.j~~r<J·~"il " (d) Tra nsl ate the following senten ces into Eng lish and transform them Tibetan.· [iic·"l~nfl:''/ ... ~ 1..-'.. c:. c~ ..jl.....\"1 ~ -CJ~"i' ib·".:j"lWr.. [iic:. 1."l 4.r<\"1 .l....l.>.·nrr.l. I'K·g ..''1 ~"I·~·i·Qe:~·~lClj·r.4. .."i"l I -.} "I"l"'·<J·~.f~.... l. ~..~..§j·~·~0i·<J"i1 i!l'\·~·9·r.. ~~' ."i"l c·Jli ilj. "''\1 "'...) !.\"l ~ (b) Repeat the following sentences by filling ~ v.r. into sim ple past in 1..\1 merchants Indian Nepalese students fishermen 2. m-CJ·~''1"~·i·Qe:~·~l''l·r...j~"l·<J·~"i1 ~·fi :...>.... S"\·"-c:.~'\. t:::i·~·llf .. ·Jl· ~"\l f'·'.jl'i·~· r< 'i"l l"il .s-: .~·~·Ui'\1 ·~·Zlf".>.. "l0\c:...-rrnm~·~·~"'1 c· ·~·~~1 3..· ~8c·~'~'Jl'~"\1 B"\·~·~· ·8c:.jl'i'~'r<~"l" "l"ll ~ r: -CJ~.>. ib ....'[::9·r. ...~..'5.§j·~·~"\·<J"l1 ~ 5.>.Jllj·~·~·r. c:. <J"ll ..:j"lWr. in the Tibetan equivalents of the Eng lish words..'5.... "".·9·Uj~1 3.. (0" ~.·nrr.\·~· J:J..·'m~· i·. ~.·1.

'(lj'l)Cl) B'" "'I:. ""- _ _ "m"l:lj c.Q·~"· ""t.' "\~.- ""~ - c.. ~r9'Ul"'1 .... We will not go to the bookstore on Friday.1 4..\J..r:<·(lj'r:l. . L 2. e-.. e-. fii~'~.1 5.00 am.. '(lj"'~'" ""t.' Cl) ~'l:!9' "'c.. '(ljt..... When did he write this letter? 10..'Ult. . Where is his uncle's hand gloves? 9. r:l.. 7.l·94~·~9· 6.·9....... "-..l' fiJ9~' "'9~r9"'1:. -.'9'.' "'''I ..'t. This is the tallest cat... May I offer you some biscuits? We do not have good weather today...c.r:l.(lj'9 2:\f eJ9'9'r:l. "'1:...:S'c.' J.. 4.·1 --.. L 2 He eats apple every Sunday.·1 1:..'""c... C:i)9· .\\'a. Where is the post office? How far is it from here? Please do not put any milk in my tea.t. He will come to the school tomorrow afternoon...'(lj'7"\ '4(lj'[Il'4~'z:j(lj'9 ~.Q9~'[Ilc I:..l' J..l'94~'Ul9' q' J.'~'~Wr:<· J. 8. ..c.( lj·9~·~9·9·r:<~·~·~"'1 c..... "'c.j'r:l... 3...1 Q9~·[Q.. '" Q'4~'z:j(lj'9 Bt..\z::rA~·c. I will listen to the radio at 7.t..1:lj ~ -. 3..l' fil9~' ""9~'9". J:l9'"'I:. I am eating two oranges... c. ".·"·9·."'I'A~' <fAll~' :<'.........'\\1 fii"'l'~..·9"'J.l'J.. 'l)9'~·I:.. I will go to rest for a while.. 7. 3..Q'Ult... 4... 5. 5. "'I·ffiQr~·iija:..1 r:<.-"" " ~ ~ ~ t. e-. "fffi''r~'iija:.....13 Usefu l Expre ssion s 1. We go to the garden every evening. .. 'a. I sat under the tree this morning. 6.' "'''I ~ ~ _ _ _eo..i ~J c..~'A~' <fAll~' 1 (e) Translate the following into Tibetan: 1..

kh yo d gnam la bUa bzhin blt 'dug You are looking in the sk y. '''}: 5.".'~·1J.'i9 sha wa de tsho ts3 za zh tsa in daog iu do ~ . will be.. :\'i''l 'i''l ~ ng a de dus yi ge zh ig br is na s bs da d yo d At that time I was writing a letter. verb and 'the appropria te 1.'i"l a.t:r cbil\ 'l. Th m om en t actually in progress at the e auxiliary verbs "l'i' yo d and "S re d ar e us ed "''i' (third) person respective for first person and seco ly.).JI ·l. kh yo d da na ng bl ta s na s bs dn d 'dug .\··tIj"iJ.·l:J:. Present pa (i~ Q~"i' bzhin.'.>l.~- 1.l\'1J.'. ly.. 2.'i 'l' .or q~d\·r...J1 8. This is known as pres have been) with th e -in g form of an ot he r verb uld oo ent participle. Th ey and auxiliary verb.\! v nga de du e yi ge zhig dr ee nay day yoe ya ~ '.' j'(. will have been. wo writing. nd . ~'''iIi'flj''l'~f Q~' 'l'il i! v nga tsh o ghen lak gaok Ish go ak day yoe 'Jo .\·t 6'\Silic:.q~. """.>. kh o ja tsha po 'th un g bz hi n 'dug He is drinking hot tea. ten se is used to show what was happening 'at a sp Th is is formed by addi ecific time' in the past.llc:. .\! nga yi ge m ig dri zhin yo e 2. 1 Pr og re ss iv e Ea ch of the eig ht ten co nt in ui ng ov er an extenses (we have studied in lesson 7) ca n be sli gh Th e pr og re ss iv e tenses ded period of time. . bUa sk or ba de tsh o yo bl ta ng gi 'dug The tourists are coming .j ~..'" .\'IJ.. y.l.' '9'~'lr Q'! *1' q~'i'''l'\1 Q~'i'''l. -tj'Q'~'~'~·-'l'q~.l'flj Q~· q~"i'IJ.'i9 5.Qllf~~· Q'~' i'''lc. was.12 6 L E S S O N E IG H T """. f!.~ 6. .':! f:<. ar e placed between verb stem 8.c:..'i"l l khyoe naam la ta zhin do og ~ ng a yi ge zh ig 'br i bz hi n yo d I am writing a letter. would g some form of verb to be (is. iit"i'gin or rticiple on the whole ta ~"i' kyin as the added k~ ve rb complement. q~"i'r.'iij'f. .'q~'! '''il!l'q~. '1"1 .>.'q~"i'IJ . t.. ng a tsh o rgan lags bs gu g bs da d )'od yo We are waiting for (our) teacher. T:"- 3...Q.'·~·"iIi·fll"l~f q~9' q~'i'' c:..' . 2 Pr es en t Pr og re ss iv e Th e present progressive tense refers to an action or state of being that is mOment of speaking.... ..>. 8.3 Pa st Pr og re ss iv e Th e pa st progressive.l·nr'Q~'Q~"i·r. .Ilt:.' ~ ".5' 'q'~' i·"lc.'~'~·~Jlj'r. had been . ..'~'~'~llj 't: . 6'\Silic:. ha s been. sh a ba de tsho rtsa za bz hin 'dug The deer are eating gras s.j~. Such continuity is indica tly changed to sh ow action ted by the progressive ten are formed by combinin be. kh o ja tsha po thoong zh Ish ~ ~ in daag doog -""- 4.c:.'.l.~. t.\ tlj"iJ.. wa s writing etc ..'Q~l!ll'''i'!l·q~. 6. jii'E' a.tj·Q·~·~·~·.'''} . t.. "" .·~·t:\5"1 '1 ta ko r wa de !sho ya ng Ish gi daog do e: . :lj.'i" 6. ng iIi'!l'qll!'i' na s bs da d ilil!l'q~'i' between the past ten se auxiliary verb.' ~''i'\l'~'9·~tIj· Ql!l'iii''\I' c:."! .".. ses..Q'q~~'''''l\1 c:.

I·nJ·ni·~· '1' .5 Futur e Cond itiona l Progr essive jl may happen in the future il shown The type of conditional clause showo below describe conditions that ill' nL the conditional particle il\' one condition is fulfilled.·~·A· .t·~il\·'\jc. C.~~c. c.>.\' L..' 1...·E.>J·t.·~·Q'lI·"l·~'\1 tshar khyoe nang jong !Shar na blta ya re kbyoe 'thung ya rna red khyod nang sbyon g tshar na bila ya red If you finish your homework yon wonld be watching. '0 rna [9'\·il\r::.>l'Q '£'''l' S"l'~"l'' Q~. This is formed by adding the word ~~. 19'\·il\r::. It emphasizes the continuity of an action that .I'~c..>.I·"lil\· ("''\)byas nas bsdad pa yin . c.4 Futur e Progr essive be going on up to or at a The future progre ssive tense is used to express future actions that will betwe en the main verb and certain time in the future.'~c. .I·"Iil\· ("''\")byas . nga nang sbyong tshar na yi ge 'bri ya yin If I finish my homework I would be writing the letter.·'\9~· L.. c. j .t.'~'~'r:>.\·r.>.\' Q'll" ><l' :<'.·J::r5c.·.·"· .Q·"r~il\1 tshar nga nang jong !Shar na yi ge dri ya yin tsha.\1 tsee kho ja thoong !See re 8... rtsis the appropriate auxiliary verb. c. [§'\'~c. khong tsho nyin dgung ja btung s nas bsdad Q~.·~r::.lj.\·L.·~r::.>J·.'~c. 8. . il\·ill·iii r:>.. jli'E.. I has not been interrupted at all. often used with a time expression: 1_ Q'/ljil\1 L. il\·iil·tii··r.t.\·L. This tense is formed with S"l·~"l·Q~. This tense i~ participle.1 L I khyoe da nang tay nay de doog You were looking this morning.\1 3.r£"><l· S><l'~><l 1.~i" ~~'~il\1 tsee nga yi ge dri !See yin nga yi ge 'bri rtsis yin I will be writing the letter.t.·~·Q'l/·"I·~'\1 3.\1 2."l' flC" 3.t.Q·"l·~il\1 c.. bIla khyod bila rtsis red You will be looking..·. [9.' . It is formed by keeping the last verb between i i .'\1 khyod nang sbyong rna tshar na tshar khyoe nang jong rna !Shar na ho rna thoong ya rna re If you do not finish homework you would not be drinking milk. flC:' ..>.6 Prese nt Pede ct Progr essive (red) added to the prgen1 S><l·~><l·Q~. .5"1 r5c.'il\r::.·"lr .ll.5"1 'dug tsho khong !Sho nyin dgung ja tooog nay de doog They were drinking tea in the afternoon.. '-'.><l· il\~' Q~.~i'~~'~il\1 1.\'r:>.'r.' .I·fll·ni·~· ...\1 2.I·/ljil\1 Ia nga dgon pa la 10 nyi su tham pa ehas sbyas nas bsdad pa yin nga gom pa la 10 nyi shu tham pa choe jay nay de pa yin I have been studying Dharma in the monastery for twenty years.' ~ "l':<'.r:<'.I':<.' ><l':<'. "I" and the particle "I' ya .'~'~'r.'r:>. 19'\'Q'll' ~ "l':<''\1 khyoe ta !See re khybe tsee jli'E."'·~·A· r~c.>l· . kho ja 'thung rtsis red He will be drinking tea.t. pede 8..

L I.."i<I"4e:.:-.'~' i'I'nre.w cJ:ie.J. :<'' 1 khyod 'di ru ma yang ba'i sngon la zhing pa byas nas bsdad myang yong myong ba red kJiyoe dhi ru rna yong way ngon la zhing pa jay nay de nyong va re kIiyoe you had been worki ng as a farmer before coming here.:1I'i""I·Ul~· q.).\..· Q4'i'~~rQ:l!'i'''l'~~' trcJ:i. ~ ~ .· been) to the verb.5i~.~' ~"i" ~~'.~. ("1.'Qf.:1l" '~e:::' (Q':<''i" the past t form to expres s an action compl eted by a certain time in the past. .\~.U .\· ~'JJ'5i~'~~'q.·l"·"I~i<I· .ljQ' a. :3 i<I.:<'''") to thepa sl perfec ~~.nr~f. a.(. three 3. "i~' Q:l!'\urUl"i'q'cJ:i'i1 khyod tsho sang nyin nags gseb fa gling kha btang nas bsdad ya yin pa yod khyoe tsho sang nyin nag seb la ling kha lang nay de ya yim pa yoe tang You (PI) will have been picnic king tomorrow in the bush. /t Fe:. 3. "f~·"I~Q· 'nrRie. S~· ~'1rq. ~c:: ·rll·~e:.).· it-'· i§.:' }.:1l'i'cJ:i'i'q' =<-'i khong tsha da nang nags tshal de'i ri rno bris nas bsdad yodpa red tsho mo yod pa khong tsho tha nang naak tshal dei ri mo dree nay pe yoe pa re pe This morni ng they had been making a drawing of that forest.\" q' :<'..t::.q. -Q:l!"·"I·0l~· trcJ:i'i" gza' nyi rna la nga tshonang fa sgrung bshad nas bsdad ya yin pa yod ma tshona ng zaah nyi rna la nga tsho nang la droong she nay de ya yim pa yoe On Sunday we will have been telling slories at home.U I'" / 2.~-) 8.\· . i<I·nrc:: £·~e:::·nr~e.8 Futur e Perfe ct Progr essive ~'':' - This tense is formed by adding ~~'Q:l!'i'''l'1ilili'q'cJ:i'i' (will have heen) ~~·-Q:l!. Fc::·lS~C::· 3.' "f"ie.lje:::' (.-Q~'i"~C::."r q.. JJ... :2.' g.. ~~:<' i7 7 i m. 'q' S~'~'lI"Q.J:.:1I'i.'\\1 'i. .q.. "f~(.7 Past Perfe ct Progr essive This tense is forme d by adding ~~'Q.~':3. 6"· khyod chu tshad gsum ring deb 'di klog nas bsadp a red tshod gsurn bsad pa khyoe chu tshoe soom ring deb 10k nay de pa re You have been readin g this book for lhree hours.L. g. -Q..cJ:i".cJ:ic:::-Qf.j""1 khang gangs nyin gos thung 'khru nas bsad ya yin pa yad khong bsady a yod khong naang nyin goe thoong too nay de ya yim pa yoe He will have been washi ng his trousers day after tomorrow.. stories ft-.:1I'i'~e. yrQ'je:::' "i~. ~q·iil"l·:. ~~.cJ:i"...."f~.:'i 2 i§'i'(.'l a.'l'i'''I~i'I'. (...~~. e::::ni'''I~''I'~'~~"l1fFe:::'iit . q·l~· -Q' C:: . ~-~ . Fe..\.e.lL. FsaF~·~'la.. ~"i. 6'i' 'i..\' ~ili'nl"~t::..).../ 1.· -Q-9". :<.t::.:1I'i'''l·Ul~· q'(. ~~.q.:1l'i. . ~ili ·nr~t::.t. -Q..·/ 1.nr~f..l!f "i'''I" Q.\lq.\l!f "i~. 1 :'-. It shows an actior actiO! that will happen in the future: future: "f~(. Fe. ~ ~rq~'i·q·:<.~~' "i "f~·"I~Qrll·Rie:..J:..t::..-.w4c::qi5'i·~'''I"Q~'i·q·:<''i1 FsaF~· ~'l a.~-:.~.'lS~e:::' ~"f~r a.t::.. / 8."Fl" -Q'jC::.' Q':<''il i§"..· "f"it::.. ~~ .q.'-'¢ :!-'-¢ }.·l·~e:.·"r1llili·q·cJ:i. -Q:l!'\ urUl"i· q·cJ:i"1 2. ~"riJl"l'aa:i"r q~.~~. £. ~~.'''f~.c::. It empha sizes the contin uity of a p~l action for a certair p~t length of period: c:::ni·"I~"I·~·~~"I1fFc::·iij" ...· qi5".:1l"· ~C::.~~. i§'i'l'~e::: .~C::.' q'l~' Q'jje::: '~~'Q~'i'~e:::'1 nga fa geig gi sngan la khong gi thab tshang gsar pa tshong btang nas fo sngon tshang bsdod rnyong myong nga 10 chik gi ngon la khong gi thab tshang sar pa tshon tang nay de nyong About a year ago I was painti ng his new kitchen.. 'il kho snga thag tshang rna shing bead nas bsdad pa red thog kho nga thok tshang rna shing che nay depa re He has been cuttin g wood the whole morning.\lC::.

.'. This is formed by placing the last verb between the conditional particle "I' na and~'"''\' ya red OJ and~' ~"l' "''\' rtsis red "l' "'.q·I<~·.· fI·'\'l ...j'\.'l' <>/.·<>J·"i·"i·~.~·l·p'§"'·"i"l·I<~·"r"'. fie.'rr ilj"l'LJ' iij"l''l' ~ ~ ~ ~11j'''f ~11l'''f OJ.q.•.~·Oj·"i'\'''i·4e.129 8. I 3.q"l"l'iii· .q~"I''l' messenger debt dirty telephone radio ice block thought letter bag interference representative f'l·'\LJ..'11j' t<1.\·"i·4c:.i..· 6"1''''''1' .\1 1.\1 S.' ilJ' iIJ' ... S. .\·I1j·p.'l .9 Conditional Perfect Progressive This tense expresses what would have happened in the past if a certain condition were fulfilled. q-lj'''l'"''\1 fic:.q' hope doubt anger walk branch 'i"l"l"LJ' 'i"l"l''l' flc:.q.q'5c:..·.~·l·p'§'''·''i''l't<~·''r''''\1 khyod la ]0 fa yod na shing tog 'di tsho 'khyer nas 'gro ya red la khyoe la jo la yoe na shing tok dhi ISho khyer nay dro ya re tsho You would have been taking these fruits if you had a bag.. <>/.qe.q' leaf root slate . 2..p'ii"i' .q"l"l'iii' iij'~ iii'~ 1<1.r fiic:~r.· :. "I~p.10 Vocabulary fiic:~rq'5e."i' ~.q' "".q· gling bu btang ba bang chen bulon btsogpa khadpar skaddpar khyagsphag bsam blo yige ]0 la ]ola byus tog tshab reba dwogspa khong khro gompa yalga loma maba gya'ma to play flute ..~·I1j·Ui.q"lj·"r "'.qc:.q't<~.'.·~''I·p.\·I1l'p....i!i' .\·"Ic:.q' ~'.·~"I·p. c: l'F"l'~"i '''1' a. :l!'\·LJ.'I1l' ~ ~ S"l"~"1 S"l'~"1 a.q~"I'LJ' .q"l' nga tsho khas nyin ga char pa ma babs na rta rgyug rt~is red charpa /(has nga ISho khay nyin ga char pa rna bab na ta gyook tsee re tsho We would have been racing horse if it had not rained day before yesterday.\1 khong da nang ma na na deb'di bshu ya red khong tha nang rna na na deb dhi shu ya re He would have been copying this book this morning if he had not been sick.q "".·.q"l' "I'?'~"I' ~ "l'"''\1 l'F"l"~"i LJ' <>/ . "'i' "Ie.'aJ' "i' "i'~.i.'l. 8.p'iji!i' ~.·rJ· f'le. iii'<>/' ~'.

~aJ~'<.Q' 6"' . rdzong sa mt sh am s sp as e dmigsbsal 'gar ba ba r ch ad halVes! est chisel : will fo rtr es s bo rd er .-r~' :i.l.OJ~' ~'~' bt sa sm a gzong kha ch em s.l.j.Q'.'q' .-rQ ~. lo ok af ter 'byar ba or to arrive.C:: do ng me an in '.'''I~''l 'lS'''. receive 'd em sp a to select.§.rnr llll j'tj ' ~~-..Q<\f(lj.JJ' "I~t:' i'l'~OJ"l' '~OJ~' fr:.'''I~''l 10 2 205 60 7 q5'''I:.OJ~f OJa-..q'lfCIJJl'CIJ' I.I:.q' .: .q..'q A§ .l.l.<:" added am ou nt ..q.~ ~ ~ ~ v .q. ~' OJ. i·--\ . request gantS pa rgyagpa go a. pa ss (visa) .x.l.'q' r.'q""..~J!Il'.~<>J"l''1' "11"''1' ~di'q' 5" ti j' 5~1't' aJ.q' fo1'.Q"Irll'' ~J: "l"lCIJ r. ~~-- r.r:.~'" ~"I"1' 'lr fo1'.f" .l.' "IiliOJ'~' "I"i. on e adds th e word '. elect bk od pa to appoint do ng rk ob a' to di g ground rgyaspo detail sb am po om th ick skyur mo So ur bsdus po br ief 8.r r.'''I~~' ''r ~~' ~~''l~i''t:'~ ~"P'l~i"<:"~ :i"l' 'lS'.'q ~.'"' '." "''..'Ji' l:l ~fQ' 'l~~~fQ' obstacle gnamgru airoplane ph eb sla m la on th e wa y th og pa to take time 'gro rags travelling companion . to go walking bs hu ba to ea py 'khyer ba to carry ca rry sh es pa to kn ow thugpa to meet.fQ' !j. g 'an d' be tw ee n 100 an .x.' .Q .i:'J"1''1' "l''1' ~ ~ . zh ub a to ap pl y.x.'.. touch sb as pa to hide gt on gb a to send nyarba to mind.r.l. . f"l 'r"r . special to take time '.'q' ~.' qS'.\I ~ ~ ~ ~ brgya dang gcig brgya dang gnyis nyis brgya dang !nga drug brgya dang bdLm . d the 101 l:lS .11 Co un tin g ov er 100 W he n co un tin g mo re than 100.\r:.Q' ~ ~ ~<>l"1'<'1' ~llj' '1' ~<> l~' "l1'r r.x...I1"l"l' "!"r ~J:1"r ~"Il"r "I~c::'r "r ~.-.. r..6"'. .~.'..

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'1I Q~'''r3'. 6. . (past Progressive) looking at the sun.!. doing minding our three nephews. 3. 10.\''-I'UlJjI ~ ~ (Present Perfect ProgresSive) .a.\'Ui'\1 'ji'll'''l!!!'1'Ui. We have been hiding those new socks under the door.'11j' 11J"/'B"" "i"" iii' 'l!. 4. I was cleaning this old English table this morning.~. Sakya Pandita was born in 1182 AD. 57 18 65 66 102 108 531 211 972 502 2531 46 1945 57 109 707 198 818 28 52 79 97 . I will meet you at 10. He would have been cI imbing the mountain yesterday morni ng if it had not rained. digging the ground listening to this story drinking cow's milk wearing this old boot ". book. (c) Transl ate into Tibetan: 1. 7. leller. I .l.l.\'q'!lj''i1 ~".-.'1(. :>. I have been working as a secretary in the governement office for five I govern ment office in year five during secretary ofwork have been years.' C:::' "l~'!I' fl<::'qi:\' i'i'\'!2'(lj"l'i!j'''I'j<:' q'\'~'(ljf1l'i!r"l5C::::' 'ji'!l'''l!!!.\'u:'!lj"i'q'U/'\1 2. He has been drinki ng sweet tea for two hours.'\1 ~ . . sun."r":(. 5. ".. meeting my uncle. <.\! reading this new book.' ~". ". We were singing the Tibetan national anthem on the roof.IjL (b) Repeat the following sentences by filling in the Tibetan equiva lents of the English phrases: 1. I turned nineteen on the 6th of March.. sitting on this carpel.g. 3. (Conditional Perfect Progressive) writting the letter. will have been "i"r"l!!!'1'a:'UlJj''-I'U/'11 "i "r"l!!!.. wearing this hal. He is a clever tea merchant from Darjeeling.~"l''j' "l"''!r'':Q~''l''j' (. go would have f"" f'~"" ~.. . we two house roof all Tibetan national anthem sing were <::' "I~'lI' flC:::''-Ia· Il"l'fl-'. of work """II'l". s.. playing my new flute.'!! "ll'l'!l'''l'j'''' (Future Perfect Progressive) eating pork./'lI'Jj'll''''I!!!. if. They will be copying the Tibetan national anthem.. flute. (d) Express the following into Tibetan: ' <. nOI he yester day morning rain not fall if mountain climb to . We will have been singin glndia n songs on Monday.'Sj'' "ll'l<l/'''l'j'''' (lj'''l-'.. 7. . 9.'Uj"l'~ 'I1J<lf"l' !'j'!l'''i'!l Q!!!.l. we Mond ay on Indian singing song ".:. doing our math home work.~'''r3'."" """lI'l""1 flJ'!I'f!"" 'l!..''-I' «Pl"l<lf"i' a. 2. "'""' 4.-'.'1Q'iij'''la' ~"i' (lj'''l-'.". He bough t fifty three horses. copyin g his will.45 tomorrow morning.'iir"la' ""g.!. 8. They have ninety nine pigs.'Uj"l'~'flJ'!I'''I' :.. ~'*' "j.'q' «l"l"l'! f"i' "l".a' :l. door. 3. pork. hiding this old hat.

.J. inside.I~· 51"\1 IllJl::.-.j' "\' '" 1 However much one mends a wicked person. If there are any confidentail matters he discourteously disclose. 'I . ' ~~' !.....1. _.jl ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ Fools speak boastfully oftheir virtues.?iI) Wt:l.. Ifhe is defeated. _c.''lJ'~iI)r rF4nj" ~ ~ ~ r'lJ1::..\' "\' q~~'iI) '~I::... FiI)'.'~~'51~'Cl)'\lillJ'·Hjl IllJ~I::.=: "" ~('lj' -Cl~'1::..:S~'~~'~FI ~ ~ ~ e-.. ~ I::..q~~' I~('lj'....Ir.S W\I 1 J..r~J r:r1)~' J1'llJ~I::.:S~'~~'~I::..llJ~' iI) 'D.51il)'1)1 _ c. It is impossible for him to sustain a good nature.~"'I ~ ~ ~ f:1' I) "~r J)''lJ ~I::....If:1: a:..\' iI) ~'(:l. c.lq-Cl' ~ "".J. ...5!I::. '~~'q.iI)' [.SI::.. it sinks to the bottom.fll::..\'"\' .. 'I ~ ~ ~ c.l' iI) '9.. ' .llJ~'0)'(:l..q..13 Extracts from the Elegant Sayings by Sakya Pandita ~I::. co.J . iJne ..f!1::. '~O) '1)0)'fll::.C. co.'.J 8.r' 'iF ""(:l. _ ~ C'.'I JllJ[1j'1)' zqJ..-.51O)'1)1 lliJiI)'!.' !. The jackdaw diligently clean his beak· With which he has eaten excrement.. c-.I 1 iI)~'~' "......' D.'llJ~iI) '[1rD. -.l' ~"'I _ _ C'..'I 1~~WD. '~iI) '1)iI)'f!I::.... in a clean place.!f!~'!....-' ~ I ~ - ~ ~ .r ~ 1 liil' ~I::.=::ll::. 'I D.. _ e-.=::ll '" ' ~(1j' -Cl ~' I::.r '4[1r if.. c. ''~I::.ill::.q~ ICl)~'~' ~I::..' "" q~ llJ'~I::.' -Cl~iI)' -Cl.' ~~' S~' iI) ')ljllJ"Hll ~ ~ - - The small-witted is easily satisfied with minor victories.~"'1 ~'llJ~1::. ~ _ c. he quarrels with (his own) friends.a.'..·1 FiI)' !.I'E. a:J~1 1~~W(:l.a. I ~I::.J'lJ"\'. co..!' 1 -Cl~O)' -Cl.j(:l... C'.jl ""D.q' D. a:. 1~(1j' q' (:l. 'I IllJ~I::. 'llJ' ~iI)l Il::. '~O) ''5i1) 'f! ~'D. -.Jq-Cl' "".\1 1 ~''lJ~1::. If he When at meetings he instigate conflicts.. ~ I!lr~ I::..C. ~ -. _c.q(:l.L _.j'E. ~ Ii1-lfl~'.SI::. q. c-.~' ~I::.... . '~iI) 'llJ~iI) '[1r l..L _' .C. 'Ujil) ''50)'fl ~·(:l.. nature.. liilCl)'.]1::.I'D... _ _ .C.. 'llJ~iI) W(:l.. .5!I::.'..- IllJr1j'I)' '4J.' Wicked people usually blame others With whatever faults they are themselves responsible..j~' 51...' J... Although one has assidiously washed charcoa4 Its colour cannot possibly become white..\'iI) ~'D. '~O) ''lJ~iI) '(1j' l. of their The wise hides his virtue inside..ID...l.' J.. of the If One places a jewel on the surface..S W.=::ll::.j'(:l.. -....- 1 "\llJSlJ~' -ClW ~ "\''"1 f!' Ifl' "\'lJSrr~'-Cl'J.q.ID.' a:J ~ 1 r... '~~'.!' iI)'9'510)'(1j'(l.JllJ"\'!." ~ _ l~llJ' a:J' ~ '~' a:.l.. The straw floats on the surface ofthe water.

9.2 Ad ver b of Ma nne r '" '. The locatives are place..\! ~'g'Q ".tea ly hea r not do I do not hear properly wh at the teacher is saying.'''Q')~ \''1 S'Jj'Q""I'''It'\''''~'1'~"\'q' q's''l'" fq')~'9'R.' "". sly. "I'ilj"r9'iij..·~·~·Jj·P'S"l ''l'~'~'Jj'RS9 [teacher by said proper . othel . We will see its usage in other grammatical expressions later.~.13 4 /' LESSON NI NE ffiq·' ~~'~'lj' q! q\ ~ 9.. /' . ~'£'·~·"\"I·f1l·R§i·~·Jjil)1 ~·a:." Adverbial expression of manner are usually placed after an adjective and bef ore a verb. '1~·ili"\·§"I·"I~~"'·<f"'l''1.. ...·Jj'''S'! My gloves are not inside the box. '~'R'\9 girl this by son g rt...elodious£v rtie sin g is This girl is singing the son g melod iously.\.. . f1l1a." 3.. As English adverbs are formed .~' ~f.:!"i4q''''!jj' <>I' ~'11 g''''§''l''l''!:ri4q'~r!!lw \l. -il) and -ally.~ ~ ~ kitten the hou se of inside ent er did ofinside my gloves the box of inside not are we China to go will not they that side to gow ill not k. . to adj ect ive s or nouns. phr ase s or wh ole sentences to modify oLa dd to the me ani ng of ver bs. 1. Negativany extra problems as they are placed exa ctly wh ere the c1assica cJa es of adverbs are formed with neg ative prefixes. The particles ".~.>J S"l·')'f1~. ~f.~ ·"fRE(f1l· q ~'11 q.~ ·".\"" 9"1'<3)"1' bya s nas is added between the adjective and ver b.. by the add itio n of -y. '.''''§''l''l''..' It: don particles.>J'~ra. we her e from slo wly rea d wil l i""/ i'.. .»"'. <3)"I'''1'' iOl 9"1' "I'!ljQr9'!lj<3)1 We will read slowly from here. etan adverbs are formed by adding eith er of the sev en f1l'"a. ~ ~ ~ /' .·tu etc. adj ect ive s.~'" .. In Tib eta n.l· f1l"l'4q'')'~.' 9. The re are som e loose forms ce. 4. 3. . of adverbial expressions in spo ken no dif fer ent fro m adv erb 0: this lesson.'.'. \)...1 Ad ver b of Pla ce Adverbial expressions of place com e after its direct object: 1.r:::f1l'RE(f1l' . q"f' S"l'')·fl~·.. ~Jsu. The kitten entered the house.\'f1l"l·4q·')·~.sQ·a.""'" . adjectives and pro nou ns and they an placed mo stly before ver bs and adj ectives they qualify.q'9''r''i 2. Note: From here i there will be no tran bn m slilq at0n s as students are expected ems to be able to read and write the Twetan scri pt without having to rely tpan um the Rom aniz ed transliteration.r~ra. 4.''. ~'''i9WR§i'~'Jjil)1 We will not go to China. an frequently used for num ero us adv erbial expressions. They will not go that sid e. Tib Iy. Fo rm ati on of Ad ver b :~~ /' ~:.. ". But they do not presen Tib eta n wh ich we will deal if ir t Tibetan adverbs are placed.~ '"." k'-' ':". g'Q".sQ' a. In spoken Tib eta n the phr ase 9"1'. '1~'ili"i·§"I'''1~~''f<r'l"l·q·9~r.>. e. ~:'~' Ad ver bs are wo rds that are used adverbs. ly.' ra. 'J. ~."\"""I!Ol''9"" a. S'Jj'Q""I'''1l'\''r~'1'~''i'9''1'.'J j·"S'j 2. fi~' a:. adverb f1l''\" Ie s are formed from nouns."'- .

.g.<: 'i!:~N 'I!:~N l'!.q.wl)"J·q.3)N ~''l''1W ~'':i'\lW ~'i'Hl"J' ~·i'r.·51· «IW~q'\l"~f «I~P:I At all times I take refuge in the Guru.~..~. ~::/.. «I§"I '\l' q' "J'iii' "I'iii' "'I§"J"'.·'l·r:>.."riii-<..' . "I-'lr>.3) ~rr:>..'r>.§]·~·iil.r.·Uic.·qN 1':.·~r>!·'\l·(lm§]·~·iil. q. Noun I Adjective Adverb "I-'Jr:>. 1 now very outside to go will do 111011' .' L fiic...·~..~..~' :3·~·q·"'I·"J~"J"'·Uic. "c.3 Adverb of Time Adverbial expressions of time are added to the adjective or noun before the verb.... ~''''I'4'''' ~'«I'4-<" .S'If -".·CJ·"'I' "''\1 he eat house in always come Ilot does He does not always come to the restaurant..<I..· iij'S"'" ¥l. '1"1'<1' iij·S."-'l·fIlc..'~'«1"'" 'i!:~ ...'<lW ~·qN ~'qN 'i"l..... ~'':i'\l'~' iij·S.3)"'rr:>. ~''''I'4''''£rili' ~'«I'4""£rill' r>.. «I§"I'\l' q-<.q.3)1 C.'~''''1''''' "I-'lr:>.§]·fIl· '\c..r "'. The la doll fa fa particle ra is usually suffixed to the last syllable of polysyllabic words otherwise any la dOll particles governed by the rule discussed above (see 6.·~"l·"'·(1m§]·~·iil... corne 2 c.·Uic.. 'l"'·I)"J·q.'~' «I'r>!' on Sunday in the morning at five late at regularly immediately prior to at that time immediately just befOre going before at one (first) at sunrise quickly slowly 'e'...· r:>.S'lf . my friend suddenly die did 6.·~· ..>:.. 9.§]·~·iil."I·iii ....3)1 At this very time I am going outside.·rg· ..§]·~·iil.·cr«l· "'''il 1.3)1 . "'I§"I""q'8"1'...· .q.·':i·r:>.·51·"-IW~CJ"1··~f"'l~P:1 ':i'\l'I)"I' q. c."'c.3)N 1l.q.g.3)1 c. "c..§]·~·iil..<:.3)1 we tomorrow early city to go will We will go to the city early tomorrow....<JilIl I will not come here until very late. time always guru to refuge in take ill i 4. d J:§]"I"1·q·ilj·S. 3....3)·~· q-<.. fiic.\1 5.§]·fIl . c. ::f q.c. I here at late except come will not willllot dJ:§]"I'\l·q·ill·s.before going first sunrise quick slow r:>. we quickly go will We will go quickly.· '\c.q. 1)"I'q".ll"r ~.·l·'\lc..'~' «I' 'i!:~' 'I!:~' - Sunday early fifth "I-'Jr:>. c..jr>..-qW "rqW "'I§"J"1.r.q.<Jilil :3·~·q·«I·"I~"I'\l·Uic.·~·<1i"Jwr:>.ll"l late permanent sudden before that time immediate 1)"1."i~fl.'\-"1· '-I' "''\1 Suddenly my friend died.. «I'l!"I''1' ~''''I'J:f''l''1' r:>.§]·fIlw ".·~·<1i"lwr:>..c..'~'"'I'''l' "I.§]·fIl.<1..' 1)"1''1' iij'S"'S ¥l.3)1 c.3)S 1l.wl)"I·q .<1.r ~'q' 1':....3)S ~''l". 'I!:~""..·l·«I§"I"'rq·s"r..ll"l .3).3)' 1l..·~· .1 lesson six) are applicable..' -'J·fIlc.3)' ~'5"1' ~'5'\l' ~· .'~'''-I' "I-'lr:>.4....'r.q.w iij'S""w ¥l. I'!.r re>:r.

