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Teaching Reading Skills and Vocabulary in the Primary ESL Classroom
LESSON 1: INTRODUCTION TO READING IN THE PRIMARY SCHOOL
Mohd Iskandar Daud (IPGKKB)
Mohd Iskandar Daud Lesson 1 2012 1
Definition of reading The importance of reading Types of reading Factors influencing reading
Mohd Iskandar Daud Lesson 1 2012
Definition of reading
What is reading? Def: understanding the meaning of written or printed words or symbols OR Speak written or printed words aloud (Oxford Dictionary) Which one is more appropriate to our context of learning?
Mohd Iskandar Daud Lesson 1 2012 3
Definition of reading
Other famous definitions: Reading is the process of constructing meaning from written texts. It is a complex skill requiring the coordination of a number of interrelated sources of information (Anderson et al., 1985).
Mohd Iskandar Daud Lesson 1 2012
1987) Mohd Iskandar Daud Lesson 1 2012 5 . Weber. & Roeber. (2) the information suggested by the text being read. Peters.Definition of reading Reading is the process of constructing meaning through the dynamic interaction among: (1) the reader's existing knowledge. and (3) the context of the reading situation (Wixson.
2001) Do you understand? How? Refer to meaning again.Definition of reading Drawing information from a text and combine it with information and expectations that the reader already has Consider this headline: „England in six-wicket collapse‟ (Harmer. Mohd Iskandar Daud Lesson 1 2012 6 .. J.
Definition of reading This indicates understanding a piece of discourse involves much more than just knowing the language (Harmer. in Harmer. 2001) We need „pre-existent knowledge of the world‟ (Cook. 2001) This pre-existent knowledge is often referred to as schema (pl: schemata) Mohd Iskandar Daud Lesson 1 2012 7 . 1989.
knowledge. 2001) Consider the following anecdote (from Brown. The reader brings information. emotion. 2001): Mohd Iskandar Daud Lesson 1 2012 8 . Schema Theory – a text does not by itself carry meaning. experience and culture (schema) to the printed word (Brown.
Caught off guard by the sudden attention. er Mohd Iskandar Daud Lesson 1 2012 9 . uh.Anecdote: A 15 year old boy got up the nerve one day to try out for the school chorus. despite the potential ridicule from classmates. His hall permit clutched nervously in his hand. His audition time made him a good 15 minutes late to the next class. “Oh. but his entrance didn‟t go unnoticed. a red-faced Harold replied meekly. he nevertheless tried surreptitiously to slip into his seat. “And where were you?” bellowed the teacher.
Understanding of the anecdote requires two categories of schemata: content and formal schemata Content schemata – what we know about people. the world. culture and the universe (in this anecdote. it‟s a prerequisite to understanding its humour) Formal schemata – our knowledge about discourse structure (the storyline / what is written) Mohd Iskandar Daud Lesson 1 2012 10 .
Pleasurable reading ◦ Takes place largely for pleasure – eg: poetry. Instrumental reading ◦ This helps us achieve some clear aim or we have some kind of utilitarian or instrumental purpose in mind – eg: reading a road sign to know where to go 2. etc (by-product: language fluency) Mohd Iskandar Daud Lesson 1 2012 11 . 2001) 1.The importance of reading To know the importance reading. we have to look at the reasons for reading Two broad categories of reading (Harmer. magazine. cartoons.
etc (Just like instrumental) 2. „gents‟. Reading for learning – reading serves the wider role of extending our general knowledge of the world. exit. 1992) 1.The importance of reading Other reasons for reading (Wallace. We learn new things by reading. Mohd Iskandar Daud Lesson 1 2012 12 . Reading for survival – the reading we do in response to our environment to serve our immediate needs and wishes – eg: stop sign for motorists. „ladies‟.
etc Mohd Iskandar Daud Lesson 1 2012 13 . ideas. feelings. enjoyment. etc). gives us knowledge/information/ideas. we‟re not interested in pronunciation or grammatical structures used. Conclusion: Reading is important because it improves our language. gives us pleasure.The importance of reading 3. Reading for meaning – (excluding reading for language learning) we normally read to get something from the writing – the meaning/message (eg: facts.
2001) Mohd Iskandar Daud Lesson 1 2012 14 . Extensive reading CLASSROOM READING PERFORMANACE ORAL (READING ALOUD) INTENSIVE SILEN T EXTENSIV E (Brown.Types of reading There are three types of reading: 1. Reading aloud / Oral reading 2. Intensive reading 3.
Double as a pronunciation practice iii.Reading aloud / Oral reading Def: To utter/say/render aloud words from texts Advantages: At the beginning and intermediate levels. reading aloud can: i. Serve as an evaluative check on bottom-up processing ii. Serve to add some extra student participation if you want to highlight a certain short segment of a reading passage Mohd Iskandar Daud Lesson 1 2012 15 .
