Tao Te Ching

Laozi (Translator: James Legge)

Published: -600 Categorie(s): Non-Fiction, Philosophy, Religion Source: http://en.wikisource.org


About Laozi: Laozi was an ancient Chinese philosopher. According to Chinese tradition, Laozi lived in the 6th century BC, however many historians contend that Laozi actually lived in the 4th century BC, which was the period of Hundred Schools of Thought and Warring States Period, while others contend he was a mythical figure. Laozi was credited with writing the seminal Taoist work, the Tao Te Ching, which was originally known as the Laozi. Taishang Laojun was a title for Laozi in the Taoist religion. It refers to One of the Three Pure Ones. Source: Wikipedia Note: This book is brought to you by Feedbooks http://www.feedbooks.com Strictly for personal use, do not use this file for commercial purposes.


The Tao that can be described is not the enduring and unchanging Tao. The name that can be named is not the enduring and unchanging name. (Conceived of as) having no name, it is the Originator of heaven and earth; (conceived of as) having a name, it is the Mother of all things. Always without desire we must be found, If its deep mystery we would sound; But if desire always within us be, Its outer fringe is all that we shall see. Under these two aspects, it is really the same; but as development takes place, it receives the different names. Together we call them the Mystery. Where the Mystery is the deepest is the gate of all that is subtle and wonderful.


All in the world know the beauty of the beautiful, and in doing this they have (the idea of) what ugliness is; they all know the skill of the skilful, and in doing this they have (the idea of) what the want of skill is. So it is that existence and non-existence give birth the one to (the idea of) the other; that difficulty and ease produce the one (the idea of) the other; that length and shortness fashion out the one the figure of the other; that (the ideas of) height and lowness arise from the contrast of the one with the other; that the musical notes and tones become harmonious through the relation of one with another; and that being before and behind give the idea of one following another. Therefore the sage manages affairs without doing anything, and conveys his instructions without the use of speech. All things spring up, and there is not one which declines to show itself; they grow, and there is no claim made for their ownership; they go through their processes, and there is no expectation (of a reward for the results). The work is accomplished, and there is no resting in it (as an achievement). The work is done, but how no one can see; 'Tis this that makes the power not cease to be.


to keep them from presuming to act (on it). 5 . in the exercise of his government. weakens their wills. not to prize articles which are difficult to procure is the way to keep them from becoming thieves. fills their bellies. and strengthens their bones. When there is this abstinence from action. good order is universal. Therefore the sage. and where there are those who have knowledge. He constantly (tries to) keep them without knowledge and without desire.3 Not to value and employ men of superior ability is the way to keep the people from rivalry among themselves. empties their minds. not to show them what is likely to excite their desires is the way to keep their minds from disorder.

as if it were the Honoured Ancestor of all things! We should blunt our sharp points. and in our employment of it we must be on our guard against all fulness. we should attemper our brightness. It might appear to have been before God. and unravel the complications of things. 6 . How deep and unfathomable it is. as if it would ever so continue! I do not know whose son it is.4 The Tao is (like) the emptiness of a vessel. and bring ourselves into agreement with the obscurity of others. How pure and still the Tao is.

5 Heaven and earth do not act from (the impulse of) any wish to be benevolent. 'Tis moved again. and sends forth air the more. The sages do not act from (any wish to be) benevolent. May not the space between heaven and earth be compared to a bellows? 'Tis emptied. Your inner being guard. and keep it free. they deal with all things as the dogs of grass are dealt with. they deal with the people as the dogs of grass are dealt with. yet it loses not its power. Much speech to swift exhaustion lead we see. 7 .

6 The valley spirit dies not. 8 . and without the touch of pain. Used gently. aye the same. from which at first they issued forth. The female mystery thus do we name. Its gate. Is called the root from which grew heaven and earth. Long and unbroken does its power remain.

Therefore the sage puts his own person last. or for. he treats his person as if it were foreign to him. This is how they are able to continue and endure. The reason why heaven and earth are able to endure and continue thus long is because they do not live of. themselves. that therefore such ends are realised? 9 . Is it not because he has no personal and private ends. and yet it is found in the foremost place. and yet that person is preserved.7 Heaven is long-enduring and earth continues long.

that of (the conduct of) affairs is in its ability. And when (one with the highest excellence) does not wrangle (about his low position). The excellence of a residence is in (the suitability of) the place. without striving (to the contrary). that of associations is in their being with the virtuous. Hence (its way) is near to (that of) the Tao.8 The highest excellence is like (that of) water. The excellence of water appears in its benefiting all things. that of the mind is in abysmal stillness. and in its occupying. that of government is in its securing good order. 10 . and that of (the initiation of) any movement is in its timeliness. no one finds fault with him. the low place which all men dislike.

their possessor cannot keep them safe. When gold and jade fill the hall. to withdraw into obscurity is the way of Heaven.9 It is better to leave a vessel unfilled. If you keep feeling a point that has been sharpened. When wealth and honours lead to arrogancy. 11 . this brings its evil on itself. and one's name is becoming distinguished. than to attempt to carry it when it is full. the point cannot long preserve its sharpness. When the work is done.

he can become as a (tender) babe. he can become without a flaw. cannot he proceed without any (purpose of) action? In the opening and shutting of his gates of heaven. and yet does not control them. In loving the people and ruling the state. it presides over all. When one gives undivided attention to the (vital) breath. 12 . cannot he (appear to) be without knowledge? (The Tao) produces (all things) and nourishes them. This is what is called 'The mysterious Quality' (of the Tao). they can be kept from separating.10 When the intelligent and animal souls are held together in one embrace. it produces them and does not claim them as its own. and yet does not boast of it. When he has cleansed away the most mysterious sights (of his imagination). cannot he do so as a female bird? While his intelligence reaches in every direction. and brings it to the utmost degree of pliancy. it does all.

what has a (positive) existence serves for profitable adaptation. that their use depends. 13 . and what has not that for (actual) usefulness. but it is on their empty hollowness. that the use of the wheel depends. Therefore. that its use depends. but it is on the empty space (within). The door and windows are cut out (from the walls) to form an apartment. but it is on the empty space (for the axle). Clay is fashioned into vessels.11 The thirty spokes unite in the one nave.

and the wild hunting waste Make mad the mind. and not the (insatiable longing of the) eyes. 14 . He puts from him the latter.12 Colour's five hues from th' eyes their sight will take. The flavours five deprive the mouth of taste. Music's five notes the ears as deaf can make. and prefers to seek the former. The chariot course. men's conduct will to evil change. Sought for. and objects rare and strange. Therefore the sage seeks to satisfy (the craving of) the belly.