4 Vobaculary "I~'''i' "I~'''i' "I~'5.>.')'.t' 7"1'~' ii:"I'~' ':.'n:)"I"l' fij.>1£. +-D"1Io" Cl.o.>1£..'C:..J)"i'n:)"I'~' ~ ~- «15. / .0.5.' "1"-'5. named "I"ifll'Q'Q')q' "I"il'>l' Q' Q')(J' Q."1' "1'5..i<_-."l' J~r ~'S"l"l' C3<Q' Q.'lj' Q.>...>.:'.."l' (J.J' "I"l"-''fll<Q' :]"1':::"1 :]"1' :::"1 ~a.o.\"If.:~~:.J' "I~~: "I~c:.>.' Li<c-.':<i: w. South landlord ~"I'Q' Pl' G«I'lijQ' §Jj'JilQ' ~'--' god wife .')' ~"i'~fll''S' ~"i'~I'>l''S' ~"i' 5.''S' ~~'Q.o.:"I'~' "I~'.'Q (ij."1...' celebration of birth in order to to fetch jewels until then force of growth ripen said happy wish about to arrive " :.' ~'''i' ~. fij(r~'. &'\'~"I"l' <l"l' &'\'~"I"l' '-l"l' ~"i' ~"l'<l' ~"l''-l' w.' P.q.<Ii' 5..o."110'.' "1"1"1'"i' "I"l"1' "i' ~~'''i' W 01« Jj)"i'''i' a.0.>."i'<I( r:'.J.'~:~'."1'5.o..~...J' "I~. .' "i~'''i' ~~"l':i' ~~Qr:r "i~'n:)"l'') "i.' "i~'5.' "f a.'f:rii1"i')' ~.'~:~" .''S' il"l"l' ll"l"l' 4"i':i' 4"i''Z' fll~'£' I'>l"-'£' p'~.~.o..\'~"I' "I~'\'~"I' .' '\"If.-tfY' +-." f -r" ili"l'''I~' ili"l'''II~l secret road cave tight danger hope depth curtain Q~~'Q' (J~~'Q' ~"i'fl' ~"i'I'" ~'Q' f. l·.>.<i ~'~"I"l' ~'~"I"j' P.o.~-' iii's.' ~'a. Cl.'Q'' f. ~'. ~'(J~"i')' ~'Q~"i')' ~(J"l' ~Q"l' kill accordingly \lbout to torch to hold to find preparation icycle sacrifical cake is''I' is''l' Q~r'r' "I"l~ 1'>la.-'n:)"1'') ~ where inside outside in front right side above below "i~'5..o.."l' 5.q.o.' <Q5."l' ~"i'~' at that time! when always immediately formerly occasionally city rich prayed was born bom to the ocean took time extremely youth to cohabit together to see each other return wait thus said I 7"1' q.'n:)"I"l' ~"I' ~".\'<r .\'(f f.~' .' S'Q~'~. "l"l"l'~' ~~S ~"-S ~ "I"'''l' S"l"l'~' "1"'''1' ~~'~"I"l'~' ~"-'~"I"I'~' r'r"l'S"l"l'~' r'r"l'''i' ~~'. -.\'q' f. .~' - ~.\"I' C3<>f ~"i'."l' 5.' ~"-'6. <11/ ~/ Q"l' "I~..)'.. "1'5.: liifll' <I' "iI'>l'(J' §"l' <li' §"l' "1"lf.:"" 1!!"i'~"I''2' 2!"i'~"I''l' ..o.J.~'\'n:)"1'~'\'q' r .5..' Q')"I"l' S'Q~'~. ~'n:)"I':i' ~'n:)"I''l' <Q)"i'n:)"I'~' a.' '5:"1'jijQ"l'P.:.\'n:)"1'~.\'~"I'~' JlI'\'~"I'~' .'~riil"i')' ~~'Q.' "".?' (ijQ'~'..\' -.o."f~"i' Q""f~"i' ."i'<I( ". ~a.~' ic ".<I\'5.-- gift ii0'.t' JlIq"l'JlIQ"l'~' Jlj(J"l'~' jij(J"l' 'i"l'JlIQ"l'f.' .?' P.J'lij"l ~'<Q'Jil"l Jlj.0..o.o.El"l' ~a.:\.tfY' ~~'6.~ '--- 9..' <l"lP.t' "'.J)"i'''i' "I"l"l' J~!.' J:i(1J' {-" blessed water discussion c.

l. verbs. Sambhota in his ~~'i!'Q' sum cu pa and "!"I~r~to. By merely repudlicating the suffix and adding the vowel o sign it become the verb to be of a sentence.\c. be either be a noun.: !'ii "i and 0 ir"'l·o.\':i"l rule.'.llo.~"I'<i' pa.§\~1 '\'~'4'''lc. '\·~·4'''lC. Literary Tibetan tij"l"lll\ yig skad or i"'l~~.~"\.l"l' i5. tc be formed from a verbal base.5 Classical Tibetan refers to the literary Tibetan. adjective.:::'~"\' introductioo Classical Tibetan 9. they are called a sentence.ljo.\':i"l I ql <II ~l ~I »1/ "il ~ I . now. The preceding syllable need not to be a verb.'~' he by said all truth is ali/rulh .~"1 and 'J. "Itl".. All sentences which end verb.·-'l.l"l·i5"i'q~""~1 p'ic.:::" "It'\". 9. FC. some grammatical rules of the classical Tibetan which will complement our understanding of the previous lessons. '\ Q ~ 6l "l ".. As a ~"I"'I' £"1 tennination does not have te senten'ce. I 1 Termination I o..·9"l'q'9. '.::: ~ ~ q ~ i5. Technically no sentence should end in a vowel when~"I"l'£~ except when~"I"l'£~ terminations are used. .:1 ~I i) !'iiI Pil . suffix is not reduplicated but the vowel sign '0' is added to signify the verb.\'.ljJ.\' l o.c. in a vowel should be understood as ending in 0.\'Jj'''!''riii All compounded phenomena are impermanent.\':1"1 rule.·WJ.\' t:J" ".\' 'J' . pronoun or an adjective.\' chos skad is the language of the learned tij"rJ~l\ language.ljJ.:.6 Verb To be in Classical Tibetan There are eleven completive terminations in the literary Tibetan which are formed by adding the vowel sign a to the ten ir"'l'o. .>:.-- i'i. ir"'l·o. '~' ':ii)' t:j'~' ir "l' ~'iij..& Vowels ~"I"r£"I1 iii I . Now -a-days sentences which end in "''' and ~ are used.c::.l"'l'i5. As they indicate the end of a sentence. ~"I"'l' ~"I"'l' ~"I"'1' £"1 the final and completive terminations of a senten'ce. lessons.\·Q'. iii . virtues...·Jj·o.. other's happiness to after mind rejoice do now as to die even l10t regret do not I do not regret even if I die now.l. '" " "' ~ 0.l"'l·i5')·Jj'''!''riii compounded all not permanent is f.'.IlJ.l. suffix).c::: I ~ I ~"I'>r£"I1 : ~ .\':1"1 1_ .' 9"l' t:J'1.·~·q"·<:r~·ir"l·~'iij. however it should not be regarded as an unspoken book language.\· -.\·~C..~Q ir"'l'o. (See the above section on post suffix)..~"I·Q· rtags kyi Jug pa.. The literary Tibetan follows a very strict grammatical rule set out by Thonmi scriptures. A sentence which ends in 0.i)."l'S"l'.~· "I c. "'"' reduplicated but in old orthography they are replaced by 'J' and the vowel sign '0' is added to form the verb according to the . it can tenses. it minimizes the use of auxiliary verbs. -~- 9.·C::·1 I (we) rejoice in others' virtues. perfect and future tenses.:.'j:m§\~. Here onwards we will discus: ~61'i!". .\jJ. and of the scriptures."l·S"l·.7 Examples of Completive r:l. .r "!"I~r~to.~"1 c:: <I i) are frequently Pi »I used with the present.'J.

.qO... I etc.:'.q'7'i ...._ .".'.\·..<: (i]) ('7) Since it has b~n said thus. .!f ::11:lJ" l':I.q' . ..-. ...........9~' ~l r.. c.. _ . .'.. ... 'e-...... .. -'.' '..on the road . "1t'\"i'ii .~"i' ~ ~'''Jir. -. c...... .. 6<1-1' . "e-.1 ...l'9~'.'.' !j""L.r......q~r.. : ....wife to the.. '...\~'q'@jq'ZiI C\~'~ ''''11:... "" '" "" S'Oj"...·'l::a.q~'l:lj..... " ...city big .q'q" "l' ~'... I 'rr _ _ ...the father ..Everything he (she) has said is true...:'. _ ' S'C')I:j'...... ~.. . J... .....' q'fll'' "1' ~Q'~' <1-1""1' S'f1j' ~""I'ql "'I~' S'fll' ~~'qf S'§"'~' '..~..j'~ "i'C')">l' ~p:J' .. ~ '" '" 'i§"'~'' l.. " ~ ... .Q7. ....m......was born / its name . .q""l'..(time) .South of..'rlil:lJ'~'...'( ('7) merit other purpo se ofdedicate becom e of dedicate The merit will be dedicated for the sake of others...-...<Jir...q~""I' ~".'~". c.'rlil:lj'~'.' S' .......months -ten... -.. <1-1'.' ."'" c-.... ' ..q'f1rS'«)l:l "'I'.....'a.{f -.. -'5""1' . " «)""1' S'.fS ~1:lJ'fll' L.god to .ll''Jr. .j'~' ".. '.q "" ...'~' "'4""2... been <>. 'OJ""I.Q'......''......'«)""1' ~p:r "if ~"i '~'I:lJ""<..ql)l:lj""l' ~l C')">l' ..lavishly .j'9~'.C'.. .."..' ">l~' ...."i' c-.. _Co.:'t1l.Litera l Trans lation I Previously ..-" ..~-''..{ ...:.......".<J-nrS"I.' ~""I' q"..:...Mahadeva .. ..~-''..India .' '\"1' Qr.."'" _ '.?""I' ~l:lj""l'''''I1 fll~'fll jJ. '7' "'~ 'l:lj'a:...qC')"i' '.' <1-1~ '~' a..!f ::1l:lj""'r:I.:l::rlil:lj""l''"""I'm..went -through...:.Q'.'. -..years -twelv e .. c..~' thus said as it is "i'''i'.l... c-.' '..rich-a to -son not having -always .. e-.{ ~~ 'O...?">l' ~1:lJ~'''>lf e-....-' .r~~ '6.'~' J.q~""I'71 '.son .."_ .....f' ~'fll' .q"..r 'c-....0..' S' ....' ..{ "i 'i§.~'~'" '~l:lj'2. ~'''I~«I'1q 'J'll'~' "i 'll':':1"1't:\i!'Nt1l ~'''I~«I'1q'J~'~'''i~':':!''I'C\i6C1l'C1l (7) door three respectfully homage do I shall prostrate respectfully from my three doors.<Ji''f''l~''J-nr S"I'C\i6oriii (i]) .' ~l:lj' l.'~L. " ~ Semi. .r:r ...q~'I:lJ.'~'" ~9""1' q""l'Oj~' a. c-.l' J.\' ~'ll' ~'ll' It was said thus......... ....:.. ""..8 Class ical Tibet an Readi ng -~ -. .::C\~-''..1W '..'( ~~'''I~I:..q'fll ~ _~- _~- OJ''''l'O"'l' ~w .<J' This is the perfect path..at / landlo rd. o'".<J'.... " . -..l' . c-..<Je:..- .fa.Q' .'L..j 0-" ....son .' qr.<J"rij"r Qr.' S~'7'''l~~'fll'''l' '.: thus say did ('7) (i]) (He. _ .praying through .. .....' "i ~'1)I:lJ' 7'grfll'l:lJ">lflj'.......q~.' q":i.q' _ _C'.'~"i '1:lJ' a:.0.. ~q'''I~e:.'t:\!]-''.' '. -...in order to .q' z......~: ".. .q«)".q~'''i~'6'''1' ~...... .Vamn a .jewels bring ......9' ::19'q' «)l:ljW ~r 6"'1' .:'.....' "'I~ a.J1 t:\~' ~ '""e:. -.: '" -'<:t1l")'~"i'~ . ~'" '~'l:lj""<..."...qr:l:!j"" l..{' "'4"i'2:~'" ~9~' q~'fll~' a.Q'.'l.it "..'''l:ljo'' '...... ~'... ...l'~' <1-1 a.q~~'7f V.....:> -...'(C1l").was given.q~''''''''1'6<1-1'~..'.. Its birth celebration . practi se l' "It'\"i'5''''''i''\'.... ~ ~ 9. -.. .q'''I It'\''i'~'''i'q~'q. .S .<Je:"i'ijq'.. e-. ".q~0" \'S~' .q'7 ~'.. -.. .{". rare excellence three to homage do C\~'l1l'\' ~"r~~' "il t:\~'~.~ '~"i '~I:lJ'2'''I:lJr..q71:lJ~' -"fl -.' '" ""I''e)l:lj' l)'g{Ofl:lj""lf1j'....to the sea ..so-called .....' q' lJ'.. ~..c.....q' q~' ~'.<Jl:.. _ e-..r~~ '6".t:\. _ .q ""0. "I' . -_ . ~ S""I'~~ S~'~ ~ .f'l:1 "I1'I"i'iill..\~'q'@jq'ZiI '''''i'.' qW~9"5..q ""r.....'~''Jr..) went across the ocean.:'C1l..' S""I'7'''I''''I~'OjJ.....)'fll' -.. .. ~ ~ ocean other shore went did "iiij'q'''I'I''i'~'''i'q~'q-''.'-'<: (i]) "iiij. '-...f .<J"rij~'qr......<Je:"i'ij~r...."i' q":l.... .q""l'f1jJ. ...Q7..j'~' "'I 'fll~' (ij"::rlil:lJ~' "i~' m..q~">l' ~"i' ~~' q". .' ~I:lJ' -..j' '. "" "i "" S'fll "i' '. other's purpo se for virtue practi se do I (we) shall practis e virtue for the benetit of others.b oriii ('7) I (we) pay homage to the Triple Gem. "....j' .q~'fllJ...fa.' ""I~' ...il:r i this as to perfec t ofpath is ofpath other mind knowl edge offore -know ledge there is offore-kn owled ge He has the clairvoyance of reading other peoples' mind.q'.f' '..in order to do. ". _ . -.9' ::19' q'C')I:lJW _ _ ..0..fS ~l:ljW 'r...

.. ..<'~' .l"" qr.l.'~' I:ld\'tlJr::.to arriving ..l..l~l qr.q~r::.r::..J' if>Gj'Gj'tl.~ili·nj"l~m~·c3·· Q'iji!i'f....-.....~' ~'tl.. ..having done ...... cc..''lj'D./'tl. ::JGj' ~Gj'~'Gj~r::.q~'S~':2'tl...·9'~"I· .J' roQj' ~.. El~'~r::..../'\' q' ~~l ~ " ..\'q~lI ~Gj'~'Gj~t:' ~r::. ...... -. 9. I 4.' ~r::. El~' ~r::..J.<' 5JGj' ~Gj'C<'tGj'~'r.~c:.accordingly ...'tl.. ~nr§' " '1 4. r::.. 'f d\Gj'E!r::.' . .. T..r...'cb'~'I:Ia.../~1 .close by ..~' ~'tl.. W~Gja...'r::.extremely ....q'tl. ../~1 ...-.at a roadside I and . -." In order to lavishly celebrate the boy's birth.:r..l~1 ~Gj'C<ljGj'~'r....'r::..lil)'¢'r::.lil)' 4~':2' ~'r.l~r ~ . -...' ::JGj' ~Ilj'Gjl)r::...../'Gjr. roGj'Gj'tl.together . -...1 6.\~i!i'nj"l~m~'c3" ... "" .' ~Gj.. 'I c:.. ~W~~' L:jC<'tGj r::.~l (b) Fill in the blanks of the following sentences: f...<El ~'tl.J'tl.-. . . .. ..W~' J.J.said son you .<'J.q~'C<lj''E!.rC<'tGj'l)'r....J'r~r L:lC<lj' L:j~'C<'t''E!...... . Gj'E!r::. '1'~'u:j..' a. .....happily ..' ~r::.../Gj'q's~'~~'q~1 ~ -_ ..kill the father . ..'r'ii""tlJ' g""u:i~' 5'1'~'u:i. .W~' 5JQj' ~Gj' d\r::.J'".\'(1... -...' ¢. r::... after ten months his wife gave birth to a boy who was named "Lha Chenpo.J.... . ./il)' ~ _ ___ ...'nrfijGj'Iljr<j'Gjtl...if . .. ..lr::.. in a big city called "Yaruna" in South India there lived a wealthy landlord.<~'~." ".'tjFil)~'~r~Gj~'tl...... 'F~'r.."..J' ....\' q~1j c.. 'tl. -..sea -from the. 5JGj' ~Gj' a.....~' ~w~~' L:lC<ljGj ~ "-- -.......r 3\~' 3./ :r.' o.. ~''S'tl...'9'~"I' ' ... _ - .".€:nr"i(:: .JFa.~(J>'~·'ij·~"l'''I~'\'~'~'\ .'F'~r::.q~'S~':2'tl.e-....<'fijIlj'GjC<'tSF' ~r::..\~'~c:./"" qr... . 'tl..<.. ~'-o'tl.~ -.' J.JFil)':!IGj~' q'C<ljGj' .. ~r::. ' .. - r::.F~r S"":2'tl. By praying to the deities continuously. 5... .' ' '1 2..." " " ..... .11 Exercises of Lesson Nine (a) On Visiting a Cave (participation Drills) 1..~ ..<~Gj ~'r.EltlJ' ~ .".\'q' ~~I 4~'''''t11'r~rL:jC<'t' .-.l. ...../'.~r~'Ji'f.<~Gj ~Gj~'~'tl. .. . . Until then ..." .' -"lIlj''?d\'tl...'C\~''ij' ~"l'''I~'\'~' ~'\'.. a...\' q .<'~' q'tl.returning I~ back . .. .../'\' J..wait and .. ..'r::.J'tl....." .youthfulness .father kill........at a secret roadside ...."...!r~q2~r S"":2'tl...". ~ ~ ~ ~Ilj'Gjl)r::..... his father went to the sea to bring jewels but his joumey took twelve years.e-." ..." .. .. C'. " "__ ".\€:nr''ic:..<EltlJ' ~J../~' ~~l ~ ..' 4"........~'~·Ji·f./r::." As instructed the son murdered his father at a secret roadside accordingly.qE.. El~' ~~~r -o'C<ljGj'l)'r.' cb'r::. " You my son.".by ..10 Translation Once upon a time.. 'or::.thus instructed .lQ~·q·~'\1 3.. At that time the mother said....' ."... °F~'r..l'\' J.El9' ~J.the boy ... .to the son ../~' a. ... ..ld\'~' ~I:lr::.' ~J..<' r::../il)' ~r::... ... . ' ...\~i!i'~il.J''''' a:..-. 'I 0 ....< 'fi]Ilj'GjC<lj SF' 'tl.!' .. 4. 'r::......'~Gj~' q'C<'tGj' ~S qr.. r::. . ...... .JGj' q~'~J.'il) ~':!I':!IGj~'tl.\1 ...I'IjGj'GjC<'t't11Gj' q~'~J..-...... e-.' 1.the mother ...due to growing strong ..he proposed.. " ..<1.'~' ~I:Ir::......"..... 2. proposed.l'tl. if you wish to live together happily with me..~·~c:... .. At that time ..and 1.J'l:r S~' d\~' J.<:... r::._ ..r::.... did. '~'~'''I%''I'f.~p~rtl. -... ." _-vc .. In the meantime the boy having reached his youthful age of puberty proposed to engage in sexual activity with his mother. -...r ~~I q~·r.. 3. you should wait at a roadside before your father reaches home and kill him on his way when he returns from the sea.......<~r~." -. f....lGj' q' S~'~~'q~l 4.....took.to one's mother . .'i!ic:. 'I ..~'~~~rtl.... ~c:.<El ~'tl.the I son also ...lQ~rq'~... ...ripened took. 4c:. who did not have a son.l~' J. ·~·~·"I%"I·f.~' il)~' E...to cohabit .J'l:. ~nr§' .".wish to live .... 4c:..I'IlGj'GjC<lj'(1...l.?a. ....l'. ..'nrfi]Gj'Iljr<j'Gjtl..r ..-../a.<ElQ]' if>Qj' ~../~! r::. _ _ ::JGj' ~Gj' a..~ili'~iJ.l'Gjr.l'\'d\! d\r::..'tl. .. " .'ilic:..your father .q'tl....W"'Gjd\'7!j'D. 9.qE.." .<' J...l." ~ c.l~' ~~! d\' -"lIlj'.~' ~~~rtl...... .did..!r~Z. ' T....'r'ii""Gj' g""u:j~'.'F'~r::.r..e-. c:.....q'tl.-'.... Q'ijili·f..

/ r.+-'T .

~'<r~' g"l'~' :i.W"l"rq-s~r"i~r 2.>. c. p~flI'<r p~Cll'<r farmers monks rich landlords nuns carpenters thieves photographers :i'.>.yq7"'~' :<'.\5f1JPF"'flI g.'\1 ~.'.' g' q. My neighbour's house is nearest to my garden. 3..~. fit::. "1"IP' JiCll'''I''it::..\I t::.'q. " q~"I"1' .§. yesterday_ 6.'.§. 'I "I~f1J'''' a:Jl.)4'\'5)':<''\1 ~F~"I' "14. a:J.c:'\5f1lPF"-f1l 1.0::"I ~-"I"1 t::.~ .qa:J'~rt::.. "I~Jj' .. 10.'q.\1 jj'~"l-PSf1l-~:<'.'~' :i'. B'\' qa:J'~rc. '.-.'\' '-l"ll §"l' ~'''I~.~~.t'\' . nunnery_ 8.>.i'\'['lc.>.~. "I~f1l-'" a:J.-~"i-t::. I would have come to see you yesterday..o::"I"l'''I''1q (d) Repeat the sentences by substituting the Tibetan equivalents for the English: 1.o::"I"l'''I''1t::..~. a:J':<''\1 §~' ~ '''I~.'§' Jj-:<'. I am the best student of my teacher.:<'.·~"l-"lt::.\I (e) Translate into Tibetan: 1. q"jP'J:ifll'''Iil)c.'~il)'c.W''l''rq's~ril)~r ~c. How many dogs are there in your house? garden_ 9.'~' q'S"l'''i''l' (~'\'''I''ic. She is my eldest sister. He ran quick!y towards the market.'~' :<''\1 g.i'\-g'rl'jt::.'.>.o::"I"l'''I''ic. L table_ 2. Once upon a time his grand -father was a school teacher. 4.0::"I"l'''I''1t::.y q7c.\1 iiif1J'q' q~.0::"1 "l'''I''ic.'! .'\l (~"'''I''1'''~-~..\1 e:il)' '-l'~~'~'~' :<''\1 Uj"l'''I~''I''l'~q:~.:i."1~'>. He is a better Thanka painter from Lhasa. There are five apples on the table..141 (c) Repeat the sentences by substituting Tibetan words for the main verbs: ~-<r ~.'~"I' <. There are sixty nine nuns in this nunnery.'~' q'S"l'il)"l' B". 5.o::"I"l'''I''ic.i'\-I"t::.c:..\1 "1~"1"1.\1 jj'~"l'PSf1J'~:<''\1 iiif1l-q.i'\'g'rl'jc.g"l-~.\1 Uj"l'''I~''I''l'~q:~' :<''\1 3.\'.o::"I"l'''I''ic.:<'.\' 4~'§"I"l'~' jkg.'§' Jj':<''\1 Jj'PSf1l-~<!"ll "l~ '" Jj'PSfll'~':<. 4~' §"I~-~' .·~"l'''lc.'5)":<''\1 "i' <!. quick! y 7.

l(f\r ili'UlI::.. _ ~ .. . 'f 1J......lilil ~.'Ulc:.' q' ~"i ':.I:lC:: 'r ~ ~ . Even ifone holds a fire downwards.lQ]~' q.."¥" ISc:.J1~' S~' L:J·l"lJ'rJ.' a. Even though the fragrant flower is far away in the distance The bees will swarm aroun d it like cluster of clouds.!~~I la)'~'§Jili SQq.t.i-t !S1t / If a sublim e person experience misfortune..\' L:J~'})d"IJ' L:J~' J...j"il 1Q.' ili'~' ~Q]~':! I ~ c.. _ C'.' ->.. ... r~l' L:JQ'/S.G:I"i'') 0)' ~"i' "i'~' q' ~"il lli:/"i '') e-.<3) 'l'Q q~' q' J.. 1n..' ~Q]~'~JI 1~'fcjJ...C'>.t..j..c:.!fl~' l""1fl~'L:J' il\""1~' J.q-l""1'L:J'~l'~->.. _ I:i'~"i' ""1'')'=lJ" ~c:..... His continct will become exceptionally beautiful. 'I 1~'.- ..\'L:J->..142 9.. Co. ..jQ]~ L:J'l"IJ'n.jc:: ~'....J' ibQ]~' qi<1O)'Qfl~1 C'-.'Ulq l:i'~"i' J. t..t..~L Wise peopl e thoroughly accep t Elega nt saying s even from children.' q' a.l' q' rJ.?~'Q~I ~ ~ e-. c.. If it is ofgoo d fragrance of good ....C?~·r:l.l~'~I::.~1 IJ. 'ill' ~ 'rJ...'/S.! ISC::' q'~"i':..!.."¥" C'>. C'.. . c-... 1rJ.l~rn. ~..fl->....l~rrJ...! St::.jq c-. 1""1' q~~r L:J->. ~'. ~ ~ IJ.. ... c. C'-. .. everyb ody will come (to you) by themselves...!'')Q]'~F ~c:: 'C.'~q ~£\- @.!' ili' 1""1'ili' ~ -"S fl' q'i}<3) 'Ulc:....!' q~~r L:J~'C.j~':!JC:: ~'n._ ~l ii.j(f\1 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ l:i'I'l""1'' ~F <3)' ->..jC::: ~c:: '.!' q'n.l~'~c:.t. '! q'i}ili 'C. ..ijl::.>.<- ~ Iii.!'~':... eo.'g.)' ib Q]~' ql'l"\' r:l. Even if one does not gather them together. .j~':!JC:: ~ ~ 'I lJ.!' L:J'~l'~~':!Jt::. q'lJ.. If one has qualities..12 Extra cts from the Elega nt Sayin gs by Sakya Pandi ta J' .!~' ~ L:J' ill ili 'C.. . 'I ~ ~ ~~ --..J"lJ'L:J ->.' ->.. if one One will see the flame blazing upwards...jt::...j~ ~ I L:JQ. One takes musk even from the deer's navel.

'1 "ld'J'~'q~"i'(Jt>:. the of see ing existence of fire was known.' (J'". hum ans and inc luding the smell-eaters rejoiced .·a.~·f."1~'''ld'J' <l~o.."i·a. . Co~uctions are use d to syl able.l. :..\.l.d'J~·'\"i"i·d'JJ:"I·"I'3« Ji £'~''jC.·q·'\I: ·-'l·"i"·<J -4~i smo ke see as soon as fire hav e kno wn On acc oun t ofs eei ng the sm oke . hum sts and hel l are nsists gho sts and hell beings: an bei ngs .. «I'q4'iJ she and together talk not do Do not spe ak wit h her.~ ·q~"I'lr::i"l·~r 21'')<::"1 ~'«l'Ujo.>.~~'":.h\ . «I''ie.>.)C:'.·"I~~·~~·~·«I·"I~«I·§j"~~·"l fii·. q! ili ~:r q) 10.. f.l. * flf: ~~l: ft4 ¥:4 2.q §. nr«l'~'q~o.·~')·"'C:·' E.T. hun mis. fii·')I::·c. 3 'II::' wh ich sho w rea son : "C:' 1.~·.deJni-godS.9 l· (Jr.9" · (J'"C:'.c:r«l. 4.I:. es.\·d. Bud dha .5.~.~·q:<'''I'\r::i''l·~r 21'')1::'' ~'d'J'Ul"i'. serpents. nob lep ath truth four as to ori gin trut le pat h h.· wh ich do not hav e to adh ere to the fina l of the pre I sylllable.. -'l' <li5~l'\' -". 2.l\«I~·~' ' r.>. dem i-go ds.-"'.' <l1ii ~' "Io. gry gho Th e six realms of sen tien t bei ngs (co nsi sts of) gods. epe nde nt of the fina l of the _ syllable_ thE we Iwill disclJss con jun ctio n in this ~ uss ~.r5. il).."io. " 3. 5.>.l.'«I'7d'J' 5. phrases and sen ten ces . ced ing ions join words. three precious jewels.. god and ser pen t and hum an and sme ll-eater along with min d rejoice did The gods.!> nl «l·\\. f.de s.'.. hun gry ~ :. humans.14 3 LE SS ON TE N ffi .)C:·I Ul·~"I~·')C. =l' qi5~' (J'Uj. For ins tan ce. ~"- ~.\:1(•.· (J'. Dh arm a and San gha are the."r(Jf..t <l~o.!>"I·nr"'-\\.'«l£'''I'''I 1·JJ! '3'''' l Bud dha and Dh arm a and San gha are rare excellence three are .~Fq ~o...·~Ujo.-\I::" "C:'I J4.'(JiJ:. - - J:~·"'iC: -I ')iff.0.. '":.l. .cr a.\·r.·1 ')ifr.\C:' distinguishing ~ one from oth er com pon ent s: L.·q·d'J.>.ljc:·<l·"c::·"I·"i'\·<J..· (JI\' q~"i' (J·. L. 5."r(Jr.. both the mo ther and the baby fell asleep_ ther asle ep.·.\ 1.l\"'~' . ~""<l~"l' q~o. 2. . We wil l also inc lud e her e some co~unctions wh ich are dep ns end ent particles.r·<: .\I::'! ~"l'q~"l' "l~"i' (J'')1::'1 f.~ .·«I·S·"I~'ll·"l~')·E!"I 2. less on wh ich is ind epe nde nt I par ticl es E.\ .l. the truth of ces sati on and the truth of the path the suf feri ng.t:.(.1: ~'')C::~'')d 'Jj'''jc.<j' q~"i' (J' qlii''~1 "I"i·f.>. f.C:'.-.I ·4C.'\<::'/ .(:r.·~.~·r.·r .~Fq~"i 2_ r. fl·"l"l·-'l~·'J·"je.·"I~.·1 Uj'~"I~'')C:-' 'i:i(..1')C:· is use d ma inly to join two 1 ')1::' or mo re words or stat em ent s: 1.>.ljt:..·1 J4. ".·4~i 5.l'rnr"l·-'l~·<J·"ic:·"'·s·"I~~r"l ~')·E foo d eaten as soon as mo the r sonlWO two sleep fell Hav ing eaten the meal. ~I:: ~'~'')C:'I 4_ ~c: ~'~~ ~'WI 10.l.:: . '.l\"'~-~' livi ng bei ng rac es six as to gods. '~'')I::j'''iC: .. he and I two by day thr ee afte r wo od cut wil l ~:'. cessation truth and The fou r nob le trut hs are: Th e trut pat h truth are h of the origin of all.)C:·C·"I~~-~~·~·"'-"I~"'·§·~~·" l·4C·"I~.' -".. r. ~~ ~~~ .\'~Ul"i' Mt er three days he and I wil l cut wood... ~'')e.·C:-I .~·')C.>. (J' . .-r. <l"J'iJ "". r..>.\t:.'~.'4j"l~'''l. ~ _ ~.·~')·"'I::·')ql::·i5"i' )<lC:-i5o. ' . ~ ~ ~ 10. ani ma ls.r. the trut h of the . suffering truth...\<::'f ". animals.\C:' "''7''. 2 'il::' used for cat ago rizi ng or .. / 10. Co nju nct ion s The re are num ber of imp orta nt gra mmatical particles wh ich are ind pre ced ing syl lab le.

