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What is a Circuit Breaker?
• A circuit breaker is an automatically operated electrical switch
designed to protect an electrical circuit from damage caused by an overload or a short circuit.
• Unlike a fuse, which operates once and then has to be replaced,
a circuit breaker can be reset (either manually or automatically) to resume normal operation. Essentially, a circuit breaker is a safety device.
What is a Circuit Breaker Analyzer?
• A Circuit Breaker Analyzer (CBA) is an electrical test
equipment designed to perform timing and other tests such motion analysis on any circuit breaker. • A wide range of tests have been developed to verify the conformity of each of the electrical and mechanical properties of a circuit breaker in order to meet the design criteria. • Some of these tests are acknowledged and documented by international standards (IEM, ASTM, etc.). Some are still under development and promise great expectations.
insertion resistance during the opening and closing a times of the breaker’s auxiliary contacts • The tests are executed under the control of CbaWin. running under any Windows.main and arcing contact resistance curve . the following measurement tests can be performed: . current. .breaker travel and velocity . temperature. pressure. etc. . • By means of the accessories.What is a Circuit Breaker Analyzer? • CBA-32P is mainly designed to perform timing and motion analysis but it is also an excellent multifunctional oscilloscope thanks to its compatibility with several accessories.voltage.
. • The CBA-32P is connected via cables to both the computer and the breaker : • To the computer via optical fiber communication module • to the contacts of the circuit breaker via contact cables • to the control cabinet (open and close coils) via the command cables • Command-signals are sent from the CBA-32P to the control cabinet and the contact timing is measured through the cables.5) – Close (1) • All recorded data are automatically and instantaneously transferred to the CbaWin software which analyses the data and displays the results of the tests in graphics and tabular formats. the circuit breaker has to be set off line.How to get started? • In order to execute the test. • The contacts may have up to three possible states visualized in the CbaWin software: Open (0) – Resistive (0.
The spring on the moving contact is broken and blocks the piston.EXAMPLE 1 : Timing Tests Inoperative resistor The insertion resistor does not work. The broken spring has been replaced with a new one and the device has been reassembled. .
EXAMPLE 1 : Timing Tests – Rebounds Abnormal rebound on an auxiliary (resistive) contact. The head has been tightened and immobilized with loctite and punching. followed by reassembly of the mechanism. The head on the semi-mobile contact is loose. The auxiliary moving contact has been disassembled and the problem has been identified as a loose head. .
.EXAMPLE 1 : Timing Tests – Dead Tank – Missing Main contact Case of an inoperative main contact on one phase (B). The shaft has been replaced. connecting the actuating rod to the moving contact. showing an open circuit on a close operation. Disassembling the defective parts it’s been possible to observe that a shaft. had fallen causing the contact piston to separate from the actuating rod.
The damage was due to a defective dashpot. .EXAMPLE 1 : Timing Tests – Dead Tank – Bad damping This timing diagram suggests a lack of damping at the end of the travel.
The closing time of contacts A-1 and A-2 now corresponds to the one of A3 and A-4. The closing time of contacts A-1 and A-2 results longer than usual. as observed on their signals.EXAMPLE 1 : Timing Tests – Valve in wrong position The body of the valve has been installed at 90° with respect to its normal position. as observed in the new graphic. . hence causing delays in the admission of compressed air. The body of the valve has been displayed in the correct configuration.
.EXAMPLE 1 : Timing Tests – Adjustment screw of hydraulic command incorrectly set An adjustment screw is incorrectly set. The problem has been solved after adjusting the screw. creating a 25 ms difference on one phase.
EXAMPLES 1 : Timing Tests – Hydraulic actuator . The admission restriction of the hydraulic command has been adjusted in order to obtain synchronous operation for all the phases. .Short circuit time The admission restriction of the hydraulic actuator is such that the short circuit time on phase C is longer than the other phases.
EXAMPLE 1 : Timing Tests – Pneumatic Breaker – Isolation time Phase C is much quicker than the two other phases. . The restriction on the inverter switch has been adjusted in order to obtain comparable times between phases.
the curve shows a problem with the upper piston (DpC) of the main contact on Phase C. The piston starts moving 30 to 35 milliseconds after the main piston while the normal delay is 20 milliseconds. . The premature reopening of the resistor was due to the main contact closing later.020 inches. Besides. (112mm instead of 180mm).EXAMPLE 1 : Timing Tests – Shielded Breaker The travel course is not completed. The problem is solved by increasing the appropriate diaphragm orifice by 0. This piston was overhauled prior to the timing test.
