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30. Signal Space Analysis of BASK, BFSK, BPSK, and QAM
The vectorspace representation of signals and the optimum detection process which
chooses the signal closest to the received signal is particularly useful in signal design and in
probabilityoferror calculations. The material presented herein includes the error
performance of binary amplitudeshift keying (BASK), binary frequencyshift keying
(BFSK), binary phaseshift keying (BPSK), and Mary quadrature amplitude modulation
(QAM) signals.
Error Performance of Binary ASK
A binary amplitudeshift keying (BASK) signal can be defined by
s(t) =
A f
c
t t T
elsewhere
cos( ),
,
2 0
0
π ≤ ≤
¹
'
¹
(30.1)
where A is a constant, f
c
is the carrier frequency, and T is the bit duration. It has a
power P = A
2
/2, so that A = 2P. Thus equation (30.1) can be written as
s(t) =
2 2 0
0
P f
c
t t T
elsewhere
cos( ),
,
π ≤ ≤ ¹
'
¹
=
PT
T
f
c
t t T
elsewhere
2
2 0
0
cos( ),
,
π ≤ ≤
¹
'
¹
¹
¹
=
E
T
f
c
t t T
elsewhere
2
2 0
0
cos( ),
,
π ≤ ≤
¹
'
¹
¹
¹
(30.2)
where E = PT is the energy contained in a bit duration. Figure 30.1 shows the signal
constellation diagram of BASK signals and the conditional probability density functions
associated with the signals.
Figure 30.1 BASK signal constellation diagram and the conditional probability density
functions associated with the signals.
The energy contained in a bit duration is
E = d
2
(30.3)
and so
30.1
Signal Space Analysis of BASK, BFSK, BPSK, and QAM on Mac
d = E (30.4)
It is assumed that the noise is additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) with a twosided
power spectral density of n
0
/2, zero mean and fixed variance σ
2
= n
0
/2. In the
presence of AWGN, the conditional probability density function of φ
1
assuming that s
0
is transmitted is
f(φ
1
/ 0)
=
1
2
2
1
2
2
2
πσ
φ
σ
e
−
and the probability of error given that s
0
is transmitted is
P
e0
=
φ
1
2 ·
∞
∫
d /
f(φ
1
/0)dφ
1
=
φ
1
2 ·
∞
∫
d /
1
2
2
1
2
2
2
1
πσ
φ
σ
φ e d
−
(30.5)
Similarly, the probability of error given that s
1
is transmitted is
P
e1
=
−∞
·
∫
φ
1
2 d /
f(φ
1
/1)dφ
1
=
1
2
2
1
2
2
2
1
1
2
πσ
φ
σ
φ
φ
e
d
d
d
−
−
−∞
·
∫
( )
/
= P
e1
where
f(φ
1
/1) =
1
2
2
1
2
2
2
πσ
φ
σ
e
d
−
− ( )
(30.6)
Let p
0
be the probability of sending s
0
and p
1
be the probability of sending s
1
. For
equally likely transmission of binary signals, we have p
0
= p
1
= 0.5. The average
probability of error is given by
P
e
= p
0
P
e0
+ p
1
P
e1
= P
e0
=
φ
1
2 ·
∞
∫
d /
1
2
2
1
2
2
2
1
πσ
φ
σ
φ e d
−
(30.7)
30.2
Signal Space Analysis of BASK, BFSK, BPSK, and QAM on Mac
Let y =
φ
σ
1
2
. Then y
2
=
φ
σ
1
2
2
2
and d y =
dφ
σ
1
2
. Substituting y and dy into
equation (30.7), we get
P
e
=
1
2 2
π
σ
y
d
·
∞
∫
e
y
2
dy
=
1
2
[
2
π
y
∞
∫
e
y
2
dy ]
=
1
2
erfc(
d
2 2σ
)
=
1
2
erfc(
d
n 2
0
)
=
1
2
erfc(
E
n 4
0
) (30.8)
where the complementary error function is
erfc (x) =
2
π
x
∞
∫
e
α
2
dα (30.9)
σ
2
= n
0
/2 for AWGN, and d = E .