>J' ..>JI '\3' "l' Q' qi'i"'l'~1 doctrine exponent four there are particular exponder.>J' ..>JI t:: "I·"I.>JI .\.\1::: which expresses order or command: 1 0..>J1 iij~'~' <jP. Cii"l""<j. Q.\"'·.>J'.\q".i. ~q'iij.w.>JI .'qAiijl ~A. G..~'<j'~'''l".>J'. .>Jiij' ON ~.?!"""'..>J/ '\3'iij' '-1' q"""~1 ~q' . iir iif'lq"l' <1". !il·iirqq".6 [lj f"'·~"'I·"'·(lf"l~".>J' ')"l' expresses 'or'..'"T ~r lOA '\"'. tongue and body together are lryie.>J.:: "w')'f~w"1'\'[lr q~". .'q.>J1 .>J1 ~.7 Disjunctive Conjunctions Conjunctions which show choice and imply inquiry are formed by reduplication of the ten suffixes and') which are added with .>J' "l. "I..'<:j'~'~1 J:l"l'''Iiij/ ~A.\.\""1 "I~:Fq4.. 4"" ~t:: 4..'q~'E. "r"'1'A~'~'~"l'''I')Q''\''''1 2.\' q'W~1 2.\'~'\'''l''l' <:j' 4"1' ~"....>JI you Tibet in lived having Tibetan language properly know did how Having lived in Tibet.>J. did you learn to speak Tibetan well? .:!ql rainfall as soon as umbrella open a.>JI "-"I·. .. express a doubt and form interrogatives: 1. mind..\'" ·.".\Wq~. §'\' Q. which expresses the notion of time: '\"" teacher arrive as soon as meet scarfoffer did scarf offer I offered the scarf as soon as the Lama arrived.'~"1 Cii"l"'l·<l"·"q·?·f~w"1.?!". Sutra group. ears.>J"" ~iij' <jP. mind only group and middlt together are The four (Buddhist) schools are: The Particularist.>JE'Df.>J' .. ~.They consist of eyeS..>J' "'..ljA'~· ~I S· Q"I'~' qA. 3. nose.>J'<l. There are five organs.?!"l'q.iS·q·"I~"I·AS. "r"1'A~'~'~"""I')q''\''''1 Cut this apple with that knife.l .:!ql Use the umbrella as soon as it starts raining. 10..>JiiJ" [lj.i. Sutra.>J'. nose.'<r'\""~'''I'l''l'.'qA.5 ..·~"I /'> properly carefidly listen and mind in bear do Listen carefully and bear it in your mind.>J' "/. big.\q".5 1.\'fll' "l' Q. They are used to enlist particulars oj 'either.>JI "1.''I he by I to give that which present the light and big one is The present that he gave to me is light and big.\' ~ "'.>JI "1'\' q"""~1 door three there are body. or' and 'neither . and ')iij' .>J' <l.was'q'''I~''I'AS.>J~'~' <lA.\'iil"l"l' <l~'~~' Listen to the lecture carefully. ~'''I~iil'~1 .. f"'·~"'1'''''[lr''l~".>J1 ~. ~.~'<j'qq". 2.·<:j·~·~1 J:i"l'''I''l1 ~A.. tongue and body.>JI.\~· ::J[lj·q·"1<li1 1.~·<l·qq"l·'r'\"'·~·"I'l"l·.'~/ 1. nor'. speech and mind.~·Q·~·"l". speech and mind together are The three doors consist of body. speech saidproperly listen do said properly -- - apple this knife the cut do ..>JI.. ear.·q~·E.·<r. "I~:Fq"1.\'~'\'''l''l' <:j./. 'either..''''.>J' 11l. 'or else'. . a specific catagory. Mind-Only and Middle way.. 10.611l used simply to join words and ideas: 10...>J"l' ~"l' <lA.\~·::!r'rq·"1<li1 2. ~'''I~M~I C?l"'l'''l..>JE'(1r."I 1.ljA'~'q' Q~' 'iiI S' Q"/'~' qP."l'~1 organ five there are lry!e.\'iii"l"" <j~'~~' . arrived.\'I1l' q~. 10. a.

'however' and 'nevertheless'. S"l'". - - l.t' .jj"i·il"'§'Q5. of. ". 'in spitE spite ' 'any' ..''I'Ji'Q''''I his uncle's torch the down fall although break not is His uncle's tor~h fell down but it did not break. Jl"l'<1i 'Q7~' "l"l' z:q"l'. .!. "l' Q4"'~~ -'jQ·Jin ""I [ by voice loud doing by explain even then grand -fathe r hear able not is Even though I explained it loudly grand-father did not hear it. iii 3. §j'~'p. I 4.ij"'~'JJ ~'" ?i.p'5. L.' ''l'q.~·~<<>l'''l':!F~'Q 5. ~ "l':ij."I1 jii~'~' "l·Q"i"l'~~'Q~"I"l'Oi~·.145 . 'i''l$·'i <)"1' q '" . '§j"l"l' ij'Q~' ~'4"l'~' 0S1~ ''''l~ '~"I' Q"lJJ' ."1 f~~' they year how age even if always circumambulate to go do They are old people. jii~'~'~~""Q""I'~~'Q~"I"l'Oj~'.-<:r"l~"fa.i rL". 'also' '. .''r''l<>l1 our cat baby the house ofoutside at is what of outside Is our killen qUlside the house? qutsid 6. '"~' . '"~. {< .~. "I ~ ""I: Q Q Q Q "l "i'5..r.: ..5.. 6. As they belong to the dependent partic les.r QQ~rb'ra. . - &~:.ij~' JJ'S~" 3."1 JI III "l JJ " 1lJ JJfF. 5. .ij"lf~'JI ~"I §. ~i'i. "i"l'1lJ"I"r~"r~' ·~~·a. '" i.'§ Ji"l'<1i 'Q'5~' ili "l' z:q".!.. §'\'''~ '~'~' JJ.'.\.Q~dT~''r~'f'l~' ~·Oj"l"r~fQ5..- -1-l 5. yet they circumambulate (the stupa) every day. 5.'~~".~·r.'{ i. a.jj"']"'§'Q5..' ij. 8. "'~' and Q~' signif y 'bu. tOfJ::h -. t' 'howe ver' .tOj'''I· g".~·~ >l·"l"!F~·Q5. "I.\'§j~ ''''~. 2.8 Exam ples of conju nction s of contr ast and similarity "'~.§j'~'p.. ~"l'j!jJJ'''·~·4''l'r."J fi~' ."1 "i"'·Ill"l"r~"r~~~.". there is no milk forthcoming. ~.'{ 6.r~:f"'~' JJ. - - ?}* ?/~ 7.p'~ <:r~~'n:' JJ' QQ"l'~' Jj'p. but he is a very sincere person.'''~ JJ.J {. "'1lJ'P. the follow ing ruI~ rul~ apply: . fi~.·tOi'''J·g'\''"i"l'~c. 'bu.~' r. 'too' ..\'. a.rQQ~rb'ra.i)l" JlfP-.i"i '" " ~~' "'~' QC:: QC:: (\J (\: / /.."1 baby this by how suck ever milk come not do In spite of how much this infant sucked.''I'Jl'Q''i''l L fi~'~'<l'l'~~'~'ili"l'''I«r~'<>l'''-'l''l'~~'a.Q~dT~''r~'f'l~' qQ' ~'Oi"l"r~fQ5.. 'still' ."1 §"l'q'p ~"l'''I' g". c- 10. k. "i"l "l':ij"'.''r''l<>l1 a. fi~'~'''''f~~'~'iii''l'''I«r~'<>l'''-'l''l'~~'a. 'yet'' ..p'~ <:r~~'ii:' JJ" QQ"l'~' Jl. ~'4"l'~' '1lI"I' Q"lJl' . ~hl ~u / /."l'ij'S"l'''l"l' Q4'\'~~ 'ii'i:i"l'~' flQ·Jl'P..!.. l. my friend this as to knowledge span small but sincer ity great a have is This friend of mine knows very little.5."I teacher by today rainfall will it how say did 'The teacher is saying whether it will rain or not today.' ~"l'''J' g. 'thoug h' .r~:f'''~' [ by marke t at face know who ever see not did 1 did not see any body in the market who I know."1 "':.-<:r"J~"fa. S"l'q'p. 1."I' his sponso r also stay time not have say did His sponsor also said that he has no time to stay.".· "wp.r.r. ~"l'j!jJJ·"i'~·4"l'r.

'<1"1"1' "lt1"1'~. I C1l 'o.\5J[1j'p. j.'.I' JJE'. 10.' ~"I"I' §'\'!3<1' <>I'i\ic.fi'" '\5J[1J'P. 10.'\"i' "l"l.5"1 <I'i!<!i'(\E:<!i 'Ujt:.'<I~''l'5'J:i'p.' a.5"1 12.'Cll<>I'<AlC. iij.'~F'I~'~'~"I'<!i"l''i!(\t:.9 Vocabulary .\'""t:.·<1"1"1' <lt1"1'~.' -":' 5'-"1' .blocked.[1J''\'" a.\"1 Qi' sponsor gods serpents talk Buddha Dharma six realms of existence demi-gods hungry ghosts truth ceasation Tibetan greeting scarf lecture mind circumambulation illness ~"lW after smell-eater to rejoice late suddenly Sangha Sall1adhi Samadhi animals hell beings SUffering. 9.'§'o. . ''It:.~.I'p.>I'Ujt:. rq'"!.Jf"i' j). he could not he!p.blocked.\5Cll '(\fl"'Ujt:. <I'i!"i 'o.l' <I-"Ic"Ujc.<~v your relative die even if eye water shed by benefit not there is Though your relative has died. mind good even ifhelp do able not did if help In spite of his kind heart... infant umbrella speech one who accepts Mandala -":. 14.\''1 ~"i'<l.~."1 c'''I q~"I' <>Ifi'\" q~"l' . ~'\' a:.f' ~"I':':jC1l'Ult:. help.c.'(\~'''I'J:i<!i' ~""'§'(\5"1 Tenzin also go not say did Tenzin also said that he will not go.>I'''I'5<!i' <l"l<>I'''I'5"i' ~ ~"I"l'~"1 iii' a.fi"·Ujc.C1l'fl'I1'"l'P.'''I~' ~c""I~' . 11. there go place road a(so prevent do it seems It seems as if the road to there has also been.'C1l.I' !J"l'!."l':!i"" "lc' "l'!!i"" i"l' ilj's""s ilj's"s .~' "I' Ji"i -:~ . 12.\ilj'(\'\<!i' .'JJE'. food.~' "IfJ.5"1 13.~ . ~-~ 13.P.'(\~' "lfJ.\' "I~FQ4'\' ~'''IS''i t:.5"1 Mandala also see request there is One can also view the Mandala.I' o.\ilj'o.I' <l~"i'!.JE'.' <I~ "I' a.'3. 5"1 flower offer even ifaccept one who not there is if accept Even if I offered the flower there is no one to accept it.\'(\:') 5'\'o.E:"i '<Alc"o. been..J'ill"i' JJ'iij<!i' iij'':i"l"l' ill' ':i"l"l' "l~<!i'J:.\' !.. a:. flt:.\''1 14. "I':':jCll'"lc'. dissatisfaction suffering.'.\~Cll'<I' v ~"I'"l~C1l' ~"I' <l~Cll' (\~"I'J:..\' J:.l' <I-"It:. it will not help by shedding tears.Cll'f·I1' "I'P. '''1~'~'~''I'"i "I'<1!o..>Ifl''\' iij'\' ill. ~<>I"r!.'''l' ' ill'\'''c''<l' ~'q' ~'<i' @' ~'\.I'p.I' S"l'J:. "l'JJfl<!i' P.[1j' '\ '" "I~FQ4.' <I~"l'5' J:i'p''\"1 he siclatess hetlvy owing to food also ~at not does sicmess Because of the seriousness of his illness he cannot even eat food.>I"rJ:.JE'.fl"'" ~t:.\' ~"'''''' ~"'''' .~" '~" ~<!i'''l. Mandala. 10."I"l'§'\'!3<1'Jri\it:.~"I'!. rq'''I'''o.I' 5.\~C1l'<I' . ~. fic' '~c.'Ujt:.

iL ~"I~' '50)' ~ill ' ~ill '.'9!:<" e.Jt:..' <j' ~"l'q"l.. ~' IjJ.'q' to bear in mind to break ".n Exercises of Lesson Ten IO.\A.. ".."'i g..&.... Having been thoroughly disturbed by his jealousy.a means to have· il remedy .:5 ..>J"I' q'q"...there was one ..>J....·C1J"I·")''''''I'''Ie:. _ _ _ __ c...w "\qr::.".J' "\ ..sleep also ...c.... who had gathered there.. c-.qc. were enjoying themselves with whatever they had popularity.r::..>J' :<''\'1 tkir:Oj'N ". -..~' q' __ -.all poor ._ co.''j"''J' J. the world. wished.....J:F "\cT!' q...' "Ir::...q~' iil'cT!f..his . .. eo.he .\~"I~' .: J. .' q' 4"1' :~j" <Be::.' UlO)''5O)' ill cT!~' flr::.J:.."l'q' J:j''r<B'''li)t:.~i_ iiii..~. who he had made him happy by providing everything he so desired for a long time. .n (a) Repeat the following sentences by substituting the appropriate phrase and translate: L ik g 'Ol "1"'1' '" "I' "1"-.q. e-...~' :<.there was ...by him . ')')WIl..:j~~r O)~':<.\9' trr::.. IjcT!~''5').. and said. Fd..l:lq~' 4<11' ~J.J:... ~' I~W'..arrogant .' .each of them At.I' .' I..r::.one with pride .-. while each and everyone of the poor.do not have .~ f::.:j t)"I~p)' 011:.1.\r::.people . he bowed to his Brahmin teacher..J' fl(....all .. . __ ~ q'"I-o"l'u.q' IjcT!~'.. :<':' :"-" ~r::..· a:m~ '5" ~Il.J" 4"1'~' <Be:.\' l. of.. c-..J:F ...J:. eo.. '''I' ~Il... "\(.J~' J:l~r Jq~r ~"I~'-0 ~iIi ~il) -. Having examined the former causes.'~".\' D:~.his . s lficere 10...' cT!'iilO)'q'....l~' -3S ."..L....give away rulership promised and took a vow.' !..lr::.~'..by you .summoned .10 Classical Tibetan Reading .i: ~cT!'~'''I~''I'5j\ l...~'" .'J.I~' flc' co. ....\' ..r (4"fq' to block.together with ministers .'jO)'l..due to jealousy .-..J' P.I~' 4tlj·1l..:5~'~1 &...I~' ~J.. ..j'~' J.:l t)"I~p)' a... At that time..examined causes ...JP" tl..J' ~o: .\WIl. '''I'~il\' . " q~' J.it .: 147 q")'pr q"l'pr -"''r<'f -'l''j""r (4"f<.J(J. I' . co..L. co.. Semi-Literal Translation ..".satisfied by .'q'E. c.being saddened by misery .ruJership .king . ~ 'II ~'11 e-.I~' -Oil)' IjJ...""i ..1..J:.I .... prevent.'(. 51L..popularity .~ <.enjoyed ....' <j' to shed tears ~..&...J'.:t:"l"f 51. .'q' J:i"l'<B'''li)c:.~'.. q'~' cT!i.'jil)' l..\..q:g.at that time ..I"I' I.:L .. '1l..\-:..\' .J:.lil)''5il)' J.J1 ~c...'(.by heard .".were assembled . "'_ ~ .\''...disturbed by ... ~'<i.J:.' cT!')' O)'B"\'~~' "\' ~Il..\'~~S~Il..q' "I-o"l'U.J~' cT!"I'I.Bhinsin .c.teacher's Brahmin .:p::mE:: 51"\' _ e-..._ ~~ .he was honoured .""" c-._eo. _ . ~"\'~cT!~' -00)' IjcT!~W\w5jr::.O)'~~' ~il)'~c' '''I~. _ .thattime ........ the arrogant and proud Bhinsin heard of his (Moon-Light's) popUlarity...... .~'.whatever ..town .J' '!f~' I.. 10...\"I'''I ~'7T)ill' il)~' "\~"I~'l..:5. "\' . please think of a remedy to dispell this.q' "\c" I.. " As I am suffering from depression I have had no sleep..I' iiIa. .. At.r::.:l:<" ~~' . eo.l~' -0"\' I..J' q' (J.. _c-. e-..lc'~' <)0: ~.for a long time ..o:.I' '.....fI..-\._e-.~' ~'~ill' q'fl~' iilr::.&..o:.\.I.q' "\ ~r ~"i '~'~' I.L Once upon a time in Ihetown of Khorm6jik there was a king named "Moon-Light".\' ..'.. p:r ~"I'''\''I'''I ~'7T)il)' ill~' .. eo.c.~' .\'~' q. c-.:li5~' q' IjJ..J:. '''I~''\' ~ ~ ~ iii ' e-.' q' E.\'q'"\ ..'. e-.completely .\'~' q"\!:lj' t1'c'iIi'~~' ~O)'~r::.. "".that time whatever they so wished .I'~'''I~''I'5i. who ruled the town Khormojik world.'Q' Ui.:j.... Formerly happened . b..--..in Khormojik .' "It:..-. tkjr:Oj'...' .r::.' .. c-..' ~...' ::'l~' q~' iiI'J.q~' 4<l!' ~cT!~' 4tlj'Il..q~~' a.fl:<" amg..l:j.'9!..- ~a..q' til' P. c-.' <:j.one who ruled .li... ."\'i5 '~r 5p::me:: a:j' S' RJr::..' 51L... Translation ~:~'. .. -.family members .r <... stop to fall to recogn ize to help one with little knowledge Ui')'[1f<!lJt:. (one day) he assem bled his (royal) family ass em members together with all the ministers and (before whom) he promised and vowed that he will give away the entire royal wealth to all sentient beings.q~' :<..:5 ~r.. .:j.. e-.·q· J..a.)·"f<!lJc:.... I"...in the world ..L."...' fl' ~"I'.qi5~'~l ~"\'~J..JL.--.to all sentient beings . q:g.Ji' kind -hearted ~"l"l' q'q"e:..j.think of.. ~ ~ e-. 1..\'B. '~Il. i'.\ .' cTj' ~J RJL. '''I'~ili' :<.'<i' Stncere ~"l' q"l"l' a.\J.his . : L)O: ~. eo.' <. !j"\'"1' illl q' il)1 ~ _C'.J~' ..r::. co..qualities . (J. eo.".".<:j"". t e-. f.j. . __ '"" '"'\..q..thoroughly . "I' '5' ~1l.Chandraprabha named ..JI -.\w5ic'~· ~f~il)' q'fI~' iiIL.l~\'5..former ..by desire ...

'''I~Jj' ~& '~"i' Jj. . As soon as I washed my shirt. 10. '1''.· 5 . ~-~ / ~ ~>~- . 9. it started raining. There are nine and half kilos of potatoe in this bag..-"i ~~ f} i-} f~i. oranges and radishes in the kitchen. Jl·Fq· 2· q~~.' '\~f '. q~' qil········\lJ. f~f! . 8.\' :<''\1 S fir::.14'. (use completive termination) S..·f1j· q"l. Those keys are either my uncle's or his brother's. Jj .I. fir::. ~~~ ~r "7' I ~t~ "c. L 2. I did not show this radio to my mother.. Tsongkhapa was born 89 years ago in Eastern Tibet. 7.. Is Nyima younger than Pasang or Tashi younger than Pasang? 3.".. ·····1 .."'\''If).. (d) Translate into Tibetan: 1. :<'. OJ' q~.. She will be slowly climbing the hill tomorrow morning.r1i.Jl. qil········'i'. I will meet you at 10. 4... i'.00 am next Friday. ~.\.~"i....\1 4. 6. .I. This is the best bamboo I bought from the market."l~Jl.. There are also some apples. "1"1' S'" .."'\''lf). 5.1 14'01 j/ Jl q"r S··· '1''."' .·nf "1"1' Jj'Fq' 2' q~~.

.~' 1:..' Then one has indeed.EO.j'P-~"'5!~' ilil ~ '" ~ '" ~ ~ ~ .:c. 'l:.. "'- The crafty who displays a good conduct and speak gently Should not be trusted until he has been examined... ~ ~ . It lives on great poisonous foods. 'I have tricked the others with a lie.. I Will cast doubts (in other's mind) even (when) he tells the truth.< c>J' f111 1J.'1 ~[1j'5!' - 1 "IljP-' q~' q~ili .. foods.?"W ili' qiJili'l:...r" ~ q!i1~' 1~c>J' ili' ~t:...'f11' ili'qiJili'J. c.' I~'f11' iljt:..' 1~'.Ilj' t.' "'!t:....?Z... ifone's feet slip on the ground if one's One has to (nevertheless) support oneself on the ground itself. ~ ~ Iqz.. '5Ilj~' J. c>J'f111 Ilj ".j'!JIlj~Ilj~' c>J~~'~' ~ili ·'''It:..~ .!\5 ili ..j'I1' '''It:..j·"'lilil ~ ~ If one thinks. -. '..j~'~~'~t:. q!il.j·~1 -. [11" '::r t:..... Even if the OWfler of the land is wrathful One should happily live in his accord....q~z.J~' "Ilj'iE>ili''''liliI .~ [11' Ilj.J'r..''''!Z.'~' L.j' ql1ilil I~'. Iq~ili'5!~'l"r ~f11' qlij~'~'I1~1 q!lj~'~'I1~1 Iq~ili'5!~'l"r ~ ~ "'- ¥ ....IljD.Ilj'P....·1 ''''!t:.. 'I - - 1 qt')Ilj~' q~' Z. ~.. ~I '" ~ ·. (itz ~ -~ ~ 1 '" q"Ilj'l. ~ lf11ili'Ilj~Ilj' ili'5:~r lf11 ili'Ilj'5Ilj' q~ili' 5..rz.<~Z.?Z....j'I1' ~t:.l·~JIlj~Ilj~' 1J...<..' c>J'qt')ilil c>J' c>J' qt') ilil Ic>J' qt')Ilj~' q~' ~ 1 Z.:: -.":: ~ - '" J.J~'~~·~t:.J·~1 Iq"ili' J..r"'!ilil ili' . cheated oneself A man who has once told a lie.150 10.... 'I I~f11'5!' qz. -- ...Ilj' iE>ili ''''!ili 1 "''''l'r' ..1 ~'f11' '~' .q~"1 I~W Z. oneselfon "". .. 12 Extracts from the Elegant Saying by Sakya Pandita 1 "'l\5 ili.. ili'l:.. "'' 'l' ' ~ ~ .J 1:::r t:.'5!~' ili! ~W i1jt:...'?".J' t.. Just as. ·5Ilj~'l:.!'f!' Z... J.'". Ilj' r. Although the peacock has a beautiful form and melodious voice.

interrogation and choice. a wealthy man prayed to the gods".·illi"·fl.5~·~·fi~·9~·"~.rS~·Q~·~1 ''is'<. winter and spring).g"l'Q'~"l'i1J'S'~"'d)~'~'Cll'''l~Cll'L. these particles are also used as a conjunction to express contrast.:j1 monastery)". In the sentence ~iJJ·. ill fl. the idea could be expressed in two short sentences. ~.l)·~'~'I1J·Q:'i"1 (Having worn the clothes. .1 The Continuative Particles In Tibetan. 'thereafter' or 'having done.j1 . root verbs as well as adjectives.I1Q· ~ill'l1Q' Cll·S·Jj·~"l·J:.SCll·S~·~1 -~.r 1-) 1 L'l I g 'i .·illg. expresses a promise to list what the four seasons are.~ --------~ L~ 11." 11. i. but they will not express the relationship between the birth of the daughter and offering made at the monastery.l).·iJJi"·r.. ?~'(>.:j1 (he made offerings at (the) "fic:::9~·"~.g"fQ·~"l·Cll·S'Ji"·.4 In other words a Q!"l'Q.:j1 (there are four seasons: summer. ~~".2 Generally continuative particles~' ~.S~' "I ~ Q iJJ (>. and ~. ~~·§'. facilitate the cOntinuation Q.·iJJg. . Furthermore.l)'~'<.iJJ~·~'<. The particle ~..!>"1 ?~'fl. have three major uses.l)·~·~·i1J·Q~"i1 iJJa.\·r.·1 "~d)'''I'''i~'1 . We have noticed that in the spoken Tibetan the use of these three particles were largely expressed by d)~' i. .lSCll·S~·~1(After (his) wife gave birth to a daughter.S(>. .j.S"f promise' is used to add or fulfil a promise made by a preceding phrase.j'Q')L. facilitates the sentence to continue by coordinating the relationship between the first phrase "~iJJ·.'~"I'L..' in English they are called done .· I'· . there are three suspensive particles known as ~"I'Q..S~' particle stands as a punctuation to.j"Q')J:.l)·~'<. the particle ~.i1J~ ~"IQ.j~~·.S~' particles~' ~. If the particle~' is not used.J1 ~ ~ ~.l)'. _____ and Vowels ~ ~ ..5~·~·fic:::9~·"~.I"l'Q.g"fQ·~"l·Cll·S·~"·. This sentence will have the same meaning if we replace its .l)'~'<.s"r which are another form of conjunctions. autumn.'['l'''~'1 .. in the sentence ~~·§'. It has almost the same use of a colon in the English language. purpose.l)~·~'I1J·"l~Cll·Q'Q')ql . The three ~"I'Q. For instance...g"l'Q'~"l'I1J'S'Ji"'d)~'~'Cll'''l~Cll'J:. and ~.I1J~ . the particle~' functions as a colon and faciliates to list the four seasons..!>"1 . the particle i) joins the act of wearing clothes with the act of sitting on the floor 1) in the order of the occurrence of the two actions.S~' continuation of the sentence.J! m "etil)"q:§"llj<5llj" L:. 11. The continuative particle used as a colon helps to itemize. conjunctive particles as 'and then'.l)~·~'i1J·"l~Cll·Q·Q')ql I 11. I. ~~ >~.ill~·~'<.e.5~· (wife ga~e birth to a "~ill·l1q'i1J'S·Jj·~"l·Q<>~· daughter)" and the second phrase "fi~·9~·"~.l)'<. are attached to perfect and present conjunctions.lSI1J·S~·.S~ 'the suspensive particle of "iJl'q.. (he) Cll·S·Jj·~"l·L. ~} .' illa.. reason.j1 "Not having (a) son.'~"l'Q.I1q·I1J·S·Jj·~"l·Q. As dependent particles they are governed by the suffix of the preceding syllable as shown in the following chart.Sfl.:s~·. '~ LESSON ELEVEN q ' ctil)' q:§'llj<5llj' L:.S~' known as "iJJ'q.. ~~ made offerings at (the) monastery). When used as " ~. In the sentence.S~' ~"l'Q.j~~·. }.P'i"l·Q~·~1 ~d)'['l'''~'1 "~d)·"I'. ~~-.e.\C.l)'<.3 The other form of ~"l'Q. .l)~' with ~.!l"·"I·Q."·fl.'~"l'Q.j.Si1J·S~·."~"I'J:.. .l)·~'<. (he) sat on the floor).

.''." ~c. c..~...w Q. (purpose) 1O.<J~c.·~c.f''K(Ui''l'~''f Q'\!' you thief are as you by goat stealing my eyes by saw due to is You are the thief as I saw you stealing the goat with my own eyes.·r.·<i:-~·"~il)·<g·.'\I'f'"']"1'\1' Q~"'~' :il".·..!"l'\!1 q"F Q~"I tt.·~c. ~ ~ :-_ :--.·.5 Examples of Continuative Particles 6.'~"l' ~c.<J·~'\!1 my daughter Lama to faith having refuge vows received / On account of developing faith in the Lama.L'\!'r. (1) did not go to the monastery.!"l'\!' <'f.' ii'q~'~1 '\!'~I "~'r. 3.~. (reason) lazy . "-- 7.W~I Tibet in Dharma traditions great four there are: Sakyo..f'K(Ui''l'~'" ..'\!'~'''l-'.'~'\I' -'.·f'r~1 "~. '~'i§. (he) went to buy monk's robes. i5' ~'Cl!"l' q'\l' . (contrast) ~. '\!'fi'"j"l'\!' q't'l:j".'.t·~·"~il)·q-'.·ii·~"l· q~"l'\ll '\I. ~"·r.·~·"S-'.'. Geluk. c.1 that why Why did hand by not hold did you not holf! it with the hand? (interrogation) .<J... Kagyu and Nyingma.>.~ '\I'<rii:l"'1 ~'fll"l' q'\!' "l'r. i'i"'fll'.<J·fll· ""·~·~Q~>I'~. (choice) 8.' ii'Q~'~1 '\I'~I "~'r.·.1) L 11.j"l'\ll Q"F q~"1 tt.L".t:\ snl' S'\!· 6. q't'l:j"..·~·"S""·f'r~1 winter cold but summer warm It is cold in the winter but warm in the summer. '~'\I' "~il)' '1-'. "~. '\!.'~il)1 ~''1'S'\I'~'~'if. Oi·n.'ii'ii:l".<J·S"'I Oi·n. Kagyu Nyingma they are Sakya.1 1O. i§"'>lj".. (reason) 5. c. he made offerings at the monastery.''.'\I'~'''l-'.!"l··ifaF~c. ~''1'S'\!'~'~'if..".·ii·~"l· Q~"l'\!1 earth ditch dug having flag pole long a installed Having dug the ground.'".<J· Xf'rnr:l" ..<J· S'\II lazy due to home study not done Being lazy.J'r.. (promise) . (reason) - .' q'\l' ~I i§"'>lj.Cl!' .<J·Cl!·""·~·~Q~·~. he put up a long flag pole.·. Geluk.<J·XlqTll':J" "i'~"l' Qil''\I·~·fC.'~'\!' -'.jJ'~"l' Qil''\!·~·fic.>. ~. my daughter took refuge vows.<J·S"'1 laziness great due to monastery to not went Due to laziness.<J·~'\II d:l::r~' til· . In Tibet there are four great Buddhist traditions: They are Sakya. '~'\!' '1-'. (he) did not do his homework.•. 2." -'. .~c.~C..'ii't'l:j".~'\I.·.". (reason) 4.j"l'\l' .<J· Qo'\!'~1 i'i".L"'t:\ snr S'\I' ~I wife to daughter a having born he by monastery at offering did After (his) wife gave birth to a daughter.':l' ~·til· .<J.L'\I'r.- 9.I."f ~"i'<rii:l"'1 "l' I by he strength generate having pulling by expel did I expelled him by vigorously pulling him out. '~'i§. (choice) 1. (purpose) o.j"l··ifaF~c.i:l.~'\!.~ '\!.<J· S'\!I 6.'~il)1 monk done having monk robes buy in order to went Having become a monk.

...'~t:: 'I I by he chest on nail with scratching eye water shed see did I saw him shedding tears while scratching finger nails on his chest..'~"I' '1')1::.. As dependent terminations.·~·JJcb"i·~'i·~' 4. ~I 6. il:j.S-' ~wi)"I' 'l" q:ii".·~. '~"I"I' q~'.' ""I(J. They are frequently used as conjunctions and also co-ordinate phrases as by.t.<\I'fii' ::Ffii"l'nr~"i' JI<\I'"l"'. !if. particles they are added according to the final of the preceding verbal syllable. '<lI"i' q' a:. the cat is digging earth. ~ fll OJ and vowel endings 4t::· 4t::' ". ~ ~ ~ / L 6.·S. 'I JI'r:>. ~t::. au... q' q~JJ'~1::.\'~' 'I' 'it:: '~ili '~t::' q"l'l.\':'i"l "':'i"l a:.' ..'~"i JJij'q' 'il::. " Lama and meeting mind joyfully restful became While meeting the Lama. signify --ing in English.jq"l'q .Sdl"l' ~. syllable.~"I f " " 0 0 r ~- < "I t:: <\I "I "i " '\ 'I . the Bodhisattva loved the mouse. 2.. earth.SI::.'~1::.(J. ~"'--" 11. '~"I<\I' q~' 'I. / >.\'.S-'.·~I::. q' 'ic:~"i . "I'fii' ::Ffii"lw~"i' JI"I' "l.'''I'\rq''lSF q'~ff'j'fll"l"ll 7.q'r:>.t'q'r:>. "l1::. t::<\1'01"1' q<\l'''I'iil~' ~"I'. '~'JJcb"i'~'i'~1 light and moving wind ofcharateristic'are of charateristic<are Light and moliility are the charateristics of wind. !ir"".. they do not end a sentence unless followed by completive terminations.'~t::. but etc.>.>. '''Id/'z:r ~I::.Ie:: '" Bodhisattva by mouse the to always patience practising heart loving do While always practising patience.\I::.' ~<l' ~JJ"I' "q"l<':5":5" ~wi)"I' l' q:ii.' q.'~''i '~I::... directions. "lI::.St::' ~t::' 4t::' These three particles are widely used as participle terminations in the classical Tibetan and English.jq"l'q .t' ~"I"I'''l''i'')''' ."i'q.\1::.' "."1 5... (he) became happy and restful.:S"l 3. ~fll' q'll"i' q' :i:.(J. ~'jj'i\' ~"I'q~t'!)jq'(lr"lq'k"l'~'~'(J.' q..' "'~fll'~t:: 'il:j. ~"I'. I::. ~ t~ ~ R !)jOj' q~' q'll"i'q':i:.f.r ~1::.'~"I' '1')1::.· ~<1' ~JJ"l' "q"l'..:S"l cat the wall ofbehind at hiding earth diggmg of behind While hiding behind the wall. ~<\I'''I::. I::.."1 girl this two diligent andpossess high and seniors to respectfUli are and possess respectfUl! These two girls are diligent and respectful to their superiors and elders. SI::. r' ~:: L 2. while.'" "I~<\I' q8"i·r:>. 9.7 Examples 11.Jj~' q'JJijl::.>. ~ . SI::.6 .t.'~I::. wind. '3' JI'r:>. . I gave(him) a signal.St::.JJ"IW"I"I'f'j<l"l'.' S~'~I .. and. being."I< ~"..I~nr~t:: 'Uj". ~ ~ ~ -- 9.'<lI"i'q' a:.. ~"I"l'''l''i'')'''·":~qlq· q.' JJij'q''il::."1< ~'\' ..SI::.\' ""I(J. ~"I'(J.'l:iliary verbs..EO". S~·~. as in English.'q'Uj"i1 I by hand by slowly touching signal a send did By gently touching with (my) hand.1'' 1::..JJ"l"fll""I<\I'l'j<1<\1'. 5. Uj..7 t:: "1'01"1' q"l'''I'iil~' ~"I'.\' "I~"I' q8"i 'r:>.'''I''l'q''l' "OF q~fl'j'fll"l"ll ~ mind happy being respectfUlly happy receive show do Being happy we respectfully welcome you.6 .Sdl"l' ~'Jj~' 'I' JJill::.~. you...~ "I ~"r(J. elders.'~qlq' q"'S"'~1 ~ victorious one's doctrine precious direction everywhere flouishing expand did The doctrine of the victorious one flourished and spread in all directions.'~I::. 7.~t::' 'I''!" i. i5t::' ~c: JJ (J. ~. English. and 4t::· The Gerundial Terminations 11.·"Idi·z."i'q.153 11..' q'il:j"il 1. t~·A 4..-.\' q~JJ'~1::. I i5t::. Although they may also be used as aLL'l:iliary etc. ~~ 3. jj'i\' ~"I·q~t"~q·nr"lq·k"r~·~·(J. mouse.

l\ J..>JI t::') . f\~'''I~1:.I~'§')'~' '4''!.wni"l· '1~''lI''I' '')I:..~~' '1~'''Ii<1..liijwgzl:.)l ~''1~'''It'\<1iWa.~· q"l'''II:.E. we will discus s here the instrument of reason which is somew hat similar to the continuative and gerundial particles we have just seen in this lesson .~"1 "I nj~'~f. by..J'\''1i'\'!jj~.E. rz:r f1l~'~f..l\ J.Jj..'~"l'~'~f 1O. .i'j-<. q~-<..ifll· 'r:>.)·fll·r:>. 2. I:.. please wait for a little while. he met up with the three cubs.I' Q' 4~''j'''I''1'~~I 4~'7'''Ifll' ~~I self than others dear medita£e to extremely important is £han medi£a te It is extremely important to meditate to cherish others more than onesel f.>J'> q<>J"lj ')'~"1 ')'~"1 '1~' i I:...>JF~r'1~'i.c. through.. 41:. ~')'-<.> w .' '1('\'!jj~' q~' ~"I~' '1-<" J)' ~"1' j.' ~ '>j'<1i L:.'!:l''l f1l'~r"l' a.'!:l''l work finish having home at retun by tiger baby three and met Havin g finished his work when he returned home.·~~'nj"l''1~'(~rq'<1i~'r:>.. r:>. since and therefo re when they are affixed to the past and perfect participle form.8 Instru ment of Reaso n Although the instrumental case itself is dealt in a different section. 4.'q' ~.~' q"1'''1I:.' q~-<.~'-6i'''Tr:>.K. "J''1"J'Ul')'fll'r:>. t::')'.'1 5.. "I~r '1-<" <>Jif')'.)"I' q~'''Ii<1''> '''I~~' ''1-<" q~J. ! ! ~'>j'r:>.~"1 ~"l'r:>. mind.. "l' '1"l·iij. 11.. The two specific particles used for instrum ent of reason s are '1~' and q~'.~' q. I:. iS"I .'~~'f1l"l' '1~'(~r q' "> ~'r:>. 'ilj' q-<. 'iij' q-<.~ 1.'q' ~. "ll 41:. due to.~' -6i'''Tr:>.' <>JW .'Ul''"i')· ').-<. a branch fell on (his) head.ifll'77·r:>.\"1 thus said since mind in bear make do As it is said thus. ~')' -<.>I:.)I yours elf by hand with handle from hold therefore other to all not lost is elfby Becau se you held it with your hands at its handle.. '~q/' ~~'qi5')''1~'Ul''1'''I'iij''l' J. '~I:. f1l q'>j' q"l' I I.' ~~·">L:.q~'~''I~''1-<.-<. please bear it in your mind.>JW. . When affixed to nouns and pronouns they also express comparative.).cr ¢'o< q~"I':<:"I ~'''I<1i1:. do you have anything to sent ycmr with us? - - 5.j'~"J'~~'4~' 41:.~' q"f q~ ~"I' ¢o< q~"I':<:"I~'''I. ~"l' ~I learne d by intelligence with hlOwi ng able is study not with fool by realis wich e no able This can be understood by a wise person with intelligence and unders tandin g but it canno t be realized by fools who have not studied.i'j-<.·UI·'i')' ')<>JI we your father land to go since what send to have do you? £0 Since we are going to YClUr country.' ~"J'~' ~f ~''1' ..154 1O• . cubs.c. 2. They are used both in spoke n and classical Tibetan and primar q~'.. <>JF~r '1~' £'~"l'~~'4~' 41:. q.. - - q')"I' q~'''It'\<1i'''I~~' 1-<" 6. -<......rz:r i ') ~ q. 7. nj and vowel endings I:.I'')I:.I ' I by stanza this copy therefore little while wait help please As I am copyin g this stanza. ily signify: because. ~I - wood trunk axe with cut from branch a head all fell Oil On account of cutting the tree with an axe. 3. "I~' '1-<".. others could not take away all of it..''lI' 1~'Ulfll'''I'iij''l' l:.I"l'§')'~' '4·'!..>Jif').. nj'>j'''l'a.1:..'fll'ni"l' '1'>j''lI''I' ~"I'''I~J. head.

