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Nunan, D. Practical English Language Teaching; Chapter 3; Speaking

Nunan, D. Practical English Language Teaching; Chapter 3; Speaking

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Published by: Débora Costa Almeida on Feb 26, 2013
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Disciplina: Estágio Supervisionado Profa: Rosana do E. Santo Grupo: Débora, Helena e Vanderléia



p. writing. Language directed at learner (in reading or listening) is called receptive. Here are some key contrasts (van Lier. Thus. Second. writing) are described in terms of their direction. or listening for two reasons: First. speaking happens in real time. Language generated by learner (in speech or writing) is referred to as productive. 88):    3 . reading. Many people fell that speaking in a new language is harder than reading. speaking. when you speak. the four skills (listening. Spoken language and written language differ in many significant ways. 1995. In language teaching. It consists of producing systematic verbal utterances to convey meaning. speaking is the productive aural/oral skill. you cannot edit and revise what you wish to say. as you can if you are writing. Channel refers to the medium of the message (aural/ oral or written).

revision 4 . immediate reception • Prosody (rhythm. delayed reception • Punctuation • Delayed or no feedback • Unlimited planning. editing.Spoken language • Auditory • Temporary. stress intonation) • Immediate feedback • Planning and editing limited by channel Written language • Visual • Permanent.


and learning vocabulary. is the theoretical basis of the audiolingual method. The concept of habit formation. So students might spend several semesters repeating after the teacher. reciting dialogues. D. AUDIOLINGUAL repetition drills were designed to familiarize students with the sounds and structural patterns of the target language (the language which learners are aiming to learn). For many years people taught speaking by having students repeat sentences and recite memorized textbook dialogues. C. studying grammar rules. of behaviorism. B. People supposedly learned to speak by practicing grammatical structures and then later using them in conversation.    A. 6 .

infants acquiring their first language and people acquiring second languages learn the pieces by interacting with other people. then learners should interact during lessons. a method called communicative language teaching arose. if we believe that people learn languages by interacting.  7 . So. F. During the late twentieth century. As a result. E.

flee. as can words. An utterance is something someone says. etc). as well as suffixes. such as un. Clauses are two or more words that do contain a verb marked for tense. Both clauses and phrases can be utterances.a unit of language which can stand on its own and have meaning (hat. It may not be a full sentence. but they are quite common in speech. such as –tion or –s or –ed. Bound morphemes are always connected to words. Such clauses and phrases don’t usually appear alone in formal writing. These include prefixes.     8 . There are many linguistic elements involved in speaking.or pre-. clauses and phrases. Phrase is two or more words which function as a unit but don’t have a subject or a verb marked for tense. already.G. A word is called a free morpheme. as the concept is used in writing. The next two levels. are often confused.  So spoken texts are composed of utterances.

For example: when /b/ is pronounced. Sometimes a spoken syllable consists of one phoneme (/o/ in okay). and conversation is not simple at all. But syllables also consist of combined sounds (the second syllable of okay).Phonemes is a unit of sound in a language that distinguishes meaning. 9    . they carry meaning differences but they operate “above” the segmental phonemes. and intonation are called the suprasegmental phonemes. smaller unit. It is important for language teachers to understand these units of language and how they work together. and of both free and bound morphemes. rhythm. Distinctive feature. Conclusion: All the levels of language operate when we speak. the vocal cords are vibrating. Phonemes ca be either consonants (like /p/ or /b/ in the words pit and bit) or vowels (like /I/ and /ae/ in bit and bat).  Consonants and vowels are segmental phonemes. the vocal cords are not vibrating. because when we speak. Stress. but when /p/ is pronounced. relates to how or where a sound is produced when we speak.


1. and immigrants 11 . international students. Second language learners include refugees.g.  Foreign language (FL) context is one where the target language is not the language of communication in the society (e. learning English in Japan or studying French in Australian)..  Second language (SL) context is one where the target language is the language of communication in the society (such as English in the UK or Spanish in Mexico). Be aware of the differences between second language and foreign language learning contexts.

12 . Give the students practice with both fluency and accurancy  Accuracy: is the extent to which students’ speech matches what people actually say when they use the target language. etc. with few hesitations or unnatural pauses. word searches.  Fluency: is the extent to which speakers use the language quickly and confidently.2. false starts.

 Pair work and group work activities can be used to increase the amount of time that learners get to speak in the target language during lessons. 13 .3. and limiting teacher talk. Provide opportunities for students to talk by using group work or pair work.

Plan speaking tasks that involve negotiation for meaning  It involves checking to see if you’ve understood what someone has said. clarifying your understanding. and confirming that someone has understood your meaning.4. 14 .

Transactional speech involves communicating to get something done. including the exchange of goods and/or services.    When we talk with someone outside the classroom. It includes both establishing and maintaining social relationships.5. 15 . Interactional speech is communicating with someone for social purposes. we usually do so for interactional or transactional purposes. Design classroom activities that involve guidance and practice in both transactional and interactional speaking.


This arrangement allows them to hear one another but not see what is being drawn or constructed on their partner’s desk. Jigsaw activities: are a bidirectional or multidirectional information gap. They must use the target language to share that information. in tango seating one student’s right shoulder is next to the other student’s right shoulder and they are facing opposite directions. You can also use contact assignments in FL contexts if there are tourists. props and documents provide a somewhat realistic environment for language practice. Contact assignments: involve sending students out of the classroom with a stated purpose to talk to people in the target language. Each person in a pair or group has some information the other persons need. Role-plays: excellent activities for speaking in the relatively safe environment of the classroom. exchange students. students are given particular roles in the target language. or international businesspersons for your students to talk to in the target language. Tango seating: to work in pairs. Simulations: are more elaborate than role-plays.      Information gap: useful activity in which one person has information that other lacks. In a role-play. 17 . In a simulation.


That is. Speaking including the oral production of many different genres. class discussions. it is important to plan activities for small groups or pairs in language classrooms so the learners have a chance to practice these conversation skills without the teacher dominating the discussion. and ask most of the questions. In conversations among equals. If you are teaching speaking. For example: poetry. ask questions. debates. among other things. give feedback. people are normally free to take turns. distribute the turns. 19 . the teacher usually has the power to determine the topics. Perhaps the most common type of speaking is conversing. etc. and change topics.   Research has demonstrated that teacher-dominated classroom talk is one type of unequal power discourse.


This chapter focused on 5 principles for planning speaking lessons in language classrooms. Some classroom discourse and some teaching materials do not sound very much like real conversations outside of classrooms. Speaking. 21 .especially in a language other than our own.is quite a complex undertaking which involves using all the different levels of language. We contrasted speech with writing.      Speaking is a productive oral skill. Several teaching strategies were suggested that can be used to help language learners gain practice in speaking in the target language.

Practical English Language Teaching. D. Speaking 22 .BIBLIOGRAPH:  Nunan. Chapter 3.

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