Error Performance of Binary PSK
A binary phaseshift keying (BPSK) signal can be defined by
s(t) = +A cos 2πf
c
t, 0 < t < T (30.10)
where A is a constant, f
c
is the carrier frequency, and T is the bit duration. It has a
power P = A
2
/2, so that A = 2P. Thus equation (30.10) can be written as
s(t) = + 2P cos 2πf
c
t
= + PT
2
T
cos 2πf
c
t
= + E
2
T
cos 2πf
c
t (30.11)
30.3
Signal Space Analysis of BASK, BFSK, BPSK, and QAM on Mac
where E = PT is the energy contained in a bit duration. Figure 30.2 shows the signal
constellation diagram of BPSK signals and the conditional probability density functions
associated with the signals.
Figure 30.2 BPSK signal constellation diagram and the conditional probability density
functions associated with the signals.
The energy contained in a bit duration is
E = ( )
d
2
2
(30.12)
and so
d = 4E (30.13)
In the presence of AWGN, the conditional probability density function of φ
1
assuming
that s
0
is sent is
f(φ
1
/0) =
1
2
2
1
2
2
2
2
πσ
φ
σ
e
d
−
+ ( )
(30.14)
and the probability of error given that s
0
is transmitted is
P
e0
=
0
∞
∫
f(φ
1
/0)dφ
1
=
0
∞
∫
1
2
2
1
2
2
2
2
1
πσ
φ
σ
φ e
d
d
−
+ ( )
(30.15)
Similarly, the probability of error given that s
1
is sent is
P
e1
=
−∞
∫
0
f(φ
1
/1) dφ
1
=
−∞
∫
0
1
2
2
1
2
2
2
2
1
πσ
φ
σ
φ e
d
d
−
− ( )
= P
e0
(30.16)
where
30.4
Signal Space Analysis of BASK, BFSK, BPSK, and QAM on Mac
f(φ
1
/2) =
1
2
2
1
2
2
2
2
πσ
φ
σ
e
d
−
− ( )
(30.17)
Let p
0
be the probability of sending s
0
and p
1
be the probability of sending s
1
. For
equally likely transmission of binary signals, we have p
0
= p
1
= 0.5. The average
probability of error is
P
e
= p
0
P
e0
+ p
1
P
e1
= P
e0
=
0
∞
∫
1
2
2
1
2
2
2
2
1
πσ
φ
σ
φ e
d
d
−
+ ( )
(30.18)
Let y =
φ
σ
1
2
2
+
d
. Then y
2
=
( ) φ
σ
1
2
2
2
2
+
d
and dy =
dφ
σ
1
2
. Substituting y and dy into
equation (30.18), we get
P
e
=
y
d
·
+
∞
∫
φ
σ
1
2
2
1
π
e
y
2
dy
=
1
2
2
π
y
d
·
+
∞
∫
φ
σ
1
2
2
e
y
2
dy
=
1
2
erfc (
φ
σ
1
2
2
+
d
)
=
1
2
erfc (
d
2 2σ
)
=
1
2
erfc(
d
n 2
0
)
=
1
2
erfc(
E
n
0
) (30.19)
where φ
1
= 0 is the threshold value, the complementary error function is
30.5
Signal Space Analysis of BASK, BFSK, BPSK, and QAM on Mac
erfc (x) =
2
π
x
∞
∫
e
α
2
dα (30.20)
σ
2
= n
0
/2 for AWGN, and d = 4E.
Error Performance of Orthogonal Binary FSK
A binary frequencyshift keying (BFSK) signal can be defined by
s(t) =
A f
c
t t T
A f
c
t elsewhere
cos( ),
cos( ),
2
1
0
2
2
π
π
≤ ≤
¹
'
¹
¹
¹
(30.21)
where A is a constant, f
c
1
and f
c
2
are the carrier frequencies, and T is the bit duration.
It has a power P = A
2
/2, so that A = 2P. Thus equation (30.21) can be written as
s(t) =
2 2
1
0
2 2
2
P f
c
t t T
P f
c
t elsewhere
cos( ),
cos( ),
π
π
≤ ≤ ¹
'
¹
¹
¹
=
PT
T
f
c
t t T
PT
T
f
c
t elsewhere
2
2
1
0
2
2
2
cos( ),
cos( ),
π
π
≤ ≤
¹
'
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
=
E
T
f
c
t t T
E
T
f
c
t elsewhere
2
2
1
0
2
2
2
cos( ),
cos( ),
π
π
≤ ≤
¹
'
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
(30.22)
where E = PT is the energy contained in a bit duration. Figure 30.3 shows the signal
constellation diagram of orthogonal BFSK signals and the conditional probability density
functions associated with the signals.