~'qi3"1' "i~'''IJj''l'''I<j"i'~' Q"1~'~1 a.' Q"I~'(1j' Jj''7"i'"i 'Il'mQ'~~''7(1j' Q~"I' q' ~"I1 JJil.' Jl~' my mother and meet to doubt not have thus said from they happy became Mter explaining that they will definitely meet my mother. ~·q·<!i<!i·§~·s~q"r~·~·<!i"'1 ~·q·"i"i·§~rS~(J"r~·~·"i"'1 request repeatedly doing by grand-mother said By making repeated request. is associated and used identically with the things we have studied in this lesson.iJ:llr". a.l":.:-:J"I~'<fl<::"1 (J than he powerful small) He is less powerful than me.e:.. ~. any action described by the verb which can be time.' q"l~'Ol' JJ''7"i'"i 'Il'ruq'~~''7Ol' q~"I' '-I' parent's command to not listening school at sleep did Disobeying his parents.' . <::"q~'fic.>l· q~. Ji!>.Il(1j·~1 Jiil.. the grand-mother said: <.Il"l'~'~' a. . It is used to lesson express reason or cause = 'because of.' J:i'(1j~' ~<::"~'~"I' . <::"(1j"ffi<::. .§j'q' Samten news good the hear after here not staying go did After hearing that good news. I I.l. 6. 'Jj' JJEJ'lj' q~'~JJ~' ~il:1 year three meditation doing victorious MaiJreya and not see therefore mind sad Maitreya He was saddened since he did not see Lord Maitreya after meditating (on him) three years. ? 9.0l· &<!i'<j' ~c:. difficulties 5. motive. 2.~~· Jj'q~"I''-I~'~§j'q'"'''II JJ'q~"I' q~'r. It is to'. After happy. (1j'll' is used to express ablative of 'from'. q~Jl'''l7<!i'''I7Jj"q-'l<::''~'ii~'"i~'~~~' 1.l.·"1e:. <::. For instance ~'"i~r is affixed to the perfect root of the 'thereupon'. thing or person. -- - Oi·"I~Jl·q~Jl"'-I~·~(1j·q·SJj~·'-I·"I<::'"Jj"JjENq"r~Jj~·~rrl 10.>l·"I7"i·"I7«rq-'le:. 2. [::. person. he faced great difficulties.. 5<::""1<::"5'Ji'c' 4~''-I'''l~''l':'FJ:i'i' "i~'''1"1~'<::'(1j' &"i'Q' ~f'<r "'''I' 5e:.l":. he slept at the school.. 'on account of and 'owing to'. he was appointed as the military cammander. years.q' "'''II Hong Kong in people face know one even not having difficulty great arise did Because there was nobody who he knew in Hong Kong.JJ' J:i"l' q~'riic:. 3.·Ol~fic:.. "I~' q' a. q~. Ol'll' comparative 'than' or any words which have comparative meaning.·c:.Jj' Jl"l' ~~.· q'i'~"I'''l''l'''I' 4~'q' I J than he Tibet language better know does He speaks better Tibetan than me.~'qi3"1' "i~'''IJJ''I'''IQ"i'~' q"1~'~1 ~~i enemy destroy having military commander to appoint did After crushing the en~my.. verb as well as nouns and pronouns to signify 'from'.>l~' "I"1~' "1"<: 5!~' ~I e:.·1 (I me f:: ~ W.J.$. place.:..·-:J"I~'~e:. <!i~' is primarily used as ablative of reason. 'by'. 4.·q~·fic:... also used to express 'then'or 'thereupon'.'5' Ji'c'4~'q'''I~''I':'Jd)'i' "i~·"I"/r. They indicate the source of meaning. cause etc. l·f Jj!>. 11.>r ql~r~rlj' q' SJJ~' q' "Ie:.iJ:!lr J. ~ . 1L e:..' q'i'~"I'''l''l'''l' 4~''-I' "''II c:.Il"l.~. "14"1' q~·riic:.~. they became happy.1::>:' 8. [". here.<::" .·~·~"I·.:. 'through'.·~·ij~·"i~·r. ~~:j 11.. Samten left here..l.9 The use of <!i~' and (1j~' for Ablative of Reason "i~' Ol~' Of these two particles. 0i·"I~.IlOl'~1 other's fire than one's own ashes warm One's own ashes is warmer than other people's fire.'j:j·Ol~' ~c:. which "i~' etc. • .

l· ~q~r~J. ~(1j""I1'\"i'~ "r'.10 Vocabulary J.'q~f q~"i'<I' q~d\'<!' welcome.' ~"I~' mind (hon. the existence of fire was known. ~'J.· '\ -<-'~"I' " -<-'~"I' flag Refuge vow '1'. 5' <rJ.0.tJ:j"..' <1-<-" ~ .. '\ -<-' q' "-<-'q' ~q~r~J. known.>.~..l" ~'£J.\' LJ' q~J.·o. ~'J.. ~'''I' "I.\' "If".' q' ill.'~'q' ~'\''2!''I' ~"''2!''I'"1" to become idle q~"I~'<I' q~"I~'LJ' . ..S~'<!' q1i".' '\'\' LJ' "".\'LJ' ~""<I' to be respectful .·~q·~J. ignorant §"I~' J. .- ~"I'<I' ~"I'''l' @d\'ij' @"i'ij' ~'~~' ~"I~'<I' ~"I~'LJ' intelligence different il £J.' q"[1j~' jI'tJ:j.. <1-<-' 4~' ~I smoke see from fire exist know did On account of seeing some smoke.' 10.'q' tg practice patience to fall to become happy to scratch to steal to be cheerful to touch to expell expel! to pierce.j" ~[1j'q' ~[lj'q' offering victorious ones Bodhisattva direction wise. stud y fool. 5'<1' J.lijc:.' 'I-<--:I'j~' 9.l£·"i~·~"·S·o.SC1l· J.Sc:."fii"l"~ ~(1f"l1'\"i"~ ?' <I'[1j.li. 'I' :<'''1 8.>.) said education.l£'''i~'~'''S'r.jq~'<I' :<'' 1"<I' :<'''1' LJ' ~. to pull n(q ffJ'q ~ ~O)'<! il"i'<I i'll'\'N'q' ill"'N'q' ')~r<l' .l['1~' J.J.. <I' <I' q1i.l~·"<lo.l' i~''2!''I~' i~''2!''I~' Jij'".·1 ocean from jewel arise ocean.:!~'<!' to be happy to be able to to dig a ditch q"l'f.·""10.jq~r<!' q"l'f.!" "ld\'ij"l' JI.>.<f "i" :<: 0)' :<. Jewels originates from ocean. ~ 11.~'<f ~c:.!:FI 10.' ~d\' <!'[lj.f.lijc:: q'[lj~' j:j..Sn..' :<.S~'<I' "I.Il'"" "If"'.>.l' ~'a.\'i~''2!''I~'[lj~'ii:j':r J.\'i~''2!''1~"[1j~'ii:j·:r <I':<'''1 Islam of religion tradition from Christain different is traditwll Christaill Islam is different from Christianity. sign faith said to spread ""Io.\''\"I().~'''l' <j" <1" . reception doctrine Sc:.\'LJ' ~"'<I' ~c:.·q~f ""Ir.~ monk's robe stanza to cherish .'fii"l'~ 7.' q"r. ['1' J.l' 'I' ~c:.li.l['1~' "i' :<..!. stab sq'LJ' sq'<I' "Iq'<I' "I q'<!' 'j~'<I' 'j~'LJ' to pervade to hide ill. ~c:.>. pitch. learned wall realisation doubt religious sects signal.f.LJU '1-<-' ..>. Christianity.'r.'q' ~.!""l"i"ij"l" land other a to went from benefit not having back return did Because of not having benefitted from going overseas they returned back.~..l~'''<!r. 9.· ~F~q'~J.

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>..etc. '...\.§j'r.I·S·"I~~· E:..through competing .>. '\.many .S".archery .\"·"·?·clr~·~<l·~<l~·S'\·~·r.was named.'ili·r.fourth .\r::.wondorous omens -many .jumping .·~·.womb .iC""""·~W~"I·l. wiJl living in Lhasa and rich being tall and kind taU being young and strong being Losar and your birthday 2.. §.l-<.>.Shakya Dandapani's princess..>.birth .·1 "l' 1 l)·r. Q-<"C1lili "J'Sr::. .~·~"l·kUlr::.>.Devadatta etc.in short .many written scripts .\·Cll·r.woman's qualities .completed ..ili'~.""'" . ~ . -<'''l·. ~"Cll"~"I.time. he royal kingdom.1) (5 Shuddhodana's . r.prince Siddhartha .arts .from Lumbini garden .knowledge .wherever to .~'~<l'.\·~1 6~ ~.became learned.by father prince Siddhartha .' J1·"~'-<'~·~"I·"IUl"l·~r::. Deeds .study .by hand -held .astrology .\'.' Q')C .>l·5·r..§j·r.\-<""<l.become deeds . As As As As this cott0J. Deeds .I~f ~'~C1l' ~.>.. .deeds of .\-<'·-'l"l·r.molher .· man that by cloth waving earth Oil drawing is all While waving a piece of clOlh.l~.E:ili'. received as his queens.>.·1 6~~'f'l'l..five hundred together .in all .city Kapilvastu .five fields .>l~r"lil\"l·Cll· "lic..Qiliil) .. ·"I~"rr::.\"Ir.l-<'·§'\·~1 ~~.I"'l.etc.will becomepredicted.to .\"1' Qj 3.eight petalled .Mayadevi .>.Mahadevi's. Y.l-<."l' <lo~· 1. ".twelve of ..>.l..~r::.·.>l.twelve of .E:il)·.\······?·C1l·~·~"l·~"l~·S"·~'r.>. mother right twelve of .l~' r.\'.·~·..as to the: thereupon ..>.\'l.r..righl side .<l·.l·S·"I~~· <>i. .l..\·"l·r.entered.>.\"Ir.who possessed .philosophy . I will not wear it just yet.was born .if stayed at home.' "l"ili·r. fir::.sky to .l shirt is cheap and heavy cott0I.>..~' <l~il)'r.as soon as she set looked .omens (signs) .as to the: mother .. E:.~.>l·.ll"~.>.will become enlightened .as to the: Shakya -youth .>. "Ja:.·"l~· '\'~'§ili'~'J1ili'~1 '\'~'§il)'~'Jlil\'~1 silk this fine and light therefore now wear not will As this silk is fine and light."I"l<l'~r::.Qiliili..thus . (b) Repeat the following sentences by filling in the .·1 ~'''J' "lo~' ~I ·"I~"J·r::.attendants.:.·1 ~. that man is drawing on the ground.\·t.\'~1 4.i:l·§j"l~·q········1 ~·"·~·t1r::.queen .flowers lotus .\.5"1 3.>.l-<" z.and .having won .\"1 ~·"·~·t1r::.~·§. "I~-<.'<l~' ..tutors ..enjoyment .>.>.four direction to .>lE(C ~·l.\·r.?.blossomed . .queen .having sel forth . we father and son will offer you this.from .each touched .seven .fifth ..\r::.>.knowledge fileds numerous .king . q:~i:l' "la:.seven . 11.. <l-<"Cllil) ·i'J.lP: ~ili' q' "J"I-<"~r::. cloth.I~f ~'~Cll' ~'\I ~il)' "l"l-<"~r::. Deeds entered.il)·~.lf'l~"""" ·fl..'~r::.>.l'JC.who were expert .\·~I 4.S".~.·1 I _ I ~ - - ". "l' Sr::.>l. ~·§. -<'~'~"I.third .\.from .and also Yashodahara .. Brahmins .many .1 this shoes is beautiful and expensive those hats are old and cheap that shop's gloves are thick and light ~·[1J·~'gj·r.·1 <l'1.~·Q~ili·r.tree.k'''lr::.sportsmanship .if ordained named.medicine .?.. .>.'\"I·Qj ~"Cll":<: gj.SCll·a:j1 1.swimming and .. Jl'''~.universal monarch .stpes seven .learned .Gopi . q:~i:i.\r::.together .SC1l·a:i1 we father son two mind happy and faithful this you to offer While being happy and faithful (to you)..many kinds respectively .>.i:i·§j"l~·q········1 ~~. ~~·"·3\"J~r"lili"JW"J..12 Exercises of Lesson Eleven (a) Fill the blanks with the correct continuative particles and participle terminations: L -<.Tibetan equivalents of the English words: <>i. '.skilled .~.r.\r::.furthermore -lingustics .a branch . 3\.\I Y.sportsmanship .\·t.' <l"il)·r.

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.. ~ .... :j Those with knowledge are fond ofknowledge of knowledge But it is not so for those without knowledge.. w f~'I..: ..J~! lJ:(S'~~'Ilj'~~W'7Ilj !iffS' ~~ '''1'~~'Cll''7''1 ~ ~ -.. ~- 1 .. fQ~' ~'D-EA' J:..rtAlil)'')<3\'flll ~ ~ I.. -v" -v" _ -....\"ID-'U'..<3\ ~'':l]Ilj~'~' ...J' J:... e-. 't'\ "I . .j~' a~il) ~ ~ ~ Co\.i'.\ '~il)' q'U'.jil) '.J' qf.. 'c-.. knowledge.jct>Ilj' ~~ 'Ilj'~il) '(lj' I. c-. . C'\.-is' il) ~'':l]''I~'~' "\"1 ~ When one has to accomplish an important task One should diligently rely on good friends.~ 11. ~ b ..1il)1 .. 'D-c&Cll! I~il)' S'Iljl'\il) w~~'~ il) 'Ilj')~ 'I S'''It'\il) '(lj'~~'~ '''I')~ ~ ~ _.""- 0.j~' 2\ '~"I~'I.\' a.... -""' Ifi}~ 'l'\Ilj''.....J' cEil)' r:i'I.... eJ."'" C\. _ _ e-.. c-. }r§ ~r§ ~. C\....1 ..i' d..\IljD-'tAl'tAl".....jil) '1)il)' JJ. C'\..\' J.""'" .'7<3)'Jl.\Ilj ~I fi}r. Knaves seek the faults of others.J~I.j'U'..\IljD-'tAl'4' Q~'"\'~'J.. Iil) Ilj~' ibfll'ct>il)' J:..3..J~"I~' il)1 /.).J'iJ<3\1 e-. friends.J~I......~il) 'D-c&flll I~'I..1 IS'I.: f>... _ ......jil) '')il) 'Cll! ltAlil)'')<3\ '~<3\' z:.jd>"I' '''I'~il) I..J'iJil) 1 ID-I. !S'I.. (But) the owl signals a bad omen on others...c-.J~I !~~' J.. . I~~'eJ.... When one is setting a large forest into fire It definitely needs the wind to associate with... The peacock examines its own body.!'tAl~' "i '~Ilj~'I.. ~:~~ The wise look for their own faults..!' Jl~'I.13 Extracts from the Elegant Sayings by Sakya Pandita I'~' !U'.J~Ilj~' <3\1 f<3\ "I~' ibCll' d>il)' q' J.J'~ il)'J:. Co\.J~~ ''l...J~~ 1.!'Iljl'\il).J"\' J:..\"ID-'U'... r\d f:'~ - ID-I.11' Q~' "\'~' '.).!' J1'~Ilj'flll !Q~' q' J1'~"I'Cll! t L ~..j~'I.J "\' q'U'..J'~ il)' q'''It'\il) .j~' a~il)!1 1. ...." ~ ~ ~.""'" c-. The honey bees show delights in the flowers But it is not so with the bluebottle flies...j ..!f.J' cE<3\' r:i'I..

\e: ~r qi'\''lf"i '\I'r:.us found three gold coins? 5. '\~'>1i"i·~'\I·~C.\'~'Uj"i1 ~.' 1..~ . 'lJc:r>J'lJZ\r~'"i1 3.\'~'Uj"il 5. c:. ~.-~ .Jr ~L:r ib"i'l. less ion.Jr ~ ~ .' i<J'4'\1' "i'Q~''lJ'flI' 4'\11 letter read even not know if write how !mow will kllow 1000W If he does not know how to read.- '- We have already seen the use of syllable "\ in locative and durational cases ofr>J'~"\' in an "i ofr>J'~"i' In earlier lession.'r>J'lf'lr~'"i1 '11' qi'\''lJ"i Z\l'r:.. '\I.q"i'Q?Q'"i'o..'fjZlr q'Ul"i'"i1 4.1 The Use of "\ to Emphasize a Special Point "i 1.-.'.?~'l.. 'lfc.3 The Use of"i in Interrogative Reasonings 12./ LESSON TWELVE <bO)' .?~' l."i'Z. ..- sky in cloud not have rain how fall If there is no clouds in the sky. "" 'r'lJ'flI'QQQI .2 The Use of "i to Express a Condition 'l'.. 1: . "I"ii<JW~"i' <1' J:j"i'"i'if. i<J~''':Ql!f"i1 i<J~"'Q~f"i1 2.:r."il ill ~i1 ..·~4'\1'"i'mQ'~"I·~'\I''lJ·nr4'\11 '\~'>1i"i'~Z\I'~d1'4Z\1'"i'mQ'~"I'~Z\I''lj'nr4Z\1I teacher by also not know if student by how know will How would the students know if the teacher does not know? docs I .QZ\I'5). . ~:~ ~i voice loud make ifthey hear able will if they If one speaks louder. . "I"ii<JW~"i' q' Ji"i'"i' '" q''lj'I1I'QQQI 2.. doubt. how docs he write? docs hc -:~~ ."i·q'~Q'"i·~c. ~'\''lJ~'\I'flI''lf~ "'~i<J'''I~JJ' ''II'" we two to gold coin three find ifwlzat like do rwo of .. they can hear it. Uj'~'iij'lJ'~c.k-".Q~'l"\1 i<J~"'-'"i1 i<J~"'"i1 In brief For example Because If I were to explain properly the actual situation .\·J.~ I to victory gain ifyou to present give will if you prize.\.!'lJ~-r"l'lJ' ij'fj'lr<rUj"i'"\1 12.'lj~Z\I'I'll''lJ~ "'-'~i<J'''I~JJ' ~"i'"i'~ ''Ii'''-' S"il 4. I ~~ 12.. Uj'~'iil'lj'~c:.~1.us What shall we do if two of.3 1.g<ll'~'8Q'~' :l'. grow.Q'\l'S'~1 Z\I.g<\j·~'8Q'~'~"i1 3.q"i'Q?Q'"i'o. ~ k..\<)'. Generally added to the end of the verbal phrase"\ is used to express though. ~'\' J.~ 2. phrase"i 12.W~flI'f'l'IjQ'"\'f!i"i'l1d"i''-J'~. it will grow.\<J"'-'"il '\<)"'"il 3.Qf"!'l"i1 .W~I1I'f'l'IjQ'"i'f!i"i'l1d"i'q'~.~. hypothesis and interrogation.!'lj~f"l'lj' Z. condition.J~'l:lj.q~' "lj. 4.' J' 4Z\1' "i'Q~''lj'I1I' 4Z\l1 2..\<J'i£.'~Q' "i'~c:... c.~1 seed sow iffruit grow will iffruit If one sows the seeds. how will it rain? 3. I will give you a present if I win the prize. reason. In this lesson we will see some of its other uses which expresses emphasis. although and other similar expressions in classical Tibetan.

163 3. 2.'i)1 China and TiJfet formerly friends are howe:er now enemy become did Ti1fet howe'"ver Although China and Tibet were formerly friends.:'J"l'aio. 0. r!".' o.' ~'"r ai'<I'~"fU1o.s "I~r q'''.i'\'B"I'ljQ'fll' S'~"1' ~e.l1r~'~' .' q"l'''1~''l'~o. ~'~e.' q.r:>.'5Jfll' o. in Making a Wish 12.s''\~rq'''.>. ~"I"l' i5<l)'lj"l"l' i5..>. 'Uie.'~' Jl''-'l''j"q'.!'nrIi"! 3.:. 'r:>.'~' "l' ~'I "I' you to secretary of work the obtain if what not all(Jw How wonderful if you could secure that secretary job? 3.!'r.\<:.'r:>.'~''1''l'q'U1o.' iIi'Q' ~"I"l' Jle. I 12.'J" Q'i!o.J) wfle.'0."1"1 L '1"1'r:>.'/ "I't1j'e.S-'. 4.'r:>. in Expressing Doubt 12. ~'i. ISff.'lj"l"l' Q'''F Q~' Qi'>.'~' "Iq~o. ~e.t1J'"\<:. to Express Contradiction 1.:F~'Jj'r.'U1"1'~'~"I't1J"l'~' 2.)"1 3.' >lil'~e.' iIi'~' sentient being all happiness and happiness' cause with endow what not allow endow.\"! Jl<:. . today he is very diligent.' o.."1"1 '~filr <I'~"j"U1o.'r.'~' Jl''-'l''fq'Jl'Q'ijo.\'t1j'<:.~' Jj'''Il1."l'Jj'Uj<:. 'I .>.. 'e.\'~"1' <I'i!.' Jj'lj"r 0.'lj"l"l' i5"Q~' Q"F Q~'Qi'\'~'.)"I 3.r..'o. there are many cows.r.'r.>.>. 0.'<:. ~"I'fll'~C:U1"1'~'~"1'fll"l'~' ijQ'o.'<1'~"1'o.' o.'~o.~'t)"l'::Je. What if all senteint beings possess happiness and the causes of happiness! 4.~'~' today sun good not shine ifI go will not if I I will not go today if it is not a nice day.'.' 12.kfle. ~ ~ - - - 12.' qe:: s~r"l'nr li"l load this horse by also not carry if donkey by how carry If the horse could not carry the load. '~' Q-'le."1' 'r~' patient the fever high a though water drink not is The patient has high fever but he does not drink water."I' Jj'Uie. 'ii)'nr' i5o.. shop this people other to rent away profit will or not will I wonder whether it will be profitable to lease this shop.l' ~'''li'\'liic::: ~o.::.'<:.'Uj<:.' .'~''I''rq'U1o. ~'fl' ~<:...' "i'Q' 2.1 4. 'r. ~'~<:. now they have become enemies. ~ ~ ~ student this yesterday lazy with a though today diligent is Although this student was lazy yesterday.'''i'~'Jl' ~FI ~"l"ri5O.>.'~"I'iii '~' ~'<li iii 'r.' olil'r.' o. r!"...~'t)"l'::J<:..O'J"l' aio.' ~"!' Q'i!.i'\'B"l'ljQ'nrS'~"I' ~<:.4 The Use of 0. ~"I"l'i5o.>."\' LJ'~' a..>..' 5jl1f sentient being all suffering and suffering's cause and separate ifwhat not allow if what What if all sentient beings become separated from suffering and the causeS of sufferings.~' Jj'''Il1<l)wfl<:.' o.6 The use oro.'qe::S"l'.'IlrQ')I::. . '1. ..' Q' ai'<I'~"I'o. .'Q't1J'lfl<:. Q5l<:. ~fo.)e.6 I.'e.)e. m'lr' - - - - j.>.>.\W~<:.~'~' ~0.\<:.' q..' ~"I' Q'i!.S".'''I''1r:>.'q"\'''I~''l'~o.nr.J) 'lj"l"l' i5."1' "Ie.'q.5 1.' ."\"1 "i "i' :>.' Q'fll'ijK 'I this year my wife to son a become happy how How happy would we be if my wife gives birth to a son this year? ~..'''\''Ir. 'Ill' Q')e.' 0."I'.5 The use of 0.'~' ar :3q ~"l"f i5.kfl<:.<6j''I"0.'~'Jj'r:>. how could the donkey carry it? 4.fll'~'~' "\<:.' r:>.\'~"I'<I'i!.l' ~'''li'\'Ric::: Africa's continent famine great a though cow many have Africa'S Although Africa is a famine striken continent.'i)1 ~f 0.

2.8 ~'The Emph atic Expre ssion ~.'1~'~' .I'~"I' q~""". (.q''l'~' ~ glorious Sakya's genealogy regarding Regarding the royal genealogy of Sakya. "l''11'~''l' ":r~.~'L.. (. J by post by on mothe r to presen t a send ifreach will or not will if reach I wonder whether my present will reach my mother if I sen! it by pas!.\' iii ''?iIi'Uie: e:.' 'Y9' Qr ~r.::. q~. 1.r'5:.J'r. what is need to say about human beings.\e:. as for this.(ij"l '.10"+ .'1~iIi'L.(~' d)~' .\·'1~d)·L. it is very far from here..<i·~1 ~.J. sent post.J'~'4.'1::1 Melbourne regarding this from very distance far is Asfor Melbourne.'~'. . you are more diligent than others. concerning this.i 'U~ 6.j"~"I' <:J~""". i}:. ~''l!'~~ .\'<ije:.l)'Uic:.a..·~·Uir::.· 'q~.l)'<j'''FI j'. .l)'(.(~' .j(lj'~ l'&'L.'. c.j rq~'~1 ~"I''1'i!. e:.'~"l'fii' [11' ~r.. the truth of the origin (of sufferi ng). 4.l)"l'.l)'~' friend by said as to. not.ilfJj'''ic:.' c:..."" 12.'<Jic:. ~~. '''f~r'I''rr ..j·.(lj·<:J~d)·L.I. ~. others.lO"f 2.l)'(. i 12.' '5"9' ~. ik~"l'r:::[1r"l..~r. ~r. comes at the beginning of a sentence after the word it is emphasizing.~' Il"l' :<'r :.I.. ~"I"l'Zi"l'''I~c:. t.J~1 truth four as 10 suffering truth and origin truth and cessation truth andpa to and path truth are th The four truths are: the tmtho f suffering. I J as to come will I will certainly come. the truth of cessation and the truth of the path.'(lr"ld)e:. :.3.1:r "ie:. 3.L. '~. '''f~r'I'' ii'''I'nf'l 'f a. ".(9"1·L.ii""I'nf'l'fa.-" '\' ''.J[1j''''&'L.~!S 2. r.~. QI"l' q~r.(9"1'L..7 The use of.:~'Uic:. e:.jj(lj'~d) ~'(.jf 1.j·§·'1~iIi·L.'. h equivalents which has certainly etc.l)'c:. why would I not accept it? '. i:\''1~.ilfJj'<iie:. here.(~..~c:./ V·c_O: he by J to give ifI by why not accep t I if J If he gives it to me.1 ~.\I you by he to talk a discuss iflisten will or will not know will if listen If you talk to him you will know whether he will listen to you or no!.j·.~j~~.j' r1r<:J( iii 'r.jj[1j' ~. . It usually etc.\c:.j'.'d)·e:.l)''i'q~.jf. 'I 2.'. c:.'1 1d)·p~c:.. .\':!i(lj'"".\' d)'J.a.'E:."l'Il"l':<'c::. path.c:.j'§'q~ili'L.l)"(. .l)''~'(. (lja. ik~~'e:.. .' 4.l) to Expre ss Certainty of iii Expre ss Certa 1.j~''l!'~'~~1 god by pay homag e ifhuman by what need say if human If the deities pay homage.i>:. .'e:.~~ L <:J~d)·L.'.[1j'q~.j~1 [1ja.j'J:i'ciic:.J'r..·.I.'c:. The .c:. ~"I''14r.".' .'. .I.Cj.-' 5.'~'''Il'\.' <:J-.~'\· ~'''If<\iIi '(lj'll' '18iIi'('( ~~ .j'[1rq t..l) '.Ji:\':li[1j'"".l)'r.l)'L.l)c:. you as for other than diligent great is As for you. very true is What my friend has said is extremely true.·<:J~·~1 ~"I"'1'i!. 3.j'~'4<l)·'i·'1~d)'~' ~"I'll·Zi'll·"I~r: "l' L.l)'J:i"l''lr~'~''l1 2I"r<:J~.l)'L.\'~"rf ii' (lj" ~'\' J.'~'.\L.- :kk Ii This particle is used in several expressions which have several Englis the meaning something like with regard to. ili 'r. true.\r::..' J.l)'P.(~r.?.l)'[1j"l''18.

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""If ~.Nairajana .\.mind..J~' :.however .I~' "\ ~'~C11' Sr:<'(cjq~'r:<::F'·".E<..cemetery at .'fCjq~'r:<::F ".5.. .\'''I''i~' "I' ~..just like him . I 12..r . '"'''i''l' .>J' ~ ..Nirvana .of . south. "It'\~' "It'\~' 2.of .old-age .<j.)1 6..mind . '~~ ''1j'2jr::.went to . F~'q' F~'<r 9.human beings .'a:i' ~"I'q' "l~'a:i' ~~'Ji' f~'q' fc:~r ~ J.. ~q~f".g'~'~"I~'<l\~'Ui~'<l'~"1 "r"1'~' g'~'~"I~'''i''l'Ui~'<I'~.bank of . 'C:'r:<E:".J·'i!. .'<:j' ~<l\'<:j' 1.' q' 7.mind ...>Jr:>.J~' ~'~C11' SD. -. qC<1'l9 'Qj'2jr::.>J~ .\'~. .<:j.j~·9~(·"'r::.direction four of .'-. 'l:1~'E' 'l:F'E' Uj~'q 5jj<ro.i'i. Candaka "sohe Deed .S q~l''''1 J\ a:.gate reached when .\I 3. jii~ '''I~~' <I~"i' ~"f~"i' . '\''Ii' ~.stupa .>J"I' Q' ~.!<l\·P'''l'sr...J' ~q~f'" ~'Uiq' .'<:j' "l~""'Q' .double up the effort finally . ~c:§".-- J\a:. :i"l'Zj' - ma. ~. g'q.L<l\'<:j'.'a:.p.attendant .royal rule . JJ~". ~~ ~'S"l' <l. ~'JJ' ~ ~"I·m·<:j· ~~'m'<:j' ~"i..meditation into .even if .L"i'<:j.in front of .'(cjq ~'r:<:Jr::.and others .'..' q7r::..'q' P..\'''1~''\~'~'\'''f~''i' ~.'q'I:!j(cj".\"r<li"i' 8. 3.meditation -learnt ..renouncing .5JJ'I1ia.'<:j' "I~".~~·§"· ~'q~' ~f"1~' ~'''l~JJ' ~'''I~. remained.. S q~l' "'I _ ""- C'>. '2:'r:<E:".q 2.from seeing ..peak of the universe dissatisfied upto .were sent back .taking with him .g'q"\'~"\'~~~'a.will not result left.g"'<l~'''~'~'''''I"~<l\'.sixth .' a:.Brahmins .suffering of .· q~' q7r::.?'.: a:. '\"I".)'q' r..~~'~~' "l~' ai' "'~'a:i' -'l "I~".~~·~~· 4.suppressed .>J' 6.reaching .dissatiSfied .r t:p.<j'P'''''I ~ ~ ~ 3..horse Kanthaka riding .one seeing ..heretic . jii~'''l~~' q~<l\' ~"I"~"i' JJ"'" JJE< ~'p.twelve .by this .juniper -.and the Shakyas ..attendant remained. c:-..>J.<:j.than those .<:j.endowed with . ~<l\'<:j' . At that time .· q'QjfCj"..prince .>J' <:j..'(1j" d-l.asceticism .east.suffering by .rice grain .' Ji.I''i!.>JE< nm ~.g. Semi-literal Translation Semi -literal Deed .L<l\. sentences. ~c.devoid of knowing .p'~"l 4.g.I~' ::l"':mZ<j' or::.sad become . qC<19'Iij 9~!lr9·r:<ct· L:r q~".11 (a) Make short sentences by selecting appropriate adjectives from the list on the right and use with the noun on the left.Bhikshu .left.11 Exercises of Lesson Twelve 12. ~~ 'm"1' ~"I.speech cut .of .'\"I'Oj. "p:r~.· 9.become monk .>J.palace from outside . 4:2' a.~'~'JJ'~"I'tij<l\1 /' . thinking thus .<l\' 5jj<rJ.>J".ornaments .father Shuddhodana .:.deed as to the: thereupon . Jl"l'S' 4.Kapilvastu .city .'q' m"i· q · '!j<l'<:j. -.: Q . "ilr'li<l\' 7. _sent Shuddhodana ... . "1.Samyak .'p'''\'Sl'''jJJ'q' ~""'&' <i'l!JJ"l' 'l' ~'il 5.''l' .>J·~"I'tij"il ~.:Jr::.from them .. <)'' "JJ"..most of them .\'~~~' "i~'~' .sent .\.five men .?".intending .E<JJ'<:j' o. west and north . r:>..\1 2.self nature .'Z<jUiI:!j''i!.c:::<:j' ""I".not given .>J?~rZj· JJ?'lrZj' .' 4:.<l'p''\"1 2. death of .having come horse-.q· ~"'&' <I'Ii.at that place .Candaka .cycle of existence .o:.~..attendant .:..'-.·fCjq~·D...becoming monk .. <Ii"i'p' ~"r .''l' "I~""'<.river .·Uiq· . ~ ~ ~ "" .to Olndaka .twelve .>J·Ili"i·p.p'~"l 5.upto . a:.to permission .immediately .set out . ~"'''I<l\~' "1' ~"I 4.one sustained .dispatched back .· /' e:-.seventh ..peaCe subdued .j~'9~(''''r::.mind rely .'q' ~<r<:j' ~"r<:j· 3.l"':mQj' or::. '9'~' q' q~l'~''''1r:<' q' l~l·~·~r::."i' 6.having seen . 1.six years .. Then . ~~'mq'~"I·p.·QjUiQj·'i!.entered into.>vv 9~9'9'r:<et' q'l~l'~'~r::.'(1j' d-!'?d-!'l:P.~·' g. J..became monk "SO he did. '7 .servant five hundred .. '!j<rZj· - I (b) Transform the following into interrogative sentences.prince's .\JJP"q'.northern gate .sickness.father into.asceticism practice as to: thereupon .'q' 0.t"l'Zj.sesame seed . ".mindful b=me .teacher -Lhakcho and Ringphur .'<:j' ~"i...q.meditation realised .six years .