honour and great calamity. and he who would administer it with the love which he bears to his own person may be entrusted with it. The getting that (favour) leads to the apprehension (of losing it). 15 . honouring it as he honours his own person. may be employed to govern it. to be regarded as personal conditions (of the same kind). and the losing it leads to the fear of (still greater calamity):—this is what is meant by saying that favour and disgrace would seem equally to be feared. What is meant by speaking thus of favour and disgrace? Disgrace is being in a low position (after the enjoyment of favour).13 Favour and disgrace would seem equally to be feared. what great calamity could come to me? Therefore he who would administer the kingdom. if I had not the body. And what is meant by saying that honour and great calamity are to be (similarly) regarded as personal conditions? What makes me liable to great calamity is my having the body (which I call myself).

and hence we blend them together and obtain The One. it yet cannot be named.' With these three qualities. and then it again returns and becomes nothing. and we do not see it. This is called the Form of the Formless. this is called (unwinding) the clue of Tao. and we name it 'the Equable. 16 . this is called the Fleeting and Indeterminable. Its upper part is not bright. and do not see its Back.' We listen to it. and do not get hold of it. and we name it 'the Subtle. and are able to know it as it was of old in the beginning. Ceaseless in its action.' We try to grasp it. it cannot be made the subject of description. and we do not hear it. We meet it and do not see its Front. and the Semblance of the Invisible.14 We look at it. and we name it 'the Inaudible. we follow it. When we can lay hold of the Tao of old to direct the things of the present day. and its lower part is not obscure.

Shrinking looked they like those who wade through a stream in winter. and were deep (also) so as to elude men's knowledge. 17 . with a subtle and exquisite penetration. and dull like muddy water. grave like a guest (in awe of his host). They who preserve this method of the Tao do not wish to be full (of themselves). I will make an effort to describe of what sort they appeared to be. It is through their not being full of themselves that they can afford to seem worn and not appear new and complete. and the condition of rest will gradually arise. and it will gradually become clear. As they were thus beyond men's knowledge. Who can (make) the muddy water (clear)? Let it be still. unpretentious like wood that has not been fashioned into anything. Who can secure the condition of rest? Let movement go on. evanescent like ice that is melting away. irresolute like those who are afraid of all around them. vacant like a valley.15 The skilful masters (of the Tao) in old times. comprehended its mysteries.

When things (in the vegetable world) have displayed their luxuriant growth. In that likeness to heaven he possesses the Tao. unchanging rule. we see each of them return to its root. not to know it leads to wild movements and evil issues. Possessed of the Tao. is exempt from all danger of decay. The knowledge of that unchanging rule produces a (grand) capacity and forbearance. and (then) we see them return (to their original state). and he who is king-like goes on to be heaven-like. All things alike go through their processes of activity. 18 . and that stillness may be called a reporting that they have fulfilled their appointed end. From this community of feeling comes a kingliness of character. he endures long. and that of stillness guarded with unwearying vigour.16 The (state of) vacancy should be brought to the utmost degree. and that capacity and forbearance lead to a community (of feeling with all things). This returning to their root is what we call the state of stillness. The report of that fulfilment is the regular. To know that unchanging rule is to be intelligent. and to the end of his bodily life.

of ourselves!' 19 . In the next age they loved them and praised them. (the people) did not know that there were (their rulers).17 In the highest antiquity. in the next they despised them. showing (by their reticence) the importance which they set upon their words! Their work was done and their undertakings were successful. 'We are as we are. How irresolute did those (earliest rulers) appear. while the people all said. In the next they feared them. Thus it was that when faith (in the Tao) was deficient (in the rulers) a want of faith in them ensued (in the people).

benevolence and righteousness came into vogue. loyal ministers appeared. 20 . When harmony no longer prevailed throughout the six kinships. and there ensued great hypocrisy. (Then) appeared wisdom and shrewdness.18 When the Great Tao (Way or Method) ceased to be observed. filial sons found their manifestation. when the states and clans fell into disorder.

there would be no thieves nor robbers. If we could renounce our benevolence and discard our righteousness. and courses plain and true Would selfish ends and many lusts eschew. 21 . If we could renounce our artful contrivances and discard our (scheming for) gain. But simple views. the people would again become filial and kindly. Those three methods (of government) Thought olden ways in elegance did fail And made these names their want of worth to veil.19 If we could renounce our sageness and discard our wisdom. it would be better for the people a hundredfold.

— What space the gulf between shall fill? What all men fear is indeed to be feared. as if enjoying a full banquet. while I alone seem dull and incapable. while I alone am dull and confused. I am like an infant which has not yet smiled. I alone seem listless and still. The (ready) 'yes.' and (flattering) 'yea. They look full of discrimination. (Thus) I alone am different from other men. My mind is that of a stupid man. as if mounted on a tower in spring. while I alone seem to be benighted. 22 . but how wide and without end is the range of questions (asking to be discussed)! The multitude of men look satisfied and pleased.20 When we renounce learning we have no troubles. as if I had no home to go to. but I value the nursingmother (the Tao). Ordinary men look bright and intelligent. The multitude of men all have enough and to spare. good and ill. I look dejected and forlorn. I seem to be carried about as on the sea. like a rude borderer. I am in a state of chaos. But mark their issues.'— Small is the difference they display. my desires having as yet given no indication of their presence. drifting as if I had nowhere to rest. I alone seem to have lost everything. All men have their spheres of action.

eluding sight. in their beautiful array. 23 . 'twas so of old. Things form and never know decay. Now it is so. Who can of Tao the nature tell? Our sight it flies. Things' essences all there endure. The forms of things all in it crouch. when seen. Eluding sight. How know I that it is so with all the beauties of existing things? By this (nature of the Tao). Those essences the truth enfold Of what. dark and obscure. shall then be told. eluding touch. all right. our touch as well. There are their semblances. Profound it is. Eluding touch. their only source. Its name—what passes not away. So.21 The grandest forms of active force From Tao come.

Therefore the sage holds in his embrace the one thing (of humility). 24 . full. new. from self-boasting. and manifests it to all the world. straight. the worn out. and therefore he is distinguished. the crooked. he whose (desires) are many goes astray. It is because he is thus free from striving that therefore no one in the world is able to strive with him. and therefore he acquires superiority. from self-complacency. He whose (desires) are few gets them. and therefore his merit is acknowledged. That saying of the ancients that 'the partial becomes complete' was not vainly spoken:—all real completion is comprehended under it.display. the empty. from self-assertion. and therefore he shines.22 The partial becomes complete. He is free from self.

how much less can man! Therefore when one is making the Tao his business. while even those who are failing in both these things agree with him where they fail. (But) when there is not faith sufficient (on his part). 25 . A violent wind does not last for a whole morning. and those with whom he agrees in their failure have also the happiness of attaining (to the Tao). those with whom he agrees as to its manifestation have the happiness of attaining to it. Hence.23 Abstaining from speech marks him who is obeying the spontaneity of his nature. agree with him in it. If Heaven and Earth cannot make such (spasmodic) actings last long. those with whom he agrees as to the Tao have the happiness of attaining to it. To whom is it that these (two) things are owing? To Heaven and Earth. those who are also pursuing it. a sudden rain does not last for the whole day. a want of faith (in him) ensues (on the part of the others). and those who are making the manifestation of its course their object agree with him in that.