Figure 30.3 Orthogonal BFSK signal constellation diagram and the conditional
probability density functions associated with the signals.
The energy in a bit duration is
E = ( )
d
2
2
(30.23)
and
30.6
Signal Space Analysis of BASK, BFSK, BPSK, and QAM on Mac
d = 2E (30.24)
If we rotate the two orthonormal axes φ
1
and φ
2
to u
1
and u
2
, we end up with a signal
constellation diagram for BPSK signals with a separation distance of d. Thus, the average
probability of error is
P
e
=
1
2
erfc(
d
2 2σ
)
=
1
2
erfc(
d
n 2
0
)
=
1
2
erfc(
E
n 2
0
) (30.25)
σ
2
= n
0
/2 for AWGN, and d = 2E.
Table 30.1 summarises the performance of BPSK, orthogonal BFSK, and BASK signals
in the presenec of AWGN.
________________________________________________________________________
Modulation d P
e
=
1
2
erfc(
d
2 2σ
) Relative (dB)
=
1
2
erfc(
d
n 2
0
)
________________________________________________________________________
BPSK 4E
1
2
erfc(
E
n
0
) 0
Orthogonal BFSK 2E
1
2
erfc(
E
n 2
0
) 3
BASK E
1
2
erfc(
E
n 4
0
) 6
________________________________________________________________________
Table 30.1 Performance of various modulation systems.
Also, we can express the performance of these modulation systems in terms of the average
signal energy E , where
E = E/2 (30.26)
for BASK signals,
30.7
Signal Space Analysis of BASK, BFSK, BPSK, and QAM on Mac
E = E (30.27)
for orthogonal BFSK signals, and
E = E (30.28)
for BPSK signals. This is summarised in Table 30.2.
________________________________________________________________________
Modulation E P
e
Relative (dB)
________________________________________________________________________
BPSK E
1
2
erfc(
E
n
0
) =
1
2
erfc(
E
n
0
) 0
Orthogonal BFSK E
1
2
erfc(
E
n 2
0
) =
1
2
erfc(
E
n 2
0
) 3
BASK E/2
1
2
erfc(
E
n 4
0
) =
1
2
erfc(
E
n 2
0
) 3
________________________________________________________________________
Table 30.2 Performance of various binary modulation systems in terms of the average
signal energy.
Error Performance of Mary QAM
Consider the (M=16)ary quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) signal constellation
diagram of Figure 30.4 as an example.
Figure 30.4 16ary QAM signal constellation diagram.
The average signal energy of an Mary QAM signal is
E =
1
0
1
M
i
M
·
−
∑
E
i
(30.29)
where E
i
is the energy of s
i
. For M = 16, we have
E =
1
16
[
4
2
4
2
4
5 6 910
× +
¸
¸
_
,
d d
s
, , ,
1 2 44 3 44
+
8
9
2
4
2
4
1 2 4 111314 7 8
× +
¸
¸
_
,
d d
s
, , , , , , ,
1 2 44 3 44
+
4
9
2
4
9
2
4
0 312 15
× +
¸
¸
_
,
d d
s
, , ,
1 2 444 3 444
]
30.8
Signal Space Analysis of BASK, BFSK, BPSK, and QAM on Mac
=
5d
2
2
(30.30)
and so
d =
2
5
E (30.31)
To find the probability of error, it is simpler to first find the probability P
c
of correct
detection. It is apparent from Figure 30.4 that we can group signal points into 3 classes and
compute P
c
based on the 3 decision regions as shown in Figure 30.5.
Figure 30.5 Decision regions.
Let n
1
and n
2
be additive white Gaussian noise samples with twosided power spectral
density of n
0
/2, zero mean and fixed variance σ
2
= n
0
/2 along the φ
1
axis and φ
2

axis, respectively.
Case 1  four inner signal points (s
5,6,9,10
) :
In the presence of AWGN, the probability of correct detection given that s
i
, i = 5, 6, 9,
10, is transmitted is
P(C/s
i
) = P(d/2 < n
1
< d/2) x P(d/2 < n
2
< d/2)
= P(d/2 < n
1
< d/2) x P(d/2 < n
1
< d/2)
= p x p (30.32)
where
p = P(d/2 < n
1
< d/2)
=
−
∫
d
d
/
/
2
2
1
2
2
1
2
2
2
πσ
φ
σ
e
−
dφ
1
= 2
0
2 d /
∫
1
2
2
1
2
2
2
πσ
φ
σ
e
−
dφ
1
(30.33)
30.9
Signal Space Analysis of BASK, BFSK, BPSK, and QAM on Mac
Let y =
φ
σ
1
2
. Then y
2
=
φ
σ
1
2
2
2
and d y =
dφ
σ
1
2
. Substituting y and dy into
equation (30.33), we get
p = 2
0
2 2
d
σ
∫
1
π
e
y
2
dy
= erf(
d
2 2σ
)
= erf(
d
n 2
0
) (30.34)
where the error function is
erf (x) =
2
π
0
x
∫
e
α
2
dα (30.35)
and σ
2
= n
0
/2 for AWGN.