.. --."lW'l~-"....~'...l.' '\'\..\1 lS<>I'"i"l·"!4"1"l··· ·."II1<liWUi'\·!.. I"i qc.' q'"l' '=>::'~'.... e_'" .~ r·~ (d) Make short sentences by giving the Tibetan for: 1.J (c) Give the opposite of: 1."i'!1l"l"l'~' 'l' :<' 1 9...=>::. lS<>I'<li"I·"I4"1"1 ..]z.12 Conversation/'between Prince Siddhartha and his charioteer Conversation/between Ifl'll. .' q' "l' ...>. 'I'Fl Ifl·n.?"l~r~C.. " .I'l"l·~·Uj<li1 c.~~' '2i1 lD..\1 g'B.J'" 4"11 -".. f~·g·'~fUja.'\. Who is this man who is uncomfortably wobbling on a walking stick? II)ftlj-o..:z:."II1<li·rlj· r..<li'C1l"l"l'~' 'l':<'..l~! ~ .\'(l1" ')"1"1' <li"rUi~ 'li'\'l~ '!'-..:~ !Ii ?-5·f 2.r 'l'jc:'li'\''ll:-<li'!..=>::.?a:.J':<''\1 r.~·"I~"l·fie::·~"l· 'l'jc: 'li'\''l".~.>...['lj'~' a...\l'D..fl. on Friday the 19th of 8th lunar month 3.<>I' '\"1' :I"ll g.·~· "l~'!....·~~·'j·~·~·Ui'\1 fie::·g·~·Uja..S'\1 -".' q' q t)O)' "I:. o charioteer! This man who is frail..:'l' ~~'~~' O)O)! 1\15''''1-0.:'l' 0)' .... r.-) "-..~·"I~"I·f~·~'. on the right side of his shoulder 10... ~'l'''I~''I'9''1'<li'''I~'~<li'Ui~'~'Uj<li1 c'.\1 5.j' q~. .J"i ij"l'<>1£:<'\1 rc'.!~"l'~'~' ~'a. -- ..'q'qt']ili' "C. weak and whose thin flesh.. Blood and bone are wrapped up by his miserable skin Has an extremley slim body without teeth but with some grey hairs.fl-". "la>a..I~1 ~ ql:..' "l' q"i'D...)"1"1' "i"rUie:: 'li'\'a..c:~rr....·. ~........ "i''-1' :<'..j· q~..a..:z:.··"!11"i·['lj· 14<li·'il"!' <>It< .r.... "- - ~ -.\'(l1" .j'~~' iliili! " " .\1 e::'a.\"1' 9"11 3. 1:!GJ' q~~' ~q~'... f~ ..jl f"ltljSfJ.\i<:l~' !. in the early of this Saturday 7... -".la.'\\1 fie:: "la. "l'I'J..''!1l' ~'~"I' $"1" J..l.~'ijj' qz..167 7. on the 9th of March 2.\'~' ~"I"l' :<. .....I~· 4t:...S..~.j' q. . at the meeting in the school 6. f~'l'~.'~r~· ~·['lj·r.Cll..:z:. 'r.I~' 41:..g.--..:z:.r."" .. ..]z.e:: 1' :<'.>.. C1l' "la..gj·"r 1 e:: "l'liI~'['lj"!"r~'!l'''I~e:: "l' q'''l''!'lj.'.?a:..>. 14' J:'B'\'~' 'l' ~"I"I'~'\'!. ~~'liI~'rlj"l~'~~'''I~~ "I' q'''l''l'q' 'j'~'~~'1 -~...r.'\\1 5..J~I 4.. on the 15th'Of 4th lunar month 9.' iJ.['lj' <>Ie::·lj·t:\'\"!·"!"ll ~ ~rfi ~rfl 7'""71 ~71 5..gj·"r :<'... i\!<>I"I'g"lW'l~"'1 IiI' <>1-".\i<:l~' '-1"'-'1.~·C1l·r. '«Fl f"ll:ljSTJ'=>::"~' "l~'l..'" '-.=>::.·'li1:!tlj.. in April in 1987 4. i\i<>l"l'g. IiI'<>I '\'\.. with his uncle and nephew (e) Fill in with the correct continuative particles and translate: 1.... _- ..~'ilj' qZ'l' ~Il. "'-rll'~' :-J"IW 'l~<>I"f"" Jj·>1j~·ffl.......·e::~r'j'~·~·Ui.. c..>.e::w~'\""""!I1"iwUi..?"l~r ~I:.J"·.~ w ~'\ ..'''I~''I'~'~' ~·l.>.\1 8.g "i' ~q~'..l' q~'I'J.... in his house with my aunty 8. ~. " .~.!'~'Uj"i1 ~ 2.~. 'l~<>I~'''' Jj·>lje::·ffl'c:~rr.J':<''\1 fie::'l'~.b..'''I~''I'9''l'"i'''le::'~"i'Uie::'~'Uj"i1 10. '-1"l1 3.:'l' ili' ...E! -".E!'=>::"r.C1l'~' a>C1l·<>I~·q·t:\'\"I·"I~1 e::' g...~~''2i1 ..... on the 6th of January 5....q'l1j"l~·ll.1 4.\·'-1"·4"l1 12.·~"!'!l· ij"l'<:1"1<>1'a.<>I' ..?a.?iJ.~ ~-".'r. 'j'~'~e::'1 6... !'9'~'l]'l1j"lW ~~'!2lGJ~'~' ~~' ~~~I 1--9'~Qr~"lW ~~'!2ltlj~'~' ~~'~~~I Il'J.. q~Il. g"f ~ ~"I~ . " .L:r~"l~'~f .·il"l· <:I'!l<>l' a.

relatives and all the friends Are not free from old-age as there are no ways to escape this.' ~.:l.'. " - ~ ~ -..tlj.'::1' " c.Ilj~' a:J'U-..1~fr:l.:l:.. e-.' "" ~~' 4'lj' 'I '" .'me:.:> -.':2·r:l..J'~' q~fq%"'l''9~' "l"l"i' "ll'~-".c....' "'S9~' -"._ .'tlj'tlj-<5"i't')Ilj' 1)'.'.... if this Tell me in such words which expresses the truth as it is in its reality Having heard i~ [ shall properly contemplate on its meanings. .....'Cll' qq~' "J'~' q~' '!!!~' q'~' -..1 I->. 19r"lQ""l'a:J'r:l...:.:l...'Uj~' a.z:.. <:> ..t:.w QE'a:J~1 ~ ~ 1§""~C'lq' "'C... -"" """'-v' __ '9IlJ c..\ IT!r:l. -:-.liI) '~[1j'QR..'lT!iI) '(lj'Ui~ '(:lS~Z::.c.!' ~..... -- -.. 10 I' " . .' Clla>~' .. ''l/''l/Q"''i' 5'l/' _ C'. v '" -.../ " " "" 7'''\ 'T)(:l. Who is this man who i~ sitting on the foul place amidst his urine and excrement? 1"i...I -.1 I-"./il) '~Cll'Qfl.::.' Z::.' q-..'l.?a:J' £1Ilj'!!! -".. ___ ___ C'.. ~land " ....e-.. . nor (a safe) island nor any saviour. things.'~'(:l..~' a:J'Clltlj~! IIl5'Q Z::. "'I I£tlj'Q ~'C'l~ 'z::. .. " " c ..I 'lj~'~l"9(" '')1-''. -:-......J~' '9c:.......tlj~' q'... . ~ "JQ' £1q~' "i 'tlj~"i'a:J' a:Ja.. ~r Clltlj ~I ~ ~ o Prince! This man is in an intense pain from disease And due to the fear ofdisease that has raged him he is about to die.S9~' "'~F ->. " " _ '" 1 "" a:J""tlj~' q~ "'.. . 'I 1§""~Uiq' "'C.)Ilj'g' q~iI)' ~ -". .." -...~r[1jtlj~! Ilj'?"i'a:J' J. _ _ fl"i' Q'3ll' "l' Il"i' Q'3ll'"l' "'~' "i "l~'~l"9("''')1->..:> -. " ....' Z::.''i'[1j1 '" qt:..~1 LJQ' £1q~' '''l~''i' a:Ja. "'-. " IflW q~.'...':!:l "'~ q"'l"ll fr:<~'. -.I I'l/'?"i ':.. ...cmZ::.'1]~'~'C'lil)' 6)"l'Qil)'l)' !QZ::. he has been abandoned JUS! as trees in the forest...'~~' '9IlJ 1D-~'.' Clla>~' ....r~~'~' a:J"'''l'c:.. of disease Even without disease.'Uj~' -".. ~ "" "J(:l..'' Iil\"" a:J"""l~' "" a:J' "la> "i ~c:..:.Z::...' .... <:'.- "- -"." ..tljil\ ~' "i'(:l....)'~' q~fq%"'l''9~' "ltll"i' "ll'~->.' " c..-' -. just forest. I meanings."\ e:..E..~'QZ::.. q~il)' ~ ->. c-......... ..:8e:. . nor refuge..c:.!a.:~a:J· "'C:~S"l~"i' gIlj~'~t:. tlja:J'nj' .' ~~'4"l' "'~ '[ I£'1]'Q ~·Ui~ '... ".."'.:~a:J' "'C:~Stlj~6)' g'1]~'~c:..?'q.. . Z::. .:l:..... a:J"lj ""c ..?cr..' ~r[1jIlj~1 I~f q'2/"i '~~' '" ->.tlj~' a.l lUi"i '[1j"l'lT!"i' q*a:J~'...... . " '" 1~'Cll~' cr.?cr..'~~' I"" I '" ~ -.!a. mi~erable abdomel!.... " ..'q'J.. '.:l.?a:J~1 1 il\ ''" c:. '" t:. "' " ". "" ..cmZ::.! ~ o prince! This man is tormented by the suffering ofold-age of old-age Suffering from the deterioration of his senses..:> -...e:.:> ""~~.. ql) q' LJ' .'1]~'~'Uiil)' "i"l'QiI)'1)' "" ......... c..j' £1a:J~' Q'''''.....I.' o Lord! This is neither due to caste nor due to regional factors All the people are destroyed by old-age in the prime oftheir youth..I'£1->. are" He is indeed mi~erable as his frail limbs are shakened by his abdomell.... - " . - -"". fQZ::..''~q~' z::.. 'Iljil\ "i 'r:l.E.1~f(:l.' .~1 ..... Unable to do things.... Ilj~' "J'.¥' "'~'l/~' '9t:.1' Q"""..:l:.' ~ I qr:l.. ..?a:J~1 1a:J"lJil\'". "" . I~~'"i~'~' q~il) "i 1I11'Q~'~'~(lj'q~il)' ~~' "i~'~' q~iI) 1(lj'Q~'~' ~rlr q~iI)' 'i:\ Is this condition caused by his caste or why did this happen? Tell me ifthis happens to all sentient beings..'r.' Q~' l~'[1j~' cr..'lIlil) '(lrC'l~ '(:lS~Z::..z:.'Z::..'.loa IDo ? ItlI'?"i ':.:l:.! lC'lO)'Clltlj'lIl"i' q*a:J~'...r ~c."la:J·[1r £1Ilj £1tlj 19rtljQ'Ilj'a:J'(:l..... c. there are the collapses of glory and power There is neither protector. " " .. ..cc .- " ~ ~ ~ ~ - tlj'?"i' a:J' J.?' q.' J\ a:J' "J->....\Ilj' r:l... .C'.?a:J' £1tlj'~ ->. "" "co.. '" :8 e:... "'.c:..¥' q~' "'~tlj~' '9c:.. "" IIJ5'QZ::. .:l.." ..'9"i'7' "i ""~~' ql)q'"J' ~I l"i r... '9"i -..\llj' (:l. "'" '" c.'q->. . ")' 1 '" ~ ~ ~ o Charioteer! With a rpugh andpoor physical complexion and poor This man's senses are' all impaired and he is having great difficulty to breath..' LJ-"..' a.. of their Even your own parents.. 'me:.' ->...J' £1-"...q' IRW q~.c....'...~' a:J'U-." . his effort and power has collapsed Overlooked by relatives. ... ~ q ~.. .a:J' Jla> "'l'~q".g..::r~~'~' a:J"'tlj'c'''i'CllI '"qc:. he has nobody to protect him.. ...I~' '9c" Z::.

f'-:l?! ~ '~ '--..{j 1"\ . ':.\'~' 4d>j' 7' JJ' -Q-"l . .\'E:'~' S~l JJ~2:.' S~I Q~...J:'1 Q~. :-.. '" C'o..E:.. <=".-..{'l.. @~r:::1' JJ~J:.J~' !~w"I1j(..J:'I ~ !~w "-\'1]('<' ~c.1.-.{'l:... c....\'.Jl ~ c.{1 1<>1"\' ii'\' r~'CAjc''Jj'D...JQ·Q5·4"'1·-Q~"·l:..\c.. ..J' Q.J1 13) "':9' 0.'-t.' JJ~c' J:.' .\e::. C'o.9' QE:.·~9'l:.g:'r a:SQ~' JJ~e::...\c..' Jj 'D.. c-......\·~· 4di'1)'JJ'-Q-"l'\'l:.J~· -. 2:. --. e-.l:lJ2:...jJJ' di'~'~' ."'-t.r. l:lj "'I' . -.JQ'Q 5' 42:..jJJ' d>j' ~' ~'.{' -Q~"-\'l. Not having a disease is just as (seeing oneself) playing in dreams This fear ofdisease is indeed very ferocious! of disease If wise people saw this state of woe How could they find etijoymem from the fondness ofplaying? enjoyment ofplaying? .' ~9' l.{'l:.z:ro.' JJ ~ e::.g:'r a:So'~' JJ~c.169 1a:1"\' ii "\' r-j'CAje::...\'l.

thus the formation of these verbal expressions <r t4..lle .I(r ~z:.::.' I' (ijI:r <til)' G:if9~J.."f signify can...::...~..§M 0'. schedI. able. I 'j LESSON THIRTEEN . I.Ilq'ii.' i'''I'r.: -. '::'"9~ "I'll" Q' q~' Q'U!"':i2\I'g.Iq'q' ~2\r q' or t4"'q' to the present or past root of the verb.2\I'rli' Q~" "C'.l£<~q." o'('ik a.C'..>J"~'r~""l"l" q'.'Q'~' .>J" J.":s2\I"g.>J" ~"-"I today busy great is therefore they house clean do able not did Due to the busy sChedI.'.. In the spoken language it can be followed by any of the auxiliaries we have discussed but in classical Tibetan they can end a sentence by using the completive particles as we studied in lesson nine.. "':'~"'" c:.'II" ~"l"""I~"l"~""i"-'l'''l"IJ.c:.IlQ 7.~'~<r~'U!"1 I by year four and month six in U-chen properly write able was I was able to write the U-Chen script well since four and half years ago.2\I"'II""I~"-'-:~. bricks" ".>.." "".\." ~'.~' o. proper! y ~ ~ 8.. :'j"d'a. halfyears 2.'q'U!"I'o"C'.>l'~'~·"l"l' q" J-llj".Ilq'SC'.' q"Ui.'""' '~2\l'~"I'\1' q'S2\I'"\'f2\l' <)'~'''1~"\':.i'\I'"1"1'\1' ~2\1'"\' '\I'"4"1'"Q.J· ql ct"i' G:if9~J.1 Abilitative Forms Tibetan forms abilitative verb forms by adding :]"r or ~"r or t4". could and daring.~ili"~q" Brahmins hour one within rites chant able are The Brahmins can perform the rites in one hour. 6" ~'''I'<1J"\'q'~' 'II' -9"1'11' ~2\I'"i" 'II" '4"1' "q."I~"I'~' il)C'. Brahinins / .2\l' ~'l".~·~<r~"Ui"1 L ..>1' J.'<. forms" 13.>.. "~"IJ. ~.. !1j"l' a. '\I'r.~.' '-I""I""~"" !J"\"~q". '8q'~' "-"II 3" c:.J· ~ 13.' ffi" ~"I""i "S"""\'''l''l' Q"IJ.2\I'f'lC'.-: 1 body well have when cubit three about jump able am I can jump about three cubits when I am in good health.~di'8q' iii 8" :.·ika.>I' ~C'.:.Iq'5)' "-"I §.JJ-l"~' a. "iil ~ .::.r"l'§M 0'..lle they were unable 'to clean the house today. deep.>J'II" Q'U!'" 0'1. 2\I"rll' q~' . 'Qnr(j'io.~.2\I''\I'''I~C'. 'II"IJ.!""I.Ilq":1"-"1 ~ ~ I' tool varieties available therefore we by earth depth long dig able were Since there w~re many kinds of tools we were able to dig the ground deep..r :.". " : 6.Ilq'~' "-"I . him" 5..:c:.. ~"~".~" "-"\1 -..2 Examples of the Abilitative Forms c:.2\I"!'l"-" q'''I'''~''' 9"'8(j'. 3. Various continuative and gerundial terminations in lesson eleven can be affixed to the abilitative forms."~2\1" ~"I'II" Q" S2\l""i "f2\l" <)"~'''I~"i':]Q"5j" your by help did ifhe by horse the ride able will if he He will be able to ride the horse if you were to help him..>IljC'.·I OJ''l" '~'IJ.Ilq"~" children older those by strength did ifearth block carry able will if earth If the older boys worked hard (we) could move the bricks. ~'''I'<1J"i' '-I"~' .'9~ "1'\1'Q' Q~" q"Ui... ."-" ffi' <r ~"I'"\ 2\1' "S'iI"i""l"l" Q'IJ.~1""Iili.' Q'~" . §.. I by this from sky boat the properly see able am I can proper!y see the aircraft from here" here. of the infinitive :]"r<r or ~'\r :.liC'."Qnr q"io. The following examples are according to the abilitative forms in the spoken language.' a.>I'\I' Q"Ui.." o'l. 4.:'::'" a.~' "'~1·"Idi.

~·Q"l· .. t~· and .\~~r'l!r ~'llf"i' ~"i'l:f S"l'"i"l'-Q'jc'<>1'74.>.... 16.·i)'1 sponso r's kindness repay able being people all happy become did Being able to repay the kindness of the sponsor eyeryo ne becam e everyo happy.·i)"1 ..j·'S·8'1·jJ·~'1W'!i"l·~·~""·Q~·".'j"i' 1"lr.00 o'cloc k.. ~ ~ ~: 12.\j...'j"i''"i"l().~'a..!1c:.r. ·..t::r:.\'q' are used to express obligation or duty. ~Q 'Q"I"r ~"l' q~"I·q·Uj"i1 C.....>.· q~'~""~ "l'''.rsc:.j'OJ"I ~ "'. ~ "} F'} 11...~' ~"i' "'J' 74.q'S"i'q . 'Q"I'1' ~~.\' . -\j<r qf c:..r'!i~·~·fil"'·"iC ''S' r1J''l'9 ~:r~'a:J.: '''f~''''<li' i"i'. <:::.~' a:J' C4". ~·iJj'9·.. ought to.q4"iwj' "i~' q' :t....~..1 '·a:J~a:J·'S·8"i·jJ·~"iw'!i~·~·~"'·Q~·". to give 2.. ::<.jJ. .>.J). jJ.' g~·q.q'(). 3. . r:.\1 c..''l'~''~' jJ. :t.>.~':1~ 13..3 Expre ssions of Oblig atory Form s advice and to express necessity...... - ~ 10.' g.... it remained there.·-Q·§"i·" i9~·~·cii"ii today I by letter this written finish do have to there is I have to finish this letter today. .1 .' g"l·q'\~~r"@·~'Jlf'1' S~· "i~·.\j-Q"l'. what "i9~'q' .f swqrd to touch dareh e who not become therefore there remain did sword Since nobod y dareq to touch the sword. ...q'{lJl:. -\l<r. ~:r~' a:J. ."i.j~.r..·."I'S-Q'r. which are equivalent to have. ~ ~ .·~·r.. and need to in Englis h. '''iilf~'~' cii''il we tomorrow morni ng early wake have to there is Tomo rrow we have to get up early in the morning. j"i1 I by mothe r to ring this show not daring this ofund er hide did of under Not daring to show this ring to my mother I hide it under this.....'S"i §.·"I~"r "l"i"r Jjc''''''i :..r:."...q·§"i·"i9"r~·cii"ii ~.~.171 9. .-'":1 -. ff~·'1I"l·.'..''''''icc .il I two sky plain to come able are \Ve two are unable to come to the airport..>.0 15. .'S"i yours elfthere at hour seventh arrive need there is elf there You must arrive there at 7... 13.r.r..~.>.jJ.. §".q.i). jii"l'J1j" nJ"'~'OJ' 1< "i '-Q4'1'...<: '''l'~'''''<li' l'1'-Q'S"i·q.·~ .\'q' is expected.f dog the tiger together play do IWt daring backward run did /Wt Not daring to play with the tiger the dog ran away."lC':~"i '~"I'''I~''1!' .()..r. ~"i' ..~C":~"i '~"I'''I''l''1!' q·OJr:.."if :<''11 he ieacher to lie tel/IWt dare did teache tell/W He didn't dare to tell a lie to the teacher.'. "I'S.q'jc· a:J'C4"'<r :<' \1 we by Tibetan national anthem voice loud sing IWt dare did /Wt We did not dare to sing the Tibetan national anthem loudly..·~-Q·{r'19"l·~'D. c::"I~"r"l"i<>l·.q"i''r~'~''i 14.. '19"l'q' ~.·<1':<'.' '''iilf''l'~'cii''il c:. r:..r. g. ~'::<.f ..il .~' a. jii~'9"i'i'nJ"l~'OJ'1<iii·."i...'-Q.."I·"i~·a:JF"i·.c:<::: ~·iJj·9·r (). ~"i'-Q'1''1'~'~''i'OJ"i '''l''.q·{r"i9~·~'D.r'!i"l·~·fil""·"i<::: son the night go IWt daring again home to return did /Wt Being unable to walk in the night the boy returned home.·~. should ..~.... 1. "fll'l' a:J'OJ"I~~~ "l.~'Q~· .q~'. .nr~·OJ· :<'''I'''i''l'<>lFiliw::F q"l'~""'~~'''...

il. 5.'o~' 3'Q'55 ~"I'''Ii5''1'QI5. ~'" &'~' :~J::c. §le.. today. '''I' "li'l' Q"1(J:(1r~"i' "~'$j' Q'Ui"I your parent ofcommand to listen should have there was of command You should have taken your parent's advice.'~' q'~'t'ii"l'(1r Q~.."i' Ji':!I'f1l"l'R. '~' "91:: "rr:>~" Xjq'T .l'Q"lr>. 9. c.''I~r''r "'''I you this to seven set one stay to is You are to stay here for one week. c. .'!ll'" ~.' "".' "~'$j'~r.\"~"I'Ul"Ui.il.'f1l'~"i'''~''I' Q'Ui"1 7. Tibetan permissive expressions 3e. (Jut 7.'ilj' JJ' :<'''1 !!I'f1l"l'R-. '~(.(iie.'ilj' qi"ior:> ~~n1r q'l!"r"i 'r:>~ "i '~(. you today my together come need there is You people ought to come with me today.' ~"I he tonight not go means not have there is He has to go tonight (there is no way that he does not go tonight).\1 §.~"I' ~e. "i'0 ~~'r1l" q'li"l" 'o~ '~i'l'''ie.~'iQ"'oriQ"e. you oughtto come fiist in the class. i'ic.' "9~r '>1' "'''I yourself ofdiligence to look if class in grade first gain ought to there is of diligence With your diligence.' -.c.'r>. '''~'$j' ~e.' "e.ljq' "9"1'~':<'''1 §'\' -'l:J:..' "Ie.c:c. They are used in expressing permission and seeking permission.'Uic. 4..' il\"l~'fllIl'I'~' "r'lQ~~' "'''I they road the from come have to They have to go through that road.'.>..l' £"1' q.. whether it is granted or refused.'''I''''>l'~''i'~'~'F'fll''l'. e..' &''7''1'Q-'' ~'fll'r:t~'''~'$jw :<'''1 e.'&''i''l"Q'" ~'f1l'r>.4 Permissive Expressions 3C.' 3C.' -..' il\"l'>1'flIIl'I'~' "i ~''lQ~~' :<'''1 iQ"e..'Q' Qil"l'Q' i"l'Q' and '?"i'Q' are added to the root of the '?"i'Q" verb..''I''1'Ul' :<'. . advice. 6..<i' 3t:.'ilr tonight late outside at stay need have not there is There is no need for you to stay out late tonight...'"e. -'c. §.Q.' .\"~'$j'urUi.i'l: "l~"l...'"e...~ri'i'ori'ic.'"f "l(.'l'. ~c. "la.'S'" 3e. 13.'''I''i~"~''i'~'~'f'l'f1l''l'.' ~'" Q'5e. 12. 'C§le.>.~" 3' Q'55 '!!"I'''Ii5''1'QI5.'I I' I by he to hatred of word use do had to I had to use harsh words to him.'l'." :<""1 "ro~' . The latter is used more commonly in speech than in writing: 1. ~'"Qjc..' "l~"l. 11. 2.\'ilf :<'''1 ~'"Qjc.'~' q'~"r'ii"l'(1l" Q~.fi.~'.' lj' . 8.'Uie. 'ilj' "'''I / night road on shout do allow not is It is not permissible to shout in the street at night time. pe.~"r~r.'(1 ~e. ~ ~ 10. :~.<l' 3t::'(1 fasting day afternoon fOOd eat not allow food On the day of fasting (ritual) it is forbidden to eat food in the afternoon. '~i'l' £"1" Q'5c.l'''ie. §. §.. 8.~"IW "'''I we always mountain to go have to no there is We do not have to always go to the hills.'!lj. ""I 9.'Q' Qil"l.

fi"j· cJ. "I"\J. ~J.·<1i'T"11'!J.I'~O..i.·<l\c.ii. 4.-. J. 1O.' i"l ". ~'~' .'J\J.\·qql 12.~.:r q~"I .: .' Zj' q1jt:.\·q~·1l1e. '~"\'"\'~' J.· J.liilr:.I· :3t::-"i(?''1' lJ ''ll year twenty not reach Bhikshu of vow receive allow is it Is it ailowed to receive the fully ordained monk's vow before reaching theage of twenty.l\ J. o.. S~f lJ'.lr:.l>.r S..\q~"\·"\·~· 1L ~J. When qB"I is used in imperative mood the application of La go.' q~-<'·I1IJ.·9·~J. presents.1·S· "1.·Fr.ri5'\' q~' q''it:. '' 1-<'' q'!Jr:.I'Il'. !J"I'o.la.:F"I"\J.":.~.1'S' "1'\' ~"I'''I~''I'.j' and S.q~"1 to go.:F"I"\J.~"\ ..ll".lq·i5"\·IlJ."i '~lil'lJ' they SwitzerLand to relative meet go for permission note apply did Switzerland They applied for the permission (visa) to viSit relatives in Switzerland.·.. (Qr:.\·<. '\~"\'lJO.\r:..·~·.' "\t:.' q'jr:.' q~"\' <r J. 8.lt:. ~ pass without having garden inside at go allow is Is it allowed to go inside the garden without a pass? 13..'Oj'~J. §j' "lB"I'Oj':?'. sentient being all happiness and happiness cause ofendow if what not allow .'~'o..I"I·r:>.' ~"i·lJ~·'1. tea. All the verbs ending in vowels insert ~ or:3' before the causative suffix: e. 'i9"\'lJO.. .5 Causative Expressions Causatives are formed with the suffix "lB"I' or S'Il' of the infinitive qB'''P:.'1"l'.\'<r sq' q~Qr'.·. "I"\J.~.ii. . "\r:.I. <1i'~'-::J' JdOj'q~''1.I"I'r:>."I'''rJ. 11.~r.ljJ."l'§'\' ~t:.Q'\'E.J\J.'1"l'''r:.So. 9.'E.. 2j'!Jr:.' q~-<"l1IJ.. W"l'''I' '\t:.'. ~.~ ~\~ '\9"\'qr.I' <r~' :3I::-'Oj':?''1'q''ll 3... (Qr:.·<1il:lJwl'iJ.f)ili'a.So. particles according to the final of the verbal root and that the causative suffix can take terminations such as continuative or completive or any auxiliaries to end a sentence.·q~·"lr.I':<''\1 monastery ofinside at shoes wear allow not is of inside You should not wear shoes inside the monastery.' "\r:. '.g.Jl' i"l'~ monastery ofnear by and circumarnbuLatory path on rubbish throw notpermitted of near circumarnbulatory not permitted It is prohibited to litter around the monastery and on the circumambulation path.\' h"l~"I' Ji' 5.I' :?''\I sky boat ofinside sky boat of landing ground on cigarette smoke permission not is of inside Smoking is neither permitted in the aircraft nor at the airport.o.g.~ r:.l..lq'.\·q~·q·'\r:.r".I·~Q. of endow How nice would it be if ail sentient beings possess happiness and the cause of happiness.. The principle feature of its fOrmation are the appropriate use of the fa don formation suffix."qB'''1 cause e..~' r:>.' J.\r:. <1i'~'-::J' J..'- ~ 12. allowed twenty.I':<''\1 q' . I by you to letter andpresent many send will and present I shall send you many letters and presents."I'''r J.I"l" ~'1' ~ ~'~' !J"I'o.'~''\t:.' "l"l"l' .0j '~Jil'q' :?''11 4. .·"\r:. '~w :?''\I children Tibetan tea strong drink allow noi is Children should not drink strong Tibetan tea.~.I'~"\·~"\·~·J.l·~"\·~"\·~· J.'i"l O. WUl''''' ..Q. 'FO. ~'Ul'''1' i"l'J. 6. "ie.r III " conjunction with fa don "1'«0\' terminations which are put in between the root of the verb and La 01'«"\' La the causative suffix.:l" 'eat': -'l'~'''lB''I cause to eat.I·~Q.-~- '. all happiness.I' ~'\I 6.\'lJ'Ill . '\~"\ 'qr..~ t:.l\ J.173 3.~.'J:j'<!i·i"l'lJ'G'11 9.. r:::J:j'"\'i"l'q'G"11 I die if wish could I I wish I could die.' q~' "lO..I':?''\I 7.ljC. r...~' 'go': r:>. "l'§'1' ~e.§j·"lBQr9·:?.lffir:.S~f J.\'lJ~·1l1t:.I'Il' i5"\'.la.I"l" ~. ~'Ul'01' i"l' J.I' ~'I :~. :?. ~·~·.::. o.

g(lj''2'q~''1'''f''i~'1 we water ofinside enter to allow not did of inside We were not allowed to go inside the water.. ones 3.~'~''I''l'qr:r ~'q~"l'~'<>I' ~'\l 3. 'in order to'. / .a"1'~'fl.6 Idiomatic Expressions of Genitive Datives There are numerous Tibetan idiomatic expressions which signify purpose and reason.\'<j' also lessoil...\I 4' prisoner those water drink to not allowing thirsty from die did Not being allowed to drink water.~'~~ "l'Q""s~1 ~.\'<f signify cause to do.a''r~'(l. ~·fJ.~' "18 JI"l1 2. ~'(lj' '<i!i' "i' ~"i'fl.>r~~'1 4. 5. ~~'~'&j'\'f1J'iij"'l"r ~ ~'~ "l'fJ.... they did not come to the class. m"iS ~ili'nr ~ili""i' .F. show.\"i' 4 "1' ~.'l.\"l' " q' ~'\I 5..\w which all mean ~for the sake of. beings..a"r~·p. . jii~' JI"'l"l' ~'\' J:j. - 13. a:j'''li'\''\'Q' £.~':<'''I''i'qr:r ~'q~"r~'''I' ~. Such constructions only occur at the beginning of a sentence or in the middle of long a sentence. ~'<1' a.''1j..\'fl. ~~. ~. '5.IF'\' "I'q~"r~'~"I"i'.'i1j'\':i'fJ.. . reason.3..\.:.''1j. f 4.'\.. ~~'~'&j"i'(lj'iij"l'll' ""~ "i'fl...... 'for the purpose of. 2.."i"1 ~ not having die about become fISh those water There being (made to be) no water the fish were nearly dead.'q. lind a.~' q8 JI"i1 oneselfmind to familiarise for I by this wrote oneself mind I wrote this in order to familiarize my own mind.·q. ~"" ~""'\' ~i!i'nr ~"\S .\·~·f1J·<ii'~·. 3.g<1l''2.~q' Q""4l"l l.'\S \md 'for ..'l..fl.F.'S"i' i!i"i'Jj'(lj'f'l"i' ~. the prisoners died of thirst.'5.\I monks show this kind watch to allow not do Monks are not allowed to watch this kind of show..'''\~'f1J'(l.:"\'~'f1J'<ii'~'. (Shantideva) mind.'q~''l'''f''i~'1 ~'£'~.S"!' is the perfect form ofS.>r~~'1 they play game allowing class to come not did Being allowed to play. 'because of.'l."l a:j'''1i'\''\' q' £'~"\ q~"i''5. 2. are allowed to sit in first.~ "" q.Il~·. ~'nr '<ili' !1~' "'I~ "l' ~"l'fJ. sentence.\·J:i'p.'i'lj'\':i'fl.\'fJ. L ~'£'~..t'ol) '~"i' q~'S"l' ili"l'Jj'nff"i' ~.~"\ 'r~' q~"i·'5."1 year younger ones first sit to allow do The younger ones.a"l·~'fJ. '? '~' . qgi!i'q'~' ~'fl. -- 6.'''\~'f1J'p..3. 51'" ofS. JI"I"i' q.\"1 £'oli q". ~r <1' a...'l.\'J:i'(l. class. r LfJ.~'~~ "i'Q""s~1 that offor the sake ofthis send should offor of this This will be sent for its purpose. Phrases such as ~~.~q' q sentient being benefit for Buddhahood attain may May I attain Buddhahood for the benefit of sentient beings.i ! 4 don is not required as weshafl see in a future lesson.:[W!!)'~ ili' 'S' '<ili' ~"'l"l' Ji"i'Q"l'f1Jili'Q'&jili' ~f ":[W!!)'~"\' '<i!i' ~"I"i' ~"i' Q"i'f1Ji!i' q'&ji!i' other ofpurpose benefit intention not having fault is ofpurpose It was an error since it lacked the motivation for the sake of others.\.. 4..\'<>I'q~"I'~'~<>I"r. 'for the benefit of and 'fdr' can be referred to as postpositional dative expressions.. qgili'Q'~' £.