26 . which all dislike.24 He who stands on his tiptoes does not stand firm. are like remnants of food. viewed from the standpoint of the Tao. he who is self. (So). or a tumour on the body.conceited has no superiority allowed to him. Hence those who pursue (the course) of the Tao do not adopt and allow them. Such conditions. he who asserts his own views is not distinguished. he who vaunts himself does not find his merit acknowledged. he who stretches his legs does not walk (easily). he who displays himself does not shine.

Great. 27 . Earth is great. In the universe there are four that are great. Having become remote. it returns. and I give it the designation of the Tao (the Way or Course). it passes on (in constant flow). Passing on. Heaven is great. and the (sage) king is one of them. reaching everywhere and in no danger (of being exhausted)! It may be regarded as the Mother of all things. and undergoing no change.25 There was something undefined and complete. Man takes his law from the Earth. The law of the Tao is its being what it is. standing alone. Heaven takes its law from the Tao. I do not know its name. Therefore the Tao is great. the Earth takes its law from Heaven. coming into existence before Heaven and Earth. and the (sage) king is also great. Making an effort (further) to give it a name I call it The Great. it becomes remote. How still it was and formless.

28 . marching the whole day. does not go far from his baggage waggons. he will lose his throne. if he proceed to active movement. Although he may have brilliant prospects to look at.26 Gravity is the root of lightness. he quietly remains (in his proper place). indifferent to them. he has lost his root (of gravity). How should the lord of a myriad chariots carry himself lightly before the kingdom? If he do act lightly. the ruler of movement. stillness. Therefore a wise prince.

27 The skilful traveller leaves no traces of his wheels or footsteps.' Therefore the man of skill is a master (to be looked up to) by him who has not the skill. If the one did not honour his master. while to open what he has shut will be impossible. In the same way the sage is always skilful at saving men. he is always skilful at saving things. and so he does not cast away any man. This is called 'Hiding the light of his procedure. while to unloose what he has bound will be impossible. the skilful reckoner uses no tallies.' 29 . and he who has not the skill is the helper of (the reputation of) him who has the skill. the skilful speaker says nothing that can be found fault with or blamed. the skilful binder uses no strings or knots. This is called 'The utmost degree of mystery. and the other did not rejoice in his helper. might greatly err about them. and so he does not cast away anything. an (observer). the skilful closer needs no bolts or bars. though intelligent.

To which men come from all beneath the sky. Behold his presence in a spacious vale. Endless return to man's first state has made. Yet always keeps himself within black's shade. when employed. free from all stains. As to one channel flow the many drains. The unwrought material. He in the unchanging excellence arrayed. 30 . forms vessels. and in his greatest regulations he employs no violent measures. nor e'er for it is pale. yea. The unchanging excellence completes its tale. Displayed in view of all beneath the sky. The simple infant man in him we hail. when divided and distributed. Thus he the constant excellence retains. becomes the Head of all the Officers (of government). Who knows how glory shines. The sage. The pattern of humility displayed. The simple child again. Yet still his female feebleness maintains. all beneath the sky. Yet loves disgrace. Who knows how white attracts.28 Who knows his manhood's strength. All come to him.

he who would hold it in his grasp loses it. The course and nature of things is such that What was in front is now behind. What warmed anon we freezing find. Strength is of weakness oft the spoil. and easy indulgence. and to effect this by what he does. Hence the sage puts away excessive effort.29 If any one should wish to get the kingdom for himself. 31 . The kingdom is a spirit-like thing. He who would so win it destroys it. I see that he will not succeed. The store in ruins mocks our toil. and cannot be got by active doing. extravagance.

He will strike the blow. 32 . Such a course is sure to meet with its proper return. In the sequence of great armies there are sure to be bad years. He strikes it as a matter of necessity. This may be said to be not in accordance with the Tao: and what is not in accordance with it soon comes to an end. A skilful (commander) strikes a decisive blow. Wherever a host is stationed. He does not dare (by continuing his operations) to assert and complete his mastery. and stops. briars and thorns spring up. but not from a wish for mastery. but will be on his guard against being vain or boastful or arrogant in consequence of it. he strikes it. When things have attained their strong maturity they become old.30 He who would assist a lord of men in harmony with the Tao will not assert his mastery in the kingdom by force of arms.

and he who delights in the slaughter of men cannot get his will in the kingdom. hateful. the general commanding in chief has his on the right. but in time of war the right hand.31 Now arms. On occasions of festivity to be on the left hand is the prized position. it may be said. is assigned to him as in the rites of mourning. Calm and repose are what he prizes. that is. The superior man ordinarily considers the left hand the most honourable place. the right hand. To consider this desirable would be to delight in the slaughter of men. He who has killed multitudes of men should weep for them with the bitterest grief. and the victor in battle has his place (rightly) according to those rites. however beautiful. The second in command of the army has his place on the left.—he uses them only on the compulsion of necessity. on occasions of mourning. and not the instruments of the superior man. victory (by force of arms) is to him undesirable. to all creatures.— his place. Therefore they who have the Tao do not like to employ them. Those sharp weapons are instruments of evil omen. 33 . are instruments of evil omen.

the whole world dares not deal with (one embodying) it as a minister. which. it has a name. all would spontaneously submit themselves to him.32 The Tao. When they know to rest in it. 34 . As soon as it proceeds to action. they can be free from all risk of failure and error. The relation of the Tao to all the world is like that of the great rivers and seas to the streams from the valleys. has no name. Heaven and Earth (under its guidance) unite together and send down the sweet dew. without the directions of men. If a feudal prince or the king could guard and hold it. reaches equally everywhere as of its own accord. considered as unchanging. When it once has that name. (men) can know to rest in it. Though in its primordial simplicity it may be small.

continues long. has longevity. He who overcomes others is strong.33 He who knows other men is discerning. he who knows himself is intelligent. he who overcomes himself is mighty. 35 . he who goes on acting with energy has a (firm) will. He who does not fail in the requirements of his position. He who is satisfied with his lot is rich. he who dies and yet does not perish.