Case 2  four corner signal points (s
0,3,12,15
) :
In the presence of AWGN, the probability of correct detection given that s
i
, i = 0, 3, 12,
15, is transmitted is
P(C/s
i
) = P( −∞ < n
1
< d/2) x P(d/2 < n
2
< ∞) (30.36)
= P(d/2 < n
1
< ∞) x P(d/2 < n
2
< ∞)
= P(d/2 < n
1
< ∞) x P(d/2 < n
1
< ∞)
= r x r
where
r = P(d/2 < n
1
< ∞)
=
−
∞
∫
d / 2
1
2
2
1
2
2
2
πσ
φ
σ
e
−
dφ
1
30.10
Signal Space Analysis of BASK, BFSK, BPSK, and QAM on Mac
=
−
∫
d / 2
0
1
2
2
1
2
2
2
πσ
φ
σ
e
−
dφ
1
+
0
∞
∫
1
2
2
1
2
2
2
πσ
φ
σ
e
−
dφ
1
=
0
2 d /
∫
1
2
2
1
2
2
2
πσ
φ
σ
e
−
dφ
1
+
0
∞
∫
1
2
2
1
2
2
2
πσ
φ
σ
e
−
dφ
1
= 0.5p + 0.5 (30.37)
Case 3  eight edge signal points (s
1,2,4,7,8,11,13,14
) :
In the presence of AWGN, the probability of correct detection given that s
i
, i = 1, 2, 4,
7, 8, 11, 13, 14, is transmitted is
P(C/s
i
) = P(d/2 < n
1
< d/2) x P(d/2 < n
2
< ∞)
= P(d/2 < n
1
< d/2) x P(d/2 < n
1
< ∞)
= p x r (30.38)
Let P(s
i
) be the probability of sending s
i
, for i = 0, 1, ..., 15. Thus, the total probability of
correct detection is
P
c
=
i
M
·
− ·
∑
0
1 15
P s
i
a priori probability
( )
123
P(C/s
i
) (30.39)
With equally likely transmission of s
i
, we have
P
c
= 4 (
1
16
p x p) + 4 (
1
16
r x r) + 8(
1
16
p x r)
=
1
16
[ 4 p
2
+ 4(
p
2
+
1
2
)
2
+ 8p (
p
2
+
1
2
)]
=
( 3p + 1)
2
16
(30.40)
The probability of error is
P
e
= (1  P
c
)
= 1 
( 3p + 1)
2
16
=
4
2
− ( 3p + 1)
2
16
=
3(1 −p)(5 + 3p)
16
30.11
Signal Space Analysis of BASK, BFSK, BPSK, and QAM on Mac
For normal operation, p approaches 1 and P
e
<< 1, and then
P
e
≈
3(1 −p)8
16
=
3
2
(1  p) (30.41)
Substituting p = erf (
d
2 n
0
) and d =
2
5
E into equation (30.41), we have
P
e
≈
3
2
[1 −erf (
E
10n
0
)]
=
3
2
erfc (
E
10n
0
) (30.42)
Example 30.1
Consider the 4ary QAM signal constellation diagram as shown in Figure 30.6.
Figure 30.6 4ary QAM signal constellation diagram.
The average signal energy is
E =
1
4
[ 4
2
4
2
4
× +
¸
¸
_
,
d d
] =
d
2
2
and
d =
2
5
E .
From our previous analysis of 16ary QAM signals, the probability of correct detection in
4ary QAM signals given that s
i
, i = 0, 1, 2, 3, is transmitted is
P(C/s
i
) = P( −∞ < n
1
< d/2) x P(d/2 < n
2
< ∞)
= P(d/2 < n
1
< ∞) x P(d/2 < n
2
< ∞)
= P(d/2 < n
1
< ∞) x P(d/2 < n
1
< ∞)
= r x r
where
30.12
Signal Space Analysis of BASK, BFSK, BPSK, and QAM on Mac
r = 0.5p + 0.5
p = erf(
d
2 2σ
) = erf(
d
n 2
0
)
and σ
2
= n
0
/2 for AWGN.