Ile.~·. -' 0 having eaten his food having found his pen having seen my mother having dug the ground having washed the shirt will not tellm the story.·a.ljQ. file. Although she will be eating Even though I have eaten " .l. !. I' 2..l. "ilj"l·1!t / have to go outside the house..·~"i·<i·~"I·Q4"·Q"r . will be buying ink from the shop.. yotir will be coming to see your father."I~."r~e. will not eat the apples. she was able to forget her father's illness.·a.~e. .. file..ljQ.."l. ~. sat on the throne.. ~. qnrih:>'~·£·.).r. ~~-. Having met my uncle and nephew Ten pa 3.£."i·~· q(lrih:>'~·£·. must be unable to jump high.. ""l·~F !:r~"I"f ~<>I"l.l."i"l ~ ~ will be unable to sing. I was unable to remember your father's name.·~"i·<i·~"I·Q4"·Q'~r e. will be able to sleep.Jf ~e. my mother was unable to cry or sing.rJj·r..Ile. Not having a good pen Tenpa Having a headache Tenpa Being a farmer and a father Tenpa Having lost the paper and ink Tenpa ..~-. . will be able to lie down. e."r~e. will be unable to return home. ~ .ljQ·!.. .~"I. stands with the students.r~"I"f ~"l"l. must be able to walk to the fields.<>I."i·~· iil·~·r."i"l·1!t ~'\. ~ Since the baby was playing Since I was playing his new flute 4.

' a..'~q'~6J~'.' "9 il) '7' .. c..f ' .' ~<r~6J~'...".~'a.\'lJlili·q')r ' .. (b) Fill in the blanks with the correct expressions: 1.. '''1ili 3..cr ".::'r:<E:ili '(1j' ~'7~' . 3...' ~ ~r ".qQ' )Ilj'Z:. "'~r ill~'.J~':2"Ilj~(1jTl. I) . c-. 4fll'. fQ~i'i"h9"1'''I'a.177 _e-..Zi'qi'i'~ili''\'''I~''I~'q''e'.' ~<l' ~<>l~r" <lP. 3... ~ ""cr il).-..'''I~''I~' <l' ~6J~' Q~r 'I?(i!i' ~r .jl)' ... ~~')'l:.... c~'p.c.. ~ C'>.i.f 2.q' ~J. ~'~.q. -l:..\J.. .-' ~ 5. .~'3~'~'''lq''!JJ. -.\J...\1 (c) Render the followiI)g into Tibetan: follow ing 1. ~c ~r~~'5'Ole...' ~ q' ~~~' I) ..1W~' q... . Althou gh I have a friend.". "'" -..l..\6J1 2 ~e:. .i' qi'l'~ili ''\'''I~''I~' <l''e'.\'q" 5.l.....' il)~' ~d:S .'~tl'~<>l~'"qr.. c. .".... Will you be able to jump five cubits high? (d) Repeat the following sentences by filling in the Tibeta n equiva Cd) l lents of the Englis h phrase : 1.....J.:2c:.." J<lq'. Pasang .~'c'rlr~<l'p.... Ji"l' "idC!":f1J"I~r L jj"r . _ .">. ".il)' <1.\qQ'!:fQf!J.\ <lr:l." c-. 8..q"'" ~(1j' q""'~">..". If she is happy.'2:' (1j' "..'9I'\ili i'C'1'''ili'~<>l~'S' .. ~~".....'.\'Ujili·q')r ~'~.' ..q-l:. These medicine is for your sick aunt and sister....(1j' . -". "il C' a. c.'.>.'..l." c-. I can tei! you a brief life history of Sakya Pandit a.jq".'~ (j. It is prohibited to eat food in my mothe r's bed room.'5-l:.. she will be allowed to sing a song on my birthday." ..... ..I:..q. .." (j.fp..\qr. _ . e-.\'''6J' 'Ic... 1 01'9"" q~d'l"'~' i "1'9"" q~<>I"'~' Q5'fl~' §"I'<1'~f Q'S'/'lc. "i.' ~c:... -l:. 9C..'CAjI)' "9'"'7 ' i1i tlr'5' '5il)' ~ ~~' ~~~' z:... ~~' ~'5 "'" "'~' J. I)' .. bread.~ ":1 .'/'l'~......". -.' q..'§-<.. they are Rani.:2c:.. c.q'5(1j' qf.' .... . " ". 9. 9.. .' q~' "9~'.' ~~' ~ il)' l:Jf...qr:<' Z:.\'''6J''''Ic 'Ulili' ~~I <..q ""'5"'"' q~' q')Z:.c:.. e-.. e-.. ql) Z:...~'Q~'l·"Ic't1ii!i'4~r ~'Ji'Q5 3...q..l. Se:. c-..- "..i."1r~q'Q~'a.'~'~c:.c:..Il[~r c-..' a......' a.....' Q!'1 tl 1 .-.\6J1 ~r~~'5'o<<Ie.q'5(1j'qf.c:. ~..q9'Z' ~"" .p ''5' q!'1Il[~r ....I:..\'<l'''I~' ~'q'''I'l'\'~'\'. c. 4.>.....qr:<'Q(1j'....... teU 10.<~ .' ~I:.j~' v ~ . 6. You should come with me to the market on Sunda y mornin g.q' QZ:. ~..Q' a.\d'l":f1J"l~r . ~c.. ~"9'59''5' q!'1Ilj~' .f''l~~'~'6Ja)ili '''Ie:....'~ J<lq~.' ...' ~ J.'<1jOj'fll"l~'(lr~F~'q4'\'J.fp..Ja. ~''!Jnr~c. 5. JJ'9aJ' qf..fr.q'Z:.' ~Il['7' " . "...lW~' q3ilZ:.:l ".i.'JJ'9aJ'qf... _. Ul'\1 C.'''IUl'''w ..'01ili 'ili6lJ ~e:.q' qz:...c:. 7.'fl'~c c·<1jOj'C'1"1~W~F~'q4'\'J.qr:<'SO)' ~q'~r:2~' ~a=. e-.'C'1' . :. _C'>... he is not taIL tall. c-.' ~I ~ -. .q.. 3. .~' ......' Q' ~ "r:<§9~ ''5'q5s~r"'~9''''~F r:<§9~''5' Q5S:2''''~9''''~F ". 11 Exerc ise of Lesso n Thirte en 13.'(lr"lc''Ic' ~C'1' <r01ili'ili6JI 4. C'''Il'\il'(lJ'''ili'~<>I~'S'\'\'.\'<p'I~' '\'~'\'. (a) Answe r the following questions in Tibetan on the above readin gs: 1.' ~Ilj'7' '5".)9'.">.q~' ~~ 1)'1:..':~" ~6J~'..\"IQ'I?("i'ili~'J..:I ~ .q ~~~' '51)' ~'7Il['Z:..~'l'''Ic.q~r .\I .il)' '~' a=.' ~~~.'C::'r:<E:ili'(1j' CN~c.qf.' q~I)'.qf. " ~ ~ .c:.' <li q'~6J~'..'''I''l-<''6J' itic. ~F' ~cr ~~~..' q~')'. ..Z:.'l)l:.'l:Jf.'Uj''i'4~' ': .q''i' ~~' q~r q'z:. iiic. he ought to eat some bread...q~' JJ' ". .bO)' (j. .l....'1)c:. i1i<lf'5' '5". ~'jj'Q5"1 c.. . 2.... -."" '" n: ~')W Q.qr:<' z:. I have three cats.. I was unable to show you my drawings this morni ng.\<lQ'!:fQf!l. Nyima and Pasan g..' ~I:.'~c:.~' 3~'~'''lq''!JJ..b". '2:' r:<E: il)' '" .l. e-.".'..''\''IQ ili~' J... ~'.'~' ~'il ~.\ "" ~ ~'~c:...'~. '''~t '''~:t ~ ~ a."..l~' '5il)' ~~'~'Il[~(1jTl.'qi'i'~:rJ1'~~s se:.J~' '5')'J.'~nr!r"1ili'ili6Jr 5.'~' ~.. Since he does not eat fruit.'~· ~.~Q·'h9"1'''I'a.'''I~''I~'q' ~6J~'Q 4.qQ' ~a=.. g. .. ~I 4.'(1j' e.::...qr:<' Sil)' ~q~':2~' J.q''i' ~~'q~r q'".::CAiZ:..l.Je.q'')....' 1)9'.\'<l"ll 4C'1'.y<~ ~ (~'j 13. S..l. ~c' <lQ' ~:rJ1'~~e:..f''l~~'~'6Ja>ili '''Ie:.l.'~- ':·-"1 ':-"1 . -~.C...>.. ~I q' "-:) ~ J<jq~.q.....JJ9~'.: c-. '~'a)Ilj~r.'§"l'<f ~f i.' J<jq'.. _"_/35.' (j. ... .~'c..'"n: ~I)w qz:.c ~''!Jnr~c'§.:: q!'1<lr9 r91 ..

" "'_ .'..q-oa.!~' ~I:!j'~~'~~'I C\....j a.... . if my I shall not move my body from this seat Until I reach thefnl ighten ment which is difficult to obtain for many aeons..r'Sf")..:~ ~. ......r' di~'~r I"~~'''~' .r...\ ~-<'! ......!' '" ~ '" " ~- r.q".179 13... c..g' CI)'" il\'e:I...j~'i!\ 'Qj~' .qua...'"I'.r'q't<r.~~'. -'{~ .\ iii e-... C ' o . _ _ .q-<' ... . .. .q'..... .~'~ 'nj'.il\'(:\ !31-<'1 I'" '[l..q ". C\. .. >! :...g' iii' c:I.. rq~[l.'IF 1 'a. i!\' ~ c....q"i"l'9'Qj~' .j' ti-<. .r~'~~' ~r::..!' q'r<r.'(:\5-<'1 I~F ~.q' a:r x:j.\!]-<'I ....q'..q' "a. 'I Iq9~' q' ~~'q''9' qa....' "i'...' Sdil !.. c.' a.....".q' -<'I:!j'q-<... C'o.' %'" ..' -<.qZ:.... ~ .q~a. ..q~a.. 1i.. . c-.qu~r CI\~r~1 qr....~' .I Even if my body become dry Even ifmy skin.iii 'r.o.'1 l~iIi'r. By subdu eing the troops ofthe Maras of the I will be reaching the sublime andpeacefUl enlightenment! and peacefol r~i!\' (:\.q~r 4~r ~r CI\'~ 'Dr ti-<.' a:J' 'r.. '"~ SP.q~r'9~r~r di'~ '[l.... ~ ~ "" c.r~'f1\"l'~~' ~~ 'I Iq9~' ~~' q'4' qa....~' ..' %"'Z:.. ...\"~' .!~'~~· ~r::..q-<'II q~nj' a:J'l::j.. r~F ~. I I~"\ "'nj~' ..q-o~' qr:r.q~.rr::... -.q' '" " "a.... '" Oh! Sw~tiika! Quickly give me the grass SW(lStka! Today the grass will have great significance for me. 'ii.I:!j'9·Qj~' iIi·.12 ~ Extra cts of Sayin gs by the Budd ha ~ ~ !..· '" SCI\I r.. "'-...j'..q' -<'''l' q-<"r. c..q~z:. I~"i'(:\"'[l..."F S~' ~. bone and flesh falls apart on this mattress.!r::.



:w::r q~p::j«r I.l1 :w::r ~ a:;' q~' 'CWP·ll



14.1 Various Auxiliaries Used in the Classical Tibetan As we have become reasonably familiar with most common forms of auxiliary verbs in the spoken and written Tibetan, now we can introduce Some additional forms of auxiliary verbs some additionai generally uSed in the literary Tibetan, They include: "'cr.>.' a:JifAr :lie.' "I,)fl.' t:l.'5,"1 ~'). "Iili"f t:l.ibnr Tibetan. a:Je.r.l: .<J:E~' ~F "I')P.' r:>.5,"1 ~')' "I;;;~' r:>.ibnr
[lj"l~' fll"l"l' and "111"1~r. Q~"I"I'.

The following sentences all end in an auxiliary verb but it can still be suffixed

with the appropriate colnpletive suffixes known as 11"1"l' .j;"I. In order to express negative of these 1i"l~' ~' auxiliary verbs, the two prefixable negative particles ill' and ~. are used i.e.M.<JCt:l.', a:J'a:J£"l' and a:J' i.e.Ma:Je.r:>.·, iIl'.<J:E~'
~ili' j)'i' ii'i·r:>.ibnr, ~ili'Clj"l"f in some cases ~;;;' and ~'" can also be prefixed i.e. ii"'t:l.ibnr, .<i;;;'Cll"lZ\[ etc.

1. a:J!'l"l' 'Jr.t '''i;;;''j;;;·5,·..r .<Jc:.t:l.1 5J1'l~' <Jr.t '''iili''jili ''5.' ill'a:Jc.r:>.1 learned ofquality many are of quality IrUlny (}-Je) (He) endows many qualities of the wise.

2. Q~' ~e. .~'i' <J"l' 'i"lr.l:"Clj'''Ie. '''le.'W a:Ji5 "II "1~'~C ,~". 'J~"i"ft:l.'CCll'''IC '''le. iIl'.<JiS ~I well and happy therefore difficulty whatsoever not there is Since I am well and happy, I have no hardships Whatsoever. whatsoever.

3, «1F;;;' q~r~' "hl'>;'<JR' a:J~'ili"l'~i!j' :lie.'! 3. «1flili' q"l'~' <11' >.j.J;''JR' .<J~'iii"l'~ilj· ~C'! abbot by Pratimoksha ofSutra reading is The abbot is reading the Pratimoksa Sutra, Sutra. 4, ~C'''1~'i';;;C''5.·~'''I"r.>.1 4. ~"·Q~'i"ilie.·5,·~·"I'ifl.1 fall receive (begging bowl) inside what there is What is inside the begging bowl?
r.>.~' ilie.·')«1' 'JR,g;'>j'~'~'~' .<Jc·q'''1I1''1'>j! 5. fl.~' ;;;C'')«1' <JR' g;"l'~' ~'~'.;:je.' q' Q~"I"I! thiS inside sacred ofDharma volume many lie insUle ofDharma Inside here there are many sacred Dharma volumes, Dhanna volumes.

6. ~'S'~'i'<J'>;'''Iifl''ll 6, ~'S'~"·'J.J;'''Iifl'>jl what do to not having remain did Without anything to do, he remained (there). 7. Q')"I'f"l.j' .>Jiti:\' il\ 'i' ii'i·fl.ibfll! 7, "1')"1' [lj' .;:ji(f.\'il\'" ii",r.>.ibf1J1 I to leprosy ofdiSease not have do of diSease I do not have the disease of leprosy.

8. ~''l!'>;':!jflf Q' :<'''I'>j'\'!.R'.<Jibilj' .l\ a:J"I'Cll"l"l! ~''l!.J;':!iflf''1' :<'''I''1·'I!.R· i<libil\' .l\.<J~'f1J"I~1

that like victorious ones race five of names are arc These indeed are the names of the five Buddhas, Buddhas.

14.2 Exclamatory Expressions Vocatives or interjections are expressed by the intuitive voice of surprise as in most languages associated with 'a', 'ha', 'oh', or 'aho'. As no exclamation mark is used in Tibetan, the exclamatory expressions come mostly at the beginning or end of a sentence or phrase. However when at the beginning of the sentence the single stroke 1 known as 4"i' is used to denote this expression, r.>.q"i'~ which literally means "vocative" is mainly used to address people or to expression. r.>.q"i'~ express extreme emotive feelings of surprise, grief or joy. Exclamatory expressions are rather amorphous sentences for anybody who expresses a strong feeling do so without logical sentenc~s for consideration of his ideas but adequately draws the attention of his hearers. Due to the attention emotional character of amorphous sentenceS the actual meaning of each depends to a great deal sentences on its tone. The exclamatory expressions included here are used both in the spoken language and expreSsions workS: li'j'JJ'51 literary works: ijij'JJ'51 and 11'1'51 are both used to signify interjection expressing pity, sympathy and joy. Some examples of conventional "interjections"in English such as alas! hurra! Thanks ThankS "interjections" in alot! Nonsense! Poor fellow! etc. might help us here. Grief is expressed by ~'JJ'~''2''i' in songs and writings but the rest of the expressions shown below are used mainly in the spoken language. Emphatic exclamatory expressions are formed by reduplicating the final of the auxiliary or main verb and when with comparative adjectives it is further augmented by or i.e ii'
r.>.~'''I''r''ror §"i·~·Q"I·ii)(rr.>.~·~i>l·JJ'(lr r.>.~·"I"r"r~· "How nice is this person!"; §"i·~·Q"I·iil(rr.>.~·~JJ·JJW "Your bread is indeed delicious!",



fic: ~'Sl·i'lr::.·l.!·~'Sl·a;"I'Sl·l.!·"-"i·&·Q·~1 fie:: ~'Sl·i'lr::.·l.I·~~ra;"I'Sl·l.I·::<'''i·&·Q·t'11 Their house caught on fire, how pity!"
1. ~·JJ·5W~·JJa;",'.I;1 Il.I"i·JJI3.·~·'l~r::.·~'Sl·~r::.·ii)"I'SlJ ~·JJ·5·t'1·~· JJ<f...·.E1 1l.!"i'JJI3.'~·Q~d'Sl·~r::.'iil"l'Slf Alas! wondorous! lotus ofsmell permeation by all means good. of smell Oh! How wondorous is the aromatic smell of the lotus flower!
2, ~'5·"I~"i'i5"1·~"i'.I;"i·JJI 2. lI'I'5'''I~3\·~''I·~3\·.E3\·JJI IJJ·~r::.·SW ~'Q'''I~''i1 IJJ·~r::.' Sw~' Q'''I~''i1 Oh! listen kind-hearted mother! not distract son to ear lend do Oh listen my kind mother! Do not be distracted and pay attention to your son!

,. ':-:;;, ,.'-,-~,:;;,

3. '<l·~f.i.·~·~·~'i!ir::.'QW~1 3, "f~f.\·~·~·~·i!ir::.·Q·orll'll there ofparrot the small how ofparrot This parrot is so small!

4. r.>.§"I' J:rr1j. If Q'~·"i·'1!·QI1"1'Sl·"i·"i"lr.>.·QWll'lr::.'1 4, Ji-r1j. \f Q·~'''i''1!·Q~''I'Sl'"i'''i''lr.>.'QW~C.·1 Drogmi Lotsawa he now alive if happy how will be How happy would it be if Drogmi Lotsawa was alive now!

5. 1'~'''I~"i' i5Qr~'JJ~"i'~' JJ'(lj"l'Sl1 1'~'''I~"i'~"I'~'JJ~"i'~' JJ't'1"1'Sl1 hi! listen mind compatible Nyima Hi! Nyima, my dear friend Listen!
6. 1Jl'' l1 ,iQ'Sl'''i Q3\·t'1' 1'Sl1 lJl'UlI .iQ'Sl·"iQ"i·(lj"l~1 hi! horse master Hi! Mr. horse trainer!

7, c.' ~·i'l·l.!"'·'?"i·5·Uj"i'''i1 7. r::.' ~'i'l'L.J""'?"i'5'Uj"i·"i1 we voice listen will We are listening to the radio!

8. "- ',>J§r'1"rq·~·n;"IWt:\§j·9'·O:;"i·,\1 "-',>J§ri"rq·~·n;"IWt:\§j·9 O:;"i·'\1 I quickly afternoon at go will I am soon going our! our.!

14.4 The Imper ative
Imper ative expres ses the idea of reques ts, cdmm ands, orders or polite sugge stions which are genera lly implie d throug h the tone and facial expres sions of the speake r to be exact with the meani ng. There are numbe r of impera tive signs exclus ively use-d in the spoke n langua ge and in the literar y. In the literar y there are three main imper ative signs which corne at the end of the come . senten ce which has to agree to the suffix of the root as shown below. , They genera lly expres s a "comm and" or "order" from the senior to the junior . In the spoken langua ge, polite reques t is expres sed by adding :<:"I"r''1''iI::.' (help do) to the root which signify -'<:"I"r''1 "pleas e help me do". The writte n langua ge impera tive form is accord ing to the follow ing chart. As in most Cases, Tibeta n imper ative verb has severa l forms, each of which are used for a partic ular kind of social relatio nship or standi ng the speak er has with the secon d person , the hearer . The major differe nce is with the comm on and honor ific expres sions. The root conson ants of the verbal root which have either the suffix "I, Q or <>J are made imper ative <>I by adding the letter·',"l as a "ll::.' letter \l Ujl::.' ""1>"1 'post suffix' which are listed in the Tibeta n diction aries as impera tives. (See the verb list . at the back of this book). Prohib itives are formed by prefix ing the approp riate negati ve particl es to the verbal root.

~~rQ1>"1 ~~fQ1>"

, "I , "I "\ Q "I
I::. 'lj ~
OJ "i

QlI!"l"¥;""11 Q~flj"¥;1
"i'~"1 ".~"I

is,,!, is''f
~,'r ~''r

<>J <>I



flj "l

Vowel endings



14.5 Exam ples

2. 3.
l::.·i·~·"iQ·Q~'~1 l::.·i·~·"iQ·Q~'~/

Hono rific

"-' i'~' ~Q' i;jQ'll' <f"l"il::. .~/ ,,-'i·~·~Q·i;jQ'l1'<.r"l"iI::.·~'
~"i'Q~'::3'i;jQ~' -Z:"I'll' "f"il::.'! ~"i'Q~' 3'i;jQ'lj,.z:"Iq"lOjq "I~' q' I:jq,,1' -Z:"f"l'''f''iI::.·1 "I~·q'Ljq"r.z:"l"l'''I''iI::.·1

§"\'Q~':3'4"1 §"I'Q~':3'4"1 "l§"I'lj' q'Q ~'l?ll "l§"f"l' ~'l?l/

Let us go tonigh t. t. Come here.
Go quickl y.

5. 6. 7.

f'l1::.·<<.r~·~~·a;··;Q·s~/ f'l1::.· .r~·~'lj·a;"·Q·S'lj'
1::.·"I~"l·"I·'1,r<li'Qiljflj·~1 ,,\·'1r<li'Qilj"l'~1

~·"l·r.>..s:] l::.'l§ll ~·"l'r.>..s:jI::.·!§!1

a;q'~'Qii\'ll'':;;:''f''l'''f''i''-'/ a;q'~'Qii\'l1'':<:''I''l'''I''i''-'1 QI1"1'l1'f'lI::.'''f''i'~''I'~Q'Q' "li@'''1 Q'1"f'll'f 'lI::.'''I''i'~'lj'~Q'q' "li@'''i/
~ ~

Have some milk. Finish cleani ng the house. Let two of us swim.

<':"\·"I~'l1S'1ra;Q·q>1jl1J·"I"iI::.·i)1 <':"I·"f~'llS'1ra;Q·q>1j!1J·"f"iI::.·i)/

j'ii1::.·Ql'!"\·'lj·W3j'Il'l'! fiil::.·Q~"I·"l·W"i'll'r/

8. <>J'~'3j·I::.·l1J·r~Q'!§!/ <>I·~·"i·I::.·!1J·r~Q·l§l1 9. ~'~'<>J'Q:;I::.'~"11 ~'~'<>I'Q :;I::.'~"

10. ~"IW~' a;'M"I~,,I'i5"1 ~"IW~· a;'M"I~" \'i5"1 11. "l~iy?:i·nr""Ir.>.'Q~f~'lj·4"1 "l~il)·?:i·nr"i"lr.>.'Q~f'1~·4"1
12. :<"Ji'&"i'''''i'~'Q~Q'll'4''f :<:Ji'&"i '''3j'~'Q~Q'l1'4''l 13. f'l'C1.j"l' ibl::.· a1'~'~"l f'l'!1J"I' a1'~'~"f 14. W,,\·~I::.'''I'l1-''.'q'n~'§''i',,\I::.'1 W"I·~I::.'''I'll'''<rn~'§''i'''II::.'/

Please show me where lives. <>r"l'l1"i·O"i·I::.W"f~I::.·-'<:"f"I'''f''i''-'/ Please tell me if you canno t hear. <>f"f'll"i· j·I::.'l1J'''I~I::.·:<:''I''r''l''i''-'I "Ill"l'~~'<>rQ:;I::.·':<:"I"l'''IOjI::.·1 "Ill"l'~~'<>fQ:;I::.'':<:''I''1'''I''iI::.'/ Please do not bang the door.
~"I·"l·~·a;·"I~"\'''l'''I''iI::.':<:''I''l·''I3jq)leasdo not kill those ants. §"f·"l·~·a;·"I~"I'''l'''I''iI::.'-'<:''I''I·''I''iq)lease e ;;j'<>I~"i'flj'''i''lQ'Q~''1' :<:"I"l'''I''iI::.'' ;;j'<>J~"i'''l'''''IQ'Q~'I1''':<:"I'll'''I''iI::.'/ Please greet the guests . :<",ij'&"i·"3j·~·q~q"l'':<:''l''l'''I''iI::.'I Please rub the mistak en drawin g. :<".ij'&"i·""i·~·q~q"l'':<:''I'll'''I''iI::.'1 Q~'lj'l1J9' ibc:"l'q~"l' ':<:"I'lj'''I''i''-'1 Please eat all the foods, Q~"l'!1J 9'ibc:"l'q~>;j'':<:"I"I'''I foods. ~n'O,"f"l,9'll"'!,j'Q~'''li''l'''I''i''-·''F/ Please wear this new shirt. ~'D.'O.,,! 'l1"'!,j'n~'''li''\'''I3j''-'''FI Please

fi"-'~'Q~f"l'''I'W''i'-'<:''f''l'''f''i''-'/jq fi"-'~'Q'1" "I"l'''l'W3j':<:''I'lj'''I3




s. of time er'b ial jec tiva l and adv el" bia l cla use 14. 6 Th e Use of var iou s Ad ear lier less ons . In the fol low ing the dea lt adjectives and adv erb s in our We hav e already ntit y) are for me d by dou blin g see how som e adjectives (mainly qua exa mp les we wil l adv erb ial Cll'~3i' particles in forming var iou s Cll'~ili' wil l note the predominant use of the syllables and es the idea the final of the auxiliary verbs express ous, val expresions. The reduplication of and adjecti g. g, of "I wa nt you to know" as a warnin 1. E.' ib·q'i1'~e:.''Ze:.·9~· a.;z~rr:>.~c:.·' ill' <N''1j~''I L E,' ib,q' ,,·~c:.·'ZC:9~· ,,!~'fl.~e:. ",' j~''I k ifunless mo uth bur n it wil l if unless tea hot the little little by doi ng drin , r mouth. hot tea little by little, it will burn you Unless you drin k the y exactly it is ofpric e pap er roll this ofp rice rup ees sict is exactly sixty Rupees. The cost of this bundle of pap er
·l.r <N' ~c:.'c tlQ~~' Q'or "ie:.·e 3, lSI' o.rC j"l~'iil<N~' "e:.'~' ill~' ::l"l'Cll~'Cll' 3. lSI' <N'(1ll"l~·~<N~· Q' "j' <ic:~'"'~.::i"l'Cll~'nri.lQ

;~.- ";~ >-~~

~'F'a;llr~'~''i'')1 ~'F'a;'lr~' ~"i'''il

,~ ;,.:~

)1 ~'). 'i1 2..ih~Cll·fl.~il.':i.,, 'lQ' ~""§"l·:?f?'1j·7"l· 2..ih ~Cll·r:>.~n.·:i.a.;'!·'lQ·~""§"l' :?f,)'1j''5''l'~"i·"

:.·1 :.'(

'-~ '.J

work to go not did mo the r min d extr eme ly sad bei ng rk, not go to work. Bei ng very depressed, mo the r did e is I by pro per very hea r abl e not ther rly, I cannot hear it very clearly. soak did it is his boo k new the totally wat er by
e:.~· -'4'1j·ii·~·5i"r~·.I'lQ·~·~·r:>.,,\''r''l 4. c:.~·''-'4'1j·ii'~·~"r~·.I'lQ·~·~'fl.,,\''r''l



'i"l'''l QI'l""rfl.'i"l'''l fiie:.·1 j' S"l' ~q~~""Q·~·fl"i·~ 5. fiic:Eij· S"l·"q~~""Q''''q,,\''''· i!i~'Qe:.' QI'l rr:>.
water. His new boo k is totally soa ked in the

'..;~,,:, .'3,

.... ·"\"! ·ge:.· Q <N,?Jl''i-r.>.§ur ~"I fie:.' 6. iiie:.· g. 4Cll ·"\"J ...·gc:.·Q 'S. "''?'''·'i-r.>.§· ·''f

i':;.:t. i""J.

will be the y She lka r Do ng upto equ al at go ng, upto Shelkar Dzong. They will be going together
~·~~· ·Ul"' e:.~·~<N·(1j·r>.~·~""(1j·Q"l'f!C.'nlr>.e ·r:>. 7. e:.~·~"'·Cll·r>.~·~"'·Cll·Q"l·flc=.'nlr:>.e:.:.·fl.~·~~Ul"'i 1i1

also go wil l be is I by ma rke t to go while pos t office ce on my way to the shop. I am also planning to go the post offi

.'i"l ljQ"lW "-IF"!' ~',?(1j' 'l~'i 8. me:.' "'fla.;·"',?Cll' 'l~')' Q~illQ"lW :r~'''l' Q'P

boy the whe re is beg gar the sleep remaining tim e at the beggar was lying down? Where was the boy when

1 ~;r~'e:.' J'l·fu Qil.. 2\'Cll·~"l· ib .... Qto,' 9. :r~·e:.· g. <J'l·fuq· Qn.·gg2\'(1j'~"l' ib.... QIO,"lj

had did boy the we not reach bef ore escape e, hed there. The boy has escaped before we reac I
1O. ~c:.'~c:.' 'l)c:..'l..lil.' ?'>lwr>.~"l·~i:l.· ",e:.·wfuQ 0, ~e:.'~e:.' 'l)e:'<.ln.. ?'>1'(1j'r>.~"l'~i:l.' ",e:. if late it is of inside bel l ring afte r class ofi nsid e arrive
ili·~~·q· ~,\I nrfuQ· 3i'~~'q' :i;,)l

s after the bell rang. You are late if you arrived in the clas

>r"Ia:,c.·1 iijc:y'i')'qo.· ~c..~.~. a.; "l' "-I-"- ro"1' :;:"I~1·"Ia:,C.·1 11. iije:.' 5">i"·~II'p: ~e:.'~''''a.;''1' "'...'·ro"l' :<:"I' help do abo ve at exist nam e list fro m read


Please read from the above name list. 12. t;.',or;-<ft;.' ~'JJ'7~' i'D.~ili'~'§''l' q~'~"'l'[ ll'~·q<1jo.f§'ii:j"i'i 12, t;.. ir;- <ft;.' ~'JJ'7~'''S'D.~"i'~'§''l'q~'~"'I'flJ' ~'q<1in-f§'ii:jili'i we all equal at cia~s finish after at water bath will cia~s ','Ie ''Ie wiil alJ swim together after the class is finished, all d.

13, "- '\rD.~·"i "'l""I' a;')'q'lJ"f~F§ili' "i'>{' ~~"-' ~q'~' j)·D.'l"r"ll ~rD.~' ili "'1'''1' a;,,'q'l J"f~F§"i' ili"f j)'D.'l"r I by this from howev er many look did even if see able not it is I canno t see at all despite how much I try to look from here. here,

14.7 The Alpha betica l Notat ion
Just as Europ eans use notation" by means of Roma n letters , Tibeta notati on' n works use the alphab etical enume ration in association with the shortand long vowel short and s if the enume ration excee ds thirty. Althou gh cardinal numbe r can be used when referri ng to the works of learned schola rs and masters, they are usually marked with the alphabetical order. In citing the volum e numbe rs, the alphab et is affixed with <J~' or <I'o.f or <18'0\"-' which expr~ <J""-f <J~'0i"-' expre sses "in" of the ses particu lar ordina l number i.e. the sixth is expressed by t:j,,' ".<£"r or i,e, by t:i".".. <tor t:i,)·i];·1;Jr.;.·O\t:.· otr asa;' is the t:j,,'a;'1:jr.;.'Oit:.'n asi];' sixth letter of the alphabet. Likewise:
1. ''r 31. lTr 61. J 2, J'l' 32. fl' 62. ('1' 32, 3, "I' 33. ~. 63.5' ~' 63, "I' 4, "-' 34. 2: 64, r;; 64.