—it may be named in the smallest things. It is through his not making himself great that he can accomplish them. and makes no assumption of being their lord. It clothes all things as with a garment. 36 .34 All-pervading is the Great Tao! It may be found on the left hand and on the right. it does not claim the name of having done it. and do not know that it is it which presides over their doing so. which it gives to them. All things depend on it for their production. not one refusing obedience to it. Hence the sage is able (in the same way) to accomplish his great achievements. All things return (to their root and disappear).—it may be named in the greatest things. When its work is accomplished.

To him who holds in his hands the Great Image (of the invisible Tao), the whole world repairs. Men resort to him, and receive no hurt, but (find) rest, peace, and the feeling of ease. Music and dainties will make the passing guest stop (for a time). But though the Tao as it comes from the mouth, seems insipid and has no flavour, though it seems not worth being looked at or listened to, the use of it is inexhaustible.


When one is about to take an inspiration, he is sure to make a (previous) expiration; when he is going to weaken another, he will first strengthen him; when he is going to overthrow another, he will first have raised him up; when he is going to despoil another, he will first have made gifts to him:— this is called 'Hiding the light (of his procedure).' The soft overcomes the hard; and the weak the strong. Fishes should not be taken from the deep; instruments for the profit of a state should not be shown to the people.


The Tao in its regular course does nothing (for the sake of doing it), and so there is nothing which it does not do. If princes and kings were able to maintain it, all things would of themselves be transformed by them. If this transformation became to me an object of desire, I would express the desire by the nameless simplicity. Simplicity without a name Is free from all external aim. With no desire, at rest and still, All things go right as of their will.


(Those who) possessed in highest degree the attributes (of the Tao) did not (seek) to show them, and therefore they possessed them (in fullest measure). (Those who) possessed in a lower degree those attributes (sought how) not to lose them, and therefore they did not possess them (in fullest measure). (Those who) possessed in the highest degree those attributes did nothing (with a purpose), and had no need to do anything. (Those who) possessed them in a lower degree were (always) doing, and had need to be so doing. (Those who) possessed the highest benevolence were (always seeking) to carry it out, and had no need to be doing so. (Those who) possessed the highest righteousness were (always seeking) to carry it out, and had need to be so doing. (Those who) possessed the highest (sense of) propriety were (always seeking) to show it, and when men did not respond to it, they bared the arm and marched up to them. Thus it was that when the Tao was lost, its attributes appeared; when its attributes were lost, benevolence appeared; when benevolence was lost, righteousness appeared; and when righteousness was lost, the proprieties appeared. Now propriety is the attenuated form of leal-heartedness and good faith, and is also the commencement of disorder; swift apprehension is (only) a flower of the Tao, and is the beginning of stupidity. Thus it is that the Great man abides by what is solid, and eschews what is flimsy; dwells with the fruit and not with the flower. It is thus that he puts away the one and makes choice of the other.


Princes and kings. They do not wish to show themselves elegant-looking as jade. Without these powers. it soon would rend. 41 .' and as 'Carriages without a nave. However grand and high. Spirits with powers by it supplied. Without that life. If earth were not thus sure. 'twould break and bend. If not so filled. Thus it is that dignity finds its (firm) root in its (previous) meanness. the drought would parch each vale.39 The things which from of old have got the One (the Tao) are— Heaven which by it is bright and pure.' Is not this an acknowledgment that in their considering themselves mean they see the foundation of their dignity? So it is that in the enumeration of the different parts of a carriage we do not come on what makes it answer the ends of a carriage. Earth rendered thereby firm and sure. All these are the results of the One (Tao). Hence princes and kings call themselves 'Orphans. If heaven were not thus pure. without that moral sway. but (prefer) to be coarse-looking as an (ordinary) stone.' 'Men of small virtue. the spirits soon would fail. Valleys kept full throughout their void All creatures which through it do live Princes and kings who from it get The model which to all they give. would all decay. creatures would pass away. and what is lofty finds its stability in the lowness (from which it rises).

40 The movement of the Tao By contraries proceeds. 42 . that existence sprang from It as non-existent (and not named). And weakness marks the course Of Tao's mighty deeds. All things under heaven sprang from It as existing (and named).

Scholars of the middle class. Its greatest beauty seems to offend the eyes. seems drawing back. Its largest square doth yet no corner show A vessel great. when they have heard about it. Its firmest virtue seems but poor and low. the shadow of a shade.' The Tao is hidden. when brightest seen. earnestly carry it into practice. Therefore the sentence-makers have thus expressed themselves:— 'The Tao. and has no name. 43 . Its solid truth seems change to undergo. Its even way is like a rugged track. Scholars of the lowest class. A semblance great.41 Scholars of the highest class. Who progress in it makes. it is the slowest made. Loud is its sound. when they have heard about it. laugh greatly at it. when they hear about the Tao. Its highest virtue from the vale doth rise. If it were not (thus) laughed at. And he has most whose lot the least supplies. but never word it said. seems light to lack. seem now to keep it and now to lose it. it would not be fit to be the Tao. but it is the Tao which is skilful at imparting (to all things what they need) and making them complete.

and others are diminished by being increased. and yet these are the designations which kings and princes use for themselves. One produced Two. So it is that some things are increased by being diminished. and go forward to embrace the Brightness (into which they have emerged). What men dislike is to be orphans.42 The Tao produced One. I also teach. What other men (thus) teach. I will make this the basis of my teaching. Three produced All things. while they are harmonised by the Breath of Vacancy. The violent and strong do not die their natural death. Two produced Three. to have little virtue. All things leave behind them the Obscurity (out of which they have come). 44 . to be as carriages without naves.

43 The softest thing in the world dashes against and overcomes the hardest. and the advantage arising from non-action. I know hereby what advantage belongs to doing nothing (with a purpose). There are few in the world who attain to the teaching without words. 45 . that which has no (substantial) existence enters where there is no crevice.

Who loves large stores Gives up the richer state. Who knows to stop Incurs no blame. From danger free Long live shall he.44 Or fame or life. To which would you adhere? Keep life and lose those other things. Which do you hold more dear? Or life or wealth. 46 . Who cleaves to fame Rejects what is more great. Keep them and lose your life:—which brings Sorrow and pain more near? Thus we may see. Who is content Needs fear no shame.

Of greatest fulness. 47 . And eloquence a stammering scream. Do thou what's straight still crooked deem. being still overcomes heat. Purity and stillness give the correct law to all under heaven. Exhaustion ne'er shall stem the tide. Thy greatest art still stupid seem. deemed a void.45 Who thinks his great achievements poor Shall find his vigour long endure. Constant action overcomes cold.

they send back their swift horses to (draw) the dung-carts.46 When the Tao prevails in the world. Therefore the sufficiency of contentment is an enduring and unchanging sufficiency. no calamity greater than to be discontented with one's lot. There is no guilt greater than to sanction ambition. 48 . When the Tao is disregarded in the world. the war-horses breed in the border lands. no fault greater than the wish to be getting.