While one is reading. others can easily lose attention (or silently rehearsing the next paragraph) iii. May have outlook appearance of students participation when in reality it is mere recitation. Mohd Iskandar Daud Lesson 1 2012 16 . usually advantage (iii) can be gained by reading aloud Disadvantages: i. Not an authentic language activity ii.Reading aloud / Oral reading For advanced levels.
" He draws an analogy to intensive reading as a "zoom lens" strategy . Mohd Iskandar Daud Lesson 1 2012 in a short passage.Intensive reading What is intensive reading? Brown (1989) explains that intensive reading "calls attention to grammatical forms. of vocabulary and grammar points." 17 . rhetorical relationships. implications. led by the teacher. discourse markers. Long and Richards (1987) say it is a "detailed in-class" analysis. and the like. and other surface structure details for the purpose of understanding literal meaning.
content and grammatical structures repeat themselves and students get many opportunities to understand the meanings of the text. the more comprehension is promoted. either due to the subject matter or having read other works by the same author.Intensive reading How is it done? Intensive Reading. may involve students reading selections by the same author or several texts about the same topic. sometimes called "Narrow Reading". Mohd Iskandar Daud Lesson 1 2012 18 . When this occurs. The success of "Narrow Reading" on improving reading comprehension is based on the premise that the more familiar the reader is with the text.
Characteristics of intensive reading usually classroom based reader is intensely involved in looking inside the text students focus on linguistic or semantic details of a reading students focus on surface structure details such as grammar and discourse markers students identify key vocabulary students may draw pictures to aid them (such as in problem solving) texts are read carefully and thoroughly. again and again aim is to build more language knowledge rather than simply practice the skill of reading seen more commonly than extensive reading in2012 Mohd Iskandar Daud Lesson 1 19 .
Intensive reading Materials: usually very short texts .not more than 500 words in length chosen for level of difficulty and usually. by the teacher chosen to provide the types of reading and skills that the teacher wants to cover in the course Mohd Iskandar Daud Lesson 1 2012 20 .
Intensive reading Skills developed: rapid reading practice interpreting text by using: ◦ Word attack skills ◦ Text attack skills ◦ Non-text information Mohd Iskandar Daud Lesson 1 2012 21 .
Intensive reading Activities: Intensive reading exercises may include:looking at main ideas versus details understanding what is implied versus stated making inferences looking at the order of information and how it effects the message identifying words that connect one idea to another identifying words that indicate change from one section to another Mohd Iskandar Daud Lesson 1 2012 22 .
Intensive reading Advantages It provides a base to study structure. vocabulary and idioms. It provides a base for students to develop a greater control of language It provides for a check on the degree of comprehension for individual students Mohd Iskandar Daud Lesson 1 2012 23 .
Intensive reading Disadvantages There is little actual practice of reading because of the small amount of text. In a class with multi-reading abilities. Mohd Iskandar Daud Lesson 1 2012 24 . The text may or may not interest the reader because it was chosen by the teacher. There is little chance to learn language patterns due to the small amount of text. students may come to associate reading with testing and not pleasure. Because exercises and assessment usually follow intensive reading. students may not be able to read at their own level because everyone in the class is reading the same material.
Extensive reading What it is Brown (1989) explains that extensive reading is carried out "to achieve a general understanding of a text. p. not for specific details." The aims of extensive reading are to build reader confidence and enjoyment. Extensive reading is always done for the comprehension of main ideas. concentrating on meaning. "reading for gist" and skipping unknown words." Long and Richards (1971. usually out of class.216) identify extensive reading as "occurring when students read large amounts of high interest material. Mohd Iskandar Daud Lesson 1 2012 25 .
She suggested the following „slogan‟: "The best way to improve your knowledge of a foreign language is to go and live among the speakers . The next best way is to read extensively." Mohd Iskandar Daud Lesson 1 2012 26 .Extensive reading Supporting proponents: Nuttall (1982) wrote that the idea of Extensive Reading should be "standard practice" in second language learning.
There was also evidence of gains in vocabulary and spelling. Mohd Iskandar Daud Lesson 1 2012 27 . motivation and attitude. Nuttal (1998) argued the case for Extensive Reading programs citing research studies that showed "impressive" gains in reading ability. and overall linguistic competence.
In 1993. Krashen (1995) argued that 'free voluntary reading" could be used a "bridge" from communicative language competence to academic language competence Mohd Iskandar Daud Lesson 1 2012 28 . he termed it "free voluntary reading".Extensive reading Supporting proponents: Krashen (1984) supported Extensive Reading because he felt it automatically gave rise to competence in writing.