/ /-

,. 91. '1' 121. " 151. 'JI' 92,~' 122, 92. ~' 122. fi' 152. r.r 93, ~' 123, ~' 123,~' 153, 153. "I 94. 94, 2:' 124, (- 154. ca' 154, ~'
Q, q

181. ~. 211,'!j 241.~' 271. ]' 181.~' 2ll.,!! 241.~' ]. 182. It 212, F.ll 242, F,l' 272. ~. 1[ r.' 272, ~'

183. ~ 213,Qj 243.~· 273. ~ 213.~ 243,~' t:t ~ 184,~' 214, 184. ~' 214. IiJ 244. 'i,' 274. ~. ~'274. ~'




q')''\' ......'S. «'<;''1'
~iliW fZ"i W


14.8 Voca bular y '7"- ''7"-' '7"-''7"-' few "5' is"-' "j"iK very 4"i'')' 4ili'?: extremely

')"/"'')''1 ')"1"'')''1

exactly very


i "'''l.~~ ' i l<fClJ'~~.
~'7"l''l' ~'7<>JS

crooke d
: almost together

totally untillupto before while doing

i'\.<;w ii\"'w
"I4~''S' "I4~S

~"'IW ~"'lW

above at the time

at the time to bang

~<::'S. ~C:::''i' ')"'I''>{' ""'l'~'



~Q"'IW ~Q"'l'nr

Q"-' '"')' QC:::' -"'"
~''1<1j''l'q' ~'Q<1i"l'q'

'1S"-'q' QSC:::'Q'
~"I'''l' ~"I' <>J'

little to swim to kill
to erase volum e abbot

&Oi'oOi' &O\'iSO\' "It:.'''lt:.. "IC:::'' lC:::'
JJF-' a:Jit'
~'''i'.lj ~'<Ji'i:a:J~' iii'''i'.lj~'<JiJ.'JJ~'

ant mistaken
anytljing leprosy Pratimoksa Sutra cross-legged sky

"I"i'1' <J'
q~q'q' q~q'<r


~'~' ~'~'

"lJ'lO\'t:i' <>JJ'l0i't:j'
~t:.'q~' ,' 'J{c:::'q~,)'

3ClJ'~C:::' 3"l'~"-'
"i~' i'JJ'lr:\' ili~'i'JJ'lr:\'

beggin g bowl
offerin g substa nce troops of maras

JJ,J,'''I'r::'''I' a:Ji"l'r::"'l'
q'S')'~ ''JC:' q'i')'~'''')'F


..: 1 ~ ~ u:i i!! "'-.. .b...h'. JTI. '::lD~.J] .3. . . 2! L1 ~7 11 11 .D7 D7 }1 '~ \\li7 ~7 <J..~.. 1b....~..\eltJ. . >'! -....fi 14 7» • 91 -" 2:.~l'f'l' ..~ ~I'f' .~.t'.. 87 2i ~7 ji ~ ~ J:j *-]..9l 1)!7 -"\ .--'1 * 'v . .2 Jl ~?..J1 ne ]1l ~ .. ..:) ~ .t:e..9l >"" }I "'" .....'.. .. .2 U.J1 . lle.l'f'¥ . ... ...b.J 1)..ltJ~ .l:J 2: 1:i 1.i!! 7 ". 12 1-" UJ f1 .... .l ' 2!7 )l >'! ..&/..n7 i!! i!! • 11 I:'. '::lhh..fi }J7 -.2 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 11 ~7 1.ltJ~..&6b-b. 1. ~ .&I'f' .b' ...... 'tJ~. ":Ih.&6&.. . c.'r!!.j)~' ~.&~..J1 ..J1 .. 1.'rb 14 - .9i ~ -..~ 1e6..ltJ.& '::l~..ill1' ..l'iz '::l'r . 1:i lUI7 UJ I:'.h. .._~ ~ Jl? 87 L:! jilt ~ -] 2i jl 1....J1 ] ~?}.h~I'f' .'rb-.'r b. ":I~. I:'.P...":ll'f'.> .u) 2 01) .b. ::r c.. .~\.l? .'r b .viD.91 ....: JTI. &1 .":l~ ..'':It?.'rb .. &I.)D 10. 2: .. ...1P. .J] 2) ~ ....1b. .. :::' - ~ '" = c.1J.. ~ .bfJ..ltJ.Ie!{..::i ~ 911 ~7 m7 il % &I i!! / :i~1:i.Jl) L:! 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.. . · · _ .q~"i' "i~........ .j~rQ.. v -...J'.Z.)·~·"'~S 1..''2Ja:J' I1..q~Z.'\ J:. a:J!....>J' spoon and afork from the kitchen... z:...'q'~' ~'~"I'''I'''l.qQ.j"q~"I·ql":i'\· q' ~'\I . ... ...Q.. <:'0...' qSc.....1'.'''''' ..f~' ~~ S ..j''!j''i'5' 'l..q~' "'·9~11......1~.fil)f -~ ~ .. me. C'.' ..>..\c"~"I'''I~..\c"~"I'''I~a:r Wq-~'~' ......c--.q~' K f~''l.c-.)~....>..r:t"'~....'' '' q~~' je.. C'..)"~m". ..· i!)"l' Uj. ..r:>: qQ....' "i~' a:J9:J:. .. '~11. c--..1' "-Ie:. - 9-39'1'11'a:.1~' !.. c--.)' em::. ~ _.)' .q.····~~·~~'\·Ul'\1 g·~·"1.~...~o. .1'~''''~''''' ..' q·Q. . .....r:t"'~.l~r J:.ll~~ S '9~' ~w ~~ '9'Q.j~rQ.jQ' ~11.. ....j~' a:Ja...~...q~I1.·qQ· "!·(l..C'\..' !4q..' ~~'~..".._ c-..S' Sc.l~' ~9~ '11.g"i'~'q...' q~' ~ . ~ ~ 5~'~r 5~'~rH ~ 11..'11...."I"(l j'q~"I·ql':i'\· ~"il Being unable to eat the pork Being able to sleep for two hours Being unable to find the umbrella Being unable to see his neice......... e-.lQ.>. Let us all go to the picnic when the sun rise tomorrow.S''l'llj'~i!)'rlr ~'l'\'''I. ~·l'\'''I.. .r 9'59'n1' a:.1' q~". ....·. '\ l. ...~o.S''I'''ic' ib·n..q~' ""Q.J'~..· ~ e-.... Please bringa clean Wq-~'~'.1~m"'... 'l'1~'~' 6\!a. ... .··· ·.. C'.iI.:it' -a'~"i' \ ~9~'~' . .... ~ ~ "":rsc.:it.j)'5"1'''.. /1 ~.. _ . !4..E. c-.··..·.. ~"l' ib..' ...... c...>I'>...<..'i!) "l' "I~"i'''l''i'"i "l' i'"i 2..q~".10 Exerc ises of Lesso n Fourt een (a) Transl ate the first senteh ce and repeat it by susbtittuting Tibetan susOti uting words for the underl ined. mr.r -. '~11.' "I"~' ~''r''i .:.>I·"I~"l· ~'~"I'''I 'l'>... _-.1~'' ..j' (b) Repea t the following sentences by filling in the Tibeta n equivalents of the English words : .· _ _ - C'\..)' q~il)' il) "'~'a. .)~ ..~... q..1· 5T q~~ ·11. . . . ..q~".... .~.:t .' .....11....q~Z.9·n.1'9iJ.. .' ""Q.. "-I!:f~' ~ ~"i'~'~I1..~' il) '~~'l'1q' q~'5~' q'1il) . -.."""'0 """'0 .lr "I"ic' "l'~i!)'~i!)Si~' "l'~i!)'~i!)Si~' ~c"~c..>..j)'i)"I'''II... Take those towel away and come here after one hour.' . - ~.~r ~...T.c:.~ ~ '..l~r .)' ~il)' "-I~' q~' a:Ja. .j' "... 14.lQ.>.....>..C'...'J::Jr.. _. c--. ..~. .q~' 6\!e.. c-.q~I1.' ~.. -a'~il)' - C'. .q. . T. .. c-.. c .s.T..... . S C'\.. ibnr ~F ~c..)'~I ~W '9'Q..q~"i'"i ~'. iJ)flr!iF q~' 3.q~~' "i~' ~"'i' "._ 'I... 2.. .' !. '3r ~iJ...· ~9~'~' . "'. . .l'J'jr. c--.....)I1. .S''r''ic'' iJ). ..i' "..' q.. g...<.)I 11..1' '2J'RF ~"i' 6. c..~r qW~' ~rl. . s''l·or~i!)·r...f' il)~r e-. '-=> 1.·Fa:J~r~~· g.. !..' .. 6\!!..T.. I - r~''I.): a:Ie.j· ~.)·9"'i~· 6\!e..Q.' Uj..·F a:J~·~~' q' ". c-. .>......._ ..q' !.>J.q"'''''~Q..' qSc'·qQ·~~"I·(lj· ~c"~c. g.jj11.>. c-... ... ~ .r"if iI.... ... ~~... ...g"i. il)~' a:J9:<:.' q:J:..~....1'~I:"..i~· ...... iJ). Ja:J'""".' g·~·"1. ..' .'a:J~'~'!:f' a:J' ..' .qqr .·w···· ·····················································..l~r q~' )· ·11.l·~r~ .' a:Ie. . J:...... "Ii): ~11.. _..' ~~ .C..E.jj'9"'~'a.q~""~~a:J~'~'!. 6\!!:fil)' q~' ....·· ·· ·· ·· ~~'~~'\'Ul'\1 " ~ tomorrow summ er next year with your friend after singing the song .n. 9·n.. ..q~il)' il)~.. co. . .rnr~' ~r... 1..... ... "I"~'~'r"i..."I'(l.q~~'...' ..:.jjI1. a:J'. .j-·::5~· !. .. I _ C'....~' t) "i '~~'l'1.f"i' z:p:: ~~.·w··········· ··...>J'''I~''l' .:. g"i' ~"i'''lQ'?''I"(lj" ~'l"i' ~"i'''lQ'?''!'(l..l~ '11..

-ate etc.LES SON FIFTEEN !ill:r cb"i' .>. The verbal compo unds signif:r -ize. Moun tain pass 6. Meditation 14.>fil' d'fil' ~ 'l!"I~'''l-'l' \l!"I"l'"lll' ~ x x "I"i"i" "I"iOi' q~' Q. Whistle 22. Boat %"i'!l"l %Oi'!l"l 'l!"I~'I1l"i' \l!"I"rfllOi' "j' "J . 9."l"l' a. 12. Mouth 3.k x x x 19.to gIve tea party to run a horse to kiss to inject . I to give .>J' ~"l' to put a stand to shout to cough to meditate to curse to layou t mattress to take photograph to wage war to trade. Teeth 23. Verb ~q' ~z:r 2.1 Verba l Comp ounds / In this lesson we will learn how Tibetan nouns are converted into verbs by affixin g special verbal compo unds formed with auxili ary verbs or compl etive termin ations . "I~C:'''l" send" and 9"i'<l' "to do". Call 24.: ~q~'<l' ~tJ"l'Q' "I"iC:' "IOiC:' x x X ~"I' f' fl' flQ' f q' ~"1 :!l"l ~"i' I'jnr I'\nr ~"I'fQ' !:l"l'flQ' Q5"i' Q50i' x x x x x x x x x x x ~"1 :!l"l "I~. 23.J. Horse 8. Photo graph 17. The applicability of these three depends entirely on the Iloun to which they are affixed and are not as want them to be. do business to feel pain "l'jnrm' "l'jI1l'm ~"l' . 3. Shout 12. Busin ess / iii" m~.' ~'q~' "i"l"l £C:' !l"l fllOi' 11l"i' "i' ::J" ~' "i"l"l 'l!"I~'£C:' \l!"I"l'. Saddl e 4. I have yet to analyse linguistically what determ flexible as we would have ines their applicability other than my intuitive knowledge of their every day use in modern Tibeta n. \~.' ql1"1~'''Iw tJl1"1"r"lW ~'Q'>. 24. 17. Power 15. 22.)C:' ' - Hon. The three most comm only used verbalizers are ~1<l'. "to act" "I~C:''''' "to ~Qj'<r.qi5'~' (JI ~ ~ 15. Tea 7. Stand ~ nr \l!"I"l' ~' 'l!"I~'~' nr x X x X q')c:' tJ')c:' x X E: e:' i]' "I"inrE: "I"inre. The following list of nouns with both the ordina cIassi callan guage . x x X . 6. Pain 20. Salt F' t'jnr ~q"r~ ~tJ"l'~ "Ii)'c:' "I. Cough 13. ~"1 is more comm on in the spoke n language than in the literary where as the other two are a comm on featur e in the classical language."l~' x x x x x x to reply to whistle to bite to call to row a boat :!" :!' ~"i "I~F:\I"i' "I~F~"i' x q')c:' tJ')c:' x x "I"iC:' "I0iC:' x - qQq~" qtJ"f~' - . ry and honorific forms and honorific the verbalizers are some of the standard expreSsions: expres Noun 1. 21. 5.F~"i' x x 11. as in "to moisturize" or "to fertiliz e" etc" in Englis h. Needl e 10. Reply 20. 9"i'z:r They are used as independent infinitives as well as verbalizers. Mattress 16. Mouth 9. Trans lation ~Q' Q5"i' Q50i' "I"iC:' "IOiC:' q5"i' Q50i' x X to close a lid (to kiss) to criticize to saddle to add salt to cross a pass . Mouth rr F' ~ ~ Noun Hon. War 18.

I'''I~''I' t. Love 35. 'i"lP"q' "i"lP"q' "i"lP"q' x x x x x x x xx xx X x xx .~'i'rlf "\"1' ElZ\l' "I'"l' ~"I'~q. person with will g tj~at you wil l help this per He is hopin t He is hop ing tj~a _~I' _~I' S· a:j'P.P."I~I:.~ d with' Verba Compounds 15. g. \11 . daughter.'QQ'¥i... other criticizee other people.s " .~"i''Jf "\"l' -'l"l' ~"I'!!!q- .... i''l' .QQ'~"I Z\l' .e: ~r>l'~Q'Q' ~'il 1. Hand 27.'r 32..'j5. ~f..>r not is people other criticiseethe gooddveryynot is peo ple oth er criticis the goo ver people..~.?' "'"'1£1:. ... . Pai nt 26. Son g 27. in love to be fond at. middle Your young er son is fond of my middle Yo ur you nge r son fond 4.~iJ: ~q' 'OJ' '<:"1"1'Q'''I"\I:.I:....~':3' .".his study.>Jj'l"\'~' £'~'.q.'i"ll 5.>rail:. perdo ableeto timeeveryynot is r do abl to tim ver not is itation pro I Iyearrsixtyynot reach before untililmeditation prope yea sixt not reach before unt med to meditate properly beforeI Ireach sixty years of age."1"\ '~' P. the builders are unable to wo rk har Wh en the sun is hot."i'~'~"I jj'P'''i''l .:-'.Q' ~·a.."\'[1J '4' J. Ho pe 30. Lov e ~'~[1j' ~'~[1J' 9'1' 9"i' xx xx xx X xx ~"1"1'~[1 ' ~"I"I'~[1Jj' 'i"1P'."\p. ii'~"I' .Q' "--. ..~' :3' J.>I!tl"\ P.~.' Q'~'r>l'''i''lp.~'D."\'[1j''I.I"-l' 31.. ItItisisnot veryygooddto criticiz not ver goo to "\P.~iJ.'a.~ . j.'''1"\ I:."ll Lj'''I"\1:. "It'"t"1' "It'"t"l' [1j"l"l' [1Jo.r "''il 8. 1:.z:r ~'a. this car driver was aafish seller."\'nl'.§'i' Lj' il'il 9.>lj'l<li''p. "1'~"\ \ 'P. ~il:~tr ~"I' q5'~\~"1' tl' ~~'iOj"1''']Z\l' ~r 5lQ'''I~I::."\' re fish seller is car driver this hereeat not comeebefore fish seller is car driver this her at not com befo er was fish seller. jj'''It'"t"\'!'l1'!tl' q')~'~'~'''1''1 rJ'~'~"I'.<:r 32...q:i. Pre par atio n 34. Before comin g here.. I:.::ljQ'''I"\I:.I'a q'ai"i'''i''l'' e ifdifficulty very do able not is construction man those sun hot have if difficulty very do able not is construction ma n those sun hot hav unable to work hard. Pro test t 29.f ."I~I:.rj'l· Q')~'~'~'''1''1''. ':)j"l'.q- [1j"1''']' ~"I"Ol"1' [1J"I''']' ~"I'Ol"l' ..w'r~':i''l' ~"I' ~5. Paint 25.' ¥i.. Aggre ssion 31.u:jl:.1 ''--.>J'''1''1' ii·'I'll..'~"1' j. rs before My parent s advise d us for two hours before we left the My par ent s advised us for two hou . Protes 28. my stu den tt sev en by yesterday mor e Em bas sy.j'P''1"1 .5"1 2.jr P.I'u:jI:.>Jj'l"\' "''11 6..QI:.'. .>J'''I~Z\l' "\"1' Q(ljQ''S'<fl' £'1'''I~Z\I' :'i.r::: "I' s'''IiOi"\' Lj'' ~"I'I:.25.. "I'~"·r:>.. we hou house.'e:''~[1j'~Q'Lj'~"il 1.'a.2 Exam ples of Sentences used with Verball Comp ounds 15..Q'5.~'p. rea ch six ty years of age ch tim to be abl I Ido not haveeveryymuch timeeto be ablee tomedita te properly before do not hav ver mu ~ ~ " " " :<'''il 8.?' 1' ' £1:. g.).llQ'~' jj. jill:.. do did two fro m advice hou r two dur ing do did we house from not come before at paren t two from advice hour two during se fro m not come before at par ent we left the house.QI:... Song 26.' "J"I' fS"i'~"I' jjr p.' .' ~q' ~~ 'OJ' -' mind hope p of study help t!lo min d hop e do he by you by man he by you by ma n this ofstudy to hel son wit h .>J·'l' ').j"'-l' E:'~[1j' E:'~[1J' £"1' £"l' "I~~'''It'"t''1' "I~~'''It'"t''l' xx xx xx xx XX to paint to paint to sin g to sing to sha ke han ds to shake hands to protest t to protes to hop e to hope to wo rk to work to act gre edy to act greedy to rep res ent to repres ent to pre par ee to prepar to act wit h con ceiit to act with conce t to be fon d at.I!tl"\'~' £'~' J.' QQ' ¥i. 7.ti'~·:i"l'. §'1' ..I. ''''' ~"1'ljQ' Lj""'iZ\l a.r::::)jQ'''I"\I:.. . in love ~ ~"1 ~"I xx "I"l~' "1"1~' q[1j' q[1J' ~"I"1.'q-"'''il 4. d.... Work 3D.>I'''1''l'~'~' q'Q'' . 7.'q·ai'i·'1Z\l·'1"]p'·p.~. Repre ent ativ e a. terd ay morni ng at the Chi nes Embas Seven of my studen s protes ed yesterday mo min g at the Chine se Sev en of my studentts protestted yes ''It1I .j·"It'"t"\·n. §"i' "..i:~<:r ~"I' q5'~\~"I'!j'l'~~'iOj"l''']''I'~' 5lQ' '~"":~ -'.>J' a.Q"5.5"1 2.llQ'~' jj. Ag gre ssio n a..'qiJ.'!5J. this car driv Bef ore com ing here..~'P. Con ceiit 35..>ref ')J.':lj"l'.1'"\ "I' .. Rep ressentat ive ~'~"I Q~"1"1'~"1 33. Prepar ation ~'~"I Qt1"1"1'~"1 33.~.. When the sun is hot.. 'Q' §'i'~·P.. 'ii' §"i'~'p.1 fon d daughter middle your son young er by my daughter middle the to fond of do you r son you nge r daugh ter.>J·cl' . jiil:.' a.::~ - ~ ~ nl'.>I!tl"\'"'''il 6.. Conce t 34.rail:. Han d 28.>J.).~'p. '!ii':i"l'~' . 1l1"'" ~'~"I' J. '!ii':i"l'~' J.' "IZ\l' fS.' . Wo rk £.'i'~' :i"l''j.r::: "J'S'''IiOi'"\'Q Z\l'I:.I'~q' q""s~.>J'~Q' Q"'S~.2 Ex am ple s of Sentences use tion did nin g Chinese embassy at demonstra n did my studen seven by yesterday morning Chinese embassy at demonstratiosy.' q-"''11 1:.' QQ' ¥i.- x x X x ::-.-'" '.' £. the builders are Q(ijQ S' ~' £"i'''l~''l' :'i. Hope 29. P..p.5"1 '3.Q'S'a:!'p.. Q'~'[1j''i''lP.>J'"\ Z\l' ..:i"l '3.§"i' Q'il"il 9.'QQ'~"I "I'. I:..' a. study.'.. I:. ' a.."i" 'i''][1j"1·~·:i"l' ~"l'. ~"I"I'~' :i.

I will not regret if I feel the pain even atler taking this medic ine now.·

I by medicine now on eat ifpain come even if regrta t have /lot not

10. fir:.' g;·ml::rjr:.· S,\·r:>.~,\·Ui'\·d\r:>.r:.·mer~.":r:>.~C1j·~·J.l· ijer ~"1"J,j" '!l'\' 'J" ~'\, fir:.· g;·ru"rjr:.· :>.r:.·rucr~.":r:>.~C1l·~·J,j· ij<f ~"1W '!i,\' ~,\I they study do wish have even if school at enter place /lot gain being not not /lOt admit did Even though they wished to study, there being no places (left) they could not get admis sion.


153 The Use of S'\'q Verba l comp ound S,\·rr
Let us look into the literary Tibeta n verbal compo und S'\'Q" in associ S,\·Q· ation with the tenses . S,\' '.r meani ng 'to do' comes from the noun S-lf "actio n". It is a Q' S-<r widely used verbal compo und which can be affixed with the auxilia ries. S,\"Q" can also be used s,\"rr as causat ive when the princi ple verb is postpo sitioned with'th e agreea ble C1j'~d\' termin ative particl C1l'~d\' es i.e. "': . :<:

s-q. S-""



Presen t

Perfec t S'lf 9'1f

FutUre Future

9· S'




~·~·,\·~·C1l·~,\·Ji·~·q"·S'\·~1 1. ~'~',\' ~'C1j' ~"'Ji' ~''''-t,'S'\'~1

parro t the water in play does The parrot plays in the water.
2. ~r:.·lJ·,\'I'.jj' "5r:.·q~·~"I·q9"1·~I ~r:.'Q''\' "l·.jj·"5r:.·"'~·~"l·<J"S"l·~'

farme r byizot allow ofmistake did by not ofmistake The farmer comm itted a crime.

3. ~d\ ·S·J,jr:.· "'''l' S·~J.l"l·Ui,\·~r:.· ,\' J,j'.l;jQ' q/ "1"1' :;r~J,j"l·Ui,\·~r:.·S J,j'.l;j'r ql S'\'



remem ber many by do mind have even if do not able did Owing to many things to remem ber, I was not able to do even though I had planned to do.
4. Uj·~·'\·"I~J,j·r:.·Uir:. ',\"I'~'~r a;-t,.Q'§"ll ~J,j·r:.·Uir:.',\"l'~~f0;,,' q' S"II


hitter the three I come time written finish do Make sure that you finish the three letters when I return.

Noun Nonn
r:>.~-t,'Q' r:>.~".q'

15.4 r:>.~-t,'Q' and r:>.~r:.'q The Verbs of Becom ing r:>.~"'q. r:>.~r:.'q These are the two import ant verbs of becom ing predom inantly used in the classic al Tibeta n. It may end a senten ce .b.ut it is often preced ed by an adjecti ve, noun b,ut or verb with the termin ative -t,.'
. .

r:>.~r:..q' r:>.~r:.'Q'


Presen t
r:>.~-t,' r:>.~'"

Perfec t
~-t,' ~",

r:>.~-t, r:>.~"

~-t,'i5"1 ~"'i5"1

Imper ative




1. ~".~Q"lJ.l·lJ~·~di' .l;jJ,j"l'" '\'r:>. ~Q"lJ-t,·r:>.~-t,· ~I ~,\.~ q"lJ,j' Q~' ~di' llJ.l"l"" '\'r:>. ~'l' Q"'r:>.~'" your wish of meani ng all fulfil will You will fulfil all the things you wish to accom plish.
~ ~


2. '\' di "l'~"I"l" ~r:>.r:.' .<l'\" l,j-t,·5-t,· d\ "l'~C1j'''I(W~''I''5' ct."!' ~I "I.~"I"I. ~r:>.r:.. -<l,\' Q"·5"· "I·~C1l·"I,",di '~"I.'5. J',"I'

that from friend anybody not having become land other to went Then, not having any friends , they went 10 anothe r countr y. to



<ii'\1 6. t;. '[lf~'~'q'7::"'\~"l'~' ''It;.'·q·~·':i''J·<ii'\1 6, '[l[l'f~' q7t;.''\~''I'~' ''It;. q'~ '':i''J' have I to letter sen d nee d to many very I have too many letters to be sent. Q' J.f ~"I 7, ",t;.·1irS"l"l,q'fll· "l~'~"""J~t;.'~'o.~'~"J'' q. J-f ~,\I "t;.' rS"l"l'Q'fll' "l~'~"'''J~t;.'~'o.~'~''J

goo d not is sel fof frie nd to hea d spin to do this good, y Telling lies to one's friend is not ver
0 )"I' q:ll,''\9''i'~' :<''\1 q~"i \''\9''i'~' :<',\1 "l~' .li' Jit; .'~' "l'W1'~"i' Q' "17'7°)"l' 8. 8, "J-'lo.'~' "l~'~~Ji' .lit;.'~' "l'7"l'1'~'\' q'"1 is to happy doing stay nee d to there Sun day of day on peo ple of equ al ily, 's family. e to enjoy with one On Sunday,, one ought to spend tim

,\' ~,\I '<ii"i' "l' ~"il 9. ~'''l·'7''1·q",a;t;. 'o.l1t;.F~·o..~'~"J'Li' q~'~ 9, ~'''l'i)''I'<l''' 'a;t;.·o.l '~'o ~·~''rLi' ~ goo d consider to hav e not is day every on alc oho l drink to this ay, g alchohol everyday. There is nothing good about drinkin



~"I ,,")' ij"r ''ili' ii"r~' "l' ~,\I will by sel f other who eve r benefit do not peo ple oth er to mo uth sen d do this help oneself nor others, rior Criticizing oth er people will neither
o.",' 1O. ,l:j'' l'\"l·fll'fl·"{i)!:'-'Ufo.~"l' ~ ''Il'\~' ~'fll 1O. j:j·"I'J!'j"l'fll'I'l'''{i)","Ufo.~''I' ~''''I!'j~' ~ffllo.!:'-'

Cla ssi cal Tib eta n 15.7 Be gin nin g a Sen ten ce in '" nou n ". ich all share the dem ons trat ive pro ber of sentence opening clauses wh There are num les which owed by single, dual or triple syl lab tha le labJe of the sentence or clause foll of the points that wil l be ma de fro m tha t syf as the first syl ion res s and emphasize the justificat seem to exp is ref err ing to en a sen ten ce begins wit h '" it s, onw ard s. As '" me ans 'that', wh sen ten ce . It can be see n both as a definite ntioned or assumed to be connected dep end s on the nat ure of the vio something previpusly me Tibetan, however it largely st of the fol low ing and indefinite article in classical ce, examples beg in a sentence. Mo , pounds. No t all of the following com demonstrative particle o.~': examples can also be used with the therefore "''1j'ili' "''Ito)' likewise "'\11'''' "''ll ''': As to that "'fll' thereupon "'~"l'' however '" 0)"1 "''ll'.ii,\'~' oft hat kind "''li'.ii,\,~. "''II'S' so ma ny "'~,\' ".~!:,-, namely so it is i'~' " '~' "'~" "',,'q~J "''''q~.li so it is therefore ".q"l' ". "1"1' for that yet ,,~!:,- ' "''l!" ",' "''l!",~ thus i' "'~'\' that much ,,';>"l' because '" ;>"l' '~"'~'Ji' '~""~'.li' "'~~ "'~~ thu s far similarly "'~,\' "·q~")'1' "·q~ili'1' at the time ,,~..ii"·fll· "~' .ii,\'fll' at about that time "l'ili "';>"l'il)' since then I'q~t;. "'~"l'q~t;. from that "'fll"l' therefore "'\rq~r~' "''l!'q~r~'


,:".y ".y


~~?t ~~~

::"li' ?~l






. t~)'tt t~)!t


,,'9"" ,,'9 ,,'





o.~''ll-'-'~t;. o.~''11''''~t;.''
o.~.~,\, o.~'~,\'

as to this so this is however thus

o.~,\,!"" o.~'I'!""
;.' o.~;fll'~t;.·

o.~''II' S' o.~'\lf in this way further to this o.~'i5"l'

of this kind thi s ab ou t than this similar to this


o.~,~~,~"" o.~'~~'~-'-'

,\'~"I' d~'~'\'~"l'

what is this for o.~'q"l' o.~'qq~Ji'5: 0.~' ~.li'5.' thus

r:>.~-;;'''l ''I:r:. r:>,~'a;"l'-''I:r:.

now onwards p.~'<)"J,J'a;' p.~'<>J,J-;;" owing to this

at about this time

r:>,~'\r"l"l';;' r:>.~-\r"l"l-;;'.

Exam ples:
1. ~'nr -"J:.'~'.l\ J,J"l'!1l'l-i')"' <g' "i'F"In.' "i!1l'0.8""'~· .it',:!"!" ~-~-%"i' 1_ ~-nr -".1:: ~- .l\d1"l-I1%') <g-"i''jD." "Ill.-"i11l-o.S-",- ~- .it,,:!,,!,~,~. ~"i' that to self we found to difficult leisure endowment ofhuman body that ofhuman as to find did As to that we have found the precious human rebirth with leisure and endow ments which are difficult to find. find_

2_ ~-'lI-".- "I4"i-</ "I~;;' -<Ja;' QI]"r "i~"i'!:l' "i~~r <r ~-'lI' 2. ~''lI-''.' "I4"i' <I'" "I~a;'-.<J;;, -"11]"1' "i~"i' ~r "i~"l' <I' ~''lI' <!i'~' ~"I'.ll"f "I~"i' -<J' ~Q' <if ~"I'.ll"J' "I~"i'.<J. ~q <il that like explained true not examine analyse do need that like forn the time being decide not able do It has to be exami ned wheth er what has been said is true or not, theref ore we canno t make a decisi on, on.
3. 14'J,JfJ. '~"i':s."I'~'''I3i "l' ~(1j'~''lI'~' 4"l'l./"'"'S"l'3i"l' t, "I' 4~' S"i'4"l' <r "i~"l'~' J.JfJ. '~"i':s."I'~'''I;;' ~(1r~''lI' '3' 4"l''-I-'', S"l';;'"l'if, 4"l' S"i' 4"l' "i~"f ~I paren t's happiness suffering ofsituation that like known having done of situation conten ted do know need to In this way, knowi ng the state of affairs of one's parents, one should .In learn !earn to be conten ded.
4. (2"i'-"J:.'''I'"Jt;.. <1' J;' '~F ~'<)"J,J'(1l"l'~"i' l./....!I!J,J. ~a;. q'~"l'''I'' :i:S"i'''1 f§"i' ~'''r"l<:'' '1' ~'<>J.J'I1j"l'~"i' '1 .... !I!d1. ~;;,. <:i'~"l-"I :<:S"i-"1 your feet big small that much only not having shof big that by what do will What are you going to do wi th those big shoes when the size of your fee~ is no more than that? -.. ;...." ,,;.. -.. .... " ..,. 5. "i'a;"l' .Q!j<:"j!lJ,j'l./r:>,'~' J,J"i·Q""·-~-".-71 "i';;'''f .q!jt;.'I!lJ .f'1r:>.' ~- d1"i·'1-'; ~-".·71 thereupon since well of water not have become did From that time onwards, the water in the well dried.


-->~' -,'.'

',', '.',

6. fl'.q'QQ"l' <1'~~' 5i"i'(1j'~'' J,J'~.q' Q-".'~""'5f 6.fl·.Q· QQ'~r <I'~il.' 5i"i'I1l'~ d1'~.Q' '1-".·~-",·i)1 snow fall that oftime at SUfi cover become did of time sun As soon as it started snowi ng, the sun was obscured_ obscur ed.
7. ~'~"i'''lr:. .~. J,JW4"'" Q""'5."l' ~'~"i·'5.'lr:.·Q·~·"i"l·r:>,§-".·S·J,j' ~"i' ~O:I ~. ~"i'''lr:. J.Jw4-".' Q-",'5."l' ~·~"i-5.·lr:.· '1-~-"i"l-r:>.§-".·S- J.f until tomorrow sun not rise upto time uptil then businessmen arrive not will was said It was said that, "until the sun rises tomorrow, till then the merchants will not arrive" ..


8. ~'llI"i·~"l'~"l'<lir:>.t;.·iiJ'~9'Q'~r:>.t;.'J,J'~'Q""'~t;.'t:'1 ~·llI"i·~"l·~"l';;,r.>.<:'·iiJ·~9·'1·~r.>.<:'·d1·~·Q-",·~<:'·t:·1 thus say howev er understand able whosoever not become did seems smnd seems . Althou gh it was said thus, it seems that nobody were able to hear it.
9. .<i')'f1J' r:>.~. Q' -<In.':ii"l'.llt;.' ~"i' <r ~''lI'''''''lt;.' ';:"I"l'S"i'JJfla;' S!1l'flQ'~' <)"J,J'J,J' ~r:::t:'1 9. .<i')"nr r.>.~- .<J1l.' :ii"l- .ll<:.' ~"i- ~-'lI-",'''l<:'' ';:"I"l'S"i'iQfl;;" sl1l'flQ'~' <>iQ' J.J' ~r::t:'1 Tibet to human being ofrights not have that like however help giver countr of rights y that much not arise did thai There is no freedom of human rights in Tibet, yet there were not that many countr ies willin g to help. help_




Dual Syllab les 15,8 The Three Comp letive Du al Syl lab les 15. 8 Th e Th ree Co mp leti ve le Combination .''l' "Du al Syl lab le Com bin atio n".", ~i'i:' 4i'i:' iii',,\' ~',,\' and 4'''\' are known as '1"i'''I~''I'r:>.'S.''I' "Dual Syllab iiii'i:' ~i'i:' 4i'i:' iii',,\' ~.,,\, and 4',,\' are known as '1"'''I~''l'r:>.'S iiii'i:' tion we hav e dis cus sed ple me under the compltive term inaation we have discussed Althoughthe first three iiii'i:' i-\i'i:' 4i'i:' com e und er the com etive termin gh the first three iiii'i:' i-\i'i:' 4i'i:'co rag e Althou sed by an average ich are not exp res sed by an ave they need furthe examp les of expressions which are not expresate ly they are not earlier, the y nee d further rexa mp les of exp res sio ns wh for tun earlier, tunate ly they are not g as verb to be canexpress. Un compl tive termin tion functioningas aaver b to be can express, Unfor H, A. aschke. They com pleetiveterminaationfun ctio nin dictionariesby Sar al Chandra Da s and H. A. JJ aschke, The y and even listed in the Tibetan Englishdictionaries by Saral Chandra Das d", or has sai d" and is even list ed in the Tib eta n English "is said", "was said", or has said" and is nify "is said", "wa s sai ech and signify are used to expres indirect speec h and sig are use d to exp res ss ind irec t spe ' are use d to exp res sscon diti ona l to expres conditional to the spoke Tibeta :il,",'~, ~'''\'~''· and 4'''\ equivalent to the spo kennTib eta nn:il.... ~. ~·"\·A"\'\' and 4',,\' are used equ iva len t nify "if this is (he, they, she, "if this is (he, they, she, of what was being said or will be said andthus sig interrogative of wh at wa s bei ng said or wil l be said and thus signif y inte rro gat ive so", you, 1) said so" or "if thal was saidso". you, I) sai d so" or "if thal was said said . "I have properly me mo rize d", , so iUs said, "1 have properly memorized" so itis t'li,,'r>j'ill"1>!1' ?kll"i' iiii'i 1. ili"'r>j'iil"1>!l' <k!i"l' iiii'i:,:1 1. "Th e bitc h is angry,",,so it is said . "The bitch is angry," so it is said, 2, is'Jft::.,",'~n:1 2. is·Jft:....·~n:\ "The tigress hide it", so it is said . "The tigress hide it", so it is said, 3, 'ii'll' .ii>!l'~>!I 4il:1 3. 'ii'll' .ii>!l.~>!l. '4rJ:\ " If (I am) asked "wh ere did you go? If (I am) asked "where did you go?" 4, ''F5.'L:!~,\'i5'"\ 4;. ''F5.·L:l~,,·i5·"\1 1 it?" If (I am, you are) asked "wh o took it?" If (I am, you are) asked "who took ~>!I'r:>.6'>:"~'''i1 5, ~>!l·r:>.6·'::~·"\\ 5. " If (I am ) asked "when wa s it mixed? If (I am) asked "when was it mixed?" 6, "\JJ'~"I'r:>.~'II' "il 6. "\JJ'~"1'r:>.~>!l' 4'"II ng 15,9 Class ical Tibet an Reading 15. 9 Cla ssi cal Tib eta n Re adi





;: :~

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15.10 Exerc ises of Lesso n Fiftee n

(a) Repeat the following sentence..s by substituting the clause on the right.
1. fie:'!!"i' ",i"""1~""<ij'~' Q')e:' a;..T.: ili "f "'i"'·"1~",·<ij·~· <6 ..,: "I"
~:rJi. ~'''I~''l''' '8e:' a;.... Q' ~r'\' Ji",'nr ~'''I~''f'' <6"" Ji""nr
4·~"I·"I·rq§'''i"<ij''i' 4'~"I'''I':>.§·~·<ij"i· ili'l, is':;:,

fie:'ir'\ ' mQ'~r'\'"'~"Wi'Q"IIl.''Jirlf"l"ie:'"i"l' fie:' ir'\' ruQ'~r'\' i'Q"Iq Jirlf"l"ie:'"i"l' i§",' ~.~.~",. ",a;"l'~"l'1je:' Q3"""i"l' 6"" ->.c: .~.~",. ",a;"l'~"l'1je:' Q3"""i"l'


2. i§""~r'\'·~·":~Ji·J·r§"i·~·"i' 6",·~r'\ ~""~Ji"a:J"§"i'~'''i'

i§",' "'~'''F~' ~"""i '~'"il 6"" "'~'''F~'~'''' "i'~'''il 6"" ~r'\' '~"" ",~.... "'''l''''~''l'4'"i1 i§",'~r'\ ~ .... ",~..,. ''l'4'"i1 i§",'''F .~. ~..,.~..,. ""r:>.§'~'"i' 6"""Ie:'~'~""~""""q§'~'''i'
3. Ii!'",r'\'''j~e:"l' 'I"~''l!''''''''lq Iir",r'\'''I~e: "I' 'f~''l!'' ''le:'1

e: '(lJ'~' Ji'''l~''P!Je:' ~",. q"l'~' ~"l' ~"ll 'f1J'~' Ji'''l~''r~e:' <j"l'~' ~"II

~Q' <>lr'\'<ij"(lJ' <>lr'\'<ij"",w

"j"l''I" 0." "I"l' 'f~'''le:' "'.~e:' Q.... ~e:' (, Q"" ~e:.

ilfQ'''l''l'~''l'~''rrJf ~'~-nr"'''j'Qj''l" ~I ilfQ'''l'' j'~''l'~'' J f ~.~"C1f "'''I'Q!~


e: "I" ~"'''l'~'l1liJi' q'4"i''2' "'''J(:(' e:nrii'l l ~~"'''l'~'!1l"i'<j' 4"i''2' "'''lll.·e:nr iQI 6""~"I'''je:'''le:''''' j"l' <j''l!'~' 9"" 'fll.~' Jf :3e:' Qr'\'(lJ"l' ~I i§""~"l'''Ie:'''le:''''' :ij"l' q''l!'~' ] 'I"(:(~' :3e:'Qr'\'f1J"l'
('!) Repeat the following sentences by filling in the Tibetan. equiva (';') Tibeta n lents of the English words gIven.