Presentation and discussion of the results -6. Execution of the test with test plans -5. Installation of cables by human operators -3. Conclusions .24 contact breaker) • The steps to execute the test are the following: -1.EXAMPLE 2 : Time-travel tests on HV circuit breaker • The circuit breaker tested in this example is a PK8D . Connection of CBA-32P -4.ALSTOM (800KV . Preparation of the breaker -2.
• After isolation. which are displayed on each side of the circuit.EXAMPLE 2 : Time-travel tests on HV circuit breaker 1. • In order to guarantee the maximum safety for the operators. . it is highly recommendable to put the ground on each side of the breakers. the breakers are closed in order to ground the entire circuit. Preparation of the breaker: securing the site • The first step consists in the isolation of the breaker from the electric network by means of disconnectors.
High voltage breaker Current transformers .EXAMPLE 2 : Time-travel tests on HV circuit breaker Detail of disconnectors: They isolate the circuit from the line.
EXAMPLE 2 : Time-travel tests on HV circuit breaker 2. Installation of the cables The installation is typically performed with the help of a bridge Operators proceed to the installation of the cables on the breaker .
EXAMPLE 2 : Time-travel tests on HV circuit breaker Yellow cable Red cable Black cable Extensions for the connection of the CBA-32P To the inputs of the CBA-32P Contact cables .
Cables for the CBA-32P: Command cable Contacts cable Extensions cables .EXAMPLE 2 : Time-travel tests on HV circuit breaker 3.
EXAMPLE 2 : Time-travel tests on HV circuit breaker • Overview of the CBA-32P connection and components: Portable computer Command 6 analog inputs 24 contact CBA32P Optical fibre link Grounding of the CBA-32P .
EXAMPLE 2 : Time-travel tests on HV circuit breaker • Optical fibre connection: The optical fibre cable puts in communication the CBA-32P and the computer .
EXAMPLE 2 : Time-travel tests on HV circuit breaker • Connection of the command cables: Control cabinet The red cable commands the closing of the breaker The green cable commands the opening of the breaker .
EXAMPLE: Time-travel tests on HV circuit breaker • Connection of the CBA-32P: The command cable must be connected here Contacts cables Optical fibre Command cable .
EXAMPLE 2 : Time-travel tests on HV circuit breaker • Execution of the test: loading a test plan .
EXAMPLE2 : Time-travel tests on HV circuit breaker • Execution of the test: creation of a test link Test link .
EXAMPLE 2 : Time-travel tests on HV circuit breaker • Test of the optical fibre link: .
EXAMPLE 2 : Time-travel tests on HV circuit breaker • Execution of a cable test: Contact cable test .
EXAMPLE 2 : Time-travel tests on HV circuit breaker • Execution of a test for the cables connected to the breakers: .
EXAMPLE 2 : Time-travel tests on HV circuit breaker • Launching a test: Launch the test .
Presentation and discussion of the results: Bad fixation of the cables (the black clip is probably disconnected) The black clip falls during the closing of the main contacts .EXAMPLE 2 : Time-travel tests on HV circuit breaker 5.
EXAMPLE 2 : Time-travel tests on HV circuit breaker • Closing test on a 24 contacts .
EXAMPLE 2 : Time-travel tests on HV circuit breaker • Opening test .
EXAMPLE 2 : Time-travel tests on HV circuit breaker • Close-Open test .
In this case. In this way. This operation will require the dismantlement of the resistances cables. to work on the timing diaphragms. the safety time can be readjusted. This is possible since the opening time of this contacts is quicker than the others on the same phase. • Problem on the A phase . the problem could be also solved by increasing the timing. and hence. The contact traces of resistances have to be separated.EXAMPLE 2 : Time-travel tests on HV circuit breaker Contacts A01-A02 : We notice the apparition of the insertion resistance on the close side that could derive from a too long safety time. If necessary. it will be possible to see the complete resistance traces.
EXAMPLE 2 : Time-travel tests on HV circuit breaker • Open-Close-Open test .
In order to work on the timing.EXAMPLE 2 : Time-travel tests on HV circuit breaker • Problems on phase B The isolation time of phase B is too long: the timing of the pneumatic inverter switch (52bb) is too long. This means that the breaker has to be in a close status till the end of the test. . the breaker has to be dismantled. Note: A good way to test the 52bb on the three phases is to perform an O-C test with a delay of 20 ms between the O and the C.
EXAMPLE 2 : Time-travel tests on HV circuit breaker • The results of any test can be visualized in Tabular report. as follows: .
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