47 Without going outside his door. one understands (all that takes place) under the sky. and accomplished their ends without any purpose of doing so. the less he knows. without looking out from his window. Therefore the sages got their knowledge without travelling. 49 . gave their (right) names to things without seeing them. one sees the Tao of Heaven. The farther that one goes out (from himself).

50 . he who devotes himself to the Tao (seeks) from day to day to diminish (his doing). He who gets as his own all under heaven does so by giving himself no trouble (with that end). there is nothing which he does not do.48 He who devotes himself to learning (seeks) from day to day to increase (his knowledge). If one take trouble (with that end). He diminishes it and again diminishes it. till he arrives at doing nothing (on purpose). he is not equal to getting as his own all under heaven. Having arrived at this point of non-action.

I am good. I am also good. he makes the mind of the people his mind. and to those who are not good (to me).49 The sage has no invariable mind of his own. To those who are sincere (with me). 51 . and keeps his mind in a state of indifference to all. The sage has in the world an appearance of indecision. I am sincere. and to those who are not sincere (with me). I am also sincere.— and thus (all) get to be sincere. To those who are good (to me). and he deals with them all as his children.— and thus (all) get to be good. The people all keep their eyes and ears directed to him.

nor the weapon a place to admit its point. And for what reason? Because of their excessive endeavours to perpetuate life.50 Men come forth and live. And for what reason? Because there is in him no place of death. The rhinoceros finds no place in him into which to thrust its horn. but whose movements tend to the land (or place) of death. But I have heard that he who is skilful in managing the life entrusted to him for a time travels on the land without having to shun rhinoceros or tiger. and three are ministers of death. Of every ten three are ministers of life (to themselves). There are also three in every ten whose aim is to live. and enters a host without having to avoid buff coat or sharp weapon. they enter (again) and die. 52 . nor the tiger a place in which to fix its claws.

brings them to their full growth. 53 . nourishes them. it brings them to maturity and exercises no control over them. Thus it is that the Tao produces (all things). but always a spontaneous tribute.— this is called its mysterious operation.51 All things are produced by the Tao. Therefore all things without exception honour the Tao. maintains them. it carries them through their processes and does not vaunt its ability in doing so. This honouring of the Tao and exalting of its operation is not the result of any ordination. matures them. and are completed according to the circumstances of their condition. and overspreads them. and nourished by its outflowing operation. nurses them. It produces them and makes no claim to the possession of them. completes them. and exalt its outflowing operation. They receive their forms according to the nature of each.

When one knows that he is his mother's child. the guarding of what is soft and tender is (the secret of) strength. Will from his body ward all blight. and all his life he will be exempt from laborious exertion. and all his life there will be no safety for him.52 (The Tao) which originated all under the sky is to be considered as the mother of them all. and (spend his breath) in the promotion of his affairs. Reverting to its (source so) bright. and proceeds to guard (the qualities of) the mother that belong to him. and shut up the portals (of his nostrils). Let him keep his mouth closed. Who uses well his light. 54 . Let him keep his mouth open. we know what her children should be.sightedness. And hides the unchanging from men's sight. When the mother is found. The perception of what is small is (the secret of clear. to the end of his life he will be free from all peril.

—such (princes) may be called robbers and boasters. and (put into a position to) conduct (a government) according to the Great Tao. The great Tao (or way) is very level and easy. and have a superabundance of property and wealth. carry a sharp sword at their girdle. This is contrary to the Tao surely! 55 . Their court(-yards and buildings) shall be well kept. pamper themselves in eating and drinking. They shall wear elegant and ornamented robes. what I should be most afraid of would be a boastful display. but their fields shall be ill-cultivated. but people love the byways. and their granaries very empty.53 If I were suddenly to become known.

Employ it the kingdom o'er. in the state. Sacrifices to his shrine. From him can ne'er be borne. by the observation of different cases. Tao when nursed within one's self. in the family. In this way the effect will be seen in the person. 56 . How do I know that this effect is sure to hold thus all under the sky? By this (method of observation). And where the family it rules What riches will accrue! The neighbourhood where it prevails In thriving will abound.54 What (Tao's) skilful planter plants Can never be uptorn. Sons shall bring in lengthening line. And men thrive all around. His vigour will make true. Good fortune will be found. And when 'tis seen throughout the state. and in the kingdom. in the neighbourhood. What his skilful arms enfold.

they (then) become old. (and o'er it we should mourn.—showing the perfection of its physical essence. It knows not yet the union of male and female. All day long it will cry without its throat becoming hoarse. and yet its virile member may be excited.) When things have become strong. To him by whom this harmony is known. (The infant's) bones are weak and its sinews soft. Whatever is contrary to the Tao soon ends.55 He who has in himself abundantly the attributes (of the Tao) is like an infant. which may be said to be contrary to the Tao. Where the mind makes the vital breath to burn. And in the knowledge wisdom finds its throne. All life-increasing arts to evil turn.—showing the harmony (in its constitution). birds of prey will not strike him. (The secret of) the unchanging (Tao) is shown. (False) is the strength. 57 . Poisonous insects will not sting him. but yet its grasp is firm. fierce beasts will not seize him.

he is beyond all consideration of profit or injury. 58 .' (Such an one) cannot be treated familiarly or distantly. He (who knows it) will keep his mouth shut and close the portals (of his nostrils).56 He who knows (the Tao) does not (care to) speak (about it). and bring himself into agreement with the obscurity (of others). This is called 'the Mysterious Agreement. He will blunt his sharp points and unravel the complications of things. he will attemper his brightness. he who is (ever ready to) speak about it does not know it. of nobility or meanness:—he is the noblest man under heaven.

I will manifest no ambition. and the people will be transformed of themselves. and the people will of themselves attain to the primitive simplicity. I will take no trouble about it. the more thieves and robbers there are. the more acts of crafty dexterity that men possess. weapons of war may be used with crafty dexterity. Therefore a sage has said. and the people will of themselves become rich. (but) the kingdom is made one's own (only) by freedom from action and purpose. and the people will of themselves become correct. I will be fond of keeping still. 'I will do nothing (of purpose). the greater disorder is there in the state and clan.' 59 .57 A state may be ruled by (measures of) correction. How do I know that it is so? By these facts:— In the kingdom the multiplication of prohibitive enactments increases the poverty of the people. the more do strange contrivances appear. the more display there is of legislation. the more implements to add to their profit that the people have.