1. m'1"~"l' i'~'iii"l"C1f""Q~"'<g""""""""""""""""""'" ........ ~"'.0''5.''1 ~q.~"l' "j-nr""Q~"'Q""""""""""""""""""""" l




going to sing going to pull the rope going to listen to the radio . going to help the old lady

e:'i·IVQ'ij"i·"l·........··..........··..··..·....·..........··..··..··....·...... ···....qiS...·Ul"·Q"l1 2. e:' i-nrQ'ij"i·"l···············_············································..··.. ·····..r:>.B..,·Ui,,·<j"l1
many new and beautiful books your parent's photographs many old Tibetan coins and rugs yOUT your new pen and uncle's old hat
3. B",·..,e: '"ie: W~f1J' "i"l' Q~'" ~-nr ""IP.' q·Ui,,·················································· · is · e:'"ie: -nr~(lJ' Q~"'~"C1f ""jr:>,'q·Ul" · ·· ""1(:(' q'Ul"1 ................ ""!D." q'Ui", or to run in water or to go to schoo l or to play flute or to learn Tibetan

(c) Identify the case markers in the Classical Tibetan reading (15.9) . (d) Translate the following into Tibetan. '
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

I wili not meet your uncle if I am asked to give him your letter. She will carry this bag and your trousers if you asked her to do it. I am not fond of going outside in the sun even if it is important. Since my husband is not at home, I cannot tell you whether you can take his car or not. If they are shouting at night, my dog will be barking early in the mornin g.

noon. I still cannot pronounce your name Properly. I have leave here at se'len O'clock to meet my mother at the airport.'1 -~"~ • -<! . You should ask me three questions before. 10. May all the poor in the world become happy on Monday! Mayall 7.-. . We have been learnming Tibetan for three weeks.6.~ . . ~ .:~ .~ . 9. . 8.

.. of the ent. etl ~ ~ ICJJfl~"lJ-"'~-'" il\'".. itselfwill !~'Ujt::.:.J""~"" il\' ':... itself will I' ..JI\ !~'~':...' Q':.. c.' Gfij il\S GE.:.'~ ct-Ui"'\.... .l.\I1jWCJJ'SCJJ ~ ''f<lt~! p'lJ r..'~f1j! IG~"1~'iliS'7".'~-"'I:J!\ It::. C'.. -.:..:..'~f1j1 ...:. ~I1j' l:lCJJ~' \) \:':F 'I '> I l'7Ilj'l))'G~'G"" G~r..:.:./ . il\'r.l.l.l... ~ c. IG~' ." co.:.t:..."'):j"'\"U1il\"l)d\'~il\ '~' CJJct9 !~I1j~ '~' S~"7'I1j7CJJ't:.' z:.. 'I ~ ~ ~ " ~ " ICJJ" d\'U1t:.l.Lqf1j1 .15....Jr.>:jCJJ~' \)S:':F '\ "'it:. IUlili'7ili'~t:. that in itseifw ill cause disharmony.. '> .. "He dbes not like me"... c-.:. Even the virtue itself will spread a bad reputation. c-... ..Lqf1j1 I~Ilj~'~' S~'l)'Iljl)CJJ't::. ~' '~f f'1t l:1j' Ulr.' ~CJJ~'t::.~"'J ~ '> ~ ~ '> '> ..:b' QQjf1j" ~'Ulil\ 'l)il\'.\''):j':. does me".:. I f<l t1j' uP:':. ./ Who is there that has not been afflicted by wealfh? Who has always remai ned happy? '.. Even ifsomeone is unloving and dbes not like onese lf if someo ne does One should not annou nce it saying.l..nr .'Q".'lj r.. ... All happiness and sUffering Allhappin~sands~~ing Alternate like winter and summer..S"'I.r~1 '> 1.11 Extra ct from the Elega nt Sayin gs by Sakya Pandi ta Iil\ -'" ~' I1j"'it:..! It:. C'.. ~ . "He is my enemy " ant/.... .QQjf1j' ~'Ulili "7ili ''7'''\1 .:. .f1j' G-"'Iljil\ '> '> l~" ~ili'..: -~""I.:.. '" CJJ' ~I1j !CJJ' SCJJ~' ili'Ult::.:..." ...... e-.J' CJJ' S"l f'1 ~I ~ ~ IQ~"1~' il\S'7':.'ct.. " / As long as One has shame one It is the excellence ofthe virtuous ornament..' ~CJJ~·t:.\t::....\ 9-'" ':....... ~ '> 1.. ... ~ ~.l. C>.1J'Ujil\· ':. .S':. If one announces it.. Ilj ". .:. . edma nneri fthey wise.?':. ~Ilj' G'i:!.\'r..l.r~I1j~1 ~ ~ ~ Those who have small qu(1[ities have greiit iJrrogance qualities great arroga They will live in subdu edman ner if they become wise...' Ujt::.'U1t:.' G"\9'l:1j'':.\f1j"G""I1jili ~I CJJfl~' I..''"'\'CJJ" ~Ilj ~ ~ ~ fO..t::. If one's shame declin es ..'. It is the small rivers which are always noisy Where does the ocean make a clamour? l~"~"'\"~ a>'Ui':.? 9'l)''lj'~'~! I~' ~il\''7Ilj'7"'!j'~'~! '> '> I~' CJJa>' \)'' \)'Ilj'f1j'~9~! CJJct\'S \)-I1j-n..'r.' lJr. ''l:F·r.. Iil\"" ~ ~r aT Ilj"\ t::..' lJ' ~I II)'ll ' G~' G-'" G~':. '~f1j' ctl !Ulil\'l)il\'~t::."G'" til' t1jSlrUlili'"..'.._ . C'-. ~ -"1 1"'\9"" "'\I1jil\' Gfijil\SGe.Ilj' n..'Ujil\'l)ili"~ili "~" CJJetIlj 1r.. '! 1 'U1t:.. '" 'r. r.l.... ..l.. 19' r.

The subject of a passive verb is what in the active verb.e:. / another way.. fll""1"I"i'Ji-. as it S'Ji' "1"I"i'Ji'4"'..K~" ~"il "i <>1"1' aJ~''''iili' <>1'~' "1.. "i<>1"1'aJ"I''''ii!)" <>1'~" "1. thief.. c". qo.did the.. an attempt to make a big difference between active and passive verbs seems to be rather superfh... may also be termed "the object of' the accusative particle fll" But it may also be analysed in fll. The reason why passive is subject. C'./f/i!)") it expresses 'he who eats <>1f1ili' (-"l'J. "i::"l'li!"i'Q"i'q'r.'<>1"l'S'Ji'r>l'''1''I''i'Ji'4'''·''1'~''i1 laughed at the girl"../"I'"1"I"i"Ji" 4"'" "1" ~"il S'Jiw a>t::: J.jfll'.e./~' "1.' ('O"l'qo. is an intransitive verb. full root of the verb..K~' . army by thief the seize did The army will arrest the thief. "'iilj"J. Passive . The only difference is the shift of the subject into object.'<>1"1'S'JJW"1"I"i".") it expresses "that which "10.K"I' "'''il .LESSON SIXTEEN / a>ili' qQ'~Qr'. Everybody laughed at the girl.~. l-.·Q'~''i1 S' fll"ll'l'<>1"1'S<>1"1'Q""I 0 fll'Il'l'<>1~'9<>1"l'Q'''I0Fe::-1 ~ Fe::-../""i'''i<>1''1'J..jnr.<1' "1' Active . but when a past verb stem is followed by "10.. In Tibetan.did Nyima painted that drawing.' <>1"l' S' JJW"1"I"i'.e:./'''i'''i<>1''1' J.. In Tibetan since the subject is not necessarily mentioned. The formation of passive is very simple as there is no change to the idea. "The son is loved by themother"(passive) mean essentially same thing and yet there is difference in the conversion of the subject. army. ~"Ji'~"~"<>1"1"§"f q' ~"il ~'Ji'~'~'<>1~'§'If Nyima by painting the." "1~r~" ~"i I "r Tibetan most by U dialect understand do Most Tibetans understand U-Ke (Lhasa dialect). 16. makes it fuJI of passive idea..~·~"i1 'the letter he who wrote that man this is'. "1"I"i'Ji-./flili') (ate)..cj"'"may be called transitive verb-phrase having S'Ji' as its object./"I'"1."Q·~"i1 "TIiemother loves (her) sdn" (active) and S" marker~. 4'" everybody by gril to laugh did .f passive verbis-done to the subject is expressed by the instrumental case 9f verbTs-done marker. Q"i'q'Z<lnra.K"I""'''il "'iilj' J. the equivalent of the English relative clauses come before the word to clalJses which it relates.' (-"l~'qP") was eaten".<1" 4"'" "1" ~"il a>e:.~:l ."<>1"l'S"Ji't1l'''1''I''i"Ji"4-''.. drilwing." or qo. Let us illustrate this further: a.cj".. sometimes preferred is that greater interest is shown into the receiver of the action than dne who one performs it. dialect)./"l' "1"I"i'Ji' 4"" "1' girl to everybody by laugh did The girl was laughed at by everybody.l\l" For example "l"<>1l\l"s·nrS<>1"rQ·"Ii!)e:..".'"1"1' "i::"I"liI"i'iij'~' ~"il Q"i' q' r. In this fll'''1''I''i'Ji'4'''may way we can understand how it is possible to turn an active sentence into passive: a. "I'<>1'11's'nrS<>1"rQ'''Iilie:.'J.1 The Passive Voice As a rule.' "1"l' "i::~'li!"i'iij'~' painting Nyima by did That painting was painted by Nyima. The agent through which the action <. 'This is the man who wrote the letter' will have the following word order: Uj·~·"'~"<>1f/ilj"~"a'r~·D. and a sentence i.3.. lil'~''''~'<>1f1ilj'~'a'r~''''~':<'''i1 is'. / . ~ S"Jiw a.' "1"r~'Qr ~"il "i::"l"1iI"i"Q"i"q"Z<lfll'a. ~'<>1"1' ~'JJ'~'§"I"q'~"il ~'<>1"l' ~'JJ'~'§"l'q' ~"il thief the army by seize did The thief will be arrested by the army.2 Relative Clauses When an infinitive verb stem is followed by the suffix <>1f/i!)" ('O"J.JI ~z:r a>ili" qQ'~Qr'"JI ~~ ~~ 16. S"Ji" is "goverend by" or.3. The would be an object. of course.lous except superfluous when translating English passive sentences into Tibetan" The ergativity of the Tibetan language Tibetan.. U diaclect Tibetan most by understand do U-Ke is understood by most Tibetans. ~ ~ ~ . .e:."''1"~''i1 meaning "Everybody a>e:. :~. the subject of an active verb performs the action of the verb while the subject of a passive verb receives the action of the verb" .

but a substantive in another or is an apjective in one and adverb in anothe "'1'.5fll ~..:<:. J "1'':<:.§"'" P.'''1' iJ. the basic structu re and knowledge of the follow ing senten ce as an unders tand the conten ts of a senten ce.J'''1' .'l' J.5 >l'q' ~'q'''la''l~'~'~~'~q'''l~''l'P. fl· fl' 9~"1 ~~.'''l!jc.. others ives share some comm on additive partic les and the adject ives and adverbs.lfl<l\' . word classe s help us to isolati on...'fc::l· J. Howe ver. !i1'l i ~' 9a9~'~· substantives adjective personal pronoun indefinite article demonstrative pronoun instrumental (ergative) past participle continuative particle conjunction (expressing contrast) adverb of location adverb of manner auxiliary verb of simple past perfect .'qiJ.. -'':'''1. having but down quickly did ~' .' .l""P.~'" "1'''' j. monk..§r>l'q' ':<:"1 down.l'q' .l""'P.'l~' Chang are changed into ~'q'''Ia''l~'~''''l~' ~'q·"la" 'l~'''-c.6 Deriv ation of Word Class es of langua ge which is As language consist of characters which signify words.--- to eat to copy J.~.'.lS"l~' <I' ~~' tr ~'\' ~'f' J. ~'q'9a"l~' ~'''' j.lflOi' :J'(J' :J''J' J.lS"l~' ~. liit .'.§'<:~'J.l"" J. then the sentence beComes: ~'fC.l'J.lS"l~' <I' ~~' q' .."l!jc. fell ~ Iil'l.. Let us try to analys e the '". substantives do.l'<:P.lS"l~. example: :::. -g "it J.lj'l.lfli\ .lj'l..l"'" J..~.' author farmer copier . We have noticed some jOined as nouns and verbs.~' and by suffixing ii' as most and "q~'l' this is to reiterate that these substantives form their plurals rly this senten ce can be ged.5rfll·q' ~"I ~·q·"la"l~' ~'~ ~'~ q'''l~''l'P.J' J. ~' ~.~' Here in the above sentence ~'q'''la'l~':<'c. and others again as notins exampl~ both of nouns and adject ives.' known as "grammar" q"'~. 6. Havin g taken those books the tall monks escaped quickly but they fell ~·q'''Ia''l~.qi J. ~'q'.5r>l'· o. ~q' fei! down.".\' :J'J. ~ l!fi I!fi r ~ i r:>. joined together to express thoughts and feelings. r.§fll'q' j.~".q'. S'imila moods or by adding the chang ed if we want to speak of simple present or any other tenses and interrogative or a negative adverb of time instead of adverb of manner or with both or make it an be a verb in one contex t ce.'. looks into the way in which those words were given as s.-'-"'1.l""P.'p'§""~' l~' ~. Havin g taken a book the tall monk escaped quickly but he fell down.\' .§ ''':~' J.S"" P.We :can senten ce. the structure words are modif ied and q"..purpo se use of the seven r>l'~Oi' makes it difficult to look at Ii. Nouns and adject injr~.' Now if we want to speak more than one. the forms of examp les in fll'~i!)· multi.q.l'J.'' :':\ Subst antive s from verbs to write iJ.~~- J..lj'l.\' i J.. The rest of the sentence remain unchanged.We ican apply similar tests to most of the words which can . book tall he a by him took:. ~ ~.'p'§""'~' J.

"q" . ~'~i':\'P.i'"9"1' di "I'§~I ~ §.Verbs from Subst antive s "'1"1"1" ~<>..r kindness wealth cleverness & ~~'l..§~"Q(<> i' :.S"1"q"Ui"i" / 16."\"q" ~'i' Subst antive s from Adjec tives ~~'~'l.lj~"1:j" >j~'1:i' ~ short long clean ~~'q' ~~"q" "I~'JI' "I~"JI" ~ >j~ S"l~~" q" . "I~." ~~ "~">l!"fi\f"l"Q ~""i"l"r i". ~'''i''l'l.§~'Q(d.' ~"i"fl"""i" fl'q'oO<>.7 Exam ples This is my offering" (substantive) offerin g." P.'~"\" 'i"lQ"~" \' "'l'~~'q" -'l"~~"q ' blissful edible sleepy "I~'" 00"\' "I~""""i" Verbs form Adjec tives .§~'<. I have not made offerings" (verbalised substansive) gs. How good is this shoes of yours? (adjectival interrogative) Make this plate cleaner.::c beautiful wealthy clever ~~"~" ~~'~' P. ''I~~'q' Adve rbs from Adjec tives Qi"l'Jl' >l!"I"JI" "I"I~'q' "I"1~"q" remainder n(!w clear Qi"l'JI~' >l!"I"JI~" in the remainder newly clearly "I"l~'q~' "I"I~"q~" "1"1"1" q~" "I"l"1'l. to be glad to eat to sleep 'i"lP.r 1<:'<>.' ~~'~'!1I"fi\f"l'P.. 5:"1 ~~'JI' P. (imperative) ~i':\'P."" EI"" ~~'~'~"fQj"l'A ~'''i''l' q'~' ~"I'P.[ q<:.S"1· q'Uldi' A~"d":\"p..i~' ~ "1"1"1' q' "1"1"1" q" r>.ljl:.<>."i" "I~~'~' "I~"'"~" dangerous snowy golden Adjec tives from Verbs / ""IP.i" ~~"~"l. (adjective) Look after this shoes of your properly" (adverb) ly. This shoes of yours is very beautiful.' fl"q"."r " "I~. S"l~~' 'I' ~ shorten lengthen clarify ~"5:""I~~"q" ~s"l~~'q' "I"~'5.""I1 Ei'" ~~ "~">l!"fQj"l"Q ~""i"l"l..'<."\'q'~'i" qc:.i" ~~'~F ~~"~F Adjec tives from Subst antive s ~di'fl' ~"i"fl" fl'q' fl"q" "I~~' "I~~" danger snow gold ~"\'fl'oO<>."JI" strength thief gift "'1"1"1"~cr :!"I"-r sCf ~"~"cr ~'sq strengthen steal give present 'qc:.[ Q§~"r.'""I~~"q" "I"~"'S.i' ~~"l.'q ""IA"q "'l'q' -'l"q" ."r.i ' P.'JI' ~<>.i 9"1" "i "I"§~' EI"" ~~'~'~"fQj"l'P. ~'''i''l'r11i""A ~"1 §.~'''I~~' ~'''I~~ 'I ~~"JI" A~""I"~" 5:""I~~"' .S"1'q's"l' JI' §~ 'I ~~"AS"1"q"!!i"l" JI" §~"' Ei'" ~~ "~">l!"fQj"l"Q ~""i"l" q"~" ~"I"P.r>.

prefix <I' i.write and talk ma ke ma ny textual scholars lan gua ges through books and hav of the language.<l' e the pos t suf fix '\I' i.e. ns on spelling changes of Tibetan ver bs: 1. write con fus ed and blame the ambiguity ng people think.r 'l~flf and i!i"-l'~"I' for the pas t and j" i!i0l'~"I' imperative respectivelyf respectively. The pre sen t stem verbs which end in "I'.<I' and JJ' suffixes tak c. The futu re tense form does not diff er a great deal from the present ste m exc ept when there is no allo wa ble prefix in the present root i. L ISTi O F . here the root letter "I" has cha nge d to . unprepared to examine the relevan al rules written som e 1300 years ago is ina deq aut e if one is ce occ urr ed. e. An y system of theory of such rules. gets dro ppe d i. . delition or susbstituti on of a prefix. the second suf fix '\I'. y not 4.PA RT TH RE E . In forming different ten ses and moods. Tec hni cal ly the post suf fix ".. ~'Il'4"1' in the ~"l' 4"1' imperative form.in the present day and wh y the cha nge s have wh Fol low ing are som e of my observatio ich is not applied in every day pra ctic e is red und ant . c:. In for min g an imperative from a verb such as <1'1. sho uld be added but it is not used in practice since 11th cen tur y afte r the lan gua ge revison.: pre iX . by dro ppi ng the preffix lOr and add ing the '\':. Th is rul e ma necessarily apply with all prefixes. It is the inh ere nt dan ger of lea rni ng any e Me mo rizi ng som e rigid grammatic no practical application of usi ng it as a livi ng language. historical and reli app lica ble for the main ign ora nce of the way Tibetan spe aki gio us con tex t and the k.e. the root of a ver b can three tenses and the be affected eith er by the add itio n.''\' which only has the 'l'1.:' ·rr / 3.l. ers.e. This rule also applies to subjoin lett ers i.students bec om e familiarised with verbs for the tenses and moods it is equ ally imp orta nt that the various auxiliary verbs which are verbs. ~' its future form takes the i. Som etim es even the root Jetter is transformed and the vowel lett is all tenses and moods will not be liste dropped.'. V E R B S . q~ 'wh ich pre fix 'l' i. ! / "".'r and ·fl· both bel ong ing to the same phonOlogical nol ogi group of guttural letters. the present ver b stem ed stem Q§]"-l' is changed into <I~(1 r. In ord er to form the past from a present verb stem like Q"I"f it is cha r.. 2.§]n./'\1' R'If 4"1" for the imperative.::'. <I'IlJJ"l' "l'll" l'll' q~<I"f and 'l"lJ J'Il' <l"l"l"l' q~'l'lf "I~c. Th e lim ited und ers tan din Th g of the cultural. Bu t there doe s not app ear to be any no! consistency in this rule.e.\' inherent a in its present root is cha nge d into ~'\. Examples of verbs wh ich onl y has one for m for will ast to can find the ir meaning in dictionarie d asl hey are unlikely 10 cause any problem as lon g as one s. ~.e.'1r in forming their pas "I~c 'Il' t and imperatives.\':.'. In spite of the importance of kno IJl gov ern the spe llin g changes of the win g the rules wh ich . In doing so.l."I nge d into'l"/'\I' and fl'll' <1.\ ""'\ I A Tib eta n ver b can come in two to fotir different forms to exp res sl the foli imperative.

' Q:ljc. If the present root of a verb ends in a vowel.\'..: ~e:. becomes iij"l' etc.. ~"1 :lj"'~"1 ~e:."r-9"1 :..je:. .-.'_'7. . ~"r. "l~.e.. ...1~-r 4"1 ':I"l' 4"l 'l' .)7. A~l becomes ~"l' and for the past the prefix A' is either dropped or replaced with q' prefix. -r~ "~'''] 9..\' q".e.. :: 10. The prefix "I' is changed to q' for the past but is retained for the imperative i. The prefix Jl' is neither dropped nor changed in forming past and imperative.. qi'j' becomes ~. -'~ :''-. The past form undergoes more changes either by dropping..e.' q~[1j Q~[1j (J~[1j' Q~[1r ...' ~[1j'. Present Past Future Imperative ~ apply medicine honour elect hide supervise wash steal send supplement boil '11' Q1' '11. A~C1f becomes Q' A~Clr q~C1r. 'then the'suffix 'If is always added to form ' qi'j'lj' and q'll' Qi'j"l' Q'II" past and imperative: ~' becomes ~"f.~' q:. 6. Present verb stems withwith perfix A' also changes their prefix into <'I' for suffix.'Ij'4"1 ~C.\'...j'" Q:lj'" ~ - . But there are verb stems which do not apply this rule and retain the prefix.. Here follows a list of some important verbs: English "'' " "'''" j ) 7~l . The prefix 0: with present stem is usually dropped for the imperative i. Qij:j' Qij:j"l'. Q~Clr.' Q:ljc. I 7."l·4"1 ~[1j"~"1 ~[1j'~"1 q:.Q:ljClj" i"'" '~ - ~ q~ Q1" q~ ~~-r4"1 ~"l'4"1 '.· Q1'" Q"j~' q"\~' ql!!e:.je:. qij:j' becomes qij:j'lj'.q:. i.~' qiTj'lj'4"1 Qiij~'4"l ( <I:. "I~"\' becomes "I" Q' for. 8.jClr~"1 l!!C1r~"I \ q~[1j' ~ Q:ljClj" q~~' Q~~' .. The prefix q' in present stem is retained in aU tenses and mpods in spite of other modification Q' moods taking place in forming other tenses. Qi'j' becomes'ij'lj' etc."f4"1 ~c... changing or adding a prefix or adding second suffix.1' ~ q1~' Q1~' ~".'" v v 5.' Q:lj'" - l!!.e.. q:.je:. ~t. . i.. <:1"..jC1f .~' Q~C.' ~ --l!![1j' ~[1j' q~' Q~' - ~C.· Q1'" Q"j' <1"\' q1~' Q1~' -'t~{\ -'~~{\ q'I Q1" '11'" Q1'" Q"j' '1"\' q~r:: Q~C.~' Q:ljc.' q1'1j'4"1 <:I1"l'4"1 q1"'~"1 Q1"'~"1 q1. A' Q' the future and "\' for the past tense.

b~. b" .rulub .r~b .)l (leqwA.!.r~ .b~b tu~'tl tu~tJ .) pUllin yo 1.!'tJ ~ .t.tut~ .@ b6-.r~ b~ .rhJ b~.b~'tJ - .~!J'tl b~.tb biiJ'tl biiJ'tJ .":liiJ'tl .~u~~ pe.tiJtJ .)UBP p.~!i1 IS!lnl ISfA\1 P~[ P~I ~( b~S~ b6-.~!iJ .~!!i'tl .rt:z.biiJ'tl .:J:.b@ ~ ~ bk~tf@ bk~tf@ ..~1b.r~ bk~b~ b~. .)j.!tJ .rl:b .".W..rulub ltJll1'tl ltJlJ1tJ b6-.b~ltJ~'tl b~ltJ~'tJ .~lb...bbJ.tiJ'tl .r@tJ .6-.tu§ .Ii>:J!¥b .tutiJ' J b~.b~b .":liiJtJ iiJ'tl iiJ'tJ .~ ":lliltJ ~ ~ .b!iltJ .li>b~b .tutiJttl .~!JtJ ..~!!itJ yo 1.)PUBA\ b~.tu9!tJ .rhl'tl .~blli - - b~b .J.":liiJ'tl .r€!'tl .) A1.ru91 .)A!PP (sii'U!ql) .tulJ1 ~ .tu!'J'tJ bk~iiJ bk~iiJ bk·~biiJ b~.b l ·~hb ADe.tuF.r~b b~b .tb .~!'J .tu!iJ'tl ."':J~ .blil'tl .r@ I b~.":J~ ..Ii>tf@'tl .~~~ .!.b~b .~tb ~biiJ'tl ~biiJtJ .rhJ b~.li>b~b .'-- b~.t.r€l I .)l IIWO.bbJ.~bli ltJ b6-.li>tfF.Ii> ":liiJ'tl .biiJ'tJ .rt:z.)ns s (qw!I) purq (qw!l) purq t:--.r€l'tl .~bllib b~ .tull1 .":liiJtJ .li>tf@'tl ..) Aeld (spooii) l.b .tu§l'tl .tu!iJ'tl .)UnOU.rulub .~b!il'tl ~ .~ ":lliltJ b6-.tu~~ / / ltJ~'tl ltJ~'tJ (IBqWA.r€!'tJ .b~b .tu!'J'tJ .(sqW!IJ q.rhl'tJ .tu@'tl b".tut~ . J.) IfS.fllb~b .li>tfbltJ .~Ii! .tu!'JtJ .tu~~· b~.tu§ltJ .ru~~ .tu!iJ'tl .)d..fllJ. I!S u!ds Ufds "' "' / / 1 1 .~~~ ..).)ljS .) AB[d Aeld UJoq UJoq qseln qSBA\ P!IJUOJ b6-.b~'tl .ru~b :ru@ bg.Ii> ":liiJtJ .r].ru~b .). iiU!lq iiUf1q '.b~b ~tfhltJ ~tfh1tJ .tu91'tl .):J(BI .rl:b .


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227 .

Surmounted letters The Thirty consonants Continuative particles Contradiction 27. 165. 157. 176. Consonant drill (Surmounted and subjoined) Consonantal denominations Consonants Passive consonants Post suffixes snffixes Root consonant Subjoined Consonants Suffixes 46 196 137 37 162 143 144 145 79 12.i '" L~ Tibetan Completive terminations Readings (Classical Tibetan) Verb 'to be' (Classical Tibetan) / 137 138. 79 4 151-152 163 ..33 22 17 13 23.196 137 8 Combining consonants with vowels Comparison of adjectives Completive dual syllables Completive terminations Complex nouns Condition Conjunctions Disjunctive conjunctions Conjunctions of contrast and similarity . 79 13 . 147.185.

. 161. :-~.. ' :-' ~ ~'* ~..:::~..LL':J Conversation between the Prince and his charioteer Counting over 100 Dative Days of the week Degree of comparison Demonstrative pronouns Derivation of word classes Derived noun sterns pesiderative expressions Diminutive nouns Disjunctive conjunctions Dissyllable nouns Doubt Duration Locative of time Elegant sayings of Sakya Pandita I 167 130 54 68 46 64 203 40 l75 39 144 40 163 n) :..:' -~. 56 133.... ... 'E~. Emphatic expression Ending a Sentence Exclamatory expressions Expressions of time' Formation of adverbs Fractional numerals Gender General months Genitive .. 150.. 141.199 164 2 181 84 134 49 43 76 55 . -~ ir3l _C_'_ .

'-< 174 153 llD 110 110 112 174 182 Imperative Infinitive 65 Infinitive rgyu and ya Instrument of reason Instrumental Interrogative negatives ) 193 154 53 95 162 99 Interrogative reasoning ~ Interrogatives Adjectival interrogatives Interrogative negative Irregular pronunciation Kinship terms KinShip 103-104 95 31 122 la don particles Letterhead 108 2 Letters 1 I Combining consonants with vowels Letterhead Vowels Vowel drill 8 2 71 -1 .230 Genitive datives Gerundial tenninations Honorific expressions Honorific nouns Honorific verbs (Monosyllabic) Idiomatic Expressions of Genitive datives '.

39 40 .'1 76 56 76 50 91 95 164 41 52 35-43.'.72. 42 37 40 . .. 110 Abstract noun compound Complex nouns Derived noun sterns Diminutive nouns DissyUable nouns Gender Honorific nouns Nominal compounds Number t:.231 " List of verbs Locative Locative of time Lunar months Measurements Monosyllabic honorific verbs Months General months Lunar months Tibetan months Mul~placative 203 55 56 56 50 112 -~ -::~ ·>"''"1 .82._ !-i1 numerals Negation Interrogative negatives m (EmphatiC expression) Nominal compounds Nominative Nouns :' -J t't.. ' ' .t 43 110 41 43 -.

182 I Nouns ending in special suffixes Number (Nouns) Numerals Aggregative numerals Alphabetical notation Approximate numerals Cardinal numbers Counting over 100 Fractional numerals MuJ.69 130 49 50 49 171 2 49 I 151-152 108 22 200 172 63 Passive consonants Passive voice Permissive expressions Personal pronouns .tiplacative numerals Ordinal numbers Obligatory forms Order of strokes) Ordinal numbers Origin of the Tibetan alphabet Particles Continuative particle la don particles 49 ' 184 50 47. 130.232 Simple nouns Synonymous compounds Vocabulary nouns / 36 42 82 39 43 47-50.

185.117.31. 196 200 13 ~-~. 157.125 Strokes Order of strokes 2 . 165. 77.4 31 4 2 '"l _ir:I0_ ~'~3_ Place of Articulation Punctuation system Readings (Classical Tibetan) . The Root consonant Sanskrit Tibetanized Sanskrit Alphabet Sayings of the Buddha Sentences Ending a sentence 7 179 "~ -:( 2 Simple nouns Spoken Tibetan (See also Pronunciation) Useful expressions 36 70. 107. Relative clauses 138.£55 Place of articulation (Pronunciation) Possessive pronouns Post suffixes Prenomina1 adjectives Prenominal Pronouns Demonstrative pronouns Personal pronouns Possessive pronouns Pronunciation (See also Spoken Tibetan) Irregular pronunciation 4 63 17 47. 98.V) 63-64 64 ·~<0 63 63 5.201 _"~. 147. 176. 88.V) _"~.

Future conditional progressive Tenses.. Conditional perfect Tenses.234 <' ". Future progressive Tenses. 126-129 121 129 127 121 128 127 121 128 126 120 127 126 126-129 119 119 118 4 76 116 81 / Tenses. Simple present The Thirty Consonants Tibetan months Tibetan quotations Tibetan verb . Present perfect progressive Tenses. Future perfect Tenses. Tenses. 79 13 27.79 42 118-121. Past perfect 23. Conditional perfect progressive Tenses. Simple future Tenses. r Subjoined consonants Suffixes Sunnounted letters Synonymous compounds Tenses (See also Verbs ) Tenses. Progressive Tenses. Simple past. Pa~ perfect progressive Tenses. Future perfect progressive Tenses. Past progressive Tenses. Present progressive Tenses. Present perfect Tenses.

235 . 98.. 88.117.--. 107. 107. 117." 175 ~'~ 70.~ . Verbs of Imperative Infinitive Infinitive rgyu andya List of verbs Monosyllabic honorific verbs Passive voice Tibetan verb 90 89 191 182 o 65 193 205 112 200 81 ...~:~~1 '~:~.~.. " Tibetanized Sanskrit Alphabet Time Expressions of time 7 84 Locative of time Traditional Buddhist sayings Use of dgos and 'dod Use of dgos and 'dod Useful expressio\ls expressiolls Various auxiliaries Verb 'to be' in classical Tibetan Verbal compounds Verbs (See also Tenses) Au~liary Au~liary verb 56 188 175 .c~1 65 192 80 -}:y~ -}?-~ --~~-'a O':~ Auxiliary verb: myong ba Auxiliary verbs. .. Combined: yad dug yod Auxiliary verbs.'.~1 187-189 '~. 77. Combined Auxiliary verbs.~. Combined: yod red Becoming. 125 180 137 --.~1 --'.--.

236 Various auxiliaries Verb 'to be' in classical Tibetan Verbal compounds Vocabulary verbs Vocabulary nouns Vocabulary verbs Vocative Vowels Vowel drill / 180 137 189-191 82 82 82 57 1 71 163 66 73 89 Wish Word order yin (Auxiliary verb) yod red (Auxiliary verb) . .

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