" Mohd Iskandar Daud Lesson 1 2012 29 Elley (1996).000 students and 10.Extensive reading Supporting proponents: involving 210. in his report on a study .000 teachers in 32 educational systems around the world. concluded that "instructional programs that stress teacher directed drills and skills are less beneficial in raising literacy levels than programs that try to capture students' interest and encourage them to read independently.
the largely subconscious "picking up of the language" which characterizes language in informal settings and which is similar. For Krashen.Extensive reading Background theory Extensive Reading: Krashen's Input Hypothesis (1982) made a distinction between acquisition and learning." Mohd Iskandar Daud Lesson 1 2012 30 . to the way children develop ability in their first language. the dominant mode of language learning is in acquisition. if not identical.
Krashen's Input Hypothesis (cont) Language acquisition represents unconscious learning which takes place when attention is focused on meaning rather than form. and in a low anxiety setting. Mohd Iskandar Daud Lesson 1 2012 31 . In order to acquire language. interesting. It is felt that Extensive Reading programs provide such an environment. Krashen suggested the learner must be exposed to large amounts of second language input that was "meaningful" . not grammatically sequenced. relevant.
with follow-up activities such as reading logs. of their own choice. individual reading of material. Eg: Class Reader Programme in M‟sia Mohd Iskandar Daud Lesson 1 2012 32 . reading journals. book reports or projects.Extensive reading Types of programs: Extensive reading may appear as any of the following: a complement to an intensive reading program an extra-curricular activity where students read out of class the main focus of a reading course (termed an Extensive Reading Program) where students work with a class set of books.
The purposes of reading are usually related to pleasure. Students select what they want to read . Students read as much as possible A variety of materials on a range of topics is available.Extensive reading Characteristics: Day and Bamford (1980) put forward ten characteristics identified in successful Extensive Reading Programs. information and general understanding. Mohd Iskandar Daud Lesson 1 2012 33 .
Extensive reading Characteristics (cont): Reading is its own reward. Teachers orient students to the goals of the program. Reading materials are well within the linguistic competence of the students in terms of vocabulary and grammar. The teacher is a role model of a reader for the students Mohd Iskandar Daud Lesson 1 2012 34 . Reading speed is usually faster than slower. Reading is individual and silent.
grammar.Extensive reading Advantages The students may: ◦ develop a "reading habit" ◦ gain more confidence in reading ◦ improve their attitude towards reading and become more motivated to read ◦ feel more autonomous over their own learning and more likely to take more initiative. etc Mohd Iskandar Daud Lesson 1 2012 35 . background knowledge. ◦ become more " independent readers". being able to read for different purposes and being able to change reading strategies for different kinds of texts ◦ become more aware of what's available to them to read and how to access materials ◦ expand sight vocabulary.
the benefits of free voluntary reading included "enhanced language acquisition and literacy development." Mohd Iskandar Daud Lesson 1 2012 36 . loss of verbal memory."It is by pursuing the activity of extensive reading that the volume of practice necessary to achieve rapid and efficient reading can be achieved.Extensive reading Advantages May be combined with writing or combined with speaking practice in a meaningful way (eg: students discuss with each other the books they have read) Broughton (1978) . and more fun. greater success in life.” Krashen (1993) . more ideas and information.
Extensive reading Disadvantages costly and time-consuming to set up if materials are not already available not easy to have easy access to texts within their language proficiency level. need texts they can read without great use of a dictionary. may be difficult to keep students challenged to read more difficult texts as the program continues Reading each student's journals and reports can be very time-consuming for teachers. etc Mohd Iskandar Daud Lesson 1 2012 37 . Aeberscold (1997) reported that feedback from students in an Extensive Reading program indicated that they liked the "choice" but not the "load“.
2. 4. familiarity with format. Characteristics of the L1 orthogrophy – shifting from one to another (eg: from logographic like Chinese to alphabetic like English Literacy background of the learners – how learned is the learner in L1? How culturally significant is reading comm in learner‟s culture? Home environment? Proficiency in English . etc Mohd Iskandar Daud Lesson 1 2012 38 . difficulty to understand concepts in print as they are related to oral language use. 3.Factors influencing reading 1. lexical appropriateness. background knowledge. etc Appropriate use of reading material – grammar.Lack of oral language proficiency means inability to connect the printed words with oral knowledge and use it.
Age-Appropriate Books at Home . the one-on-one instruction 7.amount of reading practice children get influences their reading skill level esp. Can you suggest more? 5. Mohd Iskandar Daud Lesson 1 2012 39 . Amount of Instruction and Practice . dyslexia and ADD (Attention Deficit Disorder) may affect ability to read 6.Factors influencing reading Disabilities .ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder).access to books that interest him / suitable to him will help develop a sense of reading appreciation 8. autism.
Mohd Iskandar Daud Lesson 1 2012 40 . Discuss differences between intensive and extensive reading and effects they have on reading. Discuss about factors that would encourage reading among students Present your findings in the next meeting.Tutorial task: Divide yourselves into 4 groups.
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