Will work but ill. The delusion of the people (on this point) has indeed subsisted for a long time. He is straightforward. but allows himself no license. touching everything. and the good in it shall by a turn become evil. he is bright.58 The government that seems the most unwise. That which is meddling. 60 . Oft goodness to the people best supplies. Therefore the sage is (like) a square which cuts no one (with its angles). Misery!—happiness is to be found by its side! Happiness!—misery lurks beneath it! Who knows what either will come to in the end? Shall we then dispense with correction? The (method of) correction shall by a turn become distortion. but does not dazzle. (like) a corner which injures no one (with its sharpness). and disappointment bring.

he may be the ruler of a state. It is only by this moderation that there is effected an early return (to man's normal state). and when one knows not what the limit shall be. He who possesses the mother of the state may continue long. Of this subjugation we know not what shall be the limit. there is nothing like moderation. That early return is what I call the repeated accumulation of the attributes (of the Tao). 61 . His case is like that (of the plant) of which we say that its roots are deep and its flower stalks firm:—this is the way to secure that its enduring life shall long be seen.59 For regulating the human (in our constitution) and rendering the (proper) service to the heavenly. With that repeated accumulation of those attributes. there comes the subjugation (of every obstacle to such return).

It is not that it could not hurt men. their good influences converge in the virtue (of the Tao). When these two do not injuriously affect each other. 62 . but it will not be employed to hurt men. It is not that those manes have not that spiritual energy.60 Governing a great state is like cooking small fish. Let the kingdom be governed according to the Tao. and the manes of the departed will not manifest their spiritual energy. but neither does the ruling sage hurt them.

Thus it is that a great state. 63 .—it becomes the centre to which tend (all the small states) under heaven. and that small states. gains them for itself. Each gets what it desires. (To illustrate from) the case of all females:—the female always overcomes the male by her stillness. Stillness may be considered (a sort of) abasement. a small state only wishes to be received by. down. the other. win it over to them.61 What makes a great state is its being (like) a low-lying. In the one case the abasement leads to gaining adherents. and to serve.flowing (stream). by abasing themselves to a great state. The great state only wishes to unite men together and nourish them. by condescending to small states. but the great state must learn to abase itself. in the other case to procuring favour.

Why was it that the ancients prized this Tao so much? Was it not because it could be got by seeking for it. Even men who are not good are not abandoned by it. and that as the precursor of the team of horses (in the court-yard). (its) admirable deeds can raise their performer above others. and doth their ill efface.62 Tao has of all things the most honoured place. and he has appointed his three ducal ministers. and the guilty could escape (from the stain of their guilt) by it? This is the reason why all under heaven consider it the most valuable thing. though (a prince) were to send in a round symbol-of-rank large enough to fill both the hands. Therefore when the sovereign occupies his place as the Son of Heaven. No treasures give good men so rich a grace. (Its) admirable words can purchase honour. 64 . Bad men it guards. such an offering would not be equal to (a lesson of) this Tao. which one might present on his knees.

Therefore the sage sees difficulty even in what seems easy. to taste without discerning any flavour. is able on that account to accomplish the greatest things. 65 . to conduct affairs without (feeling the) trouble of them. and a few as many. and all great things from one in which they were small. to consider what is small as great. and to recompense injury with kindness. All difficult things in the world are sure to arise from a previous state in which they were easy. while he never does what is great. and does things that would become great while they are small. Therefore the sage. (The master of it) anticipates things that are difficult while they are easy. He who lightly promises is sure to keep but little faith. he who is continually thinking things easy is sure to find them difficult.63 (It is the way of the Tao) to act without (thinking of) acting. and so never has any difficulties.

the tower of nine storeys rose from a (small) heap of earth. and therefore does not lose his bold.64 That which is at rest is easily kept hold of. If they were careful at the end. as (they should be) at the beginning. they would not so ruin them. Action should be taken before a thing has made its appearance. and turns back to what the multitude of men have passed by. that which is brittle is easily broken. and does not prize things difficult to get. the journey of a thousand li commenced with a single step. 66 . he who takes hold of a thing (in the same way) loses his hold. and does not dare to act (with an ulterior purpose of his own). that which is very small is easily dispersed. he does not lay hold (so). Therefore the sage desires what (other men) do not desire. He who acts (with an ulterior purpose) does harm. he learns what (other men) do not learn. Thus he helps the natural development of all things. The sage does not act (so). order should be secured before disorder has begun. it is easy to take measures against it. The tree which fills the arms grew from the tiniest sprout. and therefore does no harm. before a thing has given indications of its presence. (But) people in their conduct of affairs are constantly ruining them when they are on the eve of success.

but leading them to a great conformity to him. He who knows these two things finds in them also his model and rule. Deep and far-reaching is such mysterious excellence.65 The ancients who showed their skill in practising the Tao did so. but rather to make them simple and ignorant. not to enlighten the people. The difficulty in governing the people arises from their having much knowledge. showing indeed its possessor as opposite to others. 67 . while he who does not (try to) do so is a blessing. He who (tries to) govern a state by his wisdom is a scourge to it. Ability to know this model and rule constitutes what we call the mysterious excellence (of a governor).

men do not feel his weight. do they feel it an injury to them. and. In this way though he has his place above them. places his person behind them.66 That whereby the rivers and seas are able to receive the homage and tribute of all the valley streams. puts himself by his words below them.—it is thus that they are the kings of them all. wishing to be above men. is their skill in being lower than they. Because he does not strive. no one finds it possible to strive with him. nor though he has his place before them. wishing to be before them. Therefore all in the world delight to exalt him and do not weary of him. So it is that the sage (ruler). 68 .

it yet appears to be inferior (to other systems of teaching). Now-a-days they give up gentleness and are all for being bold. With that gentleness I can be bold. 69 . by his (very) gentleness protecting him.—(of all which the end is) death. Gentleness is sure to be victorious even in battle. the second is economy. Now it is just its greatness that makes it seem to be inferior. Heaven will save its possessor. with that economy I can be liberal. If it were like any other (system). the hindmost place. economy. and seek only to be foremost. for long would its smallness have been known! But I have three precious things which I prize and hold fast. I can become a vessel of the highest honour. and the third is shrinking from taking precedence of others. and are all for being liberal.67 All the world says that. and firmly to maintain its ground. The first is gentleness. while my Tao is great. shrinking from taking precedence of others.

'Like Heaven's his ends. That they with him unite. No sage of old more bright. And therein is his might.' 70 . 'He ne'er contends. He who fights with most good will To rage makes no resort.68 He who in (Tao's) wars has skill Assumes no martial port. 'Men's wills he bends. He whose hests men most fulfil Yet humbly plies his art.' Thus we say. He who vanquishes yet still Keeps from his foes apart. Thus we say.' Thus we say.

There is no calamity greater than lightly engaging in war. advancing against the enemy where there is no enemy. 71 .69 A master of the art of war has said. I prefer to retire a foot. he who deplores (the situation) conquers. 'I do not dare to be the host (to commence the war). Thus it is that when opposing weapons are (actually) crossed. I prefer to be the guest (to act on the defensive). To do that is near losing (the gentleness) which is so precious. grasping the weapon where there is no weapon to grasp. baring the arms (to fight) where there are no arms to bare.' This is called marshalling the ranks where there are no ranks. I do not dare to advance an inch.

There is an originating and all-comprehending (principle) in my words. that men do not know me. while he carries his (signet of) jade in his bosom. 72 . and an authoritative law for the things (which I enforce). It is because they do not know these. and very easy to practise. and I am on that account (the more) to be prized. It is thus that the sage wears (a poor garb of) hair cloth. but there is no one in the world who is able to know and able to practise them. They who know me are few.70 My words are very easy to know.

He knows the pain that would be inseparable from it. It is simply by being pained at (the thought of) having this disease that we are preserved from it. and therefore he does not have it.71 To know and yet (think) we do not know is the highest (attainment). not to know (and yet think) we do know is a disease. The sage has not the disease. 73 .

but does not parade (his knowledge). Therefore the sage knows (these things) of himself. It is by avoiding such indulgence that such weariness does not arise. that which is their great dread will come on them. but does not (appear to set a) value on. 74 . loves.72 When the people do not fear what they ought to fear. And thus he puts the latter alternative away and makes choice of the former. himself. let them not act as if weary of what that life depends on. Let them not thoughtlessly indulge themselves in their ordinary life.

but letting nothing escape. Its demonstrations are quiet. does not call. and yet it skilfully overcomes. far apart. and yet its plans are skilful and effective. and the other to be injurious. Who the cause shall truly scan? On this account the sage feels a difficulty (as to what to do in the former case). and yet men come to it of themselves. It is the way of Heaven not to strive. But When Heaven's anger smites a man. and yet it is skilful in (obtaining a reply. not to speak.73 He whose boldness appears in his daring (to do wrong. in defiance of the laws) is put to death. The meshes of the net of Heaven are large. Of these two cases the one appears to be advantageous. he whose boldness appears in his not daring (to do so) lives on. 75 .

instead of the great carpenter.74 The people do not fear death. Seldom is it that he who undertakes the hewing. He who would inflict death in the room of him who so presides over it may be described as hewing wood instead of a great carpenter. does not cut his own hands! 76 . and put them to death. who would dare to do wrong? There is always One who presides over the infliction death. to what purpose is it to (try to) frighten them with death? If the people were always in awe of death. and I could always seize those who do wrong.

77 . It is through this that they suffer famine. The people make light of dying because of the greatness of their labours in seeking for the means of living. It is through this that they are difficult to govern. The people are difficult to govern because of the (excessive) agency of their superiors (in governing them). It is this which makes them think light of dying. Thus it is that to leave the subject of living altogether out of view is better than to set a high value on it.75 The people suffer from famine because of the multitude of taxes consumed by their superiors.

dry and withered. at his death. (So it is with) all things. (and thereby invites the feller. in their early growth. the concomitants of life. and that of what is soft and weak is above. at their death. Thus it is that firmness and strength are the concomitants of death. Trees and plants. and a tree which is strong will fill the out-stretched arms. firm and strong. 78 .) Therefore the place of what is firm and strong is below. are soft and brittle. Hence he who (relies on) the strength of his forces does not conquer. softness and weakness.76 Man at his birth is supple and weak.

Who can take his own superabundance and therewith serve all under heaven? Only he who is in possession of the Tao! Therefore the (ruling) sage acts without claiming the results as his. 79 . He takes away from those who have not enough to add to his own superabundance. he achieves his merit and does not rest (arrogantly) in it:—he does not wish to display his superiority. and what was low is raised up.77 May not the Way (or Tao) of Heaven be compared to the (method of) bending a bow? The (part of the bow) which was high is brought low. and to supplement deficiency. It is not so with the way of man. It is the Way of Heaven to diminish superabundance. (So Heaven) diminishes where there is superabundance. and supplements where there is deficiency.

Is hailed therefore its altars' lord. and yet for attacking things that are firm and strong there is nothing that can take precedence of it. To him who bears men's direful woes They all the name of King accord. but no one is able to carry it out in practice. 'He who accepts his state's reproach.78 There is nothing in the world more soft and weak than water. Every one in the world knows that the soft overcomes the hard. 80 . Therefore a sage has said.—for there is nothing (so effectual) for which it can be changed. and the weak the strong.' Words that are strictly true seem to be paradoxical.

81 . the sage keeps the left-hand portion of the record of the engagement. In the Way of Heaven. while he who has not those attributes regards only the conditions favourable to himself. and does not insist on the (speedy) fulfilment of it by the other party. there is sure to be a grudge remaining (in the mind of the one who was wrong). he who has the attributes (of the Tao) regards (only) the conditions of the engagement. (So). And how can this be beneficial (to the other)? Therefore (to guard against this). it is always on the side of the good man.79 When a reconciliation is effected (between two parties) after a great animosity. there is no partiality of love.

they should have no occasion to ride in them. though there were individuals with the abilities of ten or a hundred men. their (poor) dwellings places of rest. yet not remove elsewhere (to avoid it). that. They should think their (coarse) food sweet. though they had buff coats and sharp weapons. even to death. their (plain) clothes beautiful. there should be no employment of them. Though they had boats and carriages. I would so order it. I would make the people return to the use of knotted cords (instead of the written characters).80 In a little state with a small population. not have any intercourse with it. but I would make the people to old age. 82 . they should have no occasion to don or use them. There should be a neighbouring state within sight. and the voices of the fowls and dogs should be heard all the way from it to us. I would make the people. while looking on death as a grievous thing. and their common (simple) ways sources of enjoyment.

it injures not. Those who are skilled (in the Tao) do not dispute (about it).81 Sincere words are not fine. Those who know (the Tao) are not extensively learned. 83 . With all the sharpness of the Way of Heaven. the more does he possess of his own. fine words are not sincere. the more that he gives to others. The sage does not accumulate (for himself). The more that he expends for others. the more does he have himself. with all the doing in the way of the sage he does not strive. the disputatious are not skilled in it. the extensively learned do not know it.

Shiva's doorkeeper. but approached from a more critical. The Kama Sutra is the oldest and most notable of a group of texts known generically as Kama Shastra). and sūtra are the guidlines of yoga. Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche Beyond Good and Evil Beyond Good and Evil (German: Jenseits von Gut und Böse)." for it is an unmitigated attack on Christianity that Nietzsche makes within the text instead of an exposition on 84 . is an ancient Indian text widely considered to be the standard work on human sexual behavior in Sanskrit literature written by the Indian scholar Vatsyayana. the word itself means thread in Sanskrit. the first transmission of Kama Shastra or "Discipline of Kama" is attributed to Nandi the sacred bull. The work moves into the realm "beyond good and evil" in the sense of leaving behind the traditional morality which Nietzsche subjects to a destructive critique in favour of what he regards as an affirmative approach that fearlessly confronts the perspectival nature of knowledge and the perilous condition of the modern individual. In Beyond Good and Evil. polemical direction. Thus Spoke Zarathustra. Traditionally. Nietzsche attacks past philosophers for their alleged lack of critical sense and their blind acceptance of Christian premises in their consideration of morality. Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche The Antichrist Friedrich Nietzsche's "The Antichrist" might be more aptly named "The Antichristian. Kāma means sensual or sexual pleasure. It takes up and expands on the ideas of his previous work. who was moved to sacred utterance by overhearing the lovemaking of the god and his wife Parvati and later recorded his utterances for the benefit of mankind. subtitled "Prelude to a Philosophy of the Future" (Vorspiel einer Philosophie der Zukunft). is a book by the German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche. A portion of the work consists of practical advice on sex. first published in 1886.Loved this book ? Similar users also downloaded Vatsyayana The Kama Sutra The Kama Sutra.

Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche Thus Spake Zarathustra Thus Spoke Zarathustra (German: Also sprach Zarathustra. Described by Nietzsche himself as "the deepest ever written". Through the book Musashi defends his thesis: a man who conquers himself is ready to take it on on the world. Regardless of ones religious or philosophical point of view. Musashi Miyamoto The Book of Five Rings Miyamoto Musashi's Go Rin no Sho or the book of five rings. is a written work by German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche. subtitled A Book for All and None (Ein Buch für Alle und Keinen). Much of the work deals with ideas such as the "eternal recurrence of the same". should need arise. which activity Freud famously described as "the royal road to the understanding of unconscious mental processes". featuring as protagonist a fictionalized Zarathustra. A central irony of the text is that the style of the Bible is used by Nietzsche to present ideas of his which fundamentally oppose Judaeo-Christian morality and tradition. much like Sun Tzu's The Art of War and Chanakya's Arthashastra. In "The Antichrist." Nietzsche presents a highly controversial view of Christianity as a damaging influence upon western civilization that must come to an end. is considered a classic treatise on military strategy. as described by Buddhism. and the "prophecy" of the Overman. the parable on the "death of God". The publication inaugurated the theory of Freudian dream analysis. Shinto. composed in four parts between 1883 and 1885. sometimes translated Thus Spake Zarathustra). "The Antichrist" makes for an engaging philosophical discourse. The five "books" refer to the idea that there are different elements of battle. 85 . the book is a dense and esoteric treatise on philosophy and morality. and other Eastern religions. just as there are different physical elements in life. Sigmund Freud Dream Psychology The Interpretation of Dreams is a book by Sigmund Freud. which were first introduced in The Gay Science. The first edition was first published in German in November 1899 as Die Traumdeutung (though post-dated as 1900 by the publisher).evil or Satan as the title might suggest.

Originally called De Principatibus (About Principalities). Sun Tzu was the first to recognize the importance of positioning in strategy and that position is affected both by objective conditions in the physical environment and the subjective opinions of competitive actors in that environment. business tactics. style. It was first published in 1922. five years after Machiavelli's death. It was published in the U. it has long been praised as the definitive work on military strategies and tactics of its time. Composed of 13 chapters. it was written in 1513. but rather that it requires quick and appropriate responses to changing conditions. Hermann Hesse Siddhartha Siddhartha is an allegorical novel by Hermann Hesse which deals with the spiritual journey of an Indian boy called Siddhartha during the time of the Buddha.Niccolò Machiavelli The Prince Il Principe (The Prince) is a political treatise by the Florentine public servant and political theorist Niccolò Machiavelli. and the work responsible for bringing "Machiavellian" into wide usage as a pejorative term. It has also been suggested by some critics that the piece is. but it is the most remembered. Planning works in a controlled environment. and beyond. The word Siddhartha is made up of two words in the Sanskrit 86 . The book. He taught that strategy was not planning in the sense of working through a to-do list. Sun Tzu The Art of War The Art of War is a Chinese military treatise that was written during the 6th century BC by Sun Tzu. in fact. The treatise is not representative of the work published during his lifetime. each of which is devoted to one aspect of warfare. a satire. but in a competitive environment. but not published until 1532. was written in German. yet powerful and lyrical. The Art of War is one of the oldest books on military strategy in the world. in 1951 and became influential during the 1960s. after Hesse had spent some time in India in the 1910s. It is the first and one of the most successful works on strategy and has had a huge influence on Eastern and Western military thinking. Hesse's ninth novel. in a simple.S.

the Buddha is referred to as "Gotama". becoming proficient at communicating his thoughts to the Western Mind. The two words together mean "one who has found meaning (of existence)" or "he who has attained his goals". The book is accessibile to Western audiences because Kakuzo was taught at a young age to speak English. Kakuzo introduces the term Teaism and how Tea has affected nearly every aspect of Japanese culture. simplicity. In this book. and has since been republished many times. but also the secular aspects of Tea and Japanese life. before his renunciation. The Buddha's name.language. Source: Wikipedia Kakuzo Okakura The Book of Tea The Book of Tea was written by Okakura Kakuzo in the early 20th century. Heidegger's concept of Dasein in Sein und Zeit was inspired — although Heidegger remains silent on this — by Okakura Kakuzo's concept of das-in-dem-Weltsein (to be in the being of the world) expressed in The Book of Tea to describe Zhuangzi's philosophy. after having followed lessons with him the year before. most importantly. In his book. He ends the book with a chapter on Tea Masters. later the Buddha. According to Tomonobu Imamichi. was Prince Siddhartha Gautama. and he was a long-time student of the visual arts. It was first published in 1906. and spoke it all his life. which Imamichi's teacher had offerred to Heidegger in 1919. The book emphasises how Teaism taught the Japanese many things. siddha (gotten) + artha (meaning or wealth). and life. he discusses such topics as Zen and Taoism. In the book. 87 . thought. and spends some time talking about Sen no Rikyu and his contribution to the Japanese Tea Ceremony. Kakuzo argues that this tea-induced simplicity affected art and architecture.

com Food for the mind 88 .www.feedbooks.

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