The total probability of correct detection is
P
c
=
i
M
·
− ·
∑
0
1 3
P s
i
a priori probability
( )
123
P(C/s
i
)
With equally likely transmission of s
i
, we have
P
c
= 4 (
1
4
r x r)
= (
p
2
+
1
2
)
2
=
( ) 1
2
4
+ p
The probability of error is
P
e
= (1  P
c
) = 1 
( ) 1
2
4
+ p
=
( )( ) 1 3
4
− + p p
For normal operation, p approaches 1 and P
e
<< 1, and then
P
e
≈
4 1
4
( ) − p
= (1  p) (30.43)
Substituting p = erf (
d
2 n
0
) and d = 2E into equation (30.43), we have
P
e
≈ 1
2
0
− erf
E
n
( ) = erfc
E
n
( )
2
0
.
30.13
Signal Space Analysis of BASK, BFSK, BPSK, and QAM on Mac
References
[1] M. Schwartz, Information Transmission, Modulation, and Noise, 4/e, McGraw
Hill, 1990.
[2] H. Taub and D. L. Schilling, Principles of Communication Systems, 2/e,
MaGrawHill, 1996.
30.14
Signal Space Analysis of BASK, BFSK, BPSK, and QAM on Mac
Probability density function
d
E
=
0
d/2
φ
P
e0
P
e1
1
f ( φ
/1)
1
2
π σ
2
e
2
σ
2

=
1
(
φ
)
2
1
d
2
f ( φ
/0)
1
2
π
σ
2
e
2
σ
2
φ
2

=
1
1
s
1
s
0
φ
2
=
2
T
cos
2
π
f
c
t
=
2
T
sin
2
π
f
c
t
Figure 30.1 BASK signal constellation diagram and the conditional probability density
functions associated with the signals.
d
2
E
=
d
2
1 0
φ
P
e0
P
e1
2
φ
0
s
1
s
1
2
π σ
2
e
2
σ
2

=
f ( φ
/0)
1
(
φ
)
2
1
d
2
+
f ( φ
/1)
1
2
π σ
2
e
2
σ
2

=
1
(
φ
)
2
1
d
2

=
2
T
cos
2
π
f
c
t
=
2
T
sin
2
π
f
c
t
Figure 30.2 BPSK signal constellation diagram and the conditional probability density
functions associated with the signals.
f (
u /1)
1
2
π σ
2
e
2
σ
2

=
1
(
u 
)
2
1
d
2
1
2
π σ
2
e
2
σ
2

=
f (
u /0)
1
(
u +
)
2
1
d
2
0
φ
1
u
1
u
2
φ
2
0
E
2
d
=
E
2
d
=
s
0
s
1
d
=
2
T
cos
2
π
f
c
t
1
=
2
T
cos
2
π
f
c
t
2
Figure 30.3 Orthogonal BFSK signal constellation diagram and the conditional
probability density functions associated with the signals.
30.15
Signal Space Analysis of BASK, BFSK, BPSK, and QAM on Mac
s
1
s
3
s
7
s
6
s
5
s
4
s
8
s
9
s
11
s
15
s
14
s
13
s
12
d
d
φ
1
φ
2
0
d/2
d/2
d/2 d/2 d/2
s
10
s
2
s
0
Decision boundary
=
2
T
cos
2
π
f
c
t
=
2
T
sin
2
π
f
c
t
Figure 30.4 16ary QAM signal constellation diagram.
φ
1
φ
2
d/2
d/2
s
10
0
d/2
d/2
(a)
s
0
φ
1
φ
2
d/2 0
d/2
(b)
s
2
φ
1
φ
2
d/2
0 d/2
d/2
(c)
Figure 30.5 Decision regions.
30.16
Signal Space Analysis of BASK, BFSK, BPSK, and QAM on Mac
s
0
s
1
s
3
φ
1
φ
2
0
d/2
d/2
d/2
d/2
s
2
Decision boundary
=
2
T
cos
2
π
f
c
t
=
2
T
sin
2
π
f
c
t
Figure 30.6 4ary QAM signal constellation diagram.
